Science.gov

Sample records for gir crossbred cattle

  1. Whole genome sequencing of Gir cattle for identifying polymorphisms and loci under selection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoping; Peng, Fred; Forni, Selma; McLaren, David; Plastow, Graham; Stothard, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Genetic variation in Gir cattle (Bos indicus) has so far not been well characterized. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing of three Gir bulls and a pooled sample from another 11 bulls to identify polymorphisms and loci under selection. A total of 9 990 733 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 604 308 insertion/deletions (indels) were discovered in Gir samples, of which 62.34% and 83.62%, respectively, are previously unknown. Moreover, we detected 79 putative selective sweeps using the sequence data of the pooled sample. One of the most striking sweeps harbours several genes belonging to the cathelicidin gene family, such as CAMP, CATHL1, CATHL2, and CATHL3, which are related to pathogen- and parasite-resistance. Another interesting region harbours genes encoding mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are involved in directing cellular responses to a variety of stimuli, such as osmotic stress and heat shock. These findings are particularly interesting because Gir is resistant to hot temperatures and tropical diseases. This initial selective sweep analysis of Gir cattle has revealed a number of loci that could be important for their adaptation to tropical climates.

  2. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-01-01

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil.

  3. Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2007-03-01

    Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds. PMID:17305967

  4. Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2007-03-01

    Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds.

  5. Linkage disequilibrium in Angus, Charolais, and Crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duc; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Kelly, Matthew; Li, Changxi; Vander Voort, Gordon; Wang, Zhiquan; Plastow, Graham; Moore, Stephen; Miller, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the persistence of its phase across populations are important for genomic selection as well as fine scale mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). However, knowledge of LD in beef cattle, as well as the persistence of LD phase between crossbreds (C) and purebreds, is limited. The objective of this study was to understand the patterns of LD in Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), and C beef cattle based on 31,073, 32,088, and 33,286 SNP in each population, respectively. Amount of LD decreased rapidly from 0.29 to 0.23 to 0.19 in AN, 0.22 to 0.16 to 0.12 in CH, 0.21 to 0.15 to 0.11 in C, when the distance range between markers changed from 0–30 kb to 30–70 kb and then to 70–100 kb, respectively. Breeds and chromosomes had significant effects (P < 0.001) on LD decay. There was significant interaction between breeds and chromosomes (P < 0.001). Correlations of LD phase were high between C and AN (0.84), C and CH (0.81), as well as between AN and CH (0.77) for distances less than or equal to 70 kb. These dropped when the distance increased. Estimated effective population sizes for AN and CH were 207 and 285, respectively, for 10 generations ago. Given a useful LD of at least 0.3 between pairs of SNPs, the LD phase between any pair of the three breed groups was highly persistent. The current SNP density would allow the capture of approximately 49% of useful LD between SNP and marker QTL in AN, and 38% in CH. A higher density SNP panel or redesign of the current panel is needed to achieve more of useful LD for the purpose of genomic selection beef cattle. PMID:22912646

  6. Levels of taurine introgression in the current Brazilian Nelore and Gir indicine cattle populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high density panel of more than 777000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to investigate the population structure of Nelore and Gir, compared to seven other populations worldwide. Principal Component Analysis and model-based ancestry estimation clearly separate the indici...

  7. Control and therapeutic management of bovine tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit Kumar; Singh, Shanker Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis (BTT) is a disease of worldwide economic importance in cattle, caused by Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite, and transmitted cyclically by ticks. The disease is one of the serious constraints to dairy industry in endemic areas like India, leading to fatal infections in exotic cattle and significant mortality in cross-bred cattle and zebu cattle. The present report demonstrates the clinical manifestation, haematological alteration and therapeutic management of theileriosis cases in a cross-bred cattle dairy farm at district Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh. Clinical examination of affected animals revealed high rectal temperature (104-106 °F), generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, apathy and watery blood. The affected animals were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum ticks. The blood smears examination after staining with Leishman stain revealed the presence of typical Theileria organisms. Buparvaquone along with symptomatic and supportive therapy could cure all the animals. PMID:27065628

  8. Productivity of pure- and crossbred cattle in a subtropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zyl, J. G. E.; Schoeman, S. J.; Coertze, R. J.; Groeneveld, H. T.

    1991-06-01

    The influence of different breeds of sire and dam types on cow productivity in an arid, subtropical environment was studied. Cows with calves sired by Simmentaler, Hereford and Bonsmara bulls were more ( P<0.05) productive than those with calves sired by Afrikaner bulls. Simmentaler sires were superior ( P<0.05) to Bonsmara sires. Crossbred cows of predominant (>50%) Bos taurus breeding were generally superior to crossbreds of predominant B. indicus breeding and purebreds. Crossbreeding systems to utilize breed effects to optimise cow productivity within environmental constraints are discussed.

  9. Comparison of tick resistance of crossbred Senepol × Limousin to purebred Limousin cattle.

    PubMed

    Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Teurlai, Magali; Naves, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The comparison of resistance to natural tick infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) of crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle was investigated. The Senepol breed, originated from St Croix Island in the Caribbean is considered as a Bos taurus breed adapted to tropical conditions. Despite its B. taurus genetic background, it is believed to have a good tick resistance, but this resistance has never been assessed previously. Tick counts under natural infestation were carried out to investigate the difference of susceptibility between crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle. Mixed-effect models were used to assess the effect of the breed on the number of ticks. Results show that Senepol × Limousin are five times less infested by ticks than purebred Limousin. These results underline the opportunity to use Senepol cattle for crossing with susceptible B. taurus breeds in tick infested areas, to combine tick resistance with beef production abilities. PMID:24366717

  10. Productivity of Thai Brahman and Simmental-Brahman crossbred (Kabinburi) cattle in central Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonprong, S.; Choothesa, A.; Sribhen, C.; Parvizi, N.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2008-05-01

    The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving ( P < 0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC.

  11. Productivity of Thai Brahman and Simmental-Brahman crossbred (Kabinburi) cattle in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonprong, S; Choothesa, A; Sribhen, C; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2008-05-01

    The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving (P<0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC. PMID:18158609

  12. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus).

    PubMed

    Saha, Debashis; Gupta, Radhe Shyam; Singh Baghel, Ramesh Pratap; Khare, Ankur

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg), milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw) and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), Ether extract (EE), Crude fiber (CF), Nitrogen free extract (NFE) and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%. PMID:25610572

  13. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Debashis; Gupta, Radhe Shyam; Singh Baghel, Ramesh Pratap; Khare, Ankur

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg), milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw) and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), Ether extract (EE), Crude fiber (CF), Nitrogen free extract (NFE) and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%. PMID:25610572

  14. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birt...

  15. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth...

  16. Postweaning Growth and Carcass Traits in Crossbred Cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano Maternal Grandsires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais ...

  17. Molecular characterization and expression profile of partial TLR4 gene in association to mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Manjit; Sharma, Arjava; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle.

  18. The mRNA expression of immune-related genes in crossbred and Tharparkar cattle in response to in vitro infection with Theileria annulata.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Prashant; Panigrahi, Manjit; Kumar, Amod; Saravanan, B C; Ghosh, Shrikant; Asaf, V N Muhashin; Parida, Subhashree; Gaur, G K; Sharma, Deepak; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-08-01

    Tropical theileriosis is a major protozoan disease of cattle and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are less affected by this disease than exotic and crossbred cattle. Genetic basis of resistance to tropical theileriosis in indigenous cattle is not well studied. Recent reports suggest that number of immune response genes expressed differentially in exotic and indigenous breeds play an important role in breed specific resistance to tropical theileriosis. Such studies comparing expression of these genes in crossbred cattle and indigenous cattle are lacking. The present study compares the mRNA expression of immune-related genes in response to Theileria annulata infection in indigenous and crossbred cattle. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from blood samples of indigenous (Tharparkar) and crossbred (HF/BS/Jersey × Hariana) cattle and challenged with prepared ground-up tick supernatant carrying Theileria annulata sporozoites in vitro. qPCR was employed to measure relative mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10), signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPA), MHC class II DQα (BoLA-DQA), musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (MAF) and prion protein (PRNP) genes in infected and control PBMCs from crossbred and indigenous cattle. On the basis of comparative fold change analysis, significant up-regulation in SIRPA, PRNP and MHC DQα genes and significant down-regulation in TLR10, cMAF and MAFB genes in crossbreds as compared to indigenous cattle was observed. Results of the present study suggest that breed specific differential expression of the genes under study may contribute to the breed specific resistance to Theileria annulata infection in indigenous cattle compared to crossbred cattle. PMID:25697418

  19. Lactoferrin gene promoter variants and their association with clinical and subclinical mastitis in indigenous and crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Chopra, A; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chakravarty, A K; Vohra, V

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) gene promoter was screened for the presence of single nucleotide polymphism in indigenous and crossbred cattle from North India and to evaluate its association with Mastitis. Study revealed the presence of genetic variation in regulatory region of bovine Lactoferrin gene using PCR-RFLP technique. Three genotypes namely GG, GH and HH were identified. A single nucleotide change, from guanine to adenine at 25th position was found to be significantly associated (p<0.05) with clinical mastitis in indigenous Sahiwal and crossbred Karan Fries cattle maintained at organised herd of National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. A non-significant association was observed between subclinical mastitis, somatic cell score (SCS), and GG genotype in Karan Fries cattle, however, a lower SCS was observed in animals having GG genotype. Overall a lower incidence of clinical mastitis was recorded in those animals having GG genotype of Lf in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) cattle. The SNP identified in the promoter region may effect expression lactoferrin protein, which may lead to different levels of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of Lf gene. Results from this study indicated the probable role played by Lactoferrin promoter to serve as candidate gene for mastitis susceptibility among indigenous and crossbred milch cattle.

  20. In vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in a crossbred cattle population.

    PubMed

    Young, F J; Woolliams, J A; Williams, J L; Glass, E J; O'Neill, R G; Fitzpatrick, J L

    2005-07-01

    Immune function measured by Staphylococcus aureus- and phytohemagglutinin- (PHA-) induced cell proliferation was assessed in a population of 445 genetically defined, F2 and backcross Charolais-Holstein crossbred cattle when the animals were approximately 5 mo of age. Variation in Staph. aureus-induced, PHA-induced, and control proliferation [peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and media only] was observed at d 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 10 of in vitro culture. The levels of Staph. aureus-induced, PHA-induced, and control proliferation were strongly positively correlated between days of culture within-assay (e.g., between d 2 and d 3 or between d 4 and d 5). Responses were also positively correlated when the same individuals were resampled and the assay repeated within 3 mo. Analyses fitting linear mixed models using REML showed that Staph. aureus-induced and PHA-induced proliferation was significantly associated with control proliferation and the year of birth. The age of the animal at sampling influenced only Staph. aureus-induced proliferation, with Staph. aureus-induced proliferation increasing with the age of the animal. Control proliferation was influenced by a sex x cross interaction, although in this study, sex was confounded by management, as female cattle were housed and reared differently from male cattle. All 3 measures of immune function were influenced by sire, demonstrating that these traits are partially under genetic control, and indicating that it may ultimately be possible to identify quantitative trait loci for these measures of immunity.

  1. Genetic and environmental causes of variation in gestation length of Jersey crossbred cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anshuman; Mandal, Ajoy; Gupta, A. K.; Ratwan, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors and estimate the genetic parameter for gestation length (GL) of Jersey crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The data included the 986 parturition records on Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Eastern Regional Station of ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani, West Bengal, India during 36 years (1978-2013). The data were analyzed applying mixed model least square technique considering the fixed effects of genetic group, season of calving, period of calving, parity of animal, birth weight, and sex of calf born from animal. The effect of sire was included as a random effect in the model. Results: The genetic group of animal, season of calving, parity of animal, and birth weight of calf born were found to be a significant source of variation in the GL, whereas the period of calving and sex of calf did not affect this trait. Cows with <50% and >62.5% Jersey inheritance had the shortest and longest GLs, respectively. Cows calved in summer and rainy season had shorter GL than those calved in the winter season. Older cows in 4th parity carried calves for longer days than the cows in 1st parity. The increase in calf birth weight significantly (p<0.01) contributed to a linear increase in GL value in this study. The heritability estimate of GL was 0.24±0.08. Conclusion: It can be concluded that selection for lower GL without distressing future growth of calf can be used to reduce calving difficulty, but a very small standard deviation of GL limits the benefit. Moreover, more accurate prediction of calving date will help in better management and health care of pregnant animals. PMID:27182128

  2. Genome-wide analysis of zygotic linkage disequilibrium and its components in crossbred cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes at linked or independent loci can occur at gametic and zygotic levels known asgametic LD and zygotic LD, respectively. Gametic LD is well known for its roles in fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci, genomic selection and evolutionary inference. The less-well studied is the zygotic LD and its components that can be also estimated directly from the unphased SNPs. Results This study was set up to investigate the genome-wide extent and patterns of zygotic LD and its components in a crossbred cattle population using the genomic data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 beadchip. The animal population arose from repeated crossbreeding of multiple breeds and selection for growth and cow reproduction. The study showed that similar genomic structures in gametic and zygotic LD were observed, with zygotic LD decaying faster than gametic LD over marker distance. The trigenic and quadrigenic disequilibria were generally two- to three-fold smaller than the usual digenic disequilibria (gametic or composite LD). There was less power of testing for these high-order genic disequilibria than for the digenic disequilibria. The power estimates decreased with the marker distance between markers though the decay trend is more obvious for the digenic disequilibria than for high-order disequilibria. Conclusions This study is the first major genome-wide survey of all non-allelic associations between pairs of SNPs in a cattle population. Such analysis allows us to assess the relative importance of gametic LD vs. all other non-allelic genic LDs regardless of whether or not the population is in HWE. The observed predominance of digenic LD (gametic or composite LD) coupled with insignificant high-order trigenic and quadrigenic disequilibria supports the current intensive focus on the use of high-density SNP markers for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection activities in the cattle population. PMID:22827586

  3. Natural Babesia bovis Infection in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Crossbred Cattle under Field Conditions in Egypt: a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt. Methods: A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites served as control group. Results: Babesia bovis-infected cattle showed typical signs of bovine babesiosis while B. bovis-infected buffaloes showed a milder form (less severe) of the clinical signs. Advanced cases of cattle showed dark brown to dark red (coffee-color) urine, hemoglobinuria and nervous manifestations while these manifestations were not detected in the infected buffaloes. Hematological changes in both species however, these changes were less significant in buffaloes than those reported in cattle. Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes. PMID:25629060

  4. Genome-wide association analyses for carcass quality in crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic improvement of beef quality will benefit both producers and consumers, and can be achieved by selecting animals that carry desired quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN), which result from intensive searches using genetic markers. This paper presents a genome-wide association approach utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to seek genomic regions that potentially harbor genes or QTN underlying variation in carcass quality of beef cattle. This study used 747 genotyped animals, mainly crossbred, with phenotypes on twelve carcass quality traits, including hot carcass weight (HCW), back fat thickness (BF), Longissimus dorsi muscle area or ribeye area (REA), marbling scores (MRB), lean yield grade by Beef Improvement Federation formulae (BIFYLD), steak tenderness by Warner-Bratzler shear force 7-day post-mortem (LM7D) as well as body composition as determined by partial rib (IMPS 103) dissection presented as a percentage of total rib weight including body cavity fat (BDFR), lean (LNR), bone (BNR), intermuscular fat (INFR), subcutaneous fat (SQFR), and total fat (TLFR). Results At the genome wide level false discovery rate (FDR < 10%), eight SNP were found significantly associated with HCW. Seven of these SNP were located on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6. At a less stringent significance level (P < 0.001), 520 SNP were found significantly associated with mostly individual traits (473 SNP), and multiple traits (47 SNP). Of these significant SNP, 48 were located on BTA6, and 22 of them were in association with hot carcass weight. There were 53 SNP associated with percentage of rib bone, and 12 of them were on BTA20. The rest of the significant SNP were scattered over other chromosomes. They accounted for 1.90 - 5.89% of the phenotypic variance of the traits. A region of approximately 4 Mbp long on BTA6 was found to be a potential area to harbor candidate genes influencing growth. One marker on BTA25

  5. Effect of Simulated Heat Stress on Digestibility, Methane Emission and Metabolic Adaptability in Crossbred Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Brijesh; Singh, Gyanendra; Wankar, Alok; Dutta, N.; Chaturvedi, V. B.; Verma, Med Ram

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of simulated heat stress on digestibility and methane (CH4) emission. Four non-lactating crossbred cattle were exposed to 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, and 40°C temperature with a relative humidity of 40% to 50% in a climatic chamber from 10:00 hours to 15:00 hours every day for 27 days. The physiological responses were recorded at 15:00 hours every day. The blood samples were collected at 15:00 hours on 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, and 21st days and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. After 21 days, fecal and feed samples were collected continuously for six days for the estimation of digestibility. In the last 48 hours gas samples were collected continuously to estimate CH4 emission. Heat stress in experimental animals at 35°C and 40°C was evident from an alteration (p<0.05) in rectal temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, water intake and serum thyroxin levels. The serum lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activity and protein, urea, creatinine and triglyceride concentration changed (p<0.05), and body weight of the animals decreased (p<0.05) after temperature exposure at 40°C. The dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) at 40°C exposure. The dry matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibilities were higher (p<0.05) at 35°C compared to 25°C and 30°C exposure whereas, organic matter (OM) and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were higher (p<0.05) at 35°C than 40°C thermal exposure. The CH4 emission/kg DMI and organic matter intake (OMI) declined (p<0.05) with increase in exposure temperature and reached its lowest levels at 40°C. It can be concluded from the present study that the digestibility and CH4 emission were affected by intensity of heat stress. Further studies are necessary with respect to ruminal microbial changes to justify the variation in the digestibility and CH4 emission during differential heat stress. PMID

  6. Use of body linear measurements to estimate liveweight of crossbred dairy cattle in smallholder farms in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lukuyu, M N; Gibson, J P; Savage, D B; Duncan, A J; Mujibi, F D N; Okeyo, A M

    2016-01-01

    Body linear measurements, and specifically heart girth (HG), have been shown to be useful predictors of cattle liveweight. To test the accuracy of body linear measurements for predicting liveweight, crossbred dairy cattle of different genotypes were measured and weighed. A total of 352 mature cows and 100 heifers were weighed using an electronic weighing scale and measurements of HG, body length, height at withers were taken using an ordinary measuring tape and body condition scored (BCS) using a five-point scale. The animals were grouped according to genotype and age. Genotype classification was undertaken from farmer recall and by visual appraisal as 40-60, 61-80 or 81-100 % exotic (non-indigenous). Age classification was simply as mature cows or heifers. Liveweight of the animals ranged from 102 to 433 kg. Liveweight was strongly correlated with HG (r = 0.84) and body condition scores (r = 0.70) and moderately correlated with body length (r = 0.64) and height at withers (0.61). Regressing LW on HG measurements gave statistically significant (P < 0.01) equations with R(2) ranging from of 0.53 to 0.78 and residual standard deviation ranging from 18.11 to 40.50 kg. The overall model developed (adjusted R(2) = 0.71) had a prediction error of 26 kg (or 11 % of the mean) and predicted LW of over 95 % of crossbred dairy cattle in the range of 100-450 kg, regardless of age and breed group. Including BCS in the model slightly improved the model fit but not the prediction error. It was concluded that the model can be useful in making general management decisions in smallholder farms.

  7. Effects of breed group by location interaction on crossbred cattle in Nebraska and Florida.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; Euclides Filho, K; Cundiff, L V; Koger, M; Butts, W T; Gregory, K E

    1991-01-01

    Data on 2,744 calves produced in Clay Center, Nebraska and Brooksville, Florida were used to evaluate the importance of genotype x location interactions on the reproductive and maternal performance of eight breed groups of F1 crossbred cows. A total of 648 F1 crossbred cows included Bos taurus x Bos taurus (Bt x Bt) crosses: Hereford x Angus reciprocal crossbreds (HA and AH), Pinzgauer x Angus (PA), Pinzgauer x Hereford (PH); and Bos indicus x Bos taurus (Bi x Bt) crosses: Brahman x Angus (BA), Brahman x Hereford (BH), Sahiwal x Angus (SA) and Sahiwal x Hereford (SH). The first calf crop was sired by Red Poll bulls. All remaining calf crops were sired by Simmental bulls. Although the pregnancy rate was 9% higher in Nebraska, the rate of unassisted calvings and calf survival rate were both 4.6% lower in Nebraska. Calf birth and weaning weights were 8.0 and 15.6 kg heavier in Nebraska than in Florida. Bi x Bt dams exceeded (P less than .001) Bt x Bt crossbred dams for all traits except age of calf at weaning and calf-survival rates (P greater than .10). Birth weights of calves from Bi x Bt crossbred dams were 3.4 kg lighter than those from the Bt x Bt crossbred dams. The interaction of location with the breed group comparison of Bi x Bt vs Bt x Bt crossbred dams was significant for pregnancy rate, calf age at weaning, rate of unassisted calving and all weight traits. Adjusted weaning weights of calves from HA, AH, PA, PH, BA, BH, SA and SH cows were as follows: HA, 194 and 222; AH, 202 and 230; PA, 213 and 242; PH, 217 and 245; BA, 251 and 254; BH, 252 and 254; SA, 236 and 238; and SH, 238 and 243 kg, respectively, in Florida and Nebraska. Bos indicus-sired cows (BA, BH, SA and SH) weaned essentially equal-weight calves at both locations, whereas calves from Bt x Bt crossbred cows (HA, AH, PA, PH) were about 28 kg lighter in Florida. PMID:2005003

  8. Effects of breed group by location interaction on crossbred cattle in Nebraska and Florida.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; Euclides Filho, K; Cundiff, L V; Koger, M; Butts, W T; Gregory, K E

    1991-01-01

    Data on 2,744 calves produced in Clay Center, Nebraska and Brooksville, Florida were used to evaluate the importance of genotype x location interactions on the reproductive and maternal performance of eight breed groups of F1 crossbred cows. A total of 648 F1 crossbred cows included Bos taurus x Bos taurus (Bt x Bt) crosses: Hereford x Angus reciprocal crossbreds (HA and AH), Pinzgauer x Angus (PA), Pinzgauer x Hereford (PH); and Bos indicus x Bos taurus (Bi x Bt) crosses: Brahman x Angus (BA), Brahman x Hereford (BH), Sahiwal x Angus (SA) and Sahiwal x Hereford (SH). The first calf crop was sired by Red Poll bulls. All remaining calf crops were sired by Simmental bulls. Although the pregnancy rate was 9% higher in Nebraska, the rate of unassisted calvings and calf survival rate were both 4.6% lower in Nebraska. Calf birth and weaning weights were 8.0 and 15.6 kg heavier in Nebraska than in Florida. Bi x Bt dams exceeded (P less than .001) Bt x Bt crossbred dams for all traits except age of calf at weaning and calf-survival rates (P greater than .10). Birth weights of calves from Bi x Bt crossbred dams were 3.4 kg lighter than those from the Bt x Bt crossbred dams. The interaction of location with the breed group comparison of Bi x Bt vs Bt x Bt crossbred dams was significant for pregnancy rate, calf age at weaning, rate of unassisted calving and all weight traits. Adjusted weaning weights of calves from HA, AH, PA, PH, BA, BH, SA and SH cows were as follows: HA, 194 and 222; AH, 202 and 230; PA, 213 and 242; PH, 217 and 245; BA, 251 and 254; BH, 252 and 254; SA, 236 and 238; and SH, 238 and 243 kg, respectively, in Florida and Nebraska. Bos indicus-sired cows (BA, BH, SA and SH) weaned essentially equal-weight calves at both locations, whereas calves from Bt x Bt crossbred cows (HA, AH, PA, PH) were about 28 kg lighter in Florida.

  9. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( < 0.05) included cholesterol concentration of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue (three-fourths Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams < three-fourths Brahman calves from Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( < 0.001) was

  10. Association and expression analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of partial tumor necrosis factor alpha gene with mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sanjeev; Bhushan, Bharat; Panigrahi, Manjit; Kumar, Amit; Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    A total of 129 crossbred cows were selected to explore the genotypic and expression profiling of partial TNF-α gene and its association with mastitis susceptibility. Two exon spanning region of TNF-α gene (221 bp and 239 bp) were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The different genotypic analysis by SSCP revealed that 221 bp fragment was monomorphic, whereas 239 bp was polymorphic. Association studies revealed that AA genotypes of 239 bp were more prevalent in mastitis group and the mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in AA genotypic animals compare to AB and BB. This suggested that genotypes AB and BB may be used as candidate markers for mastitis resistance selection in dairy cattle.

  11. Linear and Poisson models for genetic evaluation of tick resistance in cross-bred Hereford x Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Boligon, A A; Silva, F F; Schenkel, F S; Roso, V M; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-12-01

    Cattle resistance to ticks is measured by the number of ticks infesting the animal. The model used for the genetic analysis of cattle resistance to ticks frequently requires logarithmic transformation of the observations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability and goodness of fit of different models for the analysis of this trait in cross-bred Hereford x Nellore cattle. Three models were tested: a linear model using logarithmic transformation of the observations (MLOG); a linear model without transformation of the observations (MLIN); and a generalized linear Poisson model with residual term (MPOI). All models included the classificatory effects of contemporary group and genetic group and the covariates age of animal at the time of recording and individual heterozygosis, as well as additive genetic effects as random effects. Heritability estimates were 0.08 ± 0.02, 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.04 for MLIN, MLOG and MPOI models, respectively. The model fit quality, verified by deviance information criterion (DIC) and residual mean square, indicated fit superiority of MPOI model. The predictive ability of the models was compared by validation test in independent sample. The MPOI model was slightly superior in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability, whereas the correlations between observed and predicted tick counts were practically the same for all models. A higher rank correlation between breeding values was observed between models MLOG and MPOI. Poisson model can be used for the selection of tick-resistant animals. PMID:24236604

  12. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P < 0.01), 14 (P = 0.015), and 21 (P < 0.001) in this population, demonstrating that genetic variation important for tenderness segregates in Bos indicus cattle at or near CAPN1. Marker 4751 also was associated with shear force (P < 0.01) in the same large, multisire population of cattle of strictly Bos taurus descent that was used to develop the previously reported SNP (referred to as the Germplasm Evaluation [GPE] Cycle 7 population), indicating the possibility that one marker could have wide applicability in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. To test this hypothesis, Marker 4751 was tested in a third large, multisire cattle population of crossbred subspecies descent (including sire breeds of Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be

  13. Productivity and carcass characteristics of pure and crossbred Chinese Yellow Cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G H; Liu, L; Xiu, X L; Jian, H M; Wang, L Z; Sun, B Z; Tong, B S

    2001-08-01

    The carcass characteristics of 334 Chinese Yellow Cattle, and their Simmental and Limousin crosses, were investigated in abattoirs in Hebei and Sandong provinces of China. The overall slaughter age was 4.8±2.2 years at a mean liveweight of 527.28±77.0 kg. Mean ages and liveweights for Yellow Cattle and its crosses were, respectively, 5.29±2.03 and 2.85±1.71 years and 519.43±78.7 and 563.13±56.8 kg. Carcass weights varied considerably and, consequently, so did subcutaneous fat depths and dressing percentages. Overall, mean carcass weights, subcutaneous fat depths and, dressing percentages and eyemuscle areas were 283.9±64.1 kg, 14.0±8.0 mm, 54.0±4.0%, and 62.7 ±13.3 cm(2), respectively. Compared with pure Yellow Cattle, the crosses were slaughtered at younger age, and had larger live and carcass weights, higher dressing percentages, less subcutaneous fat depth and bigger eyemuscle areas. It is concluded that crossbreeding can significantly improve Yellow Cattle' meat productivity, however feeding systems need to be improved and an appropriate grading system developed to improve beef production and quality in China. PMID:22062425

  14. Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P

    2000-10-01

    Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) during summer whereas the TEC and PCV showed higher OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season.

  15. Comparison of the Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Methods for Discriminating among Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), Imported, and Crossbred Beef in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Jo; Park, Hyun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The identity of 45 Hanwo and 47 imported beef (non-Hanwoo) samples from USA and Australia were verified using the microsatellite (MS) marker and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) methods. Samples were collected from 19 supermarkets located in the city of Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea, from 2009 to 2011. As a result, we obtained a 100% concordance rate between the MS and SNP methods for identifying Hanwoo and non-Hanwoo beef. The MS method presented a 95% higher individual discriminating value for Hanwoo (97.8%) than for non-Hanwoo (61.7%) beef. For further comparison of the MS and SNP methods, blood samples were collected and tested from 54 Hanwoo × Holstein crossbred cattle (first, second, and third generations). By using the SNP and MS methods, we correctly identified all of the first-generation crossbred cattle as non-Hanwoo; in addition, among the second and third generation crossbreds, the ratio identified as Hanwoo was 20% and 10%, respectively. The MS method used in our study provides more information, but requires sophisticated techniques during each experimental process. By contrast, the SNP method is simple and has a lower error rate. Our results suggest that the MS and SNP methods are useful for discriminating Hanwoo from non-Hanwoo breeds. PMID:26761672

  16. Behavioral and physiological effects of freeze or hot-iron branding on crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Lay, D C; Friend, T H; Randel, R D; Bowers, C L; Grissom, K K; Jenkins, O C

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-seven crossbred calves (1/2 Simmental, 1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Brahman) averaging 257 +/- 11 d of age were either hot-iron-branded (H), freeze-branded (F), or sham-branded (S). Calves were blocked for temperament, weight, and sex and were randomly assigned to day and order in which treatments were applied. To reduce stress from handling at treatment time, each calf was herded through the squeeze chute daily for 5 d before the experiment. Jugular cannulas were inserted in each calf 1 d before application of treatment. Blood samples and heart rate measures were obtained at -5, -3, 0, .5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after application of the treatments. Mean concentrations of plasma epinephrine (EPI) were higher for H calves at time .5 min than for either S or F calves (P = .10). To account for individual differences, prebranding heart rates and hormone concentrations were subtracted from subsequent samples and were also used to calculate a proportion for each subsequent sample. Analyses of subtracted values found that EPI concentrations were greater for H calves than for either S or F calves (P = .007) at .5 min postbranding. No other differences were found for the subtracted analyses. Analyses of proportion data also revealed that H calves had greater EPI than did either S or F calves (P = .027) at .5 min postbranding. Only three animals vocalized during branding, one H calf and two F calves. Despite the 5-d acclimation period, handling and restraint elevated plasma cortisol concentrations and heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1548193

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for feed efficiency and performance in crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to: (1) identify new SNPs for residual feed intake (RFI) and performance traits within candidate genes identified in a genome wide association study (GWAS); (2) estimate the proportion of variation in RFI explained by the detected SNPs; (3) estimate the effects of detected SNPs on carcass traits to avoid undesirable correlated effects on these economically important traits when selecting for feed efficiency; and (4) map the genes to biological mechanisms and pathways. A total number of 339 SNPs corresponding to 180 genes were tested for association with phenotypes using a single locus regression (SLRM) and genotypic model on 726 and 990 crossbred animals for feed efficiency and carcass traits, respectively. Results Strong evidence of associations for RFI were located on chromosomes 8, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, and 28. The strongest association with RFI (P = 0.0017) was found with a newly discovered SNP located on BTA 8 within the ELP3 gene. SNPs rs41820824 and rs41821600 on BTA 16 within the gene HMCN1 were strongly associated with RFI (P = 0.0064 and P = 0.0033, respectively). A SNP located on BTA 18 within the ZNF423 gene provided strong evidence for association with RFI (P = 0.0028). Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) from 98 significant SNPs were moderately correlated (0.47) to the estimated breeding values (EBVs) from a mixed animal model. The significant (P < 0.05) SNPs (98) explained 26% of the genetic variance for RFI. In silico functional analysis for the genes suggested 35 and 39 biological processes and pathways, respectively for feed efficiency traits. Conclusions This study identified several positional and functional candidate genes involved in important biological mechanisms associated with feed efficiency and performance. Significant SNPs should be validated in other populations to establish their potential utilization in genetic improvement programs. PMID:24476087

  18. Clinical and haematological study on water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Elbalkemy, Farouk A; Klaas, Ilka C; Elmekkawy, Mamdouh F; Monazie, Afaf M

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the clinical and haematological findings in water buffaloes and crossbred cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of buffaloes and cattle was clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Forty-four buffaloes and cattle out of 50 were naturally infected with T. annulata and showed typical signs of infection. Six animals showed no clinical signs and were free from external, internal, and blood parasites. The clinical findings of examined cattle and buffaloes showed typical signs of tropical theileriosis: fever, enlargement of the superficial lymph nodes, severe lacrimation, bilateral conjunctivitis, photophobia, and corneal opacity. It was clear that the severity of clinical signs in infected buffaloes was more prominent than in infected cattle with persistence of some lesions after recovery as corneal opacity and pulmonary lesions. Haematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in RBCS count, PCV%, haemoglobin amount, and WBCs in the infected animals when compared to the control group. It was concluded from our study that T. annulata infection is associated with impairment and alteration of blood parameters in both cattle and water buffaloes. Theileriosis in water buffaloes might cause irreversible ocular changes that could lead to complete blindness. Data obtained in this study might be the basis for subsequent studies under natural and experimental field conditions.

  19. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P < 0.01). Calves with two copies of the inactive allele were more likely (P < 0.01) to die before weaning. Postweaning growth traits were evaluated in the surviving animals (n = 1,370), including birth, weaning, and live weight at slaughter, and postweaning ADG. Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses

  20. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P < 0.01). Calves with two copies of the inactive allele were more likely (P < 0.01) to die before weaning. Postweaning growth traits were evaluated in the surviving animals (n = 1,370), including birth, weaning, and live weight at slaughter, and postweaning ADG. Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses

  1. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits. Animals with Angus grandsires grew faster and had the heaviest carcasses, with the greatest percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice and the greatest marbling scores when compared with other grandsire breeds. Animals with Romosinuano and Bonsmara inheritance grew slower, had the lightest weights at slaughter, the lightest carcass weights, the least percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, and the least amount of marbling and fat thickness. Animals with inheritance from these 2 breeds had a more desirable yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P < 0.05) for marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except for retail product yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate

  2. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 464 steers and 439 heifers obtained by mating F(1) cows to Charolais and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) sires. The F(1) cows were obtained from mating Angus and MARC III dams to Hereford, Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano sires. Traits evaluated were postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, HCW, dressing percentage, percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), and retail product weight. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits. Animals with Angus grandsires grew faster and had the heaviest carcasses, with the greatest percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice and the greatest marbling scores when compared with other grandsire breeds. Animals with Romosinuano and Bonsmara inheritance grew slower, had the lightest weights at slaughter, the lightest carcass weights, the least percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, and the least amount of marbling and fat thickness. Animals with inheritance from these 2 breeds had a more desirable yield grade with the greatest retail product yield. Maternal granddam breed was significant (P < 0.05) for marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, and retail product yield. Sex class was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except for retail product yield. Steers grew faster, were heavier, had heavier carcasses, and were leaner than heifers. Heifers had a greater dressing percentage, a greater percentage of carcasses classified as USDA Choice, a greater LM area, and a decreased yield grade when compared with steers. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate

  3. Additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects on preweaning weight gain of crossbred beef cattle from different Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Roso, V M; Schenkel, F S; Miller, S P; Wilton, J W

    2005-08-01

    (Co)variance components, direct and maternal breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects on preweaning weight gain of beef cattle were estimated. Data were from 478,466 animals in Ontario, Canada, from 1986 to 1999, including records of both purebred and crossbred animals from Angus, Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Salers, Shorthorn, and Simmental breeds. The genetic model included fixed direct and maternal breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects, fixed environmental effects of age of the calf, contemporary group, and age of the dam x sex of the calf, random additive direct and maternal genetic effects, and random maternal permanent environment effects. Estimates of direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and residual variances, expressed as proportions of the phenotypic variance, were 0.32, 0.20, 0.12, and 0.52, respectively. Correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects was -0.63. Breed ranking was similar to previous studies, but estimates showed large SE. The favorable effects of direct and maternal dominance (P < 0.05) on preweaning gain were equivalent to 1.3 and 2.3% of the phenotypic mean of purebred calves, respectively. The same features for direct and maternal epistatic loss effects were -2.2% (P < 0.05) and -0.1% (P > 0.05). The large SE of breed effects were likely due to multicollinearity among predictor variables and deficiencies in the dataset to separate direct and maternal effects and may result in a less reliable ranking of the animals for across breed comparisons. Further research to identify the causes of the instability of estimates of breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss genetic effects, and application of alternative statistical methods is recommended.

  4. Repeatability and genotypic correlations of reproductive and productive traits of crossbred beef cattle dams.

    PubMed

    Silva, L N; Gasparino, E; Torres Júnior, R A A; Euclides Filho, K; Silva, L O C; Alencar, M M; Souza Júnior, M D; Battistelli, J V F; Silva, S C C

    2015-01-01

    Beef cattle production requires reproductive efficiency. However, measures of reproductive traits are not usually collected; consequently, correlated traits that could be used as indicators would be useful. We examined associations between measures of reproductive and productive efficiency that could be used as selection indicators. Data from 194 dams of the genetic groups Angus x Nelore, Caracu x Nelore, and Valdostana x Nelore collected over 4 years were used. The reproductive traits analyzed were days to heat (DH), calving interval (CI), days to calving (DC), and pregnancy rate (PR). The productive traits were dam weight (DW), body condition score (BCS), calf weight (CW), and weaning rate (WR). The effects on the model were: year, genetic group, reproductive status (RS), age, reproductive rest, and breed of bull (CW and WR). Multivariate analyses were performed, using the Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling. We conclude that the reproductive measures are ineffective as selection indicators, whereas using dam weight may be a good alternative.

  5. Genome-wide association study of growth in crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Snelling, W M; Allan, M F; Keele, J W; Kuehn, L A; McDaneld, T; Smith, T P L; Sonstegard, T S; Thallman, R M; Bennett, G L

    2010-03-01

    Chromosomal regions harboring variation affecting cattle birth weight and BW gain to 1 yr of age were identified by marker association using the highly parallel BovineSNP50 BeadChip (50K) assay composed of 54,001 individual SNP. Genotypes were obtained from progeny (F(1); 590 steers) and 2-, 3-, and 4-breed cross grandprogeny (F(1)(2) = F(1) x F(1); 1,306 steers and 707 females) of 150 AI sires representing 7 breeds (22 sires per breed; Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental). Genotypes and birth, weaning, and yearling BW records were used in whole-genome association analyses to estimate effects of individual SNP on growth. Traits analyzed included growth component traits: birth weight (BWT), 205-d adjusted birth to weaning BW gain (WG), 160-d adjusted postweaning BW gain (PWG); cumulative traits: 205-d adjusted weaning weight (WW = BWT + WG) and 365-d adjusted yearling weight (YW = BWT + WG + PWG); and indexes of relative differences between postnatal growth and birth weight. Modeled fixed effects included additive effects of calf and dam SNP genotype, year-sex-management contemporary groups, and covariates for calf and dam breed composition and heterosis. Direct and maternal additive polygenic effects and maternal permanent environment effects were random. Missing genotypes, including 50K genotypes of most dams, were approximated with a single-locus BLUP procedure from pedigree relationships and known 50K genotypes. Various association criteria were applied: stringent tests to account for multiple testing but with limited power to detect associations with small effects, and relaxed nominal P that may detect SNP associated with small effects but include excessive false positive associations. Genomic locations of the 231 SNP meeting stringent criteria generally coincided with described previously QTL affecting growth traits. The 12,425 SNP satisfying relaxed tests were located throughout the genome. Most SNP associated with BWT and

  6. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, BW at 200 d, and ADG were measured in 2,500 calves born and 2,395 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (one-fourth Hereford, one-fourth Angus, one-fourth Pinzgauer, and one-fourth Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breed), Brahman, Tuli, Boran, and Belgian Blue sires. Calves were born during the spring seasons of 1992, 1993, and 1994. Sire breed was significant for all traits (P < 0.002). Offspring from British breeds and the Belgian Blue breed had the shortest gestation length (285 d) when compared with progeny from other sire breeds (average of 291 d). Calving difficulty was greater in offspring from Brahman sires (1.24), whereas the offspring of Tuli sires had the least amount of calving difficulty (1.00). Offspring from all sire breeds had similar perinatal survival and survival from birth to weaning (average of 97.2 and 96.2%, respectively), with the exception of offspring from Brahman sires, which had less (92.8 and 90.4%, respectively). Progeny of Brahman sires were heaviest at birth (45.7 kg), followed by offspring from British breed, Boran, and Belgian Blue sires (average of 42.4 kg). The lightest offspring at birth were from Tuli sires (38.6 kg). Progeny derived from Brahman sires were the heaviest at 200 d (246 kg), and they grew faster (1.00 kg/d) than offspring from any other group. The progeny of British breeds and the Belgian Blue breed had an intermediate BW at 200 d (238 kg) and an intermediate ADG (average of 0.98 kg/d). The progeny of Boran and Tuli sires were the lightest at 200 d (227 kg) and had the least ADG (0.93 kg/d). Male calves had a longer gestation length, had a greater

  7. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle (Bos taurus). Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG was measured in 1,370 calves born and 1,285 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires. Calves were born during the spring of 1997 and 1998. Sire breed was significant for gestation length, birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Swedish Red and White and Friesian had the shortest gestation length (282 d), whereas offspring from Wagyu sires had the longest gestation length (286 d). Progeny from British breeds were the heaviest at birth (40.5 kg) and at 205 d (237 kg), and grew faster (0.97 kg/d) than offspring from other breeds. Offspring from Wagyu sires were the lightest at birth (36.3 kg) and at 205 d (214 kg), and had the slowest growth (0.91 kg/d). Dam breed was significant for gestation length (P < 0.001), birth weight (P = 0.009), BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Hereford cows had the longest gestation length (284 d), whereas offspring from Angus cows had the shortest (282 d). Offspring from MARC III cows were the heaviest at birth (39.4 kg) when compared with offspring from Hereford (38.2 kg) and Angus (38.6 kg) cows. Progeny from Angus cows were the heaviest at 205 d (235 kg) and grew faster (0.96 kg/d), whereas offspring from Hereford cows were the lightest at 205 d (219 kg) and were the slowest in growth (0.88 kg/d). Sex was significant for gestation length (P = 0.026), birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Male calves had a longer gestation length

  8. Tissue growth patterns in the carcasses of water buffalo and friesian crossbred cattle: Part 2-individual bones and anatomical bone groups.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, O Y

    1983-01-01

    Twelve Egyptian buffalo, nine ♂ Friesian × ♀ Egyptian native Baladi (half Friesian) and nine ♂ Friesian × ♀ half Friesian (three-quarter Friesian) bulls were serially slaughtered between 161 and 560 kg for buffaloes and between 176 and 448 kg for cattle. Anatomical dissection data from the left sides of the carcasses were used to examine the growth of individual bones and bone groups. No significant genetic differences with respect to the growth patterns of bones relative to total side bone were reported, indicating that bones followed similar patterns in buffaloes and cattle. Differential growth of bones occurred following an increase of impetus from cervical vertebrae to os sacrum and with growth coefficients for bones of the forelimb correspondingly higher than for the hindlimb and the entire axial and appendicular skeletons following, respectively, late- and early-maturing patterns. Some significant, though minor, differences between buffaloes and cattle were found when weights of individual bones were adjusted to constant side bone weight. As compared with Friesian crosses, buffaloes had more weight of the ribs and less weight of the vertebral column in the axial skeleton, and more weight of radius-and-ulna and less weight of scapula in the forelimb at equal total bone. There were no significant differences between buffaloes and Friesian crossbreds in the proportion of total bone occurring in the entire hindlimbs and forelimbs and in the distribution of total bone between axial and appendicular skeletons.

  9. Comparative evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assay with microscopy for detection of asymptomatic carrier state of theileriosis in a herd of crossbred cattle

    PubMed Central

    Charaya, Gaurav; Rakha, N. K.; Maan, Sushila; Kumar, Aman; Kumar, Tarun; Jhambh, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. Materials and Methods: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle. Blood smears from all animals and lymph node biopsy smears from animal with swollen lymph nodes were examined microscopically after conventional Giemsa staining. Phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method was used for extracting DNA from blood. Previously published primers targeting cytochrome b gene sequence of Theileria annulata were used in the PCR assay that was standardized to use in the laboratory. Results: Out of 29 samples tested,18 (62.06%) were found positive for theileriosis by PCR assay, whereas only 10 (34.48%) samples were detected positive by conventional microscopic technique using Giemsa staining method. Conclusions: On the basis results of comparative studies, it can be concluded that PCR assay is a more sensitive than microscopic examination for detection of theileriosis. This can be attributed to the ability of PCR assay to detect small amounts of genomic DNA of T. annulata or low parasitemia in cows. Therefore, PCR assay can serve as a more sensitive tool to detect Theileria for detection of theileriosis even in asymptomatic carrier cattle which is important for the implementation of successful control programs. PMID:27733810

  10. Eating and rumination behaviour in Brahman grade cattle and crossbred water buffalo fed on high roughage diet.

    PubMed

    Vega, Renato S A; Del Barrio, Arnel N; Sangel, Percival P; Katsube, Osamu; Canaria, Jose C; Herrera, Jose V; Lapitan, Rosalina M; Orden, Edgar A; Fujihara, Tsutomu; Kanai, Yukio

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare feeding and other behavior and nutrient digestibility of tropical grade Brahman (body weight (BW) = 231 kg ± 12.4; n = 3) and crossbred water buffalo (BW = 300 kg ± 13.9; n = 3). This experiment on digestibility and measures of muscles of mastication utilized one-way, and animal behavior two-way, analysis of variance, respectively. Two video camcorders were installed in each pair of buffalo and Brahman for 24 h period programmed on the 107th, 109th and 111th days of the digestion trials. Frequency and duration of feeding, meal intake, rumination, bolus, chews, drinking, defecating, standing and lying were recorded daily. Muscle diameter of Digastricus, Masseter and Pterygoid and different regions of the tongue were sampled and measured under light microscope using a standard micrometer. Buffalo obtained significantly higher intake of dry matter, roughage, crude protein, total digestible nutrient and metabolized energy than Brahman. This was supported by longer meal duration (P ≤ 0.05), and shorter meal breaks (P ≤ 0.05) of buffalo than Brahman. The diameter of the muscles for mastication was bigger (P ≤ 0.05) in buffalo than in Brahman, which is indicative of stronger chewing ability. Briefly, lesser and slower chewing action; higher intake of roughage and crude protein; and longer resting behavior of crossbred water buffalo than Brahman are all indicative of better digestive and metabolic performance of the buffalo under high roughage feeding conditions.

  11. Growth and development of water buffalo and Friesian crossbred cattle, with special reference to the 'entire' and 'boneless' cuts.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, O Y; Shanin, K A; Latif, M G

    1982-06-01

    Twelve buffaloes, nine Friesian × Baladi and nine Friesian × (Friesian × Baladi) bulls were slaughtered over the live weight ranges 161-560 kg for buffaloes and 176-448 kg for cattle. Right sides of all carcasses were jointed and dissected and the increase in the weight of 'entire' and 'boneless' cuts and cut groups (i.e. pistol; BLRC) relative to the 'entire' and 'boneless' side weights, respectively, were examined using covariance analyses. Increasing distoproximal and dorsoventral growth gradients were found in both species. Most noticeably, the sticking was early developing in buffaloes and late developing in cattle, whereas the shortloin developed approximately at an average rate in buffaloes and at a lower rate in cattle. Statistically significant but relatively slight differences were recorded between buffaloes and cattle in the adjusted means of the 'entire' and 'boneless' hind shank, sirloin (favouring buffaloes) and brisket (favouring cattle). Buffaloes were superior to cattle in weight of pistol. At an equal side weight of 73 kg buffaloes had significantly higher weight of pistol (maximum difference = 1·4 kg). At a 115 kg side weight, the maximum difference in 'entire' and 'boneless' pistol reached 3·58 and 5·04 kg, respectively.

  12. Effect of drinking water temperature on physiological variables of crossbred dairy cattle at high altitude temperate region of Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Golher, D. M.; Thirumurugan, P.; Patel, B. H. M.; Upadhyay, V. K.; Sahu, S.; Gaur, G. K.; Bhoite, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of study was to investigate the effects of drinking water on certain physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) and, ruminal motility (RM). Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 18 farm bred lactating crossbred cows. The animals selected for the study were divided into three groups of six animals each on the basis of milk yield and parity and were allotted to three treatment group of six each such as ambient drinking water temperature at 10.25±0.28°C (ambient water, T1), drinking water temperature at 15-20°C (T2) and drinking water temperature at 35-40°C (T3). All the managemental practices were kept similar during experiment except drinking water temperatures physiological variables such as HR, RR, RT, and RM of the individual cow was measured and recorded twice in a day at 800 h and again at 1400 h two consecutive days in a week 15 min after providing drinking water. Result: HR and RR at morning and at evening recorded were within the normal physiological level for all the treatment groups. However, RT at morning was comparable in all the treatments whereas at evening it was significantly (p<0.01) higher for cows consuming in T2 and in T3 than cows consumed (T1). The RM during morning among the treatments were non-significant as compared to the rumen motility at evening was significantly higher for (T1) and (T2) than for cows in (T3). Conclusion: It can be concluded that offering warm drinking water at 35-40°C to crossbred lactating dairy cow is beneficial during winter at high altitude temperate region. PMID:27047019

  13. Impacts of incorporation of follicle stimulating hormone into an estrous synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination of crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gentry, G T; Walker, R S; Gentry, L R

    2016-05-01

    One-hundred-eighty crossbred beef cows and 66 crossbred beef heifers across three locations were stratified by body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and age (within location) to evaluate administration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on Day 2 using a modified 7-day CO-Synch plus CIDR(®) protocol (Day 0=CIDR insertion) with timed-artificial insemination (TAI) at 72 h (cows) or 54 h (heifers) following CIDR removal. Estrous response following CIDR removal was determined using an Estrotect patch and TAI and final pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography 42-45 days following TAI and ≥ 45 days following removal of clean-up bulls. Estrous response rate, TAI and final pregnancy rates for cows were not affected (P ≥ 0.65) by treatment. Cows that exhibited estrus had greater (P<0.01) TAI pregnancy rate (66%) than cows not exhibiting estrus (38%). There was an estrous response by postpartum length interaction (P=0.02) where cows exhibiting estrus and ≥ 55 days postpartum had greater TAI pregnancy rates (75%) compared to cows not exhibiting estrus and < 55 days postpartum (39%) or ≥ 55 days postpartum (28%). For heifers, timed AI (P=0.46) and final pregnancy rates (P=0.45) were similar across treatments and estrous response had no effect (P=0.30) on TAI pregnancy rates. In conclusion, the addition of FSH to the CO-Synch plus CIDR estrous synchronization protocol did not increase TAI pregnancy rates in beef cows or heifers. However, a positive estrous response to the synchronization protocol was associated with increased TAI pregnancy rates in cows.

  14. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows. PMID:25187026

  15. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows.

  16. Genetic parameters and investigation of genotype × environment interactions in Nellore × Hereford crossbred for resistance to cattle ticks in different regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Roso, V M; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-02-01

    Data from 6,156 Nellore × Hereford crossbred cattle, distributed in 18 herds located in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS), were analysed in order to investigate genetic variation for resistance to the cattle tick through the estimation of variance components and genetic parameters for counting ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) in natural infestation, and also a possible genotype × environment interaction. The tick count data (CC) were transformed to log10(CC + 1) and grouped into two regions, defined by cluster analysis and analysed using the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The statistical model included the additive genetic effect as random and fixed effects of the contemporary group (CG) and genetic group (GG) as classificatory and the age of the animal at the time of counting (linear effect) and individual heterozygosity (linear effect, ranging from 0 to 1) as covariates. In the studied regions, the effect of heterosis found was inversely proportional; in other words, the count of ticks decreased with the increase of heterozygosity. The observed heritability estimation for resistance to tick infestation were 0.12 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.04 for groups A (RS and south PR) and B (MS, SP and north PR), respectively. The results of this study suggest that selection for animals resistant to ticks would be possible using the tick count to estimate the genetic value of animals, but with a slow genetic progress. The genetic correlation for tick count between the two groups (A and B) was 0.84 ± 0.27 and genotype × environment interaction for this trait was not observed in the studied population. PMID:25108748

  17. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 434 steers and 373 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais sires. Maternal grandsires represented Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British Breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, or Friesian breeds. Breed groups were slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr (2002 and 2003). Postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, percentage Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), retail product weight, fat yield (percentage), fat weight, bone yield (percentage), and bone weight were analyzed. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except dressing percentage, percentage Choice, and LM area. Marbling score for animals with Norwegian Red, Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, British Breeds, and Friesian inheritance was 550, 544, 532, 530, and 515, respectively (SEM = 8). Retail product weight for these animals was 224, 211, 227, 223, and 223 kg, respectively (SEM = 2 kg). Maternal granddam breed was not significant for any of the traits analyzed. Grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:16424257

  18. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research was to develop empirical equations to predict chemical and physical compositions of the carcass and the body using the composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section (rib(9-11)) and other measurements. A database (n = 246) from 6 studies was developed and comprised 37 bulls (BU), 115 steers (STR), and 94 heifers (HF), of which 132 were Nellore (NEL), 76 were NEL × Angus crossbreds (NA), and 38 were NEL × Simmental crossbreds (NS). The right half carcass and the rib(9-11) from the left half carcass were analyzed for ether extract (EE), CP, and water. The remaining components were chemically analyzed to determine the composition of the body. A stepwise procedure was used to determine the variable inclusion in the regression models. The variables included were EE in the rib(9-11) (EER; %), CP in the rib(9-11) (CPR; %), water in the rib(9-11) (WR; %), visceral fat (VF; %; KPH and mesenteric fats), organs plus viscera (OV; %), carcass dressing percentage (CD; %), cold carcass weight (kg), and empty BW (EBW; kg). No sex or breed effects were found on EE and CP compositions of the carcass (C(EE) and C(CP), respectively; %); the equations were as follows: C(EE) = 4.31 + 0.31 × EER + 1.37 × VF [n = 241; R(2) = 0.83; mean square error (MSE) = 4.53] and C(CP) = 17.92 + 0.60 × CPR - 0.17 × CD (n = 238; R(2) = 0.50; MSE = 1.58). Breed affected water content in the carcass (C(W), %); the equations were as follows: C(W) = 48.74 + 0.28 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NEL; C(W) = 46.69 + 0.32 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NA; and C(W) = 38.06 + 0.48 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NS (n = 243; R(2) = 0.67; MSE = 5.17). A sex effect was found on body chemical EE composition (BW(EE)); the equations were as follows: BW(EE) = 2.75 + 0.33 × EER + 1.80 × VF for BU; BW(EE) = 1.84 + 0.33 × EER + 1.91 × VF for STR; and BW(EE) = 4.77 + 0.33 × EER + 1.28 × VF for HF (n = 243; R(2) = 0.89; MSE = 3.88). No sex or breed effects were found on CP composition in the body (BW

  19. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research was to develop empirical equations to predict chemical and physical compositions of the carcass and the body using the composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section (rib(9-11)) and other measurements. A database (n = 246) from 6 studies was developed and comprised 37 bulls (BU), 115 steers (STR), and 94 heifers (HF), of which 132 were Nellore (NEL), 76 were NEL × Angus crossbreds (NA), and 38 were NEL × Simmental crossbreds (NS). The right half carcass and the rib(9-11) from the left half carcass were analyzed for ether extract (EE), CP, and water. The remaining components were chemically analyzed to determine the composition of the body. A stepwise procedure was used to determine the variable inclusion in the regression models. The variables included were EE in the rib(9-11) (EER; %), CP in the rib(9-11) (CPR; %), water in the rib(9-11) (WR; %), visceral fat (VF; %; KPH and mesenteric fats), organs plus viscera (OV; %), carcass dressing percentage (CD; %), cold carcass weight (kg), and empty BW (EBW; kg). No sex or breed effects were found on EE and CP compositions of the carcass (C(EE) and C(CP), respectively; %); the equations were as follows: C(EE) = 4.31 + 0.31 × EER + 1.37 × VF [n = 241; R(2) = 0.83; mean square error (MSE) = 4.53] and C(CP) = 17.92 + 0.60 × CPR - 0.17 × CD (n = 238; R(2) = 0.50; MSE = 1.58). Breed affected water content in the carcass (C(W), %); the equations were as follows: C(W) = 48.74 + 0.28 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NEL; C(W) = 46.69 + 0.32 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NA; and C(W) = 38.06 + 0.48 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NS (n = 243; R(2) = 0.67; MSE = 5.17). A sex effect was found on body chemical EE composition (BW(EE)); the equations were as follows: BW(EE) = 2.75 + 0.33 × EER + 1.80 × VF for BU; BW(EE) = 1.84 + 0.33 × EER + 1.91 × VF for STR; and BW(EE) = 4.77 + 0.33 × EER + 1.28 × VF for HF (n = 243; R(2) = 0.89; MSE = 3.88). No sex or breed effects were found on CP composition in the body (BW

  20. Populations of the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) on purebred Nellore, Ibage and Nellore X European crossbreds in the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A; Honer, M R; Schenk, M A; Curvo, J B

    1989-02-01

    Studies on purebred Nellore cattle and their crosses with Fleckvieh, Chianina, Charolais and the Ibagé breed (5/8 Aberdeen Angus, 3/8 Nellore) during 39 months in the field gave mean daily counts for engorging female ticks of 3.3, 25.2, 22.2, 21.0 and 59.7 per animal respectively. Annual fluctuations were similar in all groups; with the exception of the purebred Nellore mean counts are at levels considered dangerous for the stability of enzootic tick fever.

  1. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher ( P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but

  2. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  3. Association of BoLA DRB3 alleles with variability in immune response among the crossbred cattle vaccinated for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).

    PubMed

    Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Sankar, M; Narayanan, K; Das, Biswajit; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B

    2013-08-01

    Polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3 gene is being intensively investigated for potential association with economically important diseases of cattle. Accordingly, we investigated the association of DRB3 Exon 2 polymorphism as evidenced by the variation in the binding pockets with variability in immune response to inactivated trivalent (O, A and Asia1) foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine in a closed population of crossbred cattle. Antibody titer of ≥ 1.8 was set as the cut off value to distinguish the protected (≥ 1.8) and unprotected (<1.8) animals. Eleven different alleles of over 3% frequency were detected in the population. We found that DRB3 alleles 0201, 0801 and 1501 always ranked high for protective immune response whereas alleles 0701, 1103 and 1101 consistently ranked low for unprotected immune response for all the three serotypes. Rank correlation of DRB3 alleles among the three serotypes was positive, high in magnitude and statistically significant (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that odds of protection from the vaccine were highest for all the three serotypes if allele (∗)1501 was present and strengthened the results of allele ranking. Predicted amino acid substitution in the peptide binding pockets revealed that all the important sites had high Wu-Kabat index. Similarly, specific residues in pockets were crucial for immune response to FMD vaccine. There were specific substitutions in un-protected alleles such as absence of acidic amino acids substituted by basic amino acid at β71, presence of non-polar cysteine or basic histidine at β30 and presence of polar tyrosine at β37. From the observations, we hypothesize that the substitutions lead to unique conformational changes in the protein products of the studied alleles that would associate with the protective or unprotective antibody response to FMDV vaccine. The knowledge has potential implications in future selection programs if integrated with the

  4. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

  5. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  6. The effect of non-genetic factors on the reproductive performance of Sanga and Friesian × Sanga crossbred dairy cattle breeds kept under hot and humid environment.

    PubMed

    Apori, Samuel Obeng; Hagan, Julius Kofi

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of non-genetic factors on the reproductive performance of Sanga and Friesian × Sanga crossbred dairy cattle kept at Amrahia Dairy Farm, Ghana. Records on 66 crossbred Friesian × Sanga and 105 purebred Sanga cattle from 2005 to 2012 were used. The effect of sex of calf (male or female), season of calving (major, minor and dry), year of calving (2005-2012) and parity (first to third) on birthweight, calving interval and age at first calving were determined. The data were analyzed using the general linear model procedures of GenStat (Discovery Edition). The effect of parity of dam, year of calving, season of calving and sex of calf were considered as fixed effects for evaluating the different reproductive traits. Data on calving and conception rates over the period were 74.3 and 76.1%, respectively. The overall mean values for birthweight, age at first calving and calving interval obtained were 23.9 ± 1.5 and 22.8 ± 1.4 kg, 38.8 ± 2.5 and 40.2 ± 2.4 months and 390.8 ± 12.5 and 413.6 ± 12.1 days for the crossbred and Sanga, respectively. It was observed that all the major determinants of reproductive performance studied apart from birthweight were significantly influenced by year of birth, parity, season of calving and sex.

  7. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred cattle: postweaning gain and feed efficiency when finished in a temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G; Olson, T A

    2012-06-01

    with those with only 50%. Heterosis was numerically greater for most traits for An × Br (11 to 64%) compared with An × Ro and Br × Ro (3 to 42%), which were similar. In a subset of the steers (n = 261), G:F was not influenced by level of tropical breeding, but tropically adapted steers were more efficient (P < 0.05) by residual feed intake. No heterosis was evident. These data show that in temperate zones, winter is the period when productivity of tropically adapted cattle is compromised. PMID:22247114

  8. Effect of alfaprostol, lasalocid, and once-daily suckling on postpartum interval in Brahman and Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, R P; Randel, R D; Neuendorff, D A; Peterson, L A

    1988-10-01

    Brahman cows (n = 49) and primiparous heifers (n = 11), Brahman x Hereford primiparous F1 heifers (n = 86) and Simmental x Brahman primiparous F1 heifers (n = 13) were randomly allotted by breed, age and date of calving to one of eight treatment groups: 1) control; 2) once-daily suckling; 3) lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d); 4) alfaprostol (5 mg intermuscular injections on Days 21 and 32 post partum); 5) lasalocid + once-daily suckling; 6) alfaprostol + once daily suckling; 7) alfaprostol + lasalocid; 8) alfaprostol + lasalocid + once daily suckling. All animals received 2.3 kg/hd/d of a concentrate (6 corn : 1 cottonseed meal) and lasalocid was mixed and fed in the concentrate. Body weights and condition scores were taken on Day 1 post partum and every 28 d thereafter. All animals were maintained with sterile marker bulls with Brahman and Simmental x Brahman cattle artificially inseminated at first estrus. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting on Day 21 post partum until estrus and at nine to twelve days post estrus when the ovaries were palpated for corpora lutea. After the first postpartum estrus with a corpora lutea, cows were placed with fertile bulls. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were below 0.5 ng/ml prior to treatment. Calf weight gains to 90 d were not affected by age (P > 0.10) but were lower in the once-daily suckling group (P < 0.05). Treatment did not affect cow weight or condition score (P > 0.10). Cows had a shorter postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) than heifers. Once-daily suckling shortened postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) and positively influenced the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 40 d post partum (P < 0.02). Alfaprostol did not affect postpartum interval (P > 0.10) but did increase the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 90 d post partum (P < 0.03). Lasalocid did not affect postpartum interval or cumulative frequency of return to estrus (P > 0.10). Both once-daily suckling and alfaprostol were effective in

  9. Effect of alfaprostol, lasalocid, and once-daily suckling on postpartum interval in Brahman and Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, R P; Randel, R D; Neuendorff, D A; Peterson, L A

    1988-10-01

    Brahman cows (n = 49) and primiparous heifers (n = 11), Brahman x Hereford primiparous F1 heifers (n = 86) and Simmental x Brahman primiparous F1 heifers (n = 13) were randomly allotted by breed, age and date of calving to one of eight treatment groups: 1) control; 2) once-daily suckling; 3) lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d); 4) alfaprostol (5 mg intermuscular injections on Days 21 and 32 post partum); 5) lasalocid + once-daily suckling; 6) alfaprostol + once daily suckling; 7) alfaprostol + lasalocid; 8) alfaprostol + lasalocid + once daily suckling. All animals received 2.3 kg/hd/d of a concentrate (6 corn : 1 cottonseed meal) and lasalocid was mixed and fed in the concentrate. Body weights and condition scores were taken on Day 1 post partum and every 28 d thereafter. All animals were maintained with sterile marker bulls with Brahman and Simmental x Brahman cattle artificially inseminated at first estrus. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting on Day 21 post partum until estrus and at nine to twelve days post estrus when the ovaries were palpated for corpora lutea. After the first postpartum estrus with a corpora lutea, cows were placed with fertile bulls. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were below 0.5 ng/ml prior to treatment. Calf weight gains to 90 d were not affected by age (P > 0.10) but were lower in the once-daily suckling group (P < 0.05). Treatment did not affect cow weight or condition score (P > 0.10). Cows had a shorter postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) than heifers. Once-daily suckling shortened postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) and positively influenced the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 40 d post partum (P < 0.02). Alfaprostol did not affect postpartum interval (P > 0.10) but did increase the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 90 d post partum (P < 0.03). Lasalocid did not affect postpartum interval or cumulative frequency of return to estrus (P > 0.10). Both once-daily suckling and alfaprostol were effective in

  10. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred cattle: postweaning gain and feed efficiency when finished in a temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G; Olson, T A

    2012-06-01

    with those with only 50%. Heterosis was numerically greater for most traits for An × Br (11 to 64%) compared with An × Ro and Br × Ro (3 to 42%), which were similar. In a subset of the steers (n = 261), G:F was not influenced by level of tropical breeding, but tropically adapted steers were more efficient (P < 0.05) by residual feed intake. No heterosis was evident. These data show that in temperate zones, winter is the period when productivity of tropically adapted cattle is compromised.

  11. Effects of misty-fan cooling and supplemental rbST on rumen function and milk production of crossbred Holstein cattle during early, mid and late lactation in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Chanchai, Wilaiporn; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2010-04-01

    Two groups of five crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle were housed in normal shade only (NS) as non-cooled cows and in shaded housing with misty-fan cooling (MF) as cooled cows. The cows were treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in early, mid and late lactation with three consecutive injections of rbST in every 14 days. Ambient temperatures and the temperature humidity index in the NS barn were significantly higher than those of the MF barn, whereas relative humidity in MF was higher than that of NS barn. The DMI of cooled cows were higher than those of non-cooled cows, and cooled cows exhibited more response to rbST treatment. Exogenous rbST significantly increased milk yield throughout lactation. The rbST-treated cows had higher total ruminal fermentation products as volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen than the non-rbST treated cows and associated changes were greater in cooled animals in all stages of lactation. Exogenous rbST increased the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen in both groups. These results suggest that the changes in ruminal fermentation with greater production of total VFA and NH(3)N in response to rbST in crossbred cows whether under misty-fan cooling or not, is in part through an increase in feed intake, thereby making more substrate available to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. PMID:20438505

  12. Postweaning and feedlot growth and carcass characteristics of Angus-, gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

    PubMed

    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L; Lunt, D K; Herring, A D

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning, feedlot, and carcass data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included records from F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. The Zebu crosses grew faster postweaning and were heavier and taller as yearlings than the Angus crosses (P < .05). Among the Zebu-sired calves, the Red and Gray Brahman crosses were faster gaining and were heavier at a year of age than the Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Nellore. The Nellore crosses were significantly taller than the Gray Brahman- and Gir-sired crosses; the Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman were intermediate. Angus crosses were lightest on and off feed but were not significantly different from Gir, and Red and Gray Brahman were heaviest (P < .05). The Nellore and Indu-Brazil were similar in initial weight, but Indu-Brazil calves were similar to Red and Gray Brahman for final weight. The Angus cross was more desirable (P < .05) in marbling score and quality grade although the Nellore crosses had the most desirable score and grade of the Zebu crosses. Gir crosses had higher skeletal maturity scores (P < .05) than Nellore, Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Angus crosses; Red Brahman crosses were intermediate Angus crosses had the lightest carcasses but not significantly lighter than the Indu-Brazil, Gir, or Nellore. Red Brahman-cross carcasses were heaviest and Gray Brahman-cross carcasses were intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7601767

  13. Postweaning and feedlot growth and carcass characteristics of Angus-, gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

    PubMed

    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L; Lunt, D K; Herring, A D

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning, feedlot, and carcass data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included records from F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. The Zebu crosses grew faster postweaning and were heavier and taller as yearlings than the Angus crosses (P < .05). Among the Zebu-sired calves, the Red and Gray Brahman crosses were faster gaining and were heavier at a year of age than the Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Nellore. The Nellore crosses were significantly taller than the Gray Brahman- and Gir-sired crosses; the Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman were intermediate. Angus crosses were lightest on and off feed but were not significantly different from Gir, and Red and Gray Brahman were heaviest (P < .05). The Nellore and Indu-Brazil were similar in initial weight, but Indu-Brazil calves were similar to Red and Gray Brahman for final weight. The Angus cross was more desirable (P < .05) in marbling score and quality grade although the Nellore crosses had the most desirable score and grade of the Zebu crosses. Gir crosses had higher skeletal maturity scores (P < .05) than Nellore, Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Angus crosses; Red Brahman crosses were intermediate Angus crosses had the lightest carcasses but not significantly lighter than the Indu-Brazil, Gir, or Nellore. Red Brahman-cross carcasses were heaviest and Gray Brahman-cross carcasses were intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Genotypic to expression profiling of bovine calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha-2/delta subunit 1 gene, and their association with bovine mastitis among Frieswal (HFX Sahiwal) crossbred cattle of Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Rani; Sengar, Gyanendra; Mann, Sandeep; Sharma, Arjava

    2014-04-01

    Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha-2/delta subunit 1 (CACNA2D1) gene is considered to be an important noncytokine candidate gene influencing mastitis. Scanty of reports are available until today regarding the role play of CACNA2D1 gene on the susceptibility of bovine mastitis. We interrogated the CACNA2D1 G519663A [A>G] SNP by PCR-RFLP among two hundreds Frieswal (HF X Sahiwal) crossbred cattle of Indian origin. Genotypic frequency of AA (51.5, n=101) was comparatively higher than AG (35, n=70) and GG (14.5, n=29). Association of Somatic cell score (SCS) with genotypes revealed that, GG genotypes showing lesser count (less susceptible to mastitis) compare to AA and AG. Relative expression of CACNA2D1 transcript (in milk samples) was significantly higher among GG than AG and AA. Further we have also isolated blood sample from the all groups and PBMCs were cultured from each blood sample as per the standard protocol. They were treated with Calcium channel blocker and the expression level of the CACNA2D1 gene was evaluated by Real Time PCR. Results show that expression level decline in each genotypic group after treatment and expression level of GG are again significantly higher than AA and AG. Thus, it may be concluded that GG genotypic animals are favorable for selecting disease resistant breeds.

  15. The effect of beta and kappa casein genes on milk yield and milk composition in different percentages of Holstein in crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Molee, Amonrat; Boonek, Lerchat; Rungsakinnin, Noppanan

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the genotype, and composite genotype frequency, and the association between beta and kappa casein genes and milk yield (MY), percentage of fat (%Fat), protein (%Prot), and solids non-fat (%SNF) between two groups of crossbred Holstein: G1 ≤ 87.5% Holstein = 89 cows and G2 > 87.5% Holstein = 142 cows. Five genotypes of beta casein gene were observed. A1A2 and A1B were the most and rarest frequency, respectively, in both groups. Five genotypes of kappa casein gene were found. The highest and the lowest frequency were AA, and BB and BE, respectively, in both groups. Composite genotype A1A2AA was the most frequent in both groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two genes was detected. Significant differences of frequencies between both groups of both genes were not found. The association of the genes and the traits was different between G1 and G2. Negative effects on the traits were found in both groups. In addition, the stronger effect of the beta casein gene was observed in most of the traits. The conclusions were that different %Holstein caused different significant effects of these genes. A study of the association of these genes within each percentage of Holstein is strongly recommended.

  16. Release of β-casomorphin-7/5 during simulated gastrointestinal digestion of milk β-casein variants from Indian crossbred cattle (Karan Fries).

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, Mohammad Raies; Kapila, Rajeev; Kapila, Suman

    2015-02-01

    Crossbred Karan Fries (KF) cows, among the best yielders of milk in India are carriers of A1 and A2 alleles. These genetic variants have been established as the source of β-casomorphins (BCMs) bioactive peptides that are implicated with various physiological and health issues. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the release of BCM-7/5 from β-casein variants of KF by simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) performed with proteolytic enzymes, in vitro. β-Casein variants (A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2) were isolated from milk samples of genotyped Karan Fries animals and subjected to hydrolysis by SGID using proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and pancreatin), in vitro. Detection of BCMs were carried out in two peptide fractions (A and B) of RP-HPLC collected at retention time (RT) 24 and 28min respectively corresponding to standard BCM-5 and BCM-7 by MS-MS and competitive ELISA. One of the RP-HPLC fractions (B) showed the presence of 14 amino acid peptide (VYPFPGPIHNSLPQ) having encrypted internal BCMs sequence while no such peptide or precursor was observed in fraction A by MS-MS analysis. Further hydrolysis of fraction B of A1A1 and A1A2 variants of β-casein with elastase and leucine aminopeptidase revealed the release of BCM-7 by competitive ELISA. The yield of BCM-7 (0.20±0.02mg/g β-casein) from A1A1 variant was observed to be almost 3.2 times more than A1A2 variant of β-casein. However, release of BCM-7/5 could not be detected from A2A2 variant of β-casein. The biological activity of released peptides on rat ileum by isolated organ bath from A1A1 (IC50=0.534-0.595μM) and A1A2 (IC50=0.410-0.420μM) hydrolysates further confirmed the presence of opioid peptide BCM-7. PMID:25172685

  17. Living with Lions: The Economics of Coexistence in the Gir Forests, India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Chauhan, Kartikeya S.; Dave, Chittranjan V.

    2013-01-01

    Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to predation and other causes. Lion density, estimated by mark recapture, was 15±0.1 SE/100 km2. Livestock density, estimated by total counts, ranged between 25/km2–31/km2 with buffaloes being most abundant. Average livestock holding of Maldhari families was 33±3 SE. Lions predated mostly on unproductive cattle (30%). Scat analysis (n = 165), predation events (n = 180) and seven continuous monitoring sessions of 1,798 hours on four radio-collared lions estimated livestock to contribute between 25 to 42% of lions’ biomass consumptions, of which only 16% was predated; rest scavenged. With free grazing rights within Gir forests, Maldharis offset 58±0.2 SE% of annual livestock rearing cost in comparison to non-forest dwelling pastoralists. With government compensation scheme for livestock predation, this profit margin augmented to 76±0.05 SE%. Lion density was higher in areas with Maldhari livestock in comparison to areas without livestock. Thus, the current lifestyles and livestock holdings of Maldharis seem to be beneficial to both lions and local pastoralists. We conclude that a combination of strict protection regime for lions, Maldharis’ traditional reverence towards lions and the livelihood economics permit the delicate balance of lion-Maldhari coexistence. Indefinite increase in human and livestock population within Gir might upset this equilibrium undermining the conservation objectives. We see no end to compensation programs worldwide as they constitute a

  18. Living with lions: the economics of coexistence in the Gir forests, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Chauhan, Kartikeya S; Dave, Chittranjan V

    2013-01-01

    Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to predation and other causes. Lion density, estimated by mark recapture, was 15±0.1 SE/100 km(2). Livestock density, estimated by total counts, ranged between 25/km(2)-31/km(2) with buffaloes being most abundant. Average livestock holding of Maldhari families was 33±3 SE. Lions predated mostly on unproductive cattle (30%). Scat analysis (n = 165), predation events (n = 180) and seven continuous monitoring sessions of 1,798 hours on four radio-collared lions estimated livestock to contribute between 25 to 42% of lions' biomass consumptions, of which only 16% was predated; rest scavenged. With free grazing rights within Gir forests, Maldharis offset 58±0.2 SE% of annual livestock rearing cost in comparison to non-forest dwelling pastoralists. With government compensation scheme for livestock predation, this profit margin augmented to 76±0.05 SE%. Lion density was higher in areas with Maldhari livestock in comparison to areas without livestock. Thus, the current lifestyles and livestock holdings of Maldharis seem to be beneficial to both lions and local pastoralists. We conclude that a combination of strict protection regime for lions, Maldharis' traditional reverence towards lions and the livelihood economics permit the delicate balance of lion-Maldhari coexistence. Indefinite increase in human and livestock population within Gir might upset this equilibrium undermining the conservation objectives. We see no end to compensation programs worldwide as they constitute a crucial

  19. Tissue growth patterns in the carcasses of water buffalo and Friesian crossbred cattle-part 1: Individual muscles and anatomical muscle groups.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, O Y

    1983-01-01

    The left sides of the carcasses of twelve Egyptian buffalo, nine half Friesian (♂ Friesian x ♀ Egyptian Baladi) and nine three-quarter Friesian (♂ x ♀ half-Friesian) bulls, serially slaughtered between 161 and 560 kg for buffaloes and between 176 and 448 kg for cattle, were used to describe the growth and distribution of individual muscles and muscle groups. Genotype-group differences in the relative rate of growth were not significant in 85 of 89 muscles and in 8 of 9 muscle groups. The pooled within-group growth coefficients of individual muscles revealed different increasing growth gradients, i.e. disto-proximal in both limbs, mediolateral in the proximal pelvic limb, from elbow flexors to shoulder flexors in the proximal thoracic limb, caudo-cranial in the trunk and from hypaxial to epaxial muscles around the spinal column. The relative growth was lowest in the distal part of the limbs and highest in the anterior part of the carcass (SMG 7 and 8), with the loin and abdominal muscle groups growing at a rate similar to that of the total muscle. The neck and thorax muscle group grew at a higher rate in Friesian crosses than in buffaloes. Genotype-group differences in the weight of each muscle relative to total side muscle (TSM) were significant in 50 of 89 muscles. Of the 50 muscles (constituting around 59% of TSM), 24 (approximately 44% of TSM) were from the expensive muscle groups. As compared with the most different Friesian cross (base = 100) at equal TSM, buffaloes had higher weight of muscle in the hindlimb (107·5% proximally; 106·3% distally) and forelimb (120·0% proximally: 104·6% distally) and significantly less weight of the muscle groups forming the abdominal wall (79·8%) and connecting the forelimb to the thorax (89·1%) and to the neck (90·7%). The weight of the combined expensive groups was significantly greater in buffaloes than in cattle (maximum difference = 1·8 kg) with a tendency for buffaloes to have relatively less of the tender

  20. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Selvan, A. Sakthivel; Gupta, I. D.; Verma, A.; Chaudhari, M. V.; Magotra, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF) cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenol-chloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1) were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was carried out in all KF cows using Helicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I) (contig 2) and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI) (contig 4) restriction enzyme (RE). Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ2) test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci) number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns. Results: Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt) position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1), revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs). Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I

  1. Tomboys and Girly-Girls: Embodied Femininities in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how 9-11-year-old children, particularly girls, co-construct tomboy and girly-girl identities as oppositional positions. The paper sits within a theoretical framework in which I understand individual and collective masculinities and femininities as ways of "doing man/woman" or "doing boy/girl" that are constructed within local…

  2. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  3. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity and population-genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold...

  4. Whole-genome sequencing reveals the diversity of cattle copy number variations and multicopy genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural and functional impacts of copy number variations (CNVs) on livestock genomes are not yet well understood. We identified 1853 CNV regions using population-scale sequencing data generated from 75 cattle representing 8 breeds (Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, Romagnol...

  5. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Umar Nazir; Randhawa, Swaran Singh; Hussain, Syed Ashaq; Randhawa, Sarnarinder Singh; Dua, Kirti

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF) crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3) and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle. PMID:25133012

  6. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  7. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits.

  8. Genetic assessment of rectal temperature and coat score in Brahman, Angus, and Romosinuano crossbred and straightbred cows and calves under subtropical summer conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to characterize rectal temperature and coat score under subtropical North American summer conditions for straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle, to estimate heterosis and breed direct and maternal effects in a subset of those, and to estim...

  9. Accuracy of Predicted Genomic Breeding Values in Purebred and Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, André M.; Bastiaansen, John W. M.; Lopes, Marcos S.; Harlizius, Barbara; Groenen, Martien A. M.; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection has been widely implemented in dairy cattle breeding when the aim is to improve performance of purebred animals. In pigs, however, the final product is a crossbred animal. This may affect the efficiency of methods that are currently implemented for dairy cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of predicted breeding values in crossbred pigs using purebred genomic and phenotypic data. A second objective was to compare the predictive ability of SNPs when training is done in either single or multiple populations for four traits: age at first insemination (AFI); total number of piglets born (TNB); litter birth weight (LBW); and litter variation (LVR). We performed marker-based and pedigree-based predictions. Within-population predictions for the four traits ranged from 0.21 to 0.72. Multi-population prediction yielded accuracies ranging from 0.18 to 0.67. Predictions across purebred populations as well as predicting genetic merit of crossbreds from their purebred parental lines for AFI performed poorly (not significantly different from zero). In contrast, accuracies of across-population predictions and accuracies of purebred to crossbred predictions for LBW and LVR ranged from 0.08 to 0.31 and 0.11 to 0.31, respectively. Accuracy for TNB was zero for across-population prediction, whereas for purebred to crossbred prediction it ranged from 0.08 to 0.22. In general, marker-based outperformed pedigree-based prediction across populations and traits. However, in some cases pedigree-based prediction performed similarly or outperformed marker-based prediction. There was predictive ability when purebred populations were used to predict crossbred genetic merit using an additive model in the populations studied. AFI was the only exception, indicating that predictive ability depends largely on the genetic correlation between PB and CB performance, which was 0.31 for AFI. Multi-population prediction was no better than within

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rbg1 Protein and Its Binding Partner Gir2 Interact on Polyribosomes with Gcn1▿

    PubMed Central

    Wout, P. K.; Sattlegger, E.; Sullivan, S. M.; Maddock, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Rbg1 is a previously uncharacterized protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belonging to the Obg/CgtA subfamily of GTP-binding proteins whose members are involved in ribosome function in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We show here that Rbg1 specifically associates with translating ribosomes. In addition, in this study proteins were identified that interact with Rbg1 by yeast two-hybrid screening and include Tma46, Ygr250c, Yap1, and Gir2. Gir2 contains a GI (Gcn2 and Impact) domain similar to that of Gcn2, an essential factor of the general amino acid control pathway required for overcoming amino acid shortage. Interestingly, we found that Gir2, like Gcn2, interacts with Gcn1 through its GI domain, and overexpression of Gir2, under conditions mimicking amino acid starvation, resulted in inhibition of growth that could be reversed by Gcn2 co-overexpression. Moreover, we found that Gir2 also cofractionated with polyribosomes, and this fractionation pattern was partially dependent on the presence of Gcn1. Based on these findings, we conclude that Rbg1 and its interacting partner Gir2 associate with ribosomes, and their possible biological roles are discussed. PMID:19448108

  11. Low incidence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) carriers in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh K; Singh, Krishna M; Soni, Kalpesh J; Chauhan, Jenabhai B; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli R S

    2007-01-01

    BLAD is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle worldwide. It is a disease characterized by a reduced expression of the adhesion molecules on neutrophils. The disease is caused by a mutation that replaces adenine at 383 with guanine, which causes an amino acid change from aspartic acid to glycine. Blood samples and a few semen samples were collected from 1250 phenotypically normal individuals, including HF (N=377), HF crossbred (N=334), Jersey (105), other breeds of cattle (N=160) and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (N=274) belonging to various artificial insemination stations, bull mother farms (BMFs) and embryo transfer (ET) centres across the country. PCR-RFLP was performed to detect a point mutation in CD18, surface molecules of neutrophils. The results indicate that out of 1250 cattle and buffaloes tested for BLAD, 13 HF purebreds out of 377 and 10 HF crossbreds out of 334 appear to be BLAD carriers. In the HF and HF crossbred population, the percentage of BLAD carriers was estimated as 3.23%. The condition is alarming as the mutant gene has already entered the HF crossbred cattle population and therefore, the population of HF and its crossbreds needs regular screening to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population of India. PMID:17495349

  12. Low incidence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) carriers in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh K; Singh, Krishna M; Soni, Kalpesh J; Chauhan, Jenabhai B; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli R S

    2007-01-01

    BLAD is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle worldwide. It is a disease characterized by a reduced expression of the adhesion molecules on neutrophils. The disease is caused by a mutation that replaces adenine at 383 with guanine, which causes an amino acid change from aspartic acid to glycine. Blood samples and a few semen samples were collected from 1250 phenotypically normal individuals, including HF (N=377), HF crossbred (N=334), Jersey (105), other breeds of cattle (N=160) and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (N=274) belonging to various artificial insemination stations, bull mother farms (BMFs) and embryo transfer (ET) centres across the country. PCR-RFLP was performed to detect a point mutation in CD18, surface molecules of neutrophils. The results indicate that out of 1250 cattle and buffaloes tested for BLAD, 13 HF purebreds out of 377 and 10 HF crossbreds out of 334 appear to be BLAD carriers. In the HF and HF crossbred population, the percentage of BLAD carriers was estimated as 3.23%. The condition is alarming as the mutant gene has already entered the HF crossbred cattle population and therefore, the population of HF and its crossbreds needs regular screening to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population of India.

  13. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  14. Evaluation of methods of temperament scoring for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates and carcass weight. The objective of this research study was to evaluate temperament scoring methods in beef cattle. Crossbred (n = 228) calves were evaluated for temperament at weaning by ...

  15. Characterization of cutability and palatability attributes among different slaughter groups of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Stiffler, D M; Griffin, C L; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Savell, J W

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen slaughter cattle from five groups (Charolais crossbred bulls, Brahman crossbred steers, Holstein steers, mixed-Exotic crossbred heifers and Hereford-Angus crossbred steers) were randomly selected from a commercial feedlot. Time-on-feed was 108, 114, 102, 108 and 145 days for the aforementioned groups, respectively. Carcasses from Charolais crossbred bulls had the highest percentage yield of chuck and round, but the lowest percentage yield of loin; hereford-Angus crossbred steers had the lowest percentage yield of round and Holstein steers had the lowest percentage yield of rib. Carcasses from Charolais crossbred bulls had the highest percentage yield of major retail-ready subprimals and lean trim, Hereford-Angus crossbred steers had the highest percentage yield of fat trim and Holstein steers had the highest percentage yield of bone from the major wholesale cuts. Mean percentage yields of closely trimmed, boneless retail cuts were highest for carcasses from the bulls and lowest for carcasses from the Hereford-Angus steers. Although Holstein steer carcasses had less fat trim than Brahman-crossbred steers mixed-Exotic heifers, this advantage was largely offset by their higher percentage of bone. Loin steaks from carcasses of Charolais crossbred bulls, Holstein, mixed-Exotic heifers were comparable (P > 0·05)with those of Hereford-Angus steers for shear force and sensory panel tenderness ratings. However, loin steaks from carcasses of Brahman-crossbred steers had significantly higher (P < 0·05) shear force values (least tender) and lower (P < 0·05) tenderness and overall palatability ratings. No diffeerences (P > 0·05) were found for flavor desirability of loin steaks among any of the groups. For bottom round steaks, Hereford-Angus steers received the highest palatability ratings while those from Holstein steers received the lowest palatability ratings. PMID:22055633

  16. Genomic selection in admixed and crossbred populations.

    PubMed

    Toosi, A; Fernando, R L; Dekkers, J C M

    2010-01-01

    In livestock, genomic selection (GS) has primarily been investigated by simulation of purebred populations. Traits of interest are, however, often measured in crossbred or mixed populations with uncertain breed composition. If such data are used as the training data for GS without accounting for breed composition, estimates of marker effects may be biased due to population stratification and admixture. To investigate this, a genome of 100 cM was simulated with varying marker densities (5 to 40 segregating markers per cM). After 1,000 generations of random mating in a population of effective size 500, 4 lines with effective size 100 were isolated and mated for another 50 generations to create 4 pure breeds. These breeds were used to generate combined, F(1), F(2), 3- and 4-way crosses, and admixed training data sets of 1,000 individuals with phenotypes for an additive trait controlled by 100 segregating QTL and heritability of 0.30. The validation data set was a sample of 1,000 genotyped individuals from one pure breed. Method Bayes-B was used to simultaneously estimate the effects of all markers for breeding value estimation. With 5 (40) markers per cM, the correlation of true with estimated breeding value of selection candidates (accuracy) was greatest, 0.79 (0.85), when data from the same pure breed were used for training. When the training data set consisted of crossbreds, the accuracy ranged from 0.66 (0.79) to 0.74 (0.83) for the 2 marker densities, respectively. The admixed training data set resulted in nearly the same accuracies as when training was in the breed to which selection candidates belonged. However, accuracy was greatly reduced when genes from the target pure breed were not included in the admixed or crossbred population. This implies that, with high-density markers, admixed and crossbred populations can be used to develop GS prediction equations for all pure breeds that contributed to the population, without a substantial loss of accuracy compared

  17. Ruminal fermentation and microbial ecology of buffaloes and cattle fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Khin-Ohnmar; Kondo, Makoto; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Lapitan, Rosalina M; Del-Barrio, Arnel N; Fujihara, Tsutomu; Matsui, Hiroki

    2012-12-01

    Although buffaloes and cattle are ruminants, their digestive capabilities and rumen microbial compositions are considered to be different. The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen microbial ecology of crossbred water buffaloes and cattle that were fed the same diet. Cattle exhibited a higher fermentation rate than buffaloes. Methane production and methanogen density were lower in buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis of Fibrobacter succinogenes-specific 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone library showed that the diversity of groups within a species was significantly different (P < 0.05) between buffalo and cattle and most of the clones were affiliated with group 2 of the species. Population densities of F.succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens were higher until 6 h post-feeding in cattle; however, buffaloes exhibited different traits. The population of anaerobic fungi decreased at 3 h in cattle compared to buffaloes and was similar at 0 h and 6 h. The diversity profiles of bacteria and fungi were similar in the two species. The present study showed that the profiles of the fermentation process, microbial population and diversity were similar in crossbred water buffaloes and crossbred cattle.

  18. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production.

    PubMed

    Hohenboken, W D

    1999-12-01

    Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons. PMID:10735086

  19. Comparison of Bayesian models to estimate direct genomic values in multi-breed commercial beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Several studies have examined the accuracy of genomic selection both within and across purebred beef or dairy populations. However, the accuracy of direct genomic breeding values (DGVs) has been less well studied in crossbred or admixed cattle populations. We used a population of 3,240 cr...

  20. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  1. Effect of method and timing of castration on newly arrived stocker cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of castration method and timing on the performance and health of newly received stocker cattle. Two hundred and seventy-one crossbred male calves (184 bulls, 87 steers; 210 ± 14.7 kg) were purchased at auction barns and shipped in three groups. ...

  2. Ultrasonographic Imaging of Normal and Impacted Omasum in Indian Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Sheikh; Tyagi, S. P.; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Shivali

    2011-01-01

    Omasal impaction is a serious disease problem in cattle in India, but it is difficult to diagnose clinically. Ultrasonography has been proposed for the noninvasive evaluation of omasal disease. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro and in vivo ultrasonographic appearance of the omasum and to compare omasal appearance, limits, and size in clinically healthy cows with those in cows having confirmed omasal impaction. A 3.5 MHz curvilinear transducer was used to image and record the appearance of the omasum in vitro in a water bath, and its appearance, dorsal and ventral limits, and size in 10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred cows. The results were compared with the ultrasonographic data collected from 5 cows with omasal impaction, as confirmed at necropsy. On moving the transducer dorsoventrally in each intercostal space and below the costal arch, the wall of omasum could be seen as an echogenic arc-like structure. The difference between mean dorsoventral extents of the normal and impacted omasums was statistically insignificant. These results suggest that ultrasonographic imaging may not be useful in the diagnosis of omasal impaction in Indian crossbred cows, however, additional studies may be warranted. PMID:21647337

  3. Genetic evaluation of reproduction performance of Jersey × Red Sindhi crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Vinothraj, S.; Subramaniyan, A.; Venkataramanan, R.; Joseph, Cecilia; Sivaselvam, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to study the reproduction performance and effect of non-genetic factors on reproduction performance of Jersey crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Data on 355 Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Post-graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences, Kattupakkam, Tamil Nadu, distributed over 30 years (1985 to 2014). The effect of various non-genetic factors including the period of birth, season of birth, period of calving, season of calving and parity were analyzed through least-squares analyses using univariate general linear model. The different (co)variance components for calculation of genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood method by fitting an animal model. Results: The overall least-squares means (±standard error) of age at first service, age at first calving, weight at first calving, service period, calving interval, dry period, and number of services per conception were 848.06±9.72 days, 1204±12.20 days, 289.81±1.71 kg, 210.01±6.41 days, 489.12±6.45 days, 137.96±5.58 days, 2.50±0.07, respectively. Period of calving had either significant (p<0.05) or highly significant (p<0.01) effect on all reproduction traits studied except service period, calving interval, and dry period. Number of services per conception was affected by season of calving. Parity had significant influence (p<0.05) or highly significant (p<0.01) influence on all the traits studied except service period and dry period. Heritability estimates of age at first service, age at first calving, weight at first calving, service period, calving interval, dry period, and number of services per conception were 0.299, 0.220, 0.017, 0.142, 0.222, 0.177, and 0.042, respectively. The estimates of repeatability for service period, calving interval, dry period, and number of services per conception were 0.219, 0.234, 0.420, and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: The reproduction performances of Jersey × Red Sindhi

  4. Accuracy of genomic prediction when combining two related crossbred populations.

    PubMed

    Vallée, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2014-10-01

    Charolais bulls are selected for their crossbreed performance when mated to Montbéliard or Holstein dams. To implement genomic prediction, one could build a reference population for each crossbred population independently. An alternative could be to combine both crossbred populations into a single reference population to increase size and accuracy of prediction. The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of genomic prediction by combining different crossbred populations. Three scenarios were considered: 1) using 1 crossbred population as reference to predict phenotype of animals from the same crossbred population, 2) combining the 2 crossbred populations into 1 reference to predict phenotype of animals from 1 crossbred population, and 3) using 1 crossbred population as reference to predict phenotype of animals from the other crossbred population. Traits studied were bone thinness, height, and muscular development. Phenotypes and 45,117 SNP genotypes were available for 1,764 Montbéliard × Charolais calves and 447 Holstein × Charolais calves. The population was randomly spilt into 10 subgroups, which were assigned to the validation one by one. To allow fair comparison between scenarios, size of the reference population was kept constant for all scenarios. Breeding values were estimated with BLUP and genomic BLUP. Accuracy of prediction was calculated as the correlation between the EBV and the phenotypic values of the calves in the validation divided by the square root of the heritability. Genomic BLUP showed higher accuracies (between 0.281 and 0.473) than BLUP (between 0.197 and 0.452). Accuracies tended to be highest when prediction was within 1 crossbred population, intermediate when populations were combined into the reference population, and lowest when prediction was across populations. Decrease in accuracy from a prediction within 1 population to a prediction across populations was more pronounced for bone thinness (-27%) and height (-29

  5. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz da Costa, Maria do Socorro; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Ferraz da Costa, Ana Julia; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged 16.6 ± 2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0 ± 0.2 ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9 ± 0.3 flies/animal) and D. hominis (1.5 ± 0.2 larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. PMID:26464941

  6. The use of simple physiological and environmental measures to estimate the latent heat transfer in crossbred Holstein cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Severino Guilherme Caetano Gonçalves dos; Saraiva, Edilson Paes; Pimenta Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti; Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Fonsêca, Vinicus França Carvalho; Pinheiro, Antônio da Costa; Almeida, Maria Elivania Vieira; de Amorim, Mikael Leal Cabral Menezes

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the heat transfer through cutaneous and respiratory evaporation of dairy cows raised in tropical ambient conditions using simple environmental and physiological measures. Twenty-six lactating crossbred cows (7/8 Holstein-Gir) were used, 8 predominantly white and 18 predominantly black. The environmental variables air temperature, relative humidity, black globe temperature, and wind speed were measured. Respiratory rate and coat surface temperature were measured at 0700, 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 h. The environmental and physiological data were used to estimate heat loss by respiratory (ER) and cutaneous evaporation (EC). Results showed that there was variation (P < 0.01) for respiratory rate depending on the times of the day. The highest values were recorded at 1100, 1300, and 1500 h, corresponding to 66.85 ± 10.20, 66.98 ± 7.80, and 65.65 ± 6.50 breaths/min, respectively. Thus, the amount of heat transferred via respiration ranged from 19.21 to 29.42 W/m2. There was a variation from 31.6 to 38.8 °C for coat surface temperature; these values reflected a range of 55.52 to 566.83 W/m2 for heat transfer via cutaneous evaporation. However, throughout the day, the dissipation of thermal energy through the coat surface accounted for 87.9 % total loss of latent heat, and the remainder (12.1 %) was via the respiratory tract. In conclusion, the predictive models based on respiratory rate and coat surface temperature may be used to estimate the latent heat loss in dairy cows kept confined in tropical ambient conditions.

  7. Effects of three dehorning techniques on behavior and wound healing in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Neely, C D; Thomson, D U; Kerr, C A; Reinhardt, C D

    2014-05-01

    Crossbred horned steers and heifers (n = 40; BW = 311.8 ± 4.7 kg) were used to determine the effect of dehorning methods on pain, cattle behavior, and wound healing. Cattle were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) control (CON), 2) banded using high tension elastic rubber (BAND), 3) mechanically removed (MECH), or 4) tipped (TIP). Vocalization and behavior were recorded during the dehorning process. Wound healing scores, attitude, gait and posture, appetite, and lying were recorded daily. Vocalization scores were highest for MECH cattle and BAND cattle vocalized more than TIP and CON (P < 0.05). Attitude (P = 0.06), gait and posture (P = 0.06), and lying scores (P < 0.05) were higher for BAND cattle in the days following procedures compared to MECH, TIP, and CON cattle. Cattle in the BAND treatment tended (P < 0.13) to have higher appetite scores than the other methods. Wound healing scores (horn bud and bleeding) were higher for BAND cattle than MECH, TIP, and CON cattle (P < 0.05). These data indicate that MECH is a painful procedure for cattle at the time of the procedure. Banding to remove horns from cattle is not recommended based on the data and observations from this study.

  8. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  9. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle.

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  10. Chromium supplementation alters the performance and health of feedlot cattle during the receiving period and enhances their metabolic response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crossbred steers (n = 180; 230 +/- 6 kg) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumPropionate0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly-received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens; ...

  11. Effects of dietary source and intake of energy on immune competence and the response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy intake and source affect immune competence and response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by body weight within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatmen...

  12. Effects of source and level of energy on the immune competence and response to an Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy level and source affect immune competence and response to a viral challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by BW within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatments (8 steers/treatment within period). Treatments we...

  13. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    PubMed Central

    Saravanajayam, M.; Kumanan, K.; Balasubramaniam, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results revealed that the seroprevalence of IBR infection among non-vaccinated cattle population was of 65.88%. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence of IBR infection between cattle showing respiratory (63.64%) and reproductive form (70.89%) (p≥0.05). A higher prevalence was noticed in animals above 3 years of age (59.60%) and in crossbred animals (71.26%) than young and non-descript animals. This study showed the higher prevalence of IBR infection in female (67.92%) than in male (33.33%). Conclusion: Cattle population in this part can better be protected with vaccination than leaving them unvaccinated and sero-monitoring shall have to be stressed with regular attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agent for IBR. PMID:27047054

  14. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  15. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated ( P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  16. Update on sexed semen technology in cattle.

    PubMed

    Seidel, G E

    2014-05-01

    The technology in current use for sexing sperm represents remarkable feats of engineering. These flow cytometer/cell sorters can make over 30 000 consecutive evaluations of individual sperm each second for each nozzle and sort the sperm into three containers: X-sperm, Y-sperm and unsexable plus dead sperm. Even at these speeds it is not economical to package sperm at standard numbers per inseminate. However, with excellent management, pregnancy rates in cattle with 2 million sexed sperm per insemination dose are about 80% of those with conventional semen at normal sperm doses. This lowered fertility, in part due to damage to sperm during sorting, plus the extra cost of sexed semen limits the applications that are economically feasible. Even so, on the order of 2 million doses of bovine semen are sexed annually in the United States. The main application is for dairy heifers to have heifer calves, either for herd expansion or for sale as replacements, often for eventual export. Breeders of purebred cattle often use sexed semen for specific matings; thawing and then sexing frozen semen and immediately using the few resulting sexed sperm for in vitro fertilization is done with increasing frequency. Beef cattle producers are starting to use sexed semen to produce crossbred female replacements. Proprietary improvements in sperm sexing procedures, implemented in 2013, are claimed to improve fertility between 4 and 6 percentage points, or about 10%. PMID:24680061

  17. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p<0.05) higher in pure Jersey as compare to crossbred Jersey bulls. Live sperm percentage and acrosome integrity was significantly (p<0.01) higher in pure Jersey bulls as compared to crossbred Jersey bulls. However, no statistical difference (p>0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA

  18. Postpartum ovarian activity in South Asian zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Brar, P S; Nanda, A S

    2008-07-01

    Timely onset of postpartum ovarian activity is vital for optimal reproductive performance of dairy cows. Much depends upon genetic constitution of an animal although several factors interplay to govern the onset of postpartum ovarian activity. South Asian zebu cattle have much longer service period when compared with other exotic or crossbred cattle reared in the same Asian environment, which suggests differences in their genetic makeup. However, the cows with same genetic configuration expressed better reproductive potential when reared under different environment, such as in Brazil and Mexico, which suggests the role of extrinsic factors such as management, nutrition, environment and disease conditions. Better management of animals (provision of proper shade, water and housing, efficient oestrous detection and timely insemination), good quality nutrition supplemented with appropriate minerals and vitamins, prevention of diseases (vaccination, deworming, suitable therapeutic interventions) and application of biotechnology have helped in improving postpartum ovarian activity and, therefore, reproductive performance of zebu cattle in Asia. No comprehensive study appears to have been carried out on the various aspects of reproduction in zebu cattle reared under South Asian socio-agro-climatic conditions. This paper is a modest effort to collect what ever information available and to critically review the postpartum ovarian activity in zebu cattle with special reference to the effect of the various managemental practices and pharmacological interventions. PMID:18638125

  19. Application of single-step genomic evaluation for crossbred performance in pig.

    PubMed

    Xiang, T; Nielsen, B; Su, G; Legarra, A; Christensen, O F

    2016-03-01

    Crossbreding is predominant and intensively used in commercial meat production systems, especially in poultry and swine. Genomic evaluation has been successfully applied for breeding within purebreds but also offers opportunities of selecting purebreds for crossbred performance by combining information from purebreds with information from crossbreds. However, it generally requires that all relevant animals are genotyped, which is costly and presently does not seem to be feasible in practice. Recently, a novel single-step BLUP method for genomic evaluation of both purebred and crossbred performance has been developed that can incorporate marker genotypes into a traditional animal model. This new method has not been validated in real data sets. In this study, we applied this single-step method to analyze data for the maternal trait of total number of piglets born in Danish Landrace, Yorkshire, and two-way crossbred pigs in different scenarios. The genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred performances was investigated first, and then the impact of (crossbred) genomic information on prediction reliability for crossbred performance was explored. The results confirm the existence of a moderate genetic correlation, and it was seen that the standard errors on the estimates were reduced when including genomic information. Models with marker information, especially crossbred genomic information, improved model-based reliabilities for crossbred performance of purebred boars and also improved the predictive ability for crossbred animals and, to some extent, reduced the bias of prediction. We conclude that the new single-step BLUP method is a good tool in the genetic evaluation for crossbred performance in purebred animals.

  20. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.01) for all traits. Maternal granddam breed (Hereford, Angus, or MARC III)was significant (P < 0.05) only for fat depth, USDA yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for live weight, hot carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:12723078

  1. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the...

  2. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.01) for all traits. Maternal granddam breed (Hereford, Angus, or MARC III)was significant (P < 0.05) only for fat depth, USDA yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for live weight, hot carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  3. Partial-genome evaluation of postweaning feed intake and efficiency of crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Snelling, W M; Allan, M F; Keele, J W; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Bennett, G L; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G; Freetly, H C; Nielsen, M K; Rolfe, K M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of individual SNP and the variation explained by sets of SNP associated with DMI, metabolic midtest BW, BW gain, and feed efficiency, expressed as phenotypic and genetic residual feed intake, were estimated from BW and the individual feed intake of 1,159 steers on dry lot offered a 3.0 Mcal/kg ration for at least 119 d before slaughter. Parents of these F(1) × F(1) (F(1)(2)) steers were AI-sired F(1) progeny of Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental bulls mated to US Meat Animal Research Center Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite females. Steers were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 BeadChip assay (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Effects of 44,163 SNP having minor allele frequencies >0.05 in the F(1)(2) generation were estimated with a mixed model that included genotype, breed composition, heterosis, age of dam, and slaughter date contemporary groups as fixed effects, and a random additive genetic effect with recorded pedigree relationships among animals. Variance in this population attributable to sets of SNP was estimated with models that partitioned the additive genetic effect into a polygenic component attributable to pedigree relationships and a genotypic component attributable to genotypic relationships. The sets of SNP evaluated were the full set of 44,163 SNP and subsets containing 6 to 40,000 SNP selected according to association with phenotype. Ninety SNP were strongly associated (P < 0.0001) with at least 1 efficiency or component trait; these 90 accounted for 28 to 46% of the total additive genetic variance of each trait. Trait-specific sets containing 96 SNP having the strongest associations with each trait explained 50 to 87% of additive variance for that trait. Expected accuracy of steer breeding values predicted with pedigree and genotypic relationships exceeded the accuracy of their sires predicted without genotypic information, although gains in accuracy were not sufficient to encourage that performance testing be replaced by genotyping and genomic evaluations.

  4. Additive and nonadditive genetic variances for milk yield, fertility, and lifetime performance traits of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fuerst, C; Sölkner, J

    1994-04-01

    Additive and nonadditive genetic variances were estimated for yield traits and fertility for three subsequent lactations and for lifetime performance traits of purebred and crossbred dairy cattle populations. Traits were milk yield, energy-corrected milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, calving interval, length of productive life, and lifetime FCM of purebred Simmental, Simmental including crossbreds, and Braunvieh crossed with Brown Swiss. Data files ranged from 66,740 to 375,093 records. An approach based on pedigree information for sire and maternal grandsire was used and included additive, dominance, and additive by additive genetic effects. Variances were estimated using the tildehat approximation to REML. Heritability estimated without nonadditive effects in the model was overestimated, particularly in presence of additive by additive variance. Dominance variance was important for most traits; for the lifetime performance traits, dominance was clearly higher than additive variance. Additive by additive variance was very high for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield, especially for data including crossbreds. Effect of inbreeding was low in most cases. Inclusion of nonadditive effects in genetic evaluation models might improve estimation of additive effects and may require consideration for dairy cattle breeding programs.

  5. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bickhart, Derek M; Xu, Lingyang; Hutchison, Jana L; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Schroeder, Steven G; Song, Jiuzhou; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Lewin, Harris A; Liu, George E

    2016-06-01

    The diversity and population genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analysed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, and Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold coverage to identify 1,853 non-redundant CNV regions. Supported by high validation rates in array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and qPCR experiments, these CNV regions accounted for 3.1% (87.5 Mb) of the cattle reference genome, representing a significant increase over previous estimates of the area of the genome that is copy number variable (∼2%). Further population genetics and evolutionary genomics analyses based on these CNVs revealed the population structures of the cattle taurine and indicine breeds and uncovered potential diversely selected CNVs near important functional genes, including AOX1, ASZ1, GAT, GLYAT, and KRTAP9-1 Additionally, 121 CNV gene regions were found to be either breed specific or differentially variable across breeds, such as RICTOR in dairy breeds and PNPLA3 in beef breeds. In contrast, clusters of the PRP and PAG genes were found to be duplicated in all sequenced animals, suggesting that subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or overdominance play roles in diversifying those fertility-related genes. These CNV results provide a new glimpse into the diverse selection histories of cattle breeds and a basis for correlating structural variation with complex traits in the future. PMID:27085184

  6. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bickhart, Derek M.; Xu, Lingyang; Hutchison, Jana L.; Cole, John B.; Null, Daniel J.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Song, Jiuzhou; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Lewin, Harris A.; Liu, George E.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and population genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analysed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, and Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold coverage to identify 1,853 non-redundant CNV regions. Supported by high validation rates in array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and qPCR experiments, these CNV regions accounted for 3.1% (87.5 Mb) of the cattle reference genome, representing a significant increase over previous estimates of the area of the genome that is copy number variable (∼2%). Further population genetics and evolutionary genomics analyses based on these CNVs revealed the population structures of the cattle taurine and indicine breeds and uncovered potential diversely selected CNVs near important functional genes, including AOX1, ASZ1, GAT, GLYAT, and KRTAP9-1. Additionally, 121 CNV gene regions were found to be either breed specific or differentially variable across breeds, such as RICTOR in dairy breeds and PNPLA3 in beef breeds. In contrast, clusters of the PRP and PAG genes were found to be duplicated in all sequenced animals, suggesting that subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or overdominance play roles in diversifying those fertility-related genes. These CNV results provide a new glimpse into the diverse selection histories of cattle breeds and a basis for correlating structural variation with complex traits in the future. PMID:27085184

  7. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bickhart, Derek M; Xu, Lingyang; Hutchison, Jana L; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Schroeder, Steven G; Song, Jiuzhou; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Lewin, Harris A; Liu, George E

    2016-06-01

    The diversity and population genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analysed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, and Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold coverage to identify 1,853 non-redundant CNV regions. Supported by high validation rates in array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and qPCR experiments, these CNV regions accounted for 3.1% (87.5 Mb) of the cattle reference genome, representing a significant increase over previous estimates of the area of the genome that is copy number variable (∼2%). Further population genetics and evolutionary genomics analyses based on these CNVs revealed the population structures of the cattle taurine and indicine breeds and uncovered potential diversely selected CNVs near important functional genes, including AOX1, ASZ1, GAT, GLYAT, and KRTAP9-1 Additionally, 121 CNV gene regions were found to be either breed specific or differentially variable across breeds, such as RICTOR in dairy breeds and PNPLA3 in beef breeds. In contrast, clusters of the PRP and PAG genes were found to be duplicated in all sequenced animals, suggesting that subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or overdominance play roles in diversifying those fertility-related genes. These CNV results provide a new glimpse into the diverse selection histories of cattle breeds and a basis for correlating structural variation with complex traits in the future.

  8. Cloning cattle.

    PubMed

    Oback, B; Wells, D N

    2003-01-01

    Over the past six years, hundreds of apparently normal calves have been cloned worldwide from bovine somatic donor cells. However, these surviving animals represent less than 5% of all cloned embryos transferred into recipient cows. Most of the remaining 95% die at various stages of development from a predictable pattern of placental and fetal abnormalities, collectively referred to as the "cloning-syndrome." The low efficiency seriously limits commercial applicability and ethical acceptance of somatic cloning and enforces the development of improved cloning methods. In this paper, we describe our current standard operating procedure (SOP) for cattle cloning using zona-free nuclear transfer. Following this SOP, the output of viable and healthy calves at weaning is about 9% of embryos transferred. Better standardization of cloning protocols across and within research groups is needed to separate technical from biological factors underlying low cloning efficiency.

  9. Identification of crossbred buffalo genotypes and their chromosome segregation patterns.

    PubMed

    Harisah, M; Azmi, T I; Hilmi, M; Vidyadaran, M K; Bongso, T A; Nava, Z M; Momongan, V; Basrur, P K

    1989-12-01

    Chromosome analysis on different breed types of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) was undertaken to identify their karyotypes and to determine the pattern of chromosome segregation in crossbred water buffaloes. Altogether, 75 purebred and 198 crossbred buffaloes including 118 from Malaysia and 80 from the Philippines, were analyzed in this study. The diploid chromosome number of the swamp buffalo from both countries was 48 and that of the river buffalo was 50, while all F1 hybrids exhibited 49 chromosomes. The F2 hybrids consisted of three different karyotype categories (2n = 48, 2n = 49, and 2n = 50), whereas the backcrosses included two different karyotype categories each, with 2n = 48 and 2n = 49 in the three quarters swamp types and 2n = 49 and 2n = 50 in the three quarters river types. Chi-square tests on pooled data from Malaysia and the Philippines indicated that the distribution of different karyotype categories of F2 animals did not deviate significantly from the 1:2:1 ratio expected if only balanced gametes with 24 and 25 chromosomes were produced by the F1 hybrids. In the three quarters swamp and three quarters river types, the respective karyotypic categories were in ratios approximating 1:1. The distribution of chromosome categories among the F2 hybrids and backcrosses suggests that only genetically balanced gametes of the F1 hybrids are capable of producing viable F2 and backcross generations.

  10. Genome scan for the degree of white spotting in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Harris, B; Keehan, M; Zhang, Y

    2009-12-01

    White spotting is one of the most distinguishing visual characters in dairy cattle. There is considerable variation within and between breeds of cattle. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the degree of white spotting in dairy cattle based on an F(2) experimental design using Holstein-Friesian and Jersey crossbred cows. The genome scan was implemented using half-sib and line-of-descent approaches with high density markers. Significant QTL were found on chromosomes 6, 18 and 22. The mapped region on BTA6 confirmed the widely conserved KIT locus affecting mammalian pigmentation. Haplotype information linked the highly significant QTL on BTA22 to the Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene, which has been reported to be associated with pigmentation traits in some other mammals. PMID:19531114

  11. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair. PMID:9330257

  12. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair.

  13. Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; Lucena, C; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C

    2003-01-01

    Evidence was found that supports the existence of a major gene (designated as the slick hair gene), dominant in mode of inheritance, that is responsible for producing a very short, sleek hair coat. Cattle with slick hair were observed to maintain lower rectal temperatures (RT). The gene is found in Senepol cattle and criollo (Spanish origin) breeds in Central and South America. This gene is also found in a Venezuelan composite breed, the Carora, formed from the Brown Swiss and a Venezuelan criollo breed. Two sets of backcross matings of normal-haired sire breeds to Senepol crossbred dams assumed to be heterozygous for the slick hair gene resulted in ratios of slick to normal-haired progeny that did not significantly differ from 1:1. Data from Carora x Holstein crossbred cows in Venezuela also support the concept of a major gene that is responsible for the slick hair coat of the Carora breed. Cows that were 75% Holstein: 25% Carora in breed composition segregated with a ratio that did not differ from 1:1, as would be expected from a backcross matinginvolving a dominant gene. The effect of the slick hair gene on RT depended on the degree of heat stress and appeared to be affected by age and/or lactation status. The decreased RT observed for slick-haired crossbred calves compared to normal-haired contemporaries ranged from 0.18 to 0.4 degrees C. An even larger decrease in RT (0.61 degrees C; P < 0.01) was observed in lactating Carora x Holstein F1 crossbred cows, even though it did not appear that these cows were under severe heat stress. The improved thermotolerance of crossbred calves due to their slick hair coats did not result in increased weaning weights, possibly because both the slick and normal-haired calves were being nursed by slick-haired dams. There were indications that the slick-haired calves grew faster immediately following weaning and that their growth during the cooler months of the year was not compromised significantly by their reduced quantity of

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of Taurine, Indicine, and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bull spermatozoa for identification of proteins related to sperm malfunctions and subfertility in crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Aslam, Munchakkal Kather; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Tajmul, Md; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Yadav, Savita

    2015-09-01

    Subfertility is one of the most common problems observed among Taurine × Indicine crossbred bulls in tropical countries; however, the etiology remain unknown in most of the cases. In present study, we compared the proteomic profile of spermatozoa from crossbred bulls (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) against their purebred parent lines (Holstein Friesian [Taurine] and Tharparkar [Indicine]) to find out alteration in expressions of proteins, if any. The proteomic profiles of freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from these breeds were compared by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. It was observed that compared to Holstein Friesian, nine proteins were underexpressed and eight proteins were overexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls. Similarly, four proteins were overexpressed and four proteins were underexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls compared to Tharparkar bulls. In concurrent three breed comparison, 14 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between these breeds. From the findings of the study, it is apparent that the expression levels of several functionally significant proteins are either upregulated or downregulated in spermatozoa of crossbred bulls, which might be related to high incidence of subfertility in these bulls.

  15. The Effect of Slaughter Season on the Fatty Acid Profile in Four Types of Fat Deposits in Crossbred Beef Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Wroński, Marek; Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia; Mochol, Magdalena; Rzemieniewski, Arkadiusz; Nogalski, Zenon; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Purwin, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of slaughter season on the fatty acid profile in four types of fat deposits in crossbred (Polish Holstein Friesian Black-and-White×Limousine) beef bulls. The percentage share of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography and were divided into the following categories of fatty acids: saturated (SFAs), unsaturated (UFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs), polyunsaturated (PUFAs), desirable hypocholesterolemic (DFAs) and undesirable hypercholesterolemic (OFAs), n-3 and n-6. Perinephric fat was characterized by the highest SFA concentrations (59.89%), and subcutaneous fat had the highest MUFA content (50.63%). Intramuscular fat was marked by a high percentage share of PUFAs and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. The slaughter season had a significant effect on the levels of C18:3, C20:4 (p≤0.01) and conjugated linoleic acid (p≤0.05). There was an interaction between the slaughter season and fat type for the content of C20:4 (p≤0.01) and C20:5 (p≤0.05). The results of this study show that beef from cattle slaughtered in the summer season has a higher nutritional value and more health-promoting properties. PMID:25049787

  16. Tympanic temperature in confined beef cattle exposed to excessive heat load.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L; Gaughan, J B; Johnson, L J; Hahn, G L

    2010-11-01

    Angus crossbred yearling steers (n = 168) were used to evaluate effects on performance and tympanic temperature (TT) of feeding additional potassium and sodium to steers exposed to excessive heat load (maximum daily ambient temperature exceeded 32°C for three consecutive days) during seasonal summer conditions. Steers were assigned one of four treatments: (1) control; (2) potassium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO₃); (3) sodium supplemented (diet containing 1.10% NaCl); or (4) potassium and sodium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO₃ and 1.10% NaCl). Overall, additional KHCO₃ at the 2% level or NaCl at the 1% level did not improve performance or heat stress tolerance with these diet formulations. However, the addition of KHCO₃ did enhance water intake. Independent of treatment effects, TT of cattle displaying high, moderate, or low levels of stress suggest that cattle that do not adequately cool down at night are prone to achieving greater body temperatures during a subsequent hot day. Cattle that are prone to get hot but can cool at night can keep average tympanic temperatures at or near those of cattle that tend to consistently maintain lower peak and mean body temperatures. In addition, during cooler and moderately hot periods, cattle change TT in a stair-step or incremental pattern, while under hot conditions, average TT of group-fed cattle moves in conjunction with ambient conditions, indicating that thermoregulatory mechanisms are at or near maximum physiological capacity.

  17. Tympanic temperature in confined beef cattle exposed to excessive heat load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, T. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Johnson, L. J.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Angus crossbred yearling steers ( n = 168) were used to evaluate effects on performance and tympanic temperature (TT) of feeding additional potassium and sodium to steers exposed to excessive heat load (maximum daily ambient temperature exceeded 32°C for three consecutive days) during seasonal summer conditions. Steers were assigned one of four treatments: (1) control; (2) potassium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3); (3) sodium supplemented (diet containing 1.10% NaCl); or (4) potassium and sodium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3 and 1.10% NaCl). Overall, additional KHCO3 at the 2% level or NaCl at the 1% level did not improve performance or heat stress tolerance with these diet formulations. However, the addition of KHCO3 did enhance water intake. Independent of treatment effects, TT of cattle displaying high, moderate, or low levels of stress suggest that cattle that do not adequately cool down at night are prone to achieving greater body temperatures during a subsequent hot day. Cattle that are prone to get hot but can cool at night can keep average tympanic temperatures at or near those of cattle that tend to consistently maintain lower peak and mean body temperatures. In addition, during cooler and moderately hot periods, cattle change TT in a stair-step or incremental pattern, while under hot conditions, average TT of group-fed cattle moves in conjunction with ambient conditions, indicating that thermoregulatory mechanisms are at or near maximum physiological capacity.

  18. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG<25°C = 10.66 + 0.28 × rh + 1.30 × BG - WS; and, HLI BG> 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI < 70) to extreme (HLI > 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P < 0.001) of pure bred Bos taurus and crosses of Bos taurus cattle had a panting score ≥ 2 compared to Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  19. Assessing signatures of selection through variation in linkage disequilibrium between taurine and indicine cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Signatures of selection are regions in the genome that have been preferentially increased in frequency and fixed in a population because of their functional importance in specific processes. These regions can be detected because of their lower genetic variability and specific regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns. Methods By comparing the differences in regional LD variation between dairy and beef cattle types, and between indicine and taurine subspecies, we aim at finding signatures of selection for production and adaptation in cattle breeds. The VarLD method was applied to compare the LD variation in the autosomal genome between breeds, including Angus and Brown Swiss, representing taurine breeds, and Nelore and Gir, representing indicine breeds. Genomic regions containing the top 0.01 and 0.1 percentile of signals were characterized using the UMD3.1 Bos taurus genome assembly to identify genes in those regions and compared with previously reported selection signatures and regions with copy number variation. Results For all comparisons, the top 0.01 and 0.1 percentile included 26 and 165 signals and 17 and 125 genes, respectively, including TECRL, BT.23182 or FPPS, CAST, MYOM1, UVRAG and DNAJA1. Conclusions The VarLD method is a powerful tool to identify differences in linkage disequilibrium between cattle populations and putative signatures of selection with potential adaptive and productive importance. PMID:24592996

  20. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations. PMID:26925373

  1. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations.

  2. Puberty in South American Bos indicus (Zebu) cattle.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, G P

    2004-07-01

    Puberty in Zebu heifers follows a pattern characterized by a decrease in the steroid feedback mechanism and an increase in LH concentration, which result in the first ovulation followed by a short estrous cycle and the onset of normal cycles thereafter. These events are similar to those observed in Bos taurus cattle but occur at a later age. The late onset of puberty is both genetic and environmental in origin and is reflected by the age at first calving that can be at 40 months of age or older in these animals. Age at puberty in Zebu heifers has been shown to have a high heritability. Consequently, selecting precocious heifers may be an effective means of reducing age at puberty in these animals and this approach is being adopted in commercial practice. Genetic selection is not the sole solution to the problem because environmental improvements are necessary, particularly in terms of improved nutrition. South American Zebu cattle are usually subject to sub-optimum nutritional and management conditions and, hence, exhibit late onset of puberty. Hybrids of Zebu and Bos taurus cattle exhibit heterosis in respect of the age of puberty with earlier onset than expected in crossbred animals. Recently, purebred South American Zebu cattle have been shown to have Bos taurus genes, indicating that there have been previous attempts to improve their productivity using this approach. It was concluded that the age at first calving in South American Zebu cattle can be reduced by exposing well-fed, yearling heifers to bulls and selecting, over several generations, those animals that become pregnant at an early age.

  3. Meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in cattle of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Luciano A; Dantas, Antônio Flávio M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2012-10-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is an acute disease of the central nervous system of humans and animals caused by Naegleria fowleri. This report describes a case of meningoencephalitis caused by N. fowleri in a crossbred, one-year-old bovine with progressive neurological signs. At necropsy there was thickening of the meninges and multifocal areas of malacia in the thalamus, caudal and rostral colliculi, parietal and occipital cortex, and cerebellum. Histologically there was multifocal necrosupurative meningoencephalitis associated with areas of malacia containing amoebic trophozoites. Immunohistochemistry of the brain was positive for N. fowleri. The disease should be included among the differential diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system in cattle in areas where animals are exposed to hot, stagnant water.

  4. Accuracy of genomic prediction using deregressed breeding values estimated from purebred and crossbred offspring phenotypes in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, A M; Bastiaansen, J W M; Lopes, M S; Veroneze, R; Groenen, M A M; de Koning, D-J

    2015-07-01

    Genomic selection is applied to dairy cattle breeding to improve the genetic progress of purebred (PB) animals, whereas in pigs and poultry the target is a crossbred (CB) animal for which a different strategy appears to be needed. The source of information used to estimate the breeding values, i.e., using phenotypes of CB or PB animals, may affect the accuracy of prediction. The objective of our study was to assess the direct genomic value (DGV) accuracy of CB and PB pigs using different sources of phenotypic information. Data used were from 3 populations: 2,078 Dutch Landrace-based, 2,301 Large White-based, and 497 crossbreds from an F1 cross between the 2 lines. Two female reproduction traits were analyzed: gestation length (GLE) and total number of piglets born (TNB). Phenotypes used in the analyses originated from offspring of genotyped individuals. Phenotypes collected on CB and PB animals were analyzed as separate traits using a single-trait model. Breeding values were estimated separately for each trait in a pedigree BLUP analysis and subsequently deregressed. Deregressed EBV for each trait originating from different sources (CB or PB offspring) were used to study the accuracy of genomic prediction. Accuracy of prediction was computed as the correlation between DGV and the DEBV of the validation population. Accuracy of prediction within PB populations ranged from 0.43 to 0.62 across GLE and TNB. Accuracies to predict genetic merit of CB animals with one PB population in the training set ranged from 0.12 to 0.28, with the exception of using the CB offspring phenotype of the Dutch Landrace that resulted in an accuracy estimate around 0 for both traits. Accuracies to predict genetic merit of CB animals with both parental PB populations in the training set ranged from 0.17 to 0.30. We conclude that prediction within population and trait had good predictive ability regardless of the trait being the PB or CB performance, whereas using PB population(s) to predict

  5. [Cholesterol content in longissimus muscle beef from slaughter cattle in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Huerta Leidenz, N; Ruíz Ramírez, J L; Arenas Moreno, L; Jerez Timaure, N; Márquez, E; Muñoz, B

    1996-12-01

    An observational study was conducted with 149 cattle, raised under tropical conditions of Venezuela (mostly grassfed), to study the relationships of sex class (62 bulls, 67 steers, 20 heifers), age by dentition (2.5; 3.0; 3.5 and 4.0 yr), physiological maturity (A or B), cattle type (17 Dairy or 132 Zebu type crossbreds), Venezuelan carcass grade (Optima, Excelente, Selecta or Superior), marbling level (four levels from "None" to "Small quantity"), carcass fat cover (four level: "Even", "Uneven", "patch-like" and "Devoid") and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) over the ribeye (1 = 0.1-0.2 cm; 2 = 0.3-0.4 cm; 3 = 0.5-0.9 cm and 4 = > 1.0 cm) on cholesterol content (mg/ 100 g wet weight) of longissimus muscle. Cholesterol content, as determined colormetrically, did not vary in response to the differences in sex class, age, maturity level, carcass grade, marbling level or SFT represented in the present survey. However, cattle type affected (P = 0.08) cholesterol content. Least square means analysis showed that dairy type contained 12.2 mg more of cholesterol/100 g of muscle than Zebu type. The overall mean (+/- SD) muscle cholesterol for the kind of cattle sampled herein (66.6 +/- 16 mg/100 g) was not considered to be different from those of cattle fed in other latitudes.

  6. Mitochondrial complex I protein differs among residual feed intake phenotype in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M H; Kerley, M S

    2013-07-01

    Four experiments were performed to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) was related to mitochondrial complex I (CI) protein. For Exp. 1, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 270 ± 2.0 kg) were fed for a total of 170 d (n = 72). For Exp. 2, crossbred Braunvieh steers (initial BW 280 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 150 d (n = 50). For Exp. 3, crossbred Braunvieh heifers (initial BW 260 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). For Exp. 4, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 290 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). All cattle in all experiments were fed the same diet. The variable RFI was calculated as the difference between predicted and actual DMI. Predicted DMI was calculated from regressing intake on ADG and metabolic body weight. Blood was collected, lymphocytes were isolated, and antibody used to capture CI. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI quantity was measured using an ELISA commercial kit (Mitosciences, OR). For Exp. 4, CI subunits were separated by gel electrophoresis and bands were analyzed for differences in concentration (absorbance) among RFI phenotypes. For all 4 experiments, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between RFI and DMI but no difference (P > 0.05) was reported for ADG and metabolic midweight. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI concentration in mitochondria was greater (P < 0.05) for low RFI compared with other treatments. For Exp. 4, animals with low RFI had a trend (P = 0.07) for greater concentration of Band I (protein S1) than high RFI. Correlation between RFI and Band I was -0.72 (P = 0.04). We concluded that mitochondrial function was at least in part responsible for differences among animals in metabolic efficiency.

  7. Breed effects on crossbred cow-calf performance.

    PubMed

    Setshwaelo, L L; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1990-06-01

    Effects of seven breeds of cow's sire and 12 breeds of cow's maternal grandsire on preweaning performance of crossbred cows and their calves were examined in data from two experiments conducted at the Roman L. Hruska U.S. Mean Animal Research Center. Data included 1,836 records over three to five parities for 516 cows by 143 sires and by 307 maternal grandsires. The statistical model fitted effects of calf sex, parity, cow birth-breeding year or cow-calf birth year, the breed effects and their interactions. Deviations of breed of sire or equivalent grandsire effects on each trait from the mean for Hereford x Angus cows ranged from -1.6 to 5.5 kg (P less than .001) for calf birth weights, -15 to 1% (P less than .001) for calving difficulty, nonsignificant for preweaning calf mortality and -2 to 27 kg (P less than .001) for calf weaning weight. Deviations were nonsignificant for conception rate and calves weaned per cow exposed to breeding, but -2 to 40 kg (P less than .001) for calf weight weaned per cow exposed for breeding, -7 to 78 kg (P less than .001) for cow weight and -20 to 2% (P less than .001) for body condition score. The advantages of Holstein and Brahman cross over Hereford x Angus cows of 23 and 13% in weight of calf weaned/cow-breeding exposure must be compared with the expected greater feed requirements from 7 or 8% heavier cows and at least 50% higher milk production, which emphasizes the need to include input measures and costs in breed evaluation schemes. PMID:2384359

  8. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A S; Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Raadsma, Herman W

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed "selection signatures". This article reviews 64 recent (2009-2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  9. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed “selection signatures”. This article reviews 64 recent (2009–2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  10. Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn and other types of cattle.

    PubMed

    Adams, N J; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L

    1982-07-01

    Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn steers were compared with those of cattle currently popular in the United States-Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Holstein, two-breed crossbred (British beef breed crosses) and three-breed crossbred (1 4 dairy , 1 4 British beef and 1 2 European beef ) steers. Steers were fed roughage, then a growing diet (42 days), then a high energy (89% concentrate) diet (153 to 179 days by breed group) and slaughtered, individually, at USDA Choice finish or, failing that, after 186 days on the finishing diet. Data suggest that Longhorns, compared with types of cattle currently used: (1) are less desirable in physical appearance; (2) gain weight less rapidly, reaching the desired finish and slaughter weight as older animals; (3) convert feed to liveweight less efficiently; (4) deposit less subcutaneous fat, more internal fat, but essentially the same amount of intramuscular fat; (5) are as muscular (longissimus muscle area, estimated percentage of carcass muscle, muscle to bone ratio, muscle to fat ratio); (6) are as desirable in USDA quality grade and yield grade and (7) produce beef that is a palatable. PMID:22055071

  11. Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn and other types of cattle.

    PubMed

    Adams, N J; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L

    1982-07-01

    Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn steers were compared with those of cattle currently popular in the United States-Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Holstein, two-breed crossbred (British beef breed crosses) and three-breed crossbred (1 4 dairy , 1 4 British beef and 1 2 European beef ) steers. Steers were fed roughage, then a growing diet (42 days), then a high energy (89% concentrate) diet (153 to 179 days by breed group) and slaughtered, individually, at USDA Choice finish or, failing that, after 186 days on the finishing diet. Data suggest that Longhorns, compared with types of cattle currently used: (1) are less desirable in physical appearance; (2) gain weight less rapidly, reaching the desired finish and slaughter weight as older animals; (3) convert feed to liveweight less efficiently; (4) deposit less subcutaneous fat, more internal fat, but essentially the same amount of intramuscular fat; (5) are as muscular (longissimus muscle area, estimated percentage of carcass muscle, muscle to bone ratio, muscle to fat ratio); (6) are as desirable in USDA quality grade and yield grade and (7) produce beef that is a palatable.

  12. Muscle protein turnover in cattle of differing genetic backgrounds as measured by urinary N tau-methylhistidine excretion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, F.D.; Bergen, W.G.; Hawkins, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    N tau-methylhistidine (N tau MH) was used as an index for muscle protein degradation and this index was utilized to evaluate degradation rates in young growing cattle. Initially, two Charolais crossbred heifers, 12 months of age, were used to measure the recovery of radioactivity in the urine for a 120-hour period after intravenous injection of (/sup 14/C)N tau MH. Of the radioactivity injected into the animals, 89.7% was recovered after 120 hours. With rate and amount of clearance as the criteria, the excretion of N tau MH in urine appears to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in cattle. Eight steers of two genetic types were used to evaluate the effect of frame size on turnover rates of muscle proteins with N tau MH as an index. Large frame cattle (LG) excreted more N tau MH per day throughout the trial. Total daily creatinine excretion was less for small frame (SM) cattle showing an increase with time in LG and SM cattle. N tau MH-to-creatinine ratios showed a decline with time. Fractional breakdown rates (FBR) and fractional synthesis rates (FSR) appeared to parallel each other with rates tending to decrease with age. No differences were observed between LG and SM cattle for FBR, FSR or fractional growth rate (FGR).

  13. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  14. Current status and its epidemiological consideration of Fasciola and Eurytrema infections in beef cattle of Japan

    PubMed Central

    OKAJIMA, Jungo; SHIBATA, Kazuhiko; TAKAHASHI, Eiichi; NAGAFUCHI, Tsuneyuki; OKAJIMA, Kazue; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one’s own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence. PMID:26822002

  15. Accuracy of genomic predictions for feed efficiency traits of beef cattle using 50K and imputed HD genotypes.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Akanno, E C; Crowley, J J; Schenkel, F; Li, H; De Pauw, M; Moore, S S; Wang, Z; Li, C; Stothard, P; Plastow, G; Miller, S P; Basarab, J A

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of genomic predictions can be used to assess the utility of dense marker genotypes for genetic improvement of beef efficiency traits. This study was designed to test the impact of genomic distance between training and validation populations, training population size, statistical methods, and density of genetic markers on prediction accuracy for feed efficiency traits in multibreed and crossbred beef cattle. A total of 6,794 beef cattle data collated from various projects and research herds across Canada were used. Illumina BovineSNP50 (50K) and imputed Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array (HD) genotypes were available for all animals. The traits studied were DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI). Four validation groups of 150 animals each, including Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), Angus-Hereford crosses (ANHH), and a Charolais-based composite (TX) were created by considering the genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the validation groups. Each validation group had 7 corresponding training groups of increasing sizes ( = 1,000, 1,999, 2,999, 3,999, 4,999, 5,998, and 6,644), which also represent increasing average genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the training and validations groups. Prediction of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) was performed using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian method C (BayesC). The accuracy of genomic predictions was defined as the Pearson's correlation between adjusted phenotype and GEBV (), unless otherwise stated. Using 50K genotypes, the highest average achieved in purebreds (AN, CH) was 0.41 for DMI, 0.34 for ADG, and 0.35 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.21 for ADG, and 0.25 for RFI. Similarly, when imputed HD genotypes were applied in purebreds (AN, CH), the highest average was 0.14 for DMI, 0.15 for ADG, and 0.14 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.22 for ADG, and 0.24 for RFI. The of GBLUP predictions were

  16. Polymorphism of bovine Y-STR UMN0929 and its correlation with carcass traits in five Chinese beef cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Xin, Y P; Zan, L S; Wang, Y H; Liu, Y F; Tian, W Q; Fan, Y Y

    2011-01-01

    The correlations between Y chromosome polymorphisms and the carcass traits were studied in five Chinese beef cattle populations by PCR, single strand conformation polymorphism and Y-STR sequence analysis. Nine alleles and their frequencies were identified on Y-STR UMN0929 region in Qinchuan (n=116), Luxi (n=112), Jinnan (n=104) pure breeds, Simmental×Qinchuan crossbred (n=80) and Angus×Qinchuan crossbred (n=96). The most popular A-176 and B-178 alleles were presented in all 5 cattle populations in the range of 12% (Jinnan) to 66% (Simmental×Qinchuan). The allele I-194 presented Luxi and Angus×Qinchuan. In Qinchun cattle, G-190 and E-186 alleles had bigger effect on BPI (4.23±0.32 and 4.22±0.48 kg/cm, P<0.01) and CW (325.40±49.42 and 316.73±45.29 kg, P<0.01), respectively. In Luxi cattle, I-194 allele affected higher BPI (4.08±0.35 kg/cm, P<0.01) and CW (302.07±17.55 kg, P<0.01), respectively. In Jinnan cattle breed, H-192 had higher BPI (4.32±0.50 kg/cm, P<0.05) and CW (327.87±59.37 kg, P<0.05), respectively. In Simmental×Qinchuan cross breed, C-180 allele affected largely on BPI (5.16±0.25 kg/cm, P<0.05) and CW (393.16±25.92 kg, P<0.05). In Angus×Qinchuan cross breed, I-194 had higher BPI (4.43±0.33 kg, P<0.05) and CW (346.63±29.77 kg, P<0.05). Correlations between alleles and other carcass traits (net meat weight, top grade weight, slaughter rate, net meat rate, loin-eye muscle area, carcass length, meet tenderness and shear force) were also analyzed using mixed-effect model. Cattle Y-STR UMN0929 loci alleles and its correlation with carcass traits in beef cattle populations could be implemented into the cattle breeding program for choosing beef cattle with better carcass traits.

  17. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W; McFadin, E L; MacNeil, M D; Grings, E E; Short, R E; Funston, R N; Keisler, D H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict carcass composition and merit in feedlot finished cattle. Two different groups of crossbred Bos taurus steers and heifers were managed under feedlot conditions near Miles City, MT. The first group consisted of 88 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise composite gene combination steers (CGC) harvested at the ConAgra processing facility in Greeley, CO. The second group (Lean Beef Project; LB) consisted of 91 F2 steers and heifers born to Limousin, Hereford, or Piedmontese by CGC F1 cows crossed to F1 bulls of similar breed composition and harvested at a local processing facility in Miles City, MT. Blood samples were collected approximately 24 h before harvest (CGC) or approximately 3 d before and at harvest (LB). No differences in serum concentrations of leptin were detected (P > 0.10) between Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese F2 calves nor between LB steers and heifers. Positive correlations (P < 0.01) existed between serum leptin and marbling score (r = 0.35 and 0.50), fat depth measured between the 12th and 13th rib (r = 0.34 and 0.46), kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH) (r = 0.42 and 0.46), and quality grade (r = 0.36 and 0.49) in CGC and LB cattle, respectively. Serum leptin was also positively correlated with calculated yield grade for CGC steers (r = 0. 19; P = 0. 10) and LB cattle (r = 0.52; P < 0.01). Longissimus area was not correlated with serum leptin in CGC steers (r = 0.12; P > 0.10). However, a negative correlation existed between longissimus area and serum leptin in the LB cattle (r = -0.45; P < 0.01). Serum concentrations of leptin were significantly associated with carcass composition (marbling, back fat depth, and KPH fat) and quality grade in both groups of cattle studied and may provide an additional indicator of fat content in feedlot cattle. PMID:12597366

  18. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  19. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mend...

  20. Dose dependent effect of GnRH analogue on pregnancy rate of repeat breeder crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Kharche, S D; Srivastava, S K

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treating repeat breeder dairy crossbred cows with different doses of GnRH analogue through i.m. at the time of artificial insemination, on pregnancy rates from their first service after treatment and overall pregnancy rates. One hundred and thirty seven crossbred dairy cows with a history of repeat breeding and eligible after 6-8 infertile services but clinically free of diseases were selected for the study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 55) cows were treated intramuscularly with each 20 microg Buserelin-acetate (Receptal, Hoechst Roussel Vet GmbH) at the time of artificial insemination. Group 2 (n = 40) cows were treated intramuscularly with each 10 microg Buserelin-acetate at the time of artificial insemination. Group 3 (n = 42) cows were treated intramuscularly with saline as control at the time of artificial insemination. The first service pregnancy rates in Groups 1-3 were 45, 25 and 17%, respectively. Similarly, the overall conception rates in Groups 1-3 were 87, 58 and 48%, respectively. The results indicated that the pregnancy rate in crossbred cows could be improved by the GnRH treatment. The higher dose of GnRH significantly increased (P < 0.05) the first service as well as overall pregnancy rate in a dose dependent manner in repeat breeder crossbred cow bred previously 6-8 times unsuccessfully. PMID:16787717

  1. Ammonium acid urate calculi in a cross-bred yorkshire terrier.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, R; Harley, E H; Rousseau, J W

    1981-06-01

    The history, clinical signs and pathological findings are described in a cross-bred Yorkshire Terrier which developed renal failure subsequent to the development of renal calculi. These calculi were found to consist of ammonium urate, a rare form of calculi in non-Dalmatian dogs.

  2. Effect of increased systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

  3. Estrus response and fertility of Menz and crossbred ewes to single prostaglandin injection protocol.

    PubMed

    Mekuriaw, Zeleke; Assefa, Habtemariam; Tegegne, Azage; Muluneh, Dagne

    2016-01-01

    Natural lambing in sheep in Ethiopia occurs throughout the year in a scattered manner negatively affecting survival and growth rates of the lambs born during the unfavorable season of the year. Thus, controlling the time of mating artificially using exogenous source of hormones is considered as one of the ways to mitigated problems related to haphazard lambing. To this end, an experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin-based estrus synchronization protocol in local and crossbred ewes. A total of 160 ewes (80 local and 80 crossbreds) which lambed at least once and aged 3-5 years were used. Lutalyse® (dinoprost tromethamine sterile solution equivalent to 5 mg dinoprost per ml) and its analog, Synchromate® (cloprostenol sodium equivalent to 0.250 mg cloprostenol per ml), were tested at different doses. The treatments used were intramuscular injection of (1) 2.50 ml of Lutalyse® (12.5 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (2) 2 ml of Lutalyse® (10.0 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (3) 1 ml of Synchromate® (0.25 mg of cloprostenol Sodium), and (4) 0.8 ml of Synchromate® (0.20 mg of cloprostenol Sodium). Forty ewes (20 local and 20 crossbreds) were allocated per treatment. Following injection of the respective hormones, rams of known fertility were introduced into the flock for the duration of 96 h at the ratio of one ram to 10 ewes. All estrus synchronization protocols except treatment 4 (0.8 ml of Synchromate®) induced estrus (heat) in majority (55-65%) of local and crossbred ewes within 96 h post-hormone injection. The time interval from hormone administration to onset of estrus was also more or less similar for all treatment groups except for treatment group 4 which showed heat quicker. The highest lambing rate was recorded in local ewes (84.62% (11/13) treated with 2.5 ml of Lutalyse®, whereas the least was obtained in crossbreds (33.33% (3/9) treated with 0.8 ml Synchromate®. In conclusion, even though 2.5 ml and 2 ml of Lutalyse® or 1 ml of

  4. Estrus response and fertility of Menz and crossbred ewes to single prostaglandin injection protocol.

    PubMed

    Mekuriaw, Zeleke; Assefa, Habtemariam; Tegegne, Azage; Muluneh, Dagne

    2016-01-01

    Natural lambing in sheep in Ethiopia occurs throughout the year in a scattered manner negatively affecting survival and growth rates of the lambs born during the unfavorable season of the year. Thus, controlling the time of mating artificially using exogenous source of hormones is considered as one of the ways to mitigated problems related to haphazard lambing. To this end, an experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin-based estrus synchronization protocol in local and crossbred ewes. A total of 160 ewes (80 local and 80 crossbreds) which lambed at least once and aged 3-5 years were used. Lutalyse® (dinoprost tromethamine sterile solution equivalent to 5 mg dinoprost per ml) and its analog, Synchromate® (cloprostenol sodium equivalent to 0.250 mg cloprostenol per ml), were tested at different doses. The treatments used were intramuscular injection of (1) 2.50 ml of Lutalyse® (12.5 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (2) 2 ml of Lutalyse® (10.0 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (3) 1 ml of Synchromate® (0.25 mg of cloprostenol Sodium), and (4) 0.8 ml of Synchromate® (0.20 mg of cloprostenol Sodium). Forty ewes (20 local and 20 crossbreds) were allocated per treatment. Following injection of the respective hormones, rams of known fertility were introduced into the flock for the duration of 96 h at the ratio of one ram to 10 ewes. All estrus synchronization protocols except treatment 4 (0.8 ml of Synchromate®) induced estrus (heat) in majority (55-65%) of local and crossbred ewes within 96 h post-hormone injection. The time interval from hormone administration to onset of estrus was also more or less similar for all treatment groups except for treatment group 4 which showed heat quicker. The highest lambing rate was recorded in local ewes (84.62% (11/13) treated with 2.5 ml of Lutalyse®, whereas the least was obtained in crossbreds (33.33% (3/9) treated with 0.8 ml Synchromate®. In conclusion, even though 2.5 ml and 2 ml of Lutalyse® or 1 ml of

  5. Diversity and fluctuation in ciliate protozoan population in the rumen of cattle.

    PubMed

    Abrar, Arfan; Watanabe, Haruki; Kitamura, Tasuku; Kondo, Makoto; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Matsui, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity and fluctuation in the ciliate protozoan population in the rumen of cattle. DNA was extracted from the rumen of three ruminally cannulated, crossbred cattle and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-derived clone library was constructed, using a specific primer set targeting 18S ribosomal RNA genes of ciliate protozoa. DNA fragments of seven selected clones were validated for standard DNA of the protozoa-specific real-time PCR assay. Furthermore, population fluctuation of ciliate protozoa and methanogens in the cattle rumen was determined by real-time PCR. A total of 60 clones were sequenced, phylogenetically analyzed, and classified into 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on a 99% similarity criterion. More than 80% sequences were phylogenetically placed in the genus Entodinium. The rest of the sequences were placed in the genus Diploplastron (5%), Dasytricha (8.3%) and Isotricha (3.3%). The results suggest that Entodinium was the dominant group in the rumen of cattle used in this study. The ciliate protozoan population showed no significant change in numbers during the monitoring period and reached a peak at 3 h after feeding. Changes in the protozoa population were lower than those of the methanogens.

  6. Reproductive performance and survival of Holstein and Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Knob, Deise Aline; Alessio, Dileta Regina Moro; Thaler Neto, Andre; Mozzaquatro, Fabrício Desconsi

    2016-10-01

    Crossbreed dairy breeds, such as Holstein × dairy type of Simmental, have been generally used to improve fertility, udder health, and longevity of dairy herds. The aim was to compare the reproductive performance and survival of Holstein and Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows. Data from two farms were used as follows: one located in Bom Retiro, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. and another in Carambeí, Paraná state. Information concerning birth, inseminations, and parity date were obtained from the management software of the farms, generating information regarding the calving interval, days between calving to first service, conception rate, and age at first calving. At one of the farms, calving was monitoring to quantify dystocia. Live weight as well as body condition score (BCS) of cows and information of culling were obtained to determine the survival rate. Data were analyzed by variance analysis and by logistic regression. Crossbred Holstein × Simmental cows had better reproductive performance than the Holstein cows, characterized by lower calving interval (381 vs. 445 days), higher conception rate (37.3 vs. 33.6 %), and shorter calving to first service interval (65 vs. 89 days). These results were related to a higher BCS in crossbred cows (3.63 vs. 2.94 points). Crossbred Holstein × Simmental cows had higher survival rate than Holstein cows on the second parity (83 vs. 92 %). No differences between genetic groups were observed (P > 0.05) for body weight and dystocia. In conclusion, Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows have better reproductive performance and higher survival rate than Holstein cows.

  7. Effect of nutrient intake on intramuscular glucose metabolism during the early growth stage in cross-bred steers (Japanese Black male × Holstein female).

    PubMed

    Ebara, F; Inada, S; Morikawa, M; Asaoka, S-H; Isozaki, Y; Saito, A; Etoh, T; Shiotsuka, Y; Roh, S G; Wegner, J; Gotoh, T

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the impact of nutrient intake during the early growth period on the expression of glucose metabolism-related genes in skeletal muscle of cross-bred cattle. From 1.5 to 5 months of age, group H (n=7) animals were intensively fed a high-protein and low-fat milk replacer [crude protein (CP) 28%; ether extracts (EE) 18%; max: 2.0 kg, 12 l/day], and group R (n=7) animals were fed a restricted amount of normal milk replacer (CP 25%; EE 23%; max 0.5 kg, 4 l/day). From 6 to 10 months of age, group H cattle were fed a high-nutrition total mixed ration mainly prepared from grain feed, and group R cattle were fed only roughage. Blood samples were taken from each animal at three biopsy times (1.5, 5 and 10 months of age), and the blood plasma concentration of glucose and insulin was analysed. In glucose concentration, there were no significant differences; however, the concentrations of insulin were higher in group H than in group R at 5 and 10 months of age. Muscle samples were taken by biopsy from longissimus thoracis muscle (LT) at 1.5, 5 and 10 months of age. We analysed mRNA expression levels using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4), insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), hexokinase 1 (HK1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Although no differences were detected at 1.5 and 5 months of age, at 10 months of age, GLUT1, HK1 and TNFα mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in group H than in group R. These results suggested Glut1 that affects insulin-independently mediated glucose uptake was more responsive to improved nutrition during early growth stage than GLUT4 that insulin-dependently mediated glucose uptake in LT of cattle.

  8. Two novel polymorphisms of bovine SIRT2 gene are associated with higher body weight in Nanyang cattle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaomei; Li, Mingxun; Hao, Dan; Hua, Liushuai; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Hu, Shenrong; Qi, Xinglei; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Identification of polymorphisms associated with economic traits is important for successful marker-assisted selection in cattle breeding. The family of mammalian sirtuin regulates many biological functions, such as life span extension and energy metabolism. SIRT2, a most abundant sirtuin in adipocytes, acts as a crucial regulator of adipogenic differentiation and plays a key role in controlling adipose tissue function and mass. Here we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of bovine SIRT2 in 1226 cattle from five breeds and further evaluated the effects of identified SNPs on economically important traits of Nanyang cattle. Our results revealed four novel SNPs in bovine SIRT2, one was located in intronic region and the other three were synonymous mutations. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analyses based on the identified SNPs showed obvious difference between crossbred breed and the other four beef breeds. Association analyses demonstrated that SNPs g.17333C > T and g.17578A > G have a significantly effect on 18-months-old body weight of Nanyang population. Animals with combined genotype TTGG at the above two loci exhibited especially higher body weight. Our data for the first time demonstrated that polymorphisms in bovine SIRT2 are associated with economic traits of Nanyang cattle, which will be helpful for future cattle selection practices.

  9. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of variation for temperament traits in this herd, or that calves became accustomed to the level of handling pre- and postweaning, thus decreasing behavioral differences among them. PMID:19684277

  10. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 578 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman...

  11. Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins for calving traits, body weight, backfat thickness, fertility, and body measurements.

    PubMed

    Blöttner, S; Heins, B J; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Hansen, L B; Swalve, H H

    2011-02-01

    Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred cows and pure Holstein cows were compared in a designed experiment. All cows were housed in a freestall barn at the experimental station of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, and calved from July 2005 to August 2008. Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred cows were mated to Holstein AI bulls for first calving and mated to Fleckvieh artificial insemination (AI) bulls for second and third calvings. Pure Holstein cows were consistently mated to Holstein AI bulls. At first calving, Holstein-sired calves from Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred dams (282 d) had longer gestation length than Holstein-sired calves from Holstein dams (280 d). For second and third calvings, gestation length was significantly longer for Fleckvieh-sired calves from Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred dams (284 d) than for Holstein-sired calves from Holstein dams (278 d). Holstein-sired calves from Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred dams (43 kg) and Holstein-sired calves from pure Holstein dams (42 kg) were not significantly different for calf weight at birth for first calving. For second and third calvings, Fleckvieh-sired calves from Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred dams (50 kg) had significantly heavier calf weight at birth than Holstein-sired calves from pure Holstein dams (44 kg). For calving difficulty and stillbirth, Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred cows were not different from pure Holstein cows at first calving or at second and third calving. Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred cows (71 d) were not significantly different from pure Holstein cows (75 d) for days to first breeding during first lactation; however, Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred cows (81 d) had significantly fewer days to first breeding than pure Holstein cows (89 d) during second lactation, and the crossbred cows (85 d) tended to have fewer days to first breeding than pure Holstein cows (92 d) during third lactation. For days open, Brown Swiss × Holstein crossbred cows were not

  12. Expression of immune response genes in peripheral blood of cattle infested with Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Domingues, R; Wohlres-Viana, S; Reis, D R L; Teixeira, H C; Ferreira, A P; Guimarães, S E F; Prata, M C A; Furlong, J; Verneque, R S; Machado, M A

    2014-01-01

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus microplus is responsible for severe economic losses in tropical cattle production. Bos indicus breeds are more resistant to tick infestations than are Bos taurus breeds, and the understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in this difference is important for the development of new methods of parasite control. We evaluated differences in the transcript expression of genes related to the immune response in the peripheral blood of cattle previously characterized as resistant or susceptible to tick infestation. Crossbreed F2 Gir x Holstein animals (resistant, N = 6; susceptible, N = 6) were artificially submitted to tick infestation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h after tick infestation and evaluated for transcript expression of the CD25, CXCL8, CXCL10, FoxP3, interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) genes. Gene expression of CD25 (6.00, P < 0.01), IL-10 (31.62, P < 0.01), FoxP3 (35.48, P < 0.01), and CXCL10 (3.38, P < 0.05) was altered in the resistant group at 48 h compared with samples collected before infestation. In the susceptible group, CXCL8 (-2.02, P < 0.05) and CXCL10 (2.20, P < 0.05) showed altered expression 24 h after infestation. CXCL8 (-5.78, P < 0.05) also showed altered expression at 48 h after infestation when compared with samples collected before infestation. We detected a correlation between T γδ cell activity and the immunological mechanisms that result in a higher resistance to R. microplus in cattle. PMID:24938612

  13. Expression of immune response genes in peripheral blood of cattle infested with Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Domingues, R; Wohlres-Viana, S; Reis, D R L; Teixeira, H C; Ferreira, A P; Guimarães, S E F; Prata, M C A; Furlong, J; Verneque, R S; Machado, M A

    2014-01-01

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus microplus is responsible for severe economic losses in tropical cattle production. Bos indicus breeds are more resistant to tick infestations than are Bos taurus breeds, and the understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in this difference is important for the development of new methods of parasite control. We evaluated differences in the transcript expression of genes related to the immune response in the peripheral blood of cattle previously characterized as resistant or susceptible to tick infestation. Crossbreed F2 Gir x Holstein animals (resistant, N = 6; susceptible, N = 6) were artificially submitted to tick infestation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h after tick infestation and evaluated for transcript expression of the CD25, CXCL8, CXCL10, FoxP3, interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) genes. Gene expression of CD25 (6.00, P < 0.01), IL-10 (31.62, P < 0.01), FoxP3 (35.48, P < 0.01), and CXCL10 (3.38, P < 0.05) was altered in the resistant group at 48 h compared with samples collected before infestation. In the susceptible group, CXCL8 (-2.02, P < 0.05) and CXCL10 (2.20, P < 0.05) showed altered expression 24 h after infestation. CXCL8 (-5.78, P < 0.05) also showed altered expression at 48 h after infestation when compared with samples collected before infestation. We detected a correlation between T γδ cell activity and the immunological mechanisms that result in a higher resistance to R. microplus in cattle.

  14. Effects of timing and duration of dietary vitamin A reduction on carcass quality of finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, C L; Loerch, S C; Fluharty, F L

    2012-08-01

    Two feedlot studies were conducted to investigate the timing and duration of supplemental vitamin A withdrawal from feedlot cattle (Bos taurus) diets to reduce intramuscular adipose tissue vitamin A concentration and improve carcass quality. In Exp. 1, Angus crossbred steers (n = 84, BW = 211 ± 4 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments: no supplemental vitamin A for 227 d, no supplemental vitamin A for 112 d followed by 115 d of supplemental vitamin A, supplemental vitamin A for 112 d followed by no supplemental vitamin A for 115 d, or supplemental vitamin A for 227 d. In Exp. 2, Angus crossbred steers (n = 80, BW = 210 ± 5 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments: early weaning with or without supplemental vitamin A, and traditional weaning with or without supplemental vitamin A. In both experiments, serum vitamin A concentrations were greatest (P < 0.05) 56 d after cattle were weaned and placed in the feedlot, regardless of feedlot dietary vitamin A concentration. Hepatic vitamin A stores were dramatically decreased (P < 0.05) in the first 56 d and remained depressed as long as steers were not supplemented with vitamin A. At the end of the finishing period, vitamin A concentrations were less in intramuscular than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Growth was not affected by finishing cattle without supplemental dietary vitamin A (P > 0.10). Dietary vitamin A supplementation did not affect USDA yield grades. However, in Exp. 2, cattle without supplemental vitamin A had greater (P < 0.001) ether extractable lipid in the LM. Ether extractable lipid in the LM or marbling scores were enhanced when intramuscular adipose tissue vitamin A concentration was reduced in response to feeding diets without supplemental vitamin A.

  15. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katrina M.; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A.; Barrs, Vanessa R.; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. PMID:24620003

  16. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  17. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: I. Estimation of model parameters.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Breed parameters for a computer model that simulated differences in the composition of empty-body gain of beef cattle, resulting from differences in postweaning level of nutrition that are not associated with empty BW, were estimated for 17 biological types of cattle (steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds [Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise] mated to Hereford and Angus dams). One value for the maximum fractional growth rate of fat-free matter (KMAX) was estimated and used across all breed types. Mature fat-free matter (FFMmat) was estimated from data on mature cows for each of the 17 breed types. Breed type values for a fattening parameter (THETA) were estimated from growth and composition data at slaughter on steers of the 17 breed types, using the previously estimated constant KMAX and breed values for FFMmat. For each breed type, THETA values were unique for given values of KMAX, FFMmat, and composition at slaughter. The results showed that THETA was most sensitive to KMAX and had similar sensitivity to FFMmat and composition at slaughter. Values for THETA were most sensitive for breed types with large THETA values (Chianina, Charolais, and Limousin crossbred steers) and least sensitive for breed types with small THETA values (purebred Angus, crossbred Jersey, and Red Poll steers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7607999

  18. Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Calvo, M S; Place, S E; Armitage, T L; Pan, Y; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M

    2013-11-01

    Increased animal productivity has the potential to reduce the environmental impact per unit of consumable product and is believed to be the most promising and sustainable mitigation technique to meet increasing demand for high quality protein. The feedlot industry uses ionophores, antibiotics, growth implants, and β2-adrenergic agonists to improve health and growth performance of cattle. These technologies not only increase productivity but also alter microbes in the rumen and increase nitrogen retention in the animal, which may lead to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG), volatile organic compound (VOC), and ammonia (NH3) emissions from feedlot cattle. The present study investigated GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions from 160 Angus crossbred steers. Steers were blocked by weight in a randomized block design and assigned to 16 pens of 10 animals each. Treatments applied were 1) control (CON; no technology application), 2) monensin and tylosin phosphate (MON), 3) monensin, tylosin phosphate, and growth implant (IMP), and 4) monensin, tylosin phosphate, growth implant, and zilpaterol hydrochloride (fed during the last 20 d of the feeding period; BAA). Cattle were on feed for an average of 107 d. Performance variables (DMI, BW, ADG, and G:F) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percent, KPH, LM area, fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, and quality grade) were measured. Gaseous emissions were measured during the last 10 d of the feeding period when animals were housed in 4 totally enclosed identical cattle pen enclosures. To quantify gaseous emissions a 4×4 Latin square design (n=4) was used. Gaseous emissions were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS and reported in grams per kilogram HCW per day and grams per kilogram per animal per hour. Treatment with IMP and BAA increased (P<0.05) ADG, final BW, and HCW. Cattle on BAA had greater HCW and LM area (P<0.05) and had lower (P<0.05) CH4, methanol, and NH3 emissions per kilogram HCW than cattle on the remaining treatments

  19. Net Phosphorus Requirements of Dorper×Thin-tailed Han Crossbred Ram Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shoukun; Xu, Guishan; Jiang, Chenggang; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Naifeng; Ma, Tao; Lou, Can; Diao, Qiyu

    2013-09-01

    A comparative slaughter trial was conducted to estimate the phosphorus (P) requirement for maintenance and growth of crossbred lambs of Dorper with a Chinese indigenous sheep breed, thin-tailed Han sheep. Thirty-five Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred, noncastrated ram lambs (20.3±0.22 kg of shrunk body weight (SBW)) were used. Seven lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 20 kg SBW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 28 kg SBW. The remaining 21 sheep were randomly divided into 3 groups with 7 sheep each and subject to the same diet of either 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake. The 3 groups were slaughtered when the sheep fed ad libitum reached 35 kg of SBW. Body P contents were determined after slaughter. The results showed that the net P requirement for maintenance was 30.0 mg/kg of empty body weight (EBW) or 23.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and the P requirement for growth decreased from 5.3 to 5.0 g/kg of EBW gain as the lamb grew from 20 to 35 kg. The net P requirement for growth of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs was lower than that of sheep adopted by the American nutritional system.

  20. Net Phosphorus Requirements of Dorper×Thin-tailed Han Crossbred Ram Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shoukun; Xu, Guishan; Jiang, Chenggang; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Naifeng; Ma, Tao; Lou, Can; Diao, Qiyu

    2013-01-01

    A comparative slaughter trial was conducted to estimate the phosphorus (P) requirement for maintenance and growth of crossbred lambs of Dorper with a Chinese indigenous sheep breed, thin-tailed Han sheep. Thirty-five Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred, noncastrated ram lambs (20.3±0.22 kg of shrunk body weight (SBW)) were used. Seven lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 20 kg SBW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 28 kg SBW. The remaining 21 sheep were randomly divided into 3 groups with 7 sheep each and subject to the same diet of either 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake. The 3 groups were slaughtered when the sheep fed ad libitum reached 35 kg of SBW. Body P contents were determined after slaughter. The results showed that the net P requirement for maintenance was 30.0 mg/kg of empty body weight (EBW) or 23.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and the P requirement for growth decreased from 5.3 to 5.0 g/kg of EBW gain as the lamb grew from 20 to 35 kg. The net P requirement for growth of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs was lower than that of sheep adopted by the American nutritional system. PMID:25049910

  1. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although

  2. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

    2012-01-01

    Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p<0.05) between protein levels (p<0.05). The populations of rumen bacteria and fungal zoospores did not differ among treatments (p>0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p<0.05) when cows received Mago-pel supplementation. The composition of the population of bacteria, identified by real-time PCR technique, including total bacteria, methanogens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus was similar (p>0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis, in terms of both quantity and efficiency, was enriched by Mago-pel supplementation. Milk yield was greatest in cows fed UTRS based diets with concentrate containing protein at 16% CP with Mago-pel, but were lowest without Mago-pel (p<0.05). In addition, protein level and supplementation of Mago-pel did not affect (p>0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

  3. Methane emissions from cattle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Johnson, D E

    1995-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions from individual or groups of animals. Enclosure techniques are precise but require trained animals and may limit animal movement. Isotopic and nonisotopic tracer techniques may also be used effectively. Prediction equations based on fermentation balance or feed characteristics have been used to estimate methane production. These equations are useful, but the assumptions and conditions that must be met for each equation limit their ability to accurately predict methane production. Methane production from groups of animals can be measured by mass balance, micrometeorological, or tracer methods. These techniques can measure methane emissions from animals in either indoor or outdoor enclosures. Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. Implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.

  4. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the requirements for cattle in this subpart and in 9 CFR part 86. (Approved by the Office of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  5. Y chromosome polymorphism in various breeds of cattle (Bos taurus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stranzinger, Gerald F; Steiger, Dagmar; Kneubuhler, Josef; Hagger, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary development of mammals involves mutations and fixations of chromosomal types. The Y chromosome polymorphism in cattle is important for the breeding strategy, since chromosomal incompatibilities in crossings result in fertility problems. In bulls of various breeds in Switzerland, data on chromosome status have been collected for over 20 years. Data from 7 years were analysed in this study through chromosome measurements and their normalization. Some highly significant differences were found between the 7 groups of breeds, especially between Holsteins and the original Swiss breeds Braunvieh and Simmental. Fleckvieh (purebred or crossbred) did not differ significantly from Black or Red Holsteins. The results were discussed with respect to fertility problems. The observed Y chromosome polymorphism should be taken into account in breeding, and research in this field should be continued.

  6. [Reproduction of beef cattle].

    PubMed

    de Kruif, A; Mijten, P; Van den Branden, J; Opsomer, G

    1992-03-01

    The literature on the reproduction of beef cattle is reviewed in the present paper. To begin with the differences between dairy and beef cattle are elucidated. Secondly, the most important reproductive problems of beef cows are discussed. Items discussed include: the arrival of puberty, the interval between parturition and the first service and infertility. In Belgium, where nearly all beef cows belong to the double muscled White and Blue breed and have to be delivered by caesarean sections, many fertility problems are due to adhesions between the uterus and the surrounding tissues. Besides the quality of the semen of many of the bulls used is rather poor. This is probably caused by the extreme selection for beef production. Finally, the criteria which should be used to determine the reproductive efficiency of beef cows are discussed. Such as the percentage of pregnant cows, the proportion of live and weaned calves and the calving interval. PMID:1542865

  7. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  8. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves.

    PubMed

    Dillon, J A; Riley, D G; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    2015-02-01

    Brahman-cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mendelian genetic effects that may influence differences in Brahman × Simmental crossbred calves. Crossbred calves were produced by embryo transfer ( = 2,862) and natural service or artificial insemination ( = 2,125) from 1983 to 1991 by a private seedstock producer. Brahman-sired F embryos out of Simmental donors weighed 9.4 ± 1.1 ( < 0.001) kg more at birth than Simmental-sired F embryos out of Brahman donor cows when transferred to comparable recipients. This reciprocal difference was accompanied by sexual dimorphism: within Brahman-sired F calves, males were 5.0 ± 1.4 kg heavier than females, whereas within Simmental-sired F calves, females were 0.7 ± 0.5 kg heavier than males. Covariates were constructed from the pedigree to represent genetic effects: proportion Brahman in calves and dams (direct and maternal breed effects), direct and maternal breed heterozygosity, probability of Brahman mitochondrial origin, probability of Brahman Y chromosome, probability of Brahman X chromosome, genomic imprinting (the difference between the probabilities of Brahman in the genetic dam and in the sire), nonrandom X inactivation by breed of origin (the probability of breed heterozygosity of the X chromosomes of a female), and nonrandom X inactivation by parent of origin (the difference between probabilities of a female inheriting a paternal or maternal Brahman X chromosome). The maternal breed heterozygosity, genomic imprinting, probability of Brahman X chromosome, and genomic imprinting × sex effect covariates from the full model were significant with regression coefficients of 1.1 ± 0.5 ( < 0.05), ‒8.3 ± 2.3 ( < 0.01), ‒3.5 ± 1.3 ( < 0.01), and ‒5.3 ± 2.0 ( < 0.01), respectively

  9. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves.

    PubMed

    Dillon, J A; Riley, D G; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    2015-02-01

    Brahman-cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mendelian genetic effects that may influence differences in Brahman × Simmental crossbred calves. Crossbred calves were produced by embryo transfer ( = 2,862) and natural service or artificial insemination ( = 2,125) from 1983 to 1991 by a private seedstock producer. Brahman-sired F embryos out of Simmental donors weighed 9.4 ± 1.1 ( < 0.001) kg more at birth than Simmental-sired F embryos out of Brahman donor cows when transferred to comparable recipients. This reciprocal difference was accompanied by sexual dimorphism: within Brahman-sired F calves, males were 5.0 ± 1.4 kg heavier than females, whereas within Simmental-sired F calves, females were 0.7 ± 0.5 kg heavier than males. Covariates were constructed from the pedigree to represent genetic effects: proportion Brahman in calves and dams (direct and maternal breed effects), direct and maternal breed heterozygosity, probability of Brahman mitochondrial origin, probability of Brahman Y chromosome, probability of Brahman X chromosome, genomic imprinting (the difference between the probabilities of Brahman in the genetic dam and in the sire), nonrandom X inactivation by breed of origin (the probability of breed heterozygosity of the X chromosomes of a female), and nonrandom X inactivation by parent of origin (the difference between probabilities of a female inheriting a paternal or maternal Brahman X chromosome). The maternal breed heterozygosity, genomic imprinting, probability of Brahman X chromosome, and genomic imprinting × sex effect covariates from the full model were significant with regression coefficients of 1.1 ± 0.5 ( < 0.05), ‒8.3 ± 2.3 ( < 0.01), ‒3.5 ± 1.3 ( < 0.01), and ‒5.3 ± 2.0 ( < 0.01), respectively

  10. Association of ATP1A1 gene polymorphism with thermotolerance in Tharparkar and Vrindavani cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Neeraj; Kumar, Pushpendra; Deshmukh, Bharti; Bhat, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Chauhan, Anuj; Bhushan, Bharat; Singh, Gyanendra; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Aim: One of the major biochemical aspects of thermoregulation is equilibrium of ion gradient across biological membranes. Na+/K+-ATPase, a member of P type-ATPase family, is a major contributor to the mechanism that actively controls cross-membrane ion gradient. Thus, we examined ATP1A1 gene that encodes alpha-1 chain of Na+/K+-ATPase, for genetic polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 Vrindavani (composite cross strain of Hariana x Holstein-Friesian/Brown Swiss/Jersey) and 64 Tharparkar (indigenous) cattle were screened for genetic polymorphism in ATP1A1 gene, using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. For association studies, rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) of all animals were recorded twice daily for 3 seasons. Results: A SNP (C2789A) was identified in exon 17 of ATP1A1 gene. Three genotypes namely CC, CA, and AA were observed in both, Vrindavani and Tharparkar cattle. The gene frequencies in Tharparkar and Vrindavani for allele A were 0.51 and 0.48, and for allele C were 0.49 and 0.52, respectively, which remained at intermediate range. Association study of genotypes with RT and RR in both cattle population revealed that the animals with genotype CC exhibited significantly lower RT and higher heat tolerance coefficient than CA and AA genotypes. Conclusion: Differential thermoregulation between different genotypes of ATP1A1 gene indicate that the ATP1A1 gene could be potentially contributing to thermotolerance in both, Tharparkar, an indigenous breed and Vrindavani, a composite crossbred cattle. PMID:27047171

  11. Measurements at calving for straightbred and crossbred cows of diverse types.

    PubMed

    Sacco, R E; Baker, J F; Cartwright, T C; Long, C R; Sanders, J O

    1990-10-01

    Reproductive and calving records of 611 cows from F1 and F2 generations from a diallel mating system with Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey were examined. The inter se matings were by artificial insemination, and each cow had three or four parturitions. Dependent variables included weight, hip weight at first calving, age at first calving, gestation length and calving interval. Brahmans were the heaviest, tallest and oldest purebred at first calving. Crossbred Brahman females tended to be older than other crosses at first calving. Purebred Brahmans and one-half Brahman crosses also had the longest gestation lengths and calving intervals. First-gestation (F1) crossbred cows were 18 kg heavier (P less than .05), 2.0 cm taller (P less than .01) and 35 d younger (P less than .05) at first calving than contemporary straightbreds. Average maternal heterosis for height at calving was significant (1.4 cm; P less than .05); however, estimates of specific and average maternal heterosis for measurements taken at first calving were generally nonsignificant. Estimates of specific and average individual and maternal heterosis were generally small and nonsignificant for gestation length and calving interval. PMID:2254189

  12. Birth traits of pure Holstein calves versus Montbeliarde-sired crossbred calves.

    PubMed

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Hazel, A R; Seykora, A J; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G

    2010-05-01

    Pure Holstein calves and Montbeliarde-sired crossbred calves from multiparous Holstein dams were compared for gestation length, calf weight at birth, calving difficulty, and stillbirth in 2 research herds of the University of Minnesota. The Montbeliarde-sired calves from multiparous Holstein dams had significantly longer gestation lengths (283.2 d) than Holstein-sired calves from Holstein dams (278.4 d), and Montbeliarde-sired calves from multiparous Holstein dams had significantly greater calf weight at birth (48.3kg) compared with Holstein-sired calves from Holstein dams (43.3kg). However, calves sired by Montbeliarde bulls were not significantly different from calves sired by Holstein bulls for calving difficulty and stillbirth. In addition, Jersey x Holstein crossbred cows mated to Montbeliarde artificial insemination (AI) bulls were compared with pure Holstein cows mated to Holstein AI bulls for gestation length, calf weight at birth, calving difficulty, and stillbirth at their first 3 calvings. Gestation length was significantly longer for Jersey x Holstein cows bred to Montbeliarde bulls than for pure Holstein cows bred to Holstein bulls at first calving (280.3 versus 277.7 d) and second and third calving (282.2 versus 278.6 d); however, Jeresy x Holstein cows bred to Montbeliarde AI bulls were not significantly different from pure Holstein cows bred to Holstein AI bulls for calf weight at birth, calving difficulty, and stillbirth at the first 3 calvings.

  13. Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randhir; Randhawa, S. N. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of the transition to body condition score (BCS) and ultrasonographic back fat thickness (USG BFT) in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 multiparous crossbred cows in advanced pregnancy from organized dairy farm were taken up for study. The cows were grouped according to transition stage, i.e. far off dry (FOD), close up dry (CUD) and fresh (F). BCS was estimated by using the five point visual BCS technique with 0.5 increments. The USG BFT was measured by real-time ultrasound using a portable Sonosite instrument. Results: In cows with BCS 2-2.5, the BFT of F period was significantly lower than FOD period. In cows with BCS 3-3.5, the mean BFT at F period was significantly reduced as compared to FOD and CUD period. The overall correlation coefficient between BCS and BFT for different transition stages was 84%, 79% and 75% for FOD, CUD and F period, respectively. Conclusion: The USG BFT gives an accurate measure of fat reserves in cows. The cows with BCS of ≥3.5 entering the transition period are more prone to lose body condition and hence require better and robust management during the transition period. PMID:27047087

  14. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain.

  15. Finishing performance of feedlot cattle fed condensed distillers solubles.

    PubMed

    Pesta, A C; Nuttelman, B L; Shreck, A L; Griffin, W A; Klopfenstein, T J; Erickson, G E

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 250 crossbred steers (initial BW = 355 ± 18 kg) were fed 0, 9, 18, 27, or 36% CDS (DM basis) which replaced a portion of urea and a 1:1 ratio of dry-rolled corn (DRC) and high-moisture corn (HMC). Steers were divided into 3 BW blocks and were assigned randomly to 25 pens. Dietary fat increased from 3.7 to 9.4% as CDS inclusion increased from 0 to 36%. Intake decreased linearly ( < 0.01) as CDS increased. A quadratic response was observed for ADG ( = 0.01) and G:F ( < 0.01) with maximum gain calculated at 20.8% CDS and maximum G:F at 32.5% CDS inclusion, which was 12% more efficient than those fed 0% CDS. Experiment 2 was designed as a 2 × 4 factorial using 400 crossbred steers (initial BW = 339 ± 15 kg) evaluating 0, 7, 14, or 21% CDS (DM basis) in 2 base byproduct diets containing either 20% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) or 20% Synergy (a blend of wet corn gluten feed and MDGS). Steers were divided into 2 BW blocks and were assigned randomly to 40 pens. A tendency for a base diet × CDS inclusion interaction was observed for ADG, HCW, and final BW ( < 0.10). Gain increased linearly ( = 0.01) and tended to increase quadratically ( = 0.09) in MDGS diets, with maximum calculated ADG at 16% CDS inclusion. Inclusion of CDS had no effect on ADG in Synergy-based diets. Increasing CDS resulted in a linear increase in G:F ( < 0.01) regardless of basal diet. Condensed distillers solubles may be included in the diet at greater than 30% (DM basis) without other byproducts and improve animal performance. Likewise, CDS can be fed in combination with other byproduct feeds but with less improvement in performance. PMID:26440335

  16. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein and mitochondrial enzyme activities in muscles as relevant indicators of marbling in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jurie, C; Cassar-Malek, I; Bonnet, M; Leroux, C; Bauchart, D; Boulesteix, P; Pethick, D W; Hocquette, J F

    2007-10-01

    Marbling is an important criterion for beef quality grading in many countries. The purpose of the current study was to utilize the natural genetic variation to identify major metabolic indicators of marbling in cattle differing in genotypes. Rectus abdominis (RA, oxidative), semitendinosus (glycolytic), and longissimus thoracis (LT, oxido-glycolytic) muscles were taken from steers of different genotypes that expressed high [Angus, n = 16; and crossbred (Angus x Japanese Black), n = 10] or low (Limousin, n = 12) levels of marbling in their meat. Muscles from Angus and crossbred steers were characterized, as expected, by a greater triacylglycerol (TAG) content (P < 0.001) and also by greater protein contents of fatty acid-binding protein specific for heart and muscles (H-FABP; P < 0.001 for RA and P < 0.05 for LT muscle) or for adipocytes (A-FABP; P < 0.001 for RA and LT muscles). Moreover, oxidative enzyme activities (beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, cytochrome-c oxidase) were greater (P < 0.01 to 0.001) in the 3 muscles studied, whereas glycolytic enzyme activities (phosphofructokinase and lactate dehydrogenase) were lower (P < 0.001) in RA muscle in Angus and crossbred steers compared with Limousin steers. Significant correlations were observed between TAG content and H- and A-FABP protein contents, and oxidative (r > or = +0.55, P < 0.001) or glycolytic enzyme activities (r > or = -0.47, P < 0.001), when the 3 genotypes and muscles studied were considered as a whole. In addition, A-FABP protein content and some oxidative enzyme activities were significantly correlated with TAG content independently of the genotype and muscle effects. In conclusion, A-FABP protein content, as well as oxidative enzyme activities, may be used as indicators of the ability of steers from extreme genotypes to deposit intramuscular fat.

  17. Engineering disease resistant cattle.

    PubMed

    Donovan, David M; Kerr, David E; Wall, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective treatments or breeding strategies to enhance mastitis resistance, we have created transgenic dairy cows that express lysostaphin in their mammary epithelium and secrete the antimicrobial peptide into milk. Staphylococcus aureus, a major mastitis pathogen, is exquisitely sensitive to lysostaphin. The transgenic cattle resist S. aureus mammary gland challenges, and their milk kills the bacteria, in a dose dependent manner. This first step in protecting cattle against mastitis will be followed by introduction of other genes to deal with potential resistance issues and other mastitis causing organisms. Care will be taken to avoid altering milk's nutritional and manufacturing properties. Multi-cistronic constructs may be required to achieve our goals as will other strategies possibly involving RNAi and gene targeting technology. This work demonstrates the possibility of using transgenic technology to address disease problems in agriculturally important species.

  18. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  19. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), ...

  20. Growth performance and carcass quality of immunocastrated and surgically castrated pigs from crossbreds from Duroc and Pietrain sires.

    PubMed

    Morales, J I; Serrano, M P; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; López, J P; Mateos, G G

    2013-08-01

    In total, 240 pigs were used to compare growth performance and carcass quality traits of immunocastrated males (ICM), surgically castrated males (SCM), and intact females (IF) of crossbreds from Large White × Landrace females and Duroc (DU) or Pietrain (PI) sires destined to the dry-cured industry. Between the 2 Improvac injections (87 and 137 d of age), ICM and IF had less ADG than SCM (P < 0.01). Also, ICM ate less feed than IF and both less than SCM (2.33, 2.55, and 2.77 kg/d; respectively; P < 0.001) and consequently, ICM had better G:F than SCM and IF (P < 0.001). From second Improvac injection to slaughter (137 to 164 d of age), ICM were more efficient than IF and both more efficient than SCM (0.346, 0.323, and 0.300 g/g; respectively; P < 0.001). The differences in growth performance among genders observed in this period were more pronounced for the PI than for the DU crossbreds (P < 0.05 for the interaction). For the entire experimental period (87 to 164 d of age), gender did not affect ADG for DU crossbreds but for PI crossbreds ICM and SCM had greater ADG than IF (P < 0.05 for the interaction). The ICM pigs had better feed efficiency (0.406, 0.364, and 0.380; g/g; P < 0.001) and lower carcass yield (76.6, 78.1, and 78.8%; P < 0.001) than SCM or IF. Carcasses from IF were leaner than carcasses from SCM with carcasses from ICM being intermediate (P < 0.01). Ham and loin (P < 0.001) yields were greater for IF than for ICM or SCM. Intramuscular fat content was lower for IF than for SCM with that of ICM being intermediate (3.5 vs. 3.9 and 3.7%; P < 0.05). Cumulatively, crossbreds from DU sires had greater ADG (1.167 vs. 0.986 kg/d; P < 0.001) and ADFI (3.07 vs. 2.56 kg/d; P < 0.001) and more intramuscular fat (P < 0.001) but less ham and loin yields (P < 0.01) than crossbreds from PI sires. It is concluded that growth performance was better but carcass yield less for ICM than for SCM and IF. Intramuscular fat content in LM was less for IF than for SCM with

  1. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  2. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  3. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  4. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  5. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  6. Substitution of Wheat for Corn in Beef Cattle Diets: Digestibility, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Serum Metabolite Contents and Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y. F.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Wan, F. C.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.; Zhang, X. L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different amounts of wheat, as a partial or whole substitute for corn, on digestibility, digestive enzyme activities, serum metabolite contents and ruminal fermentation in beef cattle. Four Limousin×LuXi crossbred cattle with a body weight (400±10 kg), fitted with permanent ruminal, proximal duodenal and terminal ileal cannulas, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four treatments: Control (100% corn), 33% wheat (33% substitution for corn), 67% wheat (67% substitution for corn), and 100% wheat (100% substitution for corn) on a dry matter basis. The results showed that replacing corn with increasing amounts of wheat increased the apparent digestibility values of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (p<0.05). While the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were lower with increasing amounts of wheat. Digestive enzyme activities of lipase, protease and amylase in the duodenum were higher with increasing wheat amounts (p<0.05), and showed similar results to those for the enzymes in the ileum except for amylase. Increased substitution of wheat for corn increased the serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not different between those given only corn and those given 33% wheat. Increasing the substitution of wheat for corn increased the molar proportion of acetate and tended to increase the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Cattle fed 100% wheat tended to have the lowest ruminal NH3-N concentration compared with control (p<0.05), whereas no differences were observed among the cattle fed 33% and 67% wheat. These findings indicate that wheat can be effectively used to replace corn in moderate amounts to meet the energy and fiber requirements of beef cattle. PMID:26954111

  7. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; van Wyk, G L; Smith, T P L; Strydom, P E; van Marle-Köster, E; Webb, E C; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, M F

    2009-12-01

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6kg average at 14days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P=0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P<0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers. PMID:20416642

  8. Genome-wide association study on growth traits in Colombian creole breeds and crossbreeds with Zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Martínez, R; Gómez, Y; Rocha, J F M

    2014-08-25

    Whole genome selection represents an important tool for improving parameters related to the production of livestock. In order to build genomic selection indexes within a particular breed, it is important to identify polymorphisms that have the most significant association with a desired trait. A genome-wide marker association approach based on the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip(TM) was used to identify genomic regions affecting birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and daily weight gain (DWG) in purebred and crossbred creole cattle populations. We genotyped 654 individuals of Blanco Orejinegro (BON), Romosinuano (ROMO) and Cebú breeds and the crossbreeds BON x Cebú and ROMO x Cebú, and tested 5 genetic control models. In total, 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related (P < 0.05) to the 3 evaluated traits; BW was associated with the highest number of SNPs. For statistical false-positive correction, Bonferroni correction was used. From the results, we identified 7, 6, and 4 SNPs with strong associations with BW, WW, and DWG, respectively. Many of these SNPs were located on important coding regions of the bovine genome; their ontology and interactions are discussed herein. The results could contribute to the identification of genes involved in the physiology of beef cattle growth and the development of new strategies for breeding management via genomic selection to improve the productivity of creole cattle herds.

  9. Genome-wide association study on growth traits in Colombian creole breeds and crossbreeds with Zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Martínez, R; Gómez, Y; Rocha, J F M

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome selection represents an important tool for improving parameters related to the production of livestock. In order to build genomic selection indexes within a particular breed, it is important to identify polymorphisms that have the most significant association with a desired trait. A genome-wide marker association approach based on the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip(TM) was used to identify genomic regions affecting birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and daily weight gain (DWG) in purebred and crossbred creole cattle populations. We genotyped 654 individuals of Blanco Orejinegro (BON), Romosinuano (ROMO) and Cebú breeds and the crossbreeds BON x Cebú and ROMO x Cebú, and tested 5 genetic control models. In total, 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related (P < 0.05) to the 3 evaluated traits; BW was associated with the highest number of SNPs. For statistical false-positive correction, Bonferroni correction was used. From the results, we identified 7, 6, and 4 SNPs with strong associations with BW, WW, and DWG, respectively. Many of these SNPs were located on important coding regions of the bovine genome; their ontology and interactions are discussed herein. The results could contribute to the identification of genes involved in the physiology of beef cattle growth and the development of new strategies for breeding management via genomic selection to improve the productivity of creole cattle herds. PMID:25158260

  10. Soil ingestion by dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.

    1990-02-15

    Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats.

    PubMed

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-09-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., (1)/2 Aardi (1)/2 Damascus (½A½D) and (1)/4 Aardi (3)/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., (1)/2A(1)/2D and (1)/4A(3)/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show (P < 0.05) higher heat tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested (P < 0.05) higher production performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  12. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-09-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show ( P < 0.05) higher heat tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested ( P < 0.05) higher production performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  13. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show (P < 0.05) higher heat tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested (P < 0.05) higher production performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  14. Effects of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based diets fed to growing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Bondurant, R G; Luebbe, M K; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-08-01

    Crude glycerin is a by-product of biodiesel production and has recently become more available as a livestock feed with the growth of the biofuel industry. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude glycerin (GLY) as a feed ingredient in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based growing diets fed to beef cattle. In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 50; initial BW = 282 ± 2 kg) were used to determine the effects of GLY when included at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% of DM in a growing diet on cattle performance. In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (n = 54; initial BW = 283 ± 1 kg) were used to determine the effects of replacing SFC (REPSFC) or alfalfa hay (REPAH) with 7.5% GLY or a control diet without GLY (CON) on growing steer performance. In Exp. 1, final BW tended to respond in a quadratic manner (P = 0.09) in which it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Dry matter intake did not differ (P > 0.23), yet ADG responded quadratically (P = 0.04), where it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Feed efficiency (G:F) decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with increasing GLY concentration. In Exp. 2, final BW was greater for steers fed REPAH than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). Steers fed REPAH had a greater ADG than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). When GLY replaced SFC, ADG increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY where it was maximized before decreasing from 7.5 to 10% GLY inclusion. Replacing 7.5% of alfalfa hay (AH) in a growing diet with GLY can be beneficial to animal performance, which is likely the result of GLY being greater in energy than AH.

  15. Genetic parameters for calving and conformation traits in Charolais x Montbeliard and Charolais x Holstein crossbred calves.

    PubMed

    Vallée, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-12-01

    Charolais sires can be mated to Montbéliard or Holstein dairy cows to produce crossbred calves sold for meat production. Heritabilities and correlations between traits can differ when they are calculated within Charolais × Montbéliard or within Charolais × Holstein population. Moreover, the genetic correlation between the same trait measured on Charolais × Montbéliard and on Charolais × Holstein crossbred calves is not necessarily unity. The first objective of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlation between traits within Charolais × Montbéliard and within Charolais × Holstein population. The second objective was to investigate if those traits are genetically identical between crossbred populations. Traits studied were calving difficulty, birth weight, height, bone thinness, and muscular development. Data included 22,852 Charolais × Montbéliard and 16,012 Charolais × Holstein crossbred calves from 391 Charolais sires. Heritabilities estimated separately within each crossbred population were similar. Stronger genetic correlations were observed in Charolais × Holstein population compared with Charolais × Montbéliard between calving difficulty and height (0.67 vs. 0.54), calving difficulty and bone thinness (0.42 vs. 0.27), birth weight and bone thinness (0.52 vs. 0.20), and birth weight and muscular development (0.41 vs. 0.18). Bivariate analysis considering observations on Charolais × Montbéliard and on Charolais × Holstein as different traits showed that genetic variances and heritabilities were similar for all traits except height. Birth weight and muscular development were genetically identical traits in each crossbred populations, with genetic correlations of 0.96 and 0.99. Genetic correlations were 0.91 for calving difficulty, 0.80 for height, and 0.70 for bone thinness and log-likelihood ratio tests indicated that they were significantly different from 1 (P ≤ 0.01). Results show evidence for reranking of Charolais

  16. Pathogenesis and pathology of African trypanosomosis in Baoulé, N'Dama/Baoulé cross bred and Zebu cattle in Burkina Faso. 1. Clinical performance under high natural tsetse challenge.

    PubMed

    Clausen, P H; Sidibé, I; Bassinga, A; Richard, X; Bauer, B; Pohlit, H

    1993-06-01

    The pathogenesis and pathology of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in Baoulé, N'Dama/Baoulé-cross-bred and Zebu cattle was studied from 1987 to 1991 in a series of experiments conducted under natural and artificial conditions of challenge at the Centre de Recherches sur les Trypanosomoses Animales (CRTA) in Burkina Faso. This first paper reports on the clinical performance of 64 Baoulé, 10 N'Dama/Baoulé-cross-bred and 20 Zebu cattle, which were transferred to the pastoral zone of Satiri, 50 km northeast of Bobo-Dioulasso, a zone infested with Glossina palpalis gambiensis, G. morsitans submorsitans and G. tachinoides. Prior to the experiment, the cattle had been raised in a fly proof stable and at the CRTA breeding station, an area of extremely low incidence of trypanosomosis or had been exposed at least once to natural trypanosome challenge in an area of high Glossina density. The cattle were monitored daily for clinical performance. Blood samples were collected twice weekly and examined on the spot for packed red cell volume (PCV) and parasitaemia. In the blood of 98% of the cattle trypanosomes (Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense) were detected. Significant inter- and intrabreed differences with respect to the clinical performance were recorded. Regarding general health, the humpless Baoulé and N'Dama/Baoulé cross-bred cattle (Bos taurus) proved to be superior to the humped Zebu cattle (B. indicus) under this high challenge. Previous exposure to natural challenge had a positive effect on survival for both Baoulé and Zebu cattle. The phenotypic variation in response to trypanosomosis was small in Baoulé previously exposed and large in Baoulé previously not exposed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effect of degradable intake protein level on finishing cattle performance and ruminal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shain, D H; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Herold, D W

    1998-01-01

    Two finishing trials and a metabolism trial were conducted to evaluate level of supplemental degradable intake (crude) protein (DIP) in finishing diets on cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal metabolism. Finishing trials were conducted in two consecutive years using 128 crossbred yearling steers (BW = 343+/-5 kg, Trial 1) and 176 crossbred yearling steers (BW = 375+/-4 kg, Trial 2) in a randomized complete block design. Steers were fed dry-rolled corn diets containing urea at 0, .88, 1.34, or 1.96% (DM basis). No differences in DMI, daily gain, or feed efficiency were noted among steers receiving diets containing supplemental urea. However, steers fed diets supplemented with urea were 5.4% more efficient (P < .01) and gained 6.6% faster (P < .01) than steers receiving no supplemental urea. Metabolizable protein (MP) content of all diets exceeded the steers' requirements. However, diets containing no urea were deficient in DIP. In the metabolism trial, four ruminally fistulated steers (BW = 380+/-22 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design and fed (ad libitum) diets similar to those used in the finishing trials. Nitrogen intake and ruminal ammonia N concentration increased linearly (P < .05) with increasing level of urea supplementation. Diets containing no supplemental urea were calculated to be deficient in DIP, resulting in reduced bacterial synthesis. Results indicate that dry-rolled corn finishing diets containing no supplemental N are deficient in ruminally degradable N. Supplementing these diets with an inexpensive source of ruminally degradable N improved animal performance. However, supplementation with urea above .88% was not beneficial. PMID:9464905

  18. Genetic evaluation of retail product percentage in Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H; Enns, R M; Rumph, J M; Pollak, E J

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters required for genetic evaluation of retail product percentage (RPP) in Simmental cattle. Carcass weight (HCW), subcutaneous fat thickness (FAT), longissimus muscle area (REA) and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH) records were available to compute RPP on steers (n = 5171) and heifers (n = 1400) from the American Simmental Association database; animals were sired by 561 Simmental bulls and out of 5886 crossbred dams. Genetic parameters were estimated using residual maximal likelihood and a four trait animal model for the components of RPP including fixed harvest contemporary group effects, random animal genetic effects, and a linear covariate for age at harvest. Heritability estimates were 0.51 +/- 0.05, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.18 +/- 0.05 for HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Non-zero genetic correlations were estimated between HCW and REA (rg = 0.51 +/- 0.06) and between REA and FAT (rg = -0.43 +/- 0.08), but other genetic correlation estimates among the component traits were low. As a linear function of its components, heritability and genetic correlations involving RPP were estimated using index methods. The heritability estimate for RPP was 0.41, and genetic correlations were -0.17, -0.83, 0.67, and 0.01 with HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Therefore, RPP was strongly associated with muscle and fat deposition, but essentially independent of carcass weight and internal body cavity fat. Genetic evaluation of RPP would be straightforward using multiple trait index methods and genetic regression, although the inclusion of KPH would be of marginal value. PMID:18254821

  19. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M.; Eigenberg, Roger A.; Nienaber, John A.

    2010-11-01

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental to the well-being and performance of the animals. Sprinkle cooling of animals has been successfully employed within the pen; however, added moisture to the pens' surface increases odor generation from the pen. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility instead of in the pen, which could potentially provide extra evaporative cooling to offset the added heat produced by activity. Sixty-four cross-bred heifers were assigned to one of eight pens on the basis of weight. On four separate occasions during hot conditions (average temperature 28.2 ± 1.9°C, 29.1 ± 2.0°C, 28.9 ± 3.0°C, and 26.8 ± 1.6°C; with the temperature ranging from 22.6 to 32.5°C during the trials), the heifers were moved from their pens to and from the working facility (a building with a scale and squeeze chute located 160-200 m away). While in the squeeze chute, four of the pens of heifers were sprinkle cooled and the remaining four pens were worked as normal. The heifers that were treated had a body temperature that peaked sooner (31.9 ± 0.63 min compared to 37.6 ± 0.62) with a lower peak body temperature (39.55 ± 0.03°C compared to 39.74 ± 0.03°C), and recovered sooner (70.5 ± 2.4 min compared to 83.2 ± 2.4 min). The treated animals also had a lower panting score, a visual assessment of level of cattle heat stress (1.1 ± 0.2 compared to 1.16 ± 0.2). The behavior measurements that were taken did not indicate a change in behavior. It was concluded that while a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility did not completely offset the increase in body temperature, it was beneficial to the

  20. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  1. Genetic parameters of the piglet mortality traits stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Strange, T; Ask, B; Nielsen, B

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for the mortality causes stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred piglets produced by crossbred dams. Data were collected in a single Danish commercial herd from October 2006 to July 2008 and consisted of 34,194 piglets (2,152 litters), which originated from 195 Danish Duroc sires and 955 crossbreds between Danish Landrace and Danish Yorkshire dams. Of the 34,194 piglets born, 11.5% were stillborn, 4.2% were crushed by the sow, 2.7% died due to starvation, 2.3% were weak at birth, and 2.2% died of miscellaneous causes before weaning. The first 4 mentioned causes were analyzed multivariately using a generalized linear mixed model with a probit link function, including the genetic effect of both sire and dam. Heritabilities based on the sire component ranged between 0.08 for stillborn and 0.21 for starvation whereas heritabilities based on the dam component ranged between 0.01 for miscellaneous and 0.24 for stillborn, indicating that reducing piglet mortality through genetic selection is possible. The expected observed responses to selection would, however, be low. The genetic correlations between mortality traits based on the sire component ranged from -0.05 between stillborn and starvation to 0.35 between stillborn and weak at birth whereas genetic correlations based on the dam component ranged from -0.11 between weak at birth and starvation to 0.76 between crushing and starvation. There seemed to be a favorable relationship between the 2 traits stillborn and weak at birth and between crushing and starvation, implying that care should be taken with correct recordings of mortality causes. The genetic correlation precision was rather low, and if nonadditive effects are not accounted for, there may be unexpected correlated responses among the different mortality causes in the crossbred mortalities.

  2. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  5. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  7. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due

  8. Heterosis, maternal and direct effects in double-muscled and normal cattle: I. Reproduction and growth traits.

    PubMed

    Arthur, P F; Makarechian, M; Price, M A; Berg, R T

    1989-04-01

    Data from a two-breed group diallel experiment involving double-muscled (DM) and normal (N) cattle were analyzed to evaluate the importance of heterosis, maternal and direct effects for reproduction and growth traits. The DM cattle were from a composite of primarily Angus, Charolais, Galloway and Hereford breeds, and N cattle were crossbred cattle with at least 50% Hereford breeding. The data comprised a total of 491 matings and 389 calvings in four breeding seasons. Records on calving performance, calving date, calf crop born and weaned, sex ratio of progeny and weight of calves were analyzed using least squares procedures. Significant heterosis of 5 to 12% was observed for all the calf crop and growth traits, except for birth weight. Heterosis resulted in 24% reduction in the incidence of dystocia and perinatal calf mortality (P less than .05). The significant heterosis was due mainly to poor production in DM X DM crosses. The DM cows were superior (P less than .05) to N cows in reciprocal crossing (maternal effect) for all the calf crop traits, but had higher incidence of calving difficulty and a higher proportion of male progeny. Significant direct effect was observed for all the traits except calving date and sex ratio among progeny. The N sires were superior for all the calf crop traits and caused less incidence of dystocia and perinatal mortality compared with the DM sires. Significant differences were obtained between the straightbreds for all the traits except calving date. The N straightbreds were superior to the DM straightbreds for all the significant traits.

  9. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  10. Cattle are eating the forest

    SciTech Connect

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  11. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P < 0.01) ADG compared with control heifers (0.50 vs. 0.58 kg/d, respectively). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy, however, was hastened (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) in acclimated heifers compared with control. Acclimated heifers had reduced chute score (P < 0.01) and concentrations of cortisol (P < 0.01) and P4 (P = 0.03; prepubertal heifers only) compared with control heifers after the acclimation period (1.37 vs. 1.84 for chute score; 37.8 vs. 50.5 ng/mL of cortisol; 0.52 vs

  12. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P < 0.01) ADG compared with control heifers (0.50 vs. 0.58 kg/d, respectively). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy, however, was hastened (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) in acclimated heifers compared with control. Acclimated heifers had reduced chute score (P < 0.01) and concentrations of cortisol (P < 0.01) and P4 (P = 0.03; prepubertal heifers only) compared with control heifers after the acclimation period (1.37 vs. 1.84 for chute score; 37.8 vs. 50.5 ng/mL of cortisol; 0.52 vs

  13. Generalised glycogenosis in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A

    1981-05-01

    Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845

  14. Clinical pharmacology of analgesic drugs in cattle.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matthew L; Coetzee, Johann F

    2015-03-01

    Providing pain relief in cattle is challenging. In the absence of labeled drugs, the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act regulates the extralabel drug use of analgesics in cattle within the United States. Given the variety of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pain-relieving drugs, evidence needs to drive the development of analgesic protocols for cattle during pain-related events. This article reviews the commonly used analgesics investigated in cattle including local anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, α2-agonists, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists, and gabapentin. These compounds are examined with respect to evidence of analgesia in cattle during pain states. PMID:25578387

  15. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  16. [Congenital and lethal semi-hairlessness in an Angler-Holstein crossbred calf].

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Sina; Schwittlick, Ulrike; Seehusen, Frauke; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    A male Angler-Red Holstein crossbred calf was almost completely hairless since its birth. Hair growth was not observed within the course of its life, but with increasing age the hair structure changed from a thin and soft hair to a wiry to coarse hair fibre. Growth rate of the animal was reduced, body condition was poor but appetite was good. In addition, accompanying malformations were found including brachygnathia superior and a reduction or a particularly pronounced fine countenance skull ("shrew head"). The calf died unexpectedly at the age of five months. In the subsequent gross pathological and histopathological examination, a pronounced hyperkeratosis, degeneration of follicular epithelial cells, a reduced number of hair follicles, an increased number of telogen hair follicles, sclerosis of the corium, dilated apocrine glands and inflammatory changes of the gastrointestinal tract were seen. Based on the course of the disease, the phenotypic appearance of hypotrichosis and hair fibre as well as the histopathological changes the present case resembles a lethal semi-hairless form of hypotrichosis. This congenital anomaly in the present case is likely genetically determined.

  17. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used. PMID:26065699

  18. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Se, Chee-Hee; Chuah, Khun-Aik; Mishra, Ankitta; Wickneswari, Ratnam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI) and insulin (II) indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins), indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A) were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden. PMID:27213446

  19. Evaluation of carcass traits and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Frederico B; Villela, Severino D J; Mourthé, Mário H F; Paulino, Pedro V R; Boari, Cleube A; Ribeiro, Julimar S; Barroso, Jorge A; Pires, Aldrin V; Martins, Paulo G M A

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls finished in feedlot. Carcasses from 18 bulls, randomly selected from a larger group of 36 bulls, consisting of F1 Guzerat×Holstein ("Guzholstein"); F1 Guzerat×Nellore ("Guzonell"); and 1/2 Simmental+1/4 Guzerat+1/4 Nellore (Three-Cross; n=6 each group) were used. Cold carcass weight was greater (P=0.01) for Three-Cross compared with "Guzonell" and "Guzholstein". Three-Cross carcasses had greater (P<0.01) rib-eye-area and 100-kg-adjusted rib-eye-area among groups. Longissimus lumborum length did not differ (P>0.05) among groups, but depth was greater (P<0.01) for Three-Cross compared with other groups. "Guzholtein" had lesser (P=0.05) shear force compared with "Guzonell", with Three-Cross being intermediate. We conclude that "Guzholstein" is an adequate option for producers willing to finish this kind of genetic group, as it is comparable or better than Bos indicus crosses and B. indicus×Bos taurus bulls.

  20. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties.

    PubMed

    Se, Chee-Hee; Chuah, Khun-Aik; Mishra, Ankitta; Wickneswari, Ratnam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI) and insulin (II) indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins), indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A) were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden. PMID:27213446

  1. Evaluation of carcass traits and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Frederico B; Villela, Severino D J; Mourthé, Mário H F; Paulino, Pedro V R; Boari, Cleube A; Ribeiro, Julimar S; Barroso, Jorge A; Pires, Aldrin V; Martins, Paulo G M A

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls finished in feedlot. Carcasses from 18 bulls, randomly selected from a larger group of 36 bulls, consisting of F1 Guzerat×Holstein ("Guzholstein"); F1 Guzerat×Nellore ("Guzonell"); and 1/2 Simmental+1/4 Guzerat+1/4 Nellore (Three-Cross; n=6 each group) were used. Cold carcass weight was greater (P=0.01) for Three-Cross compared with "Guzonell" and "Guzholstein". Three-Cross carcasses had greater (P<0.01) rib-eye-area and 100-kg-adjusted rib-eye-area among groups. Longissimus lumborum length did not differ (P>0.05) among groups, but depth was greater (P<0.01) for Three-Cross compared with other groups. "Guzholtein" had lesser (P=0.05) shear force compared with "Guzonell", with Three-Cross being intermediate. We conclude that "Guzholstein" is an adequate option for producers willing to finish this kind of genetic group, as it is comparable or better than Bos indicus crosses and B. indicus×Bos taurus bulls. PMID:26546913

  2. Performance of indigenous, Khaki Campbell and their reciprocal crossbred layer ducks under different management systems.

    PubMed

    Nageswara, A R; Ramasubba Reddy, V; Ravindra Reddy, V

    2005-08-01

    1. The performance of indigenous ducks (ID), Khaki Campbell (KC) and their reciprocal crossbred layers was studied from 19 to 58 weeks of age. For each genotype, 4 x 18 ducks (3 males + 15 females) were reared under a semi-intensive system (SIS) and an intensive system (IS) with standard management, and 4 x 50 ducks (8 males + 42 females) were reared in an extensive system (ES) with traditional management. 2. In comparison to KC, ID were superior in terms of age at first egg, age at 50% egg production, egg weight, hatchability, eggshell thickness with higher egg shape index. KC ducks were superior to ID in body weight, egg production and feed/kg eggs. Egg quality was similar among the genotypes. Crosses were superior to their parent breeds in age at first egg, egg production and feed/kg eggs. They were also superior to KC in egg weight and egg-shell thickness with a higher egg shape index. 3. The performance of genotypes in the SIS and the IS was similar and superior to the ES except for fertility and yolk colour. 4. Significant heterotic effects were recorded for age at first egg, age at 50% egg production, egg production per duck-day, feed efficiency and egg weight in crosses. Performance was similar in the reciprocal crosses, but superior to their parent breeds.

  3. Evaluation of crossbred calf and cow types for the coastal plain of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Pala, A; Robison, O W; McCraw, R L

    2000-09-01

    Data in this experiment consisted of 418 lactation records, and weaning and birth weight records from 600 crossbred calves. The traits evaluated included birth weight, weaning weight, weaning weight per cow exposed, weaning weight per weight of cow, weaning weight per weight of cow exposed, and predicted milk yield. Angus, Brangus, and Gelbvieh sires were mated to purebred Hereford cows. Yearling and 2-yr-old Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters then were bred to Polled Hereford bulls (Data Set 2). Later-parity Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters were mated to Salers or Simmental sires (Data Set 3). Differences between Gelbvieh- and Brangus-sired calves or Gelbvieh-Hereford and Brangus-Hereford daughters were never significant for weaning weight, birth weight, or milk yield. Angus crosses had the lowest weaning weight, birth weight, and milk yield, but the highest kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed in all data sets. Angus-Hereford and Brangus-Hereford dams had higher weaning weight per weight of cow exposed than Gelbvieh-Hereford dams (P < .01) in Data Set 3. There were no other significant differences related to cow weight. PMID:10985395

  4. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  5. Intestinal surgery of adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David E; Ewoldt, Jennifer M Ivany

    2005-03-01

    Surgical disorders of the gastrointestinal tract of cattle occur occasionally, and veterinarians are challenged to determine an accurate diagnosis and treatment for these conditions. Although surgical diseases most commonly occur in the forestomachs (dislocated abomasum, reticuloperitonitis) and the colons (cecal dilation), this article focuses n lesions in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum).

  6. Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

  7. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  8. Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population.

    PubMed

    Dayo, G K; Gautier, M; Berthier, D; Poivey, J P; Sidibe, I; Bengaly, Z; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Thevenon, S

    2012-04-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a parasitic blood disease transmitted by tsetse flies and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. West African taurine breeds have the ability, known as trypanotolerance, to limit parasitaemia and anaemia and remain productive in enzootic areas. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying traits related to trypanotolerance have been identified in an experimentally infected F(2) population resulting from a cross between taurine and zebu cattle. Although this information is highly valuable, the QTL remain to be confirmed in populations subjected to natural conditions of infection, and the corresponding regions need to be refined. In our study, 360 West African cattle were phenotyped for the packed cell volume control under natural conditions of infection in south-western Burkina Faso. Phenotypes were assessed by analysing data from previous cattle monitored over 2 years in an area enzootic for trypanosomosis. We further genotyped for 64 microsatellite markers mapping within four previously reported QTL on BTA02, BTA04, BTA07 and BTA13. These data enabled us to estimate the heritability of the phenotype using the kinship matrix between individuals computed from genotyping data. Thus, depending on the estimators considered and the method used, the heritability of anaemia control ranged from 0.09 to 0.22. Finally, an analysis of association identified an allele of the MNB42 marker on BTA04 as being strongly associated with anaemia control, and a candidate gene, INHBA, as being close to that marker. PMID:22404348

  9. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. PMID:27120589

  10. Performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle managed in a bedded hoop-barn system.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, M S; Busby, W D; Lonergan, S M; Johnson, A K; Maxwell, D L; Harmon, J D; Shouse, S C

    2010-08-01

    The use of bedded hoop barns in finishing systems for beef cattle has not been widely researched. In this management system, beef cattle are confined to hoop barns throughout finishing, and bedding is used to absorb animal waste, which results in minimal effluent. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers (n = 1,428) managed in a bedded hoop-barn management system vs. an open-feedlot system with shelter. Six feeding trials were conducted over a 3-yr period. Three trials were conducted during summer-fall and 3 trials were conducted during winter-spring. Crossbred steers were allotted to 3 pens in the hoop-barn system and to 3 pens in the open-lot system (approximately 40 steers per pen in both facility systems). Stocking densities for the steers were 4.65 m(2) per steer in the hoop-barn system and 14.7 m(2) per steer in the open-lot system. The steers were begun on trial weighing 410 and 411 kg (SD = 21), were fed for 102.3 and 103.0 d (SD = 3.8), and were weighed off test at 595 and 602 kg (SD = 21) for the hoop-barn and open-lot systems, respectively. Steer performance measures consisted of ADG, DMI, and G:F. Carcass characteristics were HCW, fat thickness, LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. No year, season, or pen (management system) main effects, or season x management system and year x management system interactions were observed for any of the items measured related to cattle performance or carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). Final mud scores (a subjective evaluation of the amount of soil and manure adhering to the hair coat of the animals) were greater for the steers from the open-lot system compared with those from the hoop-barn system (P < 0.02), suggesting steers in the hoop-barn system carried less mud than steers from the open-lot system. Average daily cornstalk bedding use in the hoop-barn system was 2.3 kg/steer during summer-fall and 2

  11. Differing Populations of Endemic Bacteriophages in Cattle Shedding High and Low Numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Bacteria in Feces

    PubMed Central

    Hallewell, J.; Niu, Y. D.; Munns, K.; McAllister, T. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Ackermann, H.-W.; Thomas, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify endemic bacteriophages (phages) in the feedlot environment and determine relationships of these phages to Escherichia coli O157:H7 from cattle shedding high and low numbers of naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7. Angus crossbred steers were purchased from a southern Alberta (Canada) feedlot where cattle excreting ≥104 CFU · g−1 of E. coli O157:H7 in feces at a single time point were identified as supershedders (SS; n = 6), and cattle excreting <104 CFU · g−1 of feces were identified as low shedders (LS; n = 5). Fecal pats or fecal grabs were collected daily from individual cattle for 5 weeks. E. coli O157:H7 in feces was detected by immunomagnetic separation and enumerated by direct plating, and phages were isolated using short- and overnight-enrichment methods. The total prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from feces was 14.4% and did not differ between LS and SS (P = 0.972). The total prevalence of phages was higher in the LS group (20.9%) than in the SS group (8.3%; P = 0.01). Based on genome size estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and morphology determined by transmission electron microscopy, T4- and O1-like phages of Myoviridae and T1-like phage of Siphoviridae were isolated. Compared to T1- and O1-like phages, T4-like phages exhibited a broad host range and strong lytic capability when targeting E. coli O157:H7. Moreover, the T4-like phages were more frequently isolated from feces of LS than SS, suggesting that endemic phages may impact the shedding dynamics of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. PMID:24747892

  12. Decrease in survival and fecundity of Glossina palpalis gambiensis vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) fed on cattle treated with single doses of ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human and Animal Trypanosomes are major problems for the socio-economic growth of developing countries like Burkina Faso. Ivermectin is currently used to treat humans in mass drug administration programs in Africa, and is also commonly used for veterinary purposes. In this study, we tested the effect of ivermectin injected into cattle on the survival and fecundity of Glossina palpalis gambiensis, the main vector of human and animal trypanosomes in West Africa. Methods Three cows (local zebu*baoulé crossbreds) were used, and received either no ivermectin (for the control), or ivermectin at therapeutic dose (0.2 mg/kg) and 10 times the therapeutic dose (2 mg/kg) respectively. G. palpalis gambiensis were fed on the cattle for their first bloodmeal, and then either on cattle or on membrane for subsequent meals. Results Our results showed that survival of Glossina palpalis gambiensis was significantly decreased when they were fed on cattle treated with ivermectin. This decrease in survival ranged from 21% to 83.7% for the therapeutic dose (0.2 mg/kg), up to 8 days after treatment. The effects of a dose of 2 mg/kg were higher with a 78.3% to 93.9% decrease in survival, until 14 days after injection. The therapeutic dose of ivermectin also decreased fecundity, and delayed the first larviposition, but there was no significant effect on hatching rate. Conclusion Ivermectin injected into cattle may constitute an additional potential tool for the control of Glossina palpalis gambiensis and possibly other vector species. Further studies will be needed to assess its effect on trypanosome transmission, and to define more precisely the adequate dose to be used for control purposes. PMID:23741989

  13. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small intestine mass and cellularity have previously been associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and sugars and contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study ...

  14. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat. PMID:26292792

  15. Investigation of transferability of BovineSNP50 BeadChip from cattle to water buffalo for genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun Jing; Song, Li Jun; Wu, Fang Jie; Liang, Xian Wei; Yang, Bing Zhuang; Wathes, D Claire; Pollott, Geoff E; Cheng, Zhangrui; Shi, De Shun; Liu, Qing You; Yang, Li Guo; Zhang, Shu Jun

    2013-02-01

    Cattle and water buffalo belong to the same subfamily Bovinae and share chromosome banding and gene order homology. In this study, we used genome-wide Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to analyze 91 DNA samples from three breeds of water buffalo (Nili-Ravi, Murrah and their crossbred with local GuangXi buffalos in China), to demonstrate the genetic divergence between cattle and water buffalo through a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) transferability study at the whole genome level, and performed association analysis of functional traits in water buffalo as well. A total of 40,766 (75.5 %) bovine SNPs were found in the water buffalo genome, but 49,936 (92.5 %) were with only one allele, and finally 935 were identified to be polymorphic and useful for association analysis in water buffalo. Therefore, the genome sequences of water buffalo and cattle shared a high level of homology but the polymorphic status of the bovine SNPs varied between these two species. The different patterns of mutations between species may associate with their phenotypic divergence due to genome evolution. Among 935 bovine SNPs, we identified a total of 9 and 7 SNPs significantly associated to fertility and milk production traits in water buffalo, respectively. However, more works in larger sample size are needed in future to verify these candidate SNPs for water buffalo.

  16. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  17. White side test: A simple and rapid test for evaluation of nonspecific bacterial genital infections of repeat breeding cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Fayaz Ahmad; Bhattacharyya, Hiranya Kumar; Hussain, Syed Akram

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the grades of nonspecific bacterial infection of genitalia of repeat breeding cattle by a simple and rapid test under field condition. For this purpose, a total of 100 crossbred Jersey cows comprising of 80 repeat breeding animals presented for treatment and 20 normal cyclic (control group) animals presented for artificial insemination at their first service were selected. Estrual cervical mucus from all the animals was collected at 8 to 12 hr after the onset of behavioral estrus and subjected to white side test (WST) and bacteriological examination. The results of WST showed only 15% of control group had infection but the remaining 85% were free of it. In contrast, the majority of repeat breeding animals (57/80) showed infection (71.25%) and only 28.75% animals were free of infection. In bacterial culture, 60 (75.00%) from the 80 repeat breeding animals were found positive, and 20 (25.00%) were free of bacteria. All the three samples of control group that showed no color reaction in WST had also no growth in bacterial culture. The WST results showed a positive (p < 0.01) correlation of 0.48 with bacterial culture. It is thus concluded that under field condition WST can be used as a prime modality for ascertaining nonspecific bacterial infection of repeat breeding cattle before subjecting them to any antibiotic therapy thereby reducing the cost of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25568715

  18. The genetic background affects composition, oxidative stability and quality traits of Iberian dry-cured hams: purebred Iberian versus reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory properties of Iberian cry-cured hams as affected by the genetic background of the pigs: purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs vs reciprocal cross-bred Iberian × Duroc pigs (IB × D pigs: Iberian dams × Duroc sires; D × IB pigs: Duroc dams × Iberian sires). Samples from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. The extent of lipid and protein oxidation was significantly larger in dry-cured hams of crossbred pigs than in those from PBI pigs. Dry-cured hams from PBI pigs were defined by positive sensory properties (i.e. redness, brightness and juiciness) while hams from crossbred pigs were ascribed to negative ones (i.e. hardness, bitterness and sourness). Hams from PBI pigs displayed a superior quality than those from crossbred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crosses had no effect on the quality of Iberian hams.

  19. Macromineral requirements for the maintenance and growth of Boer crossbred kids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M H M R; Resende, K T; Tedeschi, L O; Teixeira, I A M A; Fernandes, J S

    2012-12-01

    Advances in mineral nutrition of goats have been made during the last decade, especially in our understanding of Ca and P requirements. However, few studies have focused on the mineral requirements of crossbred Boer goats in their growth phase. Our objective for this study was to determine the macromineral (Ca, P, Mg, K, and Na) requirements for the maintenance and growth of intact, male three-fourths Boer × one-fourth Saanen kids (n = 34; 20.5 ± 0.24 kg of initial BW). Two trials were conducted: 1 for maintenance and 1 for growth requirements. In the maintenance trial, 28 kids were used. The baseline (BL) group consisted of 7 randomly selected kids averaging 21.2 ± 0.36 kg BW and 122 d old. The remaining kids (n = 21; age 168 ± 5 d) were randomly allocated into 7 slaughter groups (blocks) including 3 animals distributed among 3 amounts of DMI (treatments: ad libitum and restricted to 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the block reached 35 kg BW. The BL and ad libitum-fed groups in the maintenance trial were also part of the growth trial. Therefore, in the growth trial, 20 kids fed for ad libitum intake were used as follows: 7 kids slaughtered at 21.2 ± 0.36 kg BW (BL), 6 kids slaughtered at 28.2 ± 0.39 kg BW (intermediate slaughter), and 7 kids slaughtered at 35.6 ± 0.36 kg BW. Empty whole bodies of the kids (head + feet, hide, internal organs + blood, and carcass) were weighed, ground, mixed, and subsampled for chemical analyses. Daily maintenance requirements, calculated using the comparative slaughter technique (P < 0.001), were estimated as 32.3 ± 1.1 mg Ca, 30.8 ± 1.2 mg P, 1.31 ± 0.5 mg Mg, 8.41 ± 3.0 mg K, and 5.14 ± 1.0 mg Na/kg of empty BW (EBW). Net requirements for growth increased from 6.2 to 6.6 g Ca, 5.3 to 5.4 g P, and 0.29 to 0.30 g Mg and decreased from 1.20 to 1.07 g K and 0.65 to 0.59 g Na/kg of EBW gain for kids from 20 to 35 kg BW. This study indicated that the

  20. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd

    PubMed Central

    Panmei, Achun; Gupta, A. K.; Shivahre, P. R.; Bhakat, M.; Singh, K. Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. The data were subjected to Chi-square test to test the difference due to different factors. Results: Overall disposal rate for the different age groups of 0-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18 m-3 year and 3-5 year were calculated as 17.9, 16.3, 14.2, 25.8, 49.0, 37.6 and 51.65%, respectively. In the age groups, 3-6 m, 6-18 m and 3-5 year, effect of periods of birth were found to be statistically significant (p<0.01) for overall disposal rate. Across different seasons of birth, overall disposal rates differed significantly (p<0.01) in different age group except in 3-5 year age group. Differences in overall disposal rate due to genetic group were statistically significant (p<0.01) in 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18-3 year and 3-5 year age groups. Conclusion: Overview of the results indicated that higher overall disposal rate in age group of 1 month was due to mortality while, in the age groups of >1 month, culling was the primary cause. PMID:27047071

  1. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on the immune function of crossbred dairy cows under semi-arid tropical environment.

    PubMed

    De, Kalyan; Pal, Shashi; Prasad, Shiv; Dang, Ajay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation around peripartum period on immune function, reproductive performance, milk yield and milk quality of crossbred cows. Thirty pregnant crossbred cows in their late gestation were selected and randomly divided into five groups for study. Six cows in each group were supplemented with vitamin E (VE) (2000 IU/cow/day), vitamin A (VA) (100,000 IU/cow/day), copper (Cu) (20 ppm/cow/day), zinc (Zn) (80 ppm/cow/day) individually from 45 days pre-calving to 45 days post-calving and one group without any supplementation served as control. Immune function was studied by in vitro phagocytic activity (PA) of blood neutrophils, lymphocyte proliferation response (LPR) and plasma interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration. Supplementation of VA significantly (P < 0.05) increased the in vitro PA of blood neutrophils and decreased milk somatic cell counts (SCC). Zn supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the T lymphocyte proliferation response, whereas B lymphocyte LPR was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with both VA and Zn supplementation as compared to the control cows. Plasma IL-8 concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all supplemented cows. Supplementation of VE, VA and Zn significantly (P < 0.05) reduces days open, whereas VA significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the service per conception. In this study, it is concluded that VE, VA and Zn supplementation around peripartum period can boost the immunity and improve the reproductive performance of crossbred cows in a semi-arid tropical environment. PMID:24072427

  2. Relationship of udder and teat conformation with intra-mammary infection in crossbred cows under hot-humid climate

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Pranay; Bhakat, Champak; Pankaj, Prabhat K.; Bhat, Showkat A.; Prakash, M. Arul; Thul, Mayur R.; Japheth, K. Puhle

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the relationship of udder shape, teat-end shape, teat length, and teat diameter with intra-mammary infection in Jersey crossbred cows under hot-humid climate. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 lactating Jersey crossbred cows were evaluated for udder shape (pendulous/regular) and teat-end shape (flat/inverted/pointed) by visual examination, while teat length and teat diameter were measured using vernier caliper. Monthly milk sampling was done for 4 months of duration. Few quarters were found as blind or non-functional and so, a total of 366 quarter wise milk samples were collected at the monthly interval and subjected to somatic cell count (SCC) microscopically. The data on SCC were transformed into log scale and analyzed. Results: There was a significant (p<0.01) effect of udder shape and teat-end shape on SCC level. The mean SCC level for pendulous udder was significantly (p<0.05) higher as compared to the regular shaped udder. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) a higher level of mean SCC was found in flat teat-end shape. A significant (p<0.01) correlation was found between SCC and teat length as well as teat diameter. Conclusion: In conclusion, pendulous udder, flat and inverted teat-end, very long and thick teat were more susceptible to intra-mammary infection in Jersey crossbred cows and these traits must be considered accordingly while selecting dairy animals for future milk production. PMID:27047172

  3. Genome-wide association analyses for growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Miller, S; Sargolzaei, M; Kelly, M; Vander Voort, G; Caldwell, T; Wang, Z; Plastow, G; Moore, S

    2013-08-01

    A genome-wide association study using the Illumina 50K BeadChip included 38,745 SNP on 29 BTA analyzed on 751 animals, including 33 purebreds and 718 crossbred cattle. Genotypes and 6 production traits: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), ADG, DMI, midtest metabolic BW (MMWT), and residual feed intake (RFI), were used to estimate effects of individual SNP on the traits. At the genome-wide level false discovery rate (FDR < 10%), 41 and 5 SNP were found significantly associated with BWT and WWT, respectively. Thirty-three of them were located on BTA6. At a less stringent significance level (P < 0.001), 277 and 27 SNP were in association with single traits and multiple traits, respectively. Seventy-three SNP on BTA6 and were mostly associated with BW-related traits, and heavily located around 30 to 50Mb. Markers that significantly affected multiple traits appeared to impact them in same direction. In terms of the size of SNP effect, the significant SNP (P < 0.001) explained between 0.26 and 8.06% of the phenotypic variation in the traits. Pairs of traits with low genetic correlation, such as ADG vs. RFI or DMI vs. BWT, appeared to be controlled by 2 groups of SNP; 1 of them affected the traits in same direction, the other worked in opposite direction. This study provides useful information to further assist the identification of chromosome regions and subsequently genes affecting growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

  4. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  5. Body weights at weaning and 18 months of Zebu, Brown Swiss, Charolais and crossbred heifers in south-east Mexico.

    PubMed

    Magaña, J G; Segura-Correa, J C

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the body weights up to 18 months of age of 12 breed groups of Zebu (Z), Brown Swiss (BS) and Charolais heifers (CH), and their crosses under tropical conditions. A total of 1434 data on weaning weights adjusted to 240 days (WW8), average daily gain to 240 days (ADG8) and 1025 body weights adjusted to 550 days (BW18) and average postweaning daily gain (ADG18) of heifers born from 1981 to 1995 were used. Cows and calves remained together from birth to weaning and grazed on Guinea grass (Panicum maximum). Years of birth were grouped in three periods, because of the small numbers of observations per year (1981-85, 1986-90 and 1991-95). Similarly, months of birth were grouped in three seasons: dry (February to May), rainy (June to September) and windy and rainy (October to January). Ages of dams were classified in six groups (or=8 years). Breed groups were animals with 12.5%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 62.5%, 75.0% and 100% BS genes and 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% and 100% CH genes and also Z and undefined crossbred animals. Data were analysed using a fixed model that included effects of period, and season of birth, age of dam and breed group of heifer. Analyses of variance showed significant (p < 0.05) effects of period, season and breed group for all traits. However, parity was significant (p < 0.05) only for WW8 and ADG8. Interactions among main factors were not significant (p > 0.05). Z heifers gained the least weight to weaning but were similar to BS at 18 months of age. CH were heavier at 18 months of age than BS heifers, but not at weaning. Body weights at 18 months of age of 1/8 and 1/4 BS crossbred heifers were similar (p > 0.05) and lower than F1 (BS x Z) (p < 0.05); however, the later and higher grades of BS had the highest body weights at 18 months of age and were similar to CH and 1/4 CH x 3/4 Z heifers. Undefined crossbred heifers had better performance than the Z breed group. Environmental factors were

  6. Quality traits in muscle biceps femoris and back-fat from purebred Iberian and reciprocal Iberian×Duroc crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Jurado, Angela; Estévez, Mario

    2006-08-01

    The present study evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics of muscle biceps femoris and back-fat from purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs and reciprocal crossbred Iberian×Duroc pigs (IB×D pigs: Iberian dams×Duroc sires; D×IB pigs: Duroc dams×Iberian sires). Muscles from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. In addition, muscles from PBI pigs were darker (lower L(∗)-values) and redder (higher a(∗)-values) and exhibited a more intense colour (higher chroma value) which was closer to the true red axis (lower hue value) than muscles from crossbred pigs. Back-fat from PBI pigs had significantly higher percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and significantly smaller percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than those from crossbred pigs. Regarding the fatty acid profiles of the muscle lipid fractions, the genetic background particularly affected the composition of the polar lipid (PL) fraction. PL in muscles from PBI pigs contained significantly higher proportions of oleic acid and total MUFA and significantly lower amounts of arachidonic acid, certain long-chain PUFA (ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids) and total amount of PUFA than PL in muscles from crossbred pigs. The results obtained indicate that tissues from PBI pigs would be more suitable for the production of dry-cured meats than those from cross-bred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian×Duroc crosses had no clear effects on meat quality.

  7. Applied Genomics in Cattle – Identification of the SLICK locus in tropically adapted cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 3 years, ARS scientists have been working to identify the underlying genetic variants responsible for a heat tolerance phenotype in cattle associated with the SLICK locus typically found in Senepol cattle. This presentation reviews the general field of applied genomics in cattle, and ...

  8. Theileriasis in crossbred cows and its therapeutic management: first report from Lushai hill district of Mizoram.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Kalyan; Prasad, H; Das, Gunjan; Behera, P; Behera, S K; Rajesh, J B; Borthakur, S K

    2016-09-01

    To know the prevalence of theileriosis infection, haemato-biochemical alteration and efficacy of Oxytetracycline in combination with Diaminazene aceturate injection against theileriosis in Lushai hill district of Mizoram; fifty five cross bred cattle were screened during July, 2013 to November, 2013. The prevalence of tropical theileriosis was 9.09 % based on blood smear examination. Clinical features of the disease were manifested by high rise of body temperature 104.8 ± 1.2 °F, lymphadenopathy, inability to walk, anorexia, listlessness, moderate anaemia, nasal discharge, edema of eye and corneal opacity. There were marked decline (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin 5.28 ± 1.81 gm/dl, total erythrocytic count 2.14 ± 0.7 × 10(6)/ul, packed cell volume 18.10 ± 0.8 % and total leukocyte count 6.95 ± 1.05 × 10(3)/ul, respectively. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly increased (P < 0.01) up to 104.5 ± 12.4 mm/1st hour. The percentage of neutrophils increased 62.75 ± 2.77 and lymphocytes decreased drastically 28.69 ± 1.45 as compared with un-infected cross bred cattle. Clinically infected cattle with Theileria annulata had significantly low levels of total proteins and albumin, (P < 0.05) but AST, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, BUN, creatinine levels and Ck-MB activity were significantly high (P < 0.05). Oxytetracycline in combination with Diaminazene aceturate was found effective against T. annulata and could control fever and temperature returns to normalcy by 7th day post treatment along with some haemato-biochemical profiles. In brief, the study revealed that tropical theileriosis was prevalent in Lushai hill district of Mizoram especially among cross breed cattle and had effect on hepatic, renal and cardiac function which can be effectively controlled by Oxytetracycline and Diaminazene aceturate injection. PMID:27605754

  9. Beef cattle body temperature during climatic stress: a genome-wide association study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Jeremy T.; Kachman, Stephen D.; Snelling, Warren M.; Pollak, E. John; Ciobanu, Daniel C.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Spangler, Matthew L.

    2014-09-01

    Cattle are reared in diverse environments and collecting phenotypic body temperature (BT) measurements to characterize BT variation across diverse environments is difficult and expensive. To better understand the genetic basis of BT regulation, a genome-wide association study was conducted utilizing crossbred steers and heifers totaling 239 animals of unknown pedigree and breed fraction. During predicted extreme heat and cold stress events, hourly tympanic and vaginal BT devices were placed in steers and heifers, respectively. Individuals were genotyped with the BovineSNP50K_v2 assay and data analyzed using Bayesian models for area under the curve (AUC), a measure of BT over time, using hourly BT observations summed across 5-days (AUC summer 5-day (AUCS5D) and AUC winter 5-day (AUCW5D)). Posterior heritability estimates were moderate to high and were estimated to be 0.68 and 0.21 for AUCS5D and AUCW5D, respectively. Moderately positive correlations between direct genomic values for AUCS5D and AUCW5D (0.40) were found, although a small percentage of the top 5 % 1-Mb windows were in common. Different sets of genes were associated with BT during winter and summer, thus simultaneous selection for animals tolerant to both heat and cold appears possible.

  10. Production, fertility, survival, and body measurements of Montbéliarde-sired crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins during their first 5 lactations.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Seykora, A J; Hansen, L B

    2014-01-01

    Two-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Holstein (MO × HO) as well as 3-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Jersey/Holstein (MO × JH) were compared with pure Holstein (HO) cows for production, somatic cell score (SCS), fertility, survival to subsequent calving, mortality, and body measurements during their first 5 lactations. Cows calved for the first time between 2005 and 2010 and were housed in either a confinement herd or a herd that had access to pasture for 165d of the year in the north central region of the United States. Body, hoof, and udder measurements of cows were also objectively measured. The MO × HO crossbred cows were not different from pure HO cows for fat-plus-protein production during any lactation. However, the MO × JH crossbred cows had 5% lower fat-plus-protein production compared with pure HO cows in the confinement herd. On the other hand, the MO × JH crossbred cows were not different for fat-plus-protein production in the third to fifth lactation compared with pure HO cows in the seasonal pasture herd. Across the 2 herds, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows had 21% higher first-service conception rate, 41 fewer days open, and 12% higher pregnancy rate compared with the pure HO cows. Furthermore, the MO × HO (5%) and MO × JH (12%) crossbred cows had lower mortality rates than the pure HO cows (18%). Because of superior fertility and lower mortality rates, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows, combined, had greater survival to second (+13%), third (+24%), fourth (+25%), and fifth (+17%) lactation compared with pure HO cows. For body measurements, MO × HO were similar to pure HO cows for hip height and heart girth, but MO × HO cows had more body condition and greater body weight (+39kg) across the first 5 lactations. The MO × JH cows had more body condition but 5cm shorter hip height and 28kg less body weight than pure HO cows across the first 5 lactations. Foot angle was steeper and hoof length was shorter for MO × HO

  11. Breed structure of Senepol cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, A R; Hupp, H D; Thompson, C E; Grimes, L W

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected by the Virgin Islands Beef Cattle Improvement Program and the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station staff to establish the breed structure of the Senepol cattle. Data for the analysis were limited to the two Virgin Islands Senepol breeders with the most complete and largest set of records, representing approximately 65% of the entire Senepol population. Inbreeding (F) and coancestry relationship coefficients (rAB) and the theoretical inbreeding (FT) were determined from each data set and for the combined data from both farms, for each year, ranging from 1947 to 1984 for Annaly Farms, and from 1967 to 1984 for Castle Nugent Farm. The data sets for both farms were examined for the possibility of separation into families. Actual F within the Senepol population was relatively low, averaging less than 1.00%. Some separation into families occurred within Annaly Farms' cattle. The F and FT decreased (1.6 to 0.7% and 1.0 to 0.2%, respectively) as population numbers increased. The low F was accomplished through the breeding programs and exchanges of animals between farms on the island. PMID:3367044

  12. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease. PMID:18998232

  13. Transcriptome analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissues in beef cattle using 3' digital gene expression-tag profiling.

    PubMed

    Jin, W; Olson, E N; Moore, S S; Basarab, J A; Basu, U; Guan, L L

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate fat deposition in bovine adipose tissue have not been well studied. To elucidate the genes and gene networks involved in bovine fat development, transcriptional profiles of backfat (BF) tissues from Hereford × Aberdeen Angus (HEAN, n = 6) and Charolais × Red Angus (CHRA, n = 6) steers with high or low BF thickness were characterized by digital gene expression-tag profiling. Approximately 9.8 to 21.9 million tags were obtained for each library, and a total of 18,034 genes were identified. In total, 650 genes were found to be differentially expressed, with a greater than 1.5-fold difference between the 2 crossbreds (Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate ≤ 0.05). The majority of differentially expressed genes that were more highly expressed in CHRA vs. HEAN were associated with development, whereas the differentially expressed genes with greater expression in HEAN vs. CHRA were overrepresented in biological processes such as metabolism and immune response. Thirty-six and 152 differentially expressed genes were detected between animals with high (n = 3) and low (n = 3) BF thickness in HEAN and CHRA, respectively (Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate ≤0.05). The differentially expressed genes between high and low groups in CHRA were related to cell proliferation and development processes. In addition, lipid metabolism was 1 of the top 5 molecular and cellular functions identified in both crossbreds. Ten and 17 differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in fat metabolism in HEAN and CHRA, respectively. Genes associated with obesity, such as PTX3 (pentraxin 3, long) and SERPINE1 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 1), were more highly expressed (P < 0.05) in the subset of CHRA animals with greater BF thickness. Our study revealed that the expression patterns of genes in BF tissues differed depending on the genetic background of the cattle.

  14. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Heather J.; Kim, Eui-Soo; Godfrey, Robert W.; Olson, Timothy A.; McClure, Matthew C.; Chase, Chad C.; Rizzi, Rita; O'Brien, Ana M. P.; Van Tassell, Curt P.; Garcia, José F.; Sonstegard, Tad S.

    2014-01-01

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. Previous studies localized the SLICK locus to a 4 cM region on chromosome (BTA) 20 and identified signatures of selection in this region derived from Senepol cattle. The current study compares three slick-haired Criollo-derived breeds including Senepol, Carora, and Romosinuano and three additional slick-haired cross-bred lineages to non-slick ancestral breeds. Genome-wide association (GWA), haplotype analysis, signatures of selection, runs of homozygosity (ROH), and identity by state (IBS) calculations were used to identify a 0.8 Mb (37.7–38.5 Mb) consensus region for the SLICK locus on BTA20 in which contains SKP2 and SPEF2 as possible candidate genes. Three specific haplotype patterns are identified in slick individuals, all with zero frequency in non-slick individuals. Admixture analysis identified common genetic patterns between the three slick breeds at the SLICK locus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and admixture results show Senepol and Romosinuano sharing a higher degree of genetic similarity to one another with a much lesser degree of similarity to Carora. Variation in GWA, haplotype analysis, and IBS calculations with accompanying population structure information supports potentially two mutations, one common to Senepol and Romosinuano and another in Carora, effecting genes contained within our refined location for the SLICK locus. PMID:24808908

  15. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle.

    PubMed

    Huson, Heather J; Kim, Eui-Soo; Godfrey, Robert W; Olson, Timothy A; McClure, Matthew C; Chase, Chad C; Rizzi, Rita; O'Brien, Ana M P; Van Tassell, Curt P; Garcia, José F; Sonstegard, Tad S

    2014-01-01

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. Previous studies localized the SLICK locus to a 4 cM region on chromosome (BTA) 20 and identified signatures of selection in this region derived from Senepol cattle. The current study compares three slick-haired Criollo-derived breeds including Senepol, Carora, and Romosinuano and three additional slick-haired cross-bred lineages to non-slick ancestral breeds. Genome-wide association (GWA), haplotype analysis, signatures of selection, runs of homozygosity (ROH), and identity by state (IBS) calculations were used to identify a 0.8 Mb (37.7-38.5 Mb) consensus region for the SLICK locus on BTA20 in which contains SKP2 and SPEF2 as possible candidate genes. Three specific haplotype patterns are identified in slick individuals, all with zero frequency in non-slick individuals. Admixture analysis identified common genetic patterns between the three slick breeds at the SLICK locus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and admixture results show Senepol and Romosinuano sharing a higher degree of genetic similarity to one another with a much lesser degree of similarity to Carora. Variation in GWA, haplotype analysis, and IBS calculations with accompanying population structure information supports potentially two mutations, one common to Senepol and Romosinuano and another in Carora, effecting genes contained within our refined location for the SLICK locus. PMID:24808908

  16. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle.

    PubMed

    Huson, Heather J; Kim, Eui-Soo; Godfrey, Robert W; Olson, Timothy A; McClure, Matthew C; Chase, Chad C; Rizzi, Rita; O'Brien, Ana M P; Van Tassell, Curt P; Garcia, José F; Sonstegard, Tad S

    2014-01-01

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. Previous studies localized the SLICK locus to a 4 cM region on chromosome (BTA) 20 and identified signatures of selection in this region derived from Senepol cattle. The current study compares three slick-haired Criollo-derived breeds including Senepol, Carora, and Romosinuano and three additional slick-haired cross-bred lineages to non-slick ancestral breeds. Genome-wide association (GWA), haplotype analysis, signatures of selection, runs of homozygosity (ROH), and identity by state (IBS) calculations were used to identify a 0.8 Mb (37.7-38.5 Mb) consensus region for the SLICK locus on BTA20 in which contains SKP2 and SPEF2 as possible candidate genes. Three specific haplotype patterns are identified in slick individuals, all with zero frequency in non-slick individuals. Admixture analysis identified common genetic patterns between the three slick breeds at the SLICK locus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and admixture results show Senepol and Romosinuano sharing a higher degree of genetic similarity to one another with a much lesser degree of similarity to Carora. Variation in GWA, haplotype analysis, and IBS calculations with accompanying population structure information supports potentially two mutations, one common to Senepol and Romosinuano and another in Carora, effecting genes contained within our refined location for the SLICK locus.

  17. Search for quantitative trait loci affecting growth and carcass traits in a cross population of beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Williams, J L; Homer, D; Burton, D; Haley, C S; Wiener, P

    2009-01-01

    A genome scan to detect QTL influencing growth and carcass-related traits was conducted in a Charolais x Holstein crossbred cattle population. Phenotypic measurements related to growth and carcass traits were made on the 235 second-generation crossbred males of this herd (F2 and reciprocal backcrosses), which were born in 4 consecutive annual cohorts. Traits measured in vivo were related to birth dimensions, growth rates, and ultrasound measurements of fat and muscle depth. The animals were slaughtered near a target BW of 550 kg, and a wide range of postmortem traits were measured: visual assessment of carcass conformation and carcass fatness, estimated subcutaneous fat percentage, weights of kidney knob and channel fat, and weights of carcass components after commercial and full-tissue dissections. The whole population, including grandparents, parents, and the crossbred bulls, was genotyped initially for 139 genome-wide microsatellite markers. Twenty-six additional markers were subsequently analyzed to increase marker density on some of the chromosomes where QTL had been initially identified. The linear regression analyses based on the 165 markers revealed a total of 51 significant QTL at the suggestive level, 21 of which were highly significant (F-value >or=9; based on the genome-wide thresholds obtained in the initial scan). A large proportion of the highly significant associations were found on chromosomes 5 and 6. The most highly significant QTL was localized between markers DIK1054 and DIK082 on chromosome 6 and explained about 20% of the phenotypic variance for the total bone proportion estimated after the commercial dissection. In the adjacent marker interval on this chromosome, 2 other highly significant QTL were found that explain about 30% of the phenotypic variance for birth dimension traits (BW and body length at birth). On chromosome 5, the most significant association influenced the lean:bone ratio at the forerib joint and was flanked by markers DIK

  18. Carcass merit between and among family groups of Bos indicus crossbred steers and heifers.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Morgan, W W; Miller, R K; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Taylor, J F; Gill, C A; Savell, J W

    2006-03-01

    Differences in live and carcass traits attributable to increasing Bos indicus breed influence were compared to the differences between families with similar proportions of B. indicus influence. Families of offspring from 1/2 Angus×1/2 B. indicus mated to Angus, B. indicus, and 1/2 Angus×1/2 B.indicus were raised under similar conditions. Average daily gain, slaughter weight, and dressing percentage were measured in addition to USDA yield and quality grade factors. Breed type did not affect average daily gain, slaughter weight, dressing percentage, carcass weight, adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness, estimated percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, or carcass maturity. Predominately (3/4) Angus progeny produced greater (P<0.05) longissimus muscle areas than 3/4 B. indicus animals. Predominately Angus cattle also had greater (P<0.05) marbling scores and USDA quality grades than predominately B. indicus cattle. Families within breed types differed (P<0.05) with regard to all traits measured. This is interesting in light of the lack of differences between breeds for most traits. In some instances, the differences in marbling score and longissimus muscle area between families within a given breed type were similar or greater in magnitude than the differences observed between predominately Angus and predominately B. indicus breed types. Whereas growth and carcass traits varied between levels of B. indicus breeding, the opportunity does exists to improve these traits by selecting within specific family lines.

  19. Expression Profiling of Innate Immune Genes in Milk Somatic Cells During Subclinical Mastitis in Crossbred Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, A; Radhika, G; Aravindhakshan, T V; Anilkumar, K

    2016-10-01

    Innate immune mechanism plays a key role in mammary defense, from recognition of pathogens to activation of nonspecific and specific immunity involved in elimination of pathogens. Expression profiles of innate immune response genes namely Toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2), Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP-1), Interleukin 8 receptor (IL-8 R), L-Selectin (SELL), and Osteopontin (OPN) in milk somatic cells of subclinical mastitis (SCM) affected crossbred cows were investigated under this study at transcript level using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Dairy cows in mid lactation were screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and Electrical Conductivity test (EC). Based on results of SCM screening tests, crossbred cows were clustered into two groups with four Staphylococcus aureus infected SCM cows and four apparently healthy cows. The expressions levels of TLR-2, PGLYRP-1, IL-8 R, SELL, and OPN in milk somatic cells of SCM affected cows were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than healthy cows. These genes could be considered as candidate genes for innate immune response against S. aureus SCM infection.

  20. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for specific pathogen free 6-week-old Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals depend on many factors, including age. A review of the literature highlights the lack of reference intervals for 6-wk-old specific pathogen free (SPF) Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs. For translational research, 6-wk-old pigs represent an important animal model for both human juvenile colitis and diabetes mellitus type 2 given the similarities between the porcine and human gastrointestinal maturation process. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters in healthy 6-wk-old crossbred pigs. Blood samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy Hampshire-Yorkshire pigs. The pigs were 6 wks old, represented both sexes, and were housed in a SPF facility. Automated hematological and biochemical analysis were performed using an ADVIA 120 Hematology System and a Cobas 6000 C501 Clinical Chemistry Analyzer. Results Reference intervals were calculated using both parametric and nonparametric methods. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum values were calculated. Conclusion As pigs are used more frequently as medical models of human disease, having reference intervals for commonly measured hematological and biochemical parameters in 6-wk-old pigs will be useful. The reference intervals calculated in this study will aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of both naturally occurring and experimentally induced disease. In comparison to published reference intervals for older non SPF pigs, notable differences in leukocyte populations, and in levels of sodium, potassium, glucose, protein, and alkaline phosphatase were observed. PMID:24410946

  1. Heat shock protein 70, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status in periparturient crossbred cows supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anjali; Ashutosh; Chandra, Gulab; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigating the effect of α-tocopherol acetate on heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), oxidative stress, and antioxidant status during periparturient period in medium body condition score crossbred cows. Twenty crossbred Karan Fries cows with confirmed pregnancy were selected 2 months before expected date of calving. The cows were randomly distributed in to two groups: 10 cows were kept as control and 10 were supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate during dry period for 2 months. Blood samples were collected at -20, -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, and 20 days in relation to the expected date of calving. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total immunoglobulin were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in treatment as compared to control cows. Heat shock protein 70 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the treatment cows than their counterpart. Treatment with α-tocopherol acetate during dry period resulted in reduced oxidative stress, heat shock protein Hsp70 levels, improved antioxidant, and improved immunity status indicating beneficial effect of α-tocopherol acetate treatment.

  2. Performance, Carcass Quality and Fatty Acid Profile of Crossbred Wagyu Beef Steers Receiving Palm and/or Linseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of palm and/or linseed oil (LSO) supplementation on carcass quality, sensory evaluation and fatty acid profile of beef from crossbred Wagyu beef steers. Twenty four fattening Wagyu crossbred beef steers (50% Wagyu), averaging 640±18 kg live weight (LW) and approximately 30 mo old, were stratified and randomly assigned in completely randomized design into 3 treatment groups. All steers were fed approximately 7 kg/d of 14% crude protein concentrate with ad libitum rice straw and had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit. The treatments were i) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of palm oil; ii) control concentrate plus 100 g/d of palm oil and 100 g/d of LSO, iii) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of LSO. This present study demonstrated that supplementation of LSO rich in C18:3n-3 did not influence feed intakes, LW changes, carcass and muscle characteristics, sensory and physical properties. LSO increased C18:3n-3, C22:6n-3, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), however, it decreased C18:1t-11, C18:2n-6, cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acids, n-6 PUFA and n-6:n-3 ratio in Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles.

  3. Performance, Carcass Quality and Fatty Acid Profile of Crossbred Wagyu Beef Steers Receiving Palm and/or Linseed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of palm and/or linseed oil (LSO) supplementation on carcass quality, sensory evaluation and fatty acid profile of beef from crossbred Wagyu beef steers. Twenty four fattening Wagyu crossbred beef steers (50% Wagyu), averaging 640±18 kg live weight (LW) and approximately 30 mo old, were stratified and randomly assigned in completely randomized design into 3 treatment groups. All steers were fed approximately 7 kg/d of 14% crude protein concentrate with ad libitum rice straw and had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit. The treatments were i) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of palm oil; ii) control concentrate plus 100 g/d of palm oil and 100 g/d of LSO, iii) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of LSO. This present study demonstrated that supplementation of LSO rich in C18:3n-3 did not influence feed intakes, LW changes, carcass and muscle characteristics, sensory and physical properties. LSO increased C18:3n-3, C22:6n-3, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), however, it decreased C18:1t-11, C18:2n-6, cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acids, n-6 PUFA and n-6:n-3 ratio in Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles. PMID:26954221

  4. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steer fed with fermented cassava starch residue.

    PubMed

    Pilajun, Ruangyote; Wanapat, Metha

    2016-04-01

    Ten Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred (50:50) steers were used in a completely randomized design to receive two treatments including concentrate containing cassava chips (Control) and fermented cassava starch residue (FCSR) as major carbohydrate sources. FCSR was prepared as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculates with exogenous enzyme addition. All steers received ad libitum rice straw and concentrate in equal proportions (1:1). Replacement of cassava chip with FCSR increased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber intakes but decreased non-protein nitrogen intake of steers. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were decreased with replacement of cassava chip by FCSR; however, digested nutrients were similar between groups. Replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR resulted in comparable growth performance and feed efficiency of the feedlot steers. Moreover, carcass characteristics in terms of yield and meat quality of the steers were not affected by cassava chips replaced by FCSR as a major carbohydrate source in the concentrate. In conclusion, replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR decreased feed digestibility; however, it did not impact negatively on growth performance and carcass traits of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steers. PMID:26942915

  5. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steer fed with fermented cassava starch residue.

    PubMed

    Pilajun, Ruangyote; Wanapat, Metha

    2016-04-01

    Ten Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred (50:50) steers were used in a completely randomized design to receive two treatments including concentrate containing cassava chips (Control) and fermented cassava starch residue (FCSR) as major carbohydrate sources. FCSR was prepared as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculates with exogenous enzyme addition. All steers received ad libitum rice straw and concentrate in equal proportions (1:1). Replacement of cassava chip with FCSR increased neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber intakes but decreased non-protein nitrogen intake of steers. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were decreased with replacement of cassava chip by FCSR; however, digested nutrients were similar between groups. Replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR resulted in comparable growth performance and feed efficiency of the feedlot steers. Moreover, carcass characteristics in terms of yield and meat quality of the steers were not affected by cassava chips replaced by FCSR as a major carbohydrate source in the concentrate. In conclusion, replacement of cassava chip in the concentrate with FCSR decreased feed digestibility; however, it did not impact negatively on growth performance and carcass traits of feedlot Thai native × Lowline Angus crossbred steers.

  6. Expression Profiling of Innate Immune Genes in Milk Somatic Cells During Subclinical Mastitis in Crossbred Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, A; Radhika, G; Aravindhakshan, T V; Anilkumar, K

    2016-10-01

    Innate immune mechanism plays a key role in mammary defense, from recognition of pathogens to activation of nonspecific and specific immunity involved in elimination of pathogens. Expression profiles of innate immune response genes namely Toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2), Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP-1), Interleukin 8 receptor (IL-8 R), L-Selectin (SELL), and Osteopontin (OPN) in milk somatic cells of subclinical mastitis (SCM) affected crossbred cows were investigated under this study at transcript level using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Dairy cows in mid lactation were screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and Electrical Conductivity test (EC). Based on results of SCM screening tests, crossbred cows were clustered into two groups with four Staphylococcus aureus infected SCM cows and four apparently healthy cows. The expressions levels of TLR-2, PGLYRP-1, IL-8 R, SELL, and OPN in milk somatic cells of SCM affected cows were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than healthy cows. These genes could be considered as candidate genes for innate immune response against S. aureus SCM infection. PMID:27565875

  7. An evaluation of brewery waste as a replacement for concentrates in diets for growing crossbred common ducks.

    PubMed

    Dong, N T K; Ogle, R B

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of feeding brewery waste that replaced different levels of concentrate in diets for growing crossbred common ducks. A total of 300 ducks at 3 weeks of age were allocated in a 2 x 5 factorial experiment. Two feeding systems were compared, with the brewery waste provided separately (S) or mixed (M) with a concentrate. For the first feeding system the concentrate was fed alone (C100M), or replaced successively by brewery waste at ratios of concentrate to brewery waste: 75:25 (C75M), 50:50 (C50M) and 25:75 (C25M) on a dry matter basis, and fed ad libitum. For the second system concentrate and brewery waste were fed separately, with the same levels as in the first system. Total feed intakes for both feeding systems and intakes of brewery waste, total dry matter, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus increased significantly as concentrate was reduced (p <0.05). Daily weight gains were not significantly different between the two feeding systems, but were significantly lower for the C25 and C0 diets (p <0.05). Replacement of 50% of the concentrate by brewery waste resulted in the best growth performance. The highest net profits were from the separate feeding system, and for ducks fed brewery waste only (C0). It is concluded that brewery waste can replace traditional diets for crossbred common ducks based on concentrate.

  8. Performance, Carcass Quality and Fatty Acid Profile of Crossbred Wagyu Beef Steers Receiving Palm and/or Linseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of palm and/or linseed oil (LSO) supplementation on carcass quality, sensory evaluation and fatty acid profile of beef from crossbred Wagyu beef steers. Twenty four fattening Wagyu crossbred beef steers (50% Wagyu), averaging 640±18 kg live weight (LW) and approximately 30 mo old, were stratified and randomly assigned in completely randomized design into 3 treatment groups. All steers were fed approximately 7 kg/d of 14% crude protein concentrate with ad libitum rice straw and had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit. The treatments were i) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of palm oil; ii) control concentrate plus 100 g/d of palm oil and 100 g/d of LSO, iii) control concentrate plus 200 g/d of LSO. This present study demonstrated that supplementation of LSO rich in C18:3n-3 did not influence feed intakes, LW changes, carcass and muscle characteristics, sensory and physical properties. LSO increased C18:3n-3, C22:6n-3, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), however, it decreased C18:1t-11, C18:2n-6, cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acids, n-6 PUFA and n-6:n-3 ratio in Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles. PMID:26954221

  9. Use of an electronic activity detection system to characterize estrus activity in crossbred beef heifers differing in follicle number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased numbers of antral follicles have been associated with decreased calving day, increased fertility, increased serum estradiol concentrations, increased serum progesterone concentrations, and increased estrus behavior in cattle. In addition, cows with increased fertility have been shown to h...

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis in straightbred and crossbred Angus, Brahman, and Romosinuano heifers: population genetic analyses and association of genotypes with reproductive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Luna-Nevarez, P; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Vanleeuwen, D M; DeAtley, K L; Islas-Trejo, A; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2011-04-01

    The growth endocrine axis influences reproduction. The objectives of this study were to evaluate population genetic characteristics of SNP genotypes within genes of the GH-IGF axis in straightbred and crossbred Angus, Brahman, and Romosinuano heifers (n = 650) and to test the association of these genotypes with measures of reproduction. These objectives were achieved using 73 SNP within 7 genes on chromosome 5 and the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) and GH-receptor genes, which map to chromosomes 16 and 20, respectively. The SNP were elucidated by resequencing conserved regions of each gene by using DNA from familial-unrelated cattle of a multibreed discovery population. A multiplex SNP assay yielded 59 biallelic SNP useful for evaluating genetic identity and distance. Specifically, the divergence of straightbred Brahman cattle was approximately 15.5% from 5 Bos taurus-influenced breed groups. In the straightbred groups used as a validation population, only 3 SNP had minor allele frequencies >10%. These SNP were in the genes PAPP-A2 (ss115492449-A/C and ss115492450-G/T within intron 10) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 2 (STAT2; ss252841035-A/G within the 5' untranslated region), and they met the conditions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.31). The other 56 SNP were useful for assigning each animal into ancestral clusters (n = 3 proportions) to account for population stratification in genotype to phenotype association analyses. The 2 SNP in the PAPP-A2 gene influenced (P < 0.05) traits indicative of first-calf heifer rebreeding (i.e., calving interval, days to calving, and pregnancy rate). A STAT2 SNP genotype (i.e., GG) × primary ancestral cluster interaction (P < 0.05) suggested heifers primarily of B. taurus ancestry had a reduction of approximately 16.4 ± 0.1% in calving interval and days to calving relative to heifers clustering primarily as Bos indicus ancestry. Even though additional research is needed to

  11. Effect of urea supplementation on performance and safety in diets of Dorper crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Ma, T; Deng, K-D; Jiang, C-G; Diao, Q-Y

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dietary urea in sheep rations having a 50:50 concentrate:roughage ratio. Sixty-four Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs with an average body weight of 30.8 (±0.02) kg were randomly divided into four groups of 16 sheep each, and each group was fed one of the following diets: a basal diet (CON), or CON supplemented with 0.5% (0.5UTM), 1.5% (1.5UTM) or 2.5% (2.5UTM) urea. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, non-carcass offals, meat quality and peptic tissue lesions were assayed. The average daily weight gains for CON, 0.5UTM, 1.5UTM and 2.5UTM were 216, 218, 200 and 170 g, respectively, with the CON and 0.5UTM groups higher than 2.5UTM group (p < 0.05). Sheep from the 2.5UTM treatment had a significantly lower dry matter intake (1.29 kg/day) than those from the CON and 0.5UTM treatments (1.42 and 1.43 kg/day, p < 0.05), and the feed conversion ratio in the 2.5UTM group was the highest (p < 0.05). Carcass characteristics, including shrunk body weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dress percentage, and the absolute or relative weight (% body weight) of heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney, were not altered by the treatments (p > 0.05). The muscular pH of 2.5UTM was higher than that of CON (5.68 vs. 5.52, p < 0.05), and shear force in 0.5UTM was lower compared with CON and 2.5UTM (p < 0.05). The anatomical structure lesions in kidneys became more serious with the increasing dietary urea concentrations, with the 2.5UTM animals showing the most severe lesions compared with CON animals. Therefore, supplementary urea as a non-protein nitrogen source for sheep should not exceed 1.5% of ration having a 50:50 concentrate:roughage ratio to ensure efficacy and safety.

  12. Effect of urea supplementation on performance and safety in diets of Dorper crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Ma, T; Deng, K-D; Jiang, C-G; Diao, Q-Y

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dietary urea in sheep rations having a 50:50 concentrate:roughage ratio. Sixty-four Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs with an average body weight of 30.8 (±0.02) kg were randomly divided into four groups of 16 sheep each, and each group was fed one of the following diets: a basal diet (CON), or CON supplemented with 0.5% (0.5UTM), 1.5% (1.5UTM) or 2.5% (2.5UTM) urea. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, non-carcass offals, meat quality and peptic tissue lesions were assayed. The average daily weight gains for CON, 0.5UTM, 1.5UTM and 2.5UTM were 216, 218, 200 and 170 g, respectively, with the CON and 0.5UTM groups higher than 2.5UTM group (p < 0.05). Sheep from the 2.5UTM treatment had a significantly lower dry matter intake (1.29 kg/day) than those from the CON and 0.5UTM treatments (1.42 and 1.43 kg/day, p < 0.05), and the feed conversion ratio in the 2.5UTM group was the highest (p < 0.05). Carcass characteristics, including shrunk body weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dress percentage, and the absolute or relative weight (% body weight) of heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney, were not altered by the treatments (p > 0.05). The muscular pH of 2.5UTM was higher than that of CON (5.68 vs. 5.52, p < 0.05), and shear force in 0.5UTM was lower compared with CON and 2.5UTM (p < 0.05). The anatomical structure lesions in kidneys became more serious with the increasing dietary urea concentrations, with the 2.5UTM animals showing the most severe lesions compared with CON animals. Therefore, supplementary urea as a non-protein nitrogen source for sheep should not exceed 1.5% of ration having a 50:50 concentrate:roughage ratio to ensure efficacy and safety. PMID:27611109

  13. Parasites in cross-bred pigs in the Upper East region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Permin, A; Yelifari, L; Bloch, P; Steenhard, N; Hansen, N P; Nansen, P

    1999-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana in order to estimate the prevalence of parasitic infections in local cross-bred pigs. Out of 60 villages with a human population of 200-1000 inhabitants, 10 villages were randomly selected for the study. The number of pigs varied from 50 to 200 pigs per village. In total 259 faecal samples from growers were collected and examined. Ninety-one percent of the animals excreted parasite eggs. Among these the prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 77.2%, Isospora suis (27%) and Balantidium coli (19.3%).The following helminth eggs were identified: Metastrongylus salmi (19.3%); Physocephalus sexalatus (17.4%); Oesophagostomum spp./Hyostrongylus rubidus (60.6%); Trichuris suis (4.6%); Ascaris suum (12.7%); Ascarops strongylina (8.1%); Brachylaemus suis (1.9%); Paragonimus suis (0.8%); Globocephalus urosubulatus (2.7%); and Schistosoma suis (0.4%). Furthermore, six growers were selected from each village for clinical and postmortem examinations, i.e. 60 in total. The clinical examinations revealed ectoparasites on 98.3% of the animals. The ectoparasites were: Haematopinus suis (66.7%); Boophilus spp. (58.3%); Amblyomma spp (45.0%); Sarcoptes suis (38.3%); and Rhipicephalus spp. (8.3%). All pigs were examined for the presence of haemoparasites. It was found that 23.3% of the animals had haemoparasites. These were: Babesia perroncitoi (23.3%); Babesia trautmanni (13.3%); and Eperytrozoon suis (1.7%). Based on postmortem examinations the following adult worms were identified: Metastrongylus salmi (83.3%); Oesophagostomum dentatum (63.3%); Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum (38.3%); Hyostrongylus rubidus (23.3%); Ascarops strongylina (76.7%); Globocephalus urosubulatus (20.0%); Strongyloides spp. (1.7%); and Physocephalus sexalatus (65.0%). Cysts of the human tapeworm Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, were present in 11.7% of the animals. Small pieces of the diaphragm were examined for the presence of

  14. Energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth of Boer crossbred kids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M H M R; Resende, K T; Tedeschi, L O; Fernandes, J S; Silva, H M; Carstens, G E; Berchielli, T T; Teixeira, I A M A; Akinaga, L

    2007-04-01

    Meat production by goats has become an important livestock enterprise in several parts of the world. Nonetheless, energy and protein requirements of meat goats have not been defined thoroughly. The objective of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth of 34 (3/4) Boer x (1/4) Saanen crossbred, intact male kids (20.5 +/- 0.24 kg of initial BW). The baseline group was 7 randomly selected kids, averaging 21.2 +/- 0.36 kg of BW. An intermediate group consisted of 6 randomly selected kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 28.2 +/- 0.39 kg. The remaining kids (n = 21) were allocated randomly on d 0 to 3 levels of DMI (treatments were ad libitum or restricted to 70 or 40% of the ad libitum intake) within 7 slaughter groups. A slaughter group contained 1 kid from each treatment, and kids were slaughtered when the ad libitum treatment kid reached 35 kg of BW. Individual body components (head plus feet, hide, internal organs plus blood, and carcass) were weighed, ground, mixed, and subsampled for chemical analyses. Initial body composition was determined using equations developed from the composition of the baseline kids. The calculated daily maintenance requirement for NE was 77.3 +/- 1.05 kcal/kg(0.75) of empty BW (EBW) or 67.4 +/- 1.04 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW. The daily ME requirement for maintenance (118.1 kcal/kg(0.75) of EBW or 103.0 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW) was calculated by iteration, assuming that the heat produced was equal to the ME intake at maintenance. The partial efficiency of use of ME for NE below maintenance was 0.65. A value of 2.44 +/- 0.4 g of net protein/kg(0.75) of EBW for daily maintenance was determined. Net energy requirements for growth ranged from 2.55 to 3.0 Mcal/kg of EBW gain at 20 and 35 kg of BW, and net protein requirements for growth ranged from 178.8 to 185.2 g/kg of EBW gain. These results suggest that NE and net protein requirements

  15. Restriction of vitamin A and D in beef cattle finishing diets on feedlot performance and adipose accretion.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, C L; Loerch, S C; Fluharty, F L

    2012-06-01

    Feedlot producers often exceed NRC recommendations for vitamin A and D supplementation; however, increased concentrations of these vitamins have been shown to limit adipocyte differentiation in vitro. A feedlot trial was conducted using 168 Angus crossbred steers (BW = 284 ± 0.4 kg) allotted to 24 pens. The experiment had a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: no supplemental vitamin A or D (NAND), 3,750 IU vitamin A/kg dietary DM with no supplemental vitamin D (SAND), no supplemental vitamin A and 1,860 IU vitamin D/kg dietary DM (NASD), and 3,750 IU and 1,860 IU vitamin A and D/ kg dietary DM (SASD), respectively. Serum, liver, and intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue retinol concentrations were decreased in (P < 0.001) in cattle fed the no supplemental vitamin A diets (NAND and NASD combined) compared with those consuming supplemental vitamin A (SAND and SASD combined) diets. In addition, intramuscular retinol concentration was 38% less than in the subcutaneous depot. Serum 25(OH)D(3) concentrations were reduced (P < 0.001) during the first 70 d when cattle were fed no supplemental vitamin D diets (NAND and SAND combined); however, liver 25(OH)D(3) concentrations remained unchanged (P > 0.10) through d 184. Serum and liver 25(OH)D(3) concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with vitamin D supplementation (NASD and SASD combined). The DMI, ADG, G:F, and morbidity were not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary concentration of vitamin A or D. There were vitamin A and D interactions (P < 0.03) for backfat thickness and USDA Yield grade. Cattle fed the NAND diet had greater (P < 0.03) Yield grades than other treatments because of greater (P < 0.005) 12th rib backfat thickness in NAND steers than the NASD and SAND steers. Vitamin D concentrations were attenuated and minimal carcass adiposity responses to vitamin D supplementation were observed. Feeding a diet without supplemental vitamin A increased (P < 0.05) Quality grades and marbling scores and tended (P

  16. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242

  17. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

  18. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination...

  19. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  20. Highly Divergent Hepaciviruses from African Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor Max; Grundhoff, Adam; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Gmyl, Anatoly; Wollny, Robert; Dei, Dickson; Ritz, Daniel; Binger, Tabea; Adankwah, Ernest; Marfo, Kwadwo Sarfo; Annison, Lawrence; Annan, Augustina; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Becher, Paul; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hepatitis C virus (HCV; genus Hepacivirus) is a highly relevant human pathogen. Unique hepaciviruses (HV) were discovered recently in animal hosts. The direct ancestor of HCV has not been found, but the genetically most closely related animal HVs exist in horses. To investigate whether other peridomestic animals also carry HVs, we analyzed sera from Ghanaian cattle for HVs by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Nine of 106 specimens from different sampling sites contained HV RNA (8.5%) at median viral loads of 1.6 × 105 copies/ml. Infection seemed unrelated to cattle age and gender. Near-full-genome sequencing of five representative viruses confirmed taxonomic classifications. Cattle HVs formed two distinct phylogenetic lineages that differed by up to 17.7% on the nucleotide level in the polyprotein-encoding region, suggesting cocirculation of different virus subtypes. A conserved microRNA122-binding site in the 5′ internal ribosomal entry site suggested liver tropism of cattle HVs. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the circulation of HVs in cattle for several centuries. Cattle HVs were genetically highly divergent from all other HVs, including HCV. HVs from genetically related equine and bovine hosts were not monophyletic, corroborating host shifts during the evolution of the genus Hepacivirus. Similar to equine HVs, the genetic diversity of cattle HVs was low compared to that of HCV genotypes. This suggests an influence of the human-modified ecology of peridomestic animals on virus diversity. Further studies should investigate the occurrence of cattle HVs in other geographic areas and breeds, virus pathogenicity in cattle, and the potential exposure of human risk groups, such as farmers, butchers, and abattoir workers. IMPORTANCE HCV (genus Hepacivirus) is a major human pathogen, causing liver failure and cancer. Unique hepaciviruses (HVs) were discovered over the last few years in animals, but the direct ancestor of HCV has not been found. The

  1. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  2. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait.

  3. Effects of sustained reduction of enteric methane emissions with dietary supplementation of 3-nitrooxypropanol on growth performance of growing and finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; McGinn, S M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-05-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of sustained reduction of enteric methane (CH) emissions with dietary supplementation of the inhibitor 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) on growth rate and feed conversion efficiency of growing and finishing beef cattle. Eighty-four crossbred steers were used in a 238-d feeding study and fed a backgrounding diet for the first 105 d (backgrounding phase) and transition diets for 28 d followed by a finishing diet for 105 d (finishing phase) with 3 doses of NOP (0, 100, and 200 mg/kg DM). The experiment was a completely randomized design using 21 pens (4 cattle/pen) with 7 pens per treatment. When cattle were fed the backgrounding diet, pen DMI was reduced ( < 0.01) whereas G:F tended to improve ( = 0.06) with increasing dose of NOP supplementation. During the finishing phase, DMI ( = 0.06) and ADG ( = 0.07) tended to decrease with increasing dose of NOP supplementation. Although both levels of NOP were effective in reducing CH emissions from the backgrounding diet ( < 0.01), only NOP supplemented at the highest dose was effective in reducing total CH emissions from the finishing diet ( < 0.01). Methane yield (g/kg DMI) was reduced whereas hydrogen emissions were increased at the highest dose of NOP supplementation with both backgrounding and finishing diets ( < 0.01). Overall, these results demonstrate efficacy of NOP in reducing enteric CH emissions from cattle fed backgrounding and finishing diets, and these effects were negated once NOP supplementation was discontinued. PMID:27285700

  4. Cloning cattle: the methods in the madness.

    PubMed

    Oback, Björn; Wells, David N

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is much more widely and efficiently practiced in cattle than in any other species, making this arguably the most important mammal cloned to date. While the initial objective behind cattle cloning was commercially driven--in particular to multiply genetically superior animals with desired phenotypic traits and to produce genetically modified animals-researchers have now started to use bovine SCNT as a tool to address diverse questions in developmental and cell biology. In this paper, we review current cattle cloning methodologies and their potential technical or biological pitfalls at any step of the procedure. In doing so, we focus on one methodological parameter, namely donor cell selection. We emphasize the impact of epigenetic and genetic differences between embryonic, germ, and somatic donor cell types on cloning efficiency. Lastly, we discuss adult phenotypes and fitness of cloned cattle and their offspring and illustrate some of the more imminent commercial cattle cloning applications.

  5. Effects of fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus on conception rate in smallholder zebu and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double PGF2α administration.

    PubMed

    Gugssa, Tadesse; Ashebir, Gebregiorgis; Yayneshet, Tesfay

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate estrus response, time to the onset of estrus, and conception rate at fixed time AI and AI at detected estrus in local and crossbred heifers and cows subjected to double administration of PGF2α. One hundred twenty local (heifers, n = 27; cows, n = 33) and crossbreds (heifers, n = 21; cows, n = 39) were used for the study. About 63 and 85.7 % of the local and crossbred heifers, respectively, exhibited estrus. Similarly, all crossbred cows and 90.9 % of local cows showed estrus. Most heifers came to estrus between 48 and 72 h while cows exhibited behavioral signs of estrus between 72 and 96 h. AI at detected estrus resulted in higher conception rate than fixed time AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination was higher in AI at detected estrus than fixed time AI. Accurate estrus detection followed by insemination are crucial factors in maximizing pregnancy, and this study has demonstrated that conception rate in smallholder heifers and cows should be inseminated following estrus detection to maximize the conception rate of the animals. PMID:27184042

  6. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. I. Reproduction and parturition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, t...

  7. Inorganic arsenic toxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Riviere, J E; Boosinger, T R; Everson, R J

    1981-03-01

    In 4 occurrences of arsenic poisoning in cattle, the principal clinical sign was acute hemorrhagic diarrhea attributable to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Arsenic concentrations in the liver, kidney and rumen contents varied. In one occurrence, arsenic in the hair of affected survivors was assayed at 0.8-3.40 ppm, vs 0.09-0.10 ppm in randomly selected control samples of hair. Sudden death was the only clinical sign in another occurrence in which gastric contents contained arsenic at 671 ppm. In another occurrence, arsenic poisoning caused lesions similar to those of salmonellosis.

  8. Technical note: Digital quantification of eye pigmentation of cattle with white faces.

    PubMed

    Davis, K M; Smith, T; Bolt, B; Meadows, S; Powell, J G; Vann, R C; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lalman, D L; Rouquette, F M; Hansen, G R; Cooper, A J; Cloud, J E; Garcia, M D; Herring, A D; Hale, D S; Sanders, J O; Hairgrove, T B; DeWitt, T J; Riley, D G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the eye in cattle with white faces occurs less frequently in cattle with pigmented eyelids. Corneoscleral pigmentation is related to eyelid pigmentation and occurrence of lesions that may precede cancer. Objectives of this study were to assess 1) variation in the proportion of eyelid and corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford, Bos taurus, and Bos indicus crossbreds and 2) the occurrence of lesions with the presence of pigmentation in those areas. Hereford and Bos indicus crosses (Brahman or Nellore with Angus and Hereford and straightbred Brafords) and Bos taurus crosses (Angus-Hereford) were included in the study (n = 1,083). Eyelid pigmentation proportions were estimated by pixel quantification and were evaluated as total proportions and for upper and lower eyelids distinctly for each eye. Fixed effects included breed type, age categories, and sex of the animal. Lesion presence (1) or absence (0) was obtained by visual appraisal of image and was assumed to be binomially distributed. Eyelid pigmentation proportions (overall, upper, and lower eyelids) for Hereford ranged from 0.65 ± 0.03 to 0.68 ± 0.03 and were significantly lower than Bos indicus (range from 0.93 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02) or Bos taurus (ranged from 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.92 ± 0.02) crosses. Corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) did not differ (P = 0.91) from Hereford calves and yearlings (0.16 ± 0.07). Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbred cows had larger corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04 for left eyes and 0.37 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.04 for right eyes, respectively) than all calves (P < 0.001), and their corneoscleral pigmentations were greater than that of Hereford cows (P < 0.003). Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows had greater proportions of left eye corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04, respectively) than Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) and all young animal breed types (P < 0.05). Right eye proportions differed for all cow

  9. Technical note: Digital quantification of eye pigmentation of cattle with white faces.

    PubMed

    Davis, K M; Smith, T; Bolt, B; Meadows, S; Powell, J G; Vann, R C; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lalman, D L; Rouquette, F M; Hansen, G R; Cooper, A J; Cloud, J E; Garcia, M D; Herring, A D; Hale, D S; Sanders, J O; Hairgrove, T B; DeWitt, T J; Riley, D G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the eye in cattle with white faces occurs less frequently in cattle with pigmented eyelids. Corneoscleral pigmentation is related to eyelid pigmentation and occurrence of lesions that may precede cancer. Objectives of this study were to assess 1) variation in the proportion of eyelid and corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford, Bos taurus, and Bos indicus crossbreds and 2) the occurrence of lesions with the presence of pigmentation in those areas. Hereford and Bos indicus crosses (Brahman or Nellore with Angus and Hereford and straightbred Brafords) and Bos taurus crosses (Angus-Hereford) were included in the study (n = 1,083). Eyelid pigmentation proportions were estimated by pixel quantification and were evaluated as total proportions and for upper and lower eyelids distinctly for each eye. Fixed effects included breed type, age categories, and sex of the animal. Lesion presence (1) or absence (0) was obtained by visual appraisal of image and was assumed to be binomially distributed. Eyelid pigmentation proportions (overall, upper, and lower eyelids) for Hereford ranged from 0.65 ± 0.03 to 0.68 ± 0.03 and were significantly lower than Bos indicus (range from 0.93 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02) or Bos taurus (ranged from 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.92 ± 0.02) crosses. Corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) did not differ (P = 0.91) from Hereford calves and yearlings (0.16 ± 0.07). Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbred cows had larger corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04 for left eyes and 0.37 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.04 for right eyes, respectively) than all calves (P < 0.001), and their corneoscleral pigmentations were greater than that of Hereford cows (P < 0.003). Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows had greater proportions of left eye corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04, respectively) than Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) and all young animal breed types (P < 0.05). Right eye proportions differed for all cow

  10. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  11. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  12. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  13. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  14. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  15. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  16. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  17. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  18. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  19. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  20. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  1. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  2. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  3. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  4. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  5. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  6. Environmental factors affecting daily water intake on cattle finished in feedlots.

    PubMed

    Arias, R A; Mader, T L

    2011-01-01

    Records from 7 studies conducted during 1999 to 2005 were utilized to assess the effects of environmental factors on daily water intake (DWI) of finishing cattle. Data from unshaded feedlot pens (up to 24 pens utilized per study; 6 to 9 animals·pen(-1)) containing predominantly Angus crossbred cattle were obtained by dividing total water intake by the number of animals utilizing that waterer. Each waterer was shared by 2 pens; therefore, data were derived from a database containing 72 experimental units comprising 144 pen records. Climatic data were compiled from weather stations located at the feedlot facility. The database included daily measures of mean ambient (Ta), maximum (Tmax), and minimum (Tmin) temperature (°C), precipitation, relative humidity (%), wind speed (m•s(-1)), solar radiation (SR, W•m(-2)), and temperature-humidity index (THI), as well as DMI (kg•d(-1)) and DWI (L•d(-1)). Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted by season and for the overall data set. Results confirmed that DWI increases during the summer (P < 0.01). When seasons were combined and analyzed by linear regression, the best predictors of DWI were THI (r(2) = 0.57), Ta (r(2) = 0.57), Tmin (r(2) = 0.56), and Tmax (r(2) = 0.54). In multiple regression analyses, smaller coefficients of determination (R(2) < 0.25) were found within summer and winter seasons. Across season, the largest R(2) (0.65) were obtained from the following prediction equations: 1) DWI = 5.92 + (1.03•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.45•Tmin); and 2) DWI = -7.31 + (1.00•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.30•THI). In conclusion, Ta, Tmin, and THI were found to be the primary factors that influence DWI in finishing cattle, whereas SR and DMI were found to have a smaller influence on DWI.

  7. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Eigenberg, Roger A; Nienaber, John A

    2010-11-01

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental to the well-being and performance of the animals. Sprinkle cooling of animals has been successfully employed within the pen; however, added moisture to the pens' surface increases odor generation from the pen. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility instead of in the pen, which could potentially provide extra evaporative cooling to offset the added heat produced by activity. Sixty-four cross-bred heifers were assigned to one of eight pens on the basis of weight. On four separate occasions during hot conditions (average temperature 28.2 ± 1.9°C, 29.1 ± 2.0°C, 28.9 ± 3.0°C, and 26.8 ± 1.6°C; with the temperature ranging from 22.6 to 32.5°C during the trials), the heifers were moved from their pens to and from the working facility (a building with a scale and squeeze chute located 160-200 m away). While in the squeeze chute, four of the pens of heifers were sprinkle cooled and the remaining four pens were worked as normal. The heifers that were treated had a body temperature that peaked sooner (31.9 ± 0.63 min compared to 37.6 ± 0.62) with a lower peak body temperature (39.55 ± 0.03°C compared to 39.74 ± 0.03°C), and recovered sooner (70.5 ± 2.4 min compared to 83.2 ± 2.4 min). The treated animals also had a lower panting score, a visual assessment of level of cattle heat stress (1.1 ± 0.2 compared to 1.16 ± 0.2). The behavior measurements that were taken did not indicate a change in behavior. It was concluded that while a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility did not completely offset the

  8. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, rate and variation in feed intake, and acid-base balance in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abney, C S; Vasconcelos, J T; McMeniman, J P; Keyser, S A; Wilson, K R; Vogel, G J; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on performance, intake patterns, and acid-base balance of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 360 crossbred steers (Brangus, British, and British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 545 kg) were used in a study with a 3 x 3 factorial design to study the effects of dose [0, 100, or 200 mg/(steer x d) of RAC] and duration (28, 35, or 42 d) of feeding of RAC in a randomized complete block design (9 treatments, 8 pens/treatment). No dose x duration interactions were detected (P > 0.10). As RAC dose increased, final BW (FBW; P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P < 0.01) increased linearly. As duration of feeding increased, ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04), with tendencies for quadratic effects for FBW (P = 0.06), DMI (P = 0.07), and G:F (P = 0.09). Hot carcass weight increased linearly (P = 0.02) as dose of RAC increased. Thus, increasing the dose of RAC from 0 to 200 mg/(steer x d) and the duration of feeding from 28 to 42 d improved feedlot performance, although quadratic responses for duration of feeding indicated little improvement as the duration was extended from 35 to 42 d. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred beef steers (BW = 593 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effects of RAC [0 or 200 mg/(steer x d) for 30 d; 6 steers/treatment] on rate of intake, daily variation in intake patterns, and acid-base balance. To assess intake patterns, absolute values of daily deviations in feed delivered to each steer relative to the total quantity of feed delivered were analyzed as repeated measures. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feedlot performance, urine pH, blood gas measurements, or variation in intake patterns between RAC and control cattle, but steers fed RAC had increased (P = 0.04) LM area, decreased (P = 0.03) yield grade, and increased (P < 0.10) time to consume 50 and 75% of daily intake relative to control steers. Our results suggest that feeding RAC for 35 d at 200 mg

  9. Screening of biotechnical parameters for production of bovine inter-subspecies embryonic chimeras by the aggregation of tetraploid Bos indicus and diploid crossbred Bos taurus embryos.

    PubMed

    Razza, Eduardo M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Emanuelli, Isabele P; Barros, Ciro M; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-03-01

    The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts. Bovine (Bos indicus or crossbred Bos taurus) embryos were produced in vitro according to standard procedures. Two-cell Bos indicus embryos were submitted to electrofusion with varying numbers of pulses (1 or 2), voltages (0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.4 and 5.0 kV/cm) and time (20, 25, 50 and 60 μs) to produce tetraploid embryos. Electrofused embryos were cultured with crossbred non-fused embryos to form chimeras that developed until the blastocyst stage. The best fusion parameter was 0.75 kV/cm for 60 μs. Four chimeric blastocysts (tetraploid Nelore with diploid crossbred Holstein) were formed after 31 attempts in 4 replicates (13%). We established an optimal procedure for the production of tetraploid Bos indicus (4n) embryos and embryonic chimeras by aggregation of crossbred Bos taurus (2n) with Bos indicus (4n) embryos. This technique would be valid in applied research, by producing exclusively taurine calves, but with placental elements from the Bos indicus breed, following transfer of these chimeras into recipient cows.

  10. Growth at fattening and carcass characteristics of D'man, Sardi and meat-sire crossbred lambs slaughtered at two stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Boujenane, Ismaïl

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate growth at fattening, carcass characteristics and carcass measurements of 19 Sardi, 19 D'man and 52 meat-sire crossbred lambs of both sexes slaughtered at 50 and 70 % of mature weight. Crossbred lambs were born from Sardi, D'man and F1 Sardi × D'man ewes mated to meat-breed rams (Ile de France and Mérinos Précoce). Lambs of each group (breed type by sex) were chosen at random and slaughtered either at 50 or 70 % of mature weight. Sardi and D'man purebred lambs had significantly lower growth at fattening, pre-slaughter live weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fatness, red offal, white offal, sub-products and non-carcass fat than meat-sire crossbred lambs. Differences were 42.2 g/day, 5.03 kg, 4.46 kg, 2.57 kg, 0.96, 0.59, 0.18 kg, 0.39 kg, 0.63 kg and 0.12 kg, respectively. B and Wr measurements of meat-sire crossbred lambs were higher than those of Sardi and D'man purebred lambs, whereas the F measurement was in favour of purebreds. Likewise, CC, G/F and Wr/Th indices of meat-sire crossbreds were higher than those of purebreds; however, the opposite was observed for L/G and Th/G indices. Maternal heterosis was positive and not significant for most traits, negative and not significant for few traits (P > 0.05), but negative and significant for the proportion of sub-products (P < 0.05). It was concluded that growth and carcass characteristics of local sheep can be significantly improved by terminal crossbreeding.

  11. Effects of herbage allowance of native grasslands in purebred and crossbred beef cows: metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Astessiano, A L; López-Mazz, C; Soca, P; Espasandin, A C; Carriquiry, M

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the metabolic, endocrine and hepatic mRNA profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle in purebred (PU: Angus and Hereford) and crossbred (CR: reciprocal F1 crosses) mutliparous beef cows (n=32), grazing on two herbage allowances of native pastures (2.5 v. 4 kg dry matter/kg BW; LO v. HI) and their associations with cow's productive performance (calf birth weight, milk production and commencement of luteal activity). Cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected monthly, starting at -165 days relative to calving (days), and every 2 weeks after calving until +60 days of lactation. Liver biopsies were collected at -165, -75, -45, -15±10, and +15 and +60±3 days. Metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles, and calf birth weight, milk yield and postpartum commencement of luteal activity were evaluated. Overall, the most pronounced changes in metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression occurred during winter gestation (-165 to -45 days), when all cows experienced the onset of a negative energy balance (decreased BCS, glucose and insulin, and increased non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, P<0.008). Concentrations of insulin and IGF-I were greater (P<0.037) in HI than in LO cows. However, serum IGF-I concentrations and hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF1 mRNA decreased (P<0.05) during the winter gestation period only in HI cows. Although IGF-I concentrations decreased (P<0.05) during the early postpartum (-15 v.+15 days) for all cows, the typical molecular mechanism that control the uncoupling of the growth hormone-IGF1 axis during the transition period of the dairy cattle (reduced hepatic GHR1A and IGF-I mRNA) was not observed in this study. The hepatic mRNA expression of key transcripts involved in gluconeogenesis and fatty-acid oxidation were upregulated (P<0.05) during winter gestation (from -165 to -45, -15 or +15 days, depending on the cow groups). Particularly, acyl

  12. Effects of herbage allowance of native grasslands in purebred and crossbred beef cows: metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Astessiano, A L; López-Mazz, C; Soca, P; Espasandin, A C; Carriquiry, M

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the metabolic, endocrine and hepatic mRNA profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle in purebred (PU: Angus and Hereford) and crossbred (CR: reciprocal F1 crosses) mutliparous beef cows (n=32), grazing on two herbage allowances of native pastures (2.5 v. 4 kg dry matter/kg BW; LO v. HI) and their associations with cow's productive performance (calf birth weight, milk production and commencement of luteal activity). Cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected monthly, starting at -165 days relative to calving (days), and every 2 weeks after calving until +60 days of lactation. Liver biopsies were collected at -165, -75, -45, -15±10, and +15 and +60±3 days. Metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles, and calf birth weight, milk yield and postpartum commencement of luteal activity were evaluated. Overall, the most pronounced changes in metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression occurred during winter gestation (-165 to -45 days), when all cows experienced the onset of a negative energy balance (decreased BCS, glucose and insulin, and increased non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, P<0.008). Concentrations of insulin and IGF-I were greater (P<0.037) in HI than in LO cows. However, serum IGF-I concentrations and hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF1 mRNA decreased (P<0.05) during the winter gestation period only in HI cows. Although IGF-I concentrations decreased (P<0.05) during the early postpartum (-15 v.+15 days) for all cows, the typical molecular mechanism that control the uncoupling of the growth hormone-IGF1 axis during the transition period of the dairy cattle (reduced hepatic GHR1A and IGF-I mRNA) was not observed in this study. The hepatic mRNA expression of key transcripts involved in gluconeogenesis and fatty-acid oxidation were upregulated (P<0.05) during winter gestation (from -165 to -45, -15 or +15 days, depending on the cow groups). Particularly, acyl

  13. Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

  14. Effects of supplementation frequency on performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of Brahman-crossbred females.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Araujo, D B; Lamb, G C; Ealy, A D

    2008-09-01

    interaction; P = 0.02). The combined expression of gluconeogenic enzymes mRNA tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for S3 cows when both treatment groups received supplements, but was greater (P = 0.03) for S7 cows when only these were supplemented (treatment x day interaction; P < 0.01). In conclusion, offering an energy supplement based on fibrous byproducts daily instead of 3 times weekly enhanced the nutritional and metabolic status of forage-fed Brahman-crossbred females, resulting in improved growth and reproductive performance of developing heifers. PMID:18441070

  15. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  16. [Killing of cattle via electrical stunning].

    PubMed

    Maurer, B; Forster, S

    2007-04-01

    For disease control in the case of epidemics killing of cattle via electrical stunning is a method of choice. The official veterinarian is responsible for monitoring the adhesion to animal welfare principles during electrical stunning and killing. This requires specialised knowledge and experience as the symptoms of effective stunning are quite variable in cattle. Signs of effective and ineffective stunning are described below. In addition to suitable technical equipment, restraint of the animals and correct use of the equipment, neurophysiological processes have to be considered. Calm handling of the animals avoiding stress is a prerequisite for ensuring animal welfare and minimising pain especially when killing cattle using electrical methods.

  17. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  18. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P < 0.01), respectively. Also, significant variations were seen in pregnancy rates from inseminations performed in different seasons (P < 0.01) and by different technicians (P < 0.01). In contrast to Holsteins, no difference was seen in the pregnancy rate between heifers and parous buffalo cows, and buffalo cows with different genetic backgrounds (swamp type, crossbred F1 and F2) showed similar fertility after insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds. PMID:26149075

  19. A proteomics approach to detect tissue-wide adaptive changes in the pancreas associated with increased pancreatic α-amylase activity in domestic cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Holligan, Simone; Wang, Jiaxi; Cant, John P; Swanson, Kendall C

    2013-03-01

    We used a proteomics-based approach to investigate potential regulatory proteins in the pancreas of domestic cattle (Bos taurus) that were associated with differences in pancreatic α-amylase activity. Two groups of 48 and 45 crossbred steers in years 1 and 2, respectively, were fed a high moisture corn-based diet and were ranked according to their pancreatic α-amylase activity. Steers (n=18) with high, medium, and low α-amylase activity were selected, with 3 for each activity range and 9 for each experimental year, and their proteomic profiles were compared. Pancreatic samples from each animal were fractionated using 2D-HPLC and fractions detected using UV spectrophotometry. Software analysis revealed 119 common protein fractions among the 18 animals, and statistical analysis revealed 10 of these fractions differing (P<0.10) in abundance between animals from the high and low pancreatic α-amylase activity groups. Five protein fractions identified after tandem mass spectrometry analysis and database searches were found to match proteins with protein-binding, nucleotide/DNA-binding or enzymatic capabilities. Bioinformatics analysis of these fractions revealed porphobilinogen deaminase, a DNA-binding protein, and a putative S1 peptidase that increased in abundance with increasing α-amylase activity; with a putative ATP/GTP binding protein decreasing in abundance with increasing pancreatic α-amylase activity. Changes in these fractions may represent adaptations of the pancreas in domestic cattle that are associated with differences in α-amylase activity.

  20. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  1. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.003) with average daily gain (ADG) and 3 of these were also associated (P ≤ 0.002) with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a population of crossbred beef cattle. The SNP were clustered in a 570 kb region around 38 Mb on the draft sequence of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6), an interval containing several positional and functional candidate genes including the bovine LAP3, NCAPG, and LCORL genes. The goal of the present study was to develop and examine additional markers in this region to optimize the ability to distinguish favorable alleles, with potential to identify functional variation. Results Animals from the original study were genotyped for 47 SNP within or near the gene boundaries of the three candidate genes. Sixteen markers in the NCAPG-LCORL locus displayed significant association with both ADFI and ADG even after stringent correction for multiple testing (P ≤ 005). These markers were evaluated for their effects on meat and carcass traits. The alleles associated with higher ADFI and ADG were also associated with higher hot carcass weight (HCW) and ribeye area (REA), and lower adjusted fat thickness (AFT). A reduced set of markers was genotyped on a separate, crossbred population including genetic contributions from 14 beef cattle breeds. Two of the markers located within the LCORL gene locus remained significant for ADG (P ≤ 0.04). Conclusions Several markers within the NCAPG-LCORL locus were significantly associated with feed intake and body weight gain phenotypes. These markers were also associated with HCW, REA and AFT suggesting that they are involved with lean growth and reduced fat deposition. Additionally, the two markers significant for ADG in the validation population of animals may be more robust for the prediction of ADG and possibly the correlated trait ADFI, across multiple breeds

  2. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis and Risk Factor Assessment in Cattle in Rural Livestock Areas of Govuro District in the Southeast of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Nuno; Nhambir, André; Inlamea, Osvaldo; Hattendorf, Jan; Källenius, Gunilla; Zinsstag, Jakob; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an infectious disease of cattle that also affects other domestic animals, free-ranging and farmed wildlife, and also humans. In Mozambique, scattered surveys have reported a wide variation of bTB prevalence rates in cattle from different regions. Due to direct economic repercussions on livestock and indirect consequences for human health and wildlife, knowing the prevalence rates of the disease is essential to define an effective control strategy. Methodology/Principal findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Govuro district to determine bTB prevalence in cattle and identify associated risk factors. A representative sample of the cattle population was defined, stratified by livestock areas (n = 14). A total of 1136 cattle from 289 farmers were tested using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin test. The overall apparent prevalence was estimated at 39.6% (95% CI 36.8–42.5) using a diagnostic threshold cut-off according to the World Organization for Animal Health. bTB reactors were found in 13 livestock areas, with prevalence rates ranging from 8.1 to 65.8%. Age was the main risk factor; animals older than 4 years were more likely to be positive reactors (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 2.2–4.7). Landim local breed showed a lower prevalence than crossbred animals (Landim × Brahman) (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4–0.8). Conclusions/Significance The findings reveal an urgent need for intervention with effective, area-based, control measures in order to reduce bTB prevalence and prevent its spread to the human population. In addition to the high prevalence, population habits in Govuro, particularly the consumption of raw milk, clearly may potentiate the transmission to humans. Thus, further studies on human tuberculosis and the molecular characterization of the predominant strain lineages that cause bTB in cattle and humans are urgently required to evaluate the impact on human health in

  3. Effect of pre- and postweaning management system on the performance on Brahman crossbred feeder calves.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W A; Holloway, J W; Coleman, S W

    1991-08-01

    During a 3-yr period (1986 through 1988), 117 calves (57 steers and 60 heifers) from the same genetic base and reared under four distinct preweaning management systems were weaned in the fall and transported from Uvalde, TX to El Reno, OK (800 km). Weaning weight and transportation shrink varied more from year to year than among preweaning treatments. Postweaning performance was not affected by preweaning treatment. After a 28- to 32-d receiving period the calves were blocked by sex and previous preweaning treatment, then randomly assigned within block to graze winter wheat forage (WHEAT) or dormant tall-grass native range (GRASS). The WHEAT group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the GRASS group during the winter (November to March), but when both groups were allowed to graze spring wheat pasture (March to June) the GRASS group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the WHEAT calves. During the subsequent finishing phase the GRASS calves were more (P less than .01) efficient than the WHEAT calves in converting DM to gain. Because cattle were slaughtered at the same degree of finish, no differences were noted in carcass characteristics among the pre- or postweaning treatments. Feeder calves exposed to a restrictive period of growth during the postweaning period gained weight more rapidly in a subsequent forage-based stockering system and were more efficient in a grain-based finishing system than nonrestricted calves. PMID:1894546

  4. Effect of pre- and postweaning management system on the performance on Brahman crossbred feeder calves.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W A; Holloway, J W; Coleman, S W

    1991-08-01

    During a 3-yr period (1986 through 1988), 117 calves (57 steers and 60 heifers) from the same genetic base and reared under four distinct preweaning management systems were weaned in the fall and transported from Uvalde, TX to El Reno, OK (800 km). Weaning weight and transportation shrink varied more from year to year than among preweaning treatments. Postweaning performance was not affected by preweaning treatment. After a 28- to 32-d receiving period the calves were blocked by sex and previous preweaning treatment, then randomly assigned within block to graze winter wheat forage (WHEAT) or dormant tall-grass native range (GRASS). The WHEAT group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the GRASS group during the winter (November to March), but when both groups were allowed to graze spring wheat pasture (March to June) the GRASS group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the WHEAT calves. During the subsequent finishing phase the GRASS calves were more (P less than .01) efficient than the WHEAT calves in converting DM to gain. Because cattle were slaughtered at the same degree of finish, no differences were noted in carcass characteristics among the pre- or postweaning treatments. Feeder calves exposed to a restrictive period of growth during the postweaning period gained weight more rapidly in a subsequent forage-based stockering system and were more efficient in a grain-based finishing system than nonrestricted calves.

  5. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    PubMed

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals. PMID:25747829

  6. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    PubMed

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals.

  7. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    PubMed

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (<9 months of age) have resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  8. Aspects of ingestive behavior in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bell, F R

    1984-11-01

    Ingestive behavior in cattle differs from other species because of physiological mechanisms developed pari passu with fermentative digestion. The secondary refection of rumination allows remastication and reinsalivation of the large bulk of vegetable food ingested. The need to buffer acid products of cellulose digestion demands continuous high secretion of alkaline saliva. Nervous and hormonal stimuli emanating from the gastrointestinal tract evoke centrally controlled behavior of hunger and satiety. The four primary taste receptors occur in cattle but thresholds are low. Because of the low Na level in plants, cattle have developed the behavior of seeking salt by taste and smell. During Na deficiency it can be shown that cattle readily learn and develop memory, providing a powerful behavioral dimension in the search for food.

  9. Enteric methane production from beef cattle that vary in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Freetly, H C; Brown-Brandl, T M

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that CH4 production will decrease with increased feed efficiency. Two experiments were conducted to determine CH4 production of cattle that differed in feed efficiency. Cattle in both studies were selected from larger contemporary groups. Animals furthest from the confidence ellipse that resulted from regressing BW gain on DMI were selected. In the first experiment, 113 crossbred steers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Steers were 355 ± 1 d of age and weighed 456 ± 10 kg when they began the study. Steers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 82.8% corn, 12.8% corn silage, and 4.5% supplement [contains 0.065% monensin, 32% CP (28% NPN), 7.5% Ca, 0.8% P, 4.8% NaCl, 1.8% K, and 55,116 IU/kg vitamin A]. Thirty-seven steers were selected to measure CH4 production. In the second experiment, 197 heifers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Heifers were 286 ± 1 d of age and weighed 327 ± 2 kg when they began the study. Heifers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 60% corn silage, 30% alfalfa hay, and 10% wet distillers grains with solubles. Forty-seven heifers were selected to measure CH4 production. Methane production was measured with respiration calorimeters. In both experiments, cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and DMI consumed during the 24 h before CH4 production was measured. Methane production was collected for a 6-h period on untrained cattle. Consequently, methane production is not a quantitative measure of daily methane production; rather, it is an index value to rank cattle. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between either BW gain:DMI ratio or residual feed intake (RFI) on CH4 production after adjusting for the previous 24-h DMI. In the steers, BW gain:DMI ratio and previous 24-h feed intake accounted for little of the variance in CH4 production (R(2) = 0.009), and neither did RFI and previous 24-h feed intake (R(2) = 0.001). In the heifers, the BW gain:DMI ratio

  10. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: 1. Metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperamental cattle are behaviorally, physiologically, and immunologically different in comparison to calm cattle. Recently, the metabolic differences between temperamental and calm cattle have begun to be explored; temperamental cattle maintain greater circulating concentrations of non-esterified ...

  11. Structural development of the Jan Mayen microcontinent (JMMC): An update of its role during the rift transition from the Ægir Ridge to the Kolbeinsey Ridge, and effects on the formation of the Greenland-Iceland-Faroe ridge complex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blischke, Anett; Gaina, Carmen; Hopper, John R.; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Brandsdóttir, Bryndis; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Erlendsson, Ögmundur

    2016-04-01

    This study presents results of an ongoing PhD research project and proposes a revision of the Jan Mayen microcontinent's Cenozoic evolution with a special emphasis on the structural relationship to the Greenland-Iceland Faroe ridge complex. Recently acquired and publicly available geophysical and borehole data collected offshore Iceland since the early 1970s, facilitate a thorough review of Tertiary rift systems and their association with the Jan Mayen microcontinent, updating recent kinematic modelling that details the timing of the North Atlantic opening along the Jan Mayen transfer systems, and the Iceland-Faroe-Greenland transfer system bordering the Greenland-Iceland Faroe ridge complex, which covers a large area of thick crust that stretches across the North Atlantic Ocean between the central East Greenland and the North-West European margins. The established regional reflection seismic dataset interpretations and plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the microcontinent may represent the southern extension of the East Greenland Jameson Land basin, suggesting a similar structural trend as the Faroe-Shetland basin. The Cenozoic structural evolution of the Jan Mayen microcontinent and surrounding oceanic crust includes six main phases that correlate to several major unconformities and related structures. Important events include the pre-break-up unconformity, the break-up to drift phase, a drifting phase and establishment of the Ægir Ridge seafloor spreading during the early Eocene, oblique seafloor spreading direction east of JMMC during mid-Eocene caused the formation of transform systems and uplift along the southern flank Jan Mayen microcontinent forming the Iceland Plateau Rift (Brandsdóttir et al. 2015), accompanied by igneous activity along the northeastern margin of the Blosseville Kyst (Larsen et al. 2014), ridge relocation via a southeast to northwest en-echelon ridge system transition from the southern extent of the microcontinent during the

  12. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

  13. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.

  14. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield) and quality (degree of marbling) in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) has previously been associated with hot carcass weight (HCW) and shipping weight (Ship wt) in beef cattle. Results While developing a commercial real time PCR test for POMC c.288C>T a 12 bp deletion (POMC c.293_304delTTGGGGGCGCGG) was identified. The deletion results in the removal of four amino acids (a valine, two glycines, and an alanine). Both the POMC c.288C>T and the deletion were genotyped in 386 crossbred steers and evaluated for associations with carcass traits. The animals with one copy of the deletion had a significantly smaller carcass rib-eye area (7.91 cm2; P = 0.02) in comparison to homozygous normal animals. Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04), hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02), average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05), carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03) and marbling (P = 0.02). Conclusions These results suggest that it could be beneficial for beef producers to know both the deletion and POMC c.288C>T genotypes when making marketing and culling decisions. PMID:21205304

  15. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  16. Integrating Genomics with Nutrition Models to Improve the Prediction of Cattle Performance and Carcass Composition under Feedlot Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Luis O

    2015-01-01

    Cattle body composition is difficult to model because several factors affect the composition of the average daily gain (ADG) of growing animals. The objective of this study was to identify commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels that could improve the predictability of days on feed (DOF) to reach a target United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) grade given animal, diet, and environmental information under feedyard conditions. The data for this study was comprised of crossbred heifers (n = 681) and steers (n = 836) from commercial feedyards. Eleven molecular breeding value (MBV) scores derived from SNP panels of candidate gene polymorphisms and two-leptin gene SNP (UASMS2 and E2FB) were evaluated. The empty body fat (EBF) and the shrunk body weight (SBW) at 28% EBF (AFSBW) were computed by the Cattle Value Discovery System (CVDS) model using hip height (EBFHH and AFSBWHH) or carcass traits (EBFCT and AFSBWCT) of the animals. The DOFHH was calculated when AFSBWHH and ADGHH were used and DOFCT was calculated when AFSBWCT and ADGCT were used. The CVDS estimates dry matter required (DMR) by individuals fed in groups when observed ADG and AFSBW are provided. The AFSBWCT was assumed more accurate than the AFSBWHH because it was computed using carcass traits. The difference between AFSBWCT and AFSBWHH, DOFCT and DOFHH, and DMR and dry matter intake (DMI) were regressed on the MBV scores and leptin gene SNP to explain the variation. Our results indicate quite a large range of correlations among MBV scores and model input and output variables, but MBV ribeye area was the most strongly correlated with the differences in DOF, AFSBW, and DMI by explaining 8, 13.2 and 6.5%, respectively, of the variation. This suggests that specific MBV scores might explain additional variation of input and output variables used by nutritional models in predicting individual animal performance. PMID:26599759

  17. Integrating Genomics with Nutrition Models to Improve the Prediction of Cattle Performance and Carcass Composition under Feedlot Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tedeschi, Luis O.

    2015-01-01

    Cattle body composition is difficult to model because several factors affect the composition of the average daily gain (ADG) of growing animals. The objective of this study was to identify commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels that could improve the predictability of days on feed (DOF) to reach a target United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) grade given animal, diet, and environmental information under feedyard conditions. The data for this study was comprised of crossbred heifers (n = 681) and steers (n = 836) from commercial feedyards. Eleven molecular breeding value (MBV) scores derived from SNP panels of candidate gene polymorphisms and two-leptin gene SNP (UASMS2 and E2FB) were evaluated. The empty body fat (EBF) and the shrunk body weight (SBW) at 28% EBF (AFSBW) were computed by the Cattle Value Discovery System (CVDS) model using hip height (EBFHH and AFSBWHH) or carcass traits (EBFCT and AFSBWCT) of the animals. The DOFHH was calculated when AFSBWHH and ADGHH were used and DOFCT was calculated when AFSBWCT and ADGCT were used. The CVDS estimates dry matter required (DMR) by individuals fed in groups when observed ADG and AFSBW are provided. The AFSBWCT was assumed more accurate than the AFSBWHH because it was computed using carcass traits. The difference between AFSBWCT and AFSBWHH, DOFCT and DOFHH, and DMR and dry matter intake (DMI) were regressed on the MBV scores and leptin gene SNP to explain the variation. Our results indicate quite a large range of correlations among MBV scores and model input and output variables, but MBV ribeye area was the most strongly correlated with the differences in DOF, AFSBW, and DMI by explaining 8, 13.2 and 6.5%, respectively, of the variation. This suggests that specific MBV scores might explain additional variation of input and output variables used by nutritional models in predicting individual animal performance. PMID:26599759

  18. Investigating Outbreaks of Disease or Impaired Productivity in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R

    2015-11-01

    Most cattle move through cattle feeding and finishing systems without health problems or impairment of productivity, but some cattle do become ill or unproductive. When cattle get sick, understanding what has gone wrong and how to remedy the situation is important. An orderly, systematic approach to investigating disease outbreaks is more likely to lead to a solution. The solution may come from identifying and modifying human decisions or behaviors that may be far removed in time or place from the immediate problem. Veterinarians can help cattle feeders recognize and correct the system dynamics factors affecting cattle health and performance.

  19. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  20. Ticks on Deer and Cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks were sampled from hosts in the cattle fever tick permanent quarantine zone along the Texas-Mexico border on five occasions in 2012. Three sample events involved white-tailed deer populations in Zapata and Starr Counties and two were from a cattle herd in Kinney County. Six species of ticks (n ...

  1. Worker Injuries Involving the Interaction of Cattle, Cattle Handlers, and Farm Structures or Equipment.

    PubMed

    Fox, Shannon; Ricketts, Mitch; Minton, J Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Cattle have been identified as leading sources of injuries to agricultural workers. The present study focused on worker injuries that involved the interaction of cattle, cattle handlers, and farm structures or equipment. The goal of the study was to identify opportunities for injury prevention. We examined 221 reports of injury to cattle handlers from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Expected interactions led to many of the cattle-handling injuries reported in the NEISS database. In almost 30% of cases, cattle pushed workers into structures such as fences, gates, posts, and walls. In another 16% to 19% of injuries, cattle struck gates and other objects, propelling them at the victims. The present research makes several important contributions to the study of cattle-handling injuries. First, the research supports an increased emphasis on the development of safer gate designs (e.g., gates that are remotely operated or that absorb energy to limit the speed at which they may be propelled by animals). Second, the research suggests a need for additional study of energy-absorbing fence and wall structures. We view these two points to be of significance because gates and associated structures (e.g., posts, fences, and walls) accounted for 45% of the injuries in the dataset, based on the associated injury narrative. Finally, the research identifies a previously unexplored source of agricultural injury data, namely the NEISS database. PMID:26211350

  2. Prediction equations for Warner-Bratzler shear force using principal component regression analysis in Brahman-influenced Venezuelan cattle.

    PubMed

    Jerez-Timaure, N; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Ortega, J; Rodas-González, A

    2013-03-01

    A database consisting of 331 beef animals (Brahman-crossbred) was used to determine the multivariate relationships between carcass and beef palatability traits of Venezuelan cattle and to develop prediction equations for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The first three principal components (PC) explained 77.53% of the standardized variance. Equations were obtained for each sex class and the total variability observed in WBSF could be explained by its orthogonal regression with carcass weight (CW), fat cover (FC), fat thickness (FT), and skeletal maturity (SM). Prediction equations were: WBSF(steers)=3.566+0.003(CW)-0.033(FC)-0.015(FT)+0.0004(SM); WBSF(heifers)=4.824+0.002(CW)-0.229(FC)+0.096(FT)-0.064(SM); WBSF(bulls)=3.516+0.009(CW)+0.154(FC)-0.129(FT)-0.006(SM). A higher proportion of the variation was explained by the PC when variables of greater weight were selected to define each PC. The equation set presented herein could become an important tool to improve the Venezuelan carcass grading system. PMID:23261538

  3. Association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the bovine chemerin gene and carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Tian, W Q; Wang, H C; Song, F B; Zan, L S; Wang, H; Wang, H B; Xin, Y P; Ujan, J A

    2011-01-01

    Qinchuan is a red or yellow draft and beef breed in China. In order to identify a predictor of carcass traits on the basis of associations between carcass traits and gene polymorphism, variation in the bovine chemerin gene was investigated using PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism and DNA sequencing. An SNP of A868G located in exon 2 of the Bos taurus chemerin gene was detected in 716 samples of six breeds (Jiaxian red, Luxi, Nan yang, Qinchuan, Simmental and Luxi crossbred steers, and Xia'nan), all in China, and three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) were found. Based on the χ(2) test, the AA/AG/GG genotype frequencies of all six breeds were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A possible association of A868G with some carcass traits was investigated in 106 Qinchuan cattle. Animals with the AG genotype were found to have significantly lower mean loin eye area and meat tenderness compared to those with the AA and GG genotypes. However, there was no significant association between any individual haplotype and backfat thickness, water holding capacity or marbling score. We suggest that A868G could be used as a molecular marker in marker-assisted selection for carcass traits. PMID:22095607

  4. Prediction equations for Warner-Bratzler shear force using principal component regression analysis in Brahman-influenced Venezuelan cattle.

    PubMed

    Jerez-Timaure, N; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Ortega, J; Rodas-González, A

    2013-03-01

    A database consisting of 331 beef animals (Brahman-crossbred) was used to determine the multivariate relationships between carcass and beef palatability traits of Venezuelan cattle and to develop prediction equations for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The first three principal components (PC) explained 77.53% of the standardized variance. Equations were obtained for each sex class and the total variability observed in WBSF could be explained by its orthogonal regression with carcass weight (CW), fat cover (FC), fat thickness (FT), and skeletal maturity (SM). Prediction equations were: WBSF(steers)=3.566+0.003(CW)-0.033(FC)-0.015(FT)+0.0004(SM); WBSF(heifers)=4.824+0.002(CW)-0.229(FC)+0.096(FT)-0.064(SM); WBSF(bulls)=3.516+0.009(CW)+0.154(FC)-0.129(FT)-0.006(SM). A higher proportion of the variation was explained by the PC when variables of greater weight were selected to define each PC. The equation set presented herein could become an important tool to improve the Venezuelan carcass grading system.

  5. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    PubMed

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment. PMID:1938641

  6. Changes in conception rate, calving performance, and calf health and survival from the use of crossbred Jersey x Holstein sires as mates for Holstein dams.

    PubMed

    Maltecca, C; Khatib, H; Schutzkus, V R; Hoffman, P C; Weigel, K A

    2006-07-01

    Differences in conception rates in matings of Holstein sires or F1 Jersey x Holstein sires to Holstein dams in the University of Wisconsin-Madison experimental herd were evaluated, as were differences in birth weight, dystocia, serum protein, serum IgG, fecal consistency, respiratory disease, and perinatal and pre-weaning mortality among the resulting calves. When mated to randomly chosen, lactating Holstein cows, Holstein sires (n = 74) and crossbred sires (n = 7) did not differ in male fertility. Calves from Holstein sires and multiparous Holstein dams (n = 99) were 1.9 kg heavier than calves from crossbred sires and multiparous Holstein dams (n = 211), leading to greater likelihood (odds ratio of 1.24) of dystocia. Furthermore, calves from crossbred sires and multiparous Holstein dams had higher serum protein and serum IgG levels between 24 and 72 h of age, as well as lower rates of perinatal and preweaning morality than calves from Holstein sires and multiparous or primiparous Holstein dams. Mean fecal consistency scores from birth to 7 d of age and number of days with scours also tended to be lower among calves from crossbred sires, compared with calves from Holstein sires. No differences were observed in the incidence or severity of respiratory disease. Results of this study suggest that introduction of Jersey genes via crossbreeding may lead to a reduction in dystocia and improvements in calf health and survival in Holstein herds. Future studies should address other traits related to dairy farm profitability, including milk composition, female fertility, longevity, feed efficiency, and resistance to infectious and metabolic diseases.

  7. Climatic factors associated with reproductive performance in English Berkshire pigs and crossbred pigs between Landrace and Large White raised in a subtropical climate region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Usui, Shiho; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to characterize Berkshire female pigs associated with climatic factors by examining the interactions between two pig groups (pure English Berkshire females and crossbred females between Landrace and Large White) for reproductive performance in a humid subtropical zone. We analyzed 63,227 first-service records of 11,992 females in 12 herds. Climate data were obtained from four weather stations located close to the herds. Mean daily maximum temperatures (Tmax) and daily average relative humidity (ARH) for different time periods around servicing and farrowing of each female were coordinated with that female's reproductive performance data. Multilevel mixed-effects models were applied to the data. There were two-way interactions between the pig groups and either Tmax or ARH for weaning-to-first-mating interval (WMI) and number of total pigs born (TPB; P < 0.05). The WMI in Berkshire sows increased by 0.64 days as Tmax increased from 20 to 30 °C (P < 0.05), whereas in crossbred sows it only increased by 0.09 days over the same Tmax range. In contrast, WMI in Berkshire sows only increased by 0.01 days as ARH increased from 60 to 80 % (P < 0.05), whereas in crossbred sows it increased by 0.32 days. In Berkshire females, TPB decreased by 0.3 pigs as Tmax increased from 20 to 30 °C (P < 0.05), whereas that in crossbred females decreased by 0.4 pigs (P < 0.05). Therefore, we recommend producers apply advanced cooling systems for Berkshire females.

  8. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    PubMed

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment.

  9. Occurrence of the Transferable Copper Resistance Gene tcrB among Fecal Enterococci of U.S. Feedlot Cattle Fed Copper-Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, R. G.; Alvarado, C. A.; Mainini, T. R.; Vinasco, J.; Drouillard, J. S.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Copper, an essential micronutrient, is supplemented in the diet at elevated levels to reduce morbidity and mortality and to promote growth in feedlot cattle. Gut bacteria exposed to copper can acquire resistance, which among enterococci is conferred by a transferable copper resistance gene (tcrB) borne on a plasmid. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the feeding of copper at levels sufficient to promote growth increases the prevalence of the tcrB gene among the fecal enterococci of feedlot cattle. The study was performed with 261 crossbred yearling heifers housed in 24 pens, with pens assigned randomly to a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments consisting of dietary copper and a commercial linseed meal-based energy protein supplement. A total of 22 isolates, each identified as Enterococcus faecium, were positive for tcrB with an overall prevalence of 3.8% (22/576). The prevalence was higher among the cattle fed diets supplemented with copper (6.9%) compared to normal copper levels (0.7%). The tcrB-positive isolates always contained both erm(B) and tet(M) genes. Median copper MICs for tcrB-positive and tcrB-negative enterococci were 22 and 4 mM, respectively. The transferability of the tcrB gene was demonstrated via a filter-mating assay. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis revealed a genetically diverse population of enterococci. The finding of a strong association between the copper resistance gene and other antibiotic (tetracycline and tylosin) resistance determinants is significant because enterococci remain potential pathogens and have the propensity to transfer resistance genes to other bacteria in the gut. PMID:23666328

  10. Adipose and Muscle Tissue Gene Expression of Two Genes (NCAPG and LCORL) Located in a Chromosomal Region Associated with Cattle Feed Intake and Gain

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Oliver, William T.; Sexten, Andrea K.; Miles, Jeremy R.; Rempel, Lea A.; Cushman, Robert A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2013-01-01

    A region on bovine chromosome 6 has been implicated in cattle birth weight, growth, and length. Non-SMC conodensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) and ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like protein (LCORL) are positional candidate genes within this region. Previously identified genetic markers in both genes were associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a crossbred population of beef steers. These markers were also associated with hot carcass weight, ribeye area and adjusted fat thickness suggesting that they may have a role in lean muscle growth and/or fat deposition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the transcript abundance of either of these genes in cattle adipose and muscle tissue was associated with variation in feed intake and average daily gain phenotypes. Transcript abundance for NCAPG and LCORL in adipose and muscle tissue was measured in heifers (adipose only), cows and steers using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the adipose tissue from cows and heifers, a negative correlation between LCORL transcript abundance and ADFI were detected (P = 0.05). In the muscle tissue from cows, transcript abundance of NCAPG was associated with ADG (r = 0.26; P = 0.009). A positive correlation between LCORL transcript abundance from muscle tissue of steers and ADFI was detected (P = 0.04). LCORL protein levels in the muscle of steers were investigated and were associated with ADFI (P = 0.01). These data support our earlier genetic associations with ADFI and ADG within this region and represent the potential for biological activity of these genes in the muscle and adipose tissues of beef cattle; however, they also suggest that sex, age and/or nutrition-specific interactions may affect the expression of NCAPG and LCORL in these tissues. PMID:24278337

  11. Reliability of molecular breeding values for Warner-Bratzler shear force and carcass traits of beef cattle - an independent validation study.

    PubMed

    Akanno, E C; Plastow, G; Woodward, B W; Bauck, S; Okut, H; Wu, X-L; Sun, C; Aalhus, J L; Moore, S S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2014-07-01

    Interest in genetic improvement of carcass and tenderness traits of beef cattle using genome-based selection (GS) and marker-assisted management programs is increasing. The success of such a program depends on the presence of linkage disequilibrium between the observed markers and the underlying QTL as well as on the relationship between the discovery, validation, and target populations. For molecular breeding values (MBV) predicted for a target population using SNP markers, reliabilities of these MBV can be obtained from validation analyses conducted in an independent population distinct from the discovery set. The objective of this study was to test MBV predicted for carcass and tenderness traits of beef cattle in a Canadian-based validation population that is largely independent of a United States-based discovery set. The discovery data set comprised of genotypes and phenotypes from >2,900 multibreed beef cattle while the validation population consisted of 802 crossbred feeder heifers and steers. A bivariate animal model that fitted actual phenotype and MBV was used for validation analyses. The reliability of MBV was defined as square of the genetic correlation (R(2) g) that represents the proportion of the additive genetic variance explained by the SNP markers. Several scenarios involving different starting marker panels (384, 3K, 7K, and 50K) and different sets of SNP selected to compute MBV (50, 100, 200, 375, 400, 600, and 800) were investigated. Validation results showed that the most reliable MBV (R(2) g) were 0.34 for HCW, 0.36 for back fat thickness, 0.28 for rib eye area, 0.30 for marbling score, 0.25 for yield grade, and 0.38 for Warner-Bratzler shear force across the different scenarios explored. The results indicate that smaller SNP panels can be developed for use in genetic improvement of beef carcass and tenderness traits to exploit GS benefits.

  12. Adipose and muscle tissue gene expression of two genes (NCAPG and LCORL) located in a chromosomal region associated with cattle feed intake and gain.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K; Kuehn, Larry A; Oliver, William T; Sexten, Andrea K; Miles, Jeremy R; Rempel, Lea A; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C

    2013-01-01

    A region on bovine chromosome 6 has been implicated in cattle birth weight, growth, and length. Non-SMC conodensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) and ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like protein (LCORL) are positional candidate genes within this region. Previously identified genetic markers in both genes were associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a crossbred population of beef steers. These markers were also associated with hot carcass weight, ribeye area and adjusted fat thickness suggesting that they may have a role in lean muscle growth and/or fat deposition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the transcript abundance of either of these genes in cattle adipose and muscle tissue was associated with variation in feed intake and average daily gain phenotypes. Transcript abundance for NCAPG and LCORL in adipose and muscle tissue was measured in heifers (adipose only), cows and steers using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the adipose tissue from cows and heifers, a negative correlation between LCORL transcript abundance and ADFI were detected (P = 0.05). In the muscle tissue from cows, transcript abundance of NCAPG was associated with ADG (r = 0.26; P = 0.009). A positive correlation between LCORL transcript abundance from muscle tissue of steers and ADFI was detected (P = 0.04). LCORL protein levels in the muscle of steers were investigated and were associated with ADFI (P = 0.01). These data support our earlier genetic associations with ADFI and ADG within this region and represent the potential for biological activity of these genes in the muscle and adipose tissues of beef cattle; however, they also suggest that sex, age and/or nutrition-specific interactions may affect the expression of NCAPG and LCORL in these tissues.

  13. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel. III. Puberty in bulls and heifers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T S; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1980-05-01

    Pubertal characters of bulls and heifers produced in a diallel mating of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey cattle were analyzed. Ninety-one heifers and 138 bulls in individual pens adn 286 bulls in drylots were fed a 72% TDN diet ad libitum; another 384 heifers were placed on pasture with supplemental feed. Puberty in heifers was defined as time of first ovulatory estrus; in bulls, as first detection of sperm cells in an electroejaculate. Breed type least-squares means, adjusted for birth month, were estimated within sex-nutrition-management groups and then decomposed into breed effects, average heterosis (h), general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) by diallel analysis techniques. Breed effects were a significant source of variation for all characters studied. Heterosis (h, GCA, SCA) was not significant for pubertal age of bulls or heifers receiving complete diets in pens, a rather high nutritional plane. However, on pasture, crossbred heifers reached puberty at a younger age (P less than .05) than straightbreds. Average heterosis was significant (P less than .05) for increased weight and hip height at puberty and ratios involving these characters for both sexes. Specific combining abilities were not statistically significant for the majority of the pubertal characters, yet large differences among estimates of combining abilities were expressed. Ad libitum feeding of the penned heifers tended to decrease pubertal age and increase pubertal size as compared to pubertal age and size of pastured heifers. The breed type x management interactions within both sexes indicated a different ranking of the breed types for each management regimen. PMID:7390940

  14. Effects of milk protein loci on first lactation production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, C Y; McAllister, A J; Ng-Kwai-Hang, K F; Hayes, J F

    1986-03-01

    A total of 920 cows of Holstein-based H line, Ayrshire-based A line, and cross-bred C line between H and A lines was used to determine the genotypic and gene frequencies of milk protein types and to study the relationships of milk protein loci to first lactation yields. Effects of milk protein loci on first lactation performance were examined using classification and gene substitution models. Gene frequencies at the five milk protein loci studied were similar to those reported in the literature. Gene substitution at alpha s1-casein locus showed the greatest effects on first lactation yields compared to those at other milk protein loci. Unfortunately, the favorable B allele at this locus is almost fixed (the frequency of the B allele = .955), a result of long-term selection for high milk production in dairy cattle. The extremely high frequency of a favorable allele at the alpha s1-casein locus imposes a limitation for further genetic improvement at this locus unless a more favorable mutation can be induced. Although favorable alleles at beta-casein, kappa-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin loci exerted smaller effects on first lactation performance than those at the alpha s1-casein locus, their moderate frequencies in the current population can be raised to improve lactation yields through milk protein typing. The combined contribution of the four milk protein loci accounted for 8.9% of phenotypic variance in milk yield, 8.6% in protein yield, ad 5.0% in fat yield.

  15. Influence of flake thickness on the feeding value of steam-rolled wheat for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-two medium-framed, crossbred steers (348 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design performance trial. Experimental diets contained (DM basis) 6% alfalfa hay, 6% sudangrass hay, 79% wheat, 2% yellow grease, 4% cane molasses, and 3% supplement. Treatments were 1) dry-rolled wheat (DRW, density = .52 kg/L); 2) steam-rolled wheat, coarse flake (SRW-C, density = .39 kg/L); and 3) steam-rolled wheat, thin flake (SRW-T density = .30 kg/L). Steam processing increased amyloglucosidase reactivity of wheat starch by 238 and 287% for SRW-C and SRW-T, respectively. Cattle performance was similar (P > .10) for SRW-C and SRW-T. Steam processing wheat increased ADG (13.5%, P < .10) and decreased DM intake/gain (8.8%, P < .05). Diet NE was precisely as expected for DRW, confirming the applicability of tabular NE values. Diet NEm was 3.7% lower (P < .05) for DRW than for SRW. The NEm and NEg of SRW were 2.28 and 1.59 Mcal/kg, respectively. Twelve Holstein steers (266 kg) were "T" cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a completely random design experiment to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion. Ruminal digestibilities of OM and starch were similar (P > .10) for DRW and SRW. Postruminal and total tract digestibility of OM (P < .10) and starch (P < .01) were increased with SRW. Dietary DE and ME values were greater (6.1 and 6.6%, respectively; P < .10) for SRW than for DRW.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  17. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  18. In vivo collection of follicular fluid and granulosa cells from individual follicles of different diameters in cattle by an adapted ovum pick-up system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most studies on granulosa cell (GC) function in cattle have been performed using GC and follicular fluid (FF) samples collected from slaughterhouse ovaries. Using this approach, the follicular developmental stage and functional status are unknown and indirectly inferred, limiting data interpretation. Ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration has previously been used to recover GC or FF samples, but this was mostly carried out in large follicles or pools of small follicles, without recording the efficiency of recovery. The present study was aimed at adapting and evaluating an ovum pick-up (OPU) system for the in vivo recovery of FF and GC from individual follicles of different diameters. Methods In the first trial, the losses of fluid inside the tubing system were calculated using a conventional or an adapted-OPU system. Blood plasma volumes equivalent to the amount of FF in follicles of different diameters were aspirated using a conventional OPU Teflon circuit. The OPU system was then adapted by connecting 0.25 mL straws to the circuit. A second trial evaluated the efficiency of FF recovery in vivo. Follicles ranging from 4.0 to 16.8 mm in diameter were aspirated individually using the conventional or adapted-OPU systems. A third trial assessed the in vivo recovery of GC and the subsequent amount of RNA obtained from the follicles of different diameters from Holstein and Gir cattle. Results In Trial I, the plasma recovery efficiency was similar (P > 0.05) for the volumes expected for 12 and 10 mm follicles, but decreased (P < 0.05) for smaller follicles (45.7+/−4.0%, 12.4+/−4.3% and 0.0+/−0.0% for 8, 6, and 4 mm follicles, respectively). Using the adaptation, the losses intrinsic to the aspiration system were similar for all follicle diameters. In Trial II, the expected and recovered volumes of FF were correlated (r = 0.89) and the efficiency of recovery was similar among follicles <12 mm, while larger follicles had a progressive increase

  19. The efficacy of an inhibin DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis on follicular development and ovulation responses in crossbred buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Han, Li; Rehman, Zia Ur; Dan, Xingang; Liu, Xiaoran; Bhattarai, Dinesh; Yang, Liguo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an inhibin DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis on follicular development and ovulation responses in crossbred buffaloes. A total of 158 crossbred buffaloes divided into four groups and were intramuscularly injected with 1×10(10) (T1, n=41), 1×10(9) (T2, n=37), 1×10(8) (T3, n=37) or 0 (C, n=43) CFU/ml bacteria delivered inhibin vaccine in 10ml PBS on day 0 and 14, respectively. All animals were administered with 1000 IU PMSG on day 28, 0.5mg PGF2α on day 30 and 200μg GnRH on day 32. The results showed buffaloes immunized with the bacteria delivered inhibin vaccine had significantly higher titers of anti-inhibin IgG antibody than control group (P<0.01). The number and diameter of large follicles (≥10mm) as well as ovulatory follicles in group T1 was significantly greater than group C (P<0.05). The growth speed of dominant follicles in group T1 was significantly faster than groups T3 and C (P<0.05), resulting in a greater conception rate in buffaloes with positive antibodies. These results demonstrate that immunization with the bacterial delivered inhibin vaccine, coupled with the estrus synchronization protocol, could be used as an alternative approach to improve fertility in crossbred buffaloes.

  20. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore

  1. Evaluation of temperament scoring methods for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of temperament scoring. Crossbred (n=228) calves were evaluated for temperament by an individual evaluator at weaning by two methods of scoring: 1) pen score (1 to 5 scale, with higher scores indicating increasing degree of nervousness, aggressiven...

  2. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern Great Plains where they grazed winter wheat for 6 mo and were then fed a finishing diet until serial slaughter after different days on feed (average 130 d). Carcass quality and quantity traits were measured; steaks (aged 7 d) were obtained for palatability evaluation. Heterosis was detected for BW, HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and yield grade for all pairs of breeds. Generally, Romosinuano-Angus heterosis estimates were smallest, Romosinuano-Brahman estimates were intermediate, and Brahman-Angus heterosis estimates were largest. The direct Romosinuano effect was to decrease (P < 0.05) BW (-67 ± 16 kg), HCW (-48 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (-1.4 ± 0.5 units), 12th rib fat thickness (-5.2 ± 0.8 mm), and yield grade (-0.9 ± 0.1), and to increase LM area per 100 kg HCW (3.6 ± 0.3 cm(2)/100 kg). Significant Brahman direct effects were detected for BW (34 ± 17 kg), HCW (29 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (1.6 ± 0.6 %), LM area per 100 kg HCW (-3.3 ± 0.4 cm(2)/100 kg), and yield grade (0.6 ± 0.1). Significant Angus direct effects were to increase 12th rib fat thickness (3.8 ± 1 mm). Among sire breed means, Romosinuano had reduced (P = 0.002) marbling score (393 ± 9) than Angus, but greater mean sensory tenderness scores (5.8 ± 0.1), and reduced percentage Standard carcasses (10 ± 2%) than Brahman (P < 0.002). Angus sire breed means for marbling score (475 ± 10), overall tenderness (5.8 ± 0.1), and percentage Choice carcasses (75 ± 5%) were greater (P < 0.05) than Brahman sire breed means (360 ± 11, 5.4 ± 0.1, 31 ± 5%). From consideration only of characteristics of the end product of beef production, Romosinuano did not provide a clearly superior

  3. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern Great Plains where they grazed winter wheat for 6 mo and were then fed a finishing diet until serial slaughter after different days on feed (average 130 d). Carcass quality and quantity traits were measured; steaks (aged 7 d) were obtained for palatability evaluation. Heterosis was detected for BW, HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and yield grade for all pairs of breeds. Generally, Romosinuano-Angus heterosis estimates were smallest, Romosinuano-Brahman estimates were intermediate, and Brahman-Angus heterosis estimates were largest. The direct Romosinuano effect was to decrease (P < 0.05) BW (-67 ± 16 kg), HCW (-48 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (-1.4 ± 0.5 units), 12th rib fat thickness (-5.2 ± 0.8 mm), and yield grade (-0.9 ± 0.1), and to increase LM area per 100 kg HCW (3.6 ± 0.3 cm(2)/100 kg). Significant Brahman direct effects were detected for BW (34 ± 17 kg), HCW (29 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (1.6 ± 0.6 %), LM area per 100 kg HCW (-3.3 ± 0.4 cm(2)/100 kg), and yield grade (0.6 ± 0.1). Significant Angus direct effects were to increase 12th rib fat thickness (3.8 ± 1 mm). Among sire breed means, Romosinuano had reduced (P = 0.002) marbling score (393 ± 9) than Angus, but greater mean sensory tenderness scores (5.8 ± 0.1), and reduced percentage Standard carcasses (10 ± 2%) than Brahman (P < 0.002). Angus sire breed means for marbling score (475 ± 10), overall tenderness (5.8 ± 0.1), and percentage Choice carcasses (75 ± 5%) were greater (P < 0.05) than Brahman sire breed means (360 ± 11, 5.4 ± 0.1, 31 ± 5%). From consideration only of characteristics of the end product of beef production, Romosinuano did not provide a clearly superior

  4. Pasture-scale measurement of methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying methane emission of cattle grazing on southern Great Plains pastures using micrometeorology presents several challenges. Cattle are elevated, mobile point sources of methane, so that knowing their location in relation to atmospheric methane concentration measurements becomes critical. St...

  5. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  6. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  7. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  8. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  9. 9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. View to northeast. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  10. [Inherited thrombopathia in Simmental cattle].

    PubMed

    Aebi, M; Wiedemar, N; Drögemüller, C; Zanolari, R

    2016-02-01

    During the years 2012 to 2014, a total of 5 affected Simmental cattle showing persistent bleeding after minor or unknown trauma, were presented at the Clinic for Ruminants or at the Institute for Genetics of the Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne. The homozygous mutation RASGRP2, initially reported in 2007, was present in all these cases and all available parents were heterozygous carriers thus confirming the recessive mode of inheritance. Three affected animals died as a result of persistent bleeding. One animal was stabilized at the Clinic for Ruminants and was slaughtered one month later. Another case showing persistent bleeding and several hematomas was euthanized after genotyping. A frequency of 10% carriers for the associated mutation was detected in a sample of 145 Simmental sires which were used 2013 for artificial insemination in Switzerland. These bulls are designated as TP carriers and should not be used uncontrolled. Breeding organizations in Switzerland make use of the gene test to select bulls which do not carry the mutation. PMID:27145685

  11. Immunoglobulin gene diversification in cattle.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Parng, C L; Hansal, S A; Osborne, B A; Goldsby, R A

    1997-01-01

    Research in several species has revealed that different types of mammals have evolved divergent molecular and cellular strategies for generating immunoglobulin diversity. Other chapters in this text have highlighted the specific characteristics unique to chicken, rabbit, mouse, human and sheep B lymphocyte development; namely indicating differences in the mechanisms of diversity and the site of primary B cell development. Studies of the bovine system have indicated that like the sheep system, the ileal Peyer's patch (IPP) is a likely chicken bursal equivalent, and is a site of primary B lymphocyte development. Substantial investigation in sheep has indicated that Ig diversity is created by untemplated somatic mutation and intense selective pressure (Reynaud et al., 1991). The frequency of alteration in the sheep Ig light chain gene locus also is characteristic of the bovine system, however, recent evidence from sequencing of bovine lambda light chain genes indicates that one mechanism that contributes to diversity is gene conversion, utilizing several pseudogenes located in the Ig locus (Parng et al., 1996). The mechanism by which this hyperalteration of Ig genes occurs in both sheep and cattle is poorly understood and is thus the focus of considerable investigation. The study of events in the IPP may also have informative ramifications for secondary diversification of the Ig repertoire by somatic hyperalteration in germinal centers.

  12. Injection-site lesions in carcasses of cattle receiving injections at branding and at weaning.

    PubMed

    George, M H; Heinrich, P E; Dexter, D R; Morgan, J B; Odde, K G; Glock, R D; Tatum, J D; Cowman, G L; Smith, G C

    1995-11-01

    Crossbred steer and heifer calves (n = 84) were given injections at branding and at weaning (using a completely randomized block design); 225 to 376 d later, pairs of two subprimal cuts from each animal were evaluated for incidence and severity of injection-site lesions. The four products compared were 1) a 2-mL clostridial, 2) a 5-mL clostridial, 3) vitamin AD3, and 4) a long-acting oxytetracycline antibiotic (OTC). Branding-age calves (mean 48.3 d of age) received intramuscular injections of two of the four products, in the semimembranosus (inside round) muscles (one in the left muscle and one in the right); at weaning age (mean 199.3 d of age), calves received injections of the remaining two products in the gluteus medius (top sirloin butt) muscles (one in the left and the other in the right). Injections at branding of 2 mL of clostridial, 5 mL of clostridial, vitamin AD3, and OTC caused injection-site lesions in 72.5, 92.7, 5.3, and 51.2%, respectively, of inside rounds from slaughter cattle. Incidence of injection-site lesions was lowest (P < .05) among inside rounds and top sirloin butts from animals given vitamin AD3 (as calves, and at both branding and weaning times) and was highest (P < .05) in inside rounds from cattle given, as calves, injections of 5 mL of clostridial at branding or of OTC at weaning. Less trimming was required to remove the lesions resulting from injections of all four products when they were given at weaning time. Before completion of the present study, it was thought that injection-site lesions were from damage that subsisted only briefly following an inoculation; these results make it abundantly clear that intramuscular administration of clostridials and certain antibiotics will cause damage so severe that it will be evident in beef muscle 7.5 to 12 mo later.

  13. Smallholder experiences with dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: from introduction to impact.

    PubMed

    Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M

    2015-01-01

    Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator

  14. Smallholder experiences with dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: from introduction to impact.

    PubMed

    Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M

    2015-01-01

    Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator

  15. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, S. Jegaveera; Subramanian, M.; Vijayakumar, G.; Balasubramaniam, G. A.; Sukumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy. PMID:27047034

  16. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas cattle.

    PubMed

    Hairgrove, Thomas B; Craig, Thomas M; Budke, Christine M; Rodgers, Sandy J; Gill, Ronald J

    2014-09-01

    To our knowledge the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas has not been reported. The objective of this study was to estimate the point seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Texas cattle persistently infected with A. marginale. This was a cross-sectional observational study examining serum collected from 12,000 adult cattle marketed in 23 selected Texas auction markets during the second week of July 2011. A random subset of those cattle comprising 1835 individuals was evaluated for persistent infection with A. marginale using a commercial cELISA for antibody detection. The pooled apparent seroprevalence for cattle tested at auction markets across the state was 15.02% (95% CI: 11.02-19.53%), with markets in the western portion of the state demonstrating prevalence ⇒ 30%. The winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus is involved in the biological transfer of A. marginale and is prevalent in west Texas. Producers in endemic and non-endemic areas should be encouraged to determine the infection status of replacement cattle in order to implement effective management strategies for the control bovine anaplasmosis.

  17. Ageratum houstonianum toxicosis in zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Sánchez, Luz María; Durand, Reina

    2004-08-01

    Ageratum houstonianum (Ageratum, flossflower, blue billygoat weed) is an annual plant that tends to become a pest in gardens and pastures. Clinical signs for A. houstonianum toxicosis in cattle are characterized by either an acute hemorrhagic course or sub-acute photodynamic dermatitis. The toxicosis has often been associated with Holstein-Friesian or crossbreed Holstein cattle less resistant to tropical climate conditions. During a recent especially dry spring about 40 adult Zebu cattle were found dead, while another 40/800 animals were sacrificed. The animals had been relocated to the problem area about 4 mo before, where due to the prolonged drought, A. houstonianum was almost exclusively the only pasture available. The intoxicated cattle did not show the characteristic toxic dermatitis reported for A. houstonianum acute toxicosis; but post-mortem examination revealed bloody serous fluid in coccyx-femoral joints and hemorrhages in the large muscle tissues, while liver, kidney and heart also had hemorrhages. To confirm the toxic plant as cause of the toxicosis, phytochemical Qualitative screening and a novel thin-layer chromatographic characterization of plant extracts were done. The chromatographic profiles of coumarin compounds, alkaloids and triterpens in ruminal and intestinal contents were similar to those obtained from A. houstonianum plants from the same area, confirming ingestion of A. houstonianum as cause of the toxicosis. The coincidence of adverse nutritional conditions together with the cattle's ignorance of the grazing area predisposed the plant toxicosis. PMID:15303392

  18. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  19. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  20. Identification of different Bartonella species in the cattle tail louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in cattle blood.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Harrus, Shimon; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2014-09-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity.

  1. BCVA: Can recycled manure make a safe bed for cattle?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Suzanne

    2014-11-15

    The use of recycled manure solids for cattle bedding was among the subjects considered at the British Cattle Veterinary Association's congress last month. Both cattle and sheep vets gathered in Hinckley, Leicestershire, from October 16 to 18 to discuss a range of clinical and political issues. Suzanne Jarvis reports.

  2. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Hillis, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  3. Diquat poisoning of dairy cattle by topical application.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, T L; Smyrl, T; Spearman, J G; Kernatz, S

    2001-01-01

    This case report describes poisoning of dairy cattle from a dermal challenge of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight diquat. Five of 36 cattle exposed, demonstrated clinical signs of intoxication, dehydration, and death over 5 days. Diquat poisoning of cattle by the dermal route has not previously been reported. PMID:11665429

  4. Pasture-scale methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing cattle are mobile point sources of methane and present challenges to quantify emissions using noninterfering micrometeorological methods. Stocking density is low and cattle can bunch up or disperse over a wide area, so knowing cattle locations is critical. The methane concentration downwind ...

  5. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  6. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  7. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Brenda M.; Murdoch, Gordon K.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  8. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Brenda M; Murdoch, Gordon K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  9. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF. PMID:26473349

  10. Change in growth performance of crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) dairy heifers fed on forage grass diets supplemented with commercial concentrates.

    PubMed

    Mutimura, Mupenzi; Ebong, Cyprian; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla

    2016-04-01

    Rearing heifers for dairy cow replacement is a challenge in smallholder dairy farms in the tropics due to feed shortage. The objective of this study was to evaluate Brachiaria hybrid cultivar Mulato II as a forage resource for improving growth performance of dairy heifers under cut-and-carry feeding system in Rwanda. Sixteen crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) heifers (mean weight 203 ± 35 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments viz: Mulato II with 2 kg/day of commercial concentrates (MCC) and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with the same supplement (NCC), for a period of 12 weeks. Mineral lick and water were provided ad libitum. Daily feed intake and fortnightly live weight were measured. Average daily gains and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Results showed that absolute daily dry matter intake (g DMI/day) and relative intake (g/kg of metabolic body weight--BW(0.75)) were higher in heifers fed on MCC than in heifers fed on NCC (P < 0.001). FCR was lower (P < 0.001) in MCC than NCC diets. Final body weight (FBW) and body weight gain (BWG) did not differ between the two groups of heifers (P > 0.05). Average daily weight gain (ADWG) also not differed significantly (P > 0.05). Based on numerical body weight changes and nutritive values, Mulato II showed potential to be integrated into local cut-and-carry feeding systems for better heifer rearing to facilitate dairy cow replacement. PMID:26888207

  11. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  12. Dust emissions in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Sweeten, J B; Parnell, C B; Etheredge, R S; Osborne, D

    1988-11-01

    Dust emissions were measured at three Texas cattle feedlots on 15 occasions in 1987 to determine concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and dust with 10 microns or less aerodynamic particle size (PM-10). Net feedlot dust concentrations (downwind minus upwind) ranged from 15.7 to 1,700.1 micrograms per m3 and averaged 412.4 +/- 271.2 micrograms per m3, which is about 37 per cent less than was determined in feedlot dust research in California approximately 17 years earlier. Upwind concentrations averaged 22 per cent of the downwind concentrations. Feedlot dust concentrations were generally highest in early evening and lowest in early morning. Using the Wedding and Andersen-321A PM-10 samplers, the PM-10 dust concentrations were 19 and 40 per cent, respectively, of mean TSP concentrations in direct comparisons. There was good correlation between PM-10 and TSP concentrations. Although dust concentrations decreased with increasing moisture, the correlation coefficients were relatively low. Odor intensity appeared to increase with decreasing net dust concentrations, perhaps due to moisture influences. Mean particle sizes of feedlot dust were 8.5 to 12.2 microns on a particle volume basis and 2.5 to 3.4 microns on a population basis. Respirable dust (below 2 microns) represented only 2.0 to 4.4 per cent of total dust on a particle volume basis. Under conditions of these experiments, the feedlots often exceeded both state and federal (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) standards for TSP concentrations and for PM-10 concentrations measured using the Andersen-321A sampler. However, feedlots were below the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards when the Wedding PM-10 sampler was used for measuring dust emissions.

  13. Effects of wet corn gluten feed and roughage levels on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C H; Vasconcelos, J T; Swingle, R S; Defoor, P J; Nunnery, G A; Salyer, G B; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and dietary roughage on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle fed diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 200; BW = 314 kg) were fed 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): a standard SFC-based diet containing 9% roughage (CON) and 3 SFC-based diets containing 40% WCGF, with either 9, 4.5, or 0% roughage. A linear (P = 0.04) increase in final BW and DMI (P < 0.01) was observed in diets containing WCGF as dietary roughage increased. Steers fed WCGF and higher levels of roughage had greater (P = 0.01) ADG than steers fed lower levels of roughage. Steers fed the CON diet had lower (P = 0.04) daily DMI and greater (P = 0.03) G:F than those fed WCGF. Most carcass characteristics of steers fed CON did not differ (P > 0.10) from those of steers fed WCGF. Based on feed disappearance and visual scan data, consumption rate did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments; however, feeding intensity (animals present at the bunk after feeding) was greater for steers fed CON (P < 0.01) than for steers fed WCGF. In Exp. 2, yearling crossbred steers (n = 1,983; BW = 339 kg) were fed 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): a standard SFC-based control diet that contained 9% roughage (CON) and 3 SFC-based diets containing either 20% WCGF and 9% roughage or 40% WCGF with 9 or 4.5% roughage. Steers fed the CON diet tended to have lower final BW (P = 0.14), ADG (P = 0.01), and DMI (P < 0.01) than steers fed diets containing WCGF. Steers fed the 20% WCGF diet had greater (P = 0.08) G:F than steers fed the 40% WCGF diets. With 40% WCGF, increasing roughage from 4.5 to 9% decreased (P < 0.01) G:F and increased (P = 0.06) DMI. Gain efficiency was improved (P < 0.01) for steers fed CON vs. those fed diets containing WCGF, whereas HCW (P = 0.02) and dressing percentage (P < 0.01) were greater for steers fed WCGF. Percentage of

  14. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds.

  15. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds. PMID:27039692

  16. Feeding corn milling byproducts to feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bremer, Virgil R

    2007-07-01

    Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values. PMID:17606148

  17. Influence of Ionophore Supplementation on Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Cattle during Period of Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Barreras, A.; Castro-Pérez, B. I.; López-Soto, M. A.; Torrentera, N. G.; Montaño, M. F.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Ríos, F. G.; Dávila-Ramos, H.; Plascencia, A.; Zinn, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Forty-eight crossbred heifers (378.1±18 kg) were used in a 56-d feeding trial (four pens per treatment in a randomised complete block design) to evaluate the influence of ionophore supplementation on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass characteristics in finishing cattle during a period of heat stress. Heifers were fed a diet based on steam-flaked corn (2.22 Mcal NEm/kg) with and without an ionophore. Treatments were: i) control, no ionophore; ii) 30 mg/kg monensin sodium (RUM30); iii) 20 mg/kg lasalocid sodium (BOV20), and iv) 30 mg/kg lasalocid sodium (BOV30). Both dry matter intake (DMI) and climatic variables were measured daily and the temperature humidity index (THI) was estimated. The maximum THI during the study averaged 93, while the minimum was 70 (THI average = 79.2±2.3). Compared to controls, monensin supplementation did not influence average daily gain, the estimated NE value of the diet, or observed-to-expected DMI, but tended (p = 0.07) to increase (4.8%) gain to feed. Compared to controls, the group fed BOV30 increased (p≤0.03) daily gain (11.8%), gain to feed (8.3%), net energy of the diet (5%), and observed-to-expected DMI (5.2%). Daily weight gain was greater (7.6%, p = 0.05) for heifers fed BOV30 than for heifers fed MON30. Otherwise, differences between the two treatments in DMI, gain to feed, and dietary NE were not statistically significant (p>0.11). Plotting weekly intakes versus THI, observed intake of controls was greater (p<0.05) at THI values ≤77 than ionophore groups. When THI values were greater than 79, DMI of control and MON30 were not different (p = 0.42), although less than that of groups fed lasalocid (p = 0.04). Variation in energy intake was lower (p>0.05) in the ionophores group (CV = 1.7%) than in the control group (CV = 4.5%). Inclusion of ionophores in the diet resulted in relatively minor changes in carcass characteristics. It is concluded that ionophore supplementation did not exacerbate the decline of

  18. Polymorphisms in positional candidate genes on BTA14 and BTA26 affect carcass quality in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Marques, E; Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Moore, S S

    2009-08-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carcass quality QTL on BTA14 and BTA26, with no specific genes being conclusively linked as their cause. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in genes known to affect lipid metabolism in other species and to assess their association with carcass quality traits. Two genes located on BTA14, 2,4 dienoyl CoA reductase 1 (DECR1) and core binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2, translocated to 1 gene (CBFA2T1), have been previously evaluated in other species and found to contain polymorphisms influencing lipid metabolism. A gene on BTA26, fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), has in recent studies been linked to several QTL affecting obesity in mice, indicating its potential for regulating adiposity in other species. Sequencing analysis identified 9 polymorphisms in DECR1, 4 in CBFA2T1, and 4 in FGF8. Multiple sequence alignment of DECR1 among cattle, humans, and mice showed that 4 of these mutations lie in conserved regions across these species. Using 464 Angus, Charolais, and crossbred animals produced associations with ultrasound marbling score (CBFA2T1, P = 0.019), ultrasound backfat (DECR1, P = 0.012), carcass backfat (FGF8, P = 0.004), and lean meat yield (FGF8, P = 0.005). Quantitative trait loci analysis including a set of previously genotyped markers on BTA14, and 1 DECR1 polymorphism resulted in several significant QTL peaks: ultrasound backfat (UBF) at 91 cM, lean meat yield at 86 cM, carcass gradefat at 15 cM, and yield grade at 87 cM, all at the P < 0.05 level. Using DECR1 as a genetic covariate removed the UBF QTL, indicating that this SNP was contributing to the variation observed in UBF. A similar analysis was performed on BTA26 using 1 of the FGF8 polymorphisms. Results showed significant peaks for lean meat yield at 2 cM and for yield grade at 25 cM, both at P < 0.01, and for carcass backfat at 25 cM (P < 0.05). Removal of FGF8 SNP in further analysis resulted in the disappearance of the

  19. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  20. Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride to crossbred Angus heifers does not increase stress responsiveness or homeostatic metabolic parameters after a combined corticoptropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anecdotal claims suggest that feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) alters the stress response in cattle; however, there is no scientific data to support or refute these claims. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the stress response of ZH-supplemented cattle when exposed to...

  1. Issues concerning Mexican cattle on feedlots in the United States as reported in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1994-1995 Cattle on Feed Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Losinger, W C

    1997-07-01

    Producers participating in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1994-1995 Cattle on Feed Evaluation provided information on cattle of Mexican origin in their feedlot operations. Cattle of Mexican origin accounted for 8.1% of cattle placed on United States feedlots from 1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994. Of operations with a one-time capacity of 1000 or more cattle, 12.8% placed cattle of Mexican origin on their feedlots over this time frame. Very few operations (about 1%) reported cattle of Mexican origin at the same time as cattle to be used for breeding in the United States.

  2. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management. PMID:27493068

  3. Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, N N; Piper, E K; Constantinoiu, C C

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in cattle has many effector mechanisms, each of which is likely to be modulated by complex, interacting factors. Some of the mechanisms of host resistance and their modulating factors have been identified and quantified, although much remains to be explained. The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle. Tick resistance is mostly manifest against attaching larvae, which attempt to feed often and without success, death occurring mostly within 24 h of finding a host. There is evidence of innate and adaptive immune response to tick infestation, and it appears that the relative importance of each differs between indicine and taurine cattle. There is conflicting information regarding the role of humoral immunity in tick resistance, and recent studies indicate that strong IgG responses to tick antigens are not protective. A strong T-cell-mediated response directed against larval stages, as mounted by indicine cattle, seems to be protective. Variation in the extracellular matrix of skin (epidermal growth factors, collagens and other matrix components such as lumican) also contributes to variation in host resistance. PMID:25313455

  4. Genetic improvement of beef cattle in the United States: cattle, people and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Willham, R L

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this essay is to develop a historic perspective of the beef cattle population and the legion of people directing its genetic change so that future leadership can increase the rate of breeding technology assimilation. Use of cattle for beef to feed millions is relatively recent. The beef industry of the United States has a rich, romantic heritage that combined Spanish exploitation with British tradition. Spanish cattle became adapted as the Texas longhorn and the European cattle became indigenous. Breeds developed in Britain replaced both. The Zebu was introduced to produce cattle adapted to the Gulf Coast. Selection for early maturity in the British breeds promoted by livestock shows was ended by the dwarf gene. The Charolais breed demonstrated growth potential. Then in 1967, Continental European breeds were imported, given an array of biological types from which to select. Beef cattle breeding research expanded after the second world war through the three regional projects. Performance Registry International was the focal point for performance. The Beef Improvement Federation produced guidelines for recording beef performance including those for national sire evaluation. U.S. Meat Animal Research Center evaluated the several newly introduced breeds. To date, breeding researchers have developed breeding technology for the use by breeder. The major breed association are keeping and utilizing performance records. The genetic structure of the beef breeds is being altered by the use of AI such that genetic change can be made rapidly by the use of superior sires evaluated on their progeny in many herds.

  5. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management.

  6. Targeting Cattle-Borne Zoonoses and Cattle Pathogens Using a Novel Trypanosomatid-Based Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Mott, G. Adam; Wilson, Raymond; Fernando, Anuruddika; Robinson, Ailie; MacGregor, Paula; Kennedy, David; Schaap, Dick; Matthews, Jacqueline B.; Matthews, Keith R.

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis. PMID:22046137

  7. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... type of tests conducted, the dates of the tests, and the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All... directly to slaughter in a country that the Administrator has determined has an acceptable...

  8. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... type of tests conducted, the dates of the tests, and the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All... directly to slaughter in a country that the Administrator has determined has an acceptable...

  9. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... type of tests conducted, the dates of the tests, and the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All... directly to slaughter in a country that the Administrator has determined has an acceptable...

  10. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  11. Clostridium botulinum in cattle and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Miia; Myllykoski, Jan; Sivelä, Seppo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2010-04-01

    The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle with botulism has been reported, thus contamination of the farm environment and raw milk, and further transmission through the dairy chain, are possible. The standard milk pasteurization treatment does not eliminate spores, and the intrinsic factors of many dairy products allow botulinal growth and toxin production. Although rare, several large botulism outbreaks due to both commercial and home-prepared dairy products have been reported. Factors explaining these outbreaks include most importantly temperature abuse, but also unsafe formulation, inadequate fermentation, insufficient thermal processing, post-process contamination, and lack of adequate quality control for adjunct ingredients were involved. The small number of outbreaks is probably explained by a low incidence of spores in milk, the presence of competitive bacteria in pasteurized milk and other dairy products, and growth-inhibitory combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in cultured and processed dairy products.

  12. Production of cattle lacking prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Richt, Jürgen A; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Hamir, Amir N; Castilla, Joaquin; Sathiyaseelan, Thillai; Vargas, Francisco; Sathiyaseelan, Janaki; Wu, Hua; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Koster, Julie; Kato, Shinichiro; Ishida, Isao; Soto, Claudio; Robl, James M; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by propagation of misfolded forms of the normal cellular prion protein PrPC, such as PrPBSE in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and PrPCJD in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans1. Disruption of PrPC expression in mice, a species that does not naturally contract prion diseases, results in no apparent developmental abnormalities2–5. However, the impact of ablating PrPC function in natural host species of prion diseases is unknown. Here we report the generation and characterization of PrPC-deficient cattle produced by a sequential gene-targeting system6. At over 20 months of age, the cattle are clinically, physiologically, histopathologically, immunologically and reproductively normal. Brain tissue homogenates are resistant to prion propagation in vitro as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification7. PrPC-deficient cattle may be a useful model for prion research and could provide industrial bovine products free of prion proteins. PMID:17195841

  13. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions.

  14. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  15. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed and demonstrated. A dual geometry sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) was used with software designed for salt mapping (ESAP...

  16. Are methane production and cattle performance related?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane is a product of fermentation of feed in ruminant animals. Approximately 2 -12% of the gross energy consumed by cattle is released through enteric methane production. There are three primary components that contribute to the enteric methane footprint of an animal. Those components are dry ...

  17. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption.

  18. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  19. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed using a sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) and software designed for salt mapping (ESAP, Riverside, CA). The combination al...

  20. Genetic relationships among breeds of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic distance among 16 populations of beef cattle from within the U.S. Thirty-three microsatellite markers representing 26 autosomes were used. MicroSatellite Analyzer 3.15 (MSA) program was used to quantify number of alleles per marker, and observed and expected het...

  1. Clostridium botulinum in cattle and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Miia; Myllykoski, Jan; Sivelä, Seppo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2010-04-01

    The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle with botulism has been reported, thus contamination of the farm environment and raw milk, and further transmission through the dairy chain, are possible. The standard milk pasteurization treatment does not eliminate spores, and the intrinsic factors of many dairy products allow botulinal growth and toxin production. Although rare, several large botulism outbreaks due to both commercial and home-prepared dairy products have been reported. Factors explaining these outbreaks include most importantly temperature abuse, but also unsafe formulation, inadequate fermentation, insufficient thermal processing, post-process contamination, and lack of adequate quality control for adjunct ingredients were involved. The small number of outbreaks is probably explained by a low incidence of spores in milk, the presence of competitive bacteria in pasteurized milk and other dairy products, and growth-inhibitory combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in cultured and processed dairy products. PMID:20301016

  2. Immunopathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol and intratracheal inoculation routes are commonly used for experimental biology purposes to infect cattle with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, each resulting primarily in a respiratory tract infection including lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes. Disease severity is dose and time dependent...

  3. Cattle veterinary services in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Statham, Jonathan; Green, Martin

    2015-03-14

    In the first of a series of feature articles in Veterinary Record discussing the state of different sectors of the veterinary profession in the UK and what the future might hold, Jonathan Statham and Martin Green give their perspective on developments affecting the provision of cattle veterinary services.

  4. Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

    1986-07-01

    Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

  5. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Timsit, Edouard; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    The bovine nasopharyngeal tract plays an important role in animal health and welfare by acting as a site for the carriage of pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease, a condition which results in significant morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. We characterized the bacterial nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle at feedlot entry (day 0) and day 60 using 454 pyrosequencing. We also identified the most frequently isolated aerobic bacteria from nasopharyngeal swabs after plating onto three types of media. The cattle nasopharyngeal microbiota was composed primarily of Proteobacteria (68.9%) and Firmicutes (19.2%). At the genus-level, there was more inter-individual variability and a total of 55 genera were identified. The genera Pseudomonas (23.7%), Shewanella (23.5%), Acinetobacter (17.5%), and Carnobacterium (12.2%) were most prevalent at entry, while after 60 days in the feedlot, Staphylococcus (20.8%), Mycoplasma (14.9%), Mannheimia (10.4%), and Moraxella (9.4%) were dominant. The nasopharyngeal microbiota also became more homogenous after 60 days in the feedlot and differed in structure at day 0 and 60. Using culture-based methods, the most frequently isolated bacteria from nasopharyngeal swabs were Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Moraxella, Pasteurella, and Mannheimia. These results provide insight into the nasopharyngeal microbiota of cattle and demonstrate that specific changes take place during feedlot production. PMID:26497574

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle world-wide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bRSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by org...

  7. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN CATTLE FROM OBSERVING TO UNDERSTANDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic pathogen transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. However, virtually all reports have ...

  8. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  9. Beef cattle in the year 2050.

    PubMed

    Seidel, George E

    2014-01-01

    In 2050, beef likely will be produced much as occurs currently, as (1) a by-product of dairying-cull cows and calves not needed as replacements; (2) intensively managed cattle in environments rich in feed resources; or (3) extensively managed cattle grazing land unsuitable for tillage, with calves often moving to richer feed environments. Genetic progress will continue to depend on information such as weaning weights, but in addition, genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic information will be obtained from blood, hair, semen, and/or biopsies of embryos.Most cattle will be genetically modified for efficient growth, desirable carcass traits, and management traits such as disease resistance. Some strains of cattle will have Y-chromosome-dependent terminal cross traits; sexed semen thus will automatically result in males with terminal cross characteristics and females with maternally desirable traits. In most cases, mother cows will have shorter gestations and smaller frame sizes than currently to decrease nutrient requirements for maintenance. The cow herd may disappear with some intensively managed systems; with sexed semen, each female can replace herself with a female calf and then be fattened for slaughter. The flexibility of being a ruminant will continue to be exploited by using a variety of feedstuffs, some of which are otherwise of little value.

  10. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  11. Use of cattle farm resources by badgers (Meles meles) and risk of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) transmission to cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, B T; Delahay, R J; Roper, T J

    2002-01-01

    Nocturnal observations, radio telemetry and time-lapse camera surveillance were used to investigate visits by badgers (Meles meles L.) to two cattle farms. During 59 half-nights (ca. 295 h) of observation and 17 nights (ca. 154 h) of camera surveillance, 139 separate visits to farm buildings, by at least 26 individually identifiable badgers from two social groups, were recorded. The badgers, which included three individuals infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), used cowsheds, feedsheds, barns, haystacks, slurry pits, cattle troughs and farmyards to exploit a range of food resources, including cattle feed and silage. Cattle feed was contaminated with badger faeces and badgers also came into close contact with cattle. The minimum number of badgers visiting farm buildings per night was negatively correlated with local 24 h rainfall. We conclude that exploitation by badgers of resources provided by cattle farms constitutes a potentially important mechanism for tuberculosis transmission from badgers to cattle. PMID:12137579

  12. Agro-economic impact of cattle cloning.

    PubMed

    Faber, D C; Ferre, L B; Metzger, J; Robl, J M; Kasinathan, P

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the economic and social implications of cloned cattle, their products, and their offspring as related to production agriculture. Cloning technology in cattle has several applications outside of traditional production agriculture. These applications can include bio-medical applications, such as the production of pharmaceuticals in the blood or milk of transgenic cattle. Cloning may also be useful in the production of research models. These models may or may not include genetic modifications. Uses in agriculture include many applications of the technology. These include making genetic copies of elite seed stock and prize winning show cattle. Other purposes may range from "insurance" to making copies of cattle that have sentimental value, similar to cloning of pets. Increased selection opportunities available with cloning may provide for improvement in genetic gain. The ultimate goal of cloning has often been envisioned as a system for producing quantity and uniformity of the perfect dairy cow. However, only if heritability were 100%, would clone mates have complete uniformity. Changes in the environment may have significant impact on the productivity and longevity of the resulting clones. Changes in consumer preferences and economic input costs may all change the definition of the perfect cow. The cost of producing such animals via cloning must be economically feasible to meet the intended applications. Present inefficiencies limit cloning opportunities to highly valued animals. Improvements are necessary to move the applications toward commercial application. Cloning has additional obstacles to conquer. Social and regulatory acceptance of cloning is paramount to its utilization in production agriculture. Regulatory acceptance will need to address the animal, its products, and its offspring. In summary, cloning is another tool in the animal biotechnology toolbox, which includes artificial insemination, sexing of semen, embryo

  13. Agro-economic impact of cattle cloning.

    PubMed

    Faber, D C; Ferre, L B; Metzger, J; Robl, J M; Kasinathan, P

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the economic and social implications of cloned cattle, their products, and their offspring as related to production agriculture. Cloning technology in cattle has several applications outside of traditional production agriculture. These applications can include bio-medical applications, such as the production of pharmaceuticals in the blood or milk of transgenic cattle. Cloning may also be useful in the production of research models. These models may or may not include genetic modifications. Uses in agriculture include many applications of the technology. These include making genetic copies of elite seed stock and prize winning show cattle. Other purposes may range from "insurance" to making copies of cattle that have sentimental value, similar to cloning of pets. Increased selection opportunities available with cloning may provide for improvement in genetic gain. The ultimate goal of cloning has often been envisioned as a system for producing quantity and uniformity of the perfect dairy cow. However, only if heritability were 100%, would clone mates have complete uniformity. Changes in the environment may have significant impact on the productivity and longevity of the resulting clones. Changes in consumer preferences and economic input costs may all change the definition of the perfect cow. The cost of producing such animals via cloning must be economically feasible to meet the intended applications. Present inefficiencies limit cloning opportunities to highly valued animals. Improvements are necessary to move the applications toward commercial application. Cloning has additional obstacles to conquer. Social and regulatory acceptance of cloning is paramount to its utilization in production agriculture. Regulatory acceptance will need to address the animal, its products, and its offspring. In summary, cloning is another tool in the animal biotechnology toolbox, which includes artificial insemination, sexing of semen, embryo

  14. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  15. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  16. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  17. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  18. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  19. Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations between Performance Traits with Meat Quality and Carcass Characteristics in Commercial Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9) with meat quality (n = 25) and carcass (n = 19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

  20. Plasma progesterone levels during the estrous cycle of Holstein and Brahman cows, Carora type and cross-bred heifers.

    PubMed

    Díaz, T; Manzo, M; Trocóniz, J; Benacchio, N; Verde, O

    1986-10-01

    Daily plasma progesterone (P(4)) was determined during one estrous cycle of 19 cows and 18 heifers of four different breeds: Holstein (H), Brahman (B), Carora-type (C) and crossbred (CB) females. Estrus detection was made by visual observation and using a teaser bull with a chin-ball marker. The P(4) profiles showed no differences among groups. In Group 1 (H), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml plasma on the day of estrus (Day 0) to 5.1 ng/ml at the luteal phase peak (Day 13). In Group 2 (B), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml on Day 0 to 9.2 ng/ml on Day 13. In Groups 3 (C) and 4 (CB), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml, on Day 0, to 13.7 ng/ml on Day 12 and 8.8 ng/ml on Day 13. These last two groups were moved to the same location and then compared. It was found that P(4) concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.025) in Group 3 between Days 7 and 14 of the estrous cycle. In all groups, P(4) levels were lower than 1 ng/ml one day before the next estrus, and levels of 0.4, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.4 ng/ml were obtained the day of estrus in Groups 1 to 4, respectively. Results indicated that the pattern of P(4) for each one of the groups was similar to those reported by other investigators. PMID:16726208

  1. A comparison of crossbred and straightbred cow-calf pairs. I. Heterosis effects on total feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Richardson, G V; Blackwell, R L

    1984-05-01

    Records of 104 crossbred and 33 straightbred individually fed cow-calf units were used to study the effects of heterosis on total cow-calf feed efficiency in the production of weight of calf at weaning, 168 d postweaning, slaughter and in the carcass. The cows were Angus, Hereford, Charolais and reciprocal crosses of these breeds. The calves were straightbred and all possible two-breed backcrosses and three-breed crosses produced from first cross cows. The efficiency of the cow-calf unit was defined as kg of calf produced per kg of total TDN (total digestible nutrients) consumed by the cow-calf pair. Total feed consumed by the cows was for an average period of 315 d, from approximately November 21 to October 2. Total calf TDN consisted of creep to weaning and feed during the postweaning fattening period to slaughter. For all measures of cow-calf unit efficiency studied, the heterosis estimates were small but generally positive, ranging from -.8 to 2.1%. The average advantage of all crosses over the straightbred parents for the conversion of total feed consumed by cow-calf pair to calf weight at weaning was 2%. Heterosis effects, individual and maternal combined, on the average, among two-breed backcrosses and the three-breed crosses were essentially the same. Among the three groups of first-cross cows compared, the study indicated that a slight advantage in total cow-calf efficiency was exhibited by the Angus X Hereford cross.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Triglyceride response following an oral fat tolerance test in Burmese cats, other pedigree cats and domestic crossbred cats.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Elissa K; Hardman, Chloë; Govendir, Merran; Baral, Randolph M; Sullivan, David R; Snow, David; Malik, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Primary lipid disorders causing fasting triglyceridaemia have been documented infrequently in Burmese cats. Due to the known increased risk of diabetes mellitus and sporadic reports of lipid aqueous in this breed, the aim of this study was to determine whether healthy Burmese cats displayed a more pronounced pre- or post-prandial triglyceridaemia compared to other cats. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were determined at baseline and variably at 2, 4 and 6h after ingestion of a high-fat meal (ie, an oral fat tolerance test) in a representative sample of Burmese and non-Burmese cats. The median 4 and 6h serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in Burmese cats (4h - 2.8mmol/l; 6h - 8.2mmol/l) than in other pedigree and domestic crossbred cats (4h - 1.5mmol/l; 6h - 1.0mmol/l). The non-Burmese group had post-prandial TG concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 3.9mmol/l. Seven Burmese cats had post-prandial TG concentrations between 6.6 and 19.0mmol/l, five had concentrations between 4.2 and 4.7mmol/l, while the remaining 15 had post-prandial concentrations between 0.5 and 2.8mmol/l. None of these Burmese cats had fasting triglyceridaemia. Most Burmese cats with a 4 h TG > 6.0 mmol/l had elevated fasting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. This study demonstrates that a proportion of Burmese cats in Australia have delayed TG clearance compared to other cats. The potential repercussions of this observation with reference to lipid aqueous, pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus in Burmese cats are discussed.

  3. Crossbreds of Jersey x Holstein compared with pure Holsteins for production, fertility, and body and udder measurements during first lactation.

    PubMed

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Seykora, A J; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G; Romano, J E; Hazel, A R

    2008-03-01

    Jersey x Holstein crossbreds (JxH; n = 76) were compared with pure Holsteins (n = 73) for 305-d milk, fat, and protein production; conception rate; days open; proportion of cows pregnant within fixed intervals postpartum; and body and udder measurements during first lactation. Cows were housed at 2 research locations of the University of Minnesota and calved from September 2003 to May 2005. The JxH were mated to Montbeliarde sires, and Holstein cows were mated to Holstein sires. Best Prediction was used to determine actual production (milk, fat, and protein) for 305-d lactations with adjustment for age at calving, and records less than 305 d were projected to 305 d. The JxH (274 kg) and pure Holsteins (277 kg) were not significantly different for fat production, but JxH had significantly less milk (7,147 vs. 7,705 kg) and protein (223 vs. 238 kg) production than pure Holsteins. The JxH had significantly fewer days open than pure Holsteins (127 vs. 150 d). Also, a significantly greater proportion of JxH were pregnant at 150 and 180 d postpartum than pure Holsteins (75 vs. 59% and 77 vs. 61%, respectively). The JxH had significantly less body weight (60 kg) at calving, but significantly greater body condition (2.80 vs. 2.71). Furthermore, JxH had significantly less udder clearance from the ground to the bottom of the udder than pure Holsteins (47.7 vs. 54.6 cm), and greater distance between front teats (15.8 vs. 14.0 cm) than pure Holsteins during first lactation. PMID:18292285

  4. The effect of the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on meat quality traits in crossbred lambs.

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Macfarlane, J M; Richardson, R I; Matika, O; Haresign, W; Bünger, L

    2010-08-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been identified on chromosome 18 in Texel sheep (TM-QTL) that increases depth and area of the longissimus dorsi muscle. The study aimed to assess the pleiotropic QTL effects on key meat quality traits (toughness and intramuscular fat content after >or=7 days aging) of crossbred lambs carrying one copy of the TM-QTL. The results showed that male TexelxMule lambs carrying the TM-QTL had significantly less intramuscular fat (1.86% versus 2.25%) and higher toughness, with increased variation, in the loin muscle, compared to non-carrier males. Similar conclusions were obtained using two different types of tenderometer equipment: one using the Volodkevitch test (average shear force of 4.17 kgF or 40.9N for carrier males, 2.61 kgF or 25.6N for non-carrier males) and one using the MIRINZ test (average shear force of 6.18 kgF or 60.6N for carrier males, 5.22 kgF or 51.2N for non-carrier males). Although most toughness measurements were within published consumer acceptability limits, a few individual TM-QTL carrier lambs had unacceptably tough meat, despite enhanced post-slaughter processing. The TM-QTL did not significantly affect loin toughness in female lambs, leg toughness in either sex, or intramuscular fat content. These results should be considered, alongside direct effects of the TM-QTL on muscling and carcass composition, in recommendations for the use of this QTL by sheep breeders. PMID:20416795

  5. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass characteristics in commercial crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9) with meat quality (n = 25) and carcass (n = 19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

  6. The effect of conditioning period on loin muscle tenderness in crossbred lambs with or without the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL).

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Haresign, W; Macfarlane, J; Richardson, R I; Matika, O; Bünger, L

    2010-08-01

    A Texel muscling quantitative trait locus (TM-QTL) has been identified on chromosome 18, which increases loin muscling, but may also have a negative impact on mechanically-measured loin tenderness in crossbred lambs, depending on conditioning time. This study investigated the influence of a range of conditioning times (3, 5, 7 or 9 days) on the effect of TM-QTL on loin muscle tenderness. Using Texel rams heterozygous for TM-QTL, mated to non-carrier Mule ewes, heterozygous (n=45) and wild-type (n=50) crossbred lambs were produced. Weight of the valuable Longissimus lumborum muscle was higher in TM-QTL carriers than non-carriers, when compared at a fixed age (+11.5%; P=0.038), with the same trend at a fixed carcass weight (+10.2%; P=0.064). Toughness, measured by shear force, was significantly higher in samples from TM-QTL carriers than non-carriers, after conditioning for 3 days (P=0.002), 5 days (P=0.003) or 7 days (P=0.03), but was not significantly different after 9 days of conditioning (P=0.32). Compared to non-carrier lambs, the proportion of samples above consumer acceptability thresholds for toughness was greater in the TM-QTL carrier lambs after 3 and 5 days of conditioning, similar at 7 days, but lower at 9 days. The results suggest that the negative effect of TM-QTL on loin tenderness in crossbred lambs can be overcome by conditioning for more than 7 days. Marketing of TM-QTL carrier lambs through companies that use enhanced processing protocols could be beneficial, due to higher loin muscle weights, without negative effects on meat quality. PMID:20416792

  7. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Butler, A R; Kern, R J; Hill, R; Kuehn, L A; Wells, J E; Oliver, W T; Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-08-01

    Small intestine mass and cellularity were previously associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for the digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates, and it contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptome differences among the small intestine from cattle with divergent gain and feed intake. Animals most divergent from the bivariate mean in each of the four phenotypic Cartesian quadrants for gain × intake were selected, and the transcriptomes of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were evaluated. Gene expression analyses were performed comparing high gain vs. low gain animals, high intake vs. low intake animals and each of the phenotypic quadrants to all other groups. Genes differentially expressed within the high gain-low intake and low gain-high intake groups of animals included those involved in immune function and inflammation in all small intestine sections. The high gain-high intake group differed from the high gain-low intake group by immune response genes in all sections of the small intestine. In all sections of small intestine, animals with low gain-low intake displayed greater abundance of heat-shock genes compared to other groups. Several over-represented pathways were identified. These include the antigen-processing/presentation pathway in high gain animals and PPAR signaling, starch/sucrose metabolism, retinol metabolism and melatonin degradation pathways in the high intake animals. Genes with functions in immune response, inflammation, stress response, influenza pathogenesis and melatonin degradation pathways may have a relationship with gain and intake in beef steers. PMID:27226174

  8. Immunocontraception for Managing Feral Cattle in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Massei, Giovanna; Koon, Ka-Kei; Benton, Steven; Brown, Richard; Gomm, Matt; Orahood, Darcy S.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Eckery, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts), administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals’ welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations. PMID:25856283

  9. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling. PMID:9110198

  10. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling.

  11. Cattle and pastoralism: survival and production in arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Western, D.; Finch, V.

    1986-03-01

    Traditional subsistence pastoralists in East Africa tend to keep large herds, milk cattle in preference to eating them, and subject them to long foraging treks. Such practices are widely considered ill-suited to arid lands and are believed to arise because cattle are raised more for social prestige than food production. Whether this is true can only be judged by considering the responses of cattle to arid zones and, given the herder's goals and options, his management practices. In considering these factors, we show that indigenous East African cattle demonstrate energy-sparing capabilities during drought. Pastoralists can therefore herd cattle at great distances from water at little more cost than animals on the normal maintenance diet and watered more frequently. The physiological response of cattle to drought, the ecological constraints imposed by livestock and wildlife competition, and the energetic efficiency of mixed milk and meat pastoralism explain why herders traditionally select their characteristic management practices.

  12. Impact of cloning on cattle breeding systems.

    PubMed

    McClintock, A E

    1998-01-01

    The concept of clone-family testing is compared with existing progeny testing systems. The critical factors that will decide how cloning is utilized are the potential size of cloned families, and the cost per embryo (or per calf born). If family sizes of 100,000 become routinely achievable (cheaply), then clone testing becomes viable. In rough figures, cloned embryos costing $30 with a 50% calving rate would be attractive to farmers and would be cheap enough that farmers would buy more (crossbred) embryos in order to breed further replacement cows. At $300 per embryo, farmers would be more inclined to buy a number of cloned pure-bred female embryos and then to use conventional artificial insemination to breed further replacements from these superior cows. At $3000 per embryo, farmers would probably only be interested in very small numbers of cloned animals, most of which would be males. The relative importance of adult versus fetal cloning is discussed. The need for gene banks to preserve genetic variation is emphasized; both gametes and somatic tissue cultures should be considered.

  13. Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) toxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kerr, L A; Kelch, W J

    1998-08-01

    Four of approximately 15 dry cows introduced on a 10-acre fescue-clover-orchard grass-Dallis grass pasture in East Tennessee became recumbent. Clinical findings included depression, muscle tremors, increased heart and respiratory rates, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, and elevated creatinine phosphokinase. Three cows recovered; 1 died. Differential diagnoses considered were hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, rabies and toxicoses from Amaranthus retroflexus (pigweed), Quercus spp (oak), Cassia spp (senna) oxalate (Aspergillus niger or flavus), mycotoxicosis, lead, arsenic or insecticides. Pigweed toxicosis was confirmed based on clinical and postmortem findings, partially ingested pigweed in the pasture, and ruling out other possible causes. Several factors probably contributed to this incident: since the cattle were newly introduced to the pasture, the cattle may have been attracted to the pigweed in the new pasture and became addicted to it; their rumen microflora had little time to acclimate to the pigweed; and dry weather produced poor forage quality thus forcing the cows to eat the pigweed.

  14. Comparative genome map of human and cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas-Toldo, S.; Fries, R.; Lengauer, C.

    1995-06-10

    Chromosomal homologies between individual human chromosomes and the bovine karyotype have been established by using a new approach termed Zoo-FISH. Labeled DNA libraries from flow-sorted human chromosomes were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on cattle chromosomes. All human DNA libraries, except the Y chromosome library, hybridized to one or more cattle chromosomes, identifying and delineating 50 segments of homology, most of them corresponding to the regions of homology as identified by the previous mapping of individual conserved loci. However, Zoo-FISH refines the comparative maps constructed by molecular gene mapping of individual loci by providing information on the boundaries of conserved regions in the absence of obvious cytogenetic homologies of human and bovine chromosomes. It allows study of karyotypic evolution and opens new avenues for genomic analysis by facilitating the extrapolation of results from the human genome initiative. 50 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A Genetic Linkage Map for Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, M. D.; Kappes, S. M.; Keele, J. W.; Stone, R. T.; Sunden, SLF.; Hawkins, G. A.; Toldo, S. S.; Fries, R.; Grosz, M. D.; Yoo, J.; Beattie, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    We report the most extensive physically anchored linkage map for cattle produced to date. Three-hundred thirteen genetic markers ordered in 30 linkage groups, anchored to 24 autosomal chromosomes (n = 29), the X and Y chromosomes, four unanchored syntenic groups and two unassigned linkage groups spanning 2464 cM of the bovine genome are summarized. The map also assigns 19 type I loci to specific chromosomes and/or syntenic groups and four cosmid clones containing informative microsatellites to chromosomes 13, 25 and 29 anchoring syntenic groups U11, U7 and U8, respectively. This map provides the skeletal framework prerequisite to development of a comprehensive genetic map for cattle and analysis of economic trait loci (ETL). PMID:7908653

  16. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    PubMed

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  17. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P

    2015-03-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers.

  18. Effects of polymorphic microsatellites in the regulatory region of IGF1 and GHR on growth and carcass traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Curi, R A; Oliveira, H N; Silveira, A C; Lopes, C R

    2005-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) and their associated binding proteins and transmembrane receptors (GHR, IGF1R and IGF2R) play an important role in the physiology of mammalian growth. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite markers located in the 5'-regulatory region of the IGF1 and GHR genes in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine effects of these markers on growth and carcass traits in these animals under an intensive production system. For this purpose, genotyping was performed on 384 bulls including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and 275 crossbred animals originating from crosses of Simmental (1/2 Simmental, n = 30) and Angus (1/2 Angus, n = 245) sires with Nellore females. The effects of substituting L allele for S allele of GHR microsatellite across Nellore, Canchim and 1/2 Angus were significant for weight gain and body weight (P < 0.05). The IGF1 microsatellite allele substitutions of 229 for 225 within Nellore group and of 225 for 229 within 1/2 Angus were not significant for any of the traits. PMID:15670132

  19. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  20. Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers in localized culling areas.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Cox, D R; Gilks, Peter; Jenkins, Helen E; Johnston, W Thomas; Le Fevre, Andrea M; Bourne, F John; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Gettinby, George; Hewinson, R Glyn; McInerney, John P; Mitchell, A P; Morrison, W Ivan; Watkins, Gavin H

    2009-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease that can have serious consequences for cattle farming and, potentially, for public health. In Britain, failure to control bovine TB has been linked to persistent infection of European badger (Meles meles) populations. However, culling of badgers in the vicinity of recent TB outbreaks in cattle has failed to reduce the overall incidence of cattle TB. Using data from a large-scale study conducted in 1998-2005, we show that badgers collected on such localized culls had elevated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine TB, suggesting that infections in cattle and badgers were indeed associated. Moreover, there was a high degree of similarity in the M. bovis strain types isolated from cattle and associated badgers. This similarity between strain types appeared to be unaffected by time lags between the detection of infection in cattle and culling of badgers, or by the presence of purchased cattle that might have acquired infection elsewhere. However, localized culling appeared to prompt an increase in the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers, probably by disrupting ranging and territorial behavior and hence increasing intraspecific transmission rates. This elevated prevalence among badgers could offset the benefits, for cattle, of reduced badger densities and may help to explain the failure of localized culling to reduce cattle TB incidence.

  1. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  2. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  3. Developmental and epigenetic anomalies in cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, L C; Suzuki, J; Goff, A K; Filion, F; Therrien, J; Murphy, B D; Kohan-Ghadr, H R; Lefebvre, R; Brisville, A C; Buczinski, S; Fecteau, G; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V

    2012-08-01

    Many of the developmental anomalies observed in cloned animals are related to foetal and placental overgrowth, a phenomenon known as the 'large offspring syndrome' (LOS) in ruminants. It has been hypothesized that the epigenetic control of imprinted genes, that is, genes that are expressed in a parental-specific manner, is at the root of LOS. Our recent research has focused on understanding epigenetic alterations to imprinted genes that are associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as early embryo in vitro culture (IVC) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in cattle. We have sought and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in Bos indicus DNA useful for the analysis of parental-specific alleles and their respective transcripts in tissues from hybrid embryos derived by crossing Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. By analysing differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes SNRPN, H19 and the IGF2R in cattle, we demonstrated that there is a generalized hypomethylation of the imprinted allele and the biallelic expression of embryos produced by SCNT when compared to the methylation patterns observed in vivo (artificially inseminated). Together, these results indicate that imprinting marks are erased during the reprogramming of the somatic cell nucleus during early development, indicating that such epigenetic anomalies may play a key role in mortality and morbidity of cloned animals.

  4. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  5. A review of interstitial pneumonia in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kerr, L A; Linnabary, R D

    1989-06-01

    Interstitial pneumonias comprise a significant proportion of cattle respiratory diseases. Known by different names, such as acute bovine pulmonary emphysema and edema (ABPE), fog fever, atypical interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and cow asthma, the condition seems to occur predominantly in late summer or fall. However, depending on the etiology, cases have occurred throughout the year. Interstitial pneumonia often begins with acute respiratory distress in animals that were clinically normal 12 hr earlier. Animals are observed breathing very rapid and shallow with their mouths open. If disturbed, death may occur rapidly from hypoxia. Causes of interstitial pneumonia are quite varied ranging from parasitic, viral and bacterial to toxic. Toxic agents constitute the most economically important cause of this condition in cattle. The primary toxin is the amino acid L-tryptophan in lush pasture grasses, a compound which is converted to 3-methylindole by rumen microorganisms. Other leading toxic causes of interstitial pneumonia are perilla mint and moldy sweet potatoes. Although treatments are mainly symptomatic and ineffective, preventive measures will reduce the occurrence of interstitial pneumonia. Prevention consists of denying animals exposure to know pneumotoxic agents, eliminating certain rumen microflora that break down the toxic compounds to reactive metabolites, and supplying ample good forage so that cattle will not as likely consume toxic plants.

  6. Milk production and energy efficiency of Holstein and Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows offered diets containing grass silage.

    PubMed

    Xue, B; Yan, T; Ferris, C F; Mayne, C S

    2011-03-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows (all primiparous) were used in a repeated 2 (genotype) × 2 (concentrate level) factorial design study involving a total of 4 periods (each of 6-wk duration), designed to examine the effect of cross-breeding on the efficiency of milk production and energy use. The 4 periods began at 5, 11, 27, and 33 wk of lactation, respectively. Animals were offered a completely mixed diet containing grass silage and concentrates, with the level of concentrate in the diet either 30 or 70% of dry matter (DM). During the final 10 d of each period, ration digestibility and energy use was measured, the latter in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeters. No significant interaction existed between cow genotype and dietary concentrate level for feed intake, milk production, or any of the energy use parameters measured. Across the 2 genotypes, total DM intake, milk yield, and milk protein and lactose concentrations increased with increasing dietary concentrate level. Thus, cows offered the high-concentrate diet had a higher gross energy (GE) intake, and a higher energy output in feces, urine, milk as heat, and a higher metabolizable energy (ME) intake as a proportion of GE intake and as a proportion of digestible energy intake. Across the 2 levels of concentrates, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher total DM intake and body condition score, and produced milk with higher fat, protein, and energy concentrations, compared with those of the Holstein cows. In addition, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher GE intake and energy output in urine, methane, and milk. However, crossbreeding had no significant effect on energy digestibility or metabolizability, energy partitioning between milk and body tissue, or the efficiency of ME use for lactation. Relating ME intake to milk energy output and heat production indicated that crossbreeding did not influence ME requirement for maintenance or energy

  7. Preweaning growth traits for Senepol, Hereford, and reciprocal crossbred calves and feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of steers.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Butts, W T

    1998-12-01

    We conducted a multiyear study in two phases to determine preweaning performance traits of Senepol (S x S), Hereford (H x H), and reciprocal (S x H and H x S) F1 crossbred calves and feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of steers. In Phase I, from 1985 to 1989, data from S x S (n = 194), H x H (n = 383), and S x H (n = 120) calves were used. Numbers of S x S cows were increased during Phase I so that data from H x S (n = 74) calves could be included in Phase II (1990 to 1992) in addition to S x S (n = 118), H x H (n = 130), and S x H (n = 56) calves. Also during Phase II, feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were determined for S x S (n = 30), H x H (n = 26), H x S (n = 36), and S x H (n = 26) steers. In Phase I, S x S calves had heavier (P < .01) birth weights and heavier (P < .01) 205-d adjusted weaning weights than H x H calves. Birth weights of S x H calves were heavier (P < .01) than the mean of the purebred calves, but 205-d adjusted weaning weights did not differ (P > .10). In phase II, direct heterosis was 3.5% for birth weight (P < .05) and 5.1% for 205-d adjusted weaning weight (P < .01). Senepol maternal breed effects were 1.9 kg for birth weight (P < .10) and 37.9 kg for 205-d adjusted weaning weight (P < .01). Levels of direct heterosis, Senepol maternal breed effects, and Hereford direct breed effects were significant for most feedlot performance traits of steer calves that were fed to a common end point. Breeds did not differ (P > .10) for USDA yield and quality grades, and direct heterosis was not significant for Warner-Bratzler shear force. These results demonstrate significant levels of heterosis in preweaning performance between S x S and H x H calves and in feedlot performance of steers. Levels of heterosis were smaller and nonsignificant for most carcass traits including meat tenderness, which did not differ between S x S and H x H steers in this study. PMID:9928599

  8. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: I. Reproductive, maternal, and size traits.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Cows (n = 116) sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls and from Hereford dams were evaluated (when bred to the same breed of bull) for reproductive performance and cow weight and height and their calves (n = 1,161) were evaluated for birth and weaning weight in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). Cows were born from 1982 to 1985 and their calves were born from 1985 to 1999. Crossbred cows sired by Angus had a higher (P < 0.10) occurrence of calving difficulty than Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman crossbreds. Calves from Gir crossbreds had lighter (P < 0.10) birth weight (34.8 kg) than calves from Angus and Red Brahman crossbreds (39.4 and 37.2 kg). Calves from Angus crossbreds cows had lighter (P < 0.001) weaning weight (227.0 kg) than calves from Bos indicus crossbreds. Cows sired by Angus were lighter (P < 0.10) as mature cows (520.69 kg) than Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds (585.6, 571.9, and 577.6 kg, respectively). They also had smaller (P < 0.05) hip height (124.7 cm) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Mature cows sired by Indu-Brazil had greater (P < 0.05) hip height (138.3 cm) than Gir crossbreds (133.8 cm). Differences among sire breeds were noted within cow age categories (2 through 14 yr of age) for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, calf survival rate (as a trait of cow), and calf crop weaned. Angus and Indu-Brazil crossbred cows were lower (P < or = 0.10) than Gir and Nellore crossbreds for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, and(or) calf crop weaned at some, but not all, ages. Indu-Brazil crossbreds had a lower (P < or = 0.10) calf survival rate than most other breed groups at ages 11 to 14 yr. The results of this study indicate that Nellore and Gir crossbreds, but not Indu-Brazil, could perform as well or better than breeds traditionally used in cross-breeding programs of U.S. cow-calf production. PMID:11424679

  9. Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium andersoni in dairy cattle and He cattle in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Jing, Bo; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult cattle in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and understand the transmission of cattle cryptosporidiosis in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, a total of 1827 fecal samples (436 from He cattle and 1391 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of C. andersoni-like oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The overall prevalence of C. andersoni-like was 3.8% (70/1827) and all the C. andersoni-like isolates were identified as C. andersoni at the SSU rRNA locus. Among the C. andersoni isolates, a total of 60 isolates were successfully characterized into eight multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes using MLST analysis at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16), and three new subtypes were identified. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed a predominance and a wide distribution among the eight MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. The MLST subtypes A2,A4,A2,A1 and A4,A5,A2,A1 showed a unique distribution in the investigated areas. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of an epidemic population genetic structure of C. andersoni isolated from dairy and He cattle in Xinjiang. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates and are also helpful to explore the infection source of C. andersoni in cattle in Xinjiang, China. PMID:27448954

  10. Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium andersoni in dairy cattle and He cattle in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Jing, Bo; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult cattle in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and understand the transmission of cattle cryptosporidiosis in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, a total of 1827 fecal samples (436 from He cattle and 1391 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of C. andersoni-like oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The overall prevalence of C. andersoni-like was 3.8% (70/1827) and all the C. andersoni-like isolates were identified as C. andersoni at the SSU rRNA locus. Among the C. andersoni isolates, a total of 60 isolates were successfully characterized into eight multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes using MLST analysis at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16), and three new subtypes were identified. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed a predominance and a wide distribution among the eight MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. The MLST subtypes A2,A4,A2,A1 and A4,A5,A2,A1 showed a unique distribution in the investigated areas. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of an epidemic population genetic structure of C. andersoni isolated from dairy and He cattle in Xinjiang. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates and are also helpful to explore the infection source of C. andersoni in cattle in Xinjiang, China.

  11. Girly mags and girly jobs: pornography and gendered inequality in forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Dave

    2013-02-01

    This article presents findings from a discourse analytic study into the constructive nature and textual variations of language in a high-security hospital. It explores how mental health nurses, and men convicted of sexual offences who also have a diagnosis of personality disorder, talked about pornography and sexual crime in the context of forensic provision. Access to sexually-explicit media, in relation to treatment environments for people convicted of sexual offences, has become a cause for professional and political concern in the UK. Data collection and analysis, undertaken concurrently, were informed by a discursive design. Semistructured interviews, as co-constructed accounts with nursing staff and detained patients, were audio-taped and transcribed. Data were coded to identify the discursive repertoires, or collective talk, of respondents. In contrast to empirical inquiry into pornography and sexual violence, methodology shifted attention from measurement to meaning, and situated research in a clinical domain. The findings focus on performative language use, where talk about pornography textured the treatment environment, contributed to an overtly masculine discourse, framed the ward as male space, and promoted gendered inequality. The discussion questions the legitimacy of the therapeutic enterprise. PMID:22978544

  12. Girly mags and girly jobs: pornography and gendered inequality in forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Dave

    2013-02-01

    This article presents findings from a discourse analytic study into the constructive nature and textual variations of language in a high-security hospital. It explores how mental health nurses, and men convicted of sexual offences who also have a diagnosis of personality disorder, talked about pornography and sexual crime in the context of forensic provision. Access to sexually-explicit media, in relation to treatment environments for people convicted of sexual offences, has become a cause for professional and political concern in the UK. Data collection and analysis, undertaken concurrently, were informed by a discursive design. Semistructured interviews, as co-constructed accounts with nursing staff and detained patients, were audio-taped and transcribed. Data were coded to identify the discursive repertoires, or collective talk, of respondents. In contrast to empirical inquiry into pornography and sexual violence, methodology shifted attention from measurement to meaning, and situated research in a clinical domain. The findings focus on performative language use, where talk about pornography textured the treatment environment, contributed to an overtly masculine discourse, framed the ward as male