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Sample records for girls aged 10-14

  1. Suicide rates in children aged 10-14 years worldwide: changes in the past two decades.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-10-01

    Limited research is focused on suicides in children aged below 15 years. To analyse worldwide suicide rates in children aged 10-14 years in two decades: 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. Suicide data for 81 countries or territories were retrieved from the World Health Organization Mortality Database, and population data from the World Bank data-set. In the past two decades the suicide rate per 100 000 in boys aged 10-14 years in 81 countries has shown a minor decline (from 1.61 to 1.52) whereas in girls it has shown a slight increase (from 0.85 to 0.94). Although the average rate has not changed significantly, rates have decreased in Europe and increased in South America. The suicide rates remain critical for boys in some former USSR republics. The changes may be related to economic recession and its impact on children from diverse cultural backgrounds, but may also be due to improvements in mortality registration in South America. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  2. Brief Report: Autistic-Like Traits in Childhood Predict Later Age at Menarche in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Hickey, Martha; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between autistic-like traits in early childhood and age at menarche in typically developing girls. Autistic-like symptoms were measured at age 2 years using the Child Behaviour Checklist, and age at menarche (AAM) was determined prospectively using self-report questionnaires at age 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. Girls…

  3. Causes and prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of school children aged 10-14 years in Maseru, Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2008-04-01

    Traumatic dental injuries are widespread in the population and the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries among school children in different parts of the world varies from about 3% to 45%. Most injuries involve the anterior teeth, which may lead to eating restrictions, changes in physical appearance, speech defects and psychological impacts that affect the child's quality of life. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence, aetiology and types of injuries to permanent incisors among schoolchildren aged 10-14 years from Maseru, Lesotho. Upper and lower permanent incisors were examined for dental injuries. The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisor teeth was 9.3% (13.3% boys and 6.3% girls). Significantly more boys than girls suffered injury. The most common type of injury was enamel fractures and most common cause was falls. Health promotion policies should aim to create an appropriate and safe environment for children. Soft playground surfaces, school-crossing patrols, marked zebra crossings and bicycle lanes would help create a safe environment. Speed limits for cars and the use of seat belts, air bags, special car seats for children and bicycle helmets should be enforced. Mouth guards should be used when playing sport, in particular contact sports. Education regarding the epidemiology of dental injuries and their prevention through health promotion may play a major role in reducing the prevalence of dental injury and avoiding the financial costs of treatment, especially in developing countries.

  4. Decline in menarcheal age among Saudi girls.

    PubMed

    Al Alwan, Ibrahim A; Ibrahim, Areej A; Badri, Motasim A; Al Dubayee, Mohammed S; Bin-Abbas, Bassam S

    2015-11-01

    To estimate age at menarche and to assess trends in menarcheal age among Saudi women. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted among healthy prepubertal female school children and adolescents from September 2006 to July 2012 in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were invited from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Tanner stage, height, weight, body mass index, and socioeconomic parameters including parent's level of education were collected. Age at menarche was compared with maternal age at menarche. The study included 265 girls and mothers. Mean±standard deviation (SD) age at menarche for girls was 13.08 ± 1.1 years, and their distribution category across the ≤10 years was 4 (1.5%), 11-14 years was 239 (90.2%), and ≥15 years was 22 (8.3%) girls. Anthropometric measurements, mother's level of education, and family income were not statistically significant determining factors associated with age at menarche. Mean ± SD age at menarche for mothers was 13.67 ± 1.4 years, and their distribution category across the ≤10 years was 7 (2.6%), 11-14 years was 172 (64.9%), and ≥15 years was 86 (32.5%). Girls attained menarche at younger age compared with their mothers (p less than 0.0001). A downward secular trend in age of menarche was observed (Cuzick test for trend = 0.049). Saudi girls attain menarcheal age earlier than their mothers, reflecting a downward secular trend in menarcheal age.

  5. Cervical vertebral bone age in girls.

    PubMed

    Mito, Toshinori; Sato, Koshi; Mitani, Hideo

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish cervical vertebral bone age as a new index for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs. Using cephalometric radiographs of 176 girls (ages 7.0-14.9 years), we measured cervical vertebral bodies and determined a regression formula to obtain cervical vertebral bone age. Next, using cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of another 66 girls (ages 8.0-13.9 years), we determined the correlation between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age using the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method. The following results were obtained: (1) a regression formula was determined to obtain cervical vertebral bone age based on ratios of measurements in the third and fourth cervical vertebral bodies; (2) the correlation coefficient for the relationship between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age (0.869) was significantly (P <.05) higher than that for the relationship between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (0.705); and (3) the difference (absolute value) between the cervical vertebral bone age and bone age (0.75 years) was significantly (P <.001) smaller than that between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (1.17 years). These results suggest that cervical vertebral bone age reflects skeletal maturity because it approximates bone age, which is considered to be the most reliable method for evaluating skeletal maturation. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate maturity in a detailed and objective manner on cephalometric radiographs.

  6. A survey of the physical health status of pupils aged 10-14 years in Standards 3-5 at three schools in New Crossroads, near Cape Town in the Western Cape.

    PubMed

    Ramphele, M A; Heap, M; Trollip, D K

    1995-10-01

    Although adolescence is most commonly associated with risk-taking behaviour, mortality due to poverty-related conditions is high among black African children aged 10-14 years. This paper describes a study carried out in October 1991 to assess the physical health status of 860 underprivileged pupils aged 10-14 years in Standards 3-5 at three schools in New Crossroads, near Cape Town. Data on nutritional status, age at menarche, blood pressure, eyesight, physical abnormalities, injuries and use of hospitals were obtained. The response rate was 90%. Of all the children, 7.2% were below the 5th percentile weight-for-age. The proportion of boys (13.1%) below the 5th percentile weight-for-age was significantly higher than that of girls (3.7%). Of all the children, 19.5% were below the 5th percentile height-for-age. The proportion of boys (24.4%) below the 5th percentile height-for-age was also significantly higher than that of girls (16.7%). The average age at menarche was 13 years, similar to that (12.8 years) reported for the UK. In 5% of the children, the diastolic blood pressure was > 90 mmHg and the findings show some increase with age. Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital accounted for 30.9% of hospital attendances. 'Chest' complaints (19.5%) were frequent reasons for consultations, while 15.2% of the children reported being injured, with car accidents (16.0%), fractures (27.5%) and burns (20.6%) being the most common injuries. It is suggested that the provision of a 24-hour day hospital will ease the load on the referral hospital, i.e. Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Nonfatal and Fatal Self-Harm Injuries among Children Aged 10-14 Years--United States and Oregon, 2001-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajani, Madhavi; Annest, Joseph L.; Crosby, Alex E.; Alexander, Janice D.; Millet, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries due to suicidal behavior among younger adolescents are of growing concern for many communities. We examined the incidence and patterns of these injuries among persons aged 10-14 years using three databases, two national and a third from Oregon. Suffocation and firearm gunshot were the leading external causes of suicide;…

  8. Nonfatal and Fatal Self-Harm Injuries among Children Aged 10-14 Years--United States and Oregon, 2001-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajani, Madhavi; Annest, Joseph L.; Crosby, Alex E.; Alexander, Janice D.; Millet, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries due to suicidal behavior among younger adolescents are of growing concern for many communities. We examined the incidence and patterns of these injuries among persons aged 10-14 years using three databases, two national and a third from Oregon. Suffocation and firearm gunshot were the leading external causes of suicide;…

  9. Valproic Acid in Women and Girls of Childbearing Age.

    PubMed

    Gotlib, Dorothy; Ramaswamy, Rachel; Kurlander, Jacob E; DeRiggi, Alana; Riba, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent literature on valproic acid (VPA) in women and girls of childbearing age and to emphasize new findings. Recent research confirms VPAs teratogenicity and risk of hormone disruption. VPA exposure in utero increases the risk for a variety of major congenital malformations (MCMs), reduced IQ and behavioral problems. In girls and women, VPA increases the risk of hormone abnormalities, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Despite guidelines recommending caution, VPA use continues to be prescribed to reproductive-aged women and girls. Despite significant and well-documented risk, adherence to guidelines in VPA use in reproductive-aged girls and women remains low.

  10. Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls' Physical Activity at Age 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Girls' perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls' physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways…

  11. Attitudes and practices of school-aged girls towards menstruation.

    PubMed

    Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. [Physical fitness of short-statured girls in pubertal age].

    PubMed

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Objective evaluation of physical fitness during adolescence is of importance in a school practice. Low body height may decide of unequal chances of short-statured youth as compared to other pupils performing physical fitness test. To assess physical fitness of short-statured girls aged 13-16. 20 short-statured girls (body height below 10th percentile) from the province of Lodz aged 13-16 (15.1±0.9) years took part in the study. Their body height and body mass were 143.0±10.7 cm and 44.7±9.2 kg, respectively. Physical fitness was assessed with the use of EUROFIT test battery. The results were standardised against the functions of means and standard deviations for age computed for the Polish population and compared with the t-test. As compared to girls from a general population, a short-statured one performed significantly worse with respect to two tests: SAR (sit-and-reach) and SBJ (standing board jump; p <0.01). In other fitness tests the results obtained were similar. It was also found that body height correlated positively and body mass negatively with general physical fitness. In order to compensate deficiencies in physical fitness of short-statured girls, particular attention should be paid to shaping those abilities in which they performed worse. On the other hand, changing the attitude towards evaluation in physical education should be also considered as to make it adequate to somatic possibilities of short-statured pupils and thus motivate them to undertake physical activity.

  13. Participation in aesthetic sports and girls' weight concerns at ages 5 and 7 years.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B; Birch, Leann L

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls' weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Reducing stress in school-age girls through mindful yoga.

    PubMed

    White, Laura Santangelo

    2012-01-01

    School-age children report much stress in their daily lives, which may lead to psychological and physical problems. Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction is a program of awareness-based practices effective with adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of mindfulness training through yoga with school-age girls to reduce perceived stress, enhance coping abilities, self-esteem, and self-regulation, and explore the relationship between the dose of the intervention and outcomes. Fourth- and fifth-grade girls were recruited from two public schools and randomly assigned to intervention and wait-list control groups. The intervention group met 1 hour a week for 8 weeks and completed 10 minutes of daily homework. Self-esteem and self-regulation increased in both groups. The intervention group was more likely to report greater appraisal of stress (p < .01) and greater frequency of coping (p < .05). Homework accounted for 7% of the variance in reported stress. Consistent with reports of mindfulness training, greater awareness of the feelings associated with stress may enhance coping abilities. However, it is possible that the increasing awareness of stressors in itself increased stress, possibly as part of the process of developing mindfulness or related to cognitive, emotional, or social development. Mindfulness in children may differ from mindfulness in adults and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Young Girls' and Caretakers' Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance across Age, Race, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls' involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker-child concordance of problem…

  16. Young Girls' and Caretakers' Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance across Age, Race, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls' involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker-child concordance of problem…

  17. Parental Behavior Toward Boys and Girls of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Eva; And Others

    1961-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of sex roles in the United States has indicated a tendency for parents to treat girls less harshly than boys and for fathers to treat girls with more special warmth than they do boys. Eighteen children and their parents were interviewed and observed in Oslo, Norway, as part of a longitudinal study of parental influence…

  18. Association of Age at Menarche with Anthropometric Measures in Punjabi Bania Girls

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Zora; Sethi, Gurmeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Menarcheal age is the age at which menstruation begins. Menarcheal age is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological and psychological environment. Aim 1) To determine the menarcheal age and to examine the relationship between current age at menarche with anthropometric measures in Punjabi bania girls. 2) To develop maturity standards for Bania girls. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional survey was carried out on 200 bania girls at the age of onset of menarche. Menarcheal data was obtained by status quo method by asking about whether menarche has been experienced or not. In the present survey adolescent girls were interviewed with the help of pre-designed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS software, version 16.0. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for correlation studies. Results A total of 200 Punjabi bania girls were examined in the study. The median age of onset of menarche in these girls was 12.3 years. Menarcheal age was positively associated with bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span. Conclusion The present research has revealed secular trend in the age of onset of menarche as indicated by median age of 12.3 years in Bania girls. The bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span were also correlated with the age of menarche. PMID:28050402

  19. 24 CFR 10.14 - Hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearings. 10.14 Section 10.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.14 Hearings. (a) The provisions of 5 U.S.C. 556 and...

  20. 24 CFR 10.14 - Hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearings. 10.14 Section 10.14... RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.14 Hearings. (a) The provisions of 5 U.S.C. 556 and 557, which govern formal hearings in adjudicatory proceedings, do not apply to informal rule making...

  1. 24 CFR 10.14 - Hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearings. 10.14 Section 10.14... RULEMAKING: POLICY AND PROCEDURES Procedures § 10.14 Hearings. (a) The provisions of 5 U.S.C. 556 and 557, which govern formal hearings in adjudicatory proceedings, do not apply to informal rule making...

  2. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  3. Parent-Reported Differences between School-Aged Girls and Boys on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen

    2017-01-01

    More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided…

  4. The Evolution of a Therapeutic Group Approach to School-Age Pregnant Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braen, Bernard B.

    This report evaluates the Young Mothers' Educational Development Program sponsored by the State University of New York, for pregnant girls between the ages of 16 and 21. The program provided needed services in the areas of obstetrics, pediatrics, education, social work, nursing, and psychology. The girls were Black, Caucasian, and Indian.…

  5. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  6. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  7. A Comparison of the Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes of Adolescent Girls with Older vs. Similar-Aged Boyfriends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Feldman, S. Shirley; Diaz, Rafael; Yisrael, Donnovan Somera

    2004-01-01

    Sexual behaviors and attitudes of female adolescents were studied as a function of age of boyfriend. Boyfriend's age was dichotomized: similar-aged was defined as within 2 years of the girls' age; older aged was 3 or more years older than the girl. A school-based, ethnically diverse sample of 9th-grade girls (N = 146) who had been in a serious…

  8. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  9. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  10. Pubertal development among girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages

    PubMed Central

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Eunice, Marumudi; Ammini, Ariachery C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) provide us an opportunity to study the clinical effects of androgen excess in humans. We studied the sequence of pubertal development in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages, to assess the effects of androgen exposure on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian (HPO) axis. Materials and Methods: Girls more than 18 years of age, with CAH, on follow-up at this hospital were the subjects for this study. Details of history, physical findings, laboratory evaluation, and medication were noted from their case records and verified from the patients and their / parents, in addition to assessment of their present health status. Result: We studied 24 patients of classical CAH (SW-2, SV-22, average age – 24.5 ± 6.6 years). All had varying degrees of genital ambiguity (Prader stage 3 (n = 13), Prader stage 2 (n = 10), Prader stage 1 (n = 1). Among them were13 girls, who were started on steroids after eight years of age. Girls who received treatment from infancy and early childhood had normal pubertal development (mean age at menarche 11.4 ± 1.7 years). Hirsutism was not a problem among them. Untreated children had progressive clitoral enlargement throughout childhood, developed pubic hair at around three to six years of age, and facial hair between nine and eleven years. Plasma testosterone ranged from 3 to 6 ng / ml prior to treatment. Six of the 13 untreated CAH girls had subtle breast development starting at ages 11 – 16 years and three had spontaneous infrequent vaginal bleeding starting at ages 11 – 17. Steroid supplementation initiated pubertal changes in older girls in two-to-six months’ time. Conclusion: There was a delay in HPO axis maturation (as evidenced by delayed pubertal development) in the absence of treatment in girls with CAH. This could be corrected with steroid supplementation. PMID:22837923

  11. Body image of tall and medium girls aged 13-17 years.

    PubMed

    Głogowska, Joanna; Milde, Katarzyna; Stupnicki, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent girls often experience difficulties in a rational perception of own body and consider attaining an "appropriate shape" as a key to success and happiness. Growth disorders, like e.g. very tall stature, may bring about stigmatising which, in turn, may decrease in such girls their self-esteem, especially in adolescence. Aim of the study was to assess the perceived body image of tall and medium-statured girls and to compare their self-rating with an external one. A group of 56 girls aged 13-17 years were classified into two categories of body height: medium stature, between Percentiles 40 and 60 (n=36) and tall, above Percentile 90 (n=20). Using a template containing 9 female body shapes, the girls indicated the shape they thought they had, the shape they wished to have, and an external rating was also made. Girls rated as shapes 1 or 2 were classified as thin, shapes 3 or 4 as medium and shape 5 or higher as robust. The data were related to the BMI values. Thin girls self-rated their body shapes and the desired ones significantly higher (p <0.05) compared with the external rating. In medium-shaped girls the same was true for self-rating, the desired shape being concordant with the external rating. In robust girls, the external and self-ratings were concordant, the desired shapes being significantly lower (p <0.05) but higher (p <0.05) in tall than in medium-height girls (5.0 and 3.9, respectively). Tall and medium girls did not differ significantly in BMI but a very high correlation (r=0.930; p <0.001) was found between the externally rated body shape and BMI in both groups of girls. The distorted perception of own body shape by adolescent girls may result from the specific ideals of feminine beauty and excessively slim silhouette insistently promoted by mass media and fashion designers. Popularisation of the results of this and similar studies may contribute to altering the respective attitudes of adolescent girls.

  12. Parent-reported differences between school-aged girls and boys on the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen

    2017-03-01

    More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided insights regarding the characteristics of boys and girls (as perceived by parents) as well as some demographic information. There were very few differences reported regarding communication and social strengths and difficulties of boys and girls with autism. No differences were reported in the number of boys and girls on the autism spectrum with special interests or repetitive behaviours; however, significant differences were found in the types of special interests with boys and girls showing generally interests along traditional gender lines. Qualitative analysis of open comments indicated that some parents of girls on the autism spectrum described their daughter as trying to hide or mask her difficulties more but no parents of boys on the spectrum described this phenomenon.

  13. Age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion among US adolescent girls: trend from 2008 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-01-29

    To examine the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose) and completion (≥3 doses) among adolescent girls at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended age (11-12 years). We analyzed National Immunization Survey of Teens 2008-2012 data and examined the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation and completion among <13 year old girls. Data on age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion were available for 24,466 and 15,972 girls, respectively. The weighted proportion of girls who initiated the vaccine at <13 years of age was 14.1%, 24.1%, 35.9%, 47.7% and 55.9% in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively (p for trend <.001). The similar trend was also observed for mean age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion (p<.001). Additional efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccine uptake among adolescent girls as only half of them receive this vaccine at ACIP recommended age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.

  15. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L; Buys, Saundra S; Frost, Caren J; Keegan, Theresa H M; Knight, Julia A; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M; Daly, Mary B

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH-), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer-specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH- peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer-specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH- peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer-specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer-specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  17. SI – SRH Sexual-risk factors of partner age-discordance in adolescent girls and their male partners

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Xia, Yinglin; Passmore, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Aim and objectives To investigate differences in sexual-risk factors between adolescent girls reporting similar-aged or older sex partners. Background Adolescent girls are at significant risk for heterosexual-acquired HIV infection and other long term reproductive health issues. Sexual partner age-discordance in teen girls has been correlated with STIs, lack of protection, multiple partners, and earlier age of sexual transition. Design A descriptive study comparing girls currently involved with age-discordant partners to those with similar-aged partners. Two-sample t-test for continuous variables and for categorical variables, Chi-square or Fisher exact test were used to compare groups. Methods Baseline data from 738 sexually-active, urban, adolescent girls ages 15 to 19, were analyzed to determine which behaviors were more likely to occur in girls with older partners. Data were collected as part of a gender specific HIV-prevention intervention in a randomized controlled trial tailored to adolescent girls. Results Multiple reported sexual risk behaviors were found to significantly differ between the two groups at baseline. Overall, girls with older partners had more episodes of sexual instances (vaginal, anal, and oral). Specific sexual risk behaviors were found to be statistically significant between the two groups. Girls with older partners started having sex at earlier ages, had more lifetime sexual partners, higher incidents of STIs and were reluctant to discuss using condoms with their partners. Girls with similar-aged partners were less willing to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Conclusions Findings from this investigation support data from other studies. Relationships with older male partners place adolescent girls at increased risk for HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy. Relevance to clinical practice Adolescent girls in age-discordant relationships are at risk for immediate and long term sexual health morbidities. Identifying girls who are at increased

  18. Location of the ovaries in girls from newborn to 18 years of age: reconsidering ovarian shielding.

    PubMed

    Bardo, Dianna M E; Black, Michelle; Schenk, Kellie; Zaritzky, Mario F

    2009-03-01

    Guidelines for ovarian shielding are to place a lead shield in the midline of the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus. However, the ovaries are routinely seen at other locations on all types of imaging examinations. To determine the position of the ovaries in girls, newborn to 18 years of age, in order to assess efficacy of ovarian shield placement. We identified 336 girls who underwent lumbar spine and pelvic MRI. Images were reviewed noting the position of the ovaries relative to anatomic landmarks: symphysis pubis, iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). In 174 girls a total of 307 ovaries were visualized. The girls were divided into three age groups and analyzed together. Right and left ovaries were analyzed together. The mean, 95% confidence interval (CI), standard deviations and range were calculated. The ovaries lay at or below the iliac crest (the level of the umbilicus), most often just medial to the ASIS and above the pubic symphysis in girls of all ages. Current methods of shielding only the midline of the pelvis for the purpose of reducing radiation dose to the ovaries during radiographic imaging are ineffective given that the ovaries are almost always positioned laterally in the pelvis. Therefore current shielding techniques should be changed; lead ovarian shields should be placed in a lateral position or even abandoned if relevant anatomy will be obscured.

  19. Age at menarche in girls and the Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wojtyła, Andrzej; Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T

    2012-01-01

    The researchers express their attitude concerning a chapter in the book by Victor Preedy entitled 'Handbook of Anthropometry: Physical Measures of Human Form and Disease' written by Polish researchers, anthropologists concerning the age at menarche in Polish girls after World War II. The authors question the arguments explaining the phenomenon of acceleration of pubertal timing in girls in recent decades described in the scientific literature. In their opinion, the phenomena of acceleration or delay of pubertal onset in girls cannot be explained solely by the living conditions. According to them, it is necessary to consider in these analyses the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD). The researchers are of the opinion that this is rather a mismatch in the conditions of individual development, mainly nutrition, between critical developmental periods (critical windows) and later conditions that play a role in the acceleration or delay of the age at menarche in girls. They draw attention to the fact that the age at menarche in girls is an indicator of life span programmed in the early developmental periods. They consider that the effect of these relationships is susceptibility to civilisation chronic diseases in adulthood.

  20. Brief report: Pregnant by age 15 years and substance use initiation among US adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-10-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12, 13-14, and age 15 years) for alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, controlling for race/ethnicity and metropolitan location. Of girls pregnant by age 15 years (3% of the sample, weighted n = 243), 16% had smoked marijuana by age 10 years and over 20% had smoked cigarettes and initiated alcohol use by age 10 years. In the multivariable analysis, marijuana use by age 14 years and/or cigarette smoking by age 12 years clearly distinguished girls who became pregnant by age 15 years and is perhaps due to a common underlying risk factor. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years].

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi-yong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-jun; Fu, Lian-guo; Dong, Bin; Yang, Yi-de

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years. A total of 76 869 girls aged 7 to 17 years old were selected from the national physical fitness and health research in 2010, and probit analyses were used to calculate the average age of menarche for each province. Girls whose age were lower than the P 10 of age at menarche were judged as early age at menarche, and matched with two selected participant without menarche based on the age and the same urban or rural areas. High blood pressure was defined as whose systolic pressure and/or diastolic pressure was higher than P 95 of systolic pressure or diastolic pressure at the same age group. The difference of the rate of high blood pressure in girls with and without menarche by Chi-square test, and multilevel model was used to analyze the relationship between early age at menarche and blood pressure. In 76 869 girls, the values of height and BMI were separately (152.2 ± 10.4) cm and (18.7 ± 3.1) kg/m(2), while the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were (103.4 ± 11.0) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) and (65.0 ± 9.1) mm Hg respectively. In 47 942 girls (62.4%) had occurred menstruation while 28 927 girls (37.6%) without menstruation. The girls began to report menstruation at the age of 9, and 81.5% (7123/8736) girls had already reported menstruation at the age of 13. The rate of high blood pressure in menstruation group from 11 to 13 years were separately 6.71% (100/1490), 5.99% (265/4423) and 5.38% (383/7123), which was significant higher than 3.78% (265/7005), 3.33% (144/4328) and 4.09% (66/1613) in the same age group of non-menstruation (the values of Chi-square were separately 25.62, 32.36, 4.46, and all P values < 0.05) . The mean age of early age at menarche was 9 to 11 years old, and the rate of high blood pressure, high systolic pressure, and high diastolic pressure at 11 years group was separately 6.08% (49/806), 4.84% (39/806) and 3

  2. Women and HIV/AIDS Epidemic: The Issue of College Age Girls' Awareness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Solomon O.; Moses, Ailemen I.; Ugiomoh, Maria M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine women and HIV/AIDS epidemic: the issue of school age girls' awareness in Nigeria information was elicited from 1,222 randomly selected regular under-graduate female students from the 11 faculties of the university of Lagos, Nigeria, with the use of a standardized structured questionnaire. Results of the major…

  3. An Examination of the Relative Age Effect in Developmental Girls' Hockey in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristy L.; Weir, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that athletes may be provided with greater opportunities for success depending on the position of their birthdate in a sport's selection year. While the effect has been well established in men's sports, less is known about women's sports. This study examined the RAE in developmental girls' hockey in Ontario.…

  4. Preferences for "Gender-Typed" Toys in Boys and Girls Aged 9 to 32 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Brenda K.; Barry, John A.; Thommessen, Sara A. O.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have found that a majority of boys and girls prefer to play with toys that are typed to their own gender but there is still uncertainty about the age at which such sex differences first appear, and under what conditions. Applying a standardized research protocol and using a selection of gender-typed toys, we observed the toy…

  5. Age at Menarche and Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescent Girls with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris

    2010-01-01

    The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…

  6. Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics and Bilingual Instruction of Pregnant School Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strum, Irene

    This is an evaluation of a program designed to provide continuity of instruction in reading and mathematics for pregnant school age girls in New York City. The program was designed to provide instruction for monolingual and bilingual (English-Spanish) students. Selected students were two or more years retarded in reading and/or mathematics.…

  7. An Examination of the Relative Age Effect in Developmental Girls' Hockey in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristy L.; Weir, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that athletes may be provided with greater opportunities for success depending on the position of their birthdate in a sport's selection year. While the effect has been well established in men's sports, less is known about women's sports. This study examined the RAE in developmental girls' hockey in Ontario.…

  8. Influence of socioeconomic factors on age at menarche of Polish girls.

    PubMed

    Szwed, Anita; John, Aleksandra; Czapla, Zbigniew; Kosińska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on age at menarche in Polish girls. Questionnaire data of 2016 girls were collected during the cross-sectional research. Within the socioeconomic variables parents' education, urbanization, number of children in the family and date of menarche were considered. To examine the effects of the analyzed socioeconomic factors on age at menarche, the analysis of variance and the Kaplan-Meier method were used. To estimate the mutual relations between the analyzed variables, the method of classification and regression trees (CART) was applied. The socioeconomic factors significantly affect age at menarche. The latest crossed threshold of puberty is observed in girls whose parents inhabit rural areas. Family size also affects age at menarche: girls from large families are the latest who have crossed the pubertal threshold. The method of classification and regression trees indicates that the most important predictive factor is the number of children in the family. The obtained results confirmed the complex effect of the analyzed variables. A factor that conditions occurrence of menarche most of all is the number of children in the family and then the urbanization degree of mother's place of residence. Further research is clearly required--especially research including analyses of mutual relations between variables and their complex effect.

  9. Age at Menarche and Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescent Girls with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris

    2010-01-01

    The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…

  10. Age Differences in Children's Memory of Information about Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, and Prosociable Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.

    1990-01-01

    In two studies, second and sixth graders heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls who were either aggressive, socially withdrawn, or prosociable. Subjects' memories of items in the descriptions were assessed. Results indicated that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's…

  11. Age Differences in Children's Memory of Information about Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, and Prosociable Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.

    1990-01-01

    In two studies, second and sixth graders heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls who were either aggressive, socially withdrawn, or prosociable. Subjects' memories of items in the descriptions were assessed. Results indicated that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's…

  12. Women and HIV/AIDS Epidemic: The Issue of College Age Girls' Awareness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Solomon O.; Moses, Ailemen I.; Ugiomoh, Maria M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine women and HIV/AIDS epidemic: the issue of school age girls' awareness in Nigeria information was elicited from 1,222 randomly selected regular under-graduate female students from the 11 faculties of the university of Lagos, Nigeria, with the use of a standardized structured questionnaire. Results of the major…

  13. A Comparison of the Motor Performance of Black and Caucasian Girls Age 6-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinucci, James M.; Shows, David A.

    1977-01-01

    No significant differences in measures of flexibility, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, speed, balance, or muscular power were found between black and Caucasian girls ages six, seven, and eight. Blacks were significantly superior on two agility measurements, and Caucasians better on shuttle run and grip strength. (MJB)

  14. To Promote Comprehensive Continuing Education Programs for School-Age Pregnant Girls. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Marion

    This report describes a research utilization and information-sharing effort focused on achieving national change in educational policies and practices toward school-age pregnant girls and promoting the development of comprehensive continuing education programs for them. As a result of the effort, a new Federal education policy with respect to…

  15. 15 CFR 10.14 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.14 Appeals. (a) Any person directly affected by a procedural action taken by NIST..., by NIST or the Standing Committee under § 10.10 regarding the review of a published standard, or... action complained of (NIST, the Standard Review Committee, or the Standing Committee) within 30 days...

  16. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  17. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  18. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  19. [Body image of short- and normally statured girls in pubertal age].

    PubMed

    Głogowska, Joanna; Tomaszewski, Paweł; Milde, Katarzyna; Sienkiewicz-Dianzenza, Edyta; Stupnicki, Romuald

    2009-01-01

    Short stature and other growth disorders may be a subject of public stigmatising and that, especially during puberty, may lead to lowered self-esteem and increase inadequate self-perception of one's body image. To assess own body perception in short- and normally statured girls and to evaluate the concordance of self-image with an assessment performed by an external expert. Two groups of girls aged 14-16 years took part in the study: 25 short-statured girls (body height below 10th percentile) and 49 girls of normal body height. The subjects were given templates with 9 body silhouettes. They were asked to point out the silhouette that best represented their body and then the desired one. The third evaluation was performed by an external expert. Basing on the expert's assessment, the subjects were divided into three groups: slim (silhouettes 1 and 2), normal (3-4) and stocky (above 4). Regression slopes computed for the relationship between self-image and expert's assessment differed significantly in both groups: slim, short-statured girls overestimated their body image by about 1.5 unit while the stocky, short-statured ones by about one unit. Girls with normal body height overestimated their body image by about one unit irrespectively of the group they have been classified to. Additionally, stocky girls and those with normal body image from both groups wished to be leaner. Incompletely developed sense of identity as well as rapid changes in body composition and body proportions can be attributed to pubescence and may be the reason of inadequate perception of own body image. Additionally, self-image may be strongly affected by the beauty standards widely promoted by mass-media.

  20. Age at menarche and menstrual cycle pattern among school adolescent girls in Central India.

    PubMed

    Dambhare, Dharampal G; Wagh, Sanjay V; Dudhe, Jayesh Y

    2012-01-01

    The onset of menstruation is part of the maturation process. However, variability in menstrual cycle characteristics and menstrual disorders are common. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at menarche and patterns of menstruation among school adolescent girls and explore its variation across socio-economic and demographic factors. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on 1100 school adolescent girls in district Wardha, Central India. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire on menstruation. Data was entered and analyzed by using Epi Info 6.04 software package. Chi- square value was used for testing statistical significance. Mean ages of menarche were 13.51 + 1.04 years and 13.67 + 0.8 years for urban and rural areas respectively. Abnormal cycle length was common and affected 30.48%. The majority 56.15 experienced dysmenorrhoea and 56.16 percent had premenstrual syndrome. Self medication was practiced by 7.13% of the adolescent girls. The most common premenstrual symptom was headache 26.74%. Absenteeism from the school 13.9% was the effect of menstruation related problems on their daily routine. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms were perceived as most distressing symptoms leading to school absenteeism. Majority of the girls 75.58% had discussed menstrual problems with someone, most commonly with their mothers 38.15%. There was a general lack of information about menstrual issues especially with regards to cycle length, duration of menses and age at menarche. Girls from families of high socio-economic class have significantly lower mean menarcheal age in both urban and rural area. The mean age of menarche was significantly higher in girls involved in vigorous sporting activity in urban area compared to their non-sporting counterparts. Age at menarche was delayed. The menstrual disorders among female adolescents are common. A school health education on menstrual problems targeting adolescent girls and

  1. Associations Between Menarcheal Timing and Behavioral Developmental Trajectories for Girls from Age 6 to Age 15

    PubMed Central

    DeRose, Laura M.; Shiyko, Mariya P.; Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence from cross-sectional and short time-span longitudinal studies exists about negative associations between early pubertal maturation on a number of psychological outcomes. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between early maturation and developmental trajectories of social skills and internalizing and externalizing problems in girls from grades 1 through 9, including pre- and post-pubertal periods. The sample came from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and included 398 Caucasian and 60 African American girls. Multilevel modeling revealed early maturing Caucasian girls were at risk for higher internalizing and externalizing problems and experiencing higher levels of problems pre-pubertally. African American youth had lower social skills and internalizing problems with no group differences due to early pubertal development. Findings are discussed in light of literature on continuity of girls' psychosocial development before and during the pubertal transition. PMID:21203809

  2. Development of sizing system for girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrzenjak, Renata; Dolezal, Ksenija; Ujević, Darko

    2013-12-01

    Garment size system is an important factor for both the adult population and the population of children and adolescents when choosing a suitable and fitting clothing. To develop the size system anthropometric measurements of selected population should be carried out. For this purpose a sample of girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia were measured (4002 respondents distributed proportionately to the total population). As the basis for a new method of garment size system, the system and method defined in the standards EN 13402 (1st-3rd part) were used. Using the method of cluster analysis three body types of girls was obtained. The new size system for girls will contribute to better production planning of fitting patterns and larger selection of garment sizes for more demanding youthful consumers.

  3. Body image, BMI, and physical activity in girls and boys aged 14-16 years.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Osiński, Wiesław; Borowiec, Joanna; Tomczak, Maciej; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body image, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged 14-16 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was evaluated by the Physical Activity Screening Measure. Body image was assessed using the Feelings and Attitudes Towards the Body Scale, and participants' BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Compared to boys, girls reported more negative body image (p<.05). The results of the three-way hierarchical regression revealed that body image was a statistically significant positive predictor of MVPA for adolescents, regardless of BMI. Additionally, body image was a stronger predictor of MVPA in boys than in girls. These findings suggest that body image, rather than BMI, is important in undertaking physical activity in adolescents and should be considered when preparing programs aimed at improving physical activity.

  4. [Age-related changes of somatotype and body mass components in girls].

    PubMed

    Tambovtseva, R V; Zhukova, S G

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse studies of girls aged 7 to 17 years living in Moscow and the town of Yelabuga were performed to monitor the dynamics of their growth processes, parameters of ectomorphism, mesomorphism and endomorphism depending on the type of body build. Anthropometric, anthroposcopic metods and cluster analysis were used to evaluate the type of body build according to V.G. Shtefko and A.G. Ostrovskiy (1928). Quantitative assessment of parameters of endo-, meso- and ectomorphism was performed using Heath-Carter method (1980). It was shown that the age-related variability of the types of body build appeared in association with the developmental heterochronism, which resulted from the uneven growth rate of different body components. The least variable parameters were found in the girls of digestive and asthenoid types of body build, while in girls of muscular and thoracic types these parameters changed more frequently. The critical periods during which the significant changes of somatotype were increased in number, were defined as 9 to 10 years and puberty period--11 to 14 years. Most sensitive time points in the time-course of somatotype establishment in girls are the ages of 12 and 14 years.

  5. Catch-up growth in girls born small for gestational age precedes childhood progression to high adiposity.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Diaz, Marta; de Zegher, Francis

    2011-07-01

    To study across childhood the features of small for gestational age (SGA) girls with spontaneous catch-up growth. Longitudinal study (age 2-8 years). University hospital. Post-catch-up SGA girls (n = 18) versus healthy control girls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 13). None. Height, weight, fasting glucose, insulin, IGF-I, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, body composition by absorptiometry (2-8 years); visceral fat by magnetic resonance imaging (6-8 years); bone age (by automated reading), sex hormone-binding globulin, DHEAS, and leptin (8 years). At age 2 years, AGA and SGA girls were comparable for all study markers. Between 2 and 8 years, girls were prepubertal; AGA and SGA girls gained height, lean mass, and bone mineral content similarly; other outcomes diverged so that, at age 8, SGA girls had markedly higher levels of circulating insulin, IGF-I, DHEAS, LDL cholesterol, and leptin; lower HMW adiponectin and SHBG levels; more total and visceral fat (without being obese); and an older bone age. After completing catch-up growth and before starting puberty, SGA girls develop an ensemble that includes not only central adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia but also hyperleptinemia, dyslipidemia, lower SHBG and higher DHEAS levels, and faster bone maturation. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The National Study of Girl Neighborhood Power: An Out-of-School Program for Girls Ages 9 to 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Van Ness, Asheley

    This study examined the types of activities offered through Girl Neighborhood Power (GNP) and the extent to which low-income girls reported positive experiences and outcomes related to psychological, social, behavioral, and academic adjustment. Four communities implemented federally funded GNP programs, which provided various activities and…

  7. Age of onset, symptom threshold, and expansion of the nosology of conduct disorder for girls

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Wroblewski, Kristen; Hipwell, Alison; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The study of conduct disorder (CD) in girls is characterized by several nosologic controversies that center on the most common age of onset, the most valid symptom threshold, and potentially including other manifestations of antisocial behavior and dimensions of personality as part of the definition of CD. Data from a prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of 2,451 racially diverse girls were used to empirically inform these issues. Results revealed that adolescent-onset CD is rare in girls. There was mixed support for the threshold at which symptoms are associated with impairment: parent-reported impairment provided the clearest evidence of maintaining the current DSM-IV threshold of 3 symptoms. The impact of callousness and relational aggression on impairment varied by informant, with small effects for parent-and youth-reported impairment, and larger effects for teacher-rated impairment relative to the effects for CD. These results support arguments for revising the typical age of onset of CD for girls, but for maintaining the current symptom threshold. The results also suggest the need to consider sub-typing according to the presence or absence of callousness. Given its content validity relational aggression requires further study in the context of ODD and CD. PMID:20853913

  8. Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age at menarche is the reflection of cumulative pre-adolescent exposure of girls to either adverse environment such as food insecurity or affluent living conditions. Food insecurity could result in inadequate nutrient intake and stress, both of which are hypothesized to have opposing effects on the timing of menarche through divergent pathways. It is not known whether food insecure girls have delayed menarche or early menarche compared with their food secure peers. In this study we test the competing hypothesis of the relationship between food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods We report on 900 girls who were investigated in the first two rounds of the five year longitudinal survey. The semi-parametric frailty model was fitted to determine the effect of adolescent food insecurity on time to menarche after adjusting for socio-demographic and economic variables. Results Food insecure girls have menarche one year later than their food secure peer (median age of 15 years vs 14 years). The hazard of menarche showed a significant decline (P = 0.019) as severity of food insecurity level increased, the hazard ratio (HR) for mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity were 0.936 and 0.496, respectively compared to food secure girls. Stunted girls had menarche nearly one year later than their non-stunted peers (HR = 0.551, P < 0.001). Conclusion Food insecurity is associated with delay of age at menarche by one year among girls in the study area. Stunted girls had menarche one year later than their non-stunted peers. Age at menarche reflects the development of girls including the timing of sexual maturation, nutritional status and trajectory of growth during the pre-pubertal periods. The findings reflect the consequence of chronic food insecurity on the development and well-being of girls in the study area. PMID:21910910

  9. Increased Utilization of Salty Food with Age Among Preteenage Black Girls

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Robert J.; Williams, Clara; Grant, Jeanne-Olivia

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of black inner-city school children 10 to 13 years of age, a significant correlation was found for obesity index (weight/height2) and measurements of systolic blood pressure. Significant correlations were found for both blood pressure and obesity index of mothers and daughters. No such relationships were found for mothers and sons. There was an increased availability of sodium-rich foods found for girls as their age increased. This was not found for boys. Both obesity and a sodium-rich diet are risk factors for the development of hypertension. The present study suggests that among over-weight black girls in the preteen years, attempts should be made (1) to identify (and limit) any increase in the consumption of salty foods and (2) to limit weight gain appropriately. PMID:7392064

  10. Why are early maturing girls less active? Links between pubertal development, psychological well-being, and physical activity among girls at ages 11 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Werder, Jessica L; Trost, Stewart G; Baker, Birgitta L; Birch, Leann L

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has shown that early maturing girls at age 11 have lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 in comparison to later maturing girls. Possible reasons for this association have not been assessed. This study examines girls’ psychological response to puberty and their enjoyment of physical activity as intermediary factors linking pubertal maturation and physical activity. Participants included 178 girls who were assessed at age 11, of whom 168 were reassessed at age 13. All participants were non-Hispanic white and resided in the U.S. Three measures of pubertal development were obtained at age 11 including Tanner breast stage, estradiol levels, and mothers’ reports of girls’ development on the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS). Measures of psychological well-being at ages 11 and 13 included depression, global self worth, perceived athletic competence, maturation fears, and body esteem. At age 13, girls’ enjoyment of physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and their daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using objective monitoring. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at age 11 and MVPA at age 13. In addition to a direct effect of pubertal development on MVPA, indirect effects were found for depression, global self worth and maturity fears controlling for covariates. In each instance, more advanced pubertal development at age 11 was associated with lower psychological well-being at age 13, which predicted lower enjoyment of physical activity at age 13 and in turn lower MVPA. Results from this study suggest that programs designed to increase physical activity among adolescent girls should address the self-consciousness and discontent that girls’ experience with their bodies during puberty, particularly if they mature earlier than their peers, and identify activities or settings that make differences in

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and age at menarche in a prospective study of US girls.

    PubMed

    Carwile, J L; Willett, W C; Spiegelman, D; Hertzmark, E; Rich-Edwards, J; Frazier, A L; Michels, K B

    2015-03-01

    Is sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption associated with age at menarche? More frequent SSB consumption was associated with earlier menarche in a population of US girls. SSB consumption is associated with metabolic changes that could potentially impact menarcheal timing, but direct associations with age at menarche have yet to be investigated. The Growing up Today Study, a prospective cohort study of 16 875 children of Nurses' Health Study II participants residing in all 50 US states. This analysis followed 5583 girls, aged 9-14 years and premenarcheal at baseline, between 1996 and 2001. During 10 555 person-years of follow-up, 94% (n = 5227) of girls reported their age at menarche, and 3% (n = 159) remained premenarcheal in 2001; 4% (n = 197) of eligible girls were censored, primarily for missing age at menarche. Cumulative updated SSB consumption (composed of non-carbonated fruit drinks, sugar-sweetened soda and iced tea) was calculated using annual Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaires from 1996 to 1998. Age at menarche was self-reported annually. The association between SSB consumption and age at menarche was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. More frequent SSB consumption predicted earlier menarche. At any given age between 9 and 18.5 years, premenarcheal girls who reported consuming >1.5 servings of SSBs per day were, on average, 24% more likely [95% confidence interval (CI): 13, 36%; P-trend: <0.001] to attain menarche in the next month relative to girls consuming ≤2 servings of SSBs weekly, adjusting for potential confounders including height, but not BMI (considered an intermediate). Correspondingly, girls consuming >1.5 SSBs daily had an estimated 2.7-month earlier menarche (95% CI: -4.1, -1.3 months) relative to those consuming ≤2 SSBs weekly. The frequency of non-carbonated fruit drink (P-trend: 0.03) and sugar-sweetened soda (P-trend: 0.001), but not iced tea (P-trend: 0.49), consumption also predicted earlier

  12. Generalised Joint Hypermobility in Caucasian Girls with Idiopathic Scoliosis: Relation with Age, Curve Size, and Curve Pattern

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) in 155 girls with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) (age 9–18 years, mean 13.8 ± 2.3). The control group included 201 healthy girls. The presence of GJH was assessed with Beighton (B) test. GJH was diagnosed in 23.2% of IS girls and in 13.4% of controls (P = 0.02). The prevalence of GJH was significantly (P = 0.01) lower in IS girls aged 16–18 years in comparison with younger individuals. There was no difference regarding GJH occurrence between girls with mild (11–24°), moderate (25–40°), and severe scoliosis (>40°) (P = 0.78), between girls with single thoracic, single lumbar, and double curve scoliosis (P = 0.59), and between girls with thoracic scoliosis length ≤7 and >7 vertebrae (P = 0.25). No correlation between the number of points in B and the Cobb angle (P = 0.93), as well as between the number of points in B and the number of the vertebrae within thoracic scoliosis (P = 0.63), was noticed. GJH appeared more often in IS girls than in healthy controls. Its prevalence decreased with age. No relation between GJH prevalence and curve size, curve pattern, or scoliosis length was found. PMID:24550704

  13. [Elements of gynecology pathology in girls before and during puberty age].

    PubMed

    Sabetay, C; Stoica, A; Singer, I; Kamel, J; Zaharia, B; Maloş, Anca

    2002-01-01

    The annexial pathology in little girls is representing a more and more frequent form of acute and chronic abdomen, especially in girls around the age of puberty with dysfunction of the menstrual cycle correlated with disturbance of growing and the occurrence of secondary sexual characters. If this kind of pathology is frequent in the period of puberty, there are cases diagnosticated at small ages. The authors are communicating a number of 25 cases with anexial pathology some of them manifesting the symptoms of the acute abdomen (most of them with torsion of the normal or pathological annexes) others having a chronic aspect. The clinical examination correlated with the imagistic investigations were the main elements for the diagnosis. The results were good, the follow-up of the patients is including social therapy with the girls and their families, for integration in the family, evaluating the chance of giving birth. The occurrence of some forms of acute abdomen was frequent on a pathologic annexes (malformated annexes), causing sometimes the excision of it, extended to the uterus. The presence of a malign tumour can be related with different malformations, also caused by exposure to some risk factors: radiation, pollution, chemical agriculture, deficitary alimentation, stress etc.).

  14. Hypersecretion of FSH in infant boys and girls born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; Valls, Carme; Cols, Maria; Ferrer, Angela; Marcos, Maria Victoria; De Zegher, Francis

    2002-05-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, as reflected in a low birthweight for gestational age, is a risk factor for postpubertal FSH hypersecretion and for reduced gonadal size. The ontogeny of the low-birthweight effect on the FSH-inhibin B feedback loop is unknown. Infancy is an episode of choice to study the possibility of an early low-birthweight effect on the FSH-inhibin B loop because this phase is characterized by high activity within the gonadal axis. We assessed serum concentrations of FSH and inhibin B in 46 infants [26 girls and 20 boys; mean age, 4 months; range, 3-6 months; 17 appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 29 small for gestational age (SGA); mean birthweight, 3.2 kg for AGA vs. 2.3 kg for SGA], together with circulating levels of LH, E2, and free androgen index. In SGA girls and boys, serum FSH levels were 2- and 4-fold higher (P < 0.001), respectively, than in AGA controls of the same gender (7.3 +/- 0.9 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 IU/ml and 2.9 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.2 IU/ml). Serum LH, inhibin B, and free androgen index/E2 concentrations were similar in AGA and SGA infants. In conclusion, prenatal growth restraint was found to be followed by elevated serum FSH concentrations in infant girls and boys. SGA infants seem to need an augmented FSH drive to fulfill inhibin B requirements on the afferent side of the feedback loop. The late-endocrine correlates of early growth restraint are herewith extended to include the main axis of reproduction in both genders. It remains to be studied whether FSH hypersecretion in infancy is a marker of subsequent subfertility.

  15. Fathers' and mothers' emotion talk with their girls and boys from toddlerhood to preschool age.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Lotte D; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van Berkel, Sheila R; Endendijk, Joyce J; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2015-12-01

    Goals of the current study were to examine fathers' and mothers' emotion talk from toddlerhood to preschool age, and to test whether parents socialize emotions differently in girls and boys. In a sample of 317 families, we observed both parents' emotion talk and their use of gender labels, while discussing a picture book with drawings of children displaying 4 basic emotions (anger, fear, sadness, and happiness), with their first- and second-born children when the children were 4 and 2 years of age, respectively, and again 12 months later. Findings revealed that parents generally elaborated more on emotions with the second-born children when the children were 3 years of age than when they were 2 years old. With their firstborn children parents elaborated less on emotions when the children were 5 years old than when they were 4 years of age. Further, mothers elaborated more on emotions than fathers. Parents' use of gender labels for the children in the pictures showed that parents associated anger more with boys, whereas they associated sadness and happiness more with girls. These findings suggest that parents adjust their emotion socialization strategies to their child's level of emotion understanding, and that both parents convey stereotypical gender messages during parent-child discussion of emotions.

  16. Age at menarche, reactions to menarche and attitudes towards menstruation among Mexican adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationships between menarcheal timing and both menarcheal experience and attitudes toward menstruation in Mexican girls. Cross-sectional survey. Sample of adolescents attending 10 different public schools. Mexican postmenarcheal adolescents, aged 11-16 years. Participants answered 1 questionnaire about menarcheal experience and another about attitudes towards menstruation. Early maturers (menarche before 11 years) were more likely than average (menarche at 11 or 12 years) or late maturers (menarche at 13 or more years) to state they had not known what they should do at the moment they got their first period (P < .01), that they had not felt prepared to start menstruating (P < .05), and that they thought they must keep secret the fact of already having had their first period (P < .05). Concerning their emotional reactions to menarche, early maturers were the most likely to have felt scared (P < .05), worried (P < .05) and sad (P < .05) and were the least likely to have felt calm (P < .05). They were also the most likely to show current secretive attitudes towards menstruation (P < .01). Finally, late maturers showed more positive attitudes toward menstruation than their peers (P < .01). These results could be useful for developing resources to help early maturing girls manage menstruation. Since these girls have limited or in some cases no time for preparation, they need special support. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A case of an adoptive girl with precocious puberty: the problem of age estimation.

    PubMed

    De Donno, Antonio; Roca, Roberta; Introna, Francesco; Santoro, Valeria

    2013-09-10

    Age estimation is one of the main tasks of forensic anthropology and odontology, both on the dead and the living. In living subjects, age estimation may be used to establish an individual's status as a minor in cases involving adoption, criminal responsibility, child pornography, and those seeking asylum, especially where adequate identification documents are lacking. The authors report a case about age assessment of a girl born in Mbujimayi (Democratic Republic of Congo) and later adopted in Italy. The birth certificate issued after finding the child in a state of abandonment (in December 2007), bore date of 12.12.2004, but this was in contrast with the year of birth - 2003 - stated on the certification available to the center that had provided accommodation to the girl in Africa. Her adoptive parents reported that the child had been diagnosed with precocious puberty and was thus under treatment. She weighed 32.5 kg and was 132.5 cm tall. Body mass index (BMI) corresponded to the range between 9.5 and 14 years of age. The assessment of maturity indicators (sexual characteristics) placed the child at the lower limits of Stage II of Tanner's classification (sparse growth of long, slightly darkened, downy straight pubic hair; elevation of the breast and nipple as a small mound with increased diameter of the areolae). The skeletal age was determined by taking X-rays of the hand and wrist using Fels, TW2 and Greulich and Pyle methods. Dental growth was assessed through orthopantomogram using Demirjian's technique. The methods applied were adjusted considering the studies on African population found in the literature, and a skeletal and dental age of 10 years was established. Afterwards, the wrist X-rays performed at the Children's Hospital of Bari, 7 months before our investigation, revealed a skeletal age of 7 years. This evidence showed that, despite the treatment the child had promptly initiated, early puberty had influenced the skeletal growth with an acceleration

  18. [Current situation and comparison of age at menarche in 26 ethnic minority groups in Chinese girls in 2010].

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Pei-jin; Ma, Jun

    2014-06-18

    To analyze the current situation of age at menarche (AAM) in Chinese ethnic minority girls aged 9-18 years, and compare the AAM with that of Chinese Han girls from the same province or autonomous region. Probit analyses were used to calculate the AAM in various ethnic minority groups of Chinese girls who participated in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. The sample size of ethnic minority girls was 31 711, and the ethnic minorities were Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Korean, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Naxi, Kirgiz, Tu, Qiang and Sala. The local Han girls to compare with the AAM were also surveyed in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. In the 13-year-old group, the percentage of menarche in Sala was the lowest (32.17%), while that in Korean was the highest (93.23%). At the age of 18, 99.60% ethnic minority girls appeared menstruating. The AAM of the top 3 ethnic minority groups were Korean (11.79 years), Mongolian (12.44 years) and Zhuang (12.52 years); and the last 3 ethnic minority groups were Dongxiang (14.36 years), Sala (14.32 years) and Shui (14.02 years). The AAM in Korean was 0.93 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Jilin province; the AAM in Mongolian was 0.14 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Neimenggu autonomous region; the AAM in Naxi and Qiang was close to that of the Han girls in the same province (region) (P>0.05); and the AAM in Hui, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Kirgiz, Tu, and Sala was later than that of the Han girls in the same province (region). The cluster analysis indicated that the 26 ethnic minority groups could be classified as three groups: Korean were classified into the earlier age group of AAM; Dongxiang, Sala, Uighur, Yi and Shui belonged to the later age group of AAM; and the other 20 ethnic minority groups were into the middle

  19. Biomotor status and kinesiological education of girls aged 10 to 12 years--example: volleyball.

    PubMed

    Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define processes of orientation and/or selection towards sports game of volleyball in schoolgirls of Kastela, aged 10-12, by examining the relations between regular classes of physical education (PE) and extracurricular sport activities. For this purpose, two morphological measures were used (body height and body mass) and a set of 11 motor tests (6 basic motor abilities tests and 5 motor achievement tests) on a sample of 242 girls aged 10-12 was used, divided into a subsample of 42 girls participating in volleyball training (Volleyball players) and a subsample of 200 girls who do not participate in volleyball training (volleyball non-players). Based on the comparison of test results of schoolgirls from Kastela and Croatian norms, factor analysis of applied variables and discriminant analysis of these variables between volleyball players and non-players, processes and/or phases of selection in forming quality volleyball players were defined. Selection processes are preceded by orientation processes in physical education classes, i.e. choosing those sport activities which are in accordance with the biomotor status of students. Results have shown that orientation and initial selection in female volleyball needs to be executed based on the motor set of psychomotor speed, repetitive strength of the trunk and flexibility (muscle tone regulation), and body height. Volleyball training has affected the muscle mass development and the development of strength factors, so that explosive strength of jumping and/or takeoff along with body height, has predominantly differentiated female volleyball players from non-players, aged 10 to 12, and serve and spike quality will have dominant influence on the match outcome.

  20. The relationship between age of menarche and mental distress in Norwegian adolescent girls and girls from different immigrant groups in Norway: results from an urban city cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2006-07-01

    Lower age of menarche has been associated with increased mental distress among adolescent girls. The association might be mediated via body image, as girls with early menarche tend to have higher weight than those with late onset menarche. Many of the existing studies of menarche and mental distress are based on samples of white, western girls. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between age of menarche and mental distress among Norwegian girls and girls from different immigrant groups, and to study the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the difference between current and desired weight, on the relationship between age of menarche and mental distress. The study was a cross-sectional population-based self-report survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 3694 girls (91%) participated, one quarter of which were first or second generation immigrants. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to measure mental distress. An inverse, linear association between age of menarche and mental distress was found for both Norwegian girls and girls from all the immigrant groups. Regardless of immigrant status, girls with early onset menarche had higher BMI and higher difference in current and desired weight than those with late onset menarche. In linear regression, the difference in current and desired weight was more strongly associated with mental distress both among the Norwegian girls and girls from immigrant groups than age of menarche and BMI when controlling for social and behavioral factors. Early age of menarche might serve as a predictor for psychopathology in Norwegians girls as well as in girls from different immigrant groups. The association between age of menarche and mental distress might be mediated via differences in current and desired weight.

  1. Longitudinal Development of Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Girls and Boys Between Ages 9½ and 15½ Years

    PubMed Central

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; Houts, Renate M.; Steinberg, Laurence; Belsky, Jay; Cauffman, Elizabeth; DeHart, Ganie; Friedman, Sarah L.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify ages when adolescents were in sexual maturity stages 2 through 5; to explain the relations between breast (girls), genital (boys), and pubic hair (girls and boys) development between ages 9½ and 15½ years; and to evaluate synchrony of pubertal development across characteristics. Design Annual pubertal assessments. Setting Ten locations in the United States. Participants A total of 859 adolescents (427 boys [49.7%] and 432 girls [50.3%]; 737 white [85.8%] and 122 black [14.2%]). Main Outcome Measures Changes in the 5 stages of breast, genital, and pubic hair development. Results Girls were in breast maturity stages 2 and 3 earlier than comparable pubic hair stages. Although breast development in girls started earlier than pubic hair development, girls completed breast and pubic hair development at approximately the same age. Black girls were in all stages of breast and pubic hair development earlier than white girls. Boys were in stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 of genital development before the comparable pubic hair stage. In boys, genital development started earlier than pubic hair development, but pubic hair development was completed in less time. Black boys were in genital and pubic hair development about 7 months earlier than white boys. Black and white boys completed genital development in approximately 4½ years, but black boys took approximately 6 months longer than white boys to complete pubic hair development. At stage 2, for 66.2% of girls, breast development preceded their pubic hair development; for 91.1% of boys, genital development preceded their pubic hair development. Conclusions The results of this study are useful in understanding normative variation in the timing and change in the development of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. They will help identify adolescents with atypical changes in sexual maturation and unusual progression of sexual maturation and growth disorders. PMID:20124146

  2. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Mehnoosh; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Azadbakht, Leila; Feizi, Avat; Jafarian, Korosh; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI) or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI) relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI) and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively (P < 0.01). After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity. PMID:23853625

  3. Psychosocial determinants of participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among Hispanic and Latina middle school-aged girls.

    PubMed

    Foran, Amanda C; Cermak, Sharon A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2013-01-01

    We examined physical activity (PA)-related psychosocial factors, weight status, and self-reported participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Latina middle school-aged girls. Baseline data from a middle school-based health behavior study (N = 326) was used. Contrasting activity-level groups were identified (81 most active, 144 least active) and compared. More active girls had significantly greater social support for PA, motivation to exercise, and positive meanings of PA than their less active peers. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) percentile, barriers to PA, or negative meanings of PA between groups. Less active girls reported more screen time activities than the highly active girls. Positive psychosocial factors may be predictive of participation in MVPA for middle school-aged Latina youth. However, BMI may not be directly related to PA participation in this population.

  4. Boys Are More Stunted than Girls from Early Infancy to 3 Years of Age in Rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bork, Kirsten A; Diallo, Aldiouma

    2017-05-01

    Background: Girls tend to have a lower risk of stunting than boys do in low-income countries.Objective: We evaluated differences in height status and complementary food (CF) intake between sexes from ages 2 to 39 mo in Senegal.Methods: Length and weight measurements were taken at ages 2-3, 4-5, 6-8, and 9-10 mo (n = 7319). Qualitative 24-h and 7-d food recalls were conducted in a subgroup (n = 2512). A smaller subsample was followed up to age 39 mo (n = 512). Height was measured, and intake of CF was noted. Boys and girls were compared in terms of height-for-age z score (HAZ) of WHO standards and National Center for Health Statistics growth reference, height-for-age difference, stunting, and consumption of CF by using chi-square tests, general linear models, and mixed-effects linear models (MLMs).Results: By using WHO standards, the mean HAZ was lower for boys than for girls in infancy, i.e., at 2-3 mo of age (-0.65 compared with -0.57; P = 0.002) and beyond, i.e., at 24-29 mo of age (-2.01 compared with -1.65; P < 0.001). Overall risk of stunting was 24.5% and 19.4% for boys and girls, respectively, during infancy (P < 0.001) compared with 59.2% and 47.9%, respectively, at 12-39 mo (P = 0.010). In MLMs from ages 2 to 39 mo, boys had a lower mean HAZ than girls had at age 2 mo (β0 = -0.19; P = 0.035), and sex differences increased with increasing age (β1 = -0.007 z scores/mo; P < 0.001). At 2-3 mo of age, boys were more likely to have been fed CF every day during the past week (15.8% compared with 11.2% for girls; P = 0.005) and to have eaten ≥2 meals in the past 24 h (13.4% compared with 8.2% for girls; P < 0.001).Conclusions: In Senegalese infants, CF intake differed by sex, with boys more likely to consume CF. Boys had lower HAZs than girls had during infancy, and sex differences increased up to age 39 mo. The importance of sex in complementary feeding and growth warrants further attention in low-income countries. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  6. What Sort of Girl Wants to Study Physics after the Age of 16? Findings from a Large-Scale UK Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of 15-year-old girls who express an intention to study physics post-16. This paper unpacks issues around within-girl group differences and similarities between boys and girls in survey responses about physics. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 UK…

  7. What Sort of Girl Wants to Study Physics after the Age of 16? Findings from a Large-Scale UK Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of 15-year-old girls who express an intention to study physics post-16. This paper unpacks issues around within-girl group differences and similarities between boys and girls in survey responses about physics. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 UK…

  8. Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group…

  9. Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group…

  10. Can bone age determination provide criteria for growth hormone treatment in adopted girls with early puberty?

    PubMed

    Proos, L A; Lönnerholm, T; Jonsson, B; Tuvemo, T

    2006-01-01

    In treatment of idiopathic central precocious puberty, GnRH analogues (GnRHa) have been accepted as the treatment of choice. Since growth velocity may be impaired with GnRHa treatment growth hormone (GH) treatment has been added in clinical trials. Recently, a study followed adopted girls with early or precocious puberty on GnRHa or combined GnRHa and GH treatment to final height. It was found that final height was significantly higher in the combined treatment group, although the difference was small. It was seen that patients that were extremely short at arrival and short at start of treatment seemed to be candidates for combined treatment. We have now analysed the data in order to define criteria for the sub-group in need of combined GnRHa-GH treatment in order to achieve normal final height, i.e. above -2 SDS. Bone ages of 46 patients at start of treatment, randomized to either GnRHa treatment or GnRHa treatment combined with GH, were examined blindly by the same radiologist and the PAH calculated. The methods according to Greulich-Pyle / Bayley-Pinneau (GP/BP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) were used. Predictions versus final height data were analysed. The accuracy of FH prediction was greatest for GnRHa treated group using the GP/BP method. The GP/BP method gave useful cut off limits for when combined treatment was necessary to possibly achieve normal height. If pre-treatment GP/PAH was > 157cm, the patients attained normal height with GnRHa treatment only. Ten out of 13 (77%) such girls could be correctly identified. Using TW2 with a cut off of 164 cm, 9 out of 13 could be selected. Using a multi regression equation of best fit the number of correctly selected cases for GnRHa treatment only, could not be further increased in this group. We conclude that bone age determination and adult height prediction with the Greulich-Pyle/Bayley-Pinneau method, provides useful criteria for selecting the subgroup of adopted girls with early puberty where combined treatment

  11. Reference data for bone speed of sound in Portuguese girls and boys aged 9-13 years.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Fátima; Fragoso, Isabel; Branco, Jaime; de Matos, António Alves; Sardinha, Luís B

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide reference data for quantitative ultrasound (QUS, Sunlight Omnisense; BeamMed Ltd., Petach-Tikva, Israel) of the radius and tibia in Portuguese subjects. The evaluation was conducted with QUS in 430 healthy participants (213 girls and 217 boys) aged between 9 and 13yr. The results indicate that 13-yr-old girls had higher radial and tibial speed of sound (SOS) than younger girls and higher tibial SOS than boys of the same age (p<0.05). Regression analysis revealed positive associations between radial and tibial SOS and skeletal maturity in girls and negative association between tibial SOS and fat mass in both sexes and average intensity of physical activity in girls (p<0.01). The young Portuguese subjects showed an age-related variation in SOS similar to that seen in some of the eastern Mediterranean countries. Children with a history of fracture of lower (n=24) or upper limbs (n=43) did not show a significant decrease of SOS values in any of the bone sites evaluated (tibia Z-score: -0.23 standard deviations [SDs]; radius Z-score: -0.21 SDs; p>0.05). Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Critical period for menarche derived by the wavelet interpolation method from changes in BMI with age in South Korean girls.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Tanaka, Nozomi

    2010-12-01

    Recently, few studies regarding the changes in BMI with age have been reported. In the present study, the wavelet interpolation method (WIM) was applied to the changes in BMI with age from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school in Korean girls, and the relationship between age at the maximum peak velocity (MPV) of BMI and age at menarche was confirmed by determining the age at MPV of BMI. Age at menarche and activity status were obtained from questionnaires given to 263 second grade high school girls in the Pusan area of South Korea. Moreover, longitudinal growth data on height and weight from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school (from 1997 to 2008) were obtained from health examination records. BMI was calculated from height and weight values from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school, and wavelet interpolation was applied to the distances of BMI in each grade. The change curve of BMI with age was determined by wavelet interpolation, and the age at MPV of BMI was determined from the changes in the velocity curve with age as the differentiation curve. Age at MPV of BMI was found to be 12.76 +/- 1.6 years, and age at menarche to be 12.34 +/- 1.1 years. The interval in age at the two times was -0.42 +/- 1.6 years, and a significant difference was seen between age at menarche and age at MPV of BMI. The reason that the age at menarche was a little earlier than the age at MPV of BMI is hypothesized to be abnormal melatonin levels influenced by lack of sleep in Korean school girls. However, it is proposed that the age at MPV of BMI is valid as the critical period for the age at menarche.

  13. Partnering with Teachers to Educate Girls in the New Computer Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Bravo, Melinda J.; Kearney, Lisa K.

    The authors report on a project conducted in 2 consecutive years at the same public middle school. The project was designed to challenge the view that technology is a male domain. In the main study, teachers partnered with researchers to implement an innovative educational intervention focused on disrupting gender stereotype - producing dynamics among students' peer groups. Participants were 151 seventh grade students and their teachers. The intervention was successful in bringing about hypothesized changes in girls' relation to technology. Girls in the treatment group reported greater interest in future computer and technology involvement than girls in the control group. In addition, girls in the intervention reported less endorsement of boys' computer expertise than girls in the control group. Although the intervention was designed for girls, overall, boys' reactions were quite positive.

  14. Continuity in sex-typed behavior from preschool to adolescence: a longitudinal population study of boys and girls aged 3-13 years.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2012-06-01

    Sex-typed behavior was assessed at age 3 using the Pre-School Activities Inventory, and at age 13 using the Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale, in 54 masculine boys, 57 masculine girls, 75 feminine boys, 65 feminine girls, 61 control boys, and 65 control girls. At age 13, girls who had been masculine at age 3 felt less similar to other girls, were less content being a girl, and had greater self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control girls, and girls who had been feminine at age 3 had greater self-efficacy for female-typed activities. Boys who had been feminine at age 3 felt less similar to other boys and had lower self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control boys at age 13, and boys who had been masculine at age 3 felt more competent in agentic roles. Thus, sex-typed behavior at age 3 predicted sex-typed behavior at age 13. It was concluded that the degree of sex-typed behavior shown by preschool children is a good indicator of their degree of sex-typed behavior following the transition to adolescence.

  15. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  16. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  17. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  18. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  19. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  20. Low maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age predicts higher BMI in 48 month old girls but not boys.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Barbara E; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S; Pencharz, Paul; Moss, Ellen; Gaudreau, Hélène; Silveira, Patricia P; Arenovich, Tamara; Matthews, Stephen G; Meaney, Michael J; Levitan, Robert D

    2014-11-01

    Large population-based studies suggest that systematic measures of maternal sensitivity predict later risk for overweight and obesity. More work is needed to establish the developmental timing and potential moderators of this association. The current study examined the association between maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and BMI z score measures at 48 months of age, and whether sex moderated this association. Longitudinal Canadian cohort of children from birth (the MAVAN project). This analysis was based on a dataset of 223 children (115 boys, 108 girls) who had structured assessments of maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and 48-month BMI data available. Mother-child interactions were videotaped and systematically scored using the Maternal Behaviour Q-Sort (MBQS)-25 items, a standardized measure of maternal sensitivity. Linear mixed-effects models and logistic regression examined whether MBQS scores at 6 months predicted BMI at 48 months, controlling for other covariates. After controlling for weight-relevant covariates, there was a significant sex by MBQS interaction (P=0.015) in predicting 48 month BMI z. Further analysis revealed a strong negative association between MBQS scores and BMI in girls (P=0.01) but not boys (P=0.72). Logistic regression confirmed that in girls only, low maternal sensitivity was associated with the higher BMI categories as defined by the WHO (i.e. "at risk for overweight" or above). A significant association between low maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and high body mass indices was found in girls but not boys at 48 months of age. These data suggest for the first time that the link between low maternal sensitivity and early BMI z may differ between boys and girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Agent Age and Gender for Middle-Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yanghee

    2016-01-01

    Compared to boys, many girls are more aware of a social context in the learning process and perform better when the environment supports frequent interactions and social relationships. For these girls, embodied agents (animated on-screen characters acting as tutors) could afford simulated social interactions in computer-based learning and thereby…

  2. The Role of Agent Age and Gender for Middle-Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yanghee

    2016-01-01

    Compared to boys, many girls are more aware of a social context in the learning process and perform better when the environment supports frequent interactions and social relationships. For these girls, embodied agents (animated on-screen characters acting as tutors) could afford simulated social interactions in computer-based learning and thereby…

  3. Language Development in School-Age Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, A.; Abbeduto, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Girls with fragile X syndrome (FXS) have a wide range of cognitive and language abilities. The range of language outcomes experienced by girls with FXS, however, has been relatively unexplored. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine receptive and expressive language, with a focus on vocabulary and syntax, in a group of…

  4. Language Development in School-Age Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, A.; Abbeduto, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Girls with fragile X syndrome (FXS) have a wide range of cognitive and language abilities. The range of language outcomes experienced by girls with FXS, however, has been relatively unexplored. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine receptive and expressive language, with a focus on vocabulary and syntax, in a group of…

  5. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  6. Predictors and sequelae of trajectories of physical aggression in school-age boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Susan B; Spieker, Susan; Vandergrift, Nathan; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Teacher-rated trajectories of physical aggression in boys and girls from first through sixth grade were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. In separate analyses, four trajectories were identified in boys and three in girls. Higher levels of aggression in both boys and girls were related to greater sociodemographic risk and higher maternal harshness in the preschool years; lower levels of observed maternal sensitivity during early childhood also predicted higher trajectories of aggression among girls. Trajectory groups also differed on a range of social and academic adjustment outcomes in sixth grade, with the most aggressive children and even moderately aggressive children evidencing some difficulties in adjustment. Patterns and levels of aggression in boys and girls are discussed as are their predictors and consequences.

  7. Predictors and Sequelae of Trajectories of Physical Aggression in School-Age Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Susan B.; Spieker, Susan; Vandergrift, Nathan; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Teacher-rated trajectories of physical aggression in boys and girls from 1st through 6th grade were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. In separate analyses, four trajectories were identified in boys and three in girls. Higher levels of aggression in both boys and girls were related to greater sociodemographic risk and higher maternal harshness in the preschool years; lower levels of observed maternal sensitivity during early childhood also predicted higher trajectories of aggression among girls. Trajectory groups also differed on a range of social and academic adjustment outcomes in 6th grade, with the most aggressive children and even moderately aggressive children evidencing some difficulties in adjustment. Patterns and levels of aggression in boys and girls are discussed as are their predictors and consequences. PMID:20102652

  8. Treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among girls aged 5 years or younger.

    PubMed

    Mukwege, Denis; Alumeti, Desiré; Himpens, Jacques; Cadière, Guy-Bernard

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes after treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among young girls. In a retrospective study, data were assessed from girls aged 5 years or younger who were treated for sexual-assault-related injuries at the General Referral Hospital, Panzi, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2004 and 2014. Data were obtained from review of charts, records of the mother's impressions and physical examinations, and photographic evidence. Elective surgery had been reserved for patients experiencing fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Overall, 205 girls aged 5 years or younger presented with rape injuries: 162 (79.1%) had only mucocutaneous lesions, 22 (10.7%) had musculocutaneous lesions, and 21 (10.2%) had musculocutaneous lesions complicated by fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Among the 21 girls who underwent perineal surgery, two with fecal and urinary incontinence and perforation of the peritoneum of Douglas pouch were additionally treated by laparoscopy. Among 16 patients with fecal incontinence, the continence score had improved significantly at 10.4 months after surgery (P<0.001). Concomitant urinary incontinence subsided for four of five patients but persisted for one who had a gunshot wound to the vagina. Cosmetic outcome was normal in 19 cases. For rape survivors aged 5 years or younger, a treatment strategy by which surgery is reserved for incontinent patients provided good cosmetic and functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Not Girly, Not Sexy, Not Glamorous": Primary School Girls' and Parents' Constructions of Science Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, there is widespread concern about the need to increase participation in the sciences (particularly the physical sciences), especially among girls/women. This paper draws on data from a five-year, longitudinal study of 10-14-year-old children's science aspirations and career choice to explore the reasons why, even from a young age,…

  10. "Not Girly, Not Sexy, Not Glamorous": Primary School Girls' and Parents' Constructions of Science Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, there is widespread concern about the need to increase participation in the sciences (particularly the physical sciences), especially among girls/women. This paper draws on data from a five-year, longitudinal study of 10-14-year-old children's science aspirations and career choice to explore the reasons why, even from a young age,…

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and socioeconomic status among Finnish girls and boys aged 6-8 years.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Haapala, Eero A; Lindi, Virpi; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Karjalainen, Panu; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-05-01

    We studied differences in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and the types of PA and SB between Finnish girls and boys and children from different socioeconomic backgrounds (SES). We assessed PA, SB, parental education, and household income using detailed questionnaires in a representative population sample of 486 children (238 girls, 248 boys) aged 6-8 years. Girls spent on average 1.7 h/day and boys 2.0 h/day in total PA (p = 0.002). Altogether 66% of girls and 54% of boys had less than 2 h of total PA per day (p = 0.012). Girls had lower levels of unsupervised PA (45 vs. 54 min/day, p = 0.001), supervised PA (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.009), and PA during school recess (1.8 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.032) than boys. Girls had higher levels of total SB (3.8 vs. 3.4 h/day, p = 0.015) but lower levels of screen-based SB (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/day, p < 0.001) than boys. Lower parental education and household income were associated with lower levels of supervised PA in girls (p = 0.011 and p = 0.008, respectively) and in boys (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Lower parental education and household income were also related to higher levels of screen-based SB in boys (p = 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively) but not in girls. Girls have lower levels of total, unsupervised, and supervised PA, PA during recess, and screen-based SB but higher levels of total SB than boys. Lower parental education and household income are associated with lower levels of supervised PA in both genders and higher levels of screen-based SB in boys.

  12. What Sort of Girl Wants to Study Physics After the Age of 16? Findings from a Large-scale UK Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of 15-year-old girls who express an intention to study physics post-16. This paper unpacks issues around within-girl group differences and similarities between boys and girls in survey responses about physics. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 UK schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. A comparison between boys and girls indicates the pervasiveness of gender issues, with boys more likely to respond positively towards physics-specific constructs than girls. The analysis also indicates that girls and boys who expressed intentions to participate in physics post-16 gave similar responses towards their physics teachers and physics lessons and had comparable physics extrinsic motivation. Girls (regardless of their intention to participate in physics) were less likely than boys to be encouraged to study physics post-16 by teachers, family and friends. Despite this, there were a subset of girls still intending to study physics post-16. The crucial differences between the girls who intended to study physics post-16 and those who did not is that girls who intend to study physics post-16 had higher physics extrinsic motivation, more positive perceptions of physics teachers and lessons, greater competitiveness and a tendency to be less extrovert. This strongly suggests that higher extrinsic motivation in physics could be the crucial underlying key that encourages a subset of girls (as well as boys) in wanting to pursue physics post-16.

  13. Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-α gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-α SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted.

  14. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  15. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  16. Longitudinal impact of substance use and depressive symptoms on bone accrual among girls aged 11-19 years.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Lorah D; Beal, Sarah J; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Pabst, Stephanie; Noll, Jennie G; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is primarily evident in postmenopausal women, but its roots are traceable to periods of growth, including during adolescence. Depression, anxiety, and smoking are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) in adults. These associations have not been studied longitudinally across adolescence, when more than 50% of bone accrual occurs. To determine the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms, smoking, and alcohol use on bone accrual in girls 11-19 years, 262 healthy girls were enrolled in age cohorts of 11, 13, 15, and 17 years. Using a cross-sequential design, girls were seen for three annual visits. Outcome measures included total body bone mineral content and BMD of the total hip and lumbar spine using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and smoking and alcohol use were by self-report. Higher-frequency smoking was associated with a lower rate of lumbar spine and total hip BMD accrual from ages 13-19. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with lower lumbar spine BMD across 11-19 years of age. There was no effect of depressive symptoms on total body bone mineral content, and there was no effect of alcohol intake on any bone outcome. Adolescent smokers are at higher risk for less than optimal bone accrual. Even in the absence of diagnosable depression, depressive symptoms may influence adolescent bone accrual. These findings have import for prevention of later osteoporosis and fractures. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Painless skin nodules and ecchymosis in a school-aged girl].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Ting; Yang, Ming-Hua; Cao, Li-Zhi; Huang, Ye-Hong; Xie, Min; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yang, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl was admitted to Xiangya Hospital due to systemic lymphadenectasis for 2 months and skin ecchymosis for 3 days. Nine months ago, the girl experienced painless nodules in the left lower extremity with no apparent causes. Three months later, dermatorrhagia and ecchymosis occurred in many regions such as the periocular areas, conjunctiva, oral mucosa, perineal area, and groin, with a "raccoon sign" in both eyes; superficial lymphadenectasis and hepatosplenomegaly were also observed in many regions. The pathological sections for the skin nodules showed malignant tumors in lymphohematopoietic cells, and in combination with clinical manifestations, immunohistochemistry, and positive results for CD4, CD56, and CD123 by bone marrow flow cytometry, the girl was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Then high-risk ALL regimen was applied as the chemotherapy for this girl. At present, the girl has been followed up for 3 months; ecchymosis has disappeared, and the enlarged lymph nodes have shrunk. No abnormal cells have been found in bone marrow morphological examination, and bone marrow flow cytometry has shown that primitive precursor cells account for 1.5% and express CD33, CD34, CD123, and CD117.

  18. Heterosexual men's ratings of sexual attractiveness of pubescent girls: Effects of labeling the target as under or over the age of sexual consent.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Muireann; Lowe, Rob; Brotherton, Hannah; Davies, Hannah; Panou, Anna; Bennett, Paul

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to identify implicit and explicit processes involved in reporting the sexual attractiveness of photographs of the same pubescent girls labeled as either under or within the age of sexual consent in the UK, women, and men. In two studies, 53 and 70 heterosexual men (M age 25.2 and 31.0 years) rated the sexual attractiveness of photographs in each category presented via computer [seeing target photographs of girls labeled as either under- (14-15 years) or within the age of consent (16-17 years)], using a 7-point response box. Ratings in Study 1 were in response to a question asking participants to rate how sexually attractive the person in each photograph was. In Study 2, participants rated how sexually attractive they personally found the target. Response times were also recorded. Several findings were replicated in both studies (although the strength of findings differed). Mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the underage girls were lower than those of overage girls and women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when "underage" girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. No such relationship emerged with the same girls labeled within the age of consent or women. Overall, these data suggest that men find pubescent girls identified as being under the age of consent sexually attractive, but inhibit their willingness to report this; the greater the attraction, the greater the inhibition.

  19. Subjective sleep duration and quality influence diet composition and circulating adipocytokines and ghrelin levels in teen-age girls.

    PubMed

    Al-Disi, Dara; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Khanam, Latifa; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Saif, Mohammad; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between sleep duration and quality, diet and hormones of obesity may help design effective lifestyle intervention strategies. Here we studied such associations in lean and obese teen-aged Saudi girls. In this cross-sectional observational study, 126 girls (62 lean and 64 obese) aged 14 -18 years (16.5 ± 1.5) were evaluated. A general questionnaire, which included sleep and diet questions, was obtained and anthropometric measurements and overnight fasting blood samples for determination of glucose, lipid profile and serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin and ghrelin were collected. Subjects that slept < 5 hours/day had a higher percent of carbohydrate intake (p = 0.04) than those who slept > 7 hours/day. Adiponectin levels were higher in the lean than the obese group and increased in proportion to hours of sleep. Ghrelin had an inverse association with subjective sleep duration (p = 0.04), while resistin levels were directly proportional to it. Thus, the duration and quality of sleep influenced diet composition and the circulating levels of adipocytokines and ghrelin in adolescent girls. Long and uninterrupted sleep was associated with a better diet and a more favorable hormonal profile.

  20. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Koizumi, Michiko; Schug, Joanna; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kameshima, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6–12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed. PMID:26175707

  1. Self-Esteem, Parent Identification and Sex Role Development in Preschool Age Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    Self esteem was shown to be associated more closely to high sex role orientation for boys and low sex role adoption for girls; while father identification, for boys only, was related to moderate levels of sex role orientation and sex role preference. Bibliography. (Author)

  2. Cinderella vs Statistics: The Silent Movie Heroine as a Jazz Age Working Girl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higashi, Sumiko

    The portrayal of the working girl in the silent films of the 1920s ignored the fact that in reality women worked to help support their families, to be financially independent, or to supplement their family's income. A study of movie heroines from that era reveals that these characterizations reinforce the image of the traditionally dependent woman…

  3. Under-age girls and contraception: the parent's right to be informed.

    PubMed

    Brahams, Diana

    1983-08-06

    A British barrister considers the issue of whether the giving of advice or the prescribing of contraceptives to girls younger than 16 without parental consent constitutes criminal conduct by the physician. Brahams examines relevant criminal and family law, common law, recent court decisions, and Department of Health and Human Services policy concerning the minor's right to consent, parental interests, and physician responsibilities.

  4. Cinderella vs Statistics: The Silent Movie Heroine as a Jazz Age Working Girl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higashi, Sumiko

    The portrayal of the working girl in the silent films of the 1920s ignored the fact that in reality women worked to help support their families, to be financially independent, or to supplement their family's income. A study of movie heroines from that era reveals that these characterizations reinforce the image of the traditionally dependent woman…

  5. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in girls aged 4-8 y living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Stein, Elizabeth M; Laing, Emma M; Hall, Daniel B; Hausman, Dorothy B; Kimlin, Michael G; Johnson, Mary Ann; Modlesky, Christopher M; Wilson, Alissa R; Lewis, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Evidence suggests that adults and adolescents throughout the United States are at risk of poor vitamin D status. However, vitamin D concentrations in young American children have not been assessed. The relations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and bone were examined in prepubertal girls. In the present cross-sectional study, serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in 168 prepubertal girls aged 4-8 y living in the southeastern United States with the use of radioimmunoassay. Bone area, bone mineral content, and areal bone mineral density were measured from total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, stepwise multiple regression, and partial correlations. The mean (+/-SD) serum 25(OH)D was 93.8 +/- 28.1 nmol/L (range: 31.1-181.4 nmol/L). In a multiple regression analysis, race and season were the strongest predictors of vitamin D status. The black girls had lower mean 25(OH)D values than did the white girls (P < 0.01), and 25(OH)D values were significantly different in the total sample between the seasons (P < 0.001), ranging from 74.4 nmol/L during the winter months to 107 nmol/L during the summer. After adjustment for season, age, race, and body mass index, 25(OH)D values were negatively correlated with forearm bone mineral content (r = -0.18; P = 0.02). Unlike prior reports of adults and adolescents living in the southeastern United States, vitamin D status was adequate in the children of the present study. 25(OH)D concentrations were not positively associated with higher bone mineral.

  6. The differences in level of trait anxiety among girls and boys aged 13-17 years with myopia and emmetropia.

    PubMed

    Łazarczyk, Joanna B; Urban, Beata; Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina; Żmudzka, Ewa; Kowzan, Urszula; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Juszczyk-Zajkowska, Karolina

    2016-11-14

    A significant increase in myopia among children and teenagers can be observed all over the world. Yet at the same time, there is still an insignificant number of studies concerning this health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the level of trait anxiety among myopic group of teenagers in comparison to teenagers with emmetropia, and to confirm whether the level of trait anxiety relates to age and gender. Two hundred thirty-nine students aged 13-17 years were included in the study. The study group comprised 114 persons with myopia (81 girls and 33 boys), while the control group comprised 125 persons without refractive error (79 girls and 46 boys). Volunteers completed a set of questionnaires including: personal data, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) (13-14 year-olds), or State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (15-17 year-olds). The trait anxiety subscales were thus analyzed. Among younger adolescents (13-14 years of age) with myopia there was a significantly higher incidence of pathological intensification of anxiety as a constant trait. After taking into account the distribution of gender, there was a higher level of trait anxiety in the group of boys with myopia than in the control group aged 13-17 years and 13-14 years. There was also a higher level of trait anxiety detected in males than in females. Myopia may affect the level of trait anxiety among 13-14-year-olds. In both age groups of girls, a higher percentage of patients with high level of anxiety was discovered (≥7 sten), as compared to their peers without vision defects. Our results can contribute to a more accurate analysis of young teenagers' psychological problems, especially among boys diagnosed with myopia.

  7. Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B; Ma, Xu

    2016-12-01

    To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention.

  8. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  9. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  10. Accelerometry-assessed sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels during the segmented school day in 10-14-year-old children: the HAPPY study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Daniel P; Fairclough, Stuart J; Savory, Louise A; Denton, Sarah J; Pang, Dong; Deane, Colleen S; Kerr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    The school day offers several different time periods that provide varying opportunities for sedentary time (SED) and engagement in physical activity (PA), yet little is known about the PA and sedentary behaviour patterns of boys and girls during these times. The volume, intensity and temporal distributions of SED and PA undertaken by 135 schoolchildren aged 10-14 years, during different segments of the school day: (a) school transport, (b) morning recess, (c) lunch break, (d) class time and (e) after school, were explored using triaxial accelerometry. PA was categorised into SED, light PA (LPA), moderate PA (MPA) and vigorous PA (VPA). Girls engaged in significantly more SED and LPA than boys during recess and lunch break (p < 0.05), while boys engaged in significantly higher levels of VPA during recess (p < 0.001) and MPA and VPA during lunch break (p < 0.001). PA engagement was similar between sexes during other segments of the day. PA patterns appear more beneficial for health in boys during less structured school-based time periods and interventions may therefore target opportunities for girls to be physically active during these times to overcome this observed sex deficit.

  11. Vaginal microbiota of adolescent girls prior to the onset of menarche resemble those of reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Roxana J; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A; Shew, Marcia L; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Forney, Larry J

    2015-03-24

    Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. This study addresses longitudinal changes in vaginal and vulvar microbial communities prior to and immediately following menarche. The research is significant because microbial ecology of the vagina is an integral aspect of health, including resistance to infections. The physiologic changes of puberty and initiation of cyclic menstruation are likely to have profound effects on vaginal microbiota, but almost nothing is known about changes that normally occur during this time. Our understanding has been especially hampered by the lack of thorough characterization of microbial communities using techniques

  12. Determinants of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Population Sample of Girls and Boys Aged 6 to 8 Years.

    PubMed

    Lintu, Niina; Savonen, Kai; Viitasalo, Anna; Tompuri, Tuomo; Paananen, Jussi; Tarvainen, Mika P; Lakka, Timo

    2016-11-01

    There are few studies on determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among girls and boys separately in population samples of children. We therefore investigated the determinants of CRF, assessed by maximal workload per height using allometric scaling, in a population sample of 162 girls and 177 boys aged 6 to 8 years. We used automated bootstrap feature selection and linear regression models. The strongest determinants of CRF among girls were maximal heart rate (HR; standardized regression coefficient [β] = 0.31, P < .001), unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.29, P < .001), lean body mass (β = 0.23, P = .001), and errors in static balance test (β = -0.16, P = .02), accounting altogether for 25.7% of variation in CRF. In boys, unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.24, P < .001), resting HR (β = -0.25, P < .001), hand grip strength (β = 0.21, P = .001), errors in static balance test (β = -0.16, P = .01), organized football (β = 0.16, P = .01), and unsupervised trampoline jumping (β = 0.14, P = .04) were the strongest determinants of CRF, accounting altogether for 29.7% of variation in CRF. These findings suggest that unsupervised physical activity is sufficient in improving CRF in both sexes. Furthermore, larger muscle mass and better balance are associated with higher CRF that has to be taken into account when assessing CRF using maximal cycle ergometer exercise test among children.

  13. Early to bed: a study of adaptation among sexually active urban adolescent girls younger than age sixteen.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrés; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-04-01

    To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to students in the public school system in New Haven, CT (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools). Of 1,413 respondents (57% black, 28% Hispanic; mean age 13.4 +/- 1.7 years), 414 (29%) acknowledged prior sexual intercourse; the proportions of sexually active girls in 6th, 8th, and 10th grades were 14%, 30%, and 50%, respectively. In multivariate analyses of covariance, sexual activity was significantly associated with all four measures of psychosocial adaptation (p < .001). Other correlates of at least one measure of maladaptation included socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, and lower school grade (p < .001 for each), peer pressure (p < .01), and black ethnicity, and the interaction of sexual activity by lower school grade (p < .05 for each). Compared with their sexually naive peers, sexually active adolescent girls had lower scores on global measures of psychosocial adaptation. These findings have clinical, policy, and research relevance to a vulnerable population at high risk of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.

  14. Early metformin therapy (age 8-12 years) in girls with precocious pubarche to reduce hirsutism, androgen excess, and oligomenorrhea in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Díaz, Marta; Marcos, Maria Victoria; de Zegher, Francis

    2011-08-01

    Girls with a combined history of low(-normal) birth weight (LBW) and precocious pubarche (PP) are at high risk to develop polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of the study was to compare the capacity of early vs. late metformin treatment to prevent adolescent PCOS. This was a randomized, open-label study over 7 yr. The study was conducted at a university hospital. Thirty-eight LBW-PP girls were followed up from the mean age 8 until age 15 yr. Early metformin (study yr 1-4; age 8-12 yr) vs. late metformin (yr 6; age 13-14 yr). Measures included height; weight; hirsutism score; menstrual cycle; endocrine-metabolic screening (fasting; follicular phase); C-reactive protein; body composition (absorptiometry); abdominal fat partitioning (magnetic resonance imaging); ovarian morphology (ultrasound); PCOS (National Institutes of Health and Androgen Excess Society definitions) after yr 7 (all girls thus untreated for at least 1 yr). None of the girls dropped out of the study. At age 15 yr, early-metformin girls were taller (4 cm), were in a less proinflammatory state, and had less central fat due to reductions in visceral and hepatic fat. Hirsutism, androgen excess, oligomenorrhea, and PCOS were between 2- and 8-fold more prevalent in late- than early-treated girls. Abdominal adiposity was the first variable to diverge (at age 8-10 yr) between girls without vs. with PCOS at age 15 yr. In LBW-PP girls, early metformin therapy was found to prevent or delay the development of hirsutism, androgen excess, oligomenorrhea, and PCOS more effectively than late metformin. The time window of late childhood and early puberty may be more critical for the development, and thus for the prevention, of adolescent PCOS than the first years beyond menarche.

  15. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6-8 years of age - the PANIC study.

    PubMed

    Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Soininen, Sonja; Jalkanen, Henna; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Schwab, Ursula; Lakka, Timo A; Lindi, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213) and boys (n=217) aged 6-8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake), vitamin D (32%), potassium (20%), calcium (39%), magnesium (17%), and zinc (16%). Vegetable oils (15%) and high-fat vegetable oil-based spreads (14%) were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27%) and iron (12%). Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14%) and vitamin C (22%). Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil-based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil-based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education, and health policy decision making.

  16. Sex differences in the association between foetal growth and child attention at age four: specific vulnerability of girls.

    PubMed

    Murray, Elizabeth; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C; Stein, Alan

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that impaired foetal growth may provide an early indication of increased risk of child attention problems. However, despite both foetal growth and child attention problems differing by sex, few studies have examined sex differences in this association. Furthermore, no studies have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries, where there are higher rates of perinatal problems. This study aimed to test for sex differences in the association between foetal growth indices and attention problems at age four, in a large, prospective birth cohort from a middle-income country. A total of 3,749 neonates from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (Brazil) with foetal growth indices collected at birth [low birthweight (LBW), small-for-gestational age (SGA), head circumference (HC), head circumference-to-abdominal circumference ratio (HC/AC) and ponderal index (PI)], were assessed for attention problems using the Child Behaviour Checklist at age four. Ordinal logistic regression with successive adjustment for maternal, demographic, gestational, perinatal and child nutrition/mother-child morbidity, was conducted separately for girls and boys. In girls, attention difficulties were associated with being born SGA (OR = 1.40, CI = 1.08-1.82, p = .012), with a small HC (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.11-2.08, p = .009), or with a low PI (OR = 1.29, CI = 1.08-1.54, p = .005). There were no associations identified between attention difficulties and any foetal growth indices in boys. Our results show that girls with impaired foetal growth may be particularly at risk of attention difficulties in childhood. This is consistent with emerging research that female foetuses may be more vulnerable to certain suboptimal intrauterine environments, inducing epigenetic changes that lead to disturbed growth and long-term developmental impairment. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Girls at Risk for Overweight at Age 5 Are at Risk for Dietary Restraint, Disinhibited Overeating, Weight Concerns, and Greater Weight Gain from 5 to 9 Years

    PubMed Central

    SHUNK, JENNIFER A.; BIRCH, LEANN L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the emergence of dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, weight concerns, and body dissatisfaction among girls from 5 to 9 years old, and to assess whether girls at risk for overweight at age 5 were at greater risk for the emergence of restraint, disinhibited overeating, weight concerns, and body dissatisfaction. Design Longitudinal data were used to assess the relationship between weight status and the development of dietary restraint, aspects of disinhibited overeating, weight concern, and body dissatisfaction at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. Subjects Participants were 153 girls from predominately middle class and exclusively non-Hispanic white families living in central Pennsylvania. Statistical Analyses Differences in weight status, dietary restraint, disinhibition, weight concern, and body dissatisfaction between girls at risk (>85th percentile body mass index) or not at risk for overweight at age 5 were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. Results Girls who were at risk for overweight at age 5 reported significantly higher levels of restraint, disinhibition, weight concern, and body dissatisfaction by age 9. Girls at risk for overweight at age 5 also showed greater increases in weight status from 5 to 9 years of age. Conclusions Higher levels of dietary restraint, weight concern, and body dissatisfaction among young girls at risk for overweight were accompanied by greater weight gain from 5 to 9 years of age, consistent with other recent findings suggesting that youths’ attempts at weight control may promote weight gain. Positive alternatives to attempts at dietary restriction are essential to promoting healthful weight status among children, and should include encouraging physical activity, promoting children’s acceptance of a variety of low–energy-density foods, and providing guides to appropriate portion sizes. PMID:15215771

  18. Beverage intake of girls at age 5 y predicts adiposity and weight status in childhood and adolescence123

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Michele; Francis, Lori A; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of sweetened beverage has been linked to higher energy intake and adiposity in childhood. Objective: The objective was to assess whether beverage intake at age 5 y predicted energy intake, adiposity, and weight status across childhood and adolescence. Design: Participants were part of a longitudinal study of non-Hispanic white girls and their parents (n = 170) who were assessed biennially from age 5 to 15 y. At each assessment, beverage intake (milk, fruit juice, and sweetened beverages) and energy intake were assessed by using three 24-h recalls. Percentage body fat and waist circumference were measured. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate body mass index. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict the girls’ adiposity. In addition, at age 5 y, girls were categorized as consuming <1, ≥1 and <2, or ≥2 servings of sweetened beverages. A mixed modeling approach was used to assess longitudinal differences and patterns of change in sweetened beverage and energy intake, adiposity, and weight status by frequency of sweetened beverage intake. Results: Sweetened beverage intake at age 5 y, but not milk or fruit juice intake, was positively associated with adiposity from age 5 to 15 y. Greater consumption of sweetened beverages at age 5 y (≥2 servings/d) was associated with a higher percentage body fat, waist circumference, and weight status from age 5 to 15 y. Conclusion: These findings provide new longitudinal evidence that early intake of sweetened beverages predicts adiposity and weight status across childhood and adolescence. PMID:19692492

  19. Insulin resistance is higher in prepubertal girls but switches to become higher in boys at age 16: A Cohort Study (EarlyBird 57).

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Sarah C; Hosking, Joanne; Jeffery, Alison N; Murphy, Michael J; Voss, Linda D; Wilkin, Terence J; Pinkney, Jonathan

    2017-08-29

    The risk of type 2 diabetes is increasing in teenage girls, and is associated with their greater insulin resistance (IR). We hypothesized that the adverse metabolic profile of girls (compared with boys) would persist from childhood through adolescence. Community-based longitudinal cohort of 292 children (147 boys) studied annually from 9 to 16 years. IR (homeostasis-model-assessment-2), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, % body-fat (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), pubertal stage (age at peak height velocity), physical activity (accelerometry). Multi-level modelling established the age-related trends in IR and lipids and the influence of covariates. Each year from 9 to 15 years, girls had 21% to 63% higher IR than boys (girls mean IR 0.73-1.33, boys 0.51-0.89, P < .005). At 16 years the gender difference was not significant (girls IR 0.60, boys 0.56, P = .45). Girls had lower HDL-C from 9 to 12 years, higher triglycerides from 9 to 14 years, greater adiposity throughout, and earlier puberty, but boys were more active than girls (all P < .05). After adjustment for %-fat, puberty and activity, the gender difference in IR between girls and boys aged 9 to 15 years became non-significant (IR girls 0.66-1.01, boys 0.65-1.04, P > .07). However, after adjustment at 16 years, girls' IR was 25% lower than boys' (girls 0.44, boys 0.63, P = .001), and they had 22% higher HDL-C (P < .001) and 20% lower triglycerides (P = .003). The higher IR of prepubertal and early pubertal girls diminishes during late puberty, and boys begin to exhibit greater metabolic risk. Despite being leaner and more active, boys at 16 years have higher IR than girls, suggesting future higher risk for diabetes, thus we reject our hypothesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  1. Cumulative teen birth rates among girls in foster care at age 17: an analysis of linked birth and child protection records from California.

    PubMed

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; King, Bryn

    2014-04-01

    This study used linked foster care and birth records to provide a longitudinal, population-level examination of the incidence of first and repeat births among girls who were in foster care at age 17. Girls in a foster care placement in California at the age of 17 between 2003 and 2007 were identified from statewide child protection records. These records were probabilistically matched to vital birth records spanning the period from 2001 to 2010. Linked data were used to estimate the cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth before age 20. Birth rates and unadjusted risk ratios were generated to characterize foster care experiences correlated with heightened teen birth rates. Between 2003 and 2007 in California, there were 20,222 girls in foster care at age 17. Overall, 11.4% had a first birth before age 18. The cumulative percentage who gave birth before age 20 was 28.1%. Among girls who had a first birth before age 18, 41.2% had a repeat teen birth. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and placement-related characteristics emerged. Expanded data and rigorous research are needed to evaluate prevention efforts and ensure parenting teens are provided with the needed services and supports. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of gender and age on executive functioning: do girls and boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder differ neuropsychologically in preteen and teenage years?

    PubMed

    Seidman, Larry J; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Valera, Eve; Doyle, Alysa E; Faraone, Stephen V

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is known to have neuropsychological correlates, characterized mainly by executive function (EF) deficits. However, most available data are based on studies of boys through age 12. Our goal was to assess whether girls with ADHD express neuropsychological features similar to those found in boys, and whether these impairments are found in both preteen and teen samples. Participants were 101 girls and 103 boys with DSM-III-R ADHD, and 109 comparison girls and 70 boys without ADHD, ages 9 to 17 years. Information on neuropsychological performance was obtained in a standardized manner blind to clinical status. Primary regression analyses controlled for age, socioeconomic status, learning disability, and psychiatric comorbidity. Girls and boys with ADHD were significantly more impaired on some measures of EFs than healthy comparisons but did not differ significantly from each other. With the exception of 1 test score there were no significant Sex x Diagnosis interactions. Moreover, there were no more significant interactions among age, gender, and diagnosis than would be expected by chance. Neuropsychological measures of EFs were comparably impaired in girls compared to boys with ADHD, and these impairments are found at ages 9 to 12 and ages 13 to 17. These findings suggest that executive dysfunctions are correlates of ADHD regardless of gender and age, at least through the late teen years.

  3. Effectiveness of distribution of multimicronutrient supplements in children and in women and adolescent girls of childbearing age in Chiclayo, Peru.

    PubMed

    Gross, Ursula; Valle, Claudia; Diaz, Marita Mamani

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to better understand the coverage of scaled-up multimicronutrient supplementation programs. The coverage of the distribution of multimicronutrient supplements in 26 urban communities among women and adolescent girls 12 through 44 years of age and children under 5 years of age was evaluated for purposes of scaling-up. Formative research and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the distribution of supplements. Despite a delayed memorandum of understanding with the health sector and delayed delivery by the producer of the supplement, a high coverage rate of supplement distribution to the children (88% on average during the 3 months of supplementation) was still achieved as a result of the strong commitment of the community and the Integrated Food Security Program. The lower coverage rate among women and adolescent girls (47% on average) was the result of too short a period of enrollment in the program. There was no decrease of coverage during the 3 months of supplementation in both groups. Effective, sustainable, large-scale micronutrient supplementation programs require broad partnerships with commitments of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, communities, and the private sector. Availability of the supplements and communication materials must be secured well ahead of the supplementation campaign and distribution of the supplement.

  4. Relationships Between Age at Menarche, Walking Gait Base of Support, and Stance Phase Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Froehle, Andrew W; Grannis, Kimberly A; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2017-05-01

    Age at menarche impacts patterns of pubertal growth and skeletal development. These effects may carry over into variation in biomechanical profiles involved in sports-related traumatic and overuse knee injuries. The present study investigated whether age at menarche is a potential indicator of knee injury risk through its influence on knee biomechanics during normal walking. To test the hypothesis that earlier menarche is related to postpubertal biomechanical risk factors for knee injuries, including a wider, more immature gait base of support, and greater valgus knee angles and moments. Cross-sectional observational study. University research facility. Healthy, postmenarcheal, adolescent girls. Age at menarche was obtained by recall questionnaire. Pubertal growth and anthropometric data were collected by using standard methods. Biomechanical data were taken from tests of walking gait at self-selected speed. Reflective marker position data were collected with a 3-dimensional quantitative motion analysis system, and 3 force plates recorded kinetic data. Age at menarche; growth and anthropometric measurements; base of support; static knee frontal plane angle; and dynamic knee frontal plane angles and moments during stance. Earlier menarche was correlated significantly with abbreviated pubertal growth and postpubertal retention of immature traits, including a wider base of support. Earlier menarche and wider base of support were both correlated with more valgus static knee angles, more valgus knee abduction angles and moments at foot-strike, and a more valgus peak knee abduction angle during stance. Peak knee abduction moment during stance was not correlated with age at menarche or base of support. Earlier menarche and its effects on growth are associated with retention of a relatively immature gait base of support and a tendency for static and dynamic valgus knee alignment. This biomechanical profile may put girls with earlier menarche at greater risk for sports

  5. Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. Methods. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Results. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Conclusions. Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention. PMID:27831775

  6. Exposures to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Age of Menarche in Adolescent Girls in NHANES (2003–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Kanta; Martin, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: The observed age of menarche has fallen, which may have important adverse social and health consequences. Increased exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationship between EDC exposure and the age of menarche in adolescent girls. Methods: We used data from female participants 12–16 years of age who had completed the reproductive health questionnaire and laboratory examination for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for years 2003–2008 (2005–2008 for analyses of phthalates and parabens). Exposures were assessed based on creatinine-corrected natural log urine concentrations of selected environmental chemicals and metabolites found in at least 75% of samples in our study sample. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis in SAS 9.2 survey procedures to estimate associations after accounting for censored data among participants who had not reached menarche. We evaluated body mass index (BMI; kilograms per meter squared), family income-to-poverty ratio, race/ethnicity, mother’s smoking status during pregnancy, and birth weight as potential confounders. Results: The weighted mean age of menarche was 12.0 years of age. Among 440 girls with both reproductive health and laboratory data, after accounting for BMI and race/ethnicity, we found that 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) and summed environmental phenols (2,5-DCP and 2,4-DCP) were inversely associated with age of menarche [hazard ratios of 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19 and 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19, respectively]. Other exposures (total parabens, bisphenol A, triclosan, benzophenone-3, total phthalates, and 2,4-DCP) were not significantly associated with age of menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between 2,5-DCP, a potential EDC, and earlier age of menarche in the general U

  7. Girls arrested for murder: an empirical analysis of 32 years of U.S. data by offender age groups.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.

  8. Self-Esteem in Girls Aged 11-12: Baseline Findings from a Planned Prospective Study of Vulnerability to Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Reports on first stage of a planned prospective study of self-esteem and risk for eating disorders in 594 schoolgirls aged 11-12. Results indicated low self-esteem was associated with increased fatness concern, but also with problems in general. Girls will be followed up in detail at age 15-16. (Author/ABL)

  9. Reported adverse events in girls aged 13-16 years after vaccination with the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Klooster, T M; Kemmeren, J M; van der Maas, N A T; de Melker, H E

    2011-06-20

    In 2009, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was offered to girls born in 1993-1996 in a catch-up campaign, followed in 2010 by the implementation of the vaccination in the National Immunization Programme (NIP) for girls born in 1997. To monitor the tolerability of the 2009 catch-up campaign, we investigated the occurrence of adverse events within 7 days after vaccination with the bivalent HPV vaccine. A total of 6000 girls were asked to participate, including 1500 from each birth cohort from 1993 to 1996. One week after each of the required three successive doses, the participants received by e-mail a Web-based questionnaire focused on local reactions and systemic events. One or more questionnaires were returned by 4248 girls. Any local reaction was reported by 92.1% of the girls after the first dose, 79.4% after the second dose, and 83.3% after the third dose, and 91.7%, 78.7%, and 78.4% reported any systemic event after the three doses, respectively. Pain in the arm was the most frequently reported local reaction, of which 24.0%, 11.7%, and 14.7% was classified as pronounced. Myalgia was the most often reported systemic event. The proportion of local reactions and most systemic events was significantly lower after the second and third dose compared with the first dose (Odds ratio [OR], 0.33-0.76). Older girls reported a higher proportion of adverse events than younger girls. After vaccination with the bivalent HPV vaccine, girls 13-16 years of age reported a high proportion of short-term adverse events. These are maximum estimates and not necessarily caused by the vaccination itself. Although, girls experienced HPV vaccination as painful, no serious or unexpected adverse events were reported. The results of this survey are being communicated to health care workers and the public. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Age and Race on Outcomes of a Program to Prevent Excess Weight Gain and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Burke, Natasha L; Shomaker, Lauren B; Brady, Sheila; Reynolds, James C; Young, Jami F; Wilfley, Denise E; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Olsen, Cara H; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2017-08-28

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain and reduces loss-of-control (LOC)-eating in adults. However, IPT was not superior to health-education (HE) for preventing excess weight gain and reducing LOC-eating over 1-year in adolescent girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders. Limited data suggest that older and non-White youth may be especially responsive to IPT. In secondary analyses, we examined if age or race moderated weight and LOC-eating outcomes. The 113 participants (12-17 years; 56.6% White) from the original trial were re-contacted 3 years later for assessment. At baseline and follow-up visits through 3 years, we assessed BMI, adiposity by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and LOC-eating presence. In linear mixed models, baseline age moderated 3-year BMI outcome; older girls in IPT had the lowest 3-year BMI gain compared to younger girls in IPT and all girls in HE, p = 0.04. A similar pattern was observed for adiposity. Race moderated 3-year LOC-eating; non-White girls in IPT were most likely to abstain from LOC-eating at 3 years compared to all other girls, p = 0.04. This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests future studies should determine if IPT is especially efficacious at reducing LOC-eating in older, non-White adolescents.

  11. Sonographic measurement of uterus and ovaries in premenarcheal healthy girls between 6 and 13 years old: correlation with age and pubertal status.

    PubMed

    Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Ghasemi, Fariba; Hallaji, Farideh; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2011-02-01

    To provide normal references of sonographic uterine and ovarian size in premenarcheal healthy girls aged 6-13 years in different stages of puberty. Two hundred forty girls were enrolled into the study (mean age ± SD, 9.5 ± 1.7 years [range, 6-13.5 years]). Pubertal status was classified according to Tanner staging. All subjects underwent pelvic sonographic examination for the measurement of uterine volume, body and cervical length, anteroposterior diameter of fundus, body, and cervix, ovarian volume, and both right and left prominent follicular diameter. A gradual increase with age was observed in all uterine and ovarian measurements. Both uterine and ovarian parameters were significantly correlated to age, height and weight, and stages of puberty. Uterine volume was <3.5 cm(3) in 98% of prepubertal girls, and in stage 2 it was significantly more than in stage 1 (3 ± 3.2 versus 1.7 ± 1.7, respectively) (p < 0.001). Uterine body length was also significantly greater in stage 2 than stage 1 (17.5 ± 4.5 versus 14.6 ± 3.3, respectively) (p < 0.001). The reference values for uterus and ovaries were determined in healthy girls. There is a progressive increase in size of internal female genitalia in relation to age, height, weight, and puberty. Uterine volume and body length presented the best correlation with age and stage of puberty. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. HPV vaccination among French girls and women aged 14-23 years and the relationship with their mothers' uptake of Pap smear screening: a study in general practice.

    PubMed

    Lutringer-Magnin, D; Cropet, C; Barone, G; Canat, G; Kalecinski, J; Leocmach, Y; Vanhems, P; Chauvin, F; Lasset, C

    2013-10-25

    HPV vaccination is recommended in France for girls aged 14 and for those aged 15-23 before sexual debut or who have become sexually active within the previous year. The first aim was to describe vaccination practice among 14-23-year-old girls visiting a general practitioner. A second objective was to investigate factors associated with starting vaccination among girls aged 14-18, in particular the regular practice of Pap-smear screening (PSS) by their mothers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2009. A total of 87 general practitioners from the large Rhône-Alpes region contributed data on 502 girls/women who came for consultation. 231 (46.0%) of these girls/women had begun the process of HPV vaccination (68.2%, 56.9% and 18.7% of the 14-16, 17-20 and 21-23-year-olds respectively) of whom 139 (60.2%) had received all three doses. 92 girls/women (39.8%) had received only one or two doses at the time of study. However, in 71 (77.2%) cases, the gap between the last dose received and the time of study was within the between-dose interval recommended in the vaccination schedule. GPs reported that 16 (11.5%) had mentioned side effects following injections. Having a mother who practised regular PSS (Odds Ratio 6.2 [1.5-25.8]), having never lived with a partner (4.6 [1.6-13.5]) and vaccination against hepatitis B (3.2 [1.6-6.1]) were found to be independently correlated with the initiation of HPV vaccination among girls/women aged 14-18 years. Two years after the start of the programme, only half of girls/women aged 14-23 years had begun the process of HPV vaccination. HPV vaccination status was correlated with PSS in the mother, family status and hepatitis B vaccination. Such information may help to better target girls who are less likely to be vaccinated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Girls' and boys' trajectories of appearance anxiety from age 10 to 15 years are associated with earlier maturation and appearance-related teasing.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Webb, Haley J; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M

    2017-05-18

    Adolescents' appearance-related concerns can provoke increasing emotional, social, and eating-related problems. The aims of this five-wave (2.5-year), multiple-informant longitudinal study were to (a) examine growth trajectories of appearance anxiety symptoms and appearance esteem, (b) identify whether trajectories differed by gender, and (c) examine several launching factors including parent-reported physical maturation, peer-rated physical appearance, body mass index, and appearance teasing by parents and peers. Participants were 387 adolescents (44% boys) aged 10 to 13 years at the first assessment. Steep growth in appearance anxiety symptoms was found for both girls and boys, but there was no average change in appearance esteem. Girls had more elevated appearance anxiety symptoms and lower appearance esteem than boys, girls' body mass index was associated with symptoms, and earlier physical maturation and teasing about appearance, alone and in combination, were associated with growth in appearance anxiety symptoms for girls and boys. Earlier maturing boys who were highly teased by parents, but even more so when teased by peers, were at utmost risk for elevated appearance anxiety symptoms and increasing symptoms over time. In contrast, all girls exhibited elevated or increasing appearance anxiety symptoms across time, with the exception of girls with the latest maturation who also reported little teasing about their appearance.

  14. Age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in adolescent girls and young women: evidence from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Robin; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Mugurungi, Owen; Rhead, Rebecca; Takaruza, Albert; Maswera, Rufurwokuda; Nyamukapa, Constance

    2017-06-19

    Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa, but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013). A total of 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of intersurvey periods. Last sexual partner age difference and age-disparate relationships [intergenerational (≥10 years age difference) and intragenerational (5-9 years) versus age-homogeneous (0-4 years)] were tested for associations with HIV incidence in Cox regressions. A proximate determinants framework was used to explore factors possibly explaining variations in the contribution of age-disparate relationships to HIV incidence between populations and over time. About 126 HIV infections occurred over 8777 person-years (1.43 per 100 person-years; 95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.68). Sixty-five percent of women reported partner age differences of at least 5 years. Increasing partner age differences were associated with higher HIV incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)]. Intergenerational relationships tended to increase HIV incidence [aHR = 1.78 (0.96-3.29)] but not intragenerational relationships [aHR = 0.91 (0.47-1.76)]. Secondary education was associated with reductions in intergenerational relationships [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.49 (0.36-0.68)]. Intergenerational relationships were associated with partners having concurrent relationships [aOR = 2.59 (1.81-3.70)], which tended to increase HIV incidence [aHR = 1.74 (0.96-3.17)]. Associations between age disparity and HIV incidence did not change over time. Sexual relationships with older men expose young women to increased risk of HIV acquisition in Manicaland, which did not change over time, even with introduction

  15. FGF23 Is Not Associated With Age-Related Changes in Phosphate, but Enhances Renal Calcium Reabsorption in Girls.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Deborah M; Jüppner, Harald; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann M

    2017-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 is a critical determinant of phosphate homeostasis. The role of FGF23, however, in regulating physiologic changes in serum phosphate and renal phosphate handling across childhood is not well described. In addition, animal models have suggested a role for FGF23 in regulating renal calcium excretion. To assess changes in FGF23 concentrations across childhood in relation to changes in mineral ions and hormones of mineral ion homeostasis. This was a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at a Clinical Research Center at a tertiary care hospital. Ninety healthy girls ages 9 to 18 years were recruited from the surrounding community. The associations of intact and C-terminal FGF23 concentrations with measures of mineral ion homeostasis were determined by univariable and multivariable linear regression. Serum phosphate and renal phosphate excretion varied with age, as expected (R = -0.49, P < 0.001 and R = -0.48, P < 0.001, respectively). Neither intact nor C-terminal FGF23 varied with age, and FGF23 was not correlated with serum or urinary phosphate. Intact FGF23 was positively correlated with serum calcium (R = 0.39, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (R = -0.27, P = 0.011). The changes in serum and urinary phosphate handling across childhood do not appear to be determined by alterations in FGF23 concentrations. These data may point to a role for FGF23 in calcium regulation in human physiology.

  16. Cost-effectiveness and equity impacts of three HPV vaccination programmes for school-aged girls in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Tony; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Karvonen, Tanja; Pearson, Amber L; Smith, Megan; Wilson, Nick

    2014-05-07

    As with many high-income countries, vaccination coverage against human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is not high in New Zealand (NZ) at 47% in school-aged girls for three doses. We estimate the health gains, net-cost and cost-effectiveness of the currently implemented HPV national vaccination programme of vaccination dispersed across schools and primary care, and two alternatives: school-based only (assumed coverage as per Australia: 73%), and mandatory school-based vaccination but with opt-out permitted (coverage 93%). We also generate estimates by social group (sex, ethnic and deprivation group). A Markov macro-simulation model was developed for 12-year-old girls and boys in 2011, with future health states of: cervical cancer, pre-cancer (CIN I-III), genital warts, and three other HPV-related cancers (oropharyngeal, anal, vulvar cancer). In each state health sector costs, including additional health sector costs from extra life, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were accumulated. The current HPV vaccination programme has an estimated cost-effectiveness of NZ$18,800/QALY gained (about US$9700/QALY gained using the OECD's purchasing power parities; 95% UI: US$6900 to $33,700) compared to the status quo in NZ prior to 2008 (no vaccination, screening alone). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of an intensive school-based only programme of girls, compared to the current situation, was US$33,000/QALY gained. Mandatory vaccination appeared least cost-effective (ICER compared to school-based of US$117,000/QALY gained, but with wide 95% uncertainty limits from $56,000 to $220,000). All interventions generated more QALYs per 12-year-old for Māori (indigenous population) and people living in deprived areas (range 5-25% greater QALYs gained). A more intensive school-only vaccination programme seems warranted. Reductions in vaccine price will greatly improve cost-effectiveness of all options, possibly making a law for mandatory vaccination optimal from a

  17. Recalled Explanations for Adolescent Girls' Engagement in Age-Discordant Sexual Relationships.

    PubMed

    Cort, Natalie A; Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Braksmajer, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Age-discordant sexual relationships are associated with negative sexual health outcomes for adolescent females. We were particularly interested in females' motivations for engaging in these relationships, and in contextual factors that increase receptivity to age-discordant relationships in the United States (U.S.). However, recent research addressing this topic in the U.S. has been sparse. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 15 women (Mdn age = 26 years; 93 % African American) from an urban, publicly funded sexually transmitted disease clinic to qualitative interviews. Reasons given by women for their involvement in age-discordant sexual relationships as adolescents included: (a) desire for an actively engaged father figure, (b) to obtain material support, (c) to escape from a troubled home life, and (d) to express independence and maturity. Thus, familial, economic, and developmental factors motivate socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescent females to enter into age-discordant sexual relationships. Efforts to reduce females' participation in these relationships will need to address socioeconomic vulnerability and family relationships.

  18. Differences in vitamin D status and calcium metabolism in Saudi Arabian boys and girls aged 6 to 18 years: effects of age, gender, extent of veiling and physical activity with concomitant implications for bone health.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A; Lanham-New, Susan A; Kahn, Jalal A

    2012-10-01

    Few data exist looking at vitamin D status and bone health in school-aged boys and girls from Saudi Arabia. The present study aimed to determine the extent of poor vitamin D status in school boys and girls aged 6-18 years and to examine if there was any difference in status with age, physical activity and veiling and concomitant effects on bone. Cross-sectional study. Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 150 boys (7-16 years) and 150 girls (6-18 years) from local schools were divided into age categories: 6-9 years (elementary school); 10-12 years (secondary school); 13-14 years (middle years); 15-18 years (high school). Vitamin D status was significantly lower in girls than boys in all age groups (P < 0.01), with the 15-18-year-old girls having the lowest level (22.0 (SD 9.4) nmol/l) in comparison to the 15-18-year-old boys (39.3 (SD 14.0) nmol/l) and the 6-9-year-old girls (41.2 (SD 9.3) nmol/l). Parathyroid hormone status was highest in the 15-18-year-old girls in comparison to boys of the same age. A total of 64 % of 15-18-year-old girls had 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status <25 nmol/l in comparison to 31 % in the 13-14 years age category, 26 % in the 10-12 years category and 2.5 % in the 6-9 years category. No boys had 25OHD status <25 nmol/l. Fully veiled girls had lower 25OHD status than partly veiled or unveiled girls (P < 0.05). Low 25OHD and high parathyroid hormone was associated with lower bone mass in the 6-9 years and 13-14 years age groups (P < 0.05). These data suggest significant hypovitaminosis D in older adolescent females, which is a cause for concern given that there is currently no public health policy for vitamin D in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  19. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  20. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  1. Age at menarche in relation to nutritional status and critical life events among rural and urban secondary school girls in post-conflict northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Odongkara Mpora, Beatrice; Piloya, Thereza; Awor, Sylvia; Ngwiri, Thomas; Laigong, Paul; Mworozi, Edison A; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2014-05-09

    Menarche age is an important indicator of reproductive health of a woman or a community. In industrial societies, age at menarche has been declining over the last 150 years with a secular trend, and similar trends have been reported in some developing countries. Menarche age is affected by genetic and environmental cues, including nutrition. The study was designed to determine the age at menarche and its relation to childhood critical life events and nutritional status in post-conflict northern Uganda. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of rural and urban secondary school girls in northern Uganda. Structured questionnaires were administered to 274 secondary school girls, aged 12 - 18 years to determine the age at menarche in relation to home location, nutritional status, body composition and critical life events. The mean age at menarche was 13.6 ± 1.3 for rural and 13.3 ± 1.4 years for urban dwelling girls (t = -1.996, p = 0.047). Among the body composition measures, hip circumference was negatively correlated with the age at menarche (r = -0.109, p = 0.036), whereas height, BMI and waist circumference did not correlate with menarche. Paternal (but not maternal) education was associated with earlier menarche (F = 2.959, p = 0.033). Childhood critical life events were not associated with age at menarche. Age at menarche differed among urban and rural dwelling school girls and dependent on current nutritional status, as manifested by the hip circumference. It was not associated with extreme stressful childhood critical life events.

  2. Age at menarche in relation to nutritional status and critical life events among rural and urban secondary school girls in post-conflict Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Menarche age is an important indicator of reproductive health of a woman or a community. In industrial societies, age at menarche has been declining over the last 150 years with a secular trend, and similar trends have been reported in some developing countries. Menarche age is affected by genetic and environmental cues, including nutrition. The study was designed to determine the age at menarche and its relation to childhood critical life events and nutritional status in post-conflict northern Uganda. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study of rural and urban secondary school girls in northern Uganda. Structured questionnaires were administered to 274 secondary school girls, aged 12 – 18 years to determine the age at menarche in relation to home location, nutritional status, body composition and critical life events. Results The mean age at menarche was 13.6 ± 1.3 for rural and 13.3 ± 1.4 years for urban dwelling girls (t = -1.996, p = 0.047). Among the body composition measures, hip circumference was negatively correlated with the age at menarche (r = -0.109, p = 0.036), whereas height, BMI and waist circumference did not correlate with menarche. Paternal (but not maternal) education was associated with earlier menarche (F = 2.959, p = 0.033). Childhood critical life events were not associated with age at menarche. Conclusions Age at menarche differed among urban and rural dwelling school girls and dependent on current nutritional status, as manifested by the hip circumference. It was not associated with extreme stressful childhood critical life events. PMID:24885913

  3. [Under-age girl as a patient of pediatric and adolescent ginecology outpatient clinic].

    PubMed

    Sowińska-Przepiera, Elzbieta; Andrysiak-Mamos, Elzbieta; Syrenicz, Anhelli

    2008-01-01

    The research carried out in Poland reflected that sexual initiation before 18 years of age is a common phenomenon and refers to roughly 80% of teenagers. In Poland there is no uniform standing of medical and legal environments with regard to dealing with a juvenile patient who has become sexually active and expects the advice of a gynaecologist, gynaecologic examination and often asks for prescribing contraceptives. The procedures must take into account the fact that in Poland, until 18 years of age, a juvenile functions under the parental or tutelary authority, while a consent for medical service requires beside of the consent of legal guardian also the consent of a juvenile who is 16 years of age and becomes a full-right patient. According to the Act on Health Care Institutions, a patient has the right to self-decisions, the respect of physical and mental integrity and the respect of privacy, while the participation of a statutory representative post 16th year of age refers practically to co-deciding on a medical service provision. Therefore, the information received from such juvenile patient in subjective and objective examination does not have to be passed to the statutory representative, if the juvenile patient requires confidentiality and if this does not affect the patient's health and the planned medical procedures (e.g. the necessity of making an operation). The knowledge of conduct procedures with regard to a juvenile patient as a carrier of rights shall enable doctors to make aware choices of conduct and provide services or, in most cases, only advice, without the necessity to breach the laws of Poland.

  4. Spelling difficulties in school-aged girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive, and graphomotor correlates.

    PubMed

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group of typically developed spellers (TYPSP, n = 35). When subdividing the ADHD group into those with poor (ADHDPSP, n = 19) and typical spelling (ADHDTYPSP, n = 11), the two subgroups did not differ with regard to inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity according to parent or teacher ratings. Both ADHD subgroups also had equally severe difficulties in graphomotor control-handwriting and (parent ratings of) written expression as compared to the TYPSP group. In contrast, ADHDPSP had problems relative to ADHDTYPSP and TYPSP on phonological and orthographic recoding (choice tasks) and verbal memory (digit span) and were more likely to make commissions on a continuous performance task (CPT). Further analyses using the collapsed ADHD group showed that both digit span and the presence of CPT commissions predicted spelling performance independently of each other. Finally, results showed that phonological recoding skills mediated the association between digit span and spelling performance in ADHD. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed.

  5. Delayed puberty in girls

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones. These changes normally begin to appear in girls between ages 8 to 14 years old. With delayed puberty, these changes either don't occur, or if they do, they don't progress normally. Delayed puberty is more common in boys than in girls. Causes In most cases of delayed puberty, growth ...

  6. Sucking, chewing, and feeding habits and the development of crossbite: a longitudinal study of girls from birth to 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Larsson, E

    2001-04-01

    The prevalence of posterior crossbite among pacifier-sucking girls in Falköping, Sweden, was previously found to be 26%. The aim of this investigation was to follow the development of crossbites in pacifier suckers and to determinate the possibility of reducing the prevalence of crossbite by informing and instructing the parents about sucking habits and reducing the time the child has the pacifier in the mouth. Parents of 60 consecutively born girls belonging to St Olof's health district, Falköping, Sweden, were invited to take part in the study. All parents agreed to participate. Five interviews or examinations of each girl took place from birth until 3 years of age. Fifty-four (90%) of the 60 girls were breast-fed. The mean duration of breast-feeding was 8 months, and 67% of the girls were breast-fed for half a year or more. Forty-three children (72%) developed a pacifier-sucking habit, 6 (10%), a digit-sucking habit, and 11 (18%), no sucking habits. The mean duration of breast-feeding was longer for the nonsuckers (11 months) than for the pacifier- and digit-sucking children (5 months). Of the 39 girls who still had the pacifier habit at 3 years of age, 2 had developed a posterior crossbite. Another girl stopped the habit when a crossbite was registered at the 2 1/2-year examination. At the next appointment, the crossbite had corrected itself spontaneously. One of the 2 girls with crossbite at 3 years of age developed a prenormal occlusion with both anterior and posterior crossbites. For 12 more pacifier suckers, an interfering contact was noted with a forced guidance of the mandible and a midline shift. In all 12 cases, the interfering teeth were primary canines. We conclude that parents should be instructed to reduce the "in the mouth time" of the pacifier. The transverse occlusal relationship in pacifier-sucking children should be evaluated between 2 and 3 years of age. If interfering contacts of the primary canines exist, the parents should be instructed

  7. Osteopenia is present at an early age and worsens across the life span in girls and women with Rett syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Girls and women with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at increased risk for osteopenia and skeletal fractures. Our objective was to characterize the natural history of bone mineralization in RTT girls and women across their life span and to identify genetic, nutritional, physical, hormonal, or inflammatory ...

  8. [Educational Facilities for Pregnant School-Age Girls in Districts 3, 4, 12, 13, and 18. Project No. 1369. Evaluation of ESEA Title I Projects in New York City 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Yetta; Berken, Ruth R.

    This project for pregnant school age girls is an ESEA Title I program operating in five facilities in Manhattan, Bronx, and Brooklyn. The primary objective of the project was to assist pregnant school age girls complete their education by being able to attend school. Additional objectives included provision of information and training in personal…

  9. EEG asymmetry at 10 months of age: are temperament trait predictors different for boys and girls?

    PubMed

    Gartstein, Maria A; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry patterns represent markers of individual differences in emotion reactivity and regulation, with right hemisphere activation linked with withdrawal behaviors/emotions (e.g., fear), and activation of the left hemisphere associated with approach (e.g., joy, anger). In the present study, gender was examined as a potential moderator of links between infant temperament at 5 months, and frontal EEG asymmetry patterns recorded during an Arm Restraint procedure at 10 months of age. Positive Affectivity/Surgency (PAS), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Orienting/Regulatory Capacity (ORC) were considered as predictors, with PAS emerging as significant for males; higher levels translating into greater right-frontal activation later in infancy. For females, ORC accounted for a significant portion of the frontal asymmetry scores, with higher ORC being associated with greater right-frontal activation. The moderating influence of gender noted in this study is discussed in the context of implications for discrepancies in rates/symptoms of psychopathology later in childhood.

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of a glycoprotein D genital herpes vaccine in healthy girls 10-17 years of age: results from a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elyazeed, R R; Heineman, T; Dubin, G; Fourneau, M; Leroux-Roels, I; Leroux-Roels, G; Richardus, J H; Ostergaard, L; Diez-Domingo, J; Poder, A; Van Damme, P; Romanowski, B; Blatter, M; Silfverdal, S A; Berglund, J; Josefsson, A; Cunningham, A L; Flodmark, C E; Tragiannidis, A; Dobson, S; Olafsson, J; Puig-Barbera, J; Mendez, M; Barton, S; Bernstein, D; Mares, J; Ratner, P

    2013-12-09

    The investigational AS04-adjuvanted herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit prophylactic vaccine ('HSV vaccine'; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) has been shown to be well tolerated in adults, but limited data exist for pre-teen and adolescent girls, a likely target population. The primary objective of this study was to compare the occurrence of serious adverse events (SAEs) over 12 months between HSV vaccine recipients and saline recipients (placebo control group) in pre-teen and adolescent girls. The immunogenicity of the HSV vaccine was also assessed. Healthy girls aged 10-17 years, stratified by age (10-15 years; 16-17 years), were randomised 2:1:1 to receive the HSV vaccine, a hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix™; HAV control) or placebo (saline) according to a 0-, 1-, 6-month schedule. Participants and study personnel not involved in the preparation or administration of vaccines were blinded to treatment. Safety and immunogenicity analyses were performed overall and by age (10-15 years; 16-17 years) and HSV serostatus. No statistically significant difference in the percentage of subjects with SAEs was observed between the HSV and saline group, or between the HSV and pooled control (HAV and saline) groups. The HSV vaccine was well tolerated, although a higher incidence of solicited local symptoms was observed in the HSV group than in the control group. Neither age nor HSV serostatus at the time of study entry had an impact on the safety profile of this vaccine. The HSV vaccine was immunogenic regardless of pre-vaccination HSV serostatus. Higher anti-gD geometric mean concentrations were observed in HSV-1 seropositive participants than in HSV-1 seronegative participants. The HSV vaccine had an acceptable safety profile, and was well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to girls aged 10-17 years regardless of age or HSV pre-vaccination serostatus. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  12. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  13. Pre-teen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at age 18-19: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, John A.; Glueck, Charles J.; Wang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, BMI (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9-10. We hypothesized that pre-teen insulin and insulin resistance (IR) would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Further, we hypothesized that increased insulin and IR, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Patients and Methods: Prospective 10-yr follow-up of 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. Results: When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9-10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9-10, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19. Black girls consumed a greater percent of calories from fat throughout. At age 19, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9-10 for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and greater fat free mass. By ages 18-19, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by age 9-10 BMI, 10 year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between age 9-10 insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls), all p <.0001. Conclusions: Insulin at ages 9-10 interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9-10 could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from

  14. Nutrient intake in adolescent girls and boys diagnosed with coeliac disease at an early age is mostly comparable to their non-coeliac contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Kautto, E; Ivarsson, A; Norström, F; Högberg, L; Carlsson, A; Hörnell, A

    2014-02-01

    Food habits, nutrient needs and intakes differ between males and females, although few nutritional studies on patients with coeliac disease (CD) have reported results stratified by gender. To compare energy and nutrient intakes among 13-year olds diagnosed with CD in early childhood with those of a non-coeliac (NC) age- and gender-matched control group, and also with estimated average requirements (EAR). A case-control study was conducted in Sweden 2006-2007 within the coeliac screening study ETICS (Exploring The Iceberg of Coeliacs in Sweden). Dietary intake was assessed among 37 adolescents (23 girls) diagnosed with CD at median age 1.7 years (CD group) and 805 (430 girls) NC controls (NC group) using a food-frequency questionnaire covering 4 weeks. Reported energy intake was validated by comparison with the calculated physical activity level (PAL). Regardless of CD status, most adolescents reported an intake above EAR for most nutrients. However, both groups had a low intake of vitamin C, with 13% in the CD-group and 25% in the NC-group below EAR, and 21% of boys in the CD-group below EAR for thiamine. The intake of fatty acids was unbalanced, with a high intake of saturated and a low intake of unsaturated fats. Girls and boys in the CD-group had an overall lower nutrient density in reported food intake compared to girls and boys in the NC-group. Nutrient intake of adolescent girls and boys with CD was mostly comparable to intakes of NC controls. Dietitians should take the opportunity to reinforce a generally healthy diet when providing information about the gluten-free diet. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations.

  16. Comparing dietary patterns derived by two methods and their associations with obesity in Polish girls aged 13-21 years: the cross-sectional GEBaHealth study.

    PubMed

    Wadolowska, Lidia; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2017-05-01

    To compare dietary patterns (DPs) derived by two methods and their assessment as a factor of obesity in girls aged 13-21 years. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted among the representative sample of Polish females ( n = 1,107) aged 13-21 years were used. Subjects were randomly selected. Dietary information was collected using three short-validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) regarding fibre intake, fat intake and overall food intake variety. DPs were identified by two methods: a priori approach (a priori DPs) and cluster analysis (data-driven DPs). The association between obesity and DPs and three single dietary characteristics was examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Four data-driven DPs were obtained: 'Low-fat-Low-fibre-Low-varied' (21.2%), 'Low-fibre' (29.1%), 'Low-fat' (25.0%) and 'High-fat-Varied' (24.7%). Three a priori DPs were pre-defined: 'Non-healthy' (16.6%), 'Neither-pro-healthy-nor-non-healthy' (79.1%) and 'Pro-healthy' (4.3%). Girls with 'Low-fibre' DP were less likely to have central obesity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17, 0.75) than girls with 'Low-fat-Low-fibre-Low-varied' DP (reference group, OR = 1.00). No significant associations were found between a priori DPs and overweight including obesity or central obesity. The majority of girls with 'Non-healthy' DP were also classified as 'Low-fibre' DP in the total sample, in girls with overweight including obesity and in girls with central obesity (81.7%, 80.6% and 87.3%, respectively), while most girls with 'Pro-healthy' DP were classified as 'Low-fat' DP (67.8%, 87.6% and 52.1%, respectively). We found that the a priori approach as well as cluster analysis can be used to derive opposite health-oriented DPs in Polish females. Both methods have provided disappointing outcomes in explaining the association between obesity and DPs. The cluster analysis, in comparison with the a priori approach, was more useful for finding any

  17. Exploring gender-specific trends in underage drinking across adolescent age groups and measures of drinking: is girls' drinking catching up with boys'?

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to both arrest data, Uniform Crime Reports, and self-report data from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative long-term survey gathered independently of crime control agents. All self-reported drinking behaviors across all age groups show declining or unchanged female rates and no significant change in the gender gap, while the official source displays a steady narrowing gender gap and some increase of female arrest rates for liquor law violations. Results indicate that social control measures applied to underage drinking have shifted to target young women's drinking patterns, but their drinking has not become more widespread/problematic. Girls' increased alcohol use and abuse is a socially constructed problem, rather than the result of normalization of drinking or more strain in girls' lives. Future underage drinking policies and practices that apply legal intervention strategies to less chronic adolescent drinking behaviors will increase the visibility of girls' drinking.

  18. Girls Online Feeling Out of Bounds: Girl Scout Research Institute Study on Teenage Girls and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…

  19. Girls Online Feeling Out of Bounds: Girl Scout Research Institute Study on Teenage Girls and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…

  20. An Exploratory Pilot Study of the Strengthening Families Programme 10-14 (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombes, Lindsey; Allen, Deborah Mary; Foxcroft, David

    2012-01-01

    The Strengthening Families Programme 10-14 (SFP10-14; UK) is a seven-session DVD-based family skills training programme. While the programme has been extensively evaluated in the United States, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the SFP10-14 has been conducted in the United Kingdom. This exploratory Phase II study was an evaluation of a…

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-14 - Combination carrier-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combination carrier-TB/ALL. 30.10-14 Section 30.10-14 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-14 Combination carrier—TB/ALL. The term combination carrier means a tank vessel designed to...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-14 - Combination carrier-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combination carrier-TB/ALL. 30.10-14 Section 30.10-14 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-14 Combination carrier—TB/ALL. The term combination carrier means a tank vessel designed to...

  3. Age at smoking initiation and self-rated health among second grade high school boys and girls in Scania, Sweden, a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kristina; Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2015-11-18

    Smoking is usually initiated early in life and most adult regular smokers have started smoking before 18 years of age. A younger age at smoking initiation is associated with risk taking behaviours and worse health outcomes regarding psychological and somatic conditions, suggested to be caused by exposure during critical developmental periods. The present study aims to investigate self-rated health among second grade high school boys and girls related to age at smoking initiation (<14 years of age and ≥ 14 years of age) among current and former smokers, compared to never smokers. Data was derived from the Scania public health survey among children and adolescents in 2012. The study was cross-sectional with retrospective information about first time cigarette smoking experiences among 3245 boys and 3434 girls in second grade of high school. Self-rated health was assessed with the question "How do you rate your general health". Associations of age at smoking initiation, current smoking status and poor self-rated health were investigated with logistic regression models. Crude odds ratios of poor self-rated health were increased for all smoking groups compared to never smokers. Former smoking boys and currently smoking girls with early smoking initiation had the highest odds ratios of poor self-rated health, with odds ratios (OR) 2.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.5-3.7) and OR 2.9 (95 % CI: 2.3-3.6), respectively. After adjustments for sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours, psychosocial factors, weight and functional disabilities, the results were attenuated, but remained statistically significant regarding former and current smoking boys with early smoking initiation, OR 2.0 (95 % CI: 1.1-3.7) and OR 1.7 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.4) and for current smoking girls with early and later smoking initiation, OR 2.1 (95 % CI: 1.5-2.8) and OR 1.5 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.0). Boys and girls in second grade of high school with early smoking initiation reported

  4. Comparison of craniofacial growth of untreated Class I and Class II girls from ages 9 to 18 years: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sarah S; Chung, Chun-Hsi

    2015-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine and compare the craniofacial growth in girls with Class I or Class II occlusion from the ages of 9 to 18. Twenty-five Class I (ANB, 1°-4°) and 21 Class II (ANB, >4°) untreated Caucasian girls were selected from the Burlington Growth Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Cephalograms of each subject at ages 9, 14, and 18 years were traced, and 29 parameters were measured. The growth changes in each parameter from ages 9 to 14, 14 to 18, and 9 to 18 were calculated, and comparisons of each parameter were made between the 2 groups. From ages 9 to 14, the Class I and Class II groups had similar skeletal growth patterns (increases of SNA and SNB angles, decreases of ANB, MP-SN, and gonial angles). Dentally, the Class II group showed less maxillary incisal proclination and more overbite than did the Class I group. From ages 14 to 18, the 2 groups also showed similar growth patterns, with little sagittal but continued vertical growth, and the MP-SN angle continued to decrease. From ages 9 to 18 (combined periods of 9-14 and 14-18), the 2 groups showed similar skeletal growth, with the exception of a slightly higher ANS-ME/N-Me in the Class I group. Dental changes were similar in the 2 groups, except that overbite increased slightly more in the Class II group. Overall, the craniofacial growth patterns of Class I and Class II girls were similar. With growth, the face became more flattened with a decrease of the ANB angle, and the mandible demonstrated forward rotation with decreases of the MP-SN and gonial angles, and an increase of PFH:AFH. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonsuicidal self-injury in young adolescent girls: moderators of the distress-function relationship.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Lori M; Cha, Christine B; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-02-01

    This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25% African American) ages 10-14 years who completed questionnaires regarding self-injurious behavior and other constructs of interest. Fifty-six percent of girls (n = 53) reported engaging in NSSI during their lifetime, including 36% (n = 34) in the past year. Internal distress (depressive symptoms) was associated with engaging in NSSI for emotion-regulation functions, and rumination moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and engaging in NSSI for automatic positive reinforcement. Interpersonal distress (peer victimization) was associated with engaging in NSSI for social reinforcement, and quality of peer communication moderated this relationship. The clinical implications of these findings include designing preventions that address the particular contexts of self-injurious behavior.

  6. Inequality in Experiences of Physics Education: Secondary School Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of their Physics Education and Intentions to Continue with Physics After the Age of 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the factors that are associated in England with 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics after the age of 16, when it is no longer compulsory. Survey responses were collated from 5,034 year 10 students as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009 from 137 England secondary schools. Our analysis uses individual items from the survey rather than constructs (aggregates of items) to explore what it is about physics teachers, physics lessons and physics itself that is most correlated with intended participation in physics after the age of 16. Our findings indicate that extrinsic material gain motivation in physics was the most important factor associated with intended participation. In addition, an item-level analysis helped to uncover issues around gender inequality in physics educational experiences which were masked by the use of construct-based analyses. Girls' perceptions of their physics teachers were similar to those of boys on many fronts. However, despite the encouragement individual students receive from their teachers being a key factor associated with aspirations to continue with physics, girls were statistically significantly less likely to receive such encouragement. We also found that girls had less positive experiences of their physics lessons and physics education than did boys.

  7. Predicting Depression and Anxiety from Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Elementary School-Age Girls and Boys with Conduct Problems.

    PubMed

    Déry, Michèle; Lapalme, Mélanie; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Poirier, Martine; Temcheff, Caroline; Toupin, Jean

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the three DSM-5 categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms (irritable mood, defiant behavior, vindictive behavior) and anxiety/depression in girls and boys with conduct problems (CP) while controlling for comorbid child psychopathology at baseline. Data were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of 6- to 9-year-old French-Canadian children (N = 276; 40.8 % girls) receiving special educational services for CP at school and followed for 2 years. Using linear regression analysis, the results showed that irritable mood symptoms predicted a higher level of depression and anxiety in girls and boys 2 years later, whereas the behavioral symptoms of ODD (e.g., defiant, vindictive symptoms) were linked to lower depression scores. The contribution of ODD symptoms to these predictions, while statistically significant, remained modest. The usefulness of ODD irritable symptoms as a marker for identifying girls and boys with CP who are more vulnerable to developing internalizing problems is discussed.

  8. Early to Bed: A Study of Adaptation among Sexually Active Urban Adolescent Girls Younger than Age Sixteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andres; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to…

  9. Early to Bed: A Study of Adaptation among Sexually Active Urban Adolescent Girls Younger than Age Sixteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andres; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to…

  10. Randomised trial of LHRH analogue treatment on final height in girls with onset of puberty aged 7.5-8.5 years

    PubMed Central

    Cassio, A.; Cacciari, E.; Balsamo, A.; Bal, M.; Tassinari, D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the effectiveness of luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues in improving final height in girls affected by early puberty.
PATIENTS—Forty six consecutive girls with onset of puberty aged 7.5-8.5 years randomly divided into two groups: one treated with 3.75 mg triptorelin intramuscularly every four weeks (group 1); and the other with no treatment (group 2).
RESULTS—Mean (SD) chronological age at onset of menarche was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (11.9 (1.0) v 10.8 (0.7) years). However, mean (SD) height at menarche (152.7 (7.2) v 152.5(5.7) cm) and mean (SD) growth after menarche (4.9 (3.0) v 5.4(2.2) cm) were similar in both groups. The mean (SD) final height was similar in the two groups (group 1, 158.1 (6.2) cm; group 2, 158.6 (6.0) cm) and not significantly different from target height. Fourteen of 20 patients in group 1 and 12 of 18 patients in group 2 showed final height equal to or higher than target height. Final heights of girls with poor initial height prognosis were significantly lower than those of girls with good prognosis, but in patients with the same initial height prognosis, both groups showed final heights similar and not significantly different from their target heights.
CONCLUSIONS—LHRH analogue has no apparent effect on final height in subjects with onset of puberty between 7.5 and 8.5years.

 PMID:10490438

  11. Y's Girl: increasing body satisfaction among primary school girls.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amy; Paxton, Susan J; Rodgers, Rachel F

    2013-09-01

    To date, effective body image interventions for preadolescent school girls are lacking. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Y's Girl, a published body image curriculum specifically tailored for preadolescent school girls. A sample of 60 Grade 6 girls with a mean age of 11.25 (range of 11-12) years were allocated either to an intervention or control group and completed baseline and posttest measures of body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparison, self-esteem, peer factors, and disordered eating. Findings revealed that, compared to the control group, girls receiving the intervention reported improved body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparisons, and self-esteem at posttest 1 week after the intervention ended. Furthermore, changes in body satisfaction were moderated by initial levels of risk-factors. These findings provide initial support for Y's Girl as an effective, affordable body image intervention for preadolescent girls which can be implemented by teachers.

  12. Adolescent Girls Face the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Bergeron, Suzie

    1994-01-01

    This article is the final report on a study of adolescent girls which explored the relationship between physical activity and self-esteem. Two earlier phases of the study collected data on girls aged 9 to 12 years (n=76) and aged 12 to 17 years (n=67). A questionnaire explored: (1) confidence and perceived competence; (2) sports and activity…

  13. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  14. Girl-child marriage and its association with morbidity and mortality of children under 5 years of age in a nationally-representative sample of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Krämer, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between child marriage (before age 18 years) and morbidity and mortality of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally-representative cross-sectional observational survey data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007 was limited to children from the past 5 years, reported by ever-married women aged 15-24 years (n = 2630 births of n = 2138 mothers) to identify differences in infectious diseases in past 2 weeks (diarrhea, acute respiratory infection [ARI], ARI with fever), under 5 years of age and infant mortality, and low birth weight by early (<18) vs adult (≥ 18) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and mortality and morbidity of children under 5 years of age were assessed by calculating adjusted OR using logistic regression models after controlling for maternal and child demographics. Majority (74.5%) of births were from mothers aged <18 years. Marriage before age 18 years increased the likelihood of recent diarrhea among children born to young mothers (adjusted OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.18-2.14). Even though maternal child marriage was associated with infant mortality and mortality of children under 5 years of age in unadjusted models, association was lost in the adjusted models. We did not find a relation between girl-child marriage and low birth weight infants, and ARI. Girl-child marriage increases the likelihood of recent diarrhea among children born to young mothers. Further qualitative and prospective quantitative studies are needed to understand the factors that may drive child morbidity and mortality among those married as children vs adults in Pakistan. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk for girls can be adversely affected post-term due to underestimation of gestational age by ultrasound in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Katarina; Wesström, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Post-term pregnancies are associated with greater risks for mother and child. Accurate determination of gestational age is necessary for safe care. Female fetuses have been shown to be smaller than males at the time of second-trimester ultrasound (US) examination, leading to underestimation of their age and, potentially, greater impacts of perinatal complications in post-term girls than in post-term boys. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sex ratio of post-term births and differences in perinatal complications (stillbirth, low Apgar score, low birthweight, meconium aspiration and low umbilical artery pH) between post-term boys and girls according to dating method [second-trimester US and last menstrual period (LMP)]. Data from gestational week ≥39 to delivery of 13 338 singleton pregnancies between 13 February 2006 and 15 January 2014, were collected from the Obstetrix(®) (Siemens Healthcare) medical records system in Dalarna County, Sweden. The neonatal male:female ratio increased with gestational age after week 40, as dated by US, reaching 1.69 in gestational week 42. This ratio remained 1 throughout gestation according to dating by the LMP. Post-term pregnancy increased the risks of meconium aspiration and low Apgar score, with no sex difference observed. US gestational dating indicated that more boys than girls were born post-term, whereas dating according to LMP revealed no sex difference. These results support the hypothesis that female fetuses are smaller than males, leading to underestimation of their gestational age, at the time of second-trimester US examination. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. A comparison of nutritional intake and daily physical activity of girls aged 8-11 years old in Makkah, Saudi Arabia according to weight status.

    PubMed

    Al-Kutbe, Rabab; Payne, Anne; de Looy, Anne; Rees, Gail A

    2017-06-21

    Obesity rates in Saudi Arabia are amongst the highest in the world. It is known that teenage girls are less active than teenage boys, but less is known about the diet and activity patterns in younger girls. Therefore this study sought to investigate dietary intake and daily physical activity in girls aged 8-11 years old in Saudi Arabia. This was a cross- sectional observational study conducted in seven schools across the city of Makkah. A total of 266 girls had anthropometric measurements taken including height, weight, waist circumference and body fat estimations. Dietary assessment using a 4 day unweighed diet diary was undertaken in 136 of these participants, and 134 agreed to monitor their physical activity for the 4 days using an accelerometer. After exclusion for under-reporting, 109 remained in the dietary analysis and 78 in the physical activity analyses. Differences in means between BMI groups were determined using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to look at the effect of multiple variables on body weight. A total of 30% of participants were classified obese or overweight. There was a significant difference in the mean daily energy intake between the BMI groups with the obese group having the highest energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein intake (obese group: 2677 ± 804 kcal/d; healthy weight group: 1806 ± 403 kcal/d, p < 0.001), but the percentage contribution of the macronutrients to energy intake remained the same across the BMI groups. There were no differences in number of steps taken per day or time spent in moderate to vigorous intensity exercise according to BMI category. Most of the girls did not meet daily physical activity guidelines (5969 to 6773 steps per day and 18.5 - 22.5 mins per day of moderate to vigorous activity). Multiple linear regression showed that energy intake positively predicted body weight (Beta = 0.279, p =0 .001), whereas, total energy

  17. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  18. Girls, Cars, and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Beth

    2005-03-01

    For the past two summers, I have run an NSF-funded residential camp for girls ages 14-17. This camp is designed to stimulate girls' interest in science by building on their interest in automobiles. The girls spend half the day in hands-on work with cars at Morrisville State College. The other half of the day is dedicated to laboratory exercises at Colgate University that have been designed to help girls learn the science behind the operation of cars. While it is impossible to assess the long-range impact of this program after only two years, the results seem promising. I will discuss the camp program, with particular emphasis on the laboratory experiments that have been developed, which could easily be incorporated into standard high school or college laboratories.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese girls and women aged 9 to 45 years.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengcai; Li, Juan; Hu, Yuemei; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Junzhi; Yang, Jianguo; Xia, Guodong; Dai, Qinyong; Tang, Haiwen; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9-17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26-45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18-25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9-17 years) vs. young women (18-25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26-45 year-old women vs. 18-25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18-25 minus 26-45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [-1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [-1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9-17 years) as compared with young women (18-25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years.

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese girls and women aged 9 to 45 years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengcai; Li, Juan; Hu, Yuemei; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Junzhi; Yang, Jianguo; Xia, Guodong; Dai, Qinyong; Tang, Haiwen; V Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9–17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26–45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18–25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9–17 years) vs. young women (18–25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26–45 year-old women vs. 18–25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18–25 minus 26–45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [–1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [–1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9–17 years) as compared with young women (18–25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years. PMID:25424785

  1. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6–8 years of age – the PANIC study

    PubMed Central

    Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Soininen, Sonja; Jalkanen, Henna; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Schwab, Ursula; Lakka, Timo A.; Lindi, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. Objective To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. Design We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213) and boys (n=217) aged 6–8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Results Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake), vitamin D (32%), potassium (20%), calcium (39%), magnesium (17%), and zinc (16%). Vegetable oils (15%) and high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads (14%) were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27%) and iron (12%). Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14%) and vitamin C (22%). Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Conclusion Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil–based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education, and

  2. Longitudinal changes in isokinetic leg strength in 10-14-year-olds.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, M B A; Armstrong, N; Welsman, J R; Sharpe, P

    2002-01-01

    This study used multilevel regression modelling to longitudinally investigate the influences of age, sex, body size, skinfold thicknesses and maturity on the development of isokinetic knee extension and flexion on eight occasions over a 4-year period. Forty-one subjects (20 boys and 21 girls) were measured and 295 isokinetic leg strength tests and associated measures were successfully completed. Subjects were aged 10.0 +/- 0.3 years at the onset of the study. Stature, body mass, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, and sexual maturation (according to pubic hair development) were assessed at each test occasion. Isokinetic concentric knee extension and flexion of the dominant leg were determined to elicit maximal peak extension (PET) and flexion torque (PFT). Statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Multilevel regression modelling indicated that stature and mass were significant predictors of both PET and PFT. Age and maturity were non-significant explanatory variables once stature and mass had been accounted for. Skinfold thickness exerted a significant negative effect independent of mass and stature on PFT but not PET. At test occasion 8, cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the knee extensors (ExCSA) and flexors (FlexCSA) were determined using magnetic resonance imaging on 23 boys and 14 girls and examined as predictors of isokinetic leg strength. There were no significant sex-related differences in PET or PFT. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients indicated a significant relationship between ExCSA and PET and FlexCSA and PFT for both boys and girls. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that ExCSA and FlexCSA were significant explanatory variables for PET and PFT, respectively, but became non-significant once stature and mass had been introduced into the analysis. To conclude, there were no significant sex differences in PET or PFT between the ages of 10 and 14 years and the development of PET and PFT could be accounted for by the

  3. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix in 1-year-old girl without in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol: an uncommon tumour at an uncommon age and site.

    PubMed

    Arora, Aditi; Rastogi, Anurag; Neyaz, Azfar; Husain, Nuzhat

    2017-03-16

    Adenocarcinoma of cervix constitutes about 10-15% cases of carcinoma cervix. Clear cell variant is even a rarer variant of adenocarcinoma. It rarely occurs in the paediatric age group and a known risk factor is in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). We report here a case of primary cervical tumour in a 1-year-old girl, which was initially suspected to be an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma botryoides. Histopathology with immunohistochemical analysis revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma. There was no maternal history of DES intake during pregnancy. We discuss the histopathological characteristics and clinical course of this unusual tumour. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  5. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  6. Socioeconomic status, body mass index and prevalence of underweight and overweight among Polish girls aged 7-18: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Iwona

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish whether the influence of socioeconomic factors on BMI and the prevalence of underweight and overweight changes with age. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. Their height and body mass were measured and their BMIs calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. The girls were measured by trained school nurses at 7, 9, 14 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found to increase with age. Parents' higher education and urban environment were associated with smaller BMI gain between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Among subjects whose mother and/or father had higher education the prevalence of underweight increased with age, and in other groups it remained at a similar level. In the younger age categories (7- and 9-year-olds) underweight was less frequent in subjects from towns than those from rural areas, while in the older categories (14, 16-18 years of age) the opposite tendency was found. As subjects grew up, there was a decline in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in all groups. Parental education and place of residence seem to influence weight status in a different way in childhood than during adolescence.

  7. Sero-surveillance to assess rubella susceptibility and assessment of immunogenicity and reactogenicity of rubella vaccine in Indian girls aged 18-24 years.

    PubMed

    Phalgune, Deepak S; Yervadekar, Rajiv C; Sharma, Hitt J; Dhere, Rajeev M; Parekh, Sameer S; Chandak, Alka O; Safai, Abhijeet A; Shewale, Sunil D

    2014-01-01

    Rubella infection though a mild infection, may cause foetal death or a variety of congenital anomalies. Multiple sero-surveys confirmed that 5-10% women are unexposed to natural or vaccinated rubella virus and remain susceptible to rubella infection. The current study was conducted in 600 girls, aged 18-24 y from Symbiosis International University (SIU), Pune, India to assess their sero-status against rubella infection and to estimate the immunogenicity of rubella vaccine in achieving sero-protective antibody titres. Prior to administration of a single i.m. dose of rubella vaccine (R-vac®) to eligible participants, blood sample (pre-vaccination) was collected. During the 4-6 weeks observation period, adverse events were noted. Then, a second blood sample (post-vaccination) was collected. Significant increase was noted in sero-protection response, viz., 98.6% (post-vaccination) vis-à-vis 66.5% (pre-vaccination); Geometric mean titer (GMT) was significantly higher post-vaccination. Effective measures to introduce rubella vaccination on a larger scale need to be undertaken. An immunization policy with mandatory rubella vaccination for all girls in the reproductive age group and its inclusion in national immunization schedule is highly desirable.

  8. Insulin resistance, obesity, hypofibrinolysis, hyperandrogenism, and coronary heart disease risk factors in 25 pre-perimenarchal girls age < or =14 years, 13 with precocious puberty, 23 with a first-degree relative with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Wang, Ping

    2008-10-01

    Pre-peri-menarchal diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is important, because intervention with metformin-diet may prevent progression to full blown PCOS. In 25 girls age < or =14 years with probable familial PCOS, 10 pre-, 15 post-menarchal, 13 with precocious puberty, 23 with a first-degree relative with PCOS, we hypothesized that reversible coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, insulin resistance, clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism, and hypofibrinolysis were already established. Fasting measures: insulin, glucose, total, LDL- (LDL-C), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), plasminogen activator inhibitor activity (PAI-Fx), total (T) and free testosterone (FT), androstenedione, and DHEAS. Clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism was present in all 25 girls, with elevations of T or FT, or androstenedione in seven of ten pre-menarchal girls and in all 15 post-menarche. PAI-Fx was high in 28% of the 25 girls vs 6.5% in age-gender-race matched controls (p = 0.013). Categorized by race-age-specific distributions in 870 schoolgirls, the 25 girls with probable familial PCOS were more likely to have top decile body mass index (BMI), insulin, HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), SBP, DBP, and TG, and bottom decile HDL-C. By analysis of variance, adjusting for race, age and BMI, PCOS girls had higher FT and waist circumference than controls, but did not differ for SBP, DBP, HDL-C, or TG (p>0.05). Pre-peri-menarchal acquisition of centripetal obesity amplifies CHD risk factors and hypofibrinolysis in hyperandrogenemic girls with probable familial PCOS and precocious puberty. When schoolgirls become as obese as girls with probable familial PCOS, they acquire the same CHD risk factors, and differ only by lower free T and less centripetal obesity.

  9. Randomized Open Trial Comparing 2-Dose Regimens of the Human Papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine in Girls Aged 9-14 Years Versus a 3-Dose Regimen in Women Aged 15-25 Years.

    PubMed

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Huang, Li-Min; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Ren-Bin; Schwarz, Tino F; Esposito, Susanna; Frenette, Louise; Giaquinto, Carlo; McNeil, Shelly; Rheault, Paul; Durando, Paolo; Horn, Michael; Klar, Maximilian; Poncelet, Sylviane; De Simoni, Stéphanie; Friel, Damien; De Muynck, Benoit; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju V; Hezareh, Marjan; Descamps, Dominique; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank

    2016-08-15

    This randomized, open trial compared regimens including 2 doses (2D) of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years with one including 3 doses (3D) in women aged 15-25 years. Girls aged 9-14 years were randomized to receive 2D at months 0 and 6 (M0,6; (n = 550) or months 0 and 12 (M0,12; n = 415), and women aged 15-25 years received 3D at months 0, 1, and 6 (n = 482). End points included noninferiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 2D (M0,6) versus 3D (primary), 2D (M0,12) versus 3D, and 2D (M0,6) versus 2D (M0,12); neutralizing antibodies; cell-mediated immunity; reactogenicity; and safety. Limits of noninferiority were predefined as <5% difference in seroconversion rate and <2-fold difference in geometric mean antibody titer ratio. One month after the last dose, both 2D regimens in girls aged 9-14 years were noninferior to 3D in women aged 15-25 years and 2D (M0,12) was noninferior to 2D (M0,6). Geometric mean antibody titer ratios (3D/2D) for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were 1.09 (95% confidence interval, .97-1.22) and 0.85 (.76-.95) for 2D (M0,6) versus 3D and 0.89 (.79-1.01) and 0.75 (.67-.85) for 2D (M0,12) versus 3D. The safety profile was clinically acceptable in all groups. The 2D regimens for the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years (M0,6 or M0,12) elicited HPV-16/18 immune responses that were noninferior to 3D in women aged 15-25 years. NCT01381575. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Randomized Open Trial Comparing 2-Dose Regimens of the Human Papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine in Girls Aged 9–14 Years Versus a 3-Dose Regimen in Women Aged 15–25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Huang, Li-Min; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Ren-Bin; Schwarz, Tino F.; Esposito, Susanna; Frenette, Louise; Giaquinto, Carlo; McNeil, Shelly; Rheault, Paul; Durando, Paolo; Horn, Michael; Klar, Maximilian; Poncelet, Sylviane; De Simoni, Stéphanie; Friel, Damien; De Muynck, Benoit; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju V.; Hezareh, Marjan; Descamps, Dominique; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background. This randomized, open trial compared regimens including 2 doses (2D) of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in girls aged 9–14 years with one including 3 doses (3D) in women aged 15–25 years. Methods. Girls aged 9–14 years were randomized to receive 2D at months 0 and 6 (M0,6; (n = 550) or months 0 and 12 (M0,12; n = 415), and women aged 15–25 years received 3D at months 0, 1, and 6 (n = 482). End points included noninferiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 2D (M0,6) versus 3D (primary), 2D (M0,12) versus 3D, and 2D (M0,6) versus 2D (M0,12); neutralizing antibodies; cell-mediated immunity; reactogenicity; and safety. Limits of noninferiority were predefined as <5% difference in seroconversion rate and <2-fold difference in geometric mean antibody titer ratio. Results. One month after the last dose, both 2D regimens in girls aged 9–14 years were noninferior to 3D in women aged 15–25 years and 2D (M0,12) was noninferior to 2D (M0,6). Geometric mean antibody titer ratios (3D/2D) for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were 1.09 (95% confidence interval, .97–1.22) and 0.85 (.76–.95) for 2D (M0,6) versus 3D and 0.89 (.79–1.01) and 0.75 (.67–.85) for 2D (M0,12) versus 3D. The safety profile was clinically acceptable in all groups. Conclusions. The 2D regimens for the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in girls aged 9–14 years (M0,6 or M0,12) elicited HPV-16/18 immune responses that were noninferior to 3D in women aged 15–25 years. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01381575. PMID:26908726

  11. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    PubMed Central

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  12. Prevalence of purging at age 16 and associations with negative outcomes among girls in three community-based cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Easter, Abigail; Horton, Nicholas J; Crosby, Ross D; Treasure, Janet; Rodriguez, Alina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Field, Alison E; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background The comorbidity of purging behaviours, such as vomiting, inappropriate use of laxatives, diuretics or slimming medications, has been examined in literature. However, most studies do not include adolescents, individuals who purge in the absence of binge eating, or those purging at subclinical frequency. This study examines the prevalence of purging among 16-year-old girls across three countries and their association with substance use and psychological comorbidity. Methods Data were obtained by questionnaire in 3 population-based cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), United Kingdom, n = 1,608; Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), USA, n = 3,504; North Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC85/86), Finland, n = 2,306). Multivariate logistic regressions were employed to estimate associations between purging and outcomes. Four models were fit adjusting for binge eating and potential confounders of these associations. Results In ALSPAC, 9.7% of girls reported purging in the 12-months prior to assessment, 7.3% in GUTS, and 3.5% in NFBC. In all 3 cohorts, purging was associated with adverse outcomes such as binge drinking (ALSPAC: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4–2.9; GUTS: OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.5–4.0; NFBC: OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0–2.8), drug use (ALSPAC: OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8–4.7; GUTS: OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.8–7.3; NFBC: OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.6–6.6), depressive symptoms in ALSPAC (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5–3.1) and GUTS(OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.2–6.3), and several psychopathology measures including clinical anxiety/depression in NFBC (OR = 11.2, 95% CI = 3.9, 31.7). Conclusions Results show a higher prevalence of purging behaviours among girls in the United Kingdom compared to those in the United States and Finland. Our findings support evidence highlighting that purging in adolescence is associated with negative outcomes, independent of its frequency and binge eating. PMID:24975817

  13. Just a Chemical Reaction. The Science Club. Ages 10-14. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This CD-ROM allows students to discover the key factors and major dates in the development of the science of chemistry. It includes 93 scientific concepts, 20 minutes of narration with animation, 14 interactive activities, an illustrated periodic table, a complete Portable Document Format (PDF) user guide, a dictionary explaining over 40 terms, a…

  14. [Blood lipids in Chilean children 10-14 years of age].

    PubMed

    Barja, Salesa; Barrios, Ximena; Arnaiz, Pilar; Domínguez, Angélica; Villarroel, Luis; Castillo, Oscar; Farías, Marcelo; Ferreccio, Catterina; Mardones, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las concentraciones de lípidos sanguíneos en niños y adolescentes se evalúan utilizando referencias internacionales. Objetivos: Describir las concentraciones de lípidos sanguíneos en una población de escolares chilenos y compararlas con la referencia más utilizada (Lipid Research Clinics Program) además de los puntos de corte recomendados en 2011. Métodos: Estudio transversal en 3.325 escolares de 10 a 14 años de edad. Se realizó antropometría, auto-reporte de desarrollo puberal y medición en ayunas de colesterol total (CT), colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de alta densidad (CHDL) y triglicéridos (TG). El colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de baja densidad (CLDL) se calculó con fórmula de Friedewald. Se realizó descripción, regresión múltiple y estudio de concordancia. Resultados: Se incluyeron 3.063 niños de 11,4 ± 0,9 años de edad, 53% mujeres, 20,9% pre-púberes; 22,6% con sobrepeso y 15,8% con obesidad. Los promedios fueron: CT: 159,2 ± 28,3, CHDL: 51,9 ± 12,1, LDL: 89,0 ± 31,5 y TG: 93,2 ± 60 mg/dL. Los hombres tuvieron mayor CHDL: 53,3 ± 12,2 vs 50,6 ± 11,8 mg/dL y menor TG: 86,2 ± 58,2 vs 99,5 ± 61,7 mg/dL que las mujeres (p < 0,001). Con regresión múltiple se encontró influencia del estado nutricional y edad en todos los lípidos y del sexo en la mayoría. Comparados con la referencia hubo concordancia en CT y CLDL, pero los niños chilenos presentaron mayores niveles de TG sobre el percentil 50 y menores niveles de CHDL bajo percentil 50. Conclusiones: Las concentraciones de lípidos sanguíneos estuvieron influidas por el estado nutricional, edad y sexo. En comparación a la referencia, se encontró un patrón de mayor riesgo cardiovascular en los niños chilenos.

  15. Just a Chemical Reaction. The Science Club. Ages 10-14. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This CD-ROM allows students to discover the key factors and major dates in the development of the science of chemistry. It includes 93 scientific concepts, 20 minutes of narration with animation, 14 interactive activities, an illustrated periodic table, a complete Portable Document Format (PDF) user guide, a dictionary explaining over 40 terms, a…

  16. Sparking the Thinking of Students, Ages 10-14: Strategies for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamon, Glenda Ward

    Each of the seven chapters in this guide presents current research with practical applications for the middle-level teacher and integrates these instructional approaches with the developmental needs of the young adolescent. After a foreword by David H. Reilly, chapter 1 provides a general overview of current cognitive research and its…

  17. The Phenomenal World of Physics. The Science Club. Ages 10-14. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This CD-ROM allows students to learn about physics principles and the scientists who discovered them through genius or luck. The simplicity of these physical laws and how the discovery of these laws has improved the daily lives of humans is discussed. The computer program explores the physics behind the earth's rotation, Archimedes' Principles,…

  18. The Phenomenal World of Physics. The Science Club. Ages 10-14. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This CD-ROM allows students to learn about physics principles and the scientists who discovered them through genius or luck. The simplicity of these physical laws and how the discovery of these laws has improved the daily lives of humans is discussed. The computer program explores the physics behind the earth's rotation, Archimedes' Principles,…

  19. Subjective age in early adolescence: relationships with chronological age, pubertal timing, desired age, and problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hubley, Anita M; Arım, Rübab G

    2012-04-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five problem behaviors, and (d) the relative contributions of chronological age, pubertal timing, desired age, and problem behaviors to subjective age in boys and girls. Adolescents generally reported subjective and desired ages that were slightly older than their chronological ages. A cross-over in subjective age occurred at 10.4 years. Late maturing adolescents reported relatively younger subjective ages than their early and on-time maturing peers. For boys, only desired age significantly predicted subjective age. For girls, an older desired age, late maturation, and higher scores on anxious/depressed feelings, rule-breaking behavior, and aggressive behavior significantly predicted older subjective ages. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Food-related Beliefs of Adolescent Girls Ages 9–13 and Their Mothers on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Michelle; Delormier, Treena

    2016-01-01

    A number of factors contribute to the development of obesity in adolescents, including various dietary and lifestyle behaviors, and a host of social and environmental factors, such as socioeconomic status, parental education, and culture. Research examining beliefs about behaviors related to weight status in adolescents, such as food intake, can create a better understanding of risk factors for obesity. This study explored beliefs about behaviors related to weight status in 20 early adolescent girls aged 9 to 13 years and their mothers in O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted to elucidate beliefs through discussion of food purchasing, feeding practices, portion control strategies, eating outside the home, and body size perception. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and examined using directed content analysis. Both mothers and daughters believed that diets should consist of fresh foods and be based on principles of variety, balance, and moderation, and had negative perceptions of school lunch. In describing ideal body size, mothers expressed greater concern for overweight, as well as ethno-cultural beauty standards, than daughters. Mothers believed daughters should have a positive relationship with food but also applied various portion control strategies with them. Findings reveal how mothers' and daughters' beliefs may influence daily food-related practices in adolescent girls. Future studies may seek to investigate the role these factors may play in determining weight status in adolescents in Hawai‘i, with findings to be used to inform health promotion programs. PMID:27099805

  1. The Strengthening Families Program 10-14: influence on parent and youth problem-solving skill.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, Y; Brown, R L; Riesch, S K; Zywicki, M; Hopper, J; Henriques, J B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the results of a preliminary examination of the efficacy of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 in improving parent and youth problem-solving skill. The Hypotheses in this paper include: (1) youth and parents who participated in SFP would have lower mean scores immediately (T2) and 6 months (T3) post intervention on indicators of hostile and negative problem-solving strategies; (2) higher mean scores on positive problem-solving strategies; and (3) youth who participated in SFP would have higher mean scores at T2 and at T3 on indicators of individual problem solving and problem-solving efficacy than youth in the comparison group. The dyads were recruited from elementary schools that had been stratified for race and assigned randomly to intervention or comparison conditions. Mean age of youth was 11 years (SD = 1.04). Fifty-seven dyads (34-intervention&23-control) were videotaped discussing a frequently occurring problem. The videotapes were analysed using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS) and data were analysed using Dyadic Assessment Intervention Model. Most mean scores on the IFIRS did not change. One score changed as predicted: youth hostility decreased at T3. Two scores changed contrary to prediction: parent hostility increased T3 and parent positive problem solving decreased at T2. SFP demonstrated questionable efficacy for problem-solving skill in this study.

  2. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  3. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  4. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  5. Phenomenology of Depression in Young Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…

  6. Phenomenology of Depression in Young Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…

  7. Turtle Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  8. Turtle Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  9. Drug Ingestions in Children 10-14 Years Old: An Old Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Wendy; Gittelman, Michael; Farris, Sarah; Frey, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    To determine changes in rates of drug ingestions in 10-14 year old children in our country, a retrospective chart review of 10-14 year olds hospitalized for drug ingestion between 1993-1995 and 2000-2004 was performed. Odds ratios and Chi-square were used for analyses. From 1993-1995 there were 92.8 ingestions/100,000 children/year; from 2000-2004…

  10. Drug Ingestions in Children 10-14 Years Old: An Old Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Wendy; Gittelman, Michael; Farris, Sarah; Frey, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    To determine changes in rates of drug ingestions in 10-14 year old children in our country, a retrospective chart review of 10-14 year olds hospitalized for drug ingestion between 1993-1995 and 2000-2004 was performed. Odds ratios and Chi-square were used for analyses. From 1993-1995 there were 92.8 ingestions/100,000 children/year; from 2000-2004…

  11. Enhancing surgical outcomes: The effects of speech therapy on a school-aged girl with Moebius Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fairgray, Elizabeth; Miles, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Moebius Syndrome is a rare congenital neurological condition often characterized by multiple cranial nerve involvement. This case study presents an eight-year old girl with Moebius Syndrome (MC) who received 30 sessions of speech therapy. This occurred after presenting to clinic 11 months after left facial reanimation with gracilis thigh muscle transfer surgery. On examination, only flickers of left facial movement were observed. There was no movement on the right side of the face. As a consequence of the minimal movement, MC presented with drooling and unintelligible speech. The purpose of speech therapy was three fold: minimise the pooling of saliva, improve the placement of the articulators so that articulation of speech sounds would be more accurate, and gain advances in overall intelligibility. Therapy focussed on speech, facial movement and saliva management using a combination of speech drills, evidence-based articulation therapies, facial exercises with surface electromyography biofeedback, self-awareness training and compensatory saliva management strategies. After a course of 30 one-hour speech therapy sessions, substantial improvements were seen in speech sound accuracy, overall intelligibility, facial movement and saliva control. The combination of surgery and speech therapy led to functional gains that surgery alone did not achieve. The impact of speech therapy on surgical outcomes in individuals with Moebius syndrome deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Puberty in girls

    MedlinePlus

    ... child - puberty in girls; Development - puberty in girls; Menstruation - puberty in girls; Breast development - puberty in girls ... also grow hair in your armpits. Get your period. See "menstrual periods" below. Get some pimples or ...

  13. Effects of school milk intervention on cortical bone accretion and indicators relevant to bone metabolism in Chinese girls aged 10-12 y in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Du, Xueqin; Cowell, Chris T; Greenfield, Heather; Blades, Barbara; Dobbins, Timothy A; Zhang, Qian; Fraser, David R

    2005-05-01

    We previously reported that increased milk consumption enhances growth and bone mineral accretion in Chinese girls aged 10-12 y. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on cortical bone accretion and to study the physiologic mechanisms underlying the observed changes in bone. Chinese girls aged 10 y were randomly assigned into calcium-fortified milk (Ca milk), calcium and vitamin D-fortified milk (CaD milk), and control groups according to their schools in a 24-mo school milk intervention trial. Periosteal and medullary diameters of metacarpal bone were measured at baseline and 24 mo in the Ca milk (n = 177), CaD milk (n = 210), and control (n = 219) groups. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were measured at baseline and at 12 and 24 mo in the Ca milk (n = 43), CaD milk (n = 44), and control (n = 41) groups. After adjustment for pubertal status and clustering by school, 24-mo supplementation led to greater increases in periosteal diameter (1.2%) and cortical thickness (5.7%) and to smaller gains in medullary diameter (6.7%) than did the control (P < 0.05). The CaD milk group had lower serum BAP at 12 mo (19.9%) and lower serum PTH at 12 (46.2%) and 24 (16.4%) mo than did the control group (P < 0.05). The effect of milk supplementation on increasing IGF-I concentrations at 24 mo (16.7-23.3%) was significant in individual analyses but not after adjustment for clustering by school. Milk supplementation showed positive effects on periosteal and endosteal apposition of cortical bone.

  14. Longitudinal Reliability of Self-Reported Age at Menarche in Adolescent Girls: Variability across Time and Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Pabst, Stephanie; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche is critical in research and clinical settings, yet there is a dearth of studies examining its reliability in adolescents. We examined age at menarche during adolescence, specifically, (a) average method reliability across 3 years, (b) test-retest reliability between time points and methods, (c) intraindividual variability of…

  15. Vaccination of boys or catch-up of girls above 11 years of age with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: where is the greatest benefit for cervical cancer prevention in Italy?

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Gabutti, Giovanni; Demarteau, Nadia; Boccalini, Sara; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2015-09-17

    Since 2007, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme against cervical cancer (CC) is implemented in Italy in 11-year-old girls. The extension of HPV vaccination to young adult women, or to 11-year-old boys could further reduce the CC burden, in the latter case from indirect effect on HPV transmission. The objective of the study was to compare the potential CC cases prevention from HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccination of adding catch-up targeting 15- or 25-year-old girls to the addition of boys vaccination in Italy. The models assessing the impact of these alternative vaccination strategies are usually dynamic models requiring numerous input data. Simpler models could however provide some insight into this question, as reported in the current study. A published cohort model adapted to the Italian setting was used to estimate the potential CC reduction following different HPV vaccination strategies with a HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: vaccination of 11-year-old girls, female aged 15 or 25 years. The model assumed that the maximum benefit obtained from vaccinating boys equals the CC reduction that would result from immunisation of all non-vaccinated girls of the same age. Each cohort of 11-year-olds (either girls or boys) was assumed to include 281,000 individuals and a 70% vaccination coverage was applied. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the vaccination coverage and the overlap in potential sexual contacts between vaccinated boys and girls of the same age-group. Under base case, compared with the screening-only scenario, HPV vaccination of 11-year-old girls, 15-year-old females, 25-year-old females or 11-year-old boys, would prevent 1,146, 1,082, 788 or 491 CC cases respectively. HPV vaccination of boys could result in more CC cases prevented than adding a female catch-up only in scenarios with low vaccination coverage in the primary target cohort and when combined with small overlap between vaccinated boys and girls of the same age

  16. Assessment of insulin like growth factor-1 and IGF binding protein-3 in healthy Indian girls from Delhi and their correlation with age, pubertal status, obesity and thyroid hormonal status.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Raman K; Garg, M K; Gupta, Sushil; Khurana, A K; Narang, Archna; Shukla, Manoj; Arora, Preeti; Chadha, Aditi; Nayak, Deb Datta; Manchanda, R K

    2017-06-23

    Population specific data and influence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism on insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in Indian children is lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and their correlation with age, gender, pubertal status and thyroid functions. A total of 840 apparently healthy school girls aged 6-18 years, were recruited for the study and underwent assessment of height, weight, body mass index, pubertal status and serum T3, T4, TSH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. The mean serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were 381.8±240.5 ng/mL, 4.19±2.08 μg/mL and 40.5±37.2%, respectively. The serum IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly (p<0.0001) at 11 years followed by a steady yet non-significant rise till 16 years of age. A similar pattern was observed for IGFBP-3 showing a steep rise at 12 years and peaking at 16 years. Likewise, serum levels of IGF-1 and molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 increased significantly with pubertal maturation from stage 1 to 3 and were higher in overweight girls compared to normal weight and obese girls. The growth factors were no different in girls with or without subclinical hypothyroidism. There was no significant impact of age on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in pre-pubertal girls. A sudden marked increase at 11 years followed by a gradual rise in growth factors till 16 years is indicative of pubertal initiation and maturation. Subclinical hypothyroidism did not influence growth factors in girls.

  17. Assessment of insulin like growth factor-1 and IGF binding protein-3 in healthy Indian girls from Delhi and their correlation with age, pubertal status, obesity and thyroid hormonal status.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Raman K; Garg, M K; Gupta, Sushil; Khurana, A K; Narang, Archna; Shukla, Manoj; Arora, Preeti; Chadha, Aditi; Nayak, Deb Datta; Manchanda, R K

    2017-07-26

    Population specific data and influence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism on insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in Indian children is lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and their correlation with age, gender, pubertal status and thyroid functions. A total of 840 apparently healthy school girls aged 6-18 years, were recruited for the study and underwent assessment of height, weight, body mass index, pubertal status and serum T3, T4, TSH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. The mean serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were 381.8±240.5 ng/mL, 4.19±2.08 μg/mL and 40.5±37.2%, respectively. The serum IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly (p<0.0001) at 11 years followed by a steady yet non-significant rise till 16 years of age. A similar pattern was observed for IGFBP-3 showing a steep rise at 12 years and peaking at 16 years. Likewise, serum levels of IGF-1 and molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 increased significantly with pubertal maturation from stage 1 to 3 and were higher in overweight girls compared to normal weight and obese girls. The growth factors were no different in girls with or without subclinical hypothyroidism. There was no significant impact of age on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in pre-pubertal girls. A sudden marked increase at 11 years followed by a gradual rise in growth factors till 16 years is indicative of pubertal initiation and maturation. Subclinical hypothyroidism did not influence growth factors in girls.

  18. Cultural accommodation of the Strengthening Families Programme 10-14: UK Phase I study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Debby; Coombes, Lindsey; Foxcroft, David R

    2007-08-01

    Social and cultural differences between the United States and the United Kingdom mean that positive results from US prevention programmes may not translate to the United Kingdom. The Strengthening Families Programme 10-14 (SFP10-14) has been evaluated in a large Phase III randomized controlled trial in rural Iowa in the United States and shown to be effective for delaying alcohol and drug initiation. This paper reports the first stage of the adaptation and evaluation of the SFP10-14 for the United Kingdom through a process of cultural accommodation of the SFP10-14 materials and format. Themes that emerged in nominal group and focus group research with young people and their parents indicated that changes to the US SFP10-14 materials needed to consider language, narrators, realism, acceptability of exercises/games, perceived religiosity and ethnic representativeness. However, not all changes reflected straightforward cultural differences, as adaptations were also required to improve the quality and to update the material, indicating that cultural accommodation does not necessarily imply cultural diversity.

  19. Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Term Birth in Girls in Japan: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    MELBY, MELISSA K.; YAMADA, GORO; SURKAN, PAMELA J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Babies born small for gestational age (SGA) have higher risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as later life chronic disease. Objectives were to examine the extent to which pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) influence risk of SGA among Japanese, and to evaluate physician response to and potential effects on GWG. Methods We examined SGA risk as function of maternal BMI and GWG using logistic regression with data from maternal child health handbooks obtained from women in Japan (N=383). Physicians’ written comments on weight and dietary restriction were analyzed for response to and influence on GWG. Results SGA babies comprised 8.6% of the sample, with 13% and 6% of the mothers being underweight and overweight respectively, and 21.7% and 19.8% of mothers gaining less and more than the recommended amounts respectively. In adjusted models, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were associated with lower risk of SGA (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56, 0.90; 0.75, 95% CI 0.61, 0.92 respectively) in models for girls, but not for boys. Inadequate GWG was associated with higher risk of SGA in girls (OR 6.64, 95% CI 2.18, 20.22). Physician written instructions to restrict dietary intake and weight gain followed an average weight gain of 0.69kg/week from the previous prenatal exam, and were followed by weight gains that decreased to 0.30kg/week. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG significantly influence SGA risk in female babies. GWG may be influenced by physicians’ recommendations. PMID:27153770

  20. Inadequate gestational weight gain increases risk of small-for-gestational-age term birth in girls in Japan: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Melby, Melissa K; Yamada, Goro; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-09-10

    Babies born small for gestational age (SGA) have a higher risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as later life chronic disease. The objectives of this study were to examine the extent to which prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) influenced risk of SGA among Japanese, and to evaluate physician response to, and potential effects on, GWG. We examined SGA risk as a function of maternal BMI and GWG using logistic regression with data from maternal child health handbooks obtained from women in Japan (N = 383). Physicians' written comments on weight and dietary restriction were analyzed for responses to and influence on GWG. SGA babies comprised 8.6% of the sample, with 13% and 6% of the mothers being underweight and overweight, respectively, and 21.7% and 19.8% of mothers gaining less and more than the recommended amounts, respectively. In adjusted models, higher prepregnancy BMI and GWG were associated with lower risk of SGA (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56, 0.90; 0.75, 95% CI 0.61, 0.92 respectively) in models for girls, but not for boys. Inadequate GWG was associated with higher risk of SGA in girls (OR 6.64, 95% CI 2.18, 20.22). Physician written instructions to restrict dietary intake and weight gain followed an average weight gain of 0.69 kg/week from the previous prenatal exam, and were followed by weight gains that decreased to 0.30 kg/week. Prepregnancy BMI and GWG significantly influence SGA risk in female babies. GWG may be influenced by physicians' recommendations. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:714-720, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of a 20-month cluster randomised controlled school-based intervention trial on BMI of school-aged boys and girls: the HEIA study

    PubMed Central

    Grydeland, May; Bjelland, Mona; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bergh, Ingunn Holden; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Lien, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Background School-based interventions that target prevention of overweight and obesity in children have been tested with mixed results. Thus, successful interventions are still called for. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a multicomponent school-based intervention programme targeting physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours on anthropometric outcomes. Methods A 20-month intervention was evaluated in a cluster randomised, controlled study of 1324 11-year-olds. Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age z-score (BMIz), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) and weight status (International Obesity Task Force's cut-offs). Weight, height and WC were measured objectively; pubertal status was self-reported and parental education was self-reported by the parents. Intervention effects were determined by one-way analysis of covariance and logistic regression, after checking for clustering effects of school, and moderating effects of gender, pubertal status and parental education. Results Beneficial effects were found for BMI (p=0.02) and BMIz (p=0.003) in girls, but not in boys. While a beneficial effect was found for BMI (p=0.03) in participants of parents reporting a high level of education, a negative effect was found for WTHR in participants with parents reporting a low level of education (p=0.003). There were no intervention effects for WC and weight status. Conclusions A multicomponent 20-month school-based intervention had a beneficial effect on BMI and BMIz in adolescent girls, but not in boys. Furthermore, children of higher educated parents seemed to benefit more from the intervention, and this needs attention in future interventions to avoid further increase in social inequalities in overweight and obesity. PMID:23624466

  2. Long-term changes in body composition and prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls (aged 3-18 years) from Kraków (Poland) from 1983, 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Małgorzata; Kryst, Łukasz; Woronkowicz, Agnieszka; Sobiecki, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Body mass disorders are an increasing problem, especially in industrialized countries. Determination of time- and age-related differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and in body composition in girls from 1983, 2000 and 2010. In 2010 an anthropological study was conducted on 1970 girls aged 3-18 years living in Kraków (Poland). Data on selected skin-folds, BMI, muscle mass and bone mass were compared to two studies on analogous populations carried out in 1983 and 2000. Compared to 1983, the share of overweight girls in 2010 had decreased (from 12.4% to 11.2%), while the obesity rate had increased slightly from 2.3% to 3.2%. Girls from 2010 had lower overall body fat content than their peers studied in 1983. However, in 2010 suprailiac adiposity prevalence was higher, while triceps, subscapular and abdominal adiposity rates were lower. They also had higher muscle mass and lower bone mass. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has not changed significantly over the last 30 years. However, significant changes have occurred in body composition. Girls measured in 2010 had lower total adipose tissue, although they also showed a tendency towards increased central adiposity.

  3. Modeling Elementary Aged Students' Fluency Growth in Written Expression: Predicting Fluency Growth for Girls and Boys in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, Adrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on evidence-based writing intervention practices as well as reliable and valid assessments of elementary-aged students' writing fluency has been lacking compared to other academic areas (i.e., reading). Performance feedback interventions targeting writing fluency are gaining empirical support (Eckert et al., 2006); however, growth…

  4. Meeting at the Crossroads: Women's Psychology and Girls' Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Gilligan, Carol

    A study explored girls' development and its implication for the psychology of women. From 1986-1990, nearly 100 girls between the ages of 7 and 18 at the Laurel School for Girls in Cleveland, Ohio, were interviewed. Most of the girls were from middle- or upper-middle-class families (80%), although some were scholarship students from working-class…

  5. EVALUATION OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL PROGRAM FOR PREGNANT GIRLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICHARDSON, ANN

    TO ASSESS THE SHORT RANGE EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN A SPECIAL SCHOOL PROGRAM ESTABLISHED IN 1963 FOR PREGNANT SCHOOL AGE GIRLS, INTERVIEWERS IN 1965 OBTAINED INFORMATION FROM 109 GIRLS WHO HAD ATTENDED THE PROGRAM IN ITS FIRST YEAR, 123 GIRLS WHO HAD BEEN REFERRED BUT HAD NOT ATTENDED, AND MOTHERS OF THE GIRLS. THE SPECIAL PROGRAM FOCUSED ON…

  6. Meeting at the Crossroads: Women's Psychology and Girls' Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Gilligan, Carol

    A study explored girls' development and its implication for the psychology of women. From 1986-1990, nearly 100 girls between the ages of 7 and 18 at the Laurel School for Girls in Cleveland, Ohio, were interviewed. Most of the girls were from middle- or upper-middle-class families (80%), although some were scholarship students from working-class…

  7. [Dieting among girls from Hordaland].

    PubMed

    Skeie, Guri; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2002-08-10

    Dieting is highly prevalent among girls and women. The purpose of this article is to study the stability of dieting in a cohort of young females from age 13 until age 21, and to relate their dieting behaviour to their body mass index. Participants took part in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. In 1990, a representative sample of 13-year-old school children from Hordaland County were invited to participate. A total of 414 girls participated at baseline, and 253 (61%) also participated at ages 15, 18 and 21 years. Height, weight and attempts to loose weight were collected through self-reports. At age 14, 40% reported dieting during the past year; the proportion stayed stable with increasing age. Dieting at later ages was much more prevalent in girls who had dieted at age 14 than in those who had not. In the 13 to 21 year cohort, 18% reported dieting on all the three main measuring points. While these girls had a higher body mass index than their non-dieting peers, only 30% of them could be characterised as overweight. Dieting is highly prevalent among adolescent girls and a stable feature in the life of many of them.

  8. ‘A false sense of security’? Understanding the role of the HPV vaccine on future cervical screening behaviour: a qualitative study of UK parents and girls of vaccination age

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Lorna; Clements, Alison; Damery, Sarah; Wilkinson, Clare; Austoker, Joan; Wilson, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The UK Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme was introduced in 2008 for girls aged 12–13. The vaccine offers protection against HPV types 16 and 18, which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Vaccinated girls will receive future invitations to the NHS Cervical Screening Programme, to prevent cancers associated with HPV types not included in the vaccine, and in case of prior infection with HPV 16 or 18. Little is known about parents' and girls' understandings of the protection offered by the vaccine, or the need for future screening. Design Qualitative interviews with twenty-six parents, and nine girls aged 12–13 who were offered HPV vaccination through a Primary Care Trust (PCT) in the South-east of England, UK. Setting Thirty-nine schools, and four general practices. Results Uncertainty about the level of protection offered by the HPV vaccine was evident among parents, and to a lesser extent among vaccination-aged girls. There was a lack of understanding among parents and girls that cervical screening would be required irrespective of vaccination status; some parental decisions to accept the vaccine were made on the misunderstanding that vaccination provided complete protection against cervical cancer. Conclusions Sufficient awareness of the issues related to screening is necessary for informed decision-making about whether or not to accept the HPV vaccine. Clearer information is needed concerning the incomplete protection offered by the vaccine, and that cervical screening will still be required. Future invitations for cervical screening should stress the necessity to attend regardless of HPV vaccination status, to ensure that high levels of prevention of cervical cancer through screening are maintained. PMID:21536816

  9. Helping Girls Get Back on Track: An Implementation Study of the PACE Center for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treskon, Louisa; Millenky, Megan; Freedman, Lily

    2017-01-01

    PACE Center for Girls is a unique program that provides academic and social services to girls ages 11 to 18. Girls eligible for PACE exhibit multiple health, safety, and delinquency risk factors, such as poor academic performance, exposure to abuse or violence, truancy, risky sexual behavior, and substance abuse. PACE seeks to help them onto a…

  10. Emerging Risks of Violence in the Digital Age: Lessons for Educators from an Online Study of Adolescent Girls in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.; Ferron, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the evolving area of cyberviolence, drawing on a pioneering study to discuss benefits and risks of online interaction among adolescent girls. Data from an online survey of adolescent girls who use the Internet introduce educators to the social and cultural communities of the Internet, a virtual venue with unique perspectives on power,…

  11. Vocational Development for Gifted Girls--A Comparison of Maslovian Needs of Gifted Males and Females Between the Ages of Ten and Seventy Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Norma Jean

    Gifted girls and women have the unique aspect of attempting to fulfill needs in both the affective and the cognitive domains. Using Maslow's hierarchy of needs, this study was designed to formulate some guidelines for the vocational counseling of gifted girls and women by ascertaining their developmental need levels. Need levels were compared with…

  12. An Exploratory Study of Muslim Girls' Understanding of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Z.; Bhana, K.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between age and understanding of death among 20 Muslim girls aged 7 and 8 and 20 Muslim girls aged 9 and 10. Girls completed biographical inventory, classification and conservation tasks, and death understanding questionnaire. Found significant differences in children's understanding of life in hereafter and ideas…

  13. Involving Girls in Program Evaluations: Girls Study Girls Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.

  14. Tremor in School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study of Tremor in 819 Boys and Girls in Burgos, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Cubo, Esther; Trejo-Gabriel-Galán, José M.; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Vicente, Jesús Macarrón; Guevara, José Cordero; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-01-01

    Background Mild hand tremor occurs in most normal adults. There are no surveys of the prevalence or clinical correlates of such tremor among children. Methods A cross-sectional study of tics, tremor and other neurological disorders was conducted in Spanish children; thus, 819 schoolchildren in Burgos, Spain, drew Archimedes spirals with each hand. Tremor in spirals was rated (0–2) by a blinded neurologist and an overall tremor rating (0–4) was assigned. Results The mean age was 10.9 ± 3.1 years. A tremor rating of 1 (mild tremor) was present in either hand in 424 (51.7%) children, and in both hands in 88 (10.7%) children. Higher tremor ratings were very uncommon. The overall tremor rating was higher in boys than girls (1.31 ± 0.41 vs. 1.22 ± 0.34, p = 0.002) and correlated weakly yet significantly with age (ρ = 0.09, p = 0.01). Within subjects, the left hand spiral rating was greater than the right (p < 0.001). Conclusions In this cross-sectional study of 819 Spanish schoolchildren, mild tremor was commonly observed. As in adults, males had more tremor than females, tremor scores increased with age, and tremor scores were higher in the left than right arm, demonstrating that these clinical correlations seem to be more broadly generalizable to children. The functional significance of tremor in children, particularly as it relates to handwriting proficiency, deserves additional scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:21894047

  15. Is expanding HPV vaccination programs to include school-aged boys likely to be value-for-money: a cost-utility analysis in a country with an existing school-girl program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdictions have already extended HPV vaccination to school-aged boys. Thus, exploration of the cost-utility of adding boys’ vaccination is relevant. We modeled the incremental health gain and costs for extending the current girls-only program to boys, intensifying the current girls-only program to achieve 73% coverage, and extension of the intensive program to boys. Methods A Markov macro-simulation model, which accounted for herd immunity, was developed for an annual cohort of 12-year-olds in 2011 and included the future health states of: cervical cancer, pre-cancer (CIN I to III), genital warts, and three other HPV-related cancers. In each state, health sector costs, including additional health costs from extra life, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were accumulated. The model included New Zealand data on cancer incidence and survival, and other cause mortality (all by sex, age, ethnicity and deprivation). Results At an assumed local willingness-to-pay threshold of US$29,600, vaccination of 12-year-old boys to achieve the current coverage for girls would not be cost-effective, at US$61,400/QALY gained (95% UI $29,700 to $112,000; OECD purchasing power parities) compared to the current girls-only program, with an assumed vaccine cost of US$59 (NZ$113). This was dominated though by the intensified girls-only program; US$17,400/QALY gained (95% UI: dominant to $46,100). Adding boys to this intensified program was also not cost-effective; US$128,000/QALY gained, 95% UI: $61,900 to $247,000). Vaccination of boys was not found to be cost-effective, even for additional scenarios with very low vaccine or program administration costs – only when combined vaccine and administration costs were NZ$125 or lower per dose was vaccination of boys cost

  16. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  17. Girls and Boys in Primary Maths Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northam, Jean

    1982-01-01

    A review of mathematics texts published between 1970 and 1978 for children ages 3 through 13 years of age reveals that mathematical and scientific skills become increasingly defined as pupils move through junior and middle school. The decreased presence of girls in the texts parallels the decline in girls' involvement and achievement in…

  18. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  19. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in preadolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Macías, Alejandro E; Trujillo, Gloria P; Dubey, Luis A; Ramírez, Omar A; Arreguín, Virginia; Muñoz, Juan M; Macías, Juan H; Mosqueda, Juan L

    2013-01-01

    The detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria in preadolescent girls may be important due to its effects on subsequent pregnancies. To describe the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in preadolescent girls and the value of the nitrite test for screening. Cross-sectional study in girls aged 9 to 13 years. Bacteriuria was defined as the growth of > 100,000 CFU/mL in 2 consecutive urine specimens. Three hundred and twenty seven girls were included. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was found in 7 girls, so the prevalence was 2.1% (95% CI, 1 to 4.4%). Escherichia coli was the isolated agent in all the cases. Focused interrogatory found history of urinary symptoms in 6 girls. The utility values of the nitrite test were: sensitivity, 1; specificity, 0.9; positive likelihood ratio, 10; and negative predictive value, 1. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in preadolescent girls in this Mexican study is similar to the one reported internationally; it is reasonable to consider its early detection to avoid its effects on future pregnancies. Nitrite test seems to be good for screening.

  20. [Relationship between inertial features of the upper extremity and simple reaction time in boys and girls aged 17-18].

    PubMed

    Gutnik, B I; Pankova, N B; Karganov, M Iu; Nash, D

    2014-01-01

    The latent period of visual sensor-motor reaction depends, in part, on the sensory and integrative processes in the brain, but is also influenced by the rate of the muscle contraction. There is no clear evidence in the literature whether the rotational inertia of segments of limbs has any direct effect on the reaction time. The aim of our study was to identify this relationship. The study involved 566 right handed students aged 16-17 of both genders beginning their post puberty period. Reaction time was measured during experimental adduction of the forearm and hand, using a special rotating handle and lever connected to a computer that recorded the reaction time (+/- 1 ms). Calculations of the rotational inertia were carried out using regression models by Zatsiorsky and other authors. Each gender group was divided into three subgroups: with high, medium and low values of rotational inertia. It was found that individuals with high values of rotational inertia of forearm and wrist demonstrated significantly longer reaction times. This pattern was apparent in both gender groups. Although males illustrated greater values of rotational inertia than females they demonstrated relatively shorter reaction times. This contradiction can be explained by greater muscle power of young men. We recommend taking into account the amount of rotational inertia of the responsive segment in all kinds of research which require measurement of reaction time.

  1. A Report of Three Girls with Antithyroid Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis; Retrospective Analysis of 18 Cases Aged 15 Years or Younger Reported between 1995 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Minamitani, Kanshi; Oikawa, Junko; Wataki, Kunio; Kashima, Kyoko; Hoshi, Mari; Inomata, Hiroaki; Ota, Setsuo

    2011-04-01

    Agranulocytosis is an extremely serious, although rare, adverse effect of antithyroid drugs (ATDs), including methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU), in children and adolescents. There are few reports about the characteristics of ATD-induced agranulocytosis in Japanese children and adolescents. This report presents the cases of three girls with ATD-induced agranulocytosis and a retrospective analysis of 18 patients with ATD-induced agranulocytosis, whose cases had been referred to the drug manufacturer, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Our 3 patients, ranging in age from 12 to 14 yr, developed ATD-induced agranulocytosis between the 15th and 57th day of ATD treatment for hyperthyroidism. Fever and sore throat were the earliest symptoms of agranulocytosis. The patients were rescued by ceasing ATD therapy and administering antibiotics, potassium iodide, glucocorticoid, immunoglobulin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We retrospectively analyzed 18 cases of ATD-induced agranulocytosis treated with MMI in 16 cases and PTU in 2 cases. Twelve patients were treated with 20-45 mg/d MMI. Agranulocytosis developed between the 15th and 1,344th day of therapy. In conclusion, considering the risk of ATD-induced agranulocytosis, we recommend low-dose MMI therapy for treatment of Graves' disease.

  2. Girl child and sexual victimisation.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K P

    1995-01-01

    This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry.

  3. Role of Osteogenic Growth Peptide (OGP) and OGP(10-14) in Bone Regeneration: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pigossi, Suzane C; Medeiros, Marcell C; Saska, Sybele; Cirelli, Joni A; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel M

    2016-11-22

    Bone regeneration is a process that involves several molecular mediators, such as growth factors, which directly affect the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone-related cells. The osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) and its C-terminal pentapeptide OGP(10-14) have been shown to stimulate the proliferation, differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization of osteoblastic lineage cells. However, the exact molecular mechanisms that promote osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation are not completely understood. This review presents the main chemical characteristics of OGP and/or OGP(10-14), and also discusses the potential molecular pathways induced by these growth factors to promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Furthermore, since these peptides have been extensively investigated for bone tissue engineering, the clinical applications of these peptides for bone regeneration are discussed.

  4. Are physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep duration associated with body mass index-for-age and health-related quality of life among high school boys and girls?

    PubMed

    Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Amiri, Parisa; Chin, Yit Siew

    2016-02-27

    Previous studies reported lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores in overweight and obese adolescents compared to their normal weight counterparts; however, few studies investigated the association between obesity-related behaviors including physical activity and sedentary behaviors and HRQOL in adolescents. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep duration and body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) and HRQOL among high school Tehranian students. A total of 465 high school students (48.8 % girls) were recruited from three different socio-economic zones in Tehran. The BMI-for-age was determined and physical activity and HRQOL were assessed using validated questionnaires including Quantification de l'Activite Physique en Altitude Chez les Enfants (QAPACE) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) respectively. Over one third of students (38.5 %) were either overweight or obese. The means of all self- and parent-reported HRQOL scores were significantly lower in girls, compared to boys, except for the parent-reported social functioning subscale. Mean hours of daily sleeping were significantly higher in girls, compared to boys (8.16 ± 1.27 vs. 7.73 ± 1.22 respectively; p < 0.05). Both girls and boys spent more time on sedentary activities than engaging in sport activities. During school and vacation periods, boys had significantly higher daily energy expenditure (DEE) compared to girls (p < 0.05). Only DEE during school period had a significant inverse correlation with BMI-for-age in boys but not girls (r = -0.14, p < 0.05). In addition, self-reported HRQOL scores were significantly associated with weekly hours adolescents spent on videogames/internet, listening to music and reading, watching TV, sports as well as DEE through sex-specific patterns. However according to parents' perspective only weekly hours spent on listening to music and readings and sport activities were significantly

  5. Girls back off mathematics again: the views and experiences of girls in computer-based mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-12-01

    The views and experiences of girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used were researched. Data were collected by observation and videotaping of lessons, questionnaire, and interviews of students and the teachers. In this paper case studies of six girls are presented. Their `stories' reveal a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. High achieving girls persisted as "outsiders within," other girls "backed off", and exceptional girls challenged gender stereotypes. Implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the super highway are discussed.

  6. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  7. Little Girl, Where Are You Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elisberg, Joan; Elisberg Sue

    1974-01-01

    This article consists of black and white photographs of girls ages 13-17 doing things that interest them: carpentry, basketball, pottery, camera work, etc. The photographs are accompanied by the girls' thoughts on what they will do as future women, and what it means to be a woman. (Author/RM)

  8. The Meaning of Running Away for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Method: Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. Results: The meaning of running away as it emerged…

  9. Sixty Girls, Three Nuns, One Home.

    PubMed

    Smeltzer, Carolyn Hope

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the experience of a nurse volunteer working with girls in India who had been trafficked and/or were children of mothers who were (are) prostitutes. The article describes how nuns who care, provide values and a safe home give the girls opportunities. The article illustrates how, with little recourse, three nuns care for 60 girls living in one home. The girls range in age from 4 to 18 years. The girls are motivated to live happily, work hard, study often, and play together. Lessons learned from the nurse volunteer who worked and lived with the girls are described. This article illustrates how nurses in retirement can still fulfill their passion of helping others. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Associations between physical activity patterns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls aged 13-21 years: a cross-sectional study (GEBaHealth Project).

    PubMed

    Wadolowska, Lidia; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Lonnie, Marta; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2016-08-02

    Similar to other countries, trends of decreasing levels of physical activity (PA) and an increasing prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns are observed among girls in Poland. Better understanding of potentially inter-related behaviours within this population can help to design tailored interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Girls aged 13-21 years (n = 1107) were randomly selected for the study. PA was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long (IPAQ-L). Dietary data were collected with food frequency questionnaires. PA patterns and dietary patterns were drawn separately by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Logistic regression was used to find the associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns. Four major PA patterns ('School/work activity', 'Active recreation', 'Yard activity' and 'Walking and domestic activity') and four dietary patterns ('Traditional Polish', 'Fruit & vegetables', 'Fast food & sweets' and 'Dairy & fats') were identified. Level of PA was the highest in the upper tertile of 'School/work activity' pattern (mean 1372.2 MET-minutes/week, 95 % Confidence Intervals [CI]: 1285.9-1458.5). Girls in upper tertiles of 'Yard activity', 'Active recreation' and 'School/work activity' patterns had significantly higher chances of being in the upper tertile of the 'Fruit and vegetables' dietary pattern (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95 % CI: 1.50-3.14, p < 0.0001; OR 2.02, 95 % CI: 1.41-2.91; p < 0.001 and OR 1.76, 95 % CI: 1.24-2.51, p < 0.01 respectively; all adjusted for confounders) in comparison to bottom tertiles. Weak, but significant inverse associations were found between upper tertiles of 'Active recreation' and 'Yard activity' patterns and unhealthy dietary patterns. We found associations between PA patterns and dietary patterns in the population of Polish girls. Girls with the highest

  11. Parent's Guide to Girls' Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutko, Thomas

    This pamphlet provides guidelines for parents in encouraging their daughters to participate in and enjoy athletic activities. Brief discussions are presented on: (1) the value of sport; (2) girls' needs at different age levels; (3) guidelines for supportive behavior; (4) special needs of the female athlete; (5) parent/child/coach relationship; (6)…

  12. Parent's Guide to Girls' Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutko, Thomas

    This pamphlet provides guidelines for parents in encouraging their daughters to participate in and enjoy athletic activities. Brief discussions are presented on: (1) the value of sport; (2) girls' needs at different age levels; (3) guidelines for supportive behavior; (4) special needs of the female athlete; (5) parent/child/coach relationship; (6)…

  13. The reliability and validity of a questionnaire testing parents’ support for improving the diet of African American girls ages 9–12 yrs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of overweight in African American (AA) girls is higher than other ethnic groups. Increasing physical activity (PA) or decreasing energy intake is the goal of obesity prevention programs. Identifying factors that influence PA behavior is an important step in developing successful obesi...

  14. Exploring Gender-Specific Trends in Underage Drinking across Adolescent Age Groups and Measures of Drinking: Is Girls' Drinking Catching up with Boys'?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to…

  15. Exploring Gender-Specific Trends in Underage Drinking across Adolescent Age Groups and Measures of Drinking: Is Girls' Drinking Catching up with Boys'?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to…

  16. Estradiol levels in girls with Turner's syndrome compared to normal prepubertal girls as determined by an ultrasensitive assay.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Courtnay A; Heinrichs, Claudine; Larmore, Kimberly A; Craen, Marguerita; Brown-Dawson, Jacquelyn; Shaywitz, Sally; Ross, Judith; Klein, Karen Oerter

    2003-01-01

    Based on growing evidence that estradiol is produced in small amounts even in the prepubertal ovary, we hypothesized that estradiol levels in girls with Turner's syndrome (TS) are lower than in normal prepubertal girls secondary to the lack of normally functioning ovaries. Estradiol levels in untreated girls with TS have not been previously well defined because of the lack of adequate sensitivity of previously available estradiol assays. We utilized an ultrasensitive assay to study estradiol levels in 34 girls with TS and 34 normal age-matched prepubertal girls between the ages of 5 and 12 years. The average estradiol level in the girls with TS (6.4 +/- 4.9 pmol/l estradiol equivalents) was significantly lower than in the normal prepubertal girls (12.7 +/- 10.8 pmol/l estradiol equivalents; p < 0.01). Girls with TS were significantly shorter, and weighed less than the normal prepubertal girls, as expected. The estradiol level was not significantly correlated with height, bone age, or degree of bone age delay. In conclusion, girls with TS have significantly lower estradiol levels than normal age-matched prepubertal girls. This report is consistent with the hypothesis that the lack of normal ovarian function in girls with TS is evident even before puberty.

  17. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype among Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Ellen A.; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children,…

  18. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype among Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Ellen A.; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children,…

  19. "Connecting with Courage," An Outward Bound Program for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Terry

    Research on girls' development has found that girls see the world that coheres through human relationships rather than through systems of rules, and that 12 or 13 is a watershed age for girls, a time of "central relational crisis." As their bodies enter the physiological transformations that culminate in womanhood, they face an onslaught…

  20. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  1. Music Therapy: A Therapeutic Intervention for Girls with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Kathleen A.

    The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…

  2. Acculturation and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…

  3. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  4. The Pittsburgh Girls Study: Overview and Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Chung, Tammy; Stepp, Stephanie; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; McTigue, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal, community-based study of 2,451 girls who were initially recruited when they were between the ages of 5 and 8 years. The primary aim of the study was testing developmental models of conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, and their co-occurrence in girls. In the current article, we summarize the…

  5. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  6. The Benefits Associated with Dance Education for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicario, Terra; Chambliss, Catherine

    Dance education provides an opportunity for aerobic exercise and conditioning that is especially appealing to many girls. Dance may act as an outlet for girls and give them confidence, but, at the same time, it may create risks associated with perceived body-image. The benefits of taking dance classes were examined for girls, ages 13-20, enrolled…

  7. The Pittsburgh Girls Study: Overview and Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Chung, Tammy; Stepp, Stephanie; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; McTigue, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal, community-based study of 2,451 girls who were initially recruited when they were between the ages of 5 and 8 years. The primary aim of the study was testing developmental models of conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, and their co-occurrence in girls. In the current article, we summarize the…

  8. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  9. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  10. Girls and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ratio of ... even when their symptoms are the same as boys’, and girls are less likely than boys to receive sufficient ...

  11. The Face of Digital Literacy for Muslim Teenage Girls: A Comparative Study of Bradford Muslim Girl Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Javed; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper is grounded in a qualitative approach, to call forth the views of Muslim teenage girls on their access and use of learning technologies for inclusive educational practice. The 45 Muslim teenage girls, aged 14-19 years old, from three British Muslim girls schools participated in this empirical study. Semi-structured interviews were used…

  12. Horse-Girl Assemblages: Towards a Post-Human Cartography of Girls' Desire in an Ex-Mining Valleys Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renold, Emma; Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The paper works with queer and feminist post-human materialist scholarship to understand the way young teen valleys' girls experienced ubiquitous feelings of fear, risk, vulnerability and violence. Longitudinal ethnographic research of girls (aged 12-15) living in an ex-mining semi-rural community suggests how girls are negotiating complex…

  13. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  14. Helping Girls Get Back on Track: An Implementation Study of the PACE Center for Girls. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treskon, Louisa; Millenky, Megan; Freedman, Lily

    2017-01-01

    PACE Center for Girls is a unique program that provides academic and social services to girls ages 11 to 18. Girls eligible for PACE exhibit multiple health, safety, and delinquency risk factors, such as poor academic performance, exposure to abuse or violence, truancy, risky sexual behavior, and substance abuse. PACE seeks to help them onto a…

  15. Horse-Girl Assemblages: Towards a Post-Human Cartography of Girls' Desire in an Ex-Mining Valleys Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renold, Emma; Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The paper works with queer and feminist post-human materialist scholarship to understand the way young teen valleys' girls experienced ubiquitous feelings of fear, risk, vulnerability and violence. Longitudinal ethnographic research of girls (aged 12-15) living in an ex-mining semi-rural community suggests how girls are negotiating complex…

  16. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  17. Girls Incorporated of Alameda County at 50: a voice for girls (1958-2008).

    PubMed

    Terrazas, Cecilia; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Girls Incorporated of Alameda County is nonprofit human service organization that has delivered education, counseling, and advocacy services to girls aged 6 to 18 for 50 years. The organization began as a small, local girls club and has grown into a large multi-faceted service delivery organization attached to a national governing body. The history of Girls Incorporated of Alameda County introduces struggles in relation to external and internal factors that altered the way that the agency financed and managed and exemplifies the important role of nonprofit leadership. The organization's many accomplishments have also presented multiple challenges, particularly related to the changing roles of women in American society.

  18. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758

  19. Aggression in sexually abused trafficked girls and efficacy of intervention.

    PubMed

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-03-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls was investigated. A group of 120 sexually abused trafficked Indian girls and a group of 120 nonsexually abused Indian girls, aged 13 to 18, participated in the study. The sexually abused trafficked girls were purposively selected from four shelters located in and around Kolkata, India. The nonsexually abused girls were selected randomly from four schools situated near the shelters, and these girls were matched by age with the sexually abused trafficked girls. Data were collected using a Background Information Schedule and a standardized psychological test, that is, The Aggression Scale. Results revealed that 16.7% of the girls were first sexually abused between 6 and 9 years of age, 37.5% between 10 and 13 years of age, and 45.8% between 14 and 17 years of age. Findings further revealed that 4.2% of the sexually abused trafficked girls demonstrated saturated aggression, and 26.7% were highly aggressive, that is, extremely frustrated and rebellious. Across age groups, the sexually abused trafficked girls suffered from more aggression (p < .05), compared with the nonvictimized girls. Psychological interventions, such as individual and group counseling, were found to have a positive impact on the sexually abused trafficked girls. These findings should motivate counselors to deal with sexually abused children. It is also hoped that authorities in welfare homes will understand the importance of counseling for sexually abused trafficked children, and will appoint more counselors for this purpose.

  20. The meaning of running away for girls.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. The meaning of running away as it emerged from the girls' descriptions of their lives prior to leaving home was that of survival - both psychological and physical. The girls' stories centered on their evolving experiences of alienation, loneliness and detachment, and the failure of significant relationships at home and outside of home to provide them with the support they needed. These experiences laid the ground for the "final moments" before leaving, when a feeling of "no alternative," a hope for a better future, and various particular triggers led the girls to the decision to leave home. Participants' insights about the dynamics leading to running-away center on the meaning of family relationships, particularly those with the mother, as constituting the girl's psychological home. The girls seemed to perceive running away as an inevitability, rather than a choice, and even portrayed the running away as "living suicide." Yet, their stories clearly demonstrate their ability to cope and the possession of strengths and skills that enabled them to survive in extremely difficult home situations. The findings of this research highlight the importance of improving services for reaching out and supporting girls who are on the verge of running away from home. Such services should be tailored to the needs of girls who experience extreme but often silenced distress at home, and should facilitate alternative solutions to the girls' plight other than running away. An understanding of the dynamics leading to running away from the girls' perspective has the potential to improve the efficacy of services provided by contributing to the creation of a caring, empowering, understanding and trustful professional

  1. Eighteenth nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study: August 10-14, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1982-11-01

    The Eighteenth Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted August 10-14, 1981, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Nuclear criticality accidents with three different neutron and gamma ray energy spectra were simulated by operating the Health Physics Research Reactor in the pulse mode. Participants from 13 organizations exposed dosimeters set up as area monitors and mounted on phantoms for personnel monitoring. Analysis of experimental results showed that about 56% of the reported neutron doses measured using foil activation, thermoluminescent, or sodium activation methods and about 53% of the gamma doses measured using thermoluminescent methods met nuclear accident dosimetry guidelines which suggest accuracies of +- 25% for neutron dose and +- 20% for gamma dose. The greatest difficulties in measuring accident doses occurred in radiation fields with large fractions of low energy neutrons and a high gamma component (> 40%). Results of this study indicate that continued accident dosimetry intercomparisons are necessary to test dosimetry systems and training programs are needed to improve the technical competence of evaluating personnel.

  2. American Fisheries Society 136th Annual Meeting Lake Placid, NY 10-14 September, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Einhouse, D.; Walsh, M.G.; Keeler, S.; Long, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The New York Chapter of the American Fisheries Society and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation invite you to experience the beauty of New York's famous Adirondack Park as the American Fisheries Society (AFS) convenes its 136th Annual Meeting in the legendary Olympic Village of Lake Placid, NY, 10-14 September 2006. Our meeting theme "Fish in the Balance" will explore the interrelation between fish, aquatic habitats, and man, highlighting the challenges facing aquatic resource professionals and the methods that have been employed to resolve conflicts between those that use or have an interest in our aquatic resources. As fragile as it is beautiful, the Adirondack Region is the perfect location to explore this theme. Bordered by Mirror Lake and its namesake, Lake Placid, the Village of Lake Placid has small town charm, but all of the conveniences that a big city would provide. Whether its reliving the magic of the 1980 hockey team's "Miracle on Ice" at the Lake Placid Olympic Center, getting a panoramic view of the Adirondack high peaks from the top of the 90 meter ski jumps, fishing or kayaking in adjacent Mirror Lake, hiking a mountain trail, or enjoying a quiet dinner or shopping excursion in the various shops and restaurants that line Main Street, Lake Placid has something for everyone.

  3. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  4. Early puberty in internationally adopted girls: hormonal and clinical markers of puberty in 276 girls examined biannually over two years.

    PubMed

    Teilmann, Grete; Petersen, Jørgen H; Gormsen, Magdalena; Damgaard, Karen; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Hypothetically, this could be due to selection bias. The aim of this study was to determine age at reaching pubertal milestones in healthy internationally adopted girls in a prospective, clinical study. A longitudinal cohort study including 276 randomly recruited internationally adopted girls. At baseline, age ranged from 4 to 13 years. Participants were followed with biannual examinations over a period of 2 years. Examinations included height, weight, Tanner staging, blood sampling and bone age assessment. Age distribution at entering pubertal stages B2-B5 (breast development), PH1-PH5 (pubic hair development) and menarche was estimated by probit analysis. Data were compared to a reference population of Danish-born girls, studied cross-sectionally. Mean age at B2+ was 9.5 years (95% prediction interval 7.1-12.0 years) and mean age at menarche was 12.1 (10.2-14.0) years in adopted girls, which was significantly lower compared to the reference group (p < 0.0003). 16% of adopted girls entered stage B2 before 8 years of age. The puberty-related rise in LH, FSH and estradiol was detected at earlier ages in adopted girls compared to the reference group. Internationally adopted girls have a significantly higher risk of precocious pubertal maturation compared to Danish-born girls.

  5. Reference values for ductus venosus Doppler flow measurements at 10-14 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Prefumo, F; Risso, D; Venturini, P L; De Biasio, P

    2002-07-01

    To calculate reference ranges for ductus venosus Doppler measurements obtained transabdominally at 10-14 weeks of gestation. Two hundred and one normal fetuses with a crown-rump length (CRL) ranging from 38 to 88 mm were examined in a cross-sectional study. The pulsatility index for veins (PIV), peak velocity during ventricular systole (S-wave), lowest forward velocity during atrial contraction (A-wave) and time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMXV) were recorded from the ductus venosus. Flow velocity waveforms were also classified as normal or abnormal according to the presence (normal) or absence or reversal (abnormal) of frequencies during atrial contraction. Three of 201 fetuses showed an abnormal flow pattern (1.5%; 95% exact confidence interval, 0.3-4.3%). In the 198 fetuses with a normal flow pattern, the mean PIV ranged from 1.07 at a CRL of 38 mm to 1.00 at a CRL of 88 mm (r = -0.093; P = 0.19). A significant increase in mean blood flow velocity with increasing CRL was noted for the S-wave (27.0 cm/s to 33.6 cm/s; r = 0.17; P = 0.02), the A-wave (5.9 cm/s to 7.8 cm/s; r = 0.14; P = 0.04) and the TAMXV (19.4 cm/s to 25.3 cm/s; r = 0.19; P < 0.01). Crown-rump length-specific reference ranges for each parameter were calculated using the method of scaled absolute residuals. Abnormal ductus venosus flow patterns could be observed in normal fetuses, even if they ocurred with a low prevalence. Reference values for Doppler measurements were established in fetuses with normal patterns of flow.

  6. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  7. The Indian "girl" psychology: A perspective.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Prasad; Vidya, K L; Sriramya, V

    2015-07-01

    India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Girls below 19 years of age comprise one-quarter of India's rapidly growing population. In spite of India's reputation for respecting women, to an extent to treat her as a goddess, the moment a baby is born, the first thing comes to mind is "boy or girl?" as the differences are beyond just being biological. This article examines the significance of various psychological constructs and psychosocial issues that are important in the life of a "girl" baby born in our country.

  8. [Vulvovaginitis in young girls].

    PubMed

    Olejek, Anita; Kellas-Sleczka, Sylwia; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Bilska, Anna; Zamłyński, Jacek; Horak, Stanisław; Nowak, Leszek

    2009-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in young girls. Factors which cause vulvovaginitis include, among other things, low level of sexual hormones (hypoestrogenism), the anatomical proximity of the rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. Usually vulvovaginitis in young girls is caused by non-specific factors. The aim of the study was to present the most frequent causes of vulvovaginitis in young girls.

  9. Girl Talk: A Smartphone Application to Teach Sexual Health Education to Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Brayboy, Lynae M.; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren Mills, Benedict S.; Spencer, Noelle; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    Study Objective Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application’s desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Design, Setting and Participants 39 girls ages 12–17 from Rhode Island participated in a two-phase prospective study. In Phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In Phase 2, 17 girls with iPhones® used Girl Talk for two weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Main Outcome Measures Participants’ responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Results Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants’ free time on weekends for 10–15 minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (35.3% vs. 94.1%; p < .001). Knowledge improved most in topics related to Anatomy and Physiology (4.2%), Sexuality and Relationships (3.5%) and STI Prevention (3.4%). Most participants (76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education prior to using Girl Talk, but 94.1% of participants stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Conclusion Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health versus traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. PMID:27393638

  10. Girl Talk: A Smartphone Application to Teach Sexual Health Education to Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Brayboy, Lynae M; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren-Mills, Benedict S; Spencer, Noelle; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application's desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Thirty-nine girls ages 12 to 17 years from Rhode Island participated in a 2-phase prospective study. In phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In phase II, 17 girls with iPhones used Girl Talk for 2 weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Participants' responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews, and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants' free time on weekends for 10- to 15-minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application from baseline (6 participants) to follow-up (16 participants) increased significantly (35.3% vs 94.1%; P < .001). Knowledge improved most in topics related to anatomy and physiology (70.5% to 74.7% out of 7 questions), sexuality and relationships (76.5% to 80.0% out of 10 questions), and STI prevention (75.6% to 79.0% out of 7 questions). Most phase II participants (13 out of 17, or 76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education before using Girl Talk, but 16 out of 17 participants (94.1%) stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health vs traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Eating Behaviors among Early Adolescent African American Girls and Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to…

  12. Eating Behaviors among Early Adolescent African American Girls and Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to…

  13. Disagreement of energy and macronutrient intakes estimated from a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day diet record in girls 4 to 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alissa M R; Lewis, Richard D

    2004-03-01

    The Block98 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) has been validated for dietary assessment of usual intakes in adults, but not in children. To assess the agreement of the Block98 FFQ and 3-day diet records for measuring dietary intakes in young girls. Healthy 4- to 9-year-old girls (N=61; 6.5+/-1.6 years) were recruited from the Athens/Clarke county area in Georgia. Dietary intakes were measured using the Block98 FFQ and 3-day diet records, with nutrient analysis of the 3-day diet records conducted using the Food Processor computer program (ESHA; version 7.21, 1998, ESHA Research, Salem, OR). The Block98 FFQ was completed by a trained interviewer and parent, with input from the child, if able. Food models and portion size pictures were used to increase reporting accuracy. Paired sample t tests and simple regression were conducted to determine whether the two diet instruments reported similar values for energy and macronutrients. Block98 FFQ overestimated intakes from 3-day diet records for energy (2,180+/-692 vs 1,749+/-328 kcal), protein (68.3+/-25.9 vs 57.9+/-14.8 g/day), carbohydrate (298.7+/-97.0 vs 244.7+/-46.1 g/day) and fat (83.6+/-30.5 vs 62.3+/-14.7 g/day) (P<.05). Furthermore, the nutrients assessed using the two different methods were only moderately correlated (range: r=0.40 to 0.55). The Block98 FFQ agreed weakly to moderately with the 3-day diet records, and resulted in consistently higher intakes of all nutrients. These findings suggest that additional work is needed to develop a FFQ that reflects young children's energy and macronutrient intakes.

  14. You Go Girl! A Road Map to Girl Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, Katie O'Dell

    1999-01-01

    Defines the who, what and where of"Girl Power" sources and presents an annotated bibliography of books for girls, print magazines, Web sites, and national organizations, as well as a select reading list for adults working with girls. (AEF)

  15. Associations between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children: The HAPPY study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Daniel P; Charman, Sarah J; Ploetz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A; Kerr, Catherine J

    2016-11-28

    This study examines the association between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children. This cross-sectional design study analysed accelerometry-determined sedentary behaviour and physical activity collected over 7 days from 111 (66 girls) UK schoolchildren. Objective outcome measures included waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression was used for the main data analysis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of having hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.03) and an increased clustered cardiometabolic risk score (P = 0.05) were significantly higher in children who engaged in more prolonged sedentary bouts per day. The number of breaks in sedentary time per day was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor, but longer mean duration of daily breaks in sedentary time were associated with a lower odds of having abdominal adiposity (P = 0.04) and elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). These associations may be mediated by engagement in light activity. This study provides evidence that avoiding periods of prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time may be important for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in children.

  16. Estimates and determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal in girls 12 to 14 y of age in Canada: Results from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Gilmour, Heather; Dubé, Ève; Wilson, Sarah E.; Laroche, Julie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the introduction of HPV vaccination programs in Canada in 2007, coverage has been below public health goals in many provinces and territories. This analysis investigated the determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal. Data from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) 2013 were used to estimate the prevalence of HPV non-vaccination and parental vaccine refusal in girls aged 12–14 years, for Canada and the provinces and territories. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with non-vaccination and vaccine refusal, after adjusting for potential confounders. An estimated 27.7% of 12–14 y old girls had not been vaccinated against HPV, and 14.4% of parents reported refusing the vaccine. The magnitude of non-vaccination and vaccine refusal varied by province or territory and also by responding parent's country of birth. In addition, higher education was associated with a higher risk of refusal of the HPV vaccine. Rates of HPV non-vaccination and of refusal of the HPV vaccine differ and are influenced by different variables. These findings warrant further investigation. PMID:26942572

  17. Protecting Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  18. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  19. Protecting Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  20. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  1. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  2. Boys, Girls, and Microcomputing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lage, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Reports results of an impressions formation test and survey of elementary and junior high school students. Indicates that younger students viewed technical fields favorably for either sex, whereas older students viewed the fields negatively for girls. Attributes a decline in interest among adolescent girls in computers in part to the normative…

  3. Girls in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAulay, Desmond, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Girls are only one of several groups that governments in Australia, as in other parts of the world, have recognized as suffering educational disadvantage. The problems of other groups are clear-cut and appropriate action plainly indicated. But in the case of girls, the causes are far more complex, entrenched in society, and education systems have…

  4. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  5. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  6. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  7. The levels of anti-HPV16/18 and anti-HPV31/33/35/45/52/58 antibodies among AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccinated and non-vaccinated Ugandan girls aged 10–16 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on Human Papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine immune response in sub-Saharan Africa is still sparse yet such knowledge is critical for optimal implementation and monitoring of HPV vaccines. Our primary objective was to evaluate levels of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies and six other ‘high risk’ HPV (hrHPV) types among the vaccinated and unvaccinated Ugandan girls. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study among AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccinated and unvaccinated school girls aged 10–16 years in Western Uganda using purposive sampling. The vaccinated girls were at 18 months post vaccination. After consenting and assenting, data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaires for demographics and sexual history. Blood was drawn from which serum samples were analysed by the multiplex HPV serology technology to determine anti-HPV antibody levels to HPV-16/18 and six other hrHPV types (31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58). The antibody levels were expressed as Median Fluorescent Intensity (MFI). A total of 207 vaccinated [mean age 13.1 years (SD 1.5); range 10-16 years] and 197 unvaccinated girls [mean age 13.6 years (SD 1.3); range 10-16 years] participated in the study. Sexual activity was self reported among 14/207 (6.8%) vaccinated and 5/197 (2.5%) unvaccinated girls. The MFI levels for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were 15 and 20 times higher respectively in the vaccinated girls than in the unvaccinated girls. HPV-16 mean MFI level was 4691(SD 1812; 95% CI: 4438-4958) among the vaccinated compared to 218 (SD 685; 95% CI: 190-252) among the unvaccinated girls. For HPV-18 the mean MFI level was 1615 (SD 1326; 95% CI: 1470-1776) among the vaccinated compared to MFI 103 (SD 506; 95% CI: 88 -121) among unvaccinated girls. In addition antibody levels to non vaccine hrHPV types (31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58) were all significantly higher in the vaccinated group than in the unvaccinated group (p<0.01). Conclusion The AS04-Adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccinated girls showed a

  8. The levels of anti-HPV16/18 and anti-HPV31/33/35/45/52/58 antibodies among AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccinated and non-vaccinated Ugandan girls aged 10-16 years.

    PubMed

    Nakalembe, Miriam; Banura, Cecily; Namujju, Proscovia B; Mirembe, Florence M

    2014-01-01

    Data on Human Papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine immune response in sub-Saharan Africa is still sparse yet such knowledge is critical for optimal implementation and monitoring of HPV vaccines. Our primary objective was to evaluate levels of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies and six other 'high risk' HPV (hrHPV) types among the vaccinated and unvaccinated Ugandan girls. We conducted a cross sectional study among AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccinated and unvaccinated school girls aged 10-16 years in Western Uganda using purposive sampling. The vaccinated girls were at 18 months post vaccination. After consenting and assenting, data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaires for demographics and sexual history. Blood was drawn from which serum samples were analysed by the multiplex HPV serology technology to determine anti-HPV antibody levels to HPV-16/18 and six other hrHPV types (31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58). The antibody levels were expressed as Median Fluorescent Intensity (MFI). A total of 207 vaccinated [mean age 13.1 years (SD 1.5); range 10-16 years] and 197 unvaccinated girls [mean age 13.6 years (SD 1.3); range 10-16 years] participated in the study. Sexual activity was self reported among 14/207 (6.8%) vaccinated and 5/197 (2.5%) unvaccinated girls. The MFI levels for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were 15 and 20 times higher respectively in the vaccinated girls than in the unvaccinated girls. HPV-16 mean MFI level was 4691(SD 1812; 95% CI: 4438-4958) among the vaccinated compared to 218 (SD 685; 95% CI: 190-252) among the unvaccinated girls. For HPV-18 the mean MFI level was 1615 (SD 1326; 95% CI: 1470-1776) among the vaccinated compared to MFI 103 (SD 506; 95% CI: 88 -121) among unvaccinated girls. In addition antibody levels to non vaccine hrHPV types (31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58) were all significantly higher in the vaccinated group than in the unvaccinated group (p<0.01). The AS04-Adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccinated girls showed a higher level of antibodies to HPV-16

  9. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  10. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  11. Immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine among girls 11 to 13 Years of age vaccinated using alternative dosing schedules: results 29 to 32 months after third dose.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, D Scott; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Huong, Vu Minh; Tang, Yuxiao; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2013-10-15

     Immune response to quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivered at 0, 2, and 6 months in young adolescent females plateaus around 24 months after immunization. Antibody levels >24 months postvaccination using extended dosing schedules is unknown.  We conducted a follow-up immunogenicity study of adolescent girls in Vietnam who participated in a noninferiority trial to investigate whether immune responses using 3 alternative dosing schedules (0, 3, 9 months; 0, 6, 12 months; or 0, 12, 24 months) are noninferior to the standard schedule at >2 years after immunization.  Quadrivalent HPV vaccine immunogenicity delivered on 3 alternative dosing schedules was noninferior for types 6, 11, 16, and 18 at 32 months post-dose 3 compared to the standard schedule. Pre-dose 3 antibody levels for the 0, 12, 24 month schedule were similar to those measured 32-months post-dose 3.  We found similar antibody concentrations ≥29 months after 3 doses of HPV vaccine regardless of dose-timing, and extended schedules do not produce inferior immune responses. Our findings also suggested that 2 doses of HPV vaccine delivered at 0 and 12 months might afford similar protection. Evidence supporting dosing flexibility could be important for national HPV vaccination policies.

  12. Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls reported sexual harassment (90%), academic sexism (52%), and athletic sexism (76%) at least once, with likelihood increasing with age. Socialization influences and individual factors, however, influenced likelihood of all three forms of sexism. Specifically, learning about feminism and gender-conformity pressures were linked to higher perceptions of sexism. Furthermore, girls' social gender identity (i.e., perceived gender typicality and gender-role contentedness) and gender-egalitarian attitudes were related to perceived sexism.

  13. [Female age - related fertility decline: Far from the myth of the "selfish working-girl" and the "right to have a child"].

    PubMed

    Vialle, M; Perrin, J; Amar-Hoffet, A; Boyer, P; Courbiere, B

    2016-04-01

    To study the social dimension of age-related female infertility through an analysis of three key themes: the personal life histories of infertile women over 40 years of age; representations of age and the desire to become pregnant after age 40; opinions of French legislations framing Assisted Reproductive Technologies, age limits, egg donation, and egg freezing for non-medical reasons. This qualitative sociological study was based on semi-structured interviews with infertile women over age 40 going through fertility treatments. The interviews contained three parts: personal and relationship histories; experiences related to age; opinions related to French legislation. Twenty-three interviews were conducted; each lasting between 90 to 120minutes. Far from having similar life histories, the women interviewed had very different backgrounds leading to their desire for a pregnancy after 40 years of age. From the beginning of their fertility treatments, they perceived a "race against the clock". This feeling of urgency accompanied their experiences and was related to the desire to not be too old for their future child. The women interviewed were mainly in favor of loosening French bioethical laws in order to avoid the need to travel abroad to pursue fertility treatments. The profiles studied attest to a growing gap between biological and biographical temporalities, as well as an inability of women to reduce their desire for a child. Faced with this disparity, egg donation and egg freezing were seen as practical solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Great talent, excellent voices-no problem for pubertal girls?

    PubMed

    Decoster, Wivine; Ghesquiere, Sofie; Van Steenberge, Sebastiaan

    2008-01-01

    This research on 17 girls (aged 9;9 y to 16;11 y) singing in an established choir was focused on two issues: 1) the variety in physical and vocal development using Gackle's model, and 2) the matching of vocal demands and abilities. Developmental and acoustical data on the speaking and singing voice revealed considerable variation between individual girl singers. The model was greatly applicable. However, all girls had a greater total singing range, mainly in favour of the lower tones, and 11 girls used a lower speaking fundamental frequency. A third of the girls met the vocal and developmental features of their stage at a younger age. Next the lower limit of the frequency range of all girls was several semitones below the lowest notes of the pieces being worked on at the time of the experiment. However the upper limit of the pieces coincided with or exceeded their upper frequency limit.

  15. Cross-sectional time series analysis of associations between education and girl child marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G; Rusch, Melanie L A

    2014-01-01

    Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage <18 years) globally. However, in South Asia, where the majority of girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20-24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (<14, 14-15, 16-17, 18 and older). In Bangladesh and Pakistan, primary education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at <14 years (AOR = 0.42) but not for older adolescents. Secondary education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (<14 years AOR = 0.10; 14-15 years AOR = .25; 16-17 years AOR = 0.64) and Nepal (<14 years AOR = 0.21; 14-15 years AOR = 0.25; 16-17 years AOR = 0.57), but protective against marriage of only younger adolescents in Pakistan (<14 years AOR = 0.19; 14-15 years AOR = 0.23). In India, primary and secondary education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (<14 years AOR = 0.34, AOR = 0.05; 14-15 years AOR = 0.52, AOR = 0.20; 16-17 years AOR = 0.71, AOR = 0.48). Primary education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents.

  16. Cross-Sectional Time Series Analysis of Associations between Education and Girl Child Marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage <18 years) globally. However, in South Asia, where the majority of girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Methods Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20–24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (<14, 14–15, 16–17, 18 and older). Results In Bangladesh and Pakistan, primary education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at <14 years (AOR = 0.42) but not for older adolescents. Secondary education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (<14 years AOR = 0.10; 14–15 years AOR = .25; 16–17 years AOR = 0.64) and Nepal (<14 years AOR = 0.21; 14–15 years AOR = 0.25; 16–17 years AOR = 0.57), but protective against marriage of only younger adolescents in Pakistan (<14 years AOR = 0.19; 14–15 years AOR = 0.23). In India, primary and secondary education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (<14 years AOR = 0.34, AOR = 0.05; 14–15 years AOR = 0.52, AOR = 0.20; 16–17 years AOR = 0.71, AOR = 0.48). Conclusion Primary education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice

  17. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of introducing universal human papillomavirus vaccination of girls aged 11 years into the National Immunization Program in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo; Ayres, Andreia; Itria, Alexander; Rama, Cristina Helena; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Clark, Andrew D; Resch, Stephen

    2015-05-07

    To evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of introducing universal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into the National Immunization Program (NIP) in Brazil. The Excel-based CERVIVAC decision support model was used to compare two strategies: (1) status quo (with current screening program) and (2) vaccination of a cohort of 11-year-old girls. National parameters for the epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer were estimated in depth. The estimates were based on data from the health information systems of the public health system, the PNAD 2008 national household survey, and relevant scientific literature on Brazil. Costs are expressed in 2008 United States dollars (US$), and a 5% discount rate is applied to both future costs and future health benefits. Introducing the HPV vaccine would reduce the burden of disease. The model estimated there would be 229 deaths avoided and 6677 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted in the vaccinated cohort. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per DALY averted from the perspectives of the government (US$ 7663), health system (US$ 7412), and society (US$ 7298) would be considered cost-effective, according to the parameters adopted by the World Health Organization. In the sensitivity analysis, the ICERs were most sensitive to variations in discount rate, disease burden, vaccine efficacy, and proportion of cervical cancer caused by types 16 and 18. However, universal HPV vaccination remained a cost-effective strategy in most variations of the key estimates. Vaccine introduction could contribute additional benefits in controlling cervical cancer, but it requires large investments by the NIP. Among the essential conditions for attaining the expected favorable results are immunization program sustainability, equity in a population perspective, improvement of the screening program, and development of a surveillance system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hospitalisation in Children with Adrenal Insufficiency and Hypopituitarism: Is There a Differential Burden between Boys and Girls and between Age Groups?

    PubMed

    Rushworth, R Louise; Chrisp, Georgina L; Dean, Benjamin; Falhammar, Henrik; Torpy, David J

    2017-09-12

    To determine the burden of hospitalisation in children with adrenal insufficiency (AI)/hypopituitarism in Australia. A retrospective study of Australian hospitalisation data. All admissions between 2001 and 2014 for patients aged 0-19 years with a principal diagnosis of AI/hypopituitarism were included. Denominator populations were extracted from national statistics datasets. There were 3,779 admissions for treatment of AI/hypopituitarism in patients aged 0-19 years, corresponding to an average admission rate of 48.7 admissions/million/year. There were 470 (12.4%) admissions for an adrenal crisis (AC). Overall, admission for AI/hypopituitarism was comparable between the sexes. Admission rates for all AI, hypopituitarism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and "other and unspecified causes" of AI were highest among infants and decreased with age. Admissions for primary AI increased with age in both sexes. Males had significantly higher rates of admission for hypopituitarism. AC rates differed by both sex and age group. This nationwide study of the epidemiology of hospital admissions for a principal diagnosis of AI/hypopituitarism shows that admissions generally decreased with age; males had higher rates of admission for hypopituitarism; females had higher rates of admission for CAH and "other and unspecified causes" of AI; and AC incidence varied by age and sex. Increased awareness of AI and AC prevention strategies may reduce some of these admissions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  1. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  2. IUTAM Symposium on Vortex Dynamics: Formation, Structure and Function, 10-14 March 2013, Fukuoka, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-06-01

    This special issue of Fluid Dynamics Research contains the first of a two-part publication of the papers presented at the IUTAM Symposium on Vortex Dynamics: Formation, Structure and Function, held at the Centennial Hall, Kyushu University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan, during the week of 10-14 March 2013. Vortices are ubiquitous structures in fluid mechanics spanning the range of scales from nanofluidics and microfluidics to geophysical and astrophysical flows. Vortices are the key to understanding many different phenomena. As a result, the subject of vortex dynamics continues to evolve and to constantly find new applications in biology, biotechnology, industrial and environmental problems. Vortices can be created by the separation of a flow from the surface of a body or at a density interface, and evolve into coherent structures. Once formed, a vortex acquires a function, depending on its individual structure. In this way, for example, insects gain lift and fish gain thrust. Surprisingly, despite the long history of vortex dynamics, only recently has knowledge about formation, structure and function of vortices been combined to yield new perspectives in the subject, thereby helping to solve outstanding problems brought about by modern advances in computer technology and improved experimental techniques. This symposium is a continuation, five years on, of the IUTAM Symposium '50 Years of Vortex Dynamics', Lyngby, Denmark that took place between 12-16 October 2008, organized by the late Professor Hassan Aref. Originally, Professor Aref was a member of the International Scientific Committee of this symposium and offered his enthusiasm and great expertise, to support its organization. To our shock, he suddenly passed away on 9 September 2011. Furthermore, Professor Slava Meleshko, a leading scientist of fluid and solid mechanics and an intimate friend of Professor Aref, was expected to make an eminent contribution to the symposium. Soon after this sad loss

  3. Demographic profile and future strategies for development of the girl child in India.

    PubMed

    Bhavan, S

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a demographic profile of female children in India: sex ratios, age structure, death rate, infant mortality, child mortality, and early marriage. The analysis is based on data from the 1981 and 1991 Censuses of India and the 1992 Sample Registration System. The sex ratio in 1991 was 927 females per 1000 males, which represents a declining sex ratio since 1901. Sex ratios by state during 1971-91 indicate a declining sex ratio in Bihar, followed by Manipur and 10 other states. Kerala was the only state with a favorable sex ratio of 1036 females per 1000 males in 1991. 4 states showed some improvement in the sex ratio. The percentage distribution of male and female population in various age groups under 14 years did not differ significantly in 1991. The highest proportion of children 0-4 years old was in Bihar, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana, in 1991. The lowest proportion of female children 0-4 years old was in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The highest proportion of female children 5-9 years old was in Assam. The highest proportion of female children 10-14 years old was in Bihar. The highest proportion of male children 10-14 years old was in Haryana. Except for male children 0-4 years old, Kerala had the lowest proportion of children in all 3 age groups. Crude death rates in 1991 were 10.6 in rural areas to 7.1 in urban areas. Kerala had the lowest death rate, and Madhya Pradesh had the highest death rate. Female infants had higher mortality in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Rajasthan had the highest female death rates and Madhya Pradesh had the highest male death rates in the ages 0-4 years. 9 states had a mean age at marriage lower than the national average. India's National Plan of Action for the 1990s for girl children stresses survival and protection, development, and special protection of vulnerable girls.

  4. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  5. Girls underestimate maths ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  6. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  7. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  8. Sexual exploitation of very young Hmong girls.

    PubMed

    Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Thao, Tru; Levitt, Carolyn

    2006-07-01

    Recent increases in Hmong girls referred to a Midwest hospital-based child advocacy center prompted this comparison of abuse experiences for Hmong extra-familial sexual abuse cases versus peers. Retrospective chart review of all girls, aged 10 to 14 years, with extra-familial sexual abuse 1998-2003 (n = 226). Fourteen percent of cases were Hmong (n = 32). Demographics, risk behaviors, abuse experiences, physical findings and legal outcomes were compared for Hmong (H) and Other (O) girls using chi-square. Multivariate logistic regressions explored differences in gynecologic findings and sexually transmitted disease (STD) results. Hmong girls were more likely to be runaways (90% H vs. 8% O), truant (97% H vs. 13% O), self-mutilating (38% H vs. 10% O), and suicidal (41% H vs. 21% O). Seventy-seven percent of Hmong reported gang rape, prostitution, or multiple assaults versus 16% Others; most had 5+ perpetrators (69% H vs. 2% O) and 5+ assaults (75% H vs. 24% O, both p < .001). Gynecologic findings were more prevalent among Hmong girls (63% H vs. 21% O). Controlling for penetration, number of partners/assaults, and acuity at examination, Hmong ethnicity predicted gynecologic findings (adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 6.57). Hmong girls were more likely to have a positive chlamydia screen (36% H vs. 4% O, p < .001), but only number of perpetrators was an independent predictor (AOR = 15.09). Most cases were prosecuted, but Hmong had higher prosecution rates (83% H vs. 57% O, p < .001). Hmong girl assault experiences were markedly more severe than peers. Health care providers need appropriate knowledge of Hmong culture to conduct forensic examinations. Abused Hmong girls need culturally sensitive, developmentally appropriate after-care that helps connect them back with families and school.

  9. Creating opportunities through mentorship, parental involvement, and safe spaces (COMPASS) program: multi-country study protocol to protect girls from violence in humanitarian settings.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; Tanner, Sophie; Ward, Leora; Erksine, Dorcas; Noble, Eva; Assazenew, Asham; Bakomere, Theresita; Graybill, Elizabeth; Lowry, Carmen; Mallinga, Pamela; Neiman, Amy; Poulton, Catherine; Robinette, Katie; Sommer, Marni; Stark, Lindsay

    2016-03-05

    Violence against adolescent girls in humanitarian settings is of urgent concern given their additional vulnerabilities to violence and unique health and well-being needs that have largely been overlooked by the humanitarian community. In order to understand what works to prevent violence against adolescent girls, a multi-component curriculum-based safe spaces program (Creating Opportunities through Mentorship, Parental involvement and Safe Spaces - COMPASS) will be implemented and evaluated. The objectives of this multi-country study are to understand the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of COMPASS programming to prevent violence against adolescent girls in diverse humanitarian settings. Two wait-listed cluster-randomized controlled trials are being implemented in conflict-affected communities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (N = 886 girls aged 10-14 years) and in refugee camps in western Ethiopia (N = 919 girls aged 13-19 years). The intervention consists of structured facilitated sessions delivered in safe spaces by young female mentors, caregiver discussion groups, capacity-building activities with service providers, and community engagement. In Ethiopia, the research centers on the overall impact of COMPASS compared to a wait-list group. In DRC, the research objective is to understand the incremental effectiveness of the caregiver component in addition to the other COMPASS activities as compared to a wait-list group. The primary outcome is change in sexual violence. Secondary outcomes include decreased physical and emotional abuse, reduced early marriage, improved gender norms, and positive interpersonal relationships, among others. Qualitative methodologies seek to understand girls' perceptions of safety within their communities, key challenges they face, and to identify potential pathways of change. These trials will add much needed evidence for the humanitarian community to meet the unique needs of adolescent girls and to promote

  10. The "Exceptional" Physics Girl: A Sociological Analysis of Multimethod Data from Young Women Aged 10-16 to Explore Gendered Patterns of Post-16 Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Moote, Julie; Francis, Becky; DeWitt, Jennifer; Yeomans, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Female underrepresentation in postcompulsory physics is an ongoing issue for science education research, policy, and practice. In this article, we apply Bourdieusian and Butlerian conceptual lenses to qualitative and quantitative data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study of students' science and career aspirations age 10-16. Drawing on…

  11. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  12. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  13. Reproductive health awareness among adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jashim; Choudhury, Abdul Mannan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the status of rural Bangladeshi adolescent girls' awareness about reproductive health. Analysis of data revealed that a sizable proportion of adolescent girls had incorrect knowledge or misconceptions about the fertile period, reproduction, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV/AIDS. Age, education either of adolescents or their mothers, residence, and exposure to mass media were the significant predictors of adolescent girls' knowledge about reproductive health. Strong efforts are needed to improve awareness and to clarify misconceptions about reproductive health. Improved access to mass media and education could improve rural Bangladeshi adolescent girls' awareness about reproductive health.

  14. Comparison of peak muscle power between Brazilian and French girls.

    PubMed

    Nanci Maria, França; Eric, Doré; Mario, Bedu; Emmanuel, Van Praagh

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the muscle power of Brazilian circumpubertal girls and extended the analysis to a cross-cultural dimension. A total of 462 children, 123 Brazilian girls and 339 French girls, 9-18 years, participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included body mass (BM), height, skinfold thicknesses, and estimated lean leg volume (LLV). All subjects completed a physical activity questionnaire. Cycling peak power was measured including the flywheel inertia of the device (CPPi). Brazilian girls self-assessed their maturation using pubic hair development. CPPi and optimal velocity (v(opt) = velocity at CPPi) increased with stages of puberty. A multiple stepwise regression with anthropometric variables as explanatory factors showed only LLV and age explaining the variance of CPPi (R2 = 0.40, P < 0.001). Therefore, 60% of the variance of CPPi in Brazilian girls was related to undetermined qualitative individual factors, which may be related to cycling skill. Even when normalized for anthropometric variables, the anaerobic performance (CPPi and v(opt)) of Brazilian girls was significantly lower than a cohort of French girls. The latter demonstrated a high participation in sport and training activities, while 50% of the Brazilian girls had only physical education classes in the form of regular physical activity. Moreover, most of the Brazilian girls demonstrated an ineffective sprint cycling skill. The data suggest that motor learning is an important issue in muscle power assessment and might, therefore, partially explain peak power differences in Brazilian compared with French girls.

  15. Prenatal Androgens and Gender-Typed Behavior: A Study of Girls with Mild and Severe Forms of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servin, Anna; Nordenstrom, Anna; Larsson, Agne; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Examined gender-typed behavior and interests in 2- to 10-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and in unaffected girls matched for age. Found that, compared with unaffected girls, girls with CAH were more interested in masculine toys and less interested in feminine toys and were more likely to report having male playmates and…

  16. Prenatal Androgens and Gender-Typed Behavior: A Study of Girls with Mild and Severe Forms of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servin, Anna; Nordenstrom, Anna; Larsson, Agne; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Examined gender-typed behavior and interests in 2- to 10-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and in unaffected girls matched for age. Found that, compared with unaffected girls, girls with CAH were more interested in masculine toys and less interested in feminine toys and were more likely to report having male playmates and…

  17. Imperforate hymen and urinary retention in a newborn girl.

    PubMed

    Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh; Abdi, Hamidreza; Pakmanesh, Hamid; Eslami, Nazanin

    2009-02-01

    Urinary retention is relatively rare in infants,especially in girls. Imperforate hymen is the most frequent congenital malformation of the female genital tract and is usually asymptomatic until puberty. Mucocolpos with an abdominal mass in neonatal age is extremely rare. We report a case of a 20-day-old newborn girl with acute urinary retention due to isolated imperforate hymen and mucocolpos.

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Young Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Wheeler, Anne; Sideris, John; Sullivan, Kelly; Reichardt, Alison; Roberts, Jane; Clark, Renee; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    To describe the early phenotype of girls with full mutation fragile X, we used 54 observations of 15 girls between the ages of 6 months and 9 years to examine developmental trajectories as measured by the Battelle Development Inventory. In this sample, autistic behavior was associated with poorer developmental outcomes, primarily due to…

  19. Girls' Attitudes toward Breast Care and Breast Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadranyi, B. T.

    A study explored girls' emerging attitudes toward breast care and breast self-exam (BSE) and the extent to which girls had given thought to these issues. Analyses focused specifically on individual differences related to age, stage of breast development, perceived normalcy of breast development, and body image. The sample consisted of 43 white,…

  20. Achievement Motivation and Physical Fitness of 15-Year Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…

  1. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among…

  2. How Adolescent Girls Interpret Weight-Loss Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-01-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years…

  3. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  4. Girls' Perspectives: Physical Activity and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Manzer, Rebecca

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between activity and positive self-esteem in girls 9 to 12 years of age was explored in this study. The hypothesis was that the positive relationship between physical activity and positive self-esteem which exists for women also exists for girls. A secondary goal was to gain insight into some of the factors that are associated…

  5. Profiles of British Muslim Identity: Adolescent Girls in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutnik, Nimmi; Street, Rebecca Coran

    2010-01-01

    By asking students to fill in 10 statements beginning with "I am..." and a further 10 statements beginning with "I am not..." we constructed profiles of British Muslim ethnic and national identity. Participants were 108 British Muslim girls of mean age 12.6 years studying in a single sex girls' school in Birmingham, UK. Using…

  6. Father Absence, Menarche and Interest in Infants among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.; Debias, Nicole; Durante, Kristina M.; Spaepen, Geertrui M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between menarche and interest in infants among adolescent girls, and the effects of early environment, particularly of father absence from home, on both variables. Eighty-three girls ranging in age from between 11 and 14 years served as study participants. Interest in infants was assessed through their…

  7. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  8. PERSONALITY FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE CLOTHING FABRIC SELECTION BY DELINQUENT GIRLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COMPTON, NORMA H.

    PHYSICAL AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS WERE EXAMINED IN RELATION TO CLOTHING CHOICES IN AN EFFORT TO MORE FULLY UNDERSTAND THE REASONS BEHIND THE PERSONAL BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS OF DELINQUENT GIRLS. AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP OF 22 DELINQUENT GIRLS AND A CONTROL GROUP OF THE SAME NUMBER OF NONDELINQUENTS (MATCHED TO AGE, IQ, AND…

  9. How Adolescent Girls Interpret Weight-Loss Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-01-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years…

  10. The Economic Future of Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, Joan

    Later marriage ages, longer life expectancy, higher divorce rates, and the feminization of poverty will all figure in the economic future of modern girls. Values about work, marriage, and motherhood are in flux during adolescence, and the messages they receive are often contradictory. Steps must be taken to educate girls to make clearheaded and…

  11. The Economic Future of Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, Joan

    Later marriage ages, longer life expectancy, higher divorce rates, and the feminization of poverty will all figure in the economic future of modern girls. Values about work, marriage, and motherhood are in flux during adolescence, and the messages they receive are often contradictory. Steps must be taken to educate girls to make clearheaded and…

  12. Achievement Motivation and Physical Fitness of 15-Year Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…

  13. Girls Study Girls Inc.: engaging girls in evaluation through participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyao; Weiss, Faedra Lazar; Nicholson, Heather Johnston

    2010-09-01

    Between 2004 and 2007, Girls Incorporated conducted research about the experience of five affiliates from different parts of the United States as they engaged with girls in Girls Study Girls Inc., a participatory evaluation project that explored the meaning and impact of Girls Inc. environments and uncovered ways such environments can be improved. We describe the context and motivation for using participatory action research [PAR] in Girls Inc. environments and discuss the relevance and importance of PAR for organizations that empower girls and young women. We explain the process of training and engaging Girls Inc. members in research, discuss the effectiveness of Girls Study Girls Inc. as an evaluation strategy, and conclude this article with lessons learned and recommendations for using PAR in evaluating youth development programs.

  14. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  15. An investigation of young girls' responses to sexualized images.

    PubMed

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Byrne, Susan M; Biagioni, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the sexualization of girls has increased and become more explicit in recent years. However, most of the research conducted to date has focused on sexualization in adults. To address this research gap, this study explored how young Australian girls respond to and describe sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers. Results from 42 girls aged 6-11 years revealed that sexualization was a perceptually salient attribute, with participants readily classifying sexualized girls as a subgroup. Participants also made distinct trait attributions based on the differences between sexualized and non-sexualized girls. The results suggest that young girls respond differently to sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers and are beginning to develop stereotypes based on these depictions. As such, the implementation of media literacy programs in adolescence may be too late and efforts may be required to address this issue among younger children.

  16. Quality of life and psychological functioning in pediatric obesity: the role of body image dissatisfaction between girls and boys of different ages.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Maria João; Frontini, Roberta; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to explore the associations between weight status, body image dissatisfaction (BID), and psychosocial adjustment [quality of life (QOL), internalizing and externalizing problems] of normal-weight and obese youth. It aims to explore whether the associations between weight status and psychosocial adjustment are mediated by BID as well as the moderating role of youth's age and gender on these associations. The sample comprised 260 children and adolescents aged 8-18 years with normal weight (n = 128) and obesity (n = 132). All of the participants completed self-report instruments, including the KIDSCREEN-10, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and Collins Body Image scale. Obese youth, regardless of gender, reported poorer QOL, more internalizing/externalizing problems, and higher rates of BID compared with their normal-weight counterparts. BID mediated the relationship between weight status and QOL, but only for youth above 12-year old. The relationship between weight status and internalizing/externalizing problems was direct and independent of youth's age and gender. Pediatric obesity is associated with poorer psychosocial outcomes, which underlines the need for preventive and early interventions. An important target in psychological interventions seems to be BID, which proved to be an important mechanism linking obesity and decreased QOL among adolescents.

  17. Supporting Girls' Motivation in Science: A Study of Peer- and Self-Assessment in a Girls-Only Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nadine; Winterbottom, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the use of self- and peer-assessment within a girls-only biology class can support students' motivation. The study took place over 22 weeks in a rural comprehensive school, and the participants were girls between 15 and 16 years of age. Data included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, notes from lesson observations…

  18. Supporting Girls' Motivation in Science: A Study of Peer- and Self-Assessment in a Girls-Only Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nadine; Winterbottom, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the use of self- and peer-assessment within a girls-only biology class can support students' motivation. The study took place over 22 weeks in a rural comprehensive school, and the participants were girls between 15 and 16 years of age. Data included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, notes from lesson observations…

  19. Hypnotizability and Dissociativity in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…

  20. Hypnotizability and Dissociativity in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…

  1. Girls and Gender in Alternative Education Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Lisa; Thomson, Pat

    2011-01-01

    UK Government policy states that all young people aged 14-19 are entitled to a broad and balanced curriculum, with access to "personalised" education and training pathways. With boys currently leading the statistics on exclusion, girls' educational and social needs are often sidelined in alternative education provision, as the majority…

  2. Women without Class: Girls, Race and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettie, Julie

    This book examines Mexican American and white girls coming of age in California's Central Valley, offering tools for understanding the ways in which class identity is constructed, and at times fails to be constructed, in relationship to color, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. Chapter 1, "Portraying Waretown High," introduces the issue.…

  3. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  4. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  5. [Girls of today, women of tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Torres, C

    1996-01-01

    In many countries, girls are discriminated against in nutrition, education, health care, and other areas, to the detriment of their personal development. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with promoting women's rights have come to regard the problem of girls' rights as very serious. Attention to girls in the past was focused on adolescent pregnancy or on social problems such as violence or child prostitution. But in the view of the NGOs, gender equity will be impossible to achieve as long as discrimination against girls continues. In addition, limiting the opportunities of girls will inevitably limit their potential contributions to society. The UN General Assembly in September 1989 approved the Convention on the Rights of Children, the principal goals of which were to eliminate malnutrition, preventable diseases, and illiteracy. The World Conference on Children in 1990 was attended by representatives of over 150 countries, who specified concrete goals. Measurable progress has occurred. UNICEF estimates, for example, that 2.5 million fewer children died on 1996 than in 1990, but it is probable that over half of the children in Latin America and the Caribbean live in poverty. In 1990, nearly 1 million children under age 5 in the region died of preventable diseases, and some 7 million were estimated to be malnourished, 1 million seriously. Infant mortality rates indicate that most countries of the region have improved their health status, but the rate has apparently increased in Haiti, Bolivia, and Peru. The Pan American Health Organization and the Demographic and Health Surveys have accumulated data indicating that excess mortality has occurred among girls 1-4 years old in at least 9 countries of the region. Some evidence suggests that health care is less likely to be sought for girls than boys. Domestic violence and sexual abuse are a serious problem for girls and women, but many countries continue to avoid the issue. The 1993 UN Declaration of Human

  6. Astronomy for Mile-Hi Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Fuller, L.

    1999-12-01

    The Space Science Institute engaged Denver area astronomers in collaboration with the Girl Scouts - Mile Hi Council to plan, implement, and evaluate workshops on astronomy and Mars exploration for Junior Girl Scouts (ages 9-11) and their Troop Leaders. We designed a workshop for the Scouts that would enable them to earn their Sky Watch badge. In addition we implemented a workshop for Troop Leaders who want to implement badge-related space science activities within their troops. This talk (or poster) will report on our experiences and lessons learned in these workshops. Our work was supported by the NASA IDEAS program.

  7. Age of menarche and knowledge about menstrual hygiene management among adolescent school girls in Amhara province, Ethiopia: implication to health care workers & school teachers.

    PubMed

    Gultie, Teklemariam; Hailu, Desta; Workineh, Yinager

    2014-01-01

    Effective menstrual hygiene has direct and indirect effect on achieving millennium development goals two (universal education), three (gender equality and women empowerment) and, five (improving maternal health). However, in Ethiopiait is an issue which is insufficiently acknowledged in the reproductive health sector. The objective of this study therefore, is to assess the age of menarche and knowledge of adolescents about menstrual hygiene management in Amhara province. School based cross sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to June 2013. Multistage stage sampling technique was used. The school was first clustered in to grades & sections and thenparticipants were selected by lottery method. A pretested &structured questionnaire was used. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to assess independent effect of predictors. In this study, 492 students were included, making a response rate of 100%. Mean age at menarche was 14.1±1.4 years. The main sources of information about menstrual hygiene management were teachers for 212 (43.1%). Four hundred forty six (90.7%) respondents had high level knowledge about menstrual hygiene management. Most of the respondents 457 (92.9%) and 475 (96.5%) had access for water and toilet facility respectively. Place of residence (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI: [1.42-1.52]) and educational status of their mothers' (AOR = 95%CI: [1.15-13.95]) were independent predictors of knowledge about menstrual hygiene management. Knowledge of respondents about menstrual hygiene management was very high. School teachers were the primary source of information. Place of residence and their mother's educational status were independent predictors of menstrual hygiene management. Thus, the government of Ethiopia in collaboration with its stalk holders should develop and disseminatereproductive health programmes on menstrual hygiene management targeting both parents and their

  8. Implementing and evaluating the German adaptation of the "Strengthening Families Program 10 - 14"- a randomized-controlled multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Bröning, Sonja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomsen, Monika; Stolle, Martin; Wendell, Astrid; Stappenbeck, Julian; Thomasius, Rainer

    2014-01-27

    Substance use problems in childhood and adolescence can severely impact youth's physical and mental well-being. When substance use is initiated early, the risk for moving from hazardous substance use to substance use disorders (SUD) is particularly high to developmentally induced biological and psychological vulnerability towards chronic trajectories in youth. Thus, risk factors for developing SUD should be addressed early in life by adequate preventive measures reaching out to children, adolescents, and their families. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of the German adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) aimed at ten to 14 year old adolescents and their caregivers. The study is conducted in four large German cities by counselling centres in the areas of youth welfare, social work and addiction aid. The effectiveness of the manualised group programme "Familien Stärken" consisting of seven sessions and four booster-sessions is tested among N = 288 children and participating parents in a multicentre randomised controlled trial with standardised assessment instruments. The control condition receives a minimal 2-hour intervention on parenting delivered in a school setting. Data are collected shortly before and after as well as six and 18 months after the intervention. We expect to replicate the favourable effects of the SFP 10-14 programme in the United States in the area of substance use initiation, family functioning and individual psychosocial adjustment. The trial is expected to contribute to the growing literature on family-based preventive interventions, their effectiveness and feasibility. It is in line with several other current European efforts aimed at strengthening families against the detrimental effects of substance abuse in youth. The results of these trials will expand our knowledge on adapting evidence-based interventions and delivering them in diverse cultures and

  9. Age of Menarche and Knowledge about Menstrual Hygiene Management among Adolescent School Girls in Amhara Province, Ethiopia: Implication to Health Care Workers & School Teachers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective menstrual hygiene has direct and indirect effect on achieving millennium development goals two (universal education), three (gender equality and women empowerment) and, five (improving maternal health). However, in Ethiopiait is an issue which is insufficiently acknowledged in the reproductive health sector. The objective of this study therefore, is to assess the age of menarche and knowledge of adolescents about menstrual hygiene management in Amhara province. Method School based cross sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to June 2013. Multistage stage sampling technique was used. The school was first clustered in to grades & sections and thenparticipants were selected by lottery method. A pretested &structured questionnaire was used. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to assess independent effect of predictors. Findings In this study, 492 students were included, making a response rate of 100%. Mean age at menarche was 14.1±1.4 years. The main sources of information about menstrual hygiene management were teachers for 212 (43.1%). Four hundred forty six (90.7%) respondents had high level knowledge about menstrual hygiene management. Most of the respondents 457 (92.9%) and 475 (96.5%) had access for water and toilet facility respectively. Place of residence (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI: [1.42–1.52]) and educational status of their mothers’ (AOR = 95%CI: [1.15–13.95]) were independent predictors of knowledge about menstrual hygiene management. Conclusion Knowledge of respondents about menstrual hygiene management was very high. School teachers were the primary source of information. Place of residence and their mother’s educational status were independent predictors of menstrual hygiene management. Thus, the government of Ethiopia in collaboration with its stalk holders should develop and disseminatereproductive health programmes on menstrual hygiene

  10. Timing of menarche in girls adopted from China: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, P; Tan, T X

    2016-11-01

    Girls adopted internationally from some states have been found to have high rates of early puberty, including early menarche. Explanations for the link between international adoption and early puberty include post-adoption catch-up growth triggering puberty, and under-recorded age. We compared menarcheal age in a cohort of 814 girls adopted from China into North America against menarcheal ages in girls in China. Adoptive parents provided survey data on their daughters' weight in 2005 and on menarcheal status and age at menarche in 2011. Estimated median age at menarche for adopted Chinese girls is 12.37 years (95% CI: 11.84-13.00 years). Estimated prevalence of menarcheal age ≤10.00 years for adopted girls is 3%. These findings are similar to published findings on non-adopted Chinese girls. The distribution of menarche of adopted girls and non-adopted girls at the estimated incidence rates P3-P97 are also similar. Among the 609 girls whose parents reported on their weight shortly after adoption, 148 (24.3%) were -2SD or more below the median weight in the WHO weight-for-age tables. The proportion of these girls who had attained menarche was not statistically different from other girls. For girls adopted from China, the age of menarche, the percentage of girls attaining menarche <10 years and the distribution of menarcheal age are all similar to Chinese girls growing up in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  12. Love Is a Battlefield: Mexican American Girls' Strategies for Avoiding Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how Latina girls' understanding of infidelity influences how they approach and interact with romantic partners. In-depth interviews with 24 Mexican American girls, ages 14 to 18, growing up in inner-city neighborhoods, formed the basis of this study. Although cheating was a major concern, most of the girls were more…

  13. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  14. NetTweens: The Internet and Body Image Concerns in Preteenage Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image concerns in preteenage girls, with a particular focus on the Internet. A sample of 189 girls (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image concerns. Nearly all girls (97.5%) had access to the Internet in their home.…

  15. Love Is a Battlefield: Mexican American Girls' Strategies for Avoiding Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how Latina girls' understanding of infidelity influences how they approach and interact with romantic partners. In-depth interviews with 24 Mexican American girls, ages 14 to 18, growing up in inner-city neighborhoods, formed the basis of this study. Although cheating was a major concern, most of the girls were more…

  16. "I Can Actually Be a Super Sleuth": Promising Practices for Engaging Adolescent Girls in Cybersecurity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jethwani, Monique M.; Memon, Nasir; Seo, Won; Richer, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing qualitative data gleaned from focus groups with adolescent girls participating in a cybersecurity summer program (N = 38, mean age = 16.3), this study examines the following research questions: (a) How do adolescent girls perceive the cybersecurity field?; and (b) What are the promising practices that engage girls in cybersecurity…

  17. Bringing Dinosaur Science to the Junior Girl Scouts through a College Service-Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertin, Laura A.; Cao, Edna T.; Craig, Karen A.; George, Alice E.; Goldson, Shana T.; Makatche, Shanon P.; Radusevich, Brett T.; Sandor, Charles W.; Takos, Anya T.; Tuller, Ryan; Williams, James K.; Williams, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Undergraduate students in an introductory-level geoscience course successfully designed and conducted a science badge day for the Junior Girl Scouts. With national concerns that girls turn away from science at a young age, a service-learning project was incorporated into a college course with the end result providing a group of girls a positive…

  18. Relationships between Social Information Processing and Aggression among Adolescent Girls with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lee, Steve S.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Mullin, Benjamin C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social information processing (SIP) and both relational and overt, physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11-18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt…

  19. The Psychosexual Impacts on Adolescent Girls Viewing Sexually Explicit Internet Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Piper S.

    2014-01-01

    Literature indicates that 72% of adolescent girls are exposed to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) before the age of 18, and between 2%-30% of girls report intentionally seeking SEIM. Despite the recognition that adolescent girls are consuming SEIM, and that their use impacts behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes, there has been limited…

  20. Context-Dependent Victimization and Aggression: Differences between All-Girl and Mixed-Sex Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasquez, Ana Maria; Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Saldarriaga, Lina Maria; Lopez, Luz Stella; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Contextual differences in the association between different forms of aggressive behavior and victimization were studied with a sample of 197 boys and 149 girls from mixed-sex schools and in 336 girls from all-girl schools (M = 10.21 years of age) in two cities in Colombia. Results showed that boys generally engage in more physical than relational…

  1. "I Can Actually Be a Super Sleuth": Promising Practices for Engaging Adolescent Girls in Cybersecurity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jethwani, Monique M.; Memon, Nasir; Seo, Won; Richer, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing qualitative data gleaned from focus groups with adolescent girls participating in a cybersecurity summer program (N = 38, mean age = 16.3), this study examines the following research questions: (a) How do adolescent girls perceive the cybersecurity field?; and (b) What are the promising practices that engage girls in cybersecurity…

  2. Exploring Ethnic Variation in Preadolescent Aggressive Girls' Social, Psychological, and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Lease, A. Michele; Turner, Terez L.; Outley, Corliss

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether the adjustment patterns of socially and overtly aggressive preadolescent girls, ages 9 to 11 years, from rural communities differed by ethnicity. Students were administered a series of questionnaires to assess the degree to which girls engaged in various forms of aggression and to assess aggressive girls' social,…

  3. The Girl Child, An Investment in the Future. Revised Edition 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    There are growing discernible differences between the status of Algerian girls and Algerian boys, as the onset of puberty approaches, in educational or literacy attainment or achievement. Around 19% of Algerian girls never attend school or drop out very early on. School is legally mandated through the age of 16, but many girls' families simply do…

  4. The Girl Child, An Investment in the Future. Revised Edition 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    There are growing discernible differences between the status of Algerian girls and Algerian boys, as the onset of puberty approaches, in educational or literacy attainment or achievement. Around 19% of Algerian girls never attend school or drop out very early on. School is legally mandated through the age of 16, but many girls' families simply do…

  5. Black Muslim Girls Navigating Multiple Oppositional Binaries through Literacy and Letter Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Sherell A.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2017-01-01

    Writing alongside 12 African American Muslim girls, we led a summer literacy program in an effort to understand how Black Muslim adolescent girls write about their identities and ideas. The 4-week literacy program was designed to engage and support Black Muslim girls, aged 12-17 years old, in reading, writing, and understanding the multiple…

  6. Context-Dependent Victimization and Aggression: Differences between All-Girl and Mixed-Sex Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasquez, Ana Maria; Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Saldarriaga, Lina Maria; Lopez, Luz Stella; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Contextual differences in the association between different forms of aggressive behavior and victimization were studied with a sample of 197 boys and 149 girls from mixed-sex schools and in 336 girls from all-girl schools (M = 10.21 years of age) in two cities in Colombia. Results showed that boys generally engage in more physical than relational…

  7. Black Muslim Girls Navigating Multiple Oppositional Binaries through Literacy and Letter Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Sherell A.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2017-01-01

    Writing alongside 12 African American Muslim girls, we led a summer literacy program in an effort to understand how Black Muslim adolescent girls write about their identities and ideas. The 4-week literacy program was designed to engage and support Black Muslim girls, aged 12-17 years old, in reading, writing, and understanding the multiple…

  8. Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction and Dieting Awareness in Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to explore the role of peer influences in the development of body dissatisfaction and dieting awareness in young girls. Method: A sample of 81 girls (aged 5-8 years) were recruited from the first 3 years of formal schooling. Girls were individually interviewed. Body dissatisfaction was assessed by means of figure rating…

  9. Peripubertal Girls' Romantic and Platonic Involvement with Boys: Associations with Body Image and Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compian, Laura; Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of both romantic and platonic involvement with boys, as well as pubertal status, to body image and depression symptoms among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls. Participants were 157 early adolescent girls (ages 10-13) who completed self-report measures designed to assess girls' level of…

  10. NetTweens: The Internet and Body Image Concerns in Preteenage Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image concerns in preteenage girls, with a particular focus on the Internet. A sample of 189 girls (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image concerns. Nearly all girls (97.5%) had access to the Internet in their home.…

  11. Exploring Ethnic Variation in Preadolescent Aggressive Girls' Social, Psychological, and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Lease, A. Michele; Turner, Terez L.; Outley, Corliss

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether the adjustment patterns of socially and overtly aggressive preadolescent girls, ages 9 to 11 years, from rural communities differed by ethnicity. Students were administered a series of questionnaires to assess the degree to which girls engaged in various forms of aggression and to assess aggressive girls' social,…

  12. Girl-to-Girl Violence: The Voice of the Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2008-01-01

    School violence is not gender-exclusive to boys; girls are also capable of violence. Research shows that girl-to-girl violence stems from competition for male attention and tends to be relational in nature, which typically takes the form of social alienation, spreading of rumors, and otherwise manipulating the victim's peer group. By proactively…

  13. Girl-to-Girl Violence: The Voice of the Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2008-01-01

    School violence is not gender-exclusive to boys; girls are also capable of violence. Research shows that girl-to-girl violence stems from competition for male attention and tends to be relational in nature, which typically takes the form of social alienation, spreading of rumors, and otherwise manipulating the victim's peer group. By proactively…

  14. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…

  15. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…

  16. The Girl Game Company: Engaging Latina Girls in Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…

  17. Neuropsychological Functioning in Girls with Premature Adrenarche

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, A.; Dorn, L.D.; Rotenstein, D.; Rose, S.R.; Sontag-Padilla, L.M.; Jillard, C.L.; Witchel, S.F.; Berga, S.L.; Loucks, T.L.; Beers, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research indicates that brain development occurs during childhood and into early adulthood, particularly in certain regions. A critical question is whether premature or atypical hormone exposures impact brain development (e.g., structure) or function (e.g., neuropsychological functioning). The current study enrolled 40 girls (aged 6–8 years) diagnosed with premature adrenarche (PA) and a comparison group of 36 girls with on-time maturation. It was hypothesized that girls with PA would demonstrate lower IQ and performance on several neuropsychological tasks. The potential for a sexually dimorphic neuropsychological profile in PA was also explored. No significant univariate or multivariate group differences emerged for any neuropsychological instrument. However, effect size confidence intervals contained medium-sized group differences at the subscale level. On-time girls performed better on verbal, working memory, and visuospatial tasks. Girls with PA showed improved attention, but not a sexually dimorphic profile. These results, though preliminary, suggest that premature maturation may influence neuropsychological functioning. PMID:22114879

  18. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype Among Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Stone, Ellen A; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children, and in accordance with our developmental intergroup theoretical framework, were related to children's cognitive development and media exposure. Study 2 (N = 155) replicated the previous findings using more ecologically valid and realistic images of girls and further explored individual differences in the endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. Additional results indicated that the belief that girls should be appearance focused predicted their endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype.

  19. GO-GIRL Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Enora

    2010-01-01

    The GO-GIRL Program is a unique project, characterized by its ability to bring together pivotal elements within a youth-intervention program and foster collaboration between university and local communities in large and moderate-size urban areas through service learning. Designed to bolster the social-skill development, educational outcomes, and…

  20. The Goose Girl Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Janice H.

    1989-01-01

    Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)

  1. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  2. Stage Costumes for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhowe, Jean

    This book contains full instructions for making 14 costumes for girls to fit any sizes up to about 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches) in height. All the garments can be made to fit any child's individual measurements without the need of complicated pattern pieces. Simple basic shapes such as rectangles and circles are used for the patterns and the only…

  3. Academe's New Girl Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Angela

    1978-01-01

    A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)

  4. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  5. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  6. Girls in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…

  7. Girls in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…

  8. The Goose Girl Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Janice H.

    1989-01-01

    Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)

  9. Japanese Girls and Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    Prior to a teaching assignment at Miyazaki Women's Junior College in 1993, the author accepted a 6-month contract to teach in the women's high school of the Miyazaki Educational Institute. In this article, she shares her first-day experience with a class of fifteen Miyazaki Girls' High School freshmen on their first lesson, a question-and-answer…

  10. Girls and Physics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Secondary school students' attitudes toward science or the sciences were determined with specially constructed scales and from records relating to student enrollment in science courses. Emphasis is placed on factors which influence girls to enroll in physical science courses vs biological science courses. (SA)

  11. Girls' Favorite TV Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lull, James

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a survey in which 200 teenaged girls indicated which television woman was like them, which one they would like to be like, which would be the best friend and the best mother, which women exhibited the most control over their situations, and which female television star most resembled the "typical American female." (GT)

  12. Tetanus immunization among adolescent girls in rural Haryana.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Arora, A K

    2000-04-01

    This survey was undertaken to estimate tetanus immunization coverage of adolescent girls in a selected rural community of Haryana and to ascertain the knowledge of these girls and their mothers about tetanus. The study period was between April 1996-March 1997. A 30-cluster immunization coverage house to house survey was carried out by a female social worker. The total population covered was 30,448. Twelve roadside villages were selectively chosen. Eleven year and 17 year old girls (210 in each group) were surveyed for coverage evaluation. For K.A.P. survey 114 girls (aged 17 years) and 98 mothers (of 11 year old girls) were interviewed. Chi square, percentage and 95% confidence interval were used for statistical analysis. Coverage for tetanus immunization was 44.3% among 17 year old girls and 26.7% among 11 year old girls. The coverage was better (35%) among school going girls as compared to non-school going girls (13%). Correct immunization schedule of pregnant women was told by 16 (7.5%) respondents. None of them told the correct immunization schedule for children. Death was told as the main danger from tetanus by 172 (81%) respondents. Most (98%) were aware of the role of clean-stump (umbilical cord) at the time of delivery in the etiology of tetanus neonatorum. Tetanus immunization coverage needs to be improved among adolescents. They also need to be educated on various aspects of tetanus.

  13. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Chicago teen center renovation 03/03/2017 Kaplan and Boys & Girls Clubs of America Launch Campaign ... award Boys & Girls Clubs of America with a Kaplan test prep course for every 1,000 free ...

  14. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cause Donate Now Retailers Team Up to Support Boys & Girls Clubs of America During Holiday Season Sixteen ... back to nation’s leading advocate for youth MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the UPS Foundation ...

  15. The lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls.

    PubMed

    Zenz Adamshick, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    Girl-to-girl aggression is increasingly being recognized as a health problem, and the number of teenage girls involved in serious fighting is on the rise. Research on the experiences of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls who are out of the mainstream because of poor relationship skills and physical aggression is notably absent, yet this group is at heightened risk for persistent violence. In this study I used the interpretive phenomenological approach to study the lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in girls who were marginalized and attending an alternative school because of physically aggressive behavior. Data were collected over a 4-month period by means of in-depth interviews and field notes. For this population, girl-to-girl aggression provided self-protection, expressed girls' identity, and was also a means to finding attachment, connection, and friendship. These findings have multidisciplinary implications for interventions with physically aggressive girls, including mentoring programs, in-school support groups, and exploration of a paradigm shift in the use of alternative schools.

  16. Helping Girls Who Hate PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A new website is helping girls who doubt their athletic abilities: www.ihategymclass.com. The website encourages girls through articles and an advice column, where girls can bring issues related to sports that they might be embarrassed to take to peers or a physical education teacher. Website founder Heather E. Schwartz says she wanted to reach…

  17. Does Barbie Make Girls Want to be Thin? The Effect of Experimental Exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-Year-Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported…

  18. Does Barbie Make Girls Want to be Thin? The Effect of Experimental Exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-Year-Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported…

  19. [Menarche in healthy and sick girls with special reference to mongolism].

    PubMed

    Bellone, F; Tanganelli, E; Pecorari, D

    1979-02-15

    The age of menarche in various groups of females was studied. In healthy girls, the average age of menarche was 12 years 2 months regardless of their birthweights. Twin girls had a significantly retarded menarche (approx. 12 years 8 months). In a group of 102 blind patients, it was not significantly different from healthy controls. In a series of 42 girls with mongolism, the mean age of menarche was significantly retarded (13 years 3 months).

  20. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  1. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  2. Gonadal dysfunction in morbidly obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Chin, Vivian; Censani, Marisa; Lerner, Shulamit; Conroy, Rushika; Oberfield, Sharon; McMahon, Donald; Zitsman, Jeffrey; Fennoy, Ilene

    2014-04-01

    To describe gonadal dysfunction and evaluate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MeS) among girls in a morbidly obese adolescent population. In a cross-sectional study of 174 girls, height, weight, waist circumference, Tanner stage, reproductive hormones, carbohydrate and lipid markers, drug use, and menstrual history were obtained at baseline. Exclusion criteria were menarcheal age <2 years, hormonal contraceptive or metformin use, Tanner stage <4, and incomplete data on PCOS or MeS classification. University medical center outpatient clinic. Ninety-eight girls ages 13-19.6 years, Tanner 5, average body mass index of 46.6 kg/m(2), menarche at 11.4 years, and average menarcheal age of 5 years. None. Polycystic ovary syndrome and MeS. Ninety-eight girls were divided into four groups: PCOS by National Institutes of Health criteria (PCOSN, n = 24), irregular menses only (n = 25), elevated T (≥55 ng/dL) only (n = 6), and obese controls (n = 43). Metabolic syndrome by modified Cook criteria affected 32 girls or 33% overall: 6 of 24 PCOSN, 7 of 25 irregular menses only, 4 of 6 elevated T only, and 15 of 43 obese controls. Polycystic ovary syndrome by National Institutes of Health criteria and its individual components were not associated with MeS after adjusting for body mass index. Unlike obese adults, PCOSN and its individual components were not associated with MeS in the untreated morbidly obese adolescent population. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-School Children with Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorders: Do Girls and Boys Have the Same Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Gunilla Westman; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    The male to female ratio is raised in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have suggested that girls with ASD have more problems with communication than boys, but boys show more repetitive behaviours than girls. In this study, 20 girls, 1.8-3.9 years of age were matched for chronological and developmental age with 20 boys with…

  4. Obesity in girls and penetrative sexual abuse in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Modan-Moses, Dalit; Herman-Raz, Meirav; Reichman, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To assess the relationship between childhood obesity and penetrative sexual abuse in girls. All obese girls referred to a hospital based pediatric endocrine unit were interviewed by a social worker or psychologist. Questions aimed to elicit any history of physical, emotional and sexual abuse are included. Overweight was defined as BM >95th percentile for age and gender. Body mass index (BMI) Z score (BMIZ) was calculated as measured BMI minus mean BMI for age and gender divided by standard deviation. Penetrative abuse was defined if a history was elicited of forced intercourse with any form of oral, vaginal or anal penetration. A history of penetrative abuse was elicited in 5 out of 145 (3.5%) obese girls, their mean +/- SD age was 11.9 +/- 3.1 years. Abused girls were significantly more obese than the remainder of the patients (BMIZ 4.76 +/- 1.34 vs. 3.39 +/- 1.28 p = 0.02). Forty-two of all girls had BMI Z scores > or =4, and of these four (9.5%) had been abused. All girls had changes in normal daily behaviour including seductive behaviour, seclusion, self-mutilation and new onset day enuresis. In the evaluation of girls with marked obesity, particularly if associated with behavioural changes and failure to respond to therapy, the possible occurrence of penetrative sexual abuse should be considered.

  5. Wackenhut Services, Incorporated: Report from the DOE Voluntary Protection Program onsite review, August 10--14, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of Wackenhut Services, Inc. (WSI) at Savannah River Site (SRS), conducted August 10-14, 1998. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements to determine its success in implementing the five DOE-VPP tenets. The Team determined that WSI has met in varying degrees, all the tenets of the DOE-VPP. In every case, WSI programs and procedures exceed the level or degree necessary for compliance with existing standards, DOE Orders, and guidelines. In addition, WSI has systematically integrated their occupational safety and health (OSH) program into management and work practices at all levels. WSI`s efforts toward implementing the five major DOE-VPP tenets are summarized.

  6. Sexual violence and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Purewal, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the forms of sexual abuse of female children and the psychosocial impact on the well-being of girls in India. Child sexual abuse statistics reveal an estimated 50% of girls being sexually abused before the age of 15 years. Girl children are abused and then are made to feel personally responsible, guilty, or persecuted. Girls are threatened with violence if they tell about the sexual abuse. Pregnancies arising from sexual abuse result in shame and early marriage. Male children are also abused but they are not made to feel punished. Child sexual abuse is technically any sexual activity (rape, fondling of genitalia, masturbation, forced oral sex, sodomy, or vaginal penetration) that is committed by someone in a position of authority, power, or trust over the child or by a stranger. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 10 children worldwide is sexually abused. Rape within the family is particularly difficult for the victim. In almost 60% of rape cases, the victim was unwilling to report the name of the abuser. Families remain silent about sexual offenses in order to protect the family image. Mothers remain silent if the abuser is the father, which interferes with a child's relationship to both parents. Sexual abuse can result in bed wetting, nightmares, sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, running away from home, multiple personality disorders, precocious sexual behavior, or sexual inhibition and low self-esteem. Parental responses tend to be inappropriate discipline or ignoring it. Children may experience flashbacks or other long-term effects. Girls who experience sexual abuse once tend to be more vulnerable to abuse in adult life. Healing is slow and systematic. The first aim is to restore a girl's ability to say no and to teach her to protect herself. Healing is about removing guilt and resolution of the conflict between blame and the grossness of the violation.

  7. The Pittsburgh Girls Studies: Overview and Initial Findings

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Chung, Tammy; Stepp, Stephanie; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; McTigue, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal, community–based study of 2,451 girls who were initially recruited when they were between the ages of 5 and 8 years. The primary aim of the study was testing developmental models of conduct disorder (CD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and their co-occurrence in girls. In the current paper, we summarize the published findings from the past 5 years of the PGS and place those results in the context of what it known to date about developmental psychopathology in girls. Key results suggest that DSM-IV mental disorders tend to have an insidious onset often beginning with sub-syndromal symptom manifestation and that there appear to be shared and unique developmental precursors to disorder in subgroups of girls based on race and poverty. PMID:20589562

  8. Teaming Up with Girl Scouts for Online Nutrition Information

    PubMed Central

    Pullen, Kimberly; Tucker, Betty; Tarver, Talicia

    2013-01-01

    Three librarians at LSU Health Shreveport partnered with staff members at the Shreveport service center staff of the Girl Scouts of Louisiana – Pines to the Gulf to teach girls about nutrition. The librarians provided instruction to the staff on healthelinks, MedlinePlus, and the other National Library of Medicine databases. They worked with the staff to incorporate these online resources into the nutrition curriculum for the Girl Scout leaders to use with their troops. They also provided two laptop computers, promotional items, and teaching aids. The program was repeated in the summer for week-long day camps designed to introduce girls to Scouting. The librarians had the opportunity to work directly with over one hundred girls at these camps to introduce them to authoritative, age-appropriate web sites on nutrition. PMID:24223515

  9. The Pittsburgh Girls Study: overview and initial findings.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Chung, Tammy; Stepp, Stephanie; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; McTigue, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal, community-based study of 2,451 girls who were initially recruited when they were between the ages of 5 and 8 years. The primary aim of the study was testing developmental models of conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, and their co-occurrence in girls. In the current article, we summarize the published findings from the past 5 years of the PGS and place those results in the context of what it known to date about developmental psychopathology in girls. Key results suggest that DSM-IV mental disorders tend to have an insidious onset often beginning with subsyndromal symptom manifestation, and that there appear to be shared and unique developmental precursors to disorder in subgroups of girls based on race and poverty.

  10. A Girl Like You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…

  11. A Girl Like You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…

  12. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  13. Growth and development of overweight and obese girls.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of development of obesity during childhood and adolescence is unclear, hindering preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in growth and tempo of maturation between overweight or obese and normal weight girls. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. The height and body mass were measured and the BMI was calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. Underweight, overweight and obesity were assessed using the international BMI cut points, defined by Cole et al. Girls in higher BMI categories at 7 years had significantly higher values of BMI at 9, 14 and 16-18 years of age, however only 10% of them were also overweight or obese at youth. Overweight and obese girls tend to lose body weight after the puberty period, whereas normal weight children tend to gain body weight. Overweight and obese children were significantly taller than their peers at 7, 9 and 14 years. Those differences vanished after the puberty period. The rate of height gain between ages 7 and 16-18 years was lower in girls with higher BMI values at childhood. Girls, those who were overweight or obese at young age experience menarche at a younger age than normal weight girls. The obtained data show that overweight and obesity in childhood is associated with rapid tempo of growth and maturity.

  14. Anthropometrically Determined Undernutrition among the Adolescent Girls in Kathmandu Valley.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B

    2015-01-01

    Background No information exists regarding the health of the adolescent girls residing in Kathmandu valley in urban setup. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition among the adolescent girls living in Kathmandu valley. It also aims to know the distribution of weight, height and body mass index of adolescent girls in relation to the different adolescent age groups. Method A cross sectional study was conducted in one government and two private schools in Kathmandu valley from 16th April to 15th September 2010. Anthropometric measurements were recorded using standardized methodology as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Standard operational definitions like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis. Result Four hundred adolescent girls were enrolled randomly, out of which 111 girls (27.8%) were from government school and 289 girls (72.2 %) were from private schools. Maximum were of 16 years of age and the least were of 19 years of age, mean age being 15.4 years of age. Of them, early, mid and late adolescents were 41%, 35% and 24% respectively. Around one third of the study population were stunted (32%), one fourth were underweight (24%) and one tenth of them were thin (9.5%) based on National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS )standard. Both underweight and stunted girls were significantly more during the late adolescence period (P<0.001). However, thinness was not significant in any of the three adolescent age groups. Conclusion A high prevalence of undernutrition in terms of stunting, underweight and thinness exists among the adolescent girls in Kathmandu valley.

  15. Girls Back Off Mathematics Again: The Views and Experiences of Girls in Computer-Based Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Presents the views and experiences of six girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used. Indicates a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. Discusses implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the information super highway. (Author/KHR)

  16. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  17. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  18. Brief report: Suicidal ideation in adolescent girls: Impact of race.

    PubMed

    LaVome Robinson, W; Droege, Jocelyn R; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, we examine the unique and interactive effects of race (African American or European American) and depression on suicidal ideation, controlling for poverty, within a representative sample of adolescent girls. A community sample of 2450 girls (43.9% African American) participating in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study (PGS) was interviewed annually about depression symptoms and suicidal ideation, from ages 10-15 years. Caregivers reported on the girls' racial/ethnic background and the family's receipt of public assistance. Race and depression scores explained unique variance in suicidal ideation; receipt of public assistance did not. Endorsement and recurrence of suicidal ideation was more likely for African American than European American girls: there was a nearly two-fold increase in the likelihood of reporting frequent thoughts of death or suicide as a function of race. Of the 255 girls reporting recurrent suicidal ideation, 65.9% were African American. An interaction effect between race and depression symptoms was observed, such that African American girls were more likely to report suicidal ideation at lower levels of depression severity. The findings indicate that race is a critical factor for understanding, preventing, and treating suicidal ideation in girls. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sparking connections: An exploration of adolescent girls' relationships with science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Kathryn A.

    Despite progress in narrowing the gender gap, fewer women than men pursue science careers. Adolescence is a critical age when girls' science interest is sparked or smothered. Prior research provides data on who drops out of the "science pipeline" and when, but few studies examine why and how girls disconnect from science. This thesis is an in-depth exploratory study of adolescent girls' relationships with science based on a series of interviews with four middle-class Caucasian girls---two from public schools, two homeschooled. The girls' stones about their experiences with, feelings about, and perspectives on science, the science process, and their science learning environments are examined with a theoretical and analytic approach grounded in relational psychology. The potential link between girls' voices and their involvement in science is investigated. Results indicate that girls' relationships with science are multitiered. Science is engaging and familiar in the sense that girls are curious about the world, enjoy learning about scientific phenomena, and informally use science in their everyday fives. However, the girls in this study differentiated between the science they do and the field of science, which they view as a mostly male endeavor (often despite real life experiences to the contrary) that uses rather rigid methods to investigate questions of limited scope and interest. In essence, how these girls defined science defined their relationship with science: those with narrow conceptions of science felt distant from it. Adolescent girls' decreased involvement in science activities may be a relational act---a move away from a patriarchical process, pedagogy, and institution that does not resonate with their experiences, questions, and learning styles. Girls often feel like outsiders to science; they resist considering science careers when they have concerns that implicitly or explicitly, doing so would involve sacrificing their knowledge, creativity, or

  20. The small peptide OGP(10-14) reduces proliferation and induces differentiation of TPO-primed M07-e cells through RhoA/TGFβ1/SFK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Battolla, Barbara; Bernardini, Nunzia; Petrini, Mario; Mattii, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) is a 14-mer peptide found in relevant concentration in blood, and its carboxy-terminal fragment [OGP(10-14)] represents the active portion of the full-length peptide. In addition to stimulating bone formation, OGP(10-14) shows hematological activity. In fact, it highly enhances hematopoiesis-affecting stem progenitors. Moreover, OGP(10-14) reduces the growth and induces the differentiation of the hematological tumour cell line trombophoietin(TPO)-primed M07-e by interfering with RhoA and Src kinase pathways. In the present report, we went deeper into this mechanism and evaluated the possible interference of the OGP(10-14) signal pathway with TGFβ1 and TPO receptor Mpl. Material/Methods In OGP(10-14)-treated M07-e cells cultured with or without RhoA and Src kinases inhibitors (C3 and PP2), expression of TGFβ1, Mpl, and Src kinases was analyzed by immunoperoxidase technique. Activated RhoA expression was studied using the G-LISA™ quantitative test. Results In M07-e cells, both OGP(10-14) and PP2 activate RhoA, inhibit Src kinases, reduce Mpl expression and increase TGFβ1 expression. OGP(10-14) and PP2 show the same behavior, causing an additive effect when associated. Conclusions OGP(10-14) induces TPO-primed M07-e cells differentiation through RhoA/TGFβ1/SFKs signalling pathway. In particular OGP(10-14) acts as a Src inhibitor, showing the same effects of PP2. PMID:21169922

  1. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa.

    PubMed

    Namuddu, K

    1993-01-01

    In Africa, the education of girls has varied with the history and development of countries. For instance, botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have higher enrollment of girls than boys, and in Nigeria the dropout rate for boys is higher than for girls. In Mozambique, girl's education is dependent on matrilineal or patrilineal family structure, urban or rural location, or religious preference. These and many other factors interfere with girl's access, survival, performance, and achievement in school. Strategies generally involve 1) improving access and increasing enrollment, 2) increasing survival in the school system, and 3) improving the quality of the learning environment. Most African countries are involved with the first strategy, but problems remain in selecting the appropriate age to begin school, retaining students and teachers, lowering absenteeism, providing adequate and appropriate teaching materials for students, and other factors that discourage female attendance. Solutions have involved establishing book banks and cardboard box libraries as a supplement to classroom learning. Gender stereotypes in curriculum materials are being introduced which show females in a positive and prominent way. In Zambia, an in-service training program aims to develop positive teacher attitudes toward girls, toward their work, and toward pupil's work. Program efforts in Kenya are attempting to educate parents about the importance of keeping their daughters in school, and about issues related to population, health, education, and a healthy environment. Traditional practices such as female circumcision, childhood marriages, early pregnancy, and nutritional taboos are discouraged. There are 43 district coordinators who conduct seminars and workshops to spread information to communities and households. Other countries are engaged in village meetings and workshops to persuade parents to examine their own interpersonal interaction with their daughters and the impact on their

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: a randomized trial in 10-25-year-old HIV-Seronegative African girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Sow, Papa Salif; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Kiviat, Nancy; Changalucha, John; Mbaye, Khardiata Diallo; Brown, Joelle; Bousso, Kouro; Kavishe, Bazil; Andreasen, Aura; Toure, Macoumba; Kapiga, Saidi; Mayaud, Philippe; Hayes, Richard; Lebacq, Marie; Herazeh, Marjan; Thomas, Florence; Descamps, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem for women in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could have an important public health impact. In this phase IIIb, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial (NCT00481767), healthy African girls and young women seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were stratified by age (10-14 or 15-25 years) and randomized (2:1) to receive either HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (n = 450) or placebo (n = 226) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The primary objective was to evaluate HPV-16/18 antibody responses at month 7. Seropositivity rates and corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the according-to-protocol analysis at month 7, 100% of initially seronegative participants in the vaccine group were seropositive for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies (n = 130 and n = 128 for 10-14-year-olds, respectively; n = 190 and n = 212 for 15-25-year-olds). GMTs for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher in 10-14-year-olds (18 423 [95% confidence interval, 16 185-20 970] and 6487 [5590-7529] enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL, respectively) than in 15-25-year-olds (10 683 [9567-11 930] and 3743 [3400-4120] EU/mL, respectively). Seropositivity was maintained at month 12. No participant withdrew owing to adverse events. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was highly immunogenic and had a clinically acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy HIV-seronegative African girls and young women.

  3. [Evaluation of nutrition manner and nutritional status of girls during the period of adolescence, including girls who apply slimming diets].

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Fugiel, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research was the evaluation of nutrition methods and the nutrition status of girls in the age ranging between 15 and 16, who had body substance, height, waist measurements taken; and the BMI, WC, and WHtR indicators were calculated. Three day menus were also evaluated and an inquiry containing questionnaire concerning the manner of apply slimming diets. It has also been ascertained that 40.8% of fifteen year old and 31% of sixteen year old girls apply slimming diets. It was discovered that only in 76% of younger girls and in 71% of older girls the value of the BMI indicator was proper. The problem of accumulation of fat tissue (WC > or = 95 c) around the waist concerned 4% younger girls and 10% older. It was discovered that the values of WHtR > or = 90 c were almost 10% and 23% in the cases of younger and older girls, respectively. Analysis of nutrition of the girls showed low energy value of the diet, too low total protein level, too low of complex carbohydrates, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn) and vitamins (A, E, B group) and also liquids shortage. The girls have been educated in the form of workshops in the matter concerning healthy nutrition.

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Adolescent Girls Who Wear Hearing Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Linda R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Females, aged 10-14, were photographed wearing a body aid, a postauricular aid, or no hearing aid. Ratings by 60 college education majors indicated that subjects pictured wearing a hearing aid were rated lower on achievement but higher on factors of appearance, personality, and assertiveness than subjects without the aid. (Author/JDD)

  5. Astronomy Patch Day: An Interactive Astronomy Experience for Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, K. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Schutz, K.

    2005-12-01

    To help encourage a new generation of women in science, we have created Astronomy Patch Day for the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council in Tucson, Arizona. This all-day event is an interactive experience for Girl Scouts ages 5-18 to learn about astronomical concepts and women in astronomy. Our first Astronomy Patch Day, held on March 19, 2005, in conjunction with the Sahuaro Council's annual Science, Math, and Related Technologies (SMART) program, was very successful, reaching about 150-200 girls and their leaders. Individual troops rotated every half hour among our six activity booths: Earth-Moon, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Universe, and Ask an Astronomer, which were staffed by trained Girl Scout Leaders as well as faculty, post-doctoral researchers, and graduate students from Steward Observatory. To earn a patch, younger girls (ages 5-12) had to complete activities at three booths and older girls had to complete all six activities. Positive feedback for this event was received from both the girls and leaders. We plan to hold Astronomy Patch Day annually, possibly with different and/or additional activities in future years. K. Knierman is supported by an Arizona/NASA Space Grant Fellowship. This outreach program is supported by NIRCam/JWST E/PO.

  6. Thyroid Autoimmunity in Girls with Turner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Witkowska-Sędek, Ewelina; Borowiec, Ada; Kucharska, Anna; Chacewicz, Karolina; Rumińska, Małgorzata; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrżak, Beata

    2017-04-30

    Turner syndrome is associated with increased incidence of autoimmune diseases, especially those of the thyroid gland. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity among pediatric patients with Turner syndrome. The study was retrospective and included 41 girls with Turner syndrome aged 6-18 years. Free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab) antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin (TG-Ab) antibodies, and karyotype were investigated. The correlation between karyotype and incidence of thyroid autoimmunity was also examined. Eleven patients (26.8%) were positive for TPO-Ab and/or TG-Ab. Three girls from that subgroup were euthyroid, 5 had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 3 were diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism. Out of these 11 patients affected by thyroid autoimmunity, 6 girls had mosaic karyotype with X-isochromosome (n = 4) or with deletions (n = 2), and 5 had the 45,X karyotype. The study findings confirmed a high incidence of thyroid autoimmunity in girls with Turner syndrome, but we failed to observe an association between the incidence of thyroid autoimmunity and karyotype. We conclude that it is important to monitor thyroid function in patients with Turner syndrome because they are prone to develop hypothyroidism.

  7. Understanding Sexual Abstinence in Urban Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P.; Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Seibold-Simpson, Susan; Robinson, Kerry Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To gain insight into the context of sexual abstinence and identify potential determinants of abstinence in this population. Design Four focus groups. Participants and Setting Twenty-four, predominantly African American (88%) girls aged 14 to 19 years were recruited from urban health centers and youth development programs in Rochester, New York, between September and December 2006. Data Analysis Content analysis was used to analyze the four verbatim transcripts. Using analytic induction, groups were compared and contrasted at the micro (within-group) and macro (between-group) levels to identify themes. Results Four themes were identified that provided insight into how and why these girls remain abstinent despite being in sexually active social climates. They focused on the following: self-respect (I'm worth it), impact of mothers (Mama says … think before you let it go), influence of boys and other peers (Boys will be boys), and potential negative consequences of sex (Hold on, there's a catch). Conclusions Developing interventions to maintain abstinence, delay onset of sexual activity, and promote protected first and subsequent sexual contact in abstinent girls are key to decreasing future sexual risk. These findings suggest opportunities to develop HIV prevention strategies tailored to the needs of abstinent girls. PMID:18336442

  8. Screening for trisomy 13 by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Ong, C; Skentou, H; Liao, A W; H Nicolaides, K

    2000-05-01

    In 42 cases of trisomy 13 at 10-14 weeks of gestation, compared with 947 controls, the median multiple of the median (MoM) of maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) was significantly decreased (0.506 MoM and 0.248 MoM respectively), whilst fetal nuchal translucency was increased (2.872 MoM). In 38% and 71% of cases of trisomy 13 maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A was below the 5th centile of the appropriate normal range for gestation and in 62% of cases the nuchal translucency was above the 95th centile. When combined together in a multivariate algorithm with maternal age, 90% of cases of trisomy 13 could be detected at a 0.5% false positive rate or 84% at a 0.1% false positive rate. We conclude that specific trisomy 13 risks should be part of developing risk algorithms combining maternal serum biochemistry and nuchal translucency for use in first trimester screening alongside those for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect on oral pH changes and taste perception in 10-14-year-old children, after calcium fortification of a fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S; Masih, S; Thomas, A M

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of calcium fortification of a commercially available mixed-fruit juice on oral pH changes and taste perception in a group of 10 to 14 year-old Indian children. A controlled, blinded, non-randomised clinical trial was adopted, consisting of a sample of 100 healthy children (DMFT <3; age 10-14 years), who were exposed to three test juices one by one [Group A: original fruit juice (control group); Group B: calcium-fortified fruit juice and Group C: calcium + vitamin D fortified fruit juice]. Oral pH, collection of saliva and plaque sampling was undertaken, before and after the juice exposure by each subject at 0, 1, 5, 15, 30 and 45 min. The respective pH was measured with a digital pH meter. For taste perception, a scoring system was used after exposure of the juices to the subjects in a blind manner. The statistical evaluation was done using one-way ANOVA for salivary and plaque pH and Kruskal-Wallis test for buffer capacity and taste perception. There was a smaller drop in salivary and plaque pH (p < 0.5) and a significant reduction in perceived taste (p < 0.001) by the subjects after calcium modification of fruit juice. The calcium-modified mixed fruit juices was less acidogenic compared with the unfortified juice, and hence will be less cariogenic and erosive towards teeth.

  10. Adverse metabolic phenotype of adolescent girls with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease plus polycystic ovary syndrome compared with other girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T; Adams, Leon A; Doherty, Dorota A; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H; Hickey, Martha; Sloboda, Deborah M; Olynyk, John K; Hart, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) share risk associations of adiposity and insulin resistance. We examined the impact of a PCOS diagnosis on the metabolic phenotype of adolescent girls with NAFLD and compared this to girls without PCOS or NAFLD and to age-matched boys. Community-based adolescents from the Raine Cohort participated in assessments for NAFLD (572 girls and 592 boys) and PCOS (244 girls). One hundred and ninety-nine girls attended both assessments. Amongst the 199 girls, PCOS was diagnosed in 16.1% and NAFLD in 18.6%. NAFLD was diagnosed in 10.1% of the boys. NAFLD was more prevalent in girls with PCOS than girls without PCOS (37.5% vs 15.1%, P = 0.003). Girls with NAFLD plus PCOS had greater adiposity (waist circumference, body mass index, suprailiac skinfold thickness [SST], serum androgens, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lower serum sex hormone binding globulin levels than girls with NAFLD without a PCOS diagnosis (all P < 0.05). Girls with NAFLD plus PCOS had similar adiposity, HOMA-IR, and adiponectin levels to boys with NAFLD, but more adiposity, serum leptin and HOMA-IR than both girls and boys without NAFLD. PCOS (odds ratios 2.99, 95% confidence intervals 1.01-8.82, P = 0.048) and SST (odds ratios 1.14, 95% confidence intervals 1.08-1.20, P < 0.001) independently predicted NAFLD in adolescent girls, however, serum androgens and HOMA-IR levels did not. Adolescent girls with NAFLD plus PCOS have a similar metabolic phenotype to boys with NAFLD. Increasing SST and pre-existing PCOS independently predict NAFLD in adolescent girls. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Where the Ocean Meets the Girl Guides, Exploring the Interface Between Teaching Science and Using Specialized Programs to Engage Girls in Ocean Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M. S.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Hoeberechts, M.

    2016-02-01

    This presentation focuses on Ocean Aware, a joint project between Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) and the British Columbia Girl Guides Canada (Girl Guides). On World Oceans Day 2014, Girl Guides launched a new challenge to its members: "Are you Ocean Aware?" To answer this question, girls of any age can now earn their Ocean Aware Challenge crest. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. Girl Guides provides a safe, all-girl environment that invites girls to challenge themselves, to find their voice, meet new friends, have fun and make a difference in the world. Girl Guides strives to ensure that girls and women from all walks of life, identities and lived experiences feel a sense of belonging and can fully participate. Girl Guides of Canada is a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. Through a partnership between ONC and Girl Guides, Ocean Aware was created to promote ocean literacy and ocean technology to thousands of Guiders in British Columbia and beyond. One of the most interesting challenges was to present STEM learning outcomes in such a way that they are accessible to girls, facilitators, and communities that are both on the coast and inland. With a creative eye to the preforming arts, hands-on experiments, interactive experiences and games, this challenge successfully brings the 7 Principles of Ocean Literacy to any girl, in any community. In this presentation we will share some of the strategies, challenges and impacts of creating a successful program that engages a large audience in ocean science through a novel partnership.

  12. Pertussis in a vaccinated 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed Central

    Sheps, S

    1984-01-01

    Pertussis, though uncommon in people older than 9 years, does occur (in girls and women primarily) and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent cough. Earlier this year in British Columbia a 12-year-old girl contracted the disease, even though she had been fully vaccinated against it at the appropriate ages. The source of her infection was unknown. The clinical picture was classic except that the girl experienced intense headaches, lasting up to an hour, after the episodes of paroxysmal coughing. Canadian physicians and public health practitioners should encourage vaccination against pertussis. PMID:6498702

  13. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  14. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  15. NetGirls: the Internet, Facebook, and body image concern in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between Internet exposure and body image concern in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the social networking site of Facebook. A sample of 1,087 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) completed questionnaire measures of Internet consumption and body image concerns. The overwhelming majority of girls (95.9%) had access to the Internet in their home. Time spent on the Internet was significantly related to internalization of the thin ideal, body surveillance, and drive for thinness. Further, 75% of the girls had a Facebook profile, and spent an average of 1.5 hours there daily. Facebook users scored significantly more highly on all body image concern measures than non-users. It was concluded that the Internet represents a potent socio-cultural medium of relevance to the body image of adolescent girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Clustering of breakpoints on chromosome 10 in acute T-cell leukemias with the t(10; 14) chromosome translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, J.; Finger, L.R.; Letofsky, J.; Finan, J.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M. )

    1989-06-01

    The T-cell receptor (TCR){alpha}/{delta} chain locus on chromosome 14q11 is nonrandomly involved in translocations and inversions in human T-cell neoplasms. The authors have analyzed three acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia samples carrying a t(10;14)(q24;q11) chromosome translocation by means of somatic cell hybrids and molecular cloning. In all cases studied the translocation splits the TCR {delta} chain locus. Somatic cell hybrids containing the human 10q+ chromosome resulting from the translocation retain the human terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase gene mapped at 10q23-q24 and the diversity and joining, D{sub {delta}}2-J{sub {delta}}1, regions of the TCR {delta} chain, but not the V{sub {alpha}} region (variable region of the TCR {alpha} chain), demonstrating that the split occurred within the V{sub {alpha}}-D{sub {delta}}2 region. Molecular cloning of the breakpoint junctions revealed that the TCR {delta} chain sequences involved are made from the D{sub {delta}}2 segment. The chromosome breakpoints are clustered within a region of {approx} 263 base pairs of chromosome 10. The results suggest that the translocation of the TCR {delta} chain locus to a locus on 10q, which the authors have designated TCL3, results in deregulation of this putative oncogene, leading to acute T-cell leukemia.

  17. Imperforate hymen: cause of lower abdominal pain in teenage girls.

    PubMed

    Mou, J W C; Tang, P M Y; Chan, K W; Tam, Y H; Lee, K H

    2009-11-01

    Imperforate hymen is a relatively rare congenital anomaly. However, it is not an uncommon cause of lower abdominal pain presenting in teenage girls. Without careful history taking and thorough examination, the condition can be missed easily. We report an imperforate hymen presenting as abdominal pain in three teenage girls aged 12, 12 and 13 years, respectively, within a six-month period. The presentation was reviewed and the various types of hymenotomy were discussed.

  18. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  19. Imaging Girls: Visual Methodologies and Messages for Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…

  20. Imaging Girls: Visual Methodologies and Messages for Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…

  1. Social development and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Gangrade, K D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the social development of female children in India. Social development is "not merely an effort to provide ad hoc growth targets in each of the sectors of planning," but an integrative concept. Sustainable human development, according to Gus Speth (1994), is development that not only generates economic growth, it distributes its benefits equitably, regenerates the environment, and empowers people. India is ranked as 5th out of 132 countries in the 1994 World Bank Report, but 135th out of 173 in the Human Development Report. In India, there were 9000 dowry-related deaths in 1993. Son preference occurs regardless of social class. The sex ratio declined as low as 811 females per 1000 males in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. The government of India developed a National Action Plan that is committed to the survival, protection, and development of female children. The Integrated Child Development Scheme, in 2696 blocks with a coverage of 250,000 villages and 224 urban slum areas, has demonstrated its effectiveness in increased child nutrition. Survival of girl children is 50% less than male survival in the first 30 days of life. Under 50% of girls are enrolled in schools. Bihar state is particularly backward in enhancing girls' status through modernization and increased female enrollments. Child labor may contribute about 25-29% of gross national product. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, with 40% of the total population, have over 60% of their females marrying below the age of 20 years. Recommended are universal enrollment of all children from scheduled caste and tribes; nonformal educational options for school drop outs, working children, and girls who cannot attend school; and increasing upper school education of girls. A variety of other recommendations are made on improving the status of women for working women, unmarried single women, and women in general.

  2. Integrated health of the girl child.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses factors that affect the well-being and health of female children in India: sex ratio, literacy, food intake, morbidity, mortality, early marriage, maternal mortality, nutrition, prenatal care and delivery, family planning responsibilities, and access to health services. India has recognized within its Constitution and other government documents and programs equality for women, but practices lag behind principles. A National Action Plan was formulated for the period 1991-2000 for the girl child. Women themselves must change their attitudes about themselves and their female children. Several pilot programs have demonstrated the potential to empower girls to be outspoken, vocal, and enthusiastic. Girls in India are disadvantaged even before their birth. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of girls as a bad investment. Women are blamed for not bearing a son, despite the evidence that males carry the deciding gender-specific chromosome. Tamil Nadu districts are known for their female infanticide. The declining sex ratio is attributed to the higher death rate among females younger than 35 years. Females until recently had a lower life expectancy than males. Sex ratios vary between states. The only state with a positive female sex ratio is Kerala. Males outnumber females by almost 10% in most of the northern and eastern states. Illiteracy among women is high in about 100 districts. Female school enrollment is 50% less than male enrollment. Females suffer from higher rates of malnutrition, morbidity, and death. Girls' adolescent growth spurt is delayed until 18 years. Maternal mortality accounts for the largest proportion of deaths among women of reproductive age. The most common reason for abortion is "too many children." Lower socioeconomic status is associated with lower nutrition. Women do not have control over their fertility. Women are limited in their access to reproductive health care.

  3. Weight status, parent reaction, and self-concept in five-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Davison, K K; Birch, L L

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between weight status and self-concept in a sample of preschool-aged girls and whether parental concern about child overweight or restriction of access to food are associated with negative self-evaluations among girls. Participants were 197 5-year-old girls and their parents. Girls' weight status (weight for height percentile) was calculated based on height and weight measurements. Girls' self-concept was assessed using an individually administered questionnaire. Parents' concern about their child's weight status and restriction of their child's access to food were assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Girls with higher weight status reported lower body esteem and lower perceived cognitive ability than did girls with lower weight status. Independent of girl's weight status, higher paternal concern about child overweight was associated with lower perceived physical ability among girls; higher maternal concern about child overweight was associated with lower perceived physical and cognitive ability among girls. Finally, higher maternal restriction of girls' access to foods was associated with lower perceived physical and cognitive ability among girls with higher weight status but not among girls with lower weight status. At least as early as age 5 years, lower self-concept is noted among girls with higher weight status. In addition, parents' concern about their child's weight status and restriction of access to food are associated with negative self-evaluations among girls. Public health programs that raise parental awareness of childhood overweight without also providing constructive and blame-free alternatives for addressing child weight problems may be detrimental to children's mental health.

  4. Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision. METHODS: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche. RESULTS: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned. CONCLUSIONS: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance. PMID:26391935

  5. Context, Confidence and the Able Girl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, L. G.; Jones, L. P.

    1989-01-01

    To measure level of confidence in mathematics and science of girls, 87 girls and 73 boys in third year of British secondary school were asked whether they could answer four questions correctly; girls also estimated boys' and girls' probable responses. A model for raising consciousness of girls about their level of self-confidence and factors that…

  6. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  7. Girl Scouts settle complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    The Girl Scouts have settled a claim of discrimination made against New York's Adirondack Girl Scout Council and the national Girl Scouts organization for refusing admittance of a third-grader into the Brownies because of her HIV infection. The settlement occurred without adjudication on the key point of whether volunteer-based organizations such as the Girl Scouts are places of public accommodation under the New York Human Rights Act. The parties agreed that the Adirondack council will revise its HIV policy so that volunteers know they cannot deny admission to HIV-positive candidates; that the council will educate its troop leaders and staff on HIV transmission, universal precautions, and the organization's policy of nondiscrimination; and that the national Girl Scouts' organization will continue to investigate any allegations of HIV discrimination against applicants.

  8. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  9. Gender, ethnicity and race in incarcerated and detained youth: services and policy implications for girls.

    PubMed

    Stein, L A R; Clair, Mary; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2015-03-01

    While work has been conducted on gender differences to inform gender-specific programming, relatively little work has been done regarding racial and ethnic differences among incarcerated and detained girls in particular. This is an important gap, considering gender, race, and ethnicity may be important factors in responding to the needs of incarcerated and detained girls within the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model. We hypothesize girls will show relatively more pathology than boys, and that White girls will show relatively more pathology as compared to girls of other groups. Implications of findings for services delivery and policy are presented. Data were collected on N = 657 youth using structured interview and record review. Analyses included χ2 and t tests. As compared to boys, girls were older at first arrest yet younger during most lock-up, received poorer grades, experienced more family difficulty, and more were lesbian/bisexual. As compared to minority girls, White girls began hard drugs at a younger age, had more conduct disorder symptoms, and more frequently experienced parental difficulty and abuse. Age-appropriate programming that addresses family difficulty and sexuality is needed for girls. As compared to White girls, reentry planning may more readily rely on family support for minority girls. Systems should consider use of actuarial methods in order to reduce bias in making placement decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Gender, Ethnicity and Race in Incarcerated and Detained Youth: Services and Policy Implications for Girls

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L.A.R.; Clair, Mary; Rossi, Joseph; Martin, Rosemarie; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While work has been conducted on gender differences to inform gender-specific programming, relatively little work has been done regarding racial and ethnic differences among incarcerated and detained girls in particular. This is an important gap, considering gender, race and ethnicity may be important factors in responding to the needs of incarcerated and detained girls within the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model. We hypothesize girls will show relatively more pathology than boys, and that White girls will show relatively more pathology as compared to girls of other groups. Implications of findings for services delivery and policy are presented. Methods Data were collected on N=657 youth using structured interview and record review. Analyses included χ2 and t-tests. Results As compared to boys, girls were older at first arrest yet younger during most lock-up, received poorer grades, experienced more family difficulty, and more were lesbian/bisexual. As compared to minority girls, White girls began hard drugs at a younger age, had more conduct disorder symptoms, and more frequently experienced parental difficulty and abuse. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Age-appropriate programming that addresses family difficulty and sexuality is needed for girls. As compared to White girls, re-entry planning may more readily rely on family support for minority girls. Systems should consider use of actuarial methods in order to reduce bias in making placement decisions. PMID:25180525

  11. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  12. Metabolism of 1-nitro(U-4,5,9,10-14C)pyrene in the F344 rat

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bayoumy, K.; Hecht, S.S.

    1984-10-01

    1-Nitro(U-4,5,9,10-14C)pyrene was synthesized and administered to male F344 rats by intragastric gavage at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. During the first 48 hr, 41% of the dose was eliminated in the feces, and 16% was eliminated in the urine. The corresponding figures after 120 hr were 51 and 19%. In rats with bile cannulae, 37% of the dose was excreted in the bile after 72 hr, and 6% was excreted in the urine. Fecal metabolites included 1-aminopyrene (isolated amount, 11.7% of the dose), 1-amino-6-hydroxypyrene and 1-amino-8-hydroxypyrene (4.6%), and unchanged 1-nitropyrene (6.6%). 1-Aminopyrene and the 1-aminohydroxypyrenes were identified as their acetyl-derivatives by comparison of their chromatographic retention times, mass spectra, and UV spectra to those of synthetic standards. Biliary metabolites included 1-aminopyrene, 1-amino-6-hydroxypyrene, 1-amino-8-hydroxypyrene, 1-nitro-6(8)-hydroxypyrene, and 1-nitro-3-hydroxypyrene, as well as their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. The isolated amounts of these metabolites accounted for approximately 5% of the dose. 1-Amino-6-hydroxypyrene and 1-amino-8-hydroxypyrene and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were also tentatively identified in the urine and accounted for about 3% of the dose. Significant quantities of unidentified water soluble metabolites were present in the urine and bile. The results of this study indicate that metabolic reduction of the highly mutagenic 1-nitrohydroxypyrenes occurs in vivo in the rat and suggest that this is a possible activation pathway in 1-nitropyrene carcinogenesis.

  13. Community participation for girls and women living with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jaimi; Leonard, Helen; Hammond, Geoffrey C; Girdler, Sonya; Rajapaksa, Ruwani; Bathgate, Katherine; Downs, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    To describe the relationships between impairment and contextual factors and community participation for girls and women with Rett syndrome. Data was collected from a questionnaire completed in 2009 by families participating in the Australian Rett Syndrome Database (n = 214). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyse relationships between impairment, personal and environmental factors and community participation. The mean age of the girls and women was 17.6 years (SD = 7.95, range 3 to 34 years) with 114 (53.3%) girls still at school and 100 (46.7%) women post school. Frequency of activities was influenced by level of walking, community support and maternal education. For girls living at home, participation in activities was associated with greater functional independence and higher levels of maternal education. Participation in recreational (90.1%), physical/skill-based (67.6%) and/or social (70.3%) activities was commonly reported by families, while self-improvement (17.6%) activities were less reported. Younger girls participated in activities mainly with family members and older girls more frequently participated with carers. Participation for girls and women with Rett syndrome could be enhanced by stronger local community supports. There are also needs for the implementation of policies that ensure resources are available and accessible by those communities most in need.

  14. Microchimerism of male origin in a cohort of Danish girls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Amanda Cecilie; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Barington, Torben; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-10-02

    Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells. A total of 154 girls were studied of which 21 (13.6%) tested positive for male microchimerism. There was a tendency that girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism if their mothers previously had received transfusion, had given birth to a son or had had a spontaneous abortion. Furthermore, the oldest girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism. However, less than half of microchimerism positivity was attributable to these factors. In conclusion, data suggest that male microchimerism in young girls may originate from an older brother either full born or from a discontinued pregnancy or from transfusion during pregnancy. We speculate that sexual intercourse may be important but other sources of male cells likely exist in young girls.

  15. Sad and lonely: body dissatisfaction among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Forste, Renata; Potter, Marina; Erickson, Lance

    2017-06-21

    Purpose To further understand the association between body dissatisfaction and sadness/loneliness among adolescent girls, we examine how this association, as reported by pre-teen and adolescent girls, is mediated or moderated by the quality of peer and family relationships. Methods Our data are from the Health Behavior of School-Aged Children 2009-2010, a nationally representative survey of school-aged children in the US. We analyze a sample of 5658 girls in Grades 5 through 10. We utilize ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques and adjust for the complex sampling design. We explore how the link between body dissatisfaction and sadness/loneliness is mediated or moderated by family and peer relationships and also include controls for age, race, media exposure, and physical health. Results We find that body dissatisfaction is predictive of sadness/loneliness for girls at all grade levels and that the quality of peer and family relationships mediates 27%-38% of this association, particularly among early adolescent girls. Positive peer relationships also moderate or help mitigate the association between body dissatisfaction and sadness/loneliness among pre-teens. Conclusion Our findings underscore the association between body dissatisfaction and sadness/loneliness among early adolescent girls. In addition, our results highlight the importance of quality peer and family relationships in terms of how girls think about their bodies and respond emotionally to them. To evaluate feelings of sadness and loneliness among early adolescent girls, health care professionals need to consider not only body dissatisfaction but also the context of peer and family relationships.

  16. Girls in Distress in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Yosepha

    The typical girl in distress in Israel comes from a Jewish family of oriental origin. Her distress is partially due to the strains of immigrating to Israel from, in most cases, North Africa. Authority models in distressed girls' families feature either the role of the father as the commanding familial authority figure; the mother as the dominant…

  17. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  18. Are Girls Behaving like Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…

  19. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  20. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…