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Sample records for gis environment island

  1. CIELO-A GIS integrated model for climatic and water balance simulation in islands environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, E. B.; Pereira, L. S.

    2003-04-01

    The model CIELO (acronym for "Clima Insular à Escala Local") is a physically based model that simulates the climatic variables in an island using data from a single synoptic reference meteorological station. The reference station "knows" its position in the orographic and dynamic regime context. The domain of computation is a GIS raster grid parameterised with a digital elevation model (DEM). The grid is oriented following the direction of the air masses circulation through a specific algorithm named rotational terrain model (RTM). The model consists of two main sub-models. One, relative to the advective component simulation, assumes the Foehn effect to reproduce the dynamic and thermodynamic processes occurring when an air mass moves through the island orographic obstacle. This makes possible to simulate the air temperature, air humidity, cloudiness and precipitation as influenced by the orography along the air displacement. The second concerns the radiative component as affected by the clouds of orographic origin and by the shadow produced by the relief. The initial state parameters are computed starting from the reference meteorological station across the DEM transept until the sea level at the windward side. Then, starting from the sea level, the model computes the local scale meteorological parameters according to the direction of the air displacement, which is adjusted with the RTM. The air pressure, temperature and humidity are directly calculated for each cell in the computational grid, while several algorithms are used to compute the cloudiness, net radiation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation. The model presented in this paper has been calibrated and validated using data from some meteorological stations and a larger number of rainfall stations located at various elevations in the Azores Islands.

  2. Structural Analysis for Gold Mineralization Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Techniques in a GIS Environment: Island of Lesvos, Hellas

    SciTech Connect

    Rokos, D. Argialas, D. Mavrantza, R. St Seymour, K.; Vamvoukakis, C.; Kouli, M.; Lamera, S.; Paraskevas, H.; Karfakis, I.; Denes, G

    2000-12-15

    Exploration for epithermal Au has been active lately in the Aegean Sea of the eastern Mediterranean Basin, both in the islands of the Quaternary arc and in those of the back-arc region. The purpose of this study was the structural mapping and analysis for a preliminary investigation of possible epithermal gold mineralization, using remotely sensed data and techniques, structural and field data, and geochemical information, for a specific area on the Island of Lesvos. Therefore, Landsat-TM and SPOT-Pan satellite images and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were processed digitally using spatial filtering techniques for the enhancement and recognition of the geologically significant lineaments, as well as algebraic operations with band ratios and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the identification of alteration zones. Statistical rose diagrams and a SCHMIDT projection Stereo Net were generated from the lineament maps and the collected field data (dip and strike measurements of faults, joints, and veins), respectively. The derived lineament map and the band ratio images were manipulated in a GIS environment, in order to study the relation of the tectonic pattern to both the alteration zoning and the geomorphology of the volcanic field of the study area. Target areas of high interest for possible mineralization also were specified using geochemical techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, trace-element, and fluid-inclusion analysis. Finally, preliminary conclusions were derived about possible mineralization, the type (high or low sulfidation), and the extent of mineralization, by combining the structural information with geochemical information.

  3. Managing Data in a GIS Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Maria; Yiasemis, Haris

    1997-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based system that enables capture, modeling, manipulation, retrieval, analysis and presentation of geographically referenced data. A GIS operates in a dynamic environment of spatial and temporal information. This information is held in a database like any other information system, but performance is more of an issue for a geographic database than a traditional database due to the nature of the data. What distinguishes a GIS from other information systems is the spatial and temporal dimensions of the data and the volume of data (several gigabytes). Most traditional information systems are usually based around tables and textual reports, whereas GIS requires the use of cartographic forms and other visualization techniques. Much of the data can be represented using computer graphics, but a GIS is not a graphics database. A graphical system is concerned with the manipulation and presentation of graphical objects whereas a GIS handles geographic objects that have not only spatial dimensions but non-visual, i e., attribute and components. Furthermore, the nature of the data on which a GIS operates makes the traditional relational database approach inadequate for retrieving data and answering queries that reference spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the efficiency issues behind storage and retrieval of data within a GIS database. Section 2 gives a general background on GIS, and describes the issues involved in custom vs. commercial and hybrid vs. integrated geographic information systems. Section 3 describes the efficiency issues concerning the management of data within a GIS environment. The paper ends with a summary of the main concerns of this paper.

  4. A GIS approach to urban heat island research: The case of Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Chor Pong

    1994-01-01

    The urban heat island represents a case of inadvertent human modification of climate in an urban environment. Urbanization changes the nature of the surface and atmospheric properties of a region. As a result, radiation balance in the urban areas is altered and sensible heat is added to the point that urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. At the boundary between the rural and urban area, a sharp rise in temperature occurs, culminating to a peak temperature at the central business district of the city, hence the name 'urban heat island'. The extent and intensity of the urban heat island are a function of population size, land use, and topography. Because the urban heat island exhibits spatial variations of temperatures, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) is appropriate. The research on the urban heat island focuses on the acquisition of 15 bands of visible and thermal infrared data (ranging from 0.45 to 12.2 microns) from an aerial platform using NASA's ATLAS (Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor) over Huntsville, Alabama. The research reported in this paper is an analysis of the impact of population, land use, and topography on the shape of the urban heat island that could be developed in Huntsville using the GIS approach. The outcome of this analysis can then be verified using the acquired remotely sensed data.

  5. Using Programming Environments in Teaching GIS Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornemisza, Imre; Boytchev, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    When teaching Geographical Information Systems (GIS) it is important to explain the theoretical elements, but it is also necessary to illustrate the basic functions with examples. To help students it is advisable to separate the teaching of fundamentals from the practical application of complex GIS software. A simple programming language like Logo…

  6. Nearshore benthic habitat GIS for the Channel Islands National Sanctuary and southern California State Fisheries Reserves. Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Nasby, Nicole M.; Reid, Jane A.; Waltenberger, Ben; Lee, Kristen M.

    2003-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports diverse marine life that is commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the white abalone. Agencies of the state of California and the United States have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources. Data from sidescan sonar, bathymetry, video and dive observations, and physical samples are consolidated in a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS provides researchers and policymakers a view of the relationship among data sets to assist scienctific research and to help with economic and social policy-making decisions regarding this protected environment.

  7. Designing a Structured and Interactive Learning Environment Based on GIS for Secondary Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Suxia; Zhu, Xuan

    2008-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are computer-based tools for geographic data analysis and spatial visualization. They have become one of the information and communications technologies for education at all levels. This article reviews the current status of GIS in schools, analyzes the requirements of a GIS-based learning environment from…

  8. A GIS-based methodology for the estimation of potential volcanic damage and its application to Tenerife Island, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaini, C.; Felpeto, A.; Martí, J.; Carniel, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a GIS-based methodology to estimate damages produced by volcanic eruptions. The methodology is constituted by four parts: definition and simulation of eruptive scenarios, exposure analysis, vulnerability assessment and estimation of expected damages. Multi-hazard eruptive scenarios are defined for the Teide-Pico Viejo active volcanic complex, and simulated through the VORIS tool. The exposure analysis identifies the elements exposed to the hazard at stake and focuses on the relevant assets for the study area. The vulnerability analysis is based on previous studies on the built environment and complemented with the analysis of transportation and urban infrastructures. Damage assessment is performed associating a qualitative damage rating to each combination of hazard and vulnerability. This operation consists in a GIS-based overlap, performed for each hazardous phenomenon considered and for each element. The methodology is then automated into a GIS-based tool using an ArcGIS® program. Given the eruptive scenarios and the characteristics of the exposed elements, the tool produces expected damage maps. The tool is applied to the Icod Valley (North of Tenerife Island) which is likely to be affected by volcanic phenomena in case of eruption from both the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex and North-West basaltic rift. Results are thematic maps of vulnerability and damage that can be displayed at different levels of detail, depending on the user preferences. The aim of the tool is to facilitate territorial planning and risk management in active volcanic areas.

  9. Facilities management using remote sensing data in a GIS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, M.; Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.

    Facilities management in an urban environment calls for detailed information on existing urban features, settlements, rail and road traffic networks, waterbodies, vacant lands, etc. and the integration of the same with necessary collateral information such as trend of population growth. The panchromatic (PAN) data from IRS-1C with a spatial resolution of 5.8 m as well as multispectral data from LISS III with a resolution of 23.5 m offer new opportunities. The present study attempts to evaluate the IRS-1C PAN and LISS III data with a view to understand their potential for facility management for an urban environment. Also, the methodology to arrive at facilities developmental plans in an urban environment based on merged PAN and LISS III data as well as by integrating various layers of information in a GIS environment is discussed. The study clearly brings out the potential of IRS-1C PAN and LISS III data for a new set of remote sensing applications related to the management of urban environment.

  10. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. PMID:27091867

  11. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development.

  12. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M.; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing

  13. Old maps in the GIS and Internet environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Křováková, K.; Brůna, V.; Pacina, J.

    2009-04-01

    Old maps are moreover used as data layers in GIS environment, both in raster or vector form. By comparing data from several time periods we can identify the main trends in landscape development and its spatial structure. The Laboratory of geoinformatics at Jan Evangelista Purkyně University, Czech republic is working on several projects concerned about analysis and visualization of old maps. On the poster are presented results of some of the projects solved at the laboratory. One of the most successful project is the web-application http://oldmaps.geolab.cz - where are online presented old maps from the region of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. On this server are accessible maps of the 1st, 2nd and partially 3rd military mapping, Müller's map of Bohemia and a part of survey operator of Stabile cadastre. On the poster are as well presented results from the Historical atlas of Czech towns and results from project solved for the National Park of Šumava in the area of Chlum.

  14. Application of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing and GIS to Assess the Urban Heat Island Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Luvall, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Day and night airborne thermal infrared image data at 5 m spatial resolution acquired with the 15-channel (0.45 micron - 12.2 micron) Advanced Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) over Alabama, Huntsville on 7 September, 1994 were used to study changes in the thermal signatures of urban land cover types between day and night. Thermal channel number 13 (9.6 micron - 10.2 micron) data with the best noise-equivalent temperature change (NEAT) of 0.25 C after atmospheric corrections and temperature calibration were selected for use in this analysis. This research also examined the relation between land cover irradiance and vegetation amount, using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), obtained by ratioing the difference and the sum of the red (channel number 3: 0.60-0.63 micron) and reflected infrared (channel number 6: 0.76-0.90 micron) ATLAS data. Based on the mean radiance values, standard deviations, and NDVI extracted from 351 pairs of polygons of day and night channel number 13 images for the city of Huntsville, a spatial model of warming and cooling characteristics of commercial, residential, agricultural, vegetation, and water features was developed using a GIS approach. There is a strong negative correlation between NDVI and irradiance of residential, agricultural, and vacant/transitional land cover types, indicating that the irradiance of a land cover type is greatly influenced by the amount of vegetation present. The predominance of forests, agricultural, and residential uses associated with varying degrees of tree cover showed great contrasts with commercial and services land cover types in the center of the city, and favors the development of urban heat islands. The high-resolution thermal infrared images match the complexity of the urban environment, and are capable of characterizing accurately the urban land cover types for the spatial modeling of the urban heat island effect using a GIS approach.

  15. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  16. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island

    Cancer.gov

    The cornerstone of the LIBCSP is the Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Study, which was undertaken to determine whether certain environmental contaminants increase risk of breast cancer among women on Long Island.

  17. Issues in Defining Software Architectures in a GIS Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Jesus; Alvorado, Lori

    1997-01-01

    The primary mission of the Pan-American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) is to advance the research areas that are relevant to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. One of the activities at PACES is the establishment of a repository for geographical, geological and environmental information that covers various regions of Mexico and the southwest region of the U.S. and that is acquired from NASA and other sources through remote sensing, ground studies or paper-based maps. The center will be providing access of this information to other government entities in the U.S. and Mexico, and research groups from universities, national laboratories and industry. Geographical Information Systems(GIS) provide the means to manage, manipulate, analyze and display geographically referenced information that will be managed by PACES. Excellent off-the-shelf software exists for a complete GIS as well as software for storing and managing spatial databases, processing images, networking and viewing maps with layered information. This allows the user flexibility in combining systems to create a GIS or to mix these software packages with custom-built application programs. Software architectural languages provide the ability to specify the computational components and interactions among these components, an important topic in the domain of GIS because of the need to integrate numerous software packages. This paper discusses the characteristics that architectural languages address with respect to the issues relating to the data that must be communicated between software systems and components when systems interact. The paper presents a background on GIS in section 2. Section 3 gives an overview of software architecture and architectural languages. Section 4 suggests issues that may be of concern when defining the software architecture of a GIS. The last section discusses the future research effort and finishes with a summary.

  18. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, A.; Bahr, T.

    2013-05-01

    Having access to SAR data can be highly important and critical especially for disaster mapping. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. Therefore, we present in this paper the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. A series of COSMO-SkyMed acquisitions was processed in ArcGIS® using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach. The relevant processing steps were combined using the ArcGIS ModelBuilder to create a new model for rapid disaster mapping in ArcGIS, which can be accessed both via a desktop and a server environment.

  19. The Method and Key Technology of Dynamic RS-GIS Environment Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping; Xiang, Jie; Tarolli, Paolo; Lai, Zili

    2016-04-01

    Demographic growth, socio-economic development and urbanization have resulted in excessive exploitation and exerted increasing pressure on limited resources and the fragile ecological environment in China. There is an urgent need for theory and technology to achieve the comprehensive evaluation of environment. Remote sensing is one of the most important technology to monitor and evaluate environment. This study summed up dynamic RS (Remote Sensing)-GIS (Geographic Information System) environment monitoring theory, and established a dynamic monitoring system, adopting comprehensive methods of multi-source, multi-scale and multi-temporal remote sensing data acquisition. A software system is developed based on RS-GIS analysis method to support the whole dynamic monitoring and evaluation theory. The main work and results obtained are as follows: 1)Summarized the evaluation theory of dynamic RS-GIS environment monitoring, using remote sensing technology as the main method to monitor environment; 2) established an advanced space-air-ground digital terrain data acquisition and processing technology (advanced satellite constellations, airborne and terrestrial laser scanner, low-cost Structure from Motion (SfM), photogrammetry, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and ground camera surveys); 3) Deeply study the application of quantitative digital terrain analysis in the assessment of environment, which successfully position geological disaster information and automatically extracted information; 4) Developed the RESEE software to support the whole dynamic monitoring and evaluation theory based on 4D-GIS; 5) A demonstration study of the dynamic monitoring environment is carried out in Beijing Miyun Iron Mine. Results show that the space-air-ground integrated and dynamic RS-GIS environment monitoring method and key technology can realize the positioning and quantitative monitoring the environment problem, and realize the risk assessment of the geological hazard.

  20. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess the role of the built environment in influencing obesity: a glossary.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Pearce, Jamie R; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2011-07-01

    Features of the built environment are increasingly being recognised as potentially important determinants of obesity. This has come about, in part, because of advances in methodological tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS has made the procurement of data related to the built environment easier and given researchers the flexibility to create a new generation of environmental exposure measures such as the travel time to the nearest supermarket or calculations of the amount of neighbourhood greenspace. Given the rapid advances in the availability of GIS data and the relative ease of use of GIS software, a glossary on the use of GIS to assess the built environment is timely. As a case study, we draw on aspects the food and physical activity environments as they might apply to obesity, to define key GIS terms related to data collection, concepts, and the measurement of environmental features.

  1. GIS analysis of effects of future Baltic sea level rise on the island of Gotland, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Karin; Ekstedt, Karin; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2016-07-01

    Future sea level rise as a consequence of global warming will affect the world's coastal regions. Even though the pace of sea level rise is not clear, the consequences will be severe and global. Commonly the effects of future sea level rise are investigated for relatively vulnerable development countries; however, a whole range of varying regions needs to be considered in order to improve the understanding of global consequences. In this paper we investigate consequences of future sea level rise along the coast of the Baltic Sea island of Gotland, Sweden, with the aim to fill knowledge gaps regarding comparatively well-suited areas in developed countries. We study both the quantity of the loss of features of infrastructure, cultural, and natural value in the case of a 2 m sea level rise of the Baltic Sea and the effects of climate change on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers, which indirectly cause saltwater intrusion in wells. We conduct a multi-criteria risk analysis by using lidar data on land elevation and GIS-vulnerability mapping, which gives the application of distance and elevation parameters formerly unimaginable precision. We find that in case of a 2 m sea level rise, 3 % of the land area of Gotland, corresponding to 99 km2, will be inundated. The features most strongly affected are items of touristic or nature value, including camping places, shore meadows, sea stack areas, and endangered plants and species habitats. In total, 231 out of 7354 wells will be directly inundated, and the number of wells in the high-risk zone for saltwater intrusion in wells will increase considerably. Some valuable features will be irreversibly lost due to, for example, inundation of sea stacks and the passing of tipping points for seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers; others might simply be moved further inland, but this requires considerable economic means and prioritization. With nature tourism being one of the main income sources of Gotland, monitoring and

  2. Application of GIS to the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) data from Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmel, S.C.; Morrison, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Data from EPA`s EMAP-Estuaries monitoring study (1990--1993) were used in conjunction with GIS (Geographic Information System-ArcInfo) to establish the association of point source discharges and discrete land use activities with specific environmental impacts. All permitted discharges were identified by geographic location, type, volume, likely waste products, and land use characterized as to developed, agriculture, forests, wetlands, and water. Environmental parameters that were measured as part of the EMAP-Estuaries data set include: concentrations of specific chemical pollutants in sediments that exceeded the Effects Ratio-Median (ER-M); sediment toxicity to the amphipod, Ampelisca abdita; a measure of the diversity and abundance of benthic infauna (Benthic Index); and the presence of adverse physical conditions (e.g., low dissolved oxygen (D.O.), high organic carbon content in sediments). Results indicate that areas within the Sound that exhibit sediment toxicity and ER-M exceedences are generally in small embayments associated with high human population densities. Several other stations exhibiting toxicity and ER-M exceedences are at the mouths of river systems (Housatonic and Quinnipiac) that receive large volumes of effluent from municipal and industrial dischargers. Impacts on benthic communities occur both in several small embayments and in Long Island Sound (LIS) proper. Within the Sound, impacts are strongly associated with low D.O., principally in the Western Sound where the largest population centers are located, flushing is poor and the land use category is primarily urban. Specific chemical contaminants, sediment toxicity and infaunal impacts can be related to quantitative land use and effluent characteristics.

  3. Monitoring and Assessment of Saltwater Intrusion using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing and Geophysical measurements of Guimaras Island, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, B. C. B.

    2015-12-01

    Degrading groundwater quality due to saltwater intrusion is one of the key challenges affecting many island aquifers. These islands hold limited capacity for groundwater storage and highly dependent on recharge due to precipitation. But its ease of use, natural storage and accessibility make it more vulnerable to exploitation and more susceptible to encroachment from its surrounding oceanic waters. Estimating the extent of saltwater intrusion and the state of groundwater resources are important in predicting and managing water supply options for the community. In Guimaras island, central Philippines, increasing settlements, agriculture and tourism are causing stresses on its groundwater resource. Indications of saltwater intrusion have already been found at various coastal areas in the island. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based approach using the GALDIT index was carried out. This includes six parameters assessing the seawater intrusion vulnerability of each hydrogeologic setting: Groundwater occurrence, Aquifer hydraulic conductivity, Groundwater Level above sea, Distance to shore, Impact of existing intrusion and Thickness of Aquifer. To further determine the extent of intrusion, Landsat images of various thematic layers were stacked and processed for unsupervised classification and electrical resistivity tomography using a 28-electrode system with array lengths of 150 and 300 meters was conducted. The GIS index showed where the vulnerable areas are located, while the geophysical measurements and images revealed extent of seawater encroachment along the monitoring wells. These results are further confirmed by the measurements collected from the monitoring wells. This study presents baseline information on the state of groundwater resources and increase understanding of saltwater intrusion dynamics in island ecosystems by providing a guideline for better water resource management in the Philippines.

  4. Adapting the iSNOBAL model for improved visualization in a GIS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, W. J.; Delparte, D.

    2014-12-01

    Snowmelt is a primary means of crucial water resources in much of the western United States. Researchers are developing models that estimate snowmelt to aid in water resource management. One such model is the image snowcover energy and mass balance (iSNOBAL) model. It uses input climate grids to simulate the development and melting of snowpack in mountainous regions. This study looks at applying this model to the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, utilizing novel approaches incorporating geographic information systems (GIS). To improve visualization of the iSNOBAL model, we have adapted it to run in a GIS environment. This type of environment is suited to both the input grid creation and the visualization of results. The data used for input grid creation can be stored locally or on a web-server. Kriging interpolation embedded within Python scripts are used to create air temperature, soil temperature, humidity, and precipitation grids, while built-in GIS and existing tools are used to create solar radiation and wind grids. Additional Python scripting is then used to perform model calculations. The final product is a user-friendly and accessible version of the iSNOBAL model, including the ability to easily visualize and interact with model results, all within a web- or desktop-based GIS environment. This environment allows for interactive manipulation of model parameters and visualization of the resulting input grids for the model calculations. Future work is moving towards adapting the model further for use in a 3D gaming engine for improved visualization and interaction.

  5. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The use of SAR data has become increasingly popular in recent years and in a wide array of industries. Having access to SAR can be highly important and critical especially for public safety. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. SAR imaging offers the great advantage, over its optical counterparts, of not being affected by darkness, meteorological conditions such as clouds, fog, etc., or smoke and dust, frequently associated with disaster zones. In this paper we present the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. For this technique we integrated the SARscape modules for ENVI with ArcGIS®, eliminating the need to switch between software packages. Thereby the premier algorithms for SAR image analysis can be directly accessed from ArcGIS desktop and server environments. They allow processing and analyzing SAR data in almost real time and with minimum user interaction. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. The Bacchiglione River burst its banks on Nov. 2nd after two days of heavy rainfall throughout the northern Italian region. The community of Bovolenta, 22 km SSE of Padova, was covered by several meters of water. People were requested to stay in their homes; several roads, highways sections and railroads had to be closed. The extent of this flooding is documented by a series of Cosmo-SkyMed acquisitions with a GSD of 2.5 m (StripMap mode). Cosmo-SkyMed is a constellation of four Earth observation satellites, allowing a very frequent coverage, which enables monitoring using a very high temporal resolution. This data is processed in ArcGIS using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach consisting of 3 steps: (1) The single images are filtered with a Gamma DE-MAP filter. (2) The filtered images are geocoded using a reference

  6. Research on agricultural ecology and environment analysis and modeling based on RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Chen, Hongfu; Wang, Mingsheng

    2009-07-01

    Analysis of agricultural ecology and environment is based on the data of agricultural resources, which are obtained by RS monitoring. The over-exploitation of farmlands will cause structural changes of the soil composition, and damage the planting environment and the agro-ecosystem. Through the research on the dynamic monitoring methods of multitemporal RS images and GIS technology, the crop growth status, crop acreage and other relevant information in agricultural production are extracted based on the monitor and analysis of the conditions of the fields and crop growth. The agro-ecological GIS platform is developed with the establishment of the agricultural resources management database, which manages spatial data, RS data and attribute data of agricultural resources. Using the RS, GIS analysis results, the reasons of agro-ecological destruction are analyzed and the evaluation methods are established. This paper puts forward the concept of utilization capacity of farmland, which describes farmland space for development and utilization that is influenced by the conditions of the land, water resources, climate, pesticides and chemical fertilizers and many other agricultural production factors. Assessment model of agricultural land use capacity is constructed with the help of Fuzzy. Assessing the utilization capacity of farmland can be helpful to agricultural production and ecological protection of farmland. This paper describes the application of the capacity evaluation model with simulated data in two aspects, namely, in evaluating the status of farmland development and utilization and in optimal planting.

  7. Long Island Sound: a Human Dominated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS) is a marginally marine urban estuary, with Long Island (NY) as its southern coastline, New York and Connecticut along its northern coast. LIS has a narrow opening to the West (East River), but most exchange with the ocean occurs at its eastern end, resulting in an east-west gradient in salinity. There is also an east-west gradient in indicators of contamination in the surface sediments (e.g., trace metals). Western LIS is close to the main population center (New York City), but also is a focusing region for fine- grained sediments. Since the 1970s, western LIS and to a lesser extent, central LIS, suffer summer hypoxia or even anoxia. We used sediment cores in westernmost and central LIS to document environmental changes over the last millennium, including the time of European settlement, using microfossil, geochemical, sedimentological, and trace element proxies. Sediment ages were determined using metal pollution records and radiometric carbon dating. Before European settlement, the low-diversity benthic faunas were dominated by Elphidium excavatum (feeding on diatoms) at shallow depths (< 12 m, where light penetrates to the bottom), by Elphidium incertum in westernmost LIS and by Buccella frigida and/or Eggerella advena over most of LIS at greater depths. In almost all cores, the absolute abundance of benthic foraminifera and the relative abundance of Elphidium excavatum increased from the early-mid 1800s on. The faunal changes coincided with an increase in contaminant trace metal concentration, with human population growth in the region, with a marked decrease in salinity in westernmost LIS, and with the beginning of low oxygen conditions as indicated by carbon isotope values in foraminiferal tests. At the same time, accumulation rates of organic carbon and nitrogen increased several fold, most extremely so in westernmost LIS. These data thus all indicate that humans influenced LIS and its ecosystems from the mid 19th century on, causing

  8. Remote sensing and GIS based study of potential erosion and degradation areas on the island Fogo (Cape Verde Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olehowski, Claas; Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    The Island of Fogo (Cape Verde) is affected by processes of erosion and degradation, caused mainly by a high population growth and global change. With its small scaled climatic, floristic and geo-ecological differentiation, the island of Fogo is an optimal research space for understanding semiarid island ecosystems in the marginal tropics and their behaviour to erosion and degradation processes. For that reason, a change detection analysis over the past two decades is generated, showing the level and direction of land cover and land use change. Two satellite images from 1984 and 2007 will classified by a Maximum Likelihood approach. In a further step, an image of 1974 will be also integrated in this change detection analysis, enlarging the study over the last three decades.

  9. Application of GIS technology on atmospheric environment simulation research in Hefei, Anhui province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Wu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The GIS technology is a good tool to improve the spatial distribution of emissions, which can improve the model performance indirectly. This article chose An Hui Province with Hefei City as the research area. In this study, the GIS data, including information of land use, road, population in Anhui province, was used to optimize the spatial distribution of emission sources. The 1km*1km population data (cited) is used to optimize the anthropogenic emissions, while the agricultural NH3 is distributed followed the coverage of agriculture from MODIS land use data. After optimization, the spatial distribution of the regional emission sources turned into a complicated pattern that has the characteristics of GIS information from a simple pattern. The results of the Air Quality Model CMAQ that is driven with the emission sources before optimization and that after optimization was preliminarily validated with the station observation data. The validation results show: 1.The simulation results of CO and PM2.5 by optimized emission sources had some improvement comparing with the simulation results by normal emission sources when they were validated with observation data. The simulation results of PM2.5 in Yaohai were chosen as an example. The mean bias of simulation after optimization is -6.55 and that of simulation before optimization is -16.84.And mean error of simulation after optimization comparing with simulation before optimization is reduced from 22.07 to 13.69, and correlation coefficient R is increased from -0.22 to 0.23. 2. The simulation results are abnormal in a given period, mainly in the rush hour, and need to be corrected in the later period. The results show that the accuracy of simulation results after spatial optimization with GIS tools is improved, and GIS data has some effects on improving the results of atmospheric environment simulation in Hefei City and Anhui province. Subsequent work will be to refine the GIS data, to improve the model grid resolution

  10. A GIS based model for active transportation in the built environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, Veronica Marie Medina

    Obesity and physical inactivity have been major risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the United States. Recently, obesity and physical inactivity have been on the rise. Determining connections between this trend and the environment could lead to a built environment that is conducive to healthy, active people. In my previous research, I have studied the built environment and its connection to health. For my dissertation, I build on this fundamental work by incorporating energy, specifically by studying the built environment and its connection to energy expenditures. This research models the built environment and combines this with human energy expenditure information in order to provide a planning tool that allows an individual to actively address health issues, particularly obesity. This research focuses on the design and development of an internet based model that enables individuals to understand their own energy expenditures in relation to their environment. The model will work to find the energy consumed by an individual in their navigation through campus. This is accomplished by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to model the campus and using it as the basis for calculating energy expended through active transportation. Using GIS to create the model allows for the incorporation of built environment factors such as elevation and energy expenditures in relation to physical exertion rate. This research will contribute to the long-term solution to the obesity epidemic by creating healthy communities through smart growth and sustainable design. This research provides users with a tool to use in their current environment for their personal and community well being.

  11. Supporting Inquiry Processes with an Interactive Learning Environment: Inquiry Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslinger, Eric; White, Barbara; Frederiksen, John; Brobst, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    This research addresses the effectiveness of an interactive learning environment, Inquiry Island, as a general-purpose framework for the design of inquiry-based science curricula. We introduce the software as a scaffold designed to support the creation and assessment of inquiry projects, and describe its use in a middle-school genetics unit. Students in the intervention showed significant gains in inquiry skills. We also illustrate the power of the software to gather and analyze qualitative data about student learning.

  12. Application of territorial GIS to study of natural environment for regions under mining exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsanov, A.

    1996-07-01

    Mineral resources exploitation becomes one of the leading factors of technogenic impact to natural environment. The processes accompanying exploitation lead to changes of geological/geomorphological, engineering/geological, hydrogeological, geochemical and landscape conditions over the large territories surrounded mining exploitation districts. The types of environmental changes and disturbances are stipulated by several reasons such as kind of exploited resources (ore, petroleum, gas, coal, peat, building materials etc.); the ways of extraction (opened by quarry or closed by mine); natural zone (tundra, taiga, steppe, desert etc.). Expressive revelation and control of these environmental changes is impossible without wide using and analysis of various types and different times materials of airborne and satellite surveys (MASS). They are the basis of system approach to environmental study because of image is the decreased spatial model of territory. For integrated estimation of natural resources and perspectives of its economical profit using, as well as examination of influence of extraction objects to natural environment necessary to involve different data. Only territorial GIS permits to solve the tasks of collection, keeping, processing and analysis of this data as well as to conduct modelling of situations and presentation of information necessary to accept the decision. The core of GIS is the Data base which consists of initial remote sensing and cartographic data allow in completely obtain various information providing of full value and objectivity of investigations.

  13. Moving NASA Remote Sensing Data to the GIS Environment for Health Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    There has been an increasing demand by the health community for improved data on many different environmental factors relevant to the links between the environment and disease occurrence and transmission. These data are important for GIS-based monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of epidemiological parameters on a large number of different spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. Accordingly, NASA is developing new approaches to data collection and distribution in order to improve access to multiple sources of data streams to increase spatial and temporal coverage. Methods are being developed to incorporate different, scalable capabilities to handle multiple data sources by adding, deleting and replacing components as required as well as associated tools for their management. An approach has been to search for innovative solutions focused on the creation, use and manipulation of data stored in many different archives. These include data transformation and combination as well as data and information tools that can assist the public health and science community to use existing and anticipated products in new and flexible ways. This presentation will provide an inventory of geophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing sensors that are useful for GIS-based public health studies. The presentation will also discuss the physical and scientific limitations of access to and use of these data for health applications such as resolution and format differences, lack of software interoperability, data access problems. Finally, there will be a summary of the recent steps the NASA program has taken to bring NASA-generated satellite products to a wider range of users in the GIS community.

  14. Using GIS for verification of bathymetric data from Long Island sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grim, Muriel S.; Seekins, Barbara A.; Chase, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate depiction of the topography of the seafloor in coastal areas is needed for modeling of ecosystems and processes, and also as a framework for analyzing and displaying information used in management decisions. Often, errors must be corrected before acquired digital data bases can be used. To create an acceptable data set, two corrected versions of a Long Island Sound data base were compared with each other and with contours produced prior to the compilation of the digital data base.

  15. Baseline arsenic levels in marine and terrestrial resources from a pristine environment: Isabel Island, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Grinham, Alistair; Kvennefors, Charlotte; Fisher, Paul L; Gibbes, Badin; Albert, Simon

    2014-11-15

    Baseline records are crucial in understanding how chemicals of concern impact on the receiving environment. We analysed terrestrial and marine resources from a pristine site on Isabel Island, Solomon Islands, to provide environmental baseline levels for total arsenic and arsenic species composition for commonly consumed marine resources. Our data show that levels of the more toxic inorganic arsenic species were very low or below detectable limits, with the exception of the seaweed Sargassum sp. that contained pentavalent inorganic arsenic levels of 4.63 μg g(-1). Total arsenic concentrations in the majority of marine and terrestrial samples collected were below 2 μg g(-1). The less toxic arsenobetaine was the predominant arsenic species present in all marine fauna samples analysed. This work highlights the need for arsenic speciation analysis to accurately assess potential toxicity of marine resources and provides a crucial baseline to assess the impact of future development within this region. PMID:25199709

  16. Baseline arsenic levels in marine and terrestrial resources from a pristine environment: Isabel Island, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Grinham, Alistair; Kvennefors, Charlotte; Fisher, Paul L; Gibbes, Badin; Albert, Simon

    2014-11-15

    Baseline records are crucial in understanding how chemicals of concern impact on the receiving environment. We analysed terrestrial and marine resources from a pristine site on Isabel Island, Solomon Islands, to provide environmental baseline levels for total arsenic and arsenic species composition for commonly consumed marine resources. Our data show that levels of the more toxic inorganic arsenic species were very low or below detectable limits, with the exception of the seaweed Sargassum sp. that contained pentavalent inorganic arsenic levels of 4.63 μg g(-1). Total arsenic concentrations in the majority of marine and terrestrial samples collected were below 2 μg g(-1). The less toxic arsenobetaine was the predominant arsenic species present in all marine fauna samples analysed. This work highlights the need for arsenic speciation analysis to accurately assess potential toxicity of marine resources and provides a crucial baseline to assess the impact of future development within this region.

  17. A GIS Analysis of Seagrass Resources and Condition Within Padre Island National Seashore, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Onuf, Christopher P.; Ingold, Jaimie J.

    2007-01-01

    A survey of the seagrass resources of Padre Island National Seashore was conducted in fall 2002 and 2003, with additional sampling through 2006, to resolve distribution questions. Location coordinates were recorded to thousandths of minutes of latitude and longitude and converted to decimal degrees (minus decimal degrees for longitude) for import into ArcView (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.). The seagrass core frequency data were developed as a theme in ArcView and overlaid on digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles of the U.S. Geological Survey to show sample depth with respect to mean sea level and frequency of occurrence of seagrass for five samples collected from every station sampled. These data were used to draw boundaries of area submerged at mean sea level and seagrass meadow in relation to the boundary of Padre Island National Seashore. Frequency of seagrass occurrence, mean plant height, shoot density, plant height multiplied by shoot density, live biomass, and dead biomass on a 1' latitude by 0.25' longitude grid were collected, and their distribution was plotted in space and according to depth. A User Guide for displaying data in ArcView is included at the end of this report. Seagrasses covered almost two-thirds of the regularly flooded part of Laguna Madre within the borders of Padre Island National Seashore. Comparisons with earlier surveys showed that substantial areas of seagrass cover had been lost in deep water between 1988 and 1998 as a result of a persistent phytoplankton bloom, and little recovery has occurred since. Maximum depth of seagrass occurrence responded to changes in water clarity. In contrast, much of the cover at shallow to intermediate depths lost at the south end of the study area between 1988 and 1998 was replaced by 2003. The seven stations with greatest plant height were located in this area of recent recolonization. Continuity of cover as measured by frequency of occurrence was high except near the edge of

  18. MATISSE: a meteorological aviation supporting system developed in a GIS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rillo, Valeria; Mercogliano, Paola

    2014-05-01

    Awareness of weather conditions plays an increasing role in different societal and economic sectors, in particular the aviation one which is very sensitive to the meteorological conditions. In fact, adverse meteorological conditions are among the most important causes of accidents causing human and economic losses. For these reasons it is crucial to monitor and nowcast such events and avoid risks during all the flight phases. In this framework CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Center) has implemented MATISSE (Meteorological AviaTIon Supporting SystEm), an ArcGIS Desktop Plug in, in order to detect and forecast meteorological aviation hazards over the main European airports, by using different sources of meteorological data (synoptic information, satellite data, numerical weather prediction models outputs). Such functionalities are realized after a preprocessing of raw data achieving more complex information, useful for the detection and the forecast of aviation hazards. After that, the data are stored in a database used by ArcGIS and further processed in order to provide maps, graphs and statistics. MATISSE presents a dockable toolbar in a GIS environment, allowing the user to easily select and visualize the desired information. In particular, the user can access to real time functionalities and visualize, on a map, the chosen meteorological hazard or variable (such as visibility conditions, cumulonimbi, wind speeds and directions, present weather, pressure, relative humidity, past weather, cloud cover, height of base of clouds, cloud type, geopotential, altimeter settings, three hour pressure change) over an airport or an area of interest (Europe, Italy). Such variables are represented in a user friendly way, by using simple icons easy to understand and reporting the risk level for aviation in order to provide pilots information about the meteorological conditions during the flight and the following hours. MATISSE, in fact, is able to handle the output of COSMO LM

  19. Physical processes affecting the sedimentary environments of Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, R.P.; Knebel, H. J.; List, J.H.; Farris, A.S.; ,

    1997-01-01

    A modeling study was undertaken to simulate the bottom tidal-, wave-, and wind-driven currents in Long Island Sound in order to provide a general physical oceanographic framework for understanding the characteristics and distribution of seafloor sedimentary environments. Tidal currents are important in the funnel-shaped eastern part of the Sound, where a strong gradient of tidal-current speed was found. This current gradient parallels the general westward progression of sedimentary environments from erosion or non-deposition, through bedload transport and sediment sorting, to fine-grained deposition. Wave-driven currents, meanwhile, appear to be important along the shallow margins of the basin, explaining the occurrence of relatively coarse sediments in regions where tidal currents alone are not strong enough to move sediment. Finally, westerly wind events are shown to locally enhance bottom currents along the axial depression of the sound, providing a possible explanation for the relatively coarse sediments found in the depression despite tide- and wave-induced currents below the threshold of sediment movement. The strong correlation between the near-bottom current intensity based on the model results and the sediment response as indicated by the distribution of sedimentary environments provides a framework for predicting the long-term effects of anthropogenic activities.

  20. Coastal changes in sedimentary environments on Disko Island, western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Nielsen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change affects Arctic coasts. A rising sea level, increasing fresh water fluxes from glaciers, and decreasing sea-ice extent increase the pressure on the sedimentary areas in these high-latitude regions. In Arctic coastal environments, permafrost, sea-ice, and fluvial input from glacial melt water have an impact in controlling the evolution of the coast. In this study we present the results of annual to decadal coastal changes (rates of change in shoreline positions) along the southern Disko Island in Greenland. These changes are detected and quantified using rectified aerial photos and satellite images. The oldest images used are from the 1940's and the most recent one was 2012. Additional field-measurements are made to identify the responsible processes that cause the coastal development in more detail. The southern coast of Disko Island includes two distinct sedimentary deltas: Skansen and Tuapaat. They consist of sandy, gravelly, and pebbly material. Lagoons, spits, and beaches are present on these deltas and our analyses reveal that these characteristic coastal features have undergone significant morphological changes within the last 60 years: The identified changes within the deltas show a migration of the delta mouths over more than 400 m in an eastward direction, and thus closure of the former inlets. These rapid coastal responses are probably caused by a combination of a shift in channel lobe on the delta plain after 1985, combined with a predominant wave-driven alongshore sediment transport to the east. The shift in delta channels is often recognized as the main responsible agent in controlling the evolution of the sedimentary sites.

  1. Lemur traits and Madagascar ecology: coping with an island environment.

    PubMed

    Wright, P C

    1999-01-01

    The last decade's lemur research includes successes in discovering new living and extinct species and learning about the distribution, biogeography, physiology, behavior, and ecology of previously little-studied species. In addition, in both the dry forest and rain forest, long-term studies of lemur demography, life history, and reproduction, have been completed in conjunction with data on tree productivity, phenology, and climate. Lemurs contrast with anthropoids in several behavioral features, including female dominance, targeted female-female aggression, lack of sexual dimorphism regardless of mating system, sperm competition coupled with male-male aggression, high infant mortality, cathemerality, and strict seasonal breeding. Hypotheses to explain these traits include the "energy conservation hypothesis" (ECH) suggesting that harsh and unpredictable climate factors on the island of Madagascar have affected the evolution of female dominance, and the "evolutionary disequilibrium hypotheses" (EVDH) suggesting that the recent megafauna extinctions have influenced lemurs to become diurnal. These hypotheses are compared and contrasted in light of recent empirical data on climate, subfossils, and lemur behavior. New data on life histories of the rain forest lemurs at Ranomafana National Park give further support to the ECH. Birth seasons are synchronized within each species, but there is a 6-month distribution of births among species. Gestation and lactation lengths vary among sympatric lemurs, but all lemur species in the rain forest wean in synchrony at the season most likely to have abundant resources. Across-species weaning synchrony seen in Ranomafana corroborates data from the dry forest that late lactation and weaning is the life history event that is the primary focus of the annual schedule. Lemur adaptations may assure maximum offspring survival in this environment with an unpredictable food supply and heavy predation. In conclusion, a more comprehensive

  2. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in western Block Island Sound, offshore of Fishers Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Winner, William G.; Parker, Castle E.

    2015-01-01

    Multibeam-bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 114-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, southeast of Fishers Island, New York, are combined with sediment samples and bottom photography collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 36 stations in this area in order to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These interpretations and datasets provide base maps for studies on benthic ecology and resource management. The geologic features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the area’s glacial history and modern processes. These features include bedrock, drumlins, boulders, cobbles, large current-scoured bathymetric depressions, obstacle marks, and glaciolacustrine sediments found in high-energy sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition; and sand waves and megaripples in sedimentary environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Trawl marks are preserved in lower energy environments of sorting and reworking. This report releases the multibeam-bathymetric, sidescan-sonar, sediment, and photographic data and interpretations of the features and sedimentary environments in Block Island Sound, offshore Fishers Island.

  3. Seafloor environments in the Long Island Sound estuarine system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Signell, R.P.; Rendigs, R. R.; Poppe, L.J.; List, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Four categories of modern seafloor sedimentary environments have been identified and mapped across the large, glaciated, topographically complex Long Island Sound estuary by means of an extensive regional set of sidescan sonographs, bottom samples, and video-camera observations and supplemental marine-geologic and modeled physical-oceanographic data. (1) Environments of erosion or nondeposition contain sediments which range from boulder fields to gravelly coarse-to-medium sands and appear on the sonographs either as patterns with isolated reflections (caused by outcrops of glacial drift and bedrock) or as patterns of strong backscatter (caused by coarse lag deposits). Areas of erosion or nondeposition were found across the rugged seafloor at the eastern entrance of the Sound and atop bathymetric highs and within constricted depressions in other parts of the basin. (2) Environments of bedload transport contain mostly coarse-to-fine sand with only small amounts of mud and are depicted by sonograph patterns of sand ribbons and sand waves. Areas of bedload transport were found primarily in the eastern Sound where bottom currents have sculptured the surface of a Holocene marine delta and are moving these sediments toward the WSW into the estuary. (3) Environments of sediment sorting and reworking comprise variable amounts of fine sand and mud and are characterized either by patterns of moderate backscatter or by patterns with patches of moderate-to-weak backscatter that reflect a combination of erosion and deposition. Areas of sediment sorting and reworking were found around the periphery of the zone of bedload transport in the eastern Sound and along the southern nearshore margin. They also are located atop low knolls, on the flanks of shoal complexes, and within segments of the axial depression in the western Sound. (4) Environments of deposition are blanketed by muds and muddy fine sands that produce patterns of uniformly weak backscatter. Depositional areas occupy

  4. Genome Island: A Virtual Science Environment in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    Mary Anne CLark describes the organization and uses of Genome Island, a virtual laboratory complex constructed in Second Life. Genome Island was created for teaching genetics to university undergraduates but also provides a public space where anyone interested in genetics can spend a few minutes, or a few hours, interacting with genetic…

  5. Remote sensing and GIS for the modeling of persistent organic pollutant in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzini, S.; Teggi, S.; Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-10-01

    The characterization of the marine environment plays an important role in the understanding of the dynamics affecting the transport, fate and persistence (TFP) of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This work is part of a project funded by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca. The aim of the project is the assessment of the TFP of POPs in the Mediterranean sea. The analysis will be carried out at regionalmesoscale (central Mediterranean), and at local spatial scale considering different Italian test sites (the Delta of the Po River, the Venice Lagoon and the estuary of the Rio Nocella). The first step of this work involves the implementation of GIS geodatabases for the definition of the input dataset. The geodatabases were populated with MERIS and MODIS level 2 and level 3 products of Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient (DAC), Particulate Inorganic Carbon (PIC), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The spatial scale (central Mediterranean sea) and the reference system (Plate Carrée projection) have been imposed as a constraint for the geodatabases. Four geodatabases have been implemented, two for MODIS and two for MERIS products with a monthly, seasonal and climatological temporal scale (2002 -2013). Here, we present a first application of a methodology aimed to identify vulnerable areas to POPs accumulation and persistence. The methodology allowed to assess the spatial distribution of the CHL-a in the central Mediterranean sea. The chlorophyll concentration is related to the amount of nutrients in the water and therefore provides an indicator of the potential presence of POPs. A pilot area of 300 x 200 km located in the North Adriatic sea has been initially considered. The seasonal and climatological MODIS and MERIS CHL-a variability were retrieved and compared with in-situ forcing parameters, i.e. Po River

  6. Utilizing Multibeam Bathymetry and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Expand Our Mapping Ability of Potential Rockfish Benthic Habitats in the San Juan Islands, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Slatten, K.

    2013-12-01

    In order to construct an accurate cartographic representation of the potential rockfish habitat zone in the San Juan Archipelago, Washington, bathymetric data is needed to form layers within Geographic Information Systems (GIS) that include, but are not limited to, slope, hillshade, and aspect. Backscatter data is also important in order to demonstrate the induration of the marine floor, which in turn may tell the researcher what type of sediment and substrate makes up that part of the benthic region. Once these layers are added to the GIS map, another layer (referred to as Potential Benthic Habitats) is created and inserted. This layer uses the same induration data but groups them into polygons, which are then color-coded and displayed on the map. With all the layers now pictured, it is clear that the intertidal zones are not complete. Aerial photographs are then added to fill in the gaps according to the GPS coordinates associated with the middle section of each picture. When all pictures and layers have been included, the GIS map is a somewhat three-dimensional, color-coordinated, aerial photograph enhanced depiction of Skipjack, Waldron, Orcas, and Sucia Islands. The bathymetric and backscatter data are plugged into Excel to graphically illustrate specific numbers that represent the various potential habitats. The given data support the idea that potential rockfish habitat (Sedimentary Bedrock and Fractured Bedrock) must be closely monitored and maintained in attempt to preserve and conserve the three either threatened or endangered rockfish species within the Puget Sound locale.

  7. Monitoring Environment with GIS for Part of Thiruvallur Town Using Cartosat 1 Stereo, Pan & Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, G. S.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Ramamurthhy, M.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Ramillah, M.

    2012-07-01

    of Thiruvallur Municipality Area between North Western Thiruvallur town from the Temple Tank of Sri Veeraragavasamy temple to junction of National Highways connecting Thiruvallur to Tirupathi and Thiruvallur- Poondi- Uthukottai at the West. These data are used to create environment monitoring GIS to understand the use of High resolution Indian satellite data for local urban environmental planning to manage the health and environmental issues. ARC GIS 10 and Lieca photogrammetry software are used with satellite data to create different layer for creating GIS on urban infrastructure like houses, public buildings, roads, municipal surface drainage net work, underground sewerage drainage net work, drinking water pipe lines net work, landfills, solid waste disposal yards, pumping stations, degraded areas, heath services infrastructure, wet lands , low lying areas with bushes, abandoned lakes which are the breeding grounds for mosquito's in rainy season, etc These layers are correlated with the municipal ward map of this segment of the town. The stereo data of Cartosat 1 is useful for mapping the households, roads, agricultural fields, bushy areas, slopes to map the natural drainage of the area and for delineation of micro watersheds. When the layer of municipal ward maps are integrated with the GIS the drainage, drinking water lines, street names and house numbers etc can be added to the attribute data to make this as a complete Environment management GIS. The use of PAN merged data of Cartosat 1 with LISS 4, MSS Resourcesat 1 in natural colour and it's cost effectiveness is studied to explain the usefulness of creation of Environment Health GIS. The non stereo Geo Eye latest data from Google Earth web site or Cartosat 2 can be used for upgrading the land use changes and identify current environmental as on 2011.The study will provide GIS to monitor environmental issues with multi date large scale data for Thiruvallur Town.

  8. ArcGeomorphometry: A toolbox for geomorphometric characterisation of DEMs in the ArcGIS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigol-Sanchez, Juan P.; Stuart, Neil; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    A software tool is described for the extraction of geomorphometric land surface variables and features from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The ArcGeomorphometry Toolbox consists of a series of Python/Numpy processing functions, presented through an easy-to-use graphical menu for the widely used ArcGIS package. Although many GIS provide some operations for analysing DEMs, the methods are often only partially implemented and can be difficult to find and used effectively. Since the results of automated characterisation of landscapes from DEMs are influenced by the extent being considered, the resolution of the source DEM and the size of the kernel (analysis window) used for processing, we have developed a tool to allow GIS users to flexibly apply several multi-scale analysis methods to parameterise and classify a DEM into discrete land surface units. Users can control the threshold values for land surface classifications. The size of the processing kernel can be used to identify land surface features across a range of landscape scales. The pattern of land surface units from each attempt at classification is displayed immediately and can then be processed in the GIS alongside additional data that can assist with a visual assessment and comparison of a series of results. The functionality of the ArcGeomorphometry toolbox is described using an example DEM.

  9. FOSS GIS on the GFZ HPC cluster: Towards a service-oriented Scientific Geocomputation Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewe, P.; Klump, J.; Thaler, J.

    2012-12-01

    High performance compute clusters can be used as geocomputation workbenches. Their wealth of resources enables us to take on geocomputation tasks which exceed the limitations of smaller systems. These general capabilities can be harnessed via tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS), provided they are able to utilize the available cluster configuration/architecture and provide a sufficient degree of user friendliness to allow for wide application. While server-level computing is clearly not sufficient for the growing numbers of data- or computation-intense tasks undertaken, these tasks do not get even close to the requirements needed for access to "top shelf" national cluster facilities. So until recently such kind of geocomputation research was effectively barred due to lack access to of adequate resources. In this paper we report on the experiences gained by providing GRASS GIS as a software service on a HPC compute cluster at the German Research Centre for Geosciences using Platform Computing's Load Sharing Facility (LSF). GRASS GIS is the oldest and largest Free Open Source (FOSS) GIS project. During ramp up in 2011, multiple versions of GRASS GIS (v 6.4.2, 6.5 and 7.0) were installed on the HPC compute cluster, which currently consists of 234 nodes with 480 CPUs providing 3084 cores. Nineteen different processing queues with varying hardware capabilities and priorities are provided, allowing for fine-grained scheduling and load balancing. After successful initial testing, mechanisms were developed to deploy scripted geocomputation tasks onto dedicated processing queues. The mechanisms are based on earlier work by NETELER et al. (2008) and allow to use all 3084 cores for GRASS based geocomputation work. However, in practice applications are limited to fewer resources as assigned to their respective queue. Applications of the new GIS functionality comprise so far of hydrological analysis, remote sensing and the generation of maps of simulated tsunamis

  10. A working environment for digital planetary data processing and mapping using ISIS and GRASS GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigeri, Alessandro; Hare, Trent; Neteler, Markus; Coradini, Angioletta; Federico, Costanzo; Orosei, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Since the beginning of planetary exploration, mapping has been fundamental to summarize observations returned by scientific missions. Sensor-based mapping has been used to highlight specific features from the planetary surfaces by means of processing. Interpretative mapping makes use of instrumental observations to produce thematic maps that summarize observations of actual data into a specific theme. Geologic maps, for example, are thematic interpretative maps that focus on the representation of materials and processes and their relative timing. The advancements in technology of the last 30 years have allowed us to develop specialized systems where the mapping process can be made entirely in the digital domain. The spread of networked computers on a global scale allowed the rapid propagation of software and digital data such that every researcher can now access digital mapping facilities on his desktop. The efforts to maintain planetary missions data accessible to the scientific community have led to the creation of standardized digital archives that facilitate the access to different datasets by software capable of processing these data from the raw level to the map projected one. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed to optimize the storage, the analysis, and the retrieval of spatially referenced Earth based environmental geodata; since the last decade these computer programs have become popular among the planetary science community, and recent mission data start to be distributed in formats compatible with these systems. Among all the systems developed for the analysis of planetary and spatially referenced data, we have created a working environment combining two software suites that have similar characteristics in their modular design, their development history, their policy of distribution and their support system. The first, the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) developed by the United States Geological Survey

  11. A working environment for digital planetary data processing and mapping using ISIS and GRASS GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frigeri, A.; Hare, T.; Neteler, M.; Coradini, A.; Federico, C.; Orosei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of planetary exploration, mapping has been fundamental to summarize observations returned by scientific missions. Sensor-based mapping has been used to highlight specific features from the planetary surfaces by means of processing. Interpretative mapping makes use of instrumental observations to produce thematic maps that summarize observations of actual data into a specific theme. Geologic maps, for example, are thematic interpretative maps that focus on the representation of materials and processes and their relative timing. The advancements in technology of the last 30 years have allowed us to develop specialized systems where the mapping process can be made entirely in the digital domain. The spread of networked computers on a global scale allowed the rapid propagation of software and digital data such that every researcher can now access digital mapping facilities on his desktop. The efforts to maintain planetary missions data accessible to the scientific community have led to the creation of standardized digital archives that facilitate the access to different datasets by software capable of processing these data from the raw level to the map projected one. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed to optimize the storage, the analysis, and the retrieval of spatially referenced Earth based environmental geodata; since the last decade these computer programs have become popular among the planetary science community, and recent mission data start to be distributed in formats compatible with these systems. Among all the systems developed for the analysis of planetary and spatially referenced data, we have created a working environment combining two software suites that have similar characteristics in their modular design, their development history, their policy of distribution and their support system. The first, the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) developed by the United States Geological Survey

  12. Historical GIS Data and Changes in Urban Morphological Parameters for the Analysis of Urban Heat Islands in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, F.; Wong, M. S.; Nichol, J. E.; Chan, P. W.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid urban development between the 1960 and 2010 decades have changed the urban landscape and pattern in the Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong. This paper aims to study the changes of urban morphological parameters between the 1985 and 2010 and explore their influences on the urban heat island (UHI) effect. This study applied a mono-window algorithm to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1987 to 2009. In order to estimate the effects of local urban morphological parameters to LST, the global surface temperature anomaly was analysed. Historical 3D building model was developed based on aerial photogrammetry technique using aerial photographs from 1964 to 2010, in which the urban digital surface models (DSMs) including elevations of infrastructures and buildings have been generated. Then, urban morphological parameters (i.e. frontal area index (FAI), sky view factor (SVF)), vegetation fractional cover (VFC), global solar radiation (GSR), Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI), wind speed were derived. Finally, a linear regression method in Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) was used to build prediction model for revealing LST spatial patterns. Results show that the final apparent surface temperature have uncertainties less than 1 degree Celsius. The comparison between the simulated and actual spatial pattern of LST in 2009 showed that the correlation coefficient is 0.65, mean absolute error (MAE) is 1.24 degree Celsius, and root mean square error (RMSE) is 1.51 degree Celsius of 22,429 pixels.

  13. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based statistical models and Remote sensing data in tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Himan; Hashim, Mazlan

    2015-04-22

    This research presents the results of the GIS-based statistical models for generation of landslide susceptibility mapping using geographic information system (GIS) and remote-sensing data for Cameron Highlands area in Malaysia. Ten factors including slope, aspect, soil, lithology, NDVI, land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from SAR data, SPOT 5 and WorldView-1 images. The relationships between the detected landslide locations and these ten related factors were identified by using GIS-based statistical models including analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) models. The landslide inventory map which has a total of 92 landslide locations was created based on numerous resources such as digital aerial photographs, AIRSAR data, WorldView-1 images, and field surveys. Then, 80% of the landslide inventory was used for training the statistical models and the remaining 20% was used for validation purpose. The validation results using the Relative landslide density index (R-index) and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) demonstrated that the SMCE model (accuracy is 96%) is better in prediction than AHP (accuracy is 91%) and WLC (accuracy is 89%) models. These landslide susceptibility maps would be useful for hazard mitigation purpose and regional planning.

  14. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based statistical models and Remote sensing data in tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Himan; Hashim, Mazlan

    2015-01-01

    This research presents the results of the GIS-based statistical models for generation of landslide susceptibility mapping using geographic information system (GIS) and remote-sensing data for Cameron Highlands area in Malaysia. Ten factors including slope, aspect, soil, lithology, NDVI, land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from SAR data, SPOT 5 and WorldView-1 images. The relationships between the detected landslide locations and these ten related factors were identified by using GIS-based statistical models including analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) models. The landslide inventory map which has a total of 92 landslide locations was created based on numerous resources such as digital aerial photographs, AIRSAR data, WorldView-1 images, and field surveys. Then, 80% of the landslide inventory was used for training the statistical models and the remaining 20% was used for validation purpose. The validation results using the Relative landslide density index (R-index) and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) demonstrated that the SMCE model (accuracy is 96%) is better in prediction than AHP (accuracy is 91%) and WLC (accuracy is 89%) models. These landslide susceptibility maps would be useful for hazard mitigation purpose and regional planning. PMID:25898919

  15. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based statistical models and Remote sensing data in tropical environment

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Mazlan

    2015-01-01

    This research presents the results of the GIS-based statistical models for generation of landslide susceptibility mapping using geographic information system (GIS) and remote-sensing data for Cameron Highlands area in Malaysia. Ten factors including slope, aspect, soil, lithology, NDVI, land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from SAR data, SPOT 5 and WorldView-1 images. The relationships between the detected landslide locations and these ten related factors were identified by using GIS-based statistical models including analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) models. The landslide inventory map which has a total of 92 landslide locations was created based on numerous resources such as digital aerial photographs, AIRSAR data, WorldView-1 images, and field surveys. Then, 80% of the landslide inventory was used for training the statistical models and the remaining 20% was used for validation purpose. The validation results using the Relative landslide density index (R-index) and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) demonstrated that the SMCE model (accuracy is 96%) is better in prediction than AHP (accuracy is 91%) and WLC (accuracy is 89%) models. These landslide susceptibility maps would be useful for hazard mitigation purpose and regional planning. PMID:25898919

  16. Uav Application in Coastal Environment, Example of the Oleron Island for Dunes and Dikes Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, B.; Pouget, F.

    2015-08-01

    The recent evolutions in civil UAV ease of use led the University of La Rochelle to conduct an UAV program around its own potential costal application. An application program involving La Rochelle University and the District of Oleron Island began in January 2015 and lasted through July of 2015. The aims were to choose 9 study areas and survey them during the winter season. The studies concerned surveying the dikes and coastal sand dunes of Oleron Island. During each flight, an action sport camera fixed on the UAV's brushless gimbal took a series of 150 pictures. After processing the photographs and using a 3D reconstruction plugin via Photoscan, we were able to export high-resolution ortho-imagery, DSM and 3D models. After applying GIS treatment to these images, volumetric evolutions between flights were revealed through a DDVM (Difference of Digital volumetric Model), in order to study sand movements on coastal sand dunes.

  17. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions. PMID:27441230

  18. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  19. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  20. Prototyping an in-field collaborative environment for landscape decision support by linking GIS with a game engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Stock, Christian; Bishop, Ian D.; O'Connor, Alice N.

    2006-10-01

    With public environmental awareness increasing, there are growing prospects for access to real-time data anytime and everywhere for decision support involving multiple users not only office-based but also remotely. This paper describes the development of a prototype system implementing an in-field collaborative visualisation environment in order to facilitate decision support in landscape planning and environmental management. Our initial development is based on live linking GIS with a fully immersive collaborative virtual decision environment which uses the commercial low-cost Torque Game Engine (TGE, www.garagegames.com). Game engines provide efficient image rendering, a built-in editor for interactive processing of terrain surface features and, in particular, sophisticated and robust client/server networked functionality for multi-user access. Anticipated research activities include the development of an interfacing Augmented Reality (AR) extension to the system, terrain feature library establishment and the deployment of a pilot project including in field mobile observation.

  1. Geomorphology and depositional sub-environments of Assateague Island MD/VA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Bracone, Jeremy E.; Cooke, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is studying coastal hazards and coastal change to improve our understanding of coastal ecosystems and to develop better capabilities of predicting future coastal change. One approach to understanding the dynamics of coastal systems is to monitor changes in barrier-island sub-environments through time. This involves examining morphological and topographic change at time scales ranging from millennia to years and space scales ranging from tens of kilometers to meters. Of particular interest are the processes that produce those changes and determining whether or not those processes are likely to persist into the future. In these analyses of hazards and change, both natural and anthropogenic influences are considered. Quantifying past magnitudes and rates of coastal change and knowing the principal factors that govern those changes are critical to predicting what changes are likely to occur under different scenarios, such as short-term impacts of extreme storms or long-term impacts of sea-level rise. Assateague Island MD/VA was selected for detailed mapping of barrier island morphology and topography because the island offers a diversity of depositional sub-environments that are representative of other barrier islands along the middle Atlantic coast. The geomorphology and sub-environment map emphasizes the origins of the surficial features and it also serves as a basis for documenting which sub-environments are relatively stable, such as the barrier island core, and those that are highly dynamic, such as the beach and active overwash zones.

  2. A simulation method for the stability analysis of landscape scenarios by using a NetLogo application in GIS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobattoni, Federica; Lauro, Giuliana; Leone, Antonio; Monaco, Roberto; Pelorosso, Raffaele

    2010-05-01

    could be able to predict the response of the landscape working as a unique system, are expected to advance through a development of sustainable planning strategies and to evaluate the equilibrium-non equilibrium status of landscape evolution and the availability of vital resources in space and time. In this context mathematical models adapted in GIS environment may really give an heavy contribution in such a complex problem- solving, providing a real and concrete Decision System Support. An integrated GIS (Geographic Information System)-based approach was developed (G. Lauro, R. Monaco, 2008) combining an ecological graph model for the analysis of the relationship between spatial pattern and ecological flows and a mathematical model, based on a system of two nonlinear differential equations, that studies meta-stability and bifurcation phenomena. These equations are mainly based on a balance law between a logistic growth of bio-energy and its reduction due to limiting factors coming from environmental constraints. The energy exchange among them will be more or less strong depending on the degree of permeability of the barriers which can obstruct the energy passage from each "landscape unit" to the other. Through NetLogo, a cross-platform multi-agent programmable modelling environment, a completely automatic GIS-based mathematical model, based on the ecological graph and on the cited two differential equations, is presented and discussed here. A study case in Central Italy is analysed to better underline the importance of such a user friendly model in GIS environment.

  3. Soil erosion assessment and its correlation with landslide events using remote sensing data and GIS: a case study at Penang Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Chaudhari, Amruta; Adinarayana, J; Buchroithner, Manfred F

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess, prognosis and observe dynamism of soil erosion by universal soil loss equation (USLE) method at Penang Island, Malaysia. Multi-source (map-, space- and ground-based) datasets were used to obtain both static and dynamic factors of USLE, and an integrated analysis was carried out in raster format of GIS. A landslide location map was generated on the basis of image elements interpretation from aerial photos, satellite data and field observations and was used to validate soil erosion intensity in the study area. Further, a statistical-based frequency ratio analysis was carried out in the study area for correlation purposes. The results of the statistical correlation showed a satisfactory agreement between the prepared USLE-based soil erosion map and landslide events/locations, and are directly proportional to each other. Prognosis analysis on soil erosion helps the user agencies/decision makers to design proper conservation planning program to reduce soil erosion. Temporal statistics on soil erosion in these dynamic and rapid developments in Penang Island indicate the co-existence and balance of ecosystem.

  4. Soil erosion assessment and its correlation with landslide events using remote sensing data and GIS: a case study at Penang Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Chaudhari, Amruta; Adinarayana, J; Buchroithner, Manfred F

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess, prognosis and observe dynamism of soil erosion by universal soil loss equation (USLE) method at Penang Island, Malaysia. Multi-source (map-, space- and ground-based) datasets were used to obtain both static and dynamic factors of USLE, and an integrated analysis was carried out in raster format of GIS. A landslide location map was generated on the basis of image elements interpretation from aerial photos, satellite data and field observations and was used to validate soil erosion intensity in the study area. Further, a statistical-based frequency ratio analysis was carried out in the study area for correlation purposes. The results of the statistical correlation showed a satisfactory agreement between the prepared USLE-based soil erosion map and landslide events/locations, and are directly proportional to each other. Prognosis analysis on soil erosion helps the user agencies/decision makers to design proper conservation planning program to reduce soil erosion. Temporal statistics on soil erosion in these dynamic and rapid developments in Penang Island indicate the co-existence and balance of ecosystem. PMID:21509515

  5. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

  6. Coastal Hazard Analyses and the Dynamic Capabilities of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Z. J.; Pitts, L. R.

    2002-05-01

    The dynamic synthesis and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information System software (GIS) are uniquely suited for assessments of coastal flood hazards across barrier islands. The ability of GIS to georeference and unify datasets of various temporal and spatial scales is enabling coastal scientists and engineers at Dewberry and Davis LLC, in support of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's National Flood Insurance Program, to evaluate changes over time to coastal barriers along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico shorelines. Utilizing GIS technology the geomorphic evolution of barriers, both storm induced and anthropogenic, is introduced into coastal models with increased flexibility and efficiency. The dynamic nature of GIS enables professionals at Dewberry and Davis LLC to rapidly assess the impacts of environmental changes in the littoral zone such as hardened seawall construction, beach nourishment projects, and storm induced erosion. In the GIS environment, sensitivity analyses in response to these episodic, catastrophic, and human-induced changes across barrier islands become possible at lower cost and with greater precision than feasible with standard methods. Advancement and proliferation of coastal digital datasets, particularly digital terrain data and digital aerial imagery, necessitate a high level of flexibility in the process of modeling coastal hazards. Professionals at Dewberry and Davis LLC are continually developing customized extensions to enhance the functionality of GIS in the development of flood hazard modeling and mapping relative to the dynamic nature of the coastal zone.

  7. Intraspecific Colour Variation among Lizards in Distinct Island Environments Enhances Local Camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kate L. A.; Philpot, Kate E.; Damas-Moreira, Isabel; Stevens, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Within-species colour variation is widespread among animals. Understanding how this arises can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms, such as those underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. Here, we investigated whether five island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) have more effective camouflage against their own (local) island substrates than against other (non-local) island substrates to avian predators, and whether this was linked to island differences in substrate appearance. We also investigated whether degree of local substrate matching varied among island populations and between sexes. In most populations, both sexes were better matched against local backgrounds than against non-local backgrounds, particularly in terms of luminance (perceived lightness), which usually occurred when local and non-local backgrounds were different in appearance. This was found even between island populations that historically had a land connection and in populations that have been isolated relatively recently, suggesting that isolation in these distinct island environments has been sufficient to cause enhanced local background matching, sometimes on a rapid evolutionary time-scale. However, heightened local matching was poorer in populations inhabiting more variable and unstable environments with a prolonged history of volcanic activity. Overall, these results show that lizard coloration is tuned to provide camouflage in local environments, either due to genetic adaptation or changes during development. Yet, the occurrence and extent of selection for local matching may depend on specific conditions associated with local ecology and biogeographic history. These results emphasize how anti-predator adaptations to different environments can drive divergence within a species, which may contribute to reproductive isolation among populations and lead to ecological speciation. PMID:26372454

  8. Sedimentary environments, evolution, and stratigraphic framework of laterally prograding transgressive barrier complex: Timbalier Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Isacks, T.S.; Moslow, T.F.

    1986-05-01

    Timbalier Island is a beach-ridge barrier flanking the abandoned late Lafourche deltaic lobe on the south-central Louisiana coast. Twenty-five vibracores (5-9 m) and 12 short cores were acquired in a variety of sub-aerial, intertidal, and subaqueous environments of this barrier complex. These cores, coupled with detailed shoreline change maps, indicate that the island's migration, evolution, and stratigraphy are complex and variable. Since 1887, Timbalier Island has laterally migrated approximately 6 km to the northwest, while the adjacent inlet (Cat Island Pass) migrated 2.5 km. Due to this extensive lateral progradation at the western end of the island, the following sequence is found: (1) bay/lagoon, (2) lowerspit platform/shoreface, (3) upper spit platform/shoreface, (4) foreshore, (5) backbeach, and (6) dune. An upward decrease in burrowing and increase in physical sedimentary structures, grain size, percent sand, and sorting are observed. None of the cored sequences resemble the tidal inlet channel-spit platform models observed elsewhere but, instead, mimic regressive shoreface sequences. During the island's evolution, the interior beach ridges subsided in response to compactional subsidence and became vegetated by a Spartina and Avicennia (mangrove) marsh. In this central-interior part of the island, the progradational sequence is capped by an aggradational (0.5-1 m thick) marsh deposit.

  9. Determination of impact crater size-frequency distributions in GIS environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissl, Thomas; van Gasselt, Stephan; Neukum, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) of impact craters on planetary surfaces is a well-established method to derive absolute ages on the basis of remotelysensed image data. Although modelling approaches and the derivation of absolute ages from a given CSFD have been described in considerable depth since the late 1960s, there is no standardized methodology and guideline for measuring impact-crater diameters and area sizes that are both needed in order to determine absolute ages in a correct way. Distortions of distances (i.e., diameters) and areas within different map projections are considerable error sources within this measurement phase. In order to address that problem and to minimize such errors, a software extension for ESRI's ArcMap (ArcGIS) has been developed where CSFDs on planetary surfaces can be measured independently of image and data frame map projections and which can be theoretically transferred to every GI system capable of working with different map projections. Using this new approach each digitized impact crater is internally projected to a stereographic map projection with the crater's central-point set as the projection center. In this projection the circle is defined without any distortion of its shape (i.e., conformality). Using a sinusoidal map projection with a center longitude set to the crater's centralpoint, the diameter of the impact crater is measured along this central meridian which is true-scale and does not show any distortion. The crater is re-projected to the map projection of the current data frame and stored as vector geometry with attributes (shapefile). Output of this workflow comprises correct impact-crater diameters and area sizes in sinusoidal map projections and can be used for further processing, e.g., absolute age determinations. For GIS-based measurements we strongly recommend our procedure to be the standardised methodology to determine CSFD on planetary surfaces in order to minimize map distortion

  10. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  11. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions. PMID:21499931

  12. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  13. The analysis of human health risk with a detailed procedure operating in a GIS environment.

    PubMed

    Morra, P; Bagli, S; Spadoni, G

    2006-05-01

    An approach for quantifying the human health risk caused by industrial sources, which, daily or accidentally, emit dangerous pollutants able to impact on different environmental media, is introduced. The approach is performed by the HHRA-GIS tool which employs an integrated, multimedia, multi-exposure pathways and multi-receptors risk assessment model able to manage all the steps of the analysis in a georeferenced structure. Upper-bound excess lifetime cancer risk and noncarcinogenic hazards are the risk measures, the spatial distribution of which is calculated and mapped on the involved territory, once all the pathways and receptors of the study area are identified. A sensitivity analysis completes the calculations allowing to understand how risk estimates are dependent on variability in the factors contributing to risk. The last part of the paper makes use of a case study concerning a working industrial site to put in evidence in which way the designed tool can help local authorities and policy makers in managing risks and planning remedial and reduction actions. The considered geographical area is a hypothetical territory characterized by residential, agricultural and industrial zones. The presence of two sources of contamination, a municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a contaminated site, are evaluated by the tool application. Various typologies of receptors have been taken into account, each of them characterized by different anatomical and dietary properties. The achieved results are analyzed, compared with acceptable and background values and alternatives of minor environmental impact calculated. PMID:16356549

  14. Sharing geoscience algorithms in a Web service-oriented environment (GRASS GIS example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Di, Liping; Han, Weiguo; Zhao, Peisheng; Dadi, Upendra

    2010-08-01

    Effective use of the large amounts of geospatial data available for geospatial research and applications is needed. In this paper, the emerging SOAP-based Web service technologies have been used to develop a large number of standard compliant, chainable geospatial Web services, using existing geospatial modules in software systems or specific geoscientific algorithms. A prototype for wrapping legacy software modules or geoscientific algorithms into loosely coupled Web services is proposed from an implementation viewpoint. Module development for Web services adheres to the Open GIS Consortium (OGC) geospatial implementation and the World Wide Web consortium (W3C) standards. The Web service interfaces are designed using Web Services Description Language (WSDL) documents. This paper presents how the granularity of an individual existing geospatial service module used by other geoscientific workflows is decided. A treatment of concurrence processes and clustered deployment of Web services is used to overcome multi-user access and network speed limit problems. This endeavor should allow extensive use of geoscientific algorithms and geospatial data.

  15. Relationship between peat geochemistry and depositional environments, Cranberry Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, R.; Cameron, C.C.; Cohen, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Heath, Great Cranberry Island, Maine, offers a unique locality for studying lateral and vertical relationships between radically different peat types within 1 km2. The majority of The Heath is a Sphagnum moss-dominated raised bog. Surrounding the raised bog is a swamp/marsh complex containing grass, sedge, Sphagnum moss, alder, tamarack, and skunk cabbage. Swamp/ marsh-deposited peat occurs both around the margins of The Heath and under Sphagnum-dominated peat, which was deposited within the raised bog. A third peat type, dominated by herbaceous aquatics, is present underlying the swamp/marsh-dominated peat but is not present as a dominant botanical community of The Heath. The three peat types have major differences in petrographic characteristics, ash contents, and associated minerals. Sulfur contents range from a low of 0.19 wt.% (dry) within the raised bog to a high of 4.44 wt% (dry) near the west end of The Heath, where swamp/marsh peat occurring directly behind a storm beach berm has been influenced by marine waters. The presence of major geochemical variations within a 1-km2 peat deposit suggests the need for in-depth characterization of potential peat resources prior to use. ?? 1987.

  16. Siting MSW landfills using MCE methodology in GIS environment (Case study: Birjand plain, Iran).

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Zeynab Karimzadeh; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The rapid municipal solid waste growth of Birjand plain causes to find an appropriate site selection for the landfill. In order to reduce the negative impacts of waste, the use of novel tools and technologies to gain a suitable site for landfill seems imperative. The present paper aimed to exhibits the Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) for the landfill site selection of the Birjand plain because till date a suitable action has not been implicated. In the present research, the parameters such as environmental and socio-economical factors have been used. The factors like slope, water resources, soil parameters, landuse, fault and protected areas in the model of effective environmental criteria and the factors viz. distance from road, urban areas, village, airport, historical place, and industries in the model of socio-economic criteria were investigated and with the use of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) models were compounded and according to the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) and Fuzzy Linguistic Quantifier (LQ) were aggregated. The paper focuses on the OWA method as well as an approach for integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) and OWA. OWA has been developed as a generalization of multi-criteria combination. In this study we attained comparable data via the technique of ANP and five scenarios of OWA method were used. The results of field studies, fifth scenario for the study area proposed. Based on the research findings, OWA method had a great potential and flexibility in the modeling of the complex decision-making problems. PMID:26321380

  17. Fieldwork online: a GIS-based electronic learning environment for supervising fieldwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Koko; Marra, Wouter; Baarsma, Rein; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Fieldwork comes in many forms: individual research projects in unique places, large groups of students on organized fieldtrips, and everything in between those extremes. Supervising students in often distant places can be a logistical challenge and requires a significant time investment of their supervisors. We developed an online application for remote supervision of students on fieldwork. In our fieldworkonline webapp, which is accessible through a web browser, students can upload their field data in the form of a spreadsheet with coordinates (in a system of choice) and data-fields. Field data can be any combination of quantitative or qualitative data, and can contain references to photos or other documents uploaded to the app. The student's data is converted to a map with data-points that contain all the data-fields and links to photos and documents associated with that location. Supervisors can review the data of their students and provide feedback on observations, or geo-referenced feedback on the map. Similarly, students can ask geo-referenced questions to their supervisors. Furthermore, supervisors can choose different basemaps or upload their own. Fieldwork online is a useful tool for supervising students at a distant location in the field and is most suitable for first-order feedback on students' observations, can be used to guide students to interesting locations, and allows for short discussions on phenomena observed in the field. We seek user that like to use this system, we are able to provide support and add new features if needed. The website is built and controlled using Flask, an open-source Python Framework. The maps are generated and controlled using MapServer and OpenLayers, and the database is built in PostgreSQL with PostGIS support. Fieldworkonline and all tools used to create it are open-source. Experience fieldworkonline at our demo during this session, or online at fieldworkonline.geo.uu.nl (username: EGU2016, password: Vienna).

  18. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources.

  19. Holocene river history of the Danube: human-environment interactions on its islands in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viczián, István; Balogh, János; Kis, Éva; Szeberényi, József

    2016-04-01

    A change in the frequency and magnitude of floods is the main response of river systems to climatic change. Natural floods are highly sensitive to even modest changes of climate. The discharge and the characteristics of floods basically determine the floodplain evolution and the feasibility of human land use and inhabitation on the islands and floodplains. The study revealed that those small islands of large rivers which have the surface rising only some meters above the river are particularly suitable research objects of Holocene climate variability as they are exposed to floods, react sensitively to environmental changes and their evolution may be paralleled with human history. The research area covers the islands of the Danube along the river between Komárom and Paks in Hungary, which is about 250 km, includes more than 50 smaller or formerly existing islands and two extensive islands: the Szentendre Island and Csepel Island. Data gathered from 570 archaeological sites of those islands from Neolithic to Modern Ages were analysed and interpreted in accordance with climate history and floodplain evolution. Nevertheless, the study is not only about river and its environmental history but it demonstrates the role of river and climatic variability in the history of mankind. The environment of the floodplain, the river hydrology, the sedimentation, the formation of islands and the incision and aggradation of surrounding riverbeds, the frequency of devastating floods have significantly changed through the historical time periods, which is reflected in the number and locations of archaeological sites on the islands. Their occupation history reflects the changes in discharge, climate, geomorphology, floods and human impacts and indicates historical periods with low or high probability of inundation. The most favourable periods for an island's occupation concerning the flood risk of its surfaces - and consequently of the banks along the river - are the first parts of a

  20. A case study of GIS-based geotechnical database in urban environment (Oviedo, NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pando, Luis; María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Arias, Daniel; Flor-Blanco, Germán

    2014-05-01

    This contribution describes the development and usefulness of a GIS-type geotechnical database designed for Oviedo, a mid-size urban core in northwestern Spain. This city is located on a Mesozoic-Palaeogene basin with a gentle synclinal structure, placed on a basement of strongly folded Devonian and Carboniferous formations. The Cretaceous consists of alternating carbonate and siliciclastic units, while the unconformable Palaeogene series, of fluvial-lacustrine origin, are chiefly composed of marls and clays with intercalated calcareous and gypsiferous layers. The relational database generated contains a wide range of unpublished subsurface data, mostly provided over the past six decades by geotechnical reports and fieldwork. The information was specifically collected and 3D georeferenced (X, Y, Z coordinates) for this research in order to ensure its spatial consistency and conservation. Currently the database includes 2,200 site investigations, a thousand on-site tests, and the results from 4,000 laboratory tests carried out on 1,600 samples of rocks, soils and groundwater. Moreover the database is supplemented with approximately 250 cartographic files and aerial images, all georeferenced. Through different spatial analysis methods, the geodata stored were processed to study the distribution and thickness of the surficial deposits (man-made fills, alluvial sediments and residual soils), and also to address the identification of unknown faults crossing below the urban area. Moreover, the main properties of all the rocks and soils in the study area were assessed using geotechnical parameters compiled from laboratory and field testing. The results obtained, examined by descriptive statistics, are useful as bibliographical reference for further research. This made possible to review the lithostratigraphic division of the Palaeogene; as a result six sections were defined instead of the three gathered in previous investigations. Regarding urban hydrogeology the

  1. A New GIS-Nitrogen Trading Tool Concept to Minimize Reactive Nitrogen losses to the Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential element which is needed to maximize agricultural production and sustainability of worldwide agroecosystems. N losses to the environment are impacting water and air quality that has become an environmental concern for the future generations. It has led to the need for dev...

  2. Collaborative Spaces for GIS-Based Multimedia Cartography in Blended Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balram, Shivanand; Dragicevic, Suzana

    2008-01-01

    The interaction spaces between instructors and learners in the traditional face-to-face classroom environment are being changed by the diffusion and adoption of many forms of computer-based pedagogy. An integrated understanding of these evolving interaction spaces together with how they interconnect and leverage learning are needed to develop…

  3. Temporal changes in lithology and radiochemistry from the back-barrier environments along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana: March 2012-July 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marot, Marci E.; Adams, C. Scott; Richwine, Kathryn A.; Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.; Bernier, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted a time-series collection of shallow sediment cores from the back-barrier environments along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana from March 2012 through July 2013. The sampling efforts were part of a larger USGS study to evaluate effects on the geomorphology of the Chandeleur Islands following the construction of an artificial sand berm to reduce oil transport onto federally managed lands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the back-barrier tidal and wetland environments to the berm. This report serves as an archive for sedimentological, radiochemical, and microbiological data derived from the sediment cores. Data are available for a time-series of four sampling periods: March 2012; July 2012; September 2012; and July 2013. Downloadable data are available as Excel spreadsheets and as JPEG files. Additional files include: ArcGIS shapefiles of the sampling sites, detailed results of sediment grain size analyses, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  4. A new insight on magma generation environment beneath Jeju (Cheju) volcanic island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; CHOI, K.; Koh, J.; Yun, S.; Nakamura, E.; Na, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present a Moho undulation model from gravity inversion that gives a new insight on the magma generation environment beneath Jeju (Cheju) volcanic island, Korea. The island is an intra-plate volcanic island located behind Ryukyu Trench, the collisional boundary between Eurasian plate and Philippine plate. Jeju island is a symmetrical shield volcano of oval shape (74 km by 32 km) whose peak is Hallasan (Mt. Halla: 1950m). The landform, which is closely related to the volcanism, can be divided topographically into the lava plateau, the shield-shaped Halla volcanic edifice and the monogenetic cinder cones, which numbers over 365. The basement rock mainly consists of Precambrian gneiss, Mesozoic granite and volcanic rocks. Unconsolidated sedimentary rock is found between basement rock and lava. The lava plateau is composed of voluminous basaltic lava flows, which extend to the coast region with a gentle slope. Based on volcanic stratigraphy, paleontology and geochronology, the Jeju basalts range from the early Pleistocene to Holocene in age. The mean density of the island is estimated to be very low, 2390 kg/cubic cm from gravity data analysis, which reflects the abundant unconsolidated pyroclastic sediments below the surface lava. The mean Moho depth is estimated to be 29.5 km from power spectral density of gravity anomaly, which means it has continental crust. It is noticeable that the gravity inversion indicates the island is developed above and along a swelled-up belt (ridge), several hundred meters higher than the surrounding area. The structure is also shows positive correlation with high magnetic anomaly distribution that could indicate existence of volcanic rocks. We interpret the Moho structure has a key to the magma generation: 1) the high gravity anomaly belt is formed by folding/buckling process under compressional environment, 2) it causes decrease of pressure beneath the lithosphere along the belt, and 3) it accelerates melting of basaltic magma in

  5. Reconstruction of Holocene coastal depositional environments based on sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, Zakynthos Island, Western Greece Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, Pavlos; Iliopoulos, George; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Nikolaou, Konstantinos; Kontopoulos, Nikolaos; Wijngaarden, Gert

    2014-05-01

    Zakynthos Island is one of the most seismically active regions in Europe and the Holocene coastal depositional environments were influenced both by tectonic activity and sea level rise. In the present study detailed sedimentological, palaeontological and 14C dating analyses were used in order to reconstruct the Holocene coastal depositional environments as well as the different rates of sedimentation, based on data from three cores up to 30 m deep. The results of the analyses indicate changes in depositional environments from marine to brackish lagoonal and lagoon / barrier systems with temporary intrusions of marine water via storms or tsunamigenic events. High sedimentation rates in coastal areas of Zakynthos Island correspond well to the most widespread Holocene warm and humid phases. The interpretation of the sedimentological environments reveals that Zakynthos Island before 8300 BP was constituted by two islands, where the present southern part of the island was separated from the northern one by a shallow and narrow sea channel.

  6. An attribute-driven statistics generator for use in a G.I.S. environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. W.; Ritter, P. R.; Kaugars, A.

    1984-01-01

    When performing research using digital geographic information it is often useful to produce quantitative characterizations of the data, usually within some constraints. In the research environment the different combinations of required data and constraints can often become quite complex. This paper describes a technique that gives the researcher a powerful and flexible way to set up many possible combinations of data and constraints without having to perform numerous intermediate steps or create temporary data bands. This method provides an efficient way to produce descriptive statistics in such situations.

  7. Study on GIS Visualization in Evaluation of the Human Living Environment in Shenyang-Dalian Urban Agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Kang; Zhou, Jieting; Li, Xuxiang; Ge, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of human living environmental quality of Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations has important theoretical and practical significance in rapid development region. A lot of investigations have been carried for Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations, including 38 counties. Based on the carrying capacity of resources, natural and socioeconomic environmental factors and regional changes of human living environmental evaluation are analyzed with the application of geographic information systems (GIS) software. By using principal component analysis (PCA) model and natural breaks classification (NBC) method, the evaluation results are divided into five categories. The results show that the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of Dalian, Shenyang, and Liaoyang are higher than other counties. Among these counties, the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of coastal counties are significantly higher than inland counties. The range of the human living environmental evaluation index in most of the study area is at III, IV, and V levels, accounting for 80.01%. Based on these results, it could illustrate the human living environment is in relatively suitable condition in Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomeration. PMID:27200212

  8. Study on GIS Visualization in Evaluation of the Human Living Environment in Shenyang-Dalian Urban Agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kang; Zhou, Jieting; Li, Xuxiang; Ge, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of human living environmental quality of Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations has important theoretical and practical significance in rapid development region. A lot of investigations have been carried for Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations, including 38 counties. Based on the carrying capacity of resources, natural and socioeconomic environmental factors and regional changes of human living environmental evaluation are analyzed with the application of geographic information systems (GIS) software. By using principal component analysis (PCA) model and natural breaks classification (NBC) method, the evaluation results are divided into five categories. The results show that the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of Dalian, Shenyang, and Liaoyang are higher than other counties. Among these counties, the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of coastal counties are significantly higher than inland counties. The range of the human living environmental evaluation index in most of the study area is at III, IV, and V levels, accounting for 80.01%. Based on these results, it could illustrate the human living environment is in relatively suitable condition in Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomeration. PMID:27200212

  9. Soil processes in recently deglaciated environments in Maritime Antarctica: a study case from Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Quijano, Laura; Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Many ice-free environments in the northern Antarctic Peninsula are undergoing rapid and substantial environmental changes in response to reent climate trends. This is the case of Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), where the glacier retreat recorded during the second half of the XX century, has exposed 17% of this small peninsula (1.16 km2). Glacier retreat has exposed new ice-free land surface in the northern part of Elephant Point: a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a relatively flat proglacial surface. Besides, a sequence of present-day beach, Holocece marine terraces and bedrock plateaus are also distributed in the southern margin of the peninsula. Periglacial processes are widespread in all the peninsula, but the type and characteristics of soils depen on the timing of glacier retreat. In this research we aim to assess how the glacier retreat affects the recently formed soils. Ten sites were sampled along a transect crossing different geomorphological units (beach, raised beaches, moraine, proglacial environment), following the direction of glacier retreat. To this purpose the upper part of selected soil profiles was sectioned in 3 cm depth interval increments to examine main soil properties, grain size distribution, soil organic carbon and pH. Besides, elemental composition and patterns of fallout (FRNs) and environmental radionuclides (ERNs) were analysed to assess if soil profile characteristics within the active layer are affected by glacier retreat. The results obtained confirm the potential for using geomorphological, edaphic and geochemical data to derive information for assessing the influence of different stages of glacier retreat in the study soils.

  10. Using Participatory Action Research to Share Knowledge of the Local Environment and Climate Change: Case Study of Erub Island, Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; McNamara, John Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Reading seasons and environments has been a long-held practice for Torres Strait Islanders through their close relationships with their islands and seas. This research project worked with elders on Erub (Darnley) Island, in the eastern group of islands in the Torres Strait, to document and synthesise their knowledge of seasonal patterns and…

  11. Adaptation in Toxic Environments: Arsenic Genomic Islands in the Bacterial Genus Thiomonas

    PubMed Central

    Freel, Kelle C.; Krueger, Martin C.; Farasin, Julien; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Barbe, Valérie; Andrès, Jeremy; Cholley, Pierre-Etienne; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Jagla, Bernd; Koechler, Sandrine; Leva, Yann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Plewniak, Frédéric; Proux, Caroline; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Bertin, Philippe N.; Heipieper, Hermann J.; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a highly toxic environment for most living organisms due to the presence of many lethal elements including arsenic (As). Thiomonas (Tm.) bacteria are found ubiquitously in AMD and can withstand these extreme conditions, in part because they are able to oxidize arsenite. In order to further improve our knowledge concerning the adaptive capacities of these bacteria, we sequenced and assembled the genome of six isolates derived from the Carnoulès AMD, and compared them to the genomes of Tm. arsenitoxydans 3As (isolated from the same site) and Tm. intermedia K12 (isolated from a sewage pipe). A detailed analysis of the Tm. sp. CB2 genome revealed various rearrangements had occurred in comparison to what was observed in 3As and K12 and over 20 genomic islands (GEIs) were found in each of these three genomes. We performed a detailed comparison of the two arsenic-related islands found in CB2, carrying the genes required for arsenite oxidation and As resistance, with those found in K12, 3As, and five other Thiomonas strains also isolated from Carnoulès (CB1, CB3, CB6, ACO3 and ACO7). Our results suggest that these arsenic-related islands have evolved differentially in these closely related Thiomonas strains, leading to divergent capacities to survive in As rich environments. PMID:26422469

  12. Invasive house mice facing a changing environment on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago).

    PubMed

    Renaud, S; Hardouin, E A; Pisanu, B; Chapuis, J-L

    2013-03-01

    Adaptation to new environments is a key feature in evolution promoting divergence in morphological structures under selection. The house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) introduced on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago) had and still has to face environmental conditions that likely shaped the pattern and pace of its insular evolution. Since mouse arrival on the island, probably not more than two centuries ago, ecological conditions dramatically differed from those available to their Western European commensal source populations. In addition, over the last two decades, the plant and animal communities of Guillou Island were considerably modified by the eradication of rabbits, the effects of climate change and the spread of invasive species detrimental to native communities. Under such a changing habitat, the mouse response was investigated using a morphometric quantification of mandible and molar tooth, two morphological structures related to food processing. A marked differentiation of the insular mice compared with their relatives from Western Europe was documented for both mandibles and molar shapes. Moreover, these shapes changed through the 16 years of the record, in agreement with expectations of drift for the molar, but more than expected by chance for the mandible. These results suggest that mice responded to the recent changes in food resources, possibly with a part of plastic variation for the mandible prone to bone remodelling. This pattern exemplifies the intricate interplay of evolution, ecology and plasticity that is a probable key of the success of such an invasive rodent facing pronounced shifts in food resources exploitation under a changing environment.

  13. GIS methods applied to the degradation of monogenetic volcanic fields: A case study of the Holocene volcanism of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Aulinas, M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Gimeno, D.; Guillou, H.; Paris, R.

    2011-11-01

    Modeling of volcanic morphometry provides reliable measurements of parameters that assist in the determination of volcanic landform degradation. Variations of the original morphology enable the understanding of patterns affecting erosion and their development, facilitating the assessment of associated hazards. A total of 24 volcanic Holocene eruptions were identified in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). 87% of these eruptions occurred in a wet environment while the rest happened in a dry environment. 45% of Holocene eruptions are located along short barrancos (S-type, less than 10 km in length), 20% along large barrancos (L-type, 10-17 km in length) and 35% along extra-large barrancos (XL-type, more than 17 km in length). The erosional history of Holocene volcanic edifices is in the first stage of degradation, with a geomorphic signature characterized by a fresh, young cone with a sharp profile and a pristine lava flow. After intensive field work, a careful palaeo-geomorphological reconstruction of the 24 Holocene eruptions of Gran Canaria was conducted in order to obtain the Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) of the pre- and post-eruption terrains. From the difference between these DTMs, the degradation volume and the incision rate were obtained. The denudation of volcanic cones and lava flows is relatively independent both their geographical location and the climatic environment. However, local factors, such as pre-eruption topography and ravine type, have the greatest influence on the erosion of Holocene volcanic materials in Gran Canaria. Although age is a key factor to help understand the morphological evolution of monogenetic volcanic fields, the Gran Canaria Holocene volcanism presented in this paper demonstrates that local and regional factors may determine the lack of correlation between morphometric parameters and age. Consequently, the degree of transformation of the volcanic edifices evolves, in many cases, independently of their age.

  14. Impacts of ground water over exploitation on agricultural development and environment using RS & GIS case study (Garabolli area North west of Libya )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shbeli, E.

    Impacts of Grownd water-over exploitation on agricultural development and Environment in nort-west Libya (Garabolli area) using R.S AND GIS. This study was carried out in Garabolli area nort-west of Libya which is east of Tripoli about 60km. This study reviews the development of grownd water abstraction in the area and displays its impacts on the aquifer water levels and salinity . Satellite data were used to produce land use land cover and soil maps scale 1:50000. Each soil mapping units investigated in the field and the soils were characterized and classified. The comparison between 2 different dates spot multispectral images were applied in this paper. GIS techniques were used to produce different maps and some statistics tables shows in the report.

  15. Environment effects on surface-plasmon spectra in gold-island films potential for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meriaudeau, F.; Downey, T.R.; Passian, A.; Wig, A.; Ferrell, T.L.

    1998-12-01

    The effects of the local dielectric environment on the surface-plasmon resonances of annealed gold-island films as a potential for sensing applications are studied experimentally and modeled theoretically. Gold-island films were annealed at 600{degree}C to produce spheroidal shape particles that exhibit well-resolved resonances in polarized, angle-resolved, absorption spectra. These resonances are shifted in different amounts by the depolarization effect of the surrounding medium (liquids with various refraction indices). Cross-section calculations based on nonretarded, single-particle, dielectric interaction for these various configurations are presented and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations. The results show an interesting potential for biosensing or environmental monitoring applications. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  16. Underground warmed environments at cold regions. The case of Cerro Caliente in Deception island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Gómez, F.; Moreno, M.; de Diego, G.; Fernandez-Sampedro, M.; Martín-Redondo, M. P.; Parro, V.

    2012-09-01

    Hydrothermal and cold environments constitute two extremes for life and are relevant to evaluate the present or past life on Mars. Deception Island (Antarctica) is an excellent place to study the cold and warm underground habitats and their interfaces. They are extreme environments that have interest as terrestrial analogues to Mars. Cerro Caliente, a 107 m high hill has been selected because the geothermal activity present at its summit. Some drills at the same ground materials but with different thermal regimes were performed at this place. Samples from the cores are being studied to understand the interactions between the cold and warm environments. The description of the area and the preliminary results of the sample analysis will be presented during the session.

  17. The impacts of permafrost degradation in paraglacial environments in Elephant Point (Livingston Island, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Elephant Point constitutes an ice-free environment of only 1.16 km2 in the south-western corner of Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). In January 2014 we conducted a detailed geomorphological mapping in situ, examining the distribution of processes and landforms in Elephant Point. Four main geomorphological environments were identified: proglacial area, moraine system, bedrock plateaus and marine terraces. The ice cap covering most part of the western half of this island has significantly retreated during the last decades in parallel to the accelerated warming trend recorded in the Antarctic Peninsula. Between 1956 and 2010 this rapid retreat has exposed 17.3% of the present-day land surface in Elephant Point. Two of these geomorphological units are located in this new ice-free area: a polygenic moraine stretching from the western to the eastern edges of the peninsula and a relatively flat proglacial environment. The glacier sat next to the northern slope of the moraine in 1956, but the retreat of the Rotch dome glacier during the last decades left these environments free of glacier ice. Following the deglaciation, the postglacial dynamics in these areas showed the characteristic response of paraglacial systems. Very different geomorphological processes occur today in the northern and southern slopes of the moraine, which is related to the different stage of paraglacial adjustment in both sides. The southern slope shows a low to moderate activity of slope processes operating on coarser sediments that have built pronival ramparts, debris flows and alluvial fans. By contrast, mass wasting processes are very active in the northern slope, which is composed of fine-grained unconsolidated sediments. Here, ice-rich permafrost has been observed in slumps degrading the moraine. The sediments of the moraine are being mobilized down-slope in large amounts by landslides and slumps. Up to 9.6% of the surface of the moraine is affected by retrogressive

  18. Sea-floor environments within Long Island Sound: a regional overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, Harley J.; Poppe, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Modern sea-floor sedimentary environments within the glaciated, topographically complex Long Island Sound estuary have been interpreted and mapped from an extensive collection of sidescan sonographs, bottom samples, and video-camera observations together with supplemental bathymetric, marine-geologic, and bottom-current data. Four categories of environments are present that reflect the dominant long-term processes of erosion or nondeposition; coarsegrained bedload transport; sediment sorting and reworking; and fine-grained deposition. (1) Environments of erosion or nondeposition contain exposures of glacial drift, coarse lag deposits, and possibly bedrock and include sediments which range from boulder fields to gravelly coarse-to-medium sands. (2) Environments of coarse-grained bedload transport are mantled by sand ribbons and sand waves and contain mostly coarse-to-fine sands with only small amounts of mud. (3) Environments of sediment sorting and reworking comprise both uniform and heterogeneous sediment types and contain variable amounts of fine sand and mud. (4) Environments of fine-grained deposition are blanketed by muds and sandy muds. The patchy distribution of sedimentary environments within Long Island Sound reflects both regional and local changes in bottom processes. Regional changes are primarily the result of a strong, east-to-west decreasing gradient of bottom tidal-current speeds, coupled with the net (westward) estuarine bottom drift. The regional current regime has produced a westward succession of environments along the basin floor beginning with erosion or nondeposition at the narrow eastern entrance to the Sound, changing to an extensive area of coarse-grained bedload transport, passing into a contiguous band of sediment sorting, and ending with broad areas of fine-grained deposition in the central and western Sound. However, local changes in processes are superimposed on the regional conditions within the central and western parts of the basin

  19. Invasive house mice facing a changing environment on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago).

    PubMed

    Renaud, S; Hardouin, E A; Pisanu, B; Chapuis, J-L

    2013-03-01

    Adaptation to new environments is a key feature in evolution promoting divergence in morphological structures under selection. The house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) introduced on the Sub-Antarctic Guillou Island (Kerguelen Archipelago) had and still has to face environmental conditions that likely shaped the pattern and pace of its insular evolution. Since mouse arrival on the island, probably not more than two centuries ago, ecological conditions dramatically differed from those available to their Western European commensal source populations. In addition, over the last two decades, the plant and animal communities of Guillou Island were considerably modified by the eradication of rabbits, the effects of climate change and the spread of invasive species detrimental to native communities. Under such a changing habitat, the mouse response was investigated using a morphometric quantification of mandible and molar tooth, two morphological structures related to food processing. A marked differentiation of the insular mice compared with their relatives from Western Europe was documented for both mandibles and molar shapes. Moreover, these shapes changed through the 16 years of the record, in agreement with expectations of drift for the molar, but more than expected by chance for the mandible. These results suggest that mice responded to the recent changes in food resources, possibly with a part of plastic variation for the mandible prone to bone remodelling. This pattern exemplifies the intricate interplay of evolution, ecology and plasticity that is a probable key of the success of such an invasive rodent facing pronounced shifts in food resources exploitation under a changing environment. PMID:23331296

  20. Mosquito biodiversity patterns around urban environments in South-central okinawa island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Imanishi, Nozomi; Higa, Yukiko; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Okinawa is the largest, most urbanized, and densely populated island in the Ryukyus Archipelago, where mosquito species diversity has been thoroughly studied. However, the south-central Okinawa mosquito fauna has been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a mosquito faunal survey in urban environments of Nishihara city, south-central Okinawa. Mosquitoes were sampled biweekly, from April 2007 to March 2008, at 3 different environments: a forest preserve, an animal farm, and a water reservoir. We employed 4 mosquito collection methods: 1) oviposition traps; 2) light traps; 3) sweep nets; and 4) larval surveys of tree holes, leaf axils, and artificial water containers. We collected a total of 568 adults and 10,270 larvae belonging to 6 genera and 13 species, including 6 species of medical importance: Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles Hyrcanus group, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Mosquito species composition was similar to data from previous studies in Okinawa Island. The flattening of the species accumulation curve suggests that our diversity sampling was exhaustive with light and oviposition traps, as well as the coincidence between the species richness we found in the field and estimates from the Chao2 index, a theoretical estimator of species richness based on species abundance. This study highlights the importance of combining several sampling techniques to properly characterize regional mosquito fauna and to monitor changes in the presence of mosquito species.

  1. Multiple strains of Coxiella burnetii are present in the environment of St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C; Savage, K; Williams, M; Dickerson, B; Kondas, A V; Fitzpatrick, K A; Guerrero, J L; Spraker, T; Kersh, G J

    2013-08-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified at a high prevalence in the placentas of Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected at a single rookery on St. Paul Island Alaska; an area of the United States where the agent was not known to be present. As contamination was hypothesized as a potential cause of false positives, but nothing was known about environmental C. burnetii in the region, an environmental survey was conducted to look for the prevalence and distribution of the organism on the island. While environmental prevalence was low, two strains of the organism were identified using PCR targeting the COM1 and IS1111 genes. The two strains are consistent with the organism that has been increasingly identified in marine mammals as well as a strain type more commonly found in terrestrial environments and associated with disease in humans and terrestrial animals. Further work is needed to elucidate information regarding the ecology of this organism in this region, particularly in association with the coastal environment. PMID:22747976

  2. Multiple strains of Coxiella burnetii are present in the environment of St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Colleen; Savage, Kate; Williams, Michael; Dickerson, Bobette; Kondas, Ashley V.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Guerrero, Juan Leon; Spraker, Terry; Kersh, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified at a high prevalence in the placentas of Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected at a single rookery on St. Paul Island Alaska; an area of the United States where the agent was not known to be present. As contamination was hypothesized as a potential cause of false positives, but nothing was known about environmental C. burnetii in the region, an environmental survey was conducted to look for the prevalence and distribution of the organism on the island. While environmental prevalence was low, two strains of the organism were identified using PCR targeting the COM1 and IS1111 genes. The two strains are consistent with the organism that has been increasingly identified in marine mammals as well as a strain type more commonly found in terrestrial environments and associated with disease in humans and terrestrial animals. Further work is needed to elucidate information regarding the ecology of this organism in this region, particularly in association with the coastal environment. PMID:22747976

  3. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Nardi, Matthew J.; Andring, Matthew A.

    2015-09-09

    Multibeam echosounder data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration along with sediment samples and still and video photography of the sea floor collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, as part of a long-term effort to map the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. Sea-floor features include rocky areas and scour depressions in high-energy environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition, and sand waves and megaripples in environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Two shipwrecks are also located in the study area. Much of the sea floor is relatively featureless within the resolution of the multibeam data; sedimentary environments in these areas are characterized by processes associated with sorting and reworking. This report releases bathymetric data from the multibeam echosounder, grain-size analyses of sediment samples, and photographs of the sea floor and interpretations of the sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. It provides base maps that can be used for resource management and studies of topics such as benthic ecology, contaminant inventories, and sediment transport.

  4. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Nardi, Matthew J.; Andring, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Multibeam echosounder data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration along with sediment samples and still and video photography of the sea floor collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, as part of a long-term effort to map the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. Sea-floor features include rocky areas and scour depressions in high-energy environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition, and sand waves and megaripples in environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Two shipwrecks are also located in the study area. Much of the sea floor is relatively featureless within the resolution of the multibeam data; sedimentary environments in these areas are characterized by processes associated with sorting and reworking. This report releases bathymetric data from the multibeam echosounder, grain-size analyses of sediment samples, and photographs of the sea floor and interpretations of the sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. It provides base maps that can be used for resource management and studies of topics such as benthic ecology, contaminant inventories, and sediment transport.

  5. CFD simulation of Urban Environment to study building energy and Urban Heat Island (UHI) implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarian, Negin; Kleissl, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Numerical simulations are used to study the street-scale urban environment investigating air flow and heat transfer that affect Urban Heat Island formation and urban energy use. Simulations are performed based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and Large Eddy Simulations using ANSYS/FLUENT. Comprehensive simulations of the daytime urban environment are presented accounting for various contributing factors such as building aspect ratio, stability, and radiative properties of surfaces. Buoyancy and co-occurrence of forced and mixed convective flow regimes are accounted for and the local Richardson number inside the canyon and near building surfaces are examined. A three-dimensional regular building array is used for air flow simulation and thermal analysis. Periodic boundary conditions are used in both stream/span-wise directions representing fully-developed flow and wind profile above the canyon and vortex formation inside the street canyon are studied. The simulations are performed on a clear day in southern California and corresponding daytime solar load is applied for heat transfer purposes. Considering the coupled behavior of thermal effects and flow in the urban environment, we examine surface and canopy air temperature versus building energy use.

  6. Microbial communities and immigration in volcanic environments of Canary Islands (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, M. Carmen; Gonzalez, Juan M.

    2008-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions originated the Canary Islands (Spain), and today, different landscapes clearly show that active volcanism. The microbial communities present in these volcanic environments, both at high (above 70°C) and moderate (25-35°C) temperatures, were analyzed. Rock samples were processed using molecular techniques based on both DNA and RNA and complemented with the culture of microorganisms at a wide range of temperatures. Microorganisms detected through RNA-based molecular surveys were mostly related to mesophilic microorganisms, while representatives of hyperthermophiles were not detected. RNA decay curves at 80°C resulted in half-life estimates of less than 2 min for mesophilic microorganisms, supporting a recent and continuous arrival of microorganisms to the high temperature sampled sites. This study constitutes a unique experimental approach showing a great natural potential of microorganisms to spread out to different natural environments. The implications are of great interest for the biogeography, dispersal, and potential distribution of microorganisms, and their genetic information, in natural environments.

  7. Terrestrial Sediment Delivery to Coastal and Marine Environments: US Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, R. A.; Brooks, G. R.; Devine, B.; Wallace, L. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Schwing, P. T.

    2007-05-01

    Understanding terrestrial sediment dynamics in high-relief, tropical island settings, such as St. Thomas and St. John, USVI, has become a critical issue, as sediments are a potential threat to the health of down-slope environments. The primary depositional sinks of terrestrial sediments are 1) coastal buffer zones such as salt ponds, which trap sediments and keep them from being input into the marine environment, and 2) near-shore marine environments (coral reefs, seagrasses, algal flats etc.), many of which are adversely affected by terrestrial sedimentation. Land use change by anthropogenic activities has been shown to alter terrestrial sediment dynamics and greatly increase sediment delivery and accumulation rates in coastal and marine environments. Sediment cores collected in salt ponds and the near-shore marine environment were used to determine the sedimentology (texture and composition) and geochronology (using 14C, and 210Pb) prior to anthropogenic activities to define the "natural signal", or "baseline", as well as recent deviations from the "natural signal", which may be attributed to anthropogenic activities. Salt pond and marine sediments in watersheds without anthropogenic activities exhibit no deviations from the "natural signal" in sedimentology or accumulation rate. Salt pond and marine sediments in watersheds with anthropogenic activities contain a deviation from the "natural signal" manifested as an increase in accumulation rate within the last 100 yrs (most likely within the last 25-50 yrs) ranging from 3 -10 times greater than the "natural" accumulation rate. Sedimentologically, salt ponds reflect no recent change, where as marine sediments do show a recent deviation in sedimentology. This marine deviation is represented by an increase in organic content, a decrease in grain size, and a decrease in carbonate content (marine-derived) compared to the "natural signal". This change reflects an increase in terrestrial (non- carbonate, finer

  8. Modern sedimentary environments on the Rhode Island inner shelf, off the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Needell, S. W.; O'Hara, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of side-scan sonar records along with previously published bathymetric, textural and subbottom data reveal the sedimentary environments on the inner Continental Shelf south of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. The bottom topography in this area is characterized by a broad central depression bordered by shallow, irregular sea floor on the north and east and by a discontinuous, curvilinear ridge on the south and west. Four distinct environments were identified: 1. (1) Pre-Mesozoic coastal rocks are exposed on the sea floor at isolated locations near the shore (waterdepths <32 m). These exposures have pronounced, irregular topographic relief and produce blotchy patterns on side-scan sonographs. 2. (2) Glacial moraine deposits form the discontinuous offshore ridge. These deposits have hummocky sea-floor relief, are covered by lag gravel and boudlers, and appear as predominantly black (strongly reflective) patterns on the side-scan records. 3. (3) Over most of the shallow, irregular bottom in the northeast, on the flanks of the morainal ridge, and atop bathymetric highs, the sea floor is characterized as a mosaic of light and dark patches and lineations. The dark (more reflective) zones are areas of coarse sands and megaripples (wavelengths = 0.8-1.2 m that either have no detectable relief or are slightly depressed relative to surrounding (light) areas of finer-grained sands. 4. (4) Smooth beds that produce nearly featureless patterns on the sonographs occupy the broad central bathymetric depression as well as smaller depressions north and east of Block Island. Within the broad depression, sonographs having practically no shading indicate a central zone of modern sandy silt, whereas records having moderate tonality define a peripheral belt of silty sand. The sedimentary environments that are outlined range from erosional or non-depositional (bedrock, glacial moraine) to depositional (featureless beds), and include areas that may reflect a combination of erosional

  9. Determining the most suitable areas for artificial groundwater recharge via an integrated PROMETHEE II-AHP method in GIS environment (case study: Garabaygan Basin, Iran).

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Hossein; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Sabokbar, Hassan Ali Faraji; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Hamzeh, Mohamad; Rafii, Yusef

    2013-01-01

    Flood spreading is a suitable strategy for controlling and benefiting from floods. Selecting suitable areas for flood spreading and directing the floodwater into permeable formations are amongst the most effective strategies in flood spreading projects. Having combined geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis approaches, the present study sought to locate the most suitable areas for flood spreading operation in the Garabaygan Basin of Iran. To this end, the data layers relating to the eight effective factors were prepared in GIS environment. This stage was followed by elimination of the exclusionary areas for flood spreading while determining the potentially suitable ones. Having closely examined the potentially suitable areas using the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) II and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods, the land suitability map for flood spreading was produced. The PROMETHEE II and AHP were used for ranking all the alternatives and weighting the criteria involved, respectively. The results of the study showed that most suitable areas for the artificial groundwater recharge are located in Quaternary Q(g) and Q(gsc) geologic units and in geomorphological units of pediment and Alluvial fans with slopes not exceeding 3%. Furthermore, significant correspondence between the produced map and the control areas, where the flood spreading projects were successfully performed, provided further evidence for the acceptable efficiency of the integrated PROMETHEE II-AHP method in locating suitable flood spreading areas. PMID:22402992

  10. Determining the most suitable areas for artificial groundwater recharge via an integrated PROMETHEE II-AHP method in GIS environment (case study: Garabaygan Basin, Iran).

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Hossein; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Sabokbar, Hassan Ali Faraji; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Hamzeh, Mohamad; Rafii, Yusef

    2013-01-01

    Flood spreading is a suitable strategy for controlling and benefiting from floods. Selecting suitable areas for flood spreading and directing the floodwater into permeable formations are amongst the most effective strategies in flood spreading projects. Having combined geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis approaches, the present study sought to locate the most suitable areas for flood spreading operation in the Garabaygan Basin of Iran. To this end, the data layers relating to the eight effective factors were prepared in GIS environment. This stage was followed by elimination of the exclusionary areas for flood spreading while determining the potentially suitable ones. Having closely examined the potentially suitable areas using the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) II and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods, the land suitability map for flood spreading was produced. The PROMETHEE II and AHP were used for ranking all the alternatives and weighting the criteria involved, respectively. The results of the study showed that most suitable areas for the artificial groundwater recharge are located in Quaternary Q(g) and Q(gsc) geologic units and in geomorphological units of pediment and Alluvial fans with slopes not exceeding 3%. Furthermore, significant correspondence between the produced map and the control areas, where the flood spreading projects were successfully performed, provided further evidence for the acceptable efficiency of the integrated PROMETHEE II-AHP method in locating suitable flood spreading areas.

  11. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection.

  12. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection. PMID:25096640

  13. A conceptual model for defining and assessing land management units using a fuzzy modeling approach in GIS environment.

    PubMed

    Baja, Sumbangan; Chapman, David M; Dragovich, Deirdre

    2002-05-01

    Appropriate land management decisions are important for current and future use of the land to ensure its sustainability. This requires that land management units (LMUs) be specified to enable the identification of specific parameters employed in decision making processes. This paper presents the development of a conceptual model, within geographic information systems (GIS), for defining and assessing LMUs from available biophysical information. The model consists of two main components (sub-models): land quality-based suitability analysis and soil erosion estimation. Using a fuzzy set methodology, the first sub-model was constructed to derive a land suitability index (LSI) for a cropping land utilization type. The LSI thus highlights the suitability grades of every pixel in the study area on a continuous basis. A submodel of soil erosion was established based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) utilising the same spatial data bases employed for structuring the LSI. Using a soil loss tolerance principle, a fuzzy membership function of average annual soil loss (called soil loss index, SLI) was established, leading to compatibility between LSI and SLI for data integration. LMUs were then derived from various combinations of LSI and SLI. The methodology developed shows the significance of the model for refining available land suitability evaluation systems, which take no account of expected land degradation (from erosion) due to a nominated land use. It also provides a valuable guideline for cost-effective GIS applications in the identification and assessment of homogeneous land units, using available spatial information sets, at a finer scale.

  14. Effects of Super Strom Sandy on Depositional Environments Offshore Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; McHugh, C. M.; Christensen, B. A.; Dutton, J.; Brownawell, B.; Gurung, D.

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy's landfall affected the coastlines over a broad swath of mid-Atlantic including New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The effects included breaching, overwash and erosion of barrier islands, some of which are heavily populated and sustained extensive damage. The peak storm-tide elevation produced by Hurricane Sandy measured by USGS stations in Jamaica Bay was about 3.5 m, 1.4 m more than the historical peak-water level elevations in the same area. As part of a National Science Foundation RAPID response we sampled the sediment in West Bay, Middle Bay, East Bay, Jones Inlet and Reynolds Channel of Long Island, New York from the R/V Pritchard. The sediment sampling took place 4 months after the storm and prior to any similar large storms. The sampling strategy was designed to characterize the post-storm sedimentation in distinct depositional environments. In this survey 156 grab samples were recovered from areas, many of which had been sampled prior to the storm. The samples were analyzed for grain size variability, short-lived radioisotopes and x-ray fluorescence elemental analyses. Google Earth images from before and after the storm reveal moderate to severe erosion and overwash of the dunes in Jones inlet, and Middle and East Bays. The Long Beach barrier island tidal marshes were submerged for several days post Sandy and underwent severe erosion. The storm surge brought from offshore a layer of coarse sand that was deposited over mussel beds. Most of the mussels were dead indicative of the strength of the waves. Be-7 concentrations allowed tracking the path of the storm from the bays and inlets, to the offshore. Some of the highest Be-7 concentrations ever detected in the local estuaries: 5,329, 4,955 and 4,553 pCi/kg were measured in West Bay and Middle Bay Channels. Additionally, unusually high Be-7 concentrations of 2,130 pCi/kg were recorded ~5.24 km offshore from Long Beach barrier island four months after the

  15. Pollution pathways of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment on the island of Mallorca, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Bak, Søren A; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Maya, Fernando; Forteza, Rafael; Cerdà, Víctor

    2013-07-01

    This work determines the principal environmental pollution pathways of pharmaceuticals on the island of Mallorca (Spain). The evaluation was made on the basis of the quantification of pharmaceutical residues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in several environmental water samples, including wastewater-treatment plant effluents, municipal solid waste landfill leachates, groundwater (GW), and marine water. An overall set of 19 pharmaceuticals has been identified in the environment of the 27 human pharmaceuticals investigated in this study. WWTP effluents are the main source of discharge of the pharmaceuticals into the aquatic environment. The data indicate that reuse of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation (which supplies some 30 % of the total water demand in Mallorca) contributes to the contamination of GW. In addition, leaching from landfills is identified as another, but minor, possible source of introduction of pharmaceuticals to GW aquifers. Finally, WWTP effluents ending in the Mediterranean Sea, primarily highly urbanized coastal areas, cause pharmaceutical residues to occur in marine water bodies. PMID:23440447

  16. Pollution pathways of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment on the island of Mallorca, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Bak, Søren A; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Maya, Fernando; Forteza, Rafael; Cerdà, Víctor

    2013-07-01

    This work determines the principal environmental pollution pathways of pharmaceuticals on the island of Mallorca (Spain). The evaluation was made on the basis of the quantification of pharmaceutical residues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in several environmental water samples, including wastewater-treatment plant effluents, municipal solid waste landfill leachates, groundwater (GW), and marine water. An overall set of 19 pharmaceuticals has been identified in the environment of the 27 human pharmaceuticals investigated in this study. WWTP effluents are the main source of discharge of the pharmaceuticals into the aquatic environment. The data indicate that reuse of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation (which supplies some 30 % of the total water demand in Mallorca) contributes to the contamination of GW. In addition, leaching from landfills is identified as another, but minor, possible source of introduction of pharmaceuticals to GW aquifers. Finally, WWTP effluents ending in the Mediterranean Sea, primarily highly urbanized coastal areas, cause pharmaceutical residues to occur in marine water bodies.

  17. Designing an Information System for the Preservation of the Insular Tropical Environment of Reunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conruyt, Noël; Sébastien, Didier; Courdier, Rémy; David, Daniel; Sébastien, Nicolas; Ralambondrainy, Tiana

    Decision-makers who wish to manage Insular Tropical Environments more efficiently need to narrow the gap between the production of scientific knowledge in universities, or other labs, and its pragmatic use by the general public and administrations. Today, one of the main challenges concerning the environment is the preservation of the biodiversity of ecosystems that suffer from urban and agricultural pressure. As we can only protect what we know, it is all the more important to share expert knowledge about habitats and species by using Internet in order to educate the public about their wealth and beauty. Based on Reunion Island, and taking into consideration an expected population growth of over 30% in the next twenty years, we are working to predict the human impact on this closed territory. To help tackle these two questions about biodiversity and land consumption, we have designed an Information System (IS) in the framework of the ETIC program. Our aim is to enhance insular tropical environment research in order to help the Reunion National Park to manage its protected territory. On the one hand, biodiversity research is handled statically, using knowledge bases and databases, to enhance Systematics and ecological university research. On the other hand, spatial planning concerns are treated dynamically, using multi-agent systems to simulate population densification movements. These software technologies have been implemented and integrated through a common architectural system in the ETIC program. They were conceived using Web Services that allow each module to communicate its functionalities and information with one another, as well as with external systems.

  18. Pupils as GIS-Experts in the Context of Flood Risk - An Interactive Learning Environment for Secondary Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetzke, Roland; Hodam, Henryk; Rienow, Andreas; Voß, Kerstin

    2013-04-01

    Floods and their destructive consequences for local residents are distributed in the media periodically and are, accordingly, noticed by students. Especially the discussion about the impacts of an anthropogenic climate change on the frequency of extreme events reinforces the importance of addressing the subject in school curricula. Remote sensing and GIS offer a wide range of methods for analyzing problems of vulnerability and risk, but are normally not recognized in school education. Reasons for this are: teachers have not been taught how to use and interpret remote sensing data, and there is only little material or software which can be integrated into school lessons without considerable effort. The main goal of the German FIS-project ("Fernerkundung in Schulen" - "Remote Sensing in Schools") is the development of easy-to-use e-learning material in order to apply remote sensing methods in schools and thereby enforcing learning mechanisms based on the moderate constructivist learning theory. The interactive learning unit "Floods - Dealing with a constant threat" is a learning module for a double lesson that enables young students from age 12 to 16 to use geo data for a site analysis especially focusing on the threat of floods. Following a guiding question from a real-world situation, the students are in demand as experts for site analyses and, in the process, need to identify problems arising with a location decision. Their investigation includes measurements in the three-dimensional space of a study area near the Rhine River. Therefore the students are provided with data from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), a satellite image and several GIS-layers. The different data sets have to be combined in order to achieve valuable results. At certain points the pupils need to reflect their decisions after incorporating new information against the background of flood risk. The presented learning module is designed in Flash and, thus, is platform-independent. It is freely

  19. Applying a generalized Hough-Transform algorithm within a GIS environment to detect earthquake alignments. (Examples in the Betics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Vicente, Pérez-Peña; Alicia, Jiménez-Gutiérrez; José Miguel, Azañón; Jorge, Delgado; Guillermo, Booth-Rea

    2013-04-01

    Studies of the distribution of the seismicity are very useful in order to recognize active areas, imagine fault geometries, and to relate earthquake activity to particular tectonic structures. The identification of straight-linear earthquake-epicentres alignments can reflect underlying active tectonic structures as faults. Nevertheless, these point-alignments become complicated to detect with diffuse seismic patterns in areas of low to moderate seismicity. In such cases, it is necessary to apply specific methods to detect and analyze preferential earthquakes alignments. The Hough Transform (HT) is a method that has widely used to detect lines in digital images. Despite of this technique was initially developed to work with pixels from digital images, a generalized algorithm based in the HT could be used to detect specific alignments in a disperse point distribution such as earthquake events. This method focuses in to reduce the number of possible lines by analyzing only those with mathematical significance. In this work we presented a GIS integrated methodology to apply a generalized HT to point distributions. In order to test the algorithm, we presented examples from the Betic Cordillera (SE of Spain), where the seismicity is low to moderate (< 5Mb) and geographically disperse

  20. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece), after the 1613 BC volcanic eruption: A GIS-based quantitative methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomidis, Dimitrios; Albanakis, Konstantinos; Pavlides, Spyridon; Fytikas, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A catastrophic volcanic explosion took place in Thera/Santorini island around 1613 BC, known as the `Minoan' eruption. Many papers have dealt with the shape of the shoreline of the island before the eruption, but none with the shape of the shoreline exactly after it, assuming that it would be the same with the contemporary one. However, this is not correct due to the wave erosion. In this paper, a new DEM was constructed, covering both land and submarine morphology, then topographic sections were drawn around the island. Using these sections, the `missing parts' (sea-wave erosion) were calculated, the shoreline was reconstructed as it was one day after the eruption and finally the erosion rate was calculated.

  1. GIS and remote sensing applications in the assessment of change within a coastal environment in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Twumasi, Yaw A; Merem, Edmund C

    2006-03-01

    In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economic activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing

  2. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economic activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing

  3. The Pleistocene archaeology and environments of the Wasiriya Beds, Rusinga Island, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Christian A; Tyler Faith, J; Peppe, Daniel J; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Jenkins, Kirsten; Dunsworth, Holly; Harcourt-Smith, Will

    2010-12-01

    Western Kenya is well known for abundant early Miocene hominoid fossils. However, the Wasiriya Beds of Rusinga Island, Kenya, preserve a Pleistocene sedimentary archive with radiocarbon age estimates of >33-45 ka that contains Middle Stone Age artifacts and abundant, well-preserved fossil fauna: a co-occurrence rare in eastern Africa, particularly in the region bounding Lake Victoria. Artifacts and fossils are associated with distal volcanic ash deposits that occur at multiple localities in the Wasiriya Beds, correlated on the basis of geochemical composition as determined by electron probe microanalysis. Sediment lithology and the fossil ungulates suggest a local fluvial system and associated riparian wooded habitat within a predominantly arid grassland setting that differs substantially from the modern environment, where local climate is strongly affected by moisture availability from Lake Victoria. In particular, the presence of oryx (Oryx gazella) and Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) suggest a pre-Last Glacial Maximum expansion of arid grasslands, an environmental reconstruction further supported by the presence of several extinct specialized grazers (Pelorovis antiquus, Megalotragus sp., and a small alcelaphine) that are unknown from Holocene deposits in eastern Africa. The combination of artifacts, a rich fossil fauna, and volcaniclastic sediments makes the Wasiriya Beds a key site for examining the Lake Victoria basin, a biogeographically important area for understanding the diversification and dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa, whose pre-Last Glacial Maximum history remains poorly understood.

  4. Study of shelf-slope environments of deposition, High Island A-474/A-499 area

    SciTech Connect

    Anspach, D.H.; Tripp, S.E.; Berlitz, R.E.; Gilreath, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The focus of this study is the High Island A-474/A-499 fields located on the outer continental shelf 80 mi southeast of Galveston, Texas. The primary geologic structure is an elongated northwest-southeast-trending dome associated with a deep-seated shale or salt diapir. The dome is bisected by two large northwest-striking down-to-the-northeast growth faults. The productive intervals range in age from late Pleistocene to late Pliocene. Paleontologic studies indicate the upper and middle Pleistocene sandstones were deposited in an outer shelf environment. These productive layers originated from prograding deltas located to the north, northeast, and southwest, the latter being transported as sand plumes by northeasterly flowing currents. The large growth faults, together with associated secondary faulting, provided the primary trapping mechanism for these reservoirs. Greatest sand accumulation occurred at the intersection of the growth faults and the northeast-trending sand plumes. In contrast, stratigraphic traps are the primary trapping mechanism for the lower Pleistocene and upper Pliocene strata.

  5. The Pleistocene archaeology and environments of the Wasiriya Beds, Rusinga Island, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Christian A; Tyler Faith, J; Peppe, Daniel J; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Jenkins, Kirsten; Dunsworth, Holly; Harcourt-Smith, Will

    2010-12-01

    Western Kenya is well known for abundant early Miocene hominoid fossils. However, the Wasiriya Beds of Rusinga Island, Kenya, preserve a Pleistocene sedimentary archive with radiocarbon age estimates of >33-45 ka that contains Middle Stone Age artifacts and abundant, well-preserved fossil fauna: a co-occurrence rare in eastern Africa, particularly in the region bounding Lake Victoria. Artifacts and fossils are associated with distal volcanic ash deposits that occur at multiple localities in the Wasiriya Beds, correlated on the basis of geochemical composition as determined by electron probe microanalysis. Sediment lithology and the fossil ungulates suggest a local fluvial system and associated riparian wooded habitat within a predominantly arid grassland setting that differs substantially from the modern environment, where local climate is strongly affected by moisture availability from Lake Victoria. In particular, the presence of oryx (Oryx gazella) and Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) suggest a pre-Last Glacial Maximum expansion of arid grasslands, an environmental reconstruction further supported by the presence of several extinct specialized grazers (Pelorovis antiquus, Megalotragus sp., and a small alcelaphine) that are unknown from Holocene deposits in eastern Africa. The combination of artifacts, a rich fossil fauna, and volcaniclastic sediments makes the Wasiriya Beds a key site for examining the Lake Victoria basin, a biogeographically important area for understanding the diversification and dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa, whose pre-Last Glacial Maximum history remains poorly understood. PMID:20880570

  6. How well do modelled routes to school record the environments children are exposed to?: a cross-sectional comparison of GIS-modelled and GPS-measured routes to school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The school journey may make an important contribution to children’s physical activity and provide exposure to food and physical activity environments. Typically, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to model assumed routes to school in studies, but these may differ from those actually chosen. We aimed to identify the characteristics of children and their environments that make the modelled route more or less representative of that actually taken. We compared modelled GIS routes and actual Global Positioning Systems (GPS) measured routes in a free-living sample of children using varying travel modes. Methods Participants were 175 13-14 yr old children taking part in the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study who wore GPS units for up to 7 days. Actual routes to/from school were extracted from GPS data, and shortest routes between home and school along a road network were modelled in a GIS. Differences between them were assessed according to length, percentage overlap, and food outlet exposure using multilevel regression models. Results GIS routes underestimated route length by 21.0% overall, ranging from 6.1% among walkers to 23.2% for bus users. Among pedestrians food outlet exposure was overestimated by GIS routes by 25.4%. Certain characteristics of children and their neighbourhoods that improved the concordance between GIS and GPS route length and overlap were identified. Living in a village raised the odds of increased differences in length (odds ratio (OR) 3.36 (1.32-8.58)), while attending a more urban school raised the odds of increased percentage overlap (OR 3.98 (1.49-10.63)). However none were found for food outlet exposure. Journeys home from school increased the difference between GIS and GPS routes in terms of food outlet exposure, and this measure showed considerable within-person variation. Conclusions GIS modelled routes between home and school were not

  7. The evolution of ocean island volcanoes in a stationary plate environment and its implications concerning hotspot dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, R.

    2012-04-01

    The evolution of oceanic hotspot systems is strongly influenced by plate velocity relative to the melting source, age/thickness of the lithosphere, proximity to a plate boundary, and melting source parameters. In fast-moving plates, volcanic loci move away from the melting source and an obvious mechanism for the waning of volcanism is established. A linear island chain is thus created and a distinct edifice evolutionary pattern is recognizable. This evolutionary pattern is strongly influenced by long-term subsidence created by flexural loading and hotspot swell decay with plate movement, albeit some small uplift when edifices cross the flexural bulge; the transition from island to guyot is essentially dictated by subsidence. Conversely, in stationary or quasi-stationary plate environments, edifices do not or barely move away from the melting source so other mechanisms must be accounted for the long-term decrease in volcanic activity and the different edifice evolution. The Cape Verde Archipelago is the type-example of a hotspot in an old, stiff plate that is stationary with respect to its melting source, making it an ideal place to study ocean island evolution and oceanic hotspot dynamics in a stationary plate environment. Observations in this archipelago suggest that island evolution in such geodynamic environments is generally characterized by long-term vertical stability or even pronounced uplift trends, prolonging the islands lifetime above sea-level; the transition from island to guyot is essentially dictated by marine erosion. Uplift reconstructions for the Cape Verde Archipelago - using dateable relative sea-level tracers such as lava deltas, submarine volcanic units and marine terraces - suggest that two processes have acted to raise the islands during their lifetime. During an initial phase, mantle processes acted to build the swell. Subsequently, magmatic intrusions in the island edifice caused up to 350 m of local uplift at the scale of individual

  8. Retrogradational fluvio-paralic coal-forming environments, South Island, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, R.M. ); Sykes, R. )

    1990-06-01

    The West Coast Region of South Island, New Zealand, records Paleogene history of peneplanation, fluvio-paralic aggradation, and marine transgression. At Buller coalfield, Eocene Brunner coal measures rest unconformably on Paleozoic to Cretaceous basement rocks and interfinger upward with Eocene, marine Kaiata Formation. During Eocene, rising sea level controlled the architecture of fluvio-paralic deposits and strongly influenced the origin and properties of Brunner coals. The Brunner coal measures contain as much as 40-ft thick, high to low volatile bituminous coal beds with 0.5-16% ash and 1-9% sulfur that is greatest in the upper coal beds. The Brunner can be divided informally into lower and upper coal measures. The lower coal measures are dominated by pebble conglomerates and multierosional, trough-crossbedded conglomeratic sandstones; the upper coal measures by stacked, multilateral, trough crossbedded, granular sandstones with subordinate siltstones and mudstones. Bioturbated sandstones with brackish-marine Ophiomorpha-like trace fossils are common in the upper coal measures. The lower coal measures were deposited in exhumed paleovalleys of the peneplain surface. These valleys, as deep as 50 ft, were initially aggraded by gravelly braided streams. Raised bogs formed in abandoned braid valleys and extended onto surrounding basement highs. The upper coal measures were deposited in sandy bedload, meandering streams with paralic wave-reworked deltas, and attached barriers. Peat bogs in the paralic environments accumulated thin coals, whereas bogs that developed on abandoned meander ridges formed thick, lenticular coals. Sea-level rise resulted in inundation introducing sulfur into the peat and resulted in high sinuosity fluvial architecture. Gradual incursion of brackish-marine waters favored bioturbation of paralic sediments along retrograding coastlines.

  9. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Follow-up Study

    Cancer.gov

    A follow-up study on women with breast cancer who participated in the parent population-based case-control study of Long Island women to determine whether environmental and other lifestyle factors influence breast cancer survival.

  10. Characterizing human-environment interactions in the Galapagos Islands: A case study of land use/land cover dynamics in Isabela Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleary, Amy L.

    This dissertation examines contemporary land use and land cover (LULC) change in the communities and protected areas of Isabela Island to provide insights into human-environment interactions in the Galapagos Islands of Ecuador. The growing human presence in Galapagos over the last four decades has been accompanied by significant changes in LULC on inhabited islands in the archipelago. Local stakeholders and decision-makers have recently called for a more integrative approach to understanding interactions between people and the environment in the archipelago. This study is guided by two complementary bodies of work situated within the human-environment tradition of Geography---land change science and landscape ecology. First, support Vector Machine (SVM) and Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) classifiers are evaluated for mapping LULC from high spatial resolution satellite images. The results show that thematic LULC classifications produced by OBIA are more accurate overall than those generated by SVM. However, important tradeoffs exist between improvements in classification accuracy and processing requirements. The composition and spatial configuration of LULC change are then mapped and quantified from a time series of QuickBird and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2003 to 2010. The pattern metric and change detection analyses reveal that land use change is extensive within the communities due to the expansion and consolidation of built-up areas, and fragmentation of and declines in agriculture. The Galapagos National Park is primarily transformed by exotic plant invasion, forests expansion, and shrinking coastal lagoons. Patterns of agricultural land abandonment, plant invasion, and forest expansion over the same period are described from pattern metric and overlay analyses. Potential drivers of these LULC transitions are identified from logistic regression models, descriptive statistics of agricultural surveys and population censuses, and interviews with

  11. IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2013-07-01

    IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species.

  12. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    over temporal aggregation, temporal accumulation, spatio-temporal statistics, spatio-temporal sampling, temporal algebra, temporal topology analysis, time series animation and temporal topology visualization to time series import and export capabilities with support for NetCDF and VTK data formats. We will present several temporal modules that support parallel processing of raster and 3D raster time series. [1] GRASS GIS Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling In Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling, Vol. 2 (2008), pp. 171-199, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74831-19 by M. Neteler, D. Beaudette, P. Cavallini, L. Lami, J. Cepicky edited by G. Brent Hall, Michael G. Leahy [2] Gebbert, S., Pebesma, E., 2014. A temporal GIS for field based environmental modeling. Environ. Model. Softw. 53, 1-12. [3] Zambelli, P., Gebbert, S., Ciolli, M., 2013. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS Intl Journal of Geo-Information 2, 201-219. [4] Löwe, P., Klump, J., Thaler, J. (2012): The FOSS GIS Workbench on the GFZ Load Sharing Facility compute cluster, (Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-4491, 2012), General Assembly European Geosciences Union (Vienna, Austria 2012). [5] Akhter, S., Aida, K., Chemin, Y., 2010. "GRASS GIS on High Performance Computing with MPI, OpenMP and Ninf-G Programming Framework". ISPRS Conference, Kyoto, 9-12 August 2010

  13. Characterization and prediction of meandering channel migration in the GIS environment: a case study of the Sabine River in the USA.

    PubMed

    Heo, Joon; Duc, Trinh Anh; Cho, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Sung-Uk

    2009-05-01

    This study focused on the prediction of a 22 km meandering channel migration of the Sabine River between the states of Texas and Louisiana. The meander characteristics of 12 bends, identified from seven orthophotos taken between 1974 and 2004, were acquired in a GIS environment. Based on that earlier years' data acquisition, channel prediction was performed for the two years 1996 and 2004 using least squares estimation and linear extrapolations, yielding a satisfactory agreement with the observations (the median predicted and observed migration rates were 3.1 and 3.6 [m/year], respectively). The best-predicted migration rate was found to be associated with the longest orthophoto-recorded interval. The study confirmed that channel migration is strongly correlated with bend curvature and that the maximum migration rate of the bend corresponded to a radius of curvature [bend radius (R(C))/channel width (W(C))] of 2.5. In tight bends of a smaller radius of curvature than 1.6, secondary flow scouring near the bend apex increases bend curvature. The stability index of the dimensionless bend radius was determined to be 2.45. Overall, this study proves the effectiveness of least squares estimation with historical orthophotography for characterization of meandering channel migration.

  14. Ecological evaluation of Oakland Harbor Phase 3-38-foot composites relative to the Alcatraz Island Environs (R-AM)

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study for USACE to determine whether potential dredged sediments in Oakland Inner Harbor were suitable for open-water disposal, following the guidelines of the Draft Ecological Evaluation of Proposed Discharge of Dredged Material into Ocean Waters, otherwise known as the implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990). This report summarizes the collection, chemical analysis, toxicity testing, and bioaccumulation analysis of sediments collected to {minus}38 ft relative to mean lower low water from Oakland Inner Harbor. Six dredged material composite samples (COMPs) were compared to reference sediment from the area surrounding Alcatraz Island and its dredged material disposal site, designated the Alcatraz Island Environs (R-AM). Examination of the results of toxicity tests and bioaccumulation analysis will assist USACE in determining the effects of in-bay disposal of the Oakland Inner Harbor dredged material on the Alcatraz Island Environs.

  15. Glacial geology, glacial recession, proglacial lakes, and postglacial environments, Fishers Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sirkin, L. ); Funk, R.E. . Anthropological Survey)

    1993-03-01

    The Fishers Island Moraine, a complex of three parallel ice margin depositional trends, forms the west-central segment of a major recessional moraine of the Connecticut-Rhode Island Lobe of the late Wisconsinan glacier. As such, the moraine links the Orient Point Moraine of eastern Long Island and the Charlestown Moraine of western Rhode Island and marks a prominent recessional ice margin. The moraine is correlative with the Roanoke Point Moraine of the Connecticut Lobe of northeastern Long Island. Pollen stratigraphy of >13,180 ka bog sediments begins early in the spruce (A) pollen zone with evidence of a cold, late-glacial climate. The pine (B) pollen zone, beginning prior to 11,145 ka, and the oak (C) pollen zone, dating from about 9,000 ka with hickory and hemlock subzones, are well represented. However, after about 2,000 ka, the stratigraphic record in the bog sections is missing in most cases due to peat harvesting. Pollen spectra from several archeological sites fall within the late oak pollen zone, well within the land clearing interval with evidence of hardwood forests and locally holly and cedar. Evidence of cultigens in the pollen record is sparse. Marine deposits over fresh water bog and proglacial lake sediments show that some coastal bogs were drowned by sea level rise.

  16. Archean hydrothermal oceanic floor sedimentary environments: DXCL drilling project of the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation, Pilbara, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.; Sakamoto, R.; Suganuma, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Many place in Archean greenstone belts have been reported of the black chert to Iron rich sediments above volcanic sequence. The chemical sedimentary sequence has been recognized to form by as hydrothermal siliceous sequence. These sediments contain the hint to understand the Archean ocean and earth surface environments. Here, we will focus the Dixon Island and Cleaverville formations, which are one of the best preserved Archean hydrothermal sedimentary sequence in the world, to recognized detail stratigraphy and restored deep ocean environment. We did scientific drilling, which is called ‘DXCL drilling project’, at 2007 summer. This drilling project had been selected two coastal sites; CL site at lower part of the Cleaverville Formation, and another is DX site at the upper Dixon Island Formation. A systematic combinations of geological, sedimentological, geochemical, and geobiological approaches will be applied to the fresh samples. Here we will show the recent result of this sequence, which will be key evidence to understand the nature of the middle Archean (3.2 Ga) marine environment influenced by hydrothermal activity. The 3.2 Ga Dixon Island -Cleaverville formations composed of volcanic rock units and chemical-volcanosedimentary sequence which are identified by accreted immature island arc setting. The ~350m-thick Dixon Island Formation which is overlie by pillow basalt consists mainly of highly silicified volcanic-siliceous sequences that contain apparent microbial mats and bacterial fossil-like structure within black chert and also includes a komatiite-rhyolite sequences bearing hydrothermal veins. The >300m-thick Cleaverville Formation, which conformably overlay pillow basalt, contains a thick unit of reddish shale, bedded red-white chert and banded iron formation. It partly contains chert fragments-bearing pyroclastic beds. In detail lithology from the drill cores, the CL and DX contain different type of organic rocks. The CL 1 and CL2 core samples

  17. Macrofauna and environment of the Nanpil-Kiepw River, Ponape, Eastern Caroline Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.; Ford, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    The first comprehensive evaluation of stream fauna in the Eastern Caroline Islands resulted from collections on Ponape, a 334-km- island having more than 40 streams, many of which arise along 700-m-high interior ridges. Field surveys centered on the Nanpil-Kiepw River below 170 m elevation, a bouldery reach with water of low mineral content and frequent surging flows. Faunal specimens were collected by electrofishing, rotenone treatment, netting, and hand picking. Discharge character of the Nanpil-Kiepw River is similar to but more extreme than that of other streams of Oceania with which it was compared. Drastic flow surges appeared to be a major factor affecting community structure. At least 44 faunal species were present, 36 of them representing taxons primarily of marine origin that are characteristic of oceanic islands: 15 fishes (5 families), 10 decapod crustaceans (3 families), and 11 snails (2 families). Larvae of aquatic moths were the only insects of significance. Four sicydiine gobies are new species possibly endemic to Ponape or the Eastern Caroline Islands. Based on numbers of species within prominent taxons and diadromous groups, Ponape’s faunal diversity exceeds that of Samoa, Guam, and Hawaii, but is lower than that of Palau. Similarities of Ponape's identified fish species to those of Palau suggest that Ponape was colonized from the west along the “Caroline conduit.”

  18. Integrating 3D Visualization and GIS in Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Most GIS-related planning practices and education are currently limited to two-dimensional mapping and analysis although 3D GIS is a powerful tool to study the complex urban environment in its full spatial extent. This paper reviews current GIS and 3D visualization uses and development in planning practice and education. Current literature…

  19. Assessment of vulnerability to future marine processes of urbanized coastal environments by a GIS-based approach: expected scenario in the metropolitan area of Bari (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, F.; Ceppi, C.; Christopulos, V.

    2013-12-01

    Literature concerning the risk assessment procedures after extreme meteorological events is generally focused on the establishing of relationship between actual severe weather conditions and impact detected over the involved zones. Such an events are classified on the basis of measurements and observation able to assess the magnitude of phenomena or on the basis of related effects on the affected area, the latter being deeply connected with the overall physical vulnerability. However such assessment almost never do consider scenario about expected extreme event and possible pattern of urbanization at the time of impact and nor the spatial and temporal uncertainty of phenomena are taken into account. The drawn of future scenario about coastal vulnerability to marine processes is therefore difficult. This work focuses the study case of the Metropoli Terra di Bari (metropolitan area of Bari, Apulia, Italy) where a coastal vulnerability analysis due to climate changes expected on the basis of expert opinions coming from the scientific community was carried out. Several possible impacts on the coastal environments were considered, in particular sea level rise inundation, flooding due to storm surge and coastal erosion. For such a purpose the methodology base on SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) produced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) was adopted after a regionalization procedure as carried out by Verburgh and others (2006) at the European scale. The open source software SLEUTH, base on the cellular automate principle, was used and the reliability of obtained scenario verified through the Monte Carlo method. Once these scenario were produced, a GIS-based multicriteria methodology was implemented to evaluate the vulnerability of the urbanized coastal area of interest. Several vulnerability maps related are therefore available for different scenario able to consider the degree of hazards and potential development of the typology and extent

  20. GIS grid calculation method application in urban eco-environment assessment: a case study of Longxi County in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Dong, Suocheng; Yin, Weihong; Li, Shuang; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2005-09-01

    Under the guidance of eco-city theory, and its practice in China, we use grid calculation method of GIS & landsat pictures of remote sensing to assess the urban eco-environment quality, e.g. the situation and quality of water, air, land & soil in Longxi County, which is a poverty stricken county in long history in west China. Then we use the dynamic system to simulate the urban system of Longxi County, in which we contrast two kinds of developing models, i.e. the normal & transitional ways, and three types of indexes to evaluate the benefits of the developing model, i.e. the environmental, social and economical indexes. We try to find out the driving forces of the transition, which are population, economy, technology, governance, etc. The change of driving forces is the main factor that shapes the future Longxi, and the model shows that if the local policy makers had adopted the eco-city theory, the benefit of transitional eco-city would exceed the normal developing way, and the urban ecology would also be more stable, and the economy of Longxi would be more efficient. So only if the Longxi County were an eco-city, which composed by many eco-towns, eco-villages (some villages have begin to put this theory into practice), that the urban development of Longxi can be sustainable, compared with the normal developing way. And the main economic activities in Longxi will also be the recycling-economy, and resources-saving society, which can best utilize the resources of current Longxi.

  1. Integrating Online GIS into the K-12 Curricula: Lessons from the Development of a Collaborative GIS in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Paul; Semple, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    GIS has shown promise in Project Based Learning (PBL) environments, but many obstacles exist in its integration into school curriculums. This article discusses the development and utilization of an online GIS tool that was created to illustrate that the perceptual gap between relevance and ease of use of GIS software can be bridged at the K-12…

  2. Transposable element islands facilitate adaptation to novel environments in an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Lukas; Kim, Jay W; Ence, Daniel; Zimin, Aleksey; Klein, Antonia; Wyschetzki, Katharina; Weichselgartner, Tobias; Kemena, Carsten; Stökl, Johannes; Schultner, Eva; Wurm, Yannick; Smith, Christopher D; Yandell, Mark; Heinze, Jürgen; Gadau, Jürgen; Oettler, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation requires genetic variation, but founder populations are generally genetically depleted. Here we sequence two populations of an inbred ant that diverge in phenotype to determine how variability is generated. Cardiocondyla obscurior has the smallest of the sequenced ant genomes and its structure suggests a fundamental role of transposable elements (TEs) in adaptive evolution. Accumulations of TEs (TE islands) comprising 7.18% of the genome evolve faster than other regions with regard to single-nucleotide variants, gene/exon duplications and deletions and gene homology. A non-random distribution of gene families, larvae/adult specific gene expression and signs of differential methylation in TE islands indicate intragenomic differences in regulation, evolutionary rates and coalescent effective population size. Our study reveals a tripartite interplay between TEs, life history and adaptation in an invasive species.

  3. Transposable element islands facilitate adaptation to novel environments in an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Lukas; Kim, Jay W; Ence, Daniel; Zimin, Aleksey; Klein, Antonia; Wyschetzki, Katharina; Weichselgartner, Tobias; Kemena, Carsten; Stökl, Johannes; Schultner, Eva; Wurm, Yannick; Smith, Christopher D; Yandell, Mark; Heinze, Jürgen; Gadau, Jürgen; Oettler, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation requires genetic variation, but founder populations are generally genetically depleted. Here we sequence two populations of an inbred ant that diverge in phenotype to determine how variability is generated. Cardiocondyla obscurior has the smallest of the sequenced ant genomes and its structure suggests a fundamental role of transposable elements (TEs) in adaptive evolution. Accumulations of TEs (TE islands) comprising 7.18% of the genome evolve faster than other regions with regard to single-nucleotide variants, gene/exon duplications and deletions and gene homology. A non-random distribution of gene families, larvae/adult specific gene expression and signs of differential methylation in TE islands indicate intragenomic differences in regulation, evolutionary rates and coalescent effective population size. Our study reveals a tripartite interplay between TEs, life history and adaptation in an invasive species. PMID:25510865

  4. Designing an Early Childhood Environment: A Community-Built Playscape on Matakana Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Toni; Christie, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Across the mouth of the Tauranga Harbour lies a piece of paradise, Te Moutere o Matakana--Matakana Island. It is blessed with an ocean beach with white sand and a mean surf break, tidal flats, wetlands, fertile pasture, and a native and exotic forest. It is home to a maori language nest for the local children--Te Kohanga Reo o te Moutere o…

  5. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in terrestrial environments in Greenland and Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Dam, Maria; Rigét, Frank F

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) have been measured in liver samples from terrestrial organisms from Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. Samples from ptarmigan (West Greenland), reindeer (southwest-Greenland), muskox (East Greenland), and land-locked Arctic char from southwest Greenland and the Faroe Islands were analyzed. In addition, PFASs levels in land-locked brown trout from Faroese lakes are reported. Of the 17 PFASs analyzed in the samples the following compounds were detected: PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTrA, and PFTeA. PFNA was the compound detected in most samples and in all species. However, the compound detected at highest concentration was dependent on species, with overall highest concentrations of PFTrA and PFUnA being detected in trout liver from Lake á Mýranar (Faroe Islands). In muskox, the PFAS occurring at highest concentrations was PFDA, which was among the PFAS detected at lowest concentrations in freshwater fish, and was only detected in one individual ptarmigan. The concentration of PFOS, PFDoA and PFTrA in Arctic char from Greenland and Faroe Islands were similar, whereas the concentration of PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA were higher in Arctic char than those from Greenland. The opposite was observed for PFTeA. The PFASs occurring at highest concentrations in trout were PFTrA and PFUnA. Arctic char from Lake á Mýranar had much lower concentrations of PFTrA and PFUnA than in trout from the lakes analyzed, but a higher concentration of PFTeA than trout from the same lake. A clear pattern with odd-carbon number homologues concentrations higher than the next lower even homologue was observed in fish samples, which is consistent with the hypothesis of transport of volatile precursors to remote regions.

  6. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in terrestrial environments in Greenland and Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Dam, Maria; Rigét, Frank F

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) have been measured in liver samples from terrestrial organisms from Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. Samples from ptarmigan (West Greenland), reindeer (southwest-Greenland), muskox (East Greenland), and land-locked Arctic char from southwest Greenland and the Faroe Islands were analyzed. In addition, PFASs levels in land-locked brown trout from Faroese lakes are reported. Of the 17 PFASs analyzed in the samples the following compounds were detected: PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTrA, and PFTeA. PFNA was the compound detected in most samples and in all species. However, the compound detected at highest concentration was dependent on species, with overall highest concentrations of PFTrA and PFUnA being detected in trout liver from Lake á Mýranar (Faroe Islands). In muskox, the PFAS occurring at highest concentrations was PFDA, which was among the PFAS detected at lowest concentrations in freshwater fish, and was only detected in one individual ptarmigan. The concentration of PFOS, PFDoA and PFTrA in Arctic char from Greenland and Faroe Islands were similar, whereas the concentration of PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA were higher in Arctic char than those from Greenland. The opposite was observed for PFTeA. The PFASs occurring at highest concentrations in trout were PFTrA and PFUnA. Arctic char from Lake á Mýranar had much lower concentrations of PFTrA and PFUnA than in trout from the lakes analyzed, but a higher concentration of PFTeA than trout from the same lake. A clear pattern with odd-carbon number homologues concentrations higher than the next lower even homologue was observed in fish samples, which is consistent with the hypothesis of transport of volatile precursors to remote regions. PMID:25482975

  7. The Examining Your Environment through the Power of Data Project (EYE-POD) Project at NAU: Professional Development for Secondary Education Teachers Using Earth Sciences and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample, J. C.; Rubino-Hare, L.; Claesgens, J.; Fredrickson, K.; Manone, M.; White, M.

    2010-12-01

    The EYE-POD project at Northern Arizona University is an NSF-ITEST-funded professional development program for secondary science (SS) and career technical education (CTE) teachers. The program recruited SS-CTE teacher pairs from Arizona and the surrounding region to participate in two-week workshops during Summer, 2010, and an advanced workshop ins Summer, 2011. The workshops are led by a team with distinct expertise in science content, professional development and pedagogy, GIS, and project evaluation. Learning modules and a workshop agenda are developed using the Legacy Cycle of learning. Rather than compartmentalize pedagogical, content, and GIS learning activities, they have been combined throughout the workshop timeline. Early activities focus on learning of climate and weather processes through GIS modules provided by ESRI-“Mapping our World” and “Analyzing our World”. Participants learn the technical aspects of GIS software while investigating real phenomena. The science/GIS learning activities are augmented by laboratory demonstrations and field data collection using Labquest handheld field measurement systems with a variety of probes. At the end of the first week teacher-participants presented the solution to a problem, using GIS-based climate and weather data, involving travel to various locations on Earth. The second week focused on classroom, lab, and field activities devoted to recommendations to the City of Flagstaff for development in the Rio de Flag floodplain. Teacher-participant groups presented solutions making claims and recommendations supported by evidence from georeferenced field data and other GIS data acquired from various sources. At the close of the workshop teachers were provided with GIS software, hardware for field data collection, and several reference materials to aid in curriculum development. They have been tasked with implementing two GIS-based Earth science content modules in their schools, to one science class and one

  8. Genetics, Environment, and Diabetes-Related End-Stage Renal Disease in the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    González, Ana M.; Maceira, Benito M.; Pérez, Estefanía; Cabrera, Vicente M.; López, Alfonso J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes, complicated with renal disease, have a significantly higher incidence in the Canary Islands than in mainland Spain and other European countries. Present-day Canarian inhabitants consist of a mixed population with North African indigenous and European colonizer ancestors who have rapidly evolved from a rural to an urban life style. The aim of this work was to assess the possible role of genetic and environmental factors on diabetes-related end-stage renal disease incidence in the Canary Islands. Results: For both types of diabetes there is an ethnic susceptibility increased by diabetes family history. Whereas the Y-chromosome does not play a significant role, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup differences point to a maternal origin for this ethnic predisposition, confirming susceptible and protective effects for haplogroups J and T, respectively. In addition, urban life style seems to be an additional risk factor for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions: The maternal ethnic predisposition to diabetes complicated with kidney disease detected in the Canary Islands signals mtDNA and X-chromosome markers as the best candidates to uncover the genetic predisposition to this disease. PMID:22480375

  9. An Approach to Integrate a Space-Time GIS Data Model with High Performance Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Zhao, Ziliang; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach to integrate a Space-Time GIS data model on a high performance computing platform. The Space-Time GIS data model has been developed on a desktop computing environment. We use the Space-Time GIS data model to generate GIS module, which organizes a series of remote sensing data. We are in the process of porting the GIS module into an HPC environment, in which the GIS modules handle large dataset directly via parallel file system. Although it is an ongoing project, authors hope this effort can inspire further discussions on the integration of GIS on high performance computing platforms.

  10. GIS: QA CONCERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are increasingly becoming an important tool in making Agency decisions. Quality Control and Quality Assurance is required to be integrated the planning, implementation and assessment of GIS databases. The presentations in this session will a...

  11. Use of integrated landscape indicators to evaluate the health of linked watersheds and coral reef environments in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Ku'ulei S; Kido, Michael H; Jokiel, Paul L; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai'i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  12. Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  13. Biological effects of toxic contaminants in sediments from Long Island sound and environs. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.A.; Bricker, S.B.; Long, E.R.; Scott, K.J.; Thursby, G.B.

    1994-08-01

    The distribution and severity of toxicity and relationships between toxicity and chemical contamination in the sediments in Long Island Sound was determined. Samples from 20 coastal bays were tested for toxicity with three independent protocols: (1) amphipod survival, (2) survival and development of clam larvae, and (3) a microbial bioluminescence. Sediments were analyzed for heavy metals, PAHs, chlorinated pesticides and PCBs. Significant toxicity was found in each of the 20 coastal bays. Only 11 of the 60 stations showed no significant toxicity in any of the three tests. Statistical tests indicated that the toxicity observed in these samples was strongly influenced not only by gross contaminant content, but also by intrinsic sample characteristics such as grain size and TOC content.

  14. A Characterization of the Terrestrial Environment of Kodiak Island, Alaska for the Design, Development and Operation of Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlins, Michael A.; Johnson, Dale L.; Batts, Glen W.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of the terrestrial environment is an important component in the success of a launch vehicle program. Environmental factors such as winds, atmospheric thermodynamics, precipitation, fog, and cloud characteristics are among many parameters that must be accurately defined for flight success. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently coordinating weather support and performing analysis for the launch of a NASA payload from a new facility located at Kodiak Island, Alaska in late 2001 (NASA, 1999). Following the first launch from the Kodiak Launch Complex, an Air Force intercontinental ballistic missile on November 5, 1999, the site's developer, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation (AADC), is hoping to acquire a sizable share of the many launches that will occur over the next decade. One such customer is NASA, which is planning to launch the Vegetation Canopy Lidar satellite aboard an Athena I rocket, the first planned mission to low earth orbit from the new facility. To support this launch, a statistical model of the atmospheric and surface environment for Kodiak Island, AK has been produced from rawinsonde and surface-based meteorological observations for use as an input to future launch vehicle design and/or operations. In this study, the creation of a "reference atmosphere" from rawinsonde observations is described along with comparisons between the reference atmosphere and existing model representations for Kodiak. Meteorological conditions that might result in a delay on launch day (cloud cover, visibility, precipitation, etc.) are also explored and described through probabilities of launch by month and hour of day. This atmospheric "mission analysis" is also useful during the early stages of a vehicle program, when consideration of the climatic characteristics of a location can be factored into vehicle designs. To be most beneficial, terrestrial environment definitions should a) be available at

  15. Multiscaling properties of tropical rainfall: Analysis of rain gauge datasets in Lesser Antilles island environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Didier C.; Pasquier, Raphaël; Cécé, Raphaël; Dorville, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Changes in rainfall seem to be the main impact of climate change in the Caribbean area. The last conclusions of IPCC (2013), indicate that the end of this century will be marked by a rise of extreme rainfalls in tropical areas, linked with increase of the mean surface temperature. Moreover, most of the Lesser Antilles islands are characterized by a complex topography which tends to enhance the rainfall from synoptic disturbances by orographic effects. In the past five years, out of hurricanes passage, several extreme rainy events (approx. 16 mm in 6 minutes), including fatal cases, occurred in the Lesser Antilles Arc: in Guadeloupe (January 2011, May 2012 and 2013), in Martinique (May 2009, April 2011 and 2013), in Saint-Lucia (December 2013). These phenomena inducing floods, loss of life and material damages (agriculture sector and public infrastructures), inhibit the development of the islands. At this time, numerical weather prediction models as WRF, which are based on the equations of the atmospheric physics, do not show great results in the focused area (Bernard et al., 2013). Statistical methods may be used to examine explicitly local rainy updrafts, thermally and orographically induced at micro-scale. The main goal of the present insular tropical study is to characterize the multifractal symmetries occurring in the 6-min rainfall time series, registered since 2006 by the French Met. Office network weather stations. The universal multifractal model (Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991) is used to define the statistical properties of measured rainfalls at meso-scale and micro-scale. This model is parametrized by a fundamental exponents set (H,a,C1,q) which are determined and compared with values found in the literature. The first three parameters characterize the mean pattern and the last parameter q, the extreme pattern. The occurrence ranges of multifractal regime are examined. The suggested links between the internal variability of the tropical rainy events and the

  16. Conceptual models for the hydrothermal environment of Seokmo Island geothermal field, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.; Lee, Y.; Kim, K.; Hyun, Y.; Lee, K.; Lee, T.

    2010-12-01

    Geothermal exploration for the first geothermal power plant in Korea is undergoing in Seokmo Island, where a few artesian wells with relatively high water temperature of ~70°C have been discovered recently. The geothermal gradient in the site is up to ~45°C/km and the geothermal water is as saline as seawater. The discharge rate of geothermal water and the vertical temperature distribution vary significantly even in a small area. Therefore, hydrothermal behavior in this field seems to be related to the fracture system which could act as a conduit, even if any detailed investigation on the structure and the distribution of the fractured system has not been completed yet. Several conceptual models for the groundwater flow and the convective heat transfer in the fractured medium of the Seokmo Island region are suggested as: 1) topography-driven flow, 2) density-driven flow, and 3) artesian flow caused by the pressure difference. All of these possible scenarios reflecting any known hydraulic and geothermal factors were evaluated by numerical models. Topography-driven flow is resulted from the recharge on the mountains and the discharge through the permeable fracture. This model is suitable to describe the artesian wells near the foot of the mountains, but the rain-originated water could not explain the saline chemistry of the geothermal water. Density-driven flow is caused by the heating from the anomalously high basal heat flux. In this model, water flowing through the fractured medium is considerably heated at depth and the lighter hot water comes to rise through the permeable fracture. The estimated temperature of the geothermal water should be higher than the observed one so that it can lead to considerable density difference. Artesian flow caused by the pressure difference is based on the stress variation in the fractured rock medium. This model considers some extended fractures connected from the deep aquifer. It is possible to explain any of the artesian flow

  17. Analysis of Giga-size Earth Observation Data in Open Source GRASS GIS 7 - from Desktop to On-line Solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Mitasova, H.; Jasiewicz, J.; Neteler, M.; Gebbert, S.

    2014-12-01

    GRASS GIS is a leading open source GIS for geospatial analysis and modeling. In addition to being utilized as a desktop GIS it also serves as a processing engine for high performance geospatial computing for applications in diverse disciplines. The newly released GRASS GIS 7 supports big data analysis including temporal framework, image segmentation, watershed analysis, synchronized 2D/3D animations and many others. This presentation will focus on new GRASS GIS 7-powered tools for geoprocessing giga-size earth observation (EO) data using spatial pattern analysis. Pattern-based analysis connects to human visual perception of space as well as makes geoprocessing of giga-size EO data possible in an efficient and robust manner. GeoPAT is a collection of GRASS GIS 7 modules that fully integrates procedures for pattern representation of EO data and patterns similarity calculations with standard GIS tasks of mapping, maps overlay, segmentation, classification(Fig 1a), change detections etc. GeoPAT works very well on a desktop but it also underpins several GeoWeb applications (http://sil.uc.edu/ ) which allow users to do analysis on selected EO datasets without the need to download them. The GRASS GIS 7 temporal framework and high resolution visualizations will be illustrated using time series of giga-size, lidar-based digital elevation models representing the dynamics of North Carolina barrier islands over the past 15 years. The temporal framework supports efficient raster and vector data series analysis and simplifies data input for visual analysis of dynamic landscapes (Fig. 1b) allowing users to rapidly identify vulnerable locations, changes in built environment and eroding coastlines. Numerous improvements in GRASS GIS 7 were implemented to support terabyte size data processing for reconstruction of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) at 250m resolution using multiple regressions and PCA (Fig. 1c) . The new MODIS LST series (http://gis.cri.fmach.it/eurolst/) includes

  18. Late Pleistocene Interstadial Environment on Faddeyevskiy Island, East-Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, Andrei A.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Romanenko, Fedor A.; Filimonova, Ludmila V.; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    1999-01-01

    Pollen, plant macrofossil, LOI and radiocarbon analyses of a 1.4-m section from Faddeyevskiy Island, Novosibirskie Ostrova archipelago (75 deg 20 min N, 143 deg 50 min E, 30m elevation) provide new information on the Late Pleistocene interstadial environmental history of this high Arctic region. Bulk radiocarbon dates of 25,700 +/- 1000, 32,780 +/- 500, 35,200 +/- 650 and two AMS dates of 29,950 +/- 660 and 42,990 +/- 1280 indicate that the deposits accumulated during the Kargian (Boutellier) interval. Numerous mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) remains collected in the vicinity of the site were radiocarbon dated to 36,700-18,500 yr. BP. Rare bison (Bison priscus) bones were dated to 32,200 +/- 600 and 33,100 +/- 320. Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Artemisia pollen dominate the pollen spectra with some Ranunculaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Rosaceae, and Compositae. These pollen spectra reflect a tundra-steppe vegetation which probably was dominant on the exposed shelf of the Arctic Ocean. The presence of Carex macrofossils infer a summer climate two degrees warmer than today. The productivity of this local vegetation during the Kargian interstadial was apparently high enough to feed the grass-eater herds.

  19. Mapping Active-Layer Thickness in an Urbanized Environment: The Barrow Urban Heat Island Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klene, A. E.; Hinkel, K. M.; Nelson, F. E.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2003-12-01

    Local and global changes in the Arctic climate may have profound impacts on hydrology, soil stability, and infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, and water, gas, or oil pipelines. These changes will be manifested in large part through permafrost, which can influence virtually all physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the soil. The "Barrow Urban Heat Island Study" (BUHIS) is an ongoing project in northern Alaska that examines the effects of urbanization on air and soil temperatures in and around Barrow. At 4600 residents, Barrow is the largest native settlement in the circumarctic region and the northernmost urban area in the United States. Initiated in summer 2001, BUHIS is recording temperature and thaw depth at more than 60 locations throughout the village, the developing suburbs, and surrounding undisturbed tundra. This paper describes one part of study examining the active layer and anthropogenic influences on its thickness. Summer air and soil temperature data, together with digital vegetation and soil maps, are used as input to a modified Stefan solution to map depth of thaw over an area of 100 square kilometers that includes both the village of Barrow and the surrounding tundra. Maps representing end-of-summer conditions for 2001 provide the first spatial/temporal representation of active-layer variability within an urbanized area. Increasing urban development in Arctic regions is causing information about changes accompanying industrial development and urbanization to become more vital, particularly given the possibility of a warming climate.

  20. Tail shedding in island lizards [Lacertidae, Reptilia]: decline of antipredator defenses in relaxed predation environments.

    PubMed

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Poulakakis, Nikos; Lymberakis, Petros; Valakos, Efstratios D

    2009-05-01

    The ability of an animal to shed its tail is a widespread antipredator strategy among lizards. The degree of expression of this defense is expected to be shaped by prevailing environmental conditions including local predation pressure. We test these hypotheses by comparing several aspects of caudal autotomy in 15 Mediterranean lizard taxa existing across a swath of mainland and island localities that differ in the number and identity of predator species present. Autotomic ease varied substantially among the study populations, in a pattern that is best explained by the presence of vipers. Neither insularity nor the presence of other types of predators explain the observed autotomy rates. Final concentration of accumulated tail muscle lactate and duration of movement of a shed tail, two traits that were previously thought to relate to predation pressure, are in general not shaped by either predator diversity or insularity. Under conditions of relaxed predation selection, an uncoupling of different aspects of caudal autotomy exists, with some elements (ease of autotomy) declining faster than others (duration of movement, lactate concentration). We compared rates of shed tails in the field against rates of laboratory autotomies conducted under standardized conditions and found very high correlation values (r > 0.96). This suggests that field autotomy rates, rather than being a metric of predatory attacks, merely reflect the innate predisposition of a taxon to shed its tail.

  1. Petrogenesis of dacite in an oceanic subduction environment: Raoul Island, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ian E. M.; Worthington, Timothy J.; Price, Richard C.; Stewart, Robert B.; Maas, R.

    2006-09-01

    Raoul Volcano in the northern Kermadec arc is typical of volcanoes in oceanic subduction systems in that it is composed mainly of low-K high-Al basalts and basaltic andesite. However, during the last 4 ka Raoul Volcano has produced mainly dacite magma in pyroclastic eruptions associated with caldera formation. The rocks produced in these episodes are almost aphyric containing only sparse crystals of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and magnetite. These apparent phenocrysts have chemical compositions that suggest that they did not crystallise from melts with the chemical composition of their host rocks. Rather they are xenocrysts and only their rims show evidence for crystallisation from their host melt. Chemical compositions of samples of the dacites show that each eruption has tapped a distinct magma batch. Compositional variations through the analysed suite cannot be accommodated in any reasonable model of fractional crystallisation from likely parental magma compositions. The hypothesis that best fits the petrology of Raoul Island dacites is one of crustal anatexis. This model requires heating of the lower crust by a magma flux to the point where dehydration melting associated with amphibole breakdown produces magma from a preconditioned source. It is suggested that Raoul is passing through an adolescent stage of development in which siliceous melts are part of an open system in which felsic and mafic magmas coexist.

  2. Cloud Computing and Its Applications in GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Cao

    2011-12-01

    of cloud computing. This paper presents a parallel Euclidean distance algorithm that works seamlessly with the distributed nature of cloud computing infrastructures. The mechanism of this algorithm is to subdivide a raster image into sub-images and wrap them with a one pixel deep edge layer of individually computed distance information. Each sub-image is then processed by a separate node, after which the resulting sub-images are reassembled into the final output. It is shown that while any rectangular sub-image shape can be used, those approximating squares are computationally optimal. This study also serves as a demonstration of this subdivide and layer-wrap strategy, which would enable the migration of many truly spatial GIS algorithms to cloud computing infrastructures. However, this research also indicates that certain spatial GIS algorithms such as cost distance cannot be migrated by adopting this mechanism, which presents significant challenges for the development of cloud-based GIS systems. The third article is entitled "A Distributed Storage Schema for Cloud Computing based Raster GIS Systems". This paper proposes a NoSQL Database Management System (NDDBMS) based raster GIS data storage schema. NDDBMS has good scalability and is able to use distributed commodity computers, which make it superior to Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) in a cloud computing environment. In order to provide optimized data service performance, the proposed storage schema analyzes the nature of commonly used raster GIS data sets. It discriminates two categories of commonly used data sets, and then designs corresponding data storage models for both categories. As a result, the proposed storage schema is capable of hosting and serving enormous volumes of raster GIS data speedily and efficiently on cloud computing infrastructures. In addition, the scheme also takes advantage of the data compression characteristics of Quadtrees, thus promoting efficient data storage. Through

  3. Sound-Field Amplification: Enhancing the Classroom Listening Environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massie, Robyn; Theodoros, Deborah; McPherson, Bradley; Smaldino, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Sound-field amplification is an educational tool that allows control of the acoustic environment in a classroom. Teachers wear small microphones that transmit sound to a receiver system attached to loudspeakers around the classroom. The goal of sound-field amplification is to amplify the teacher's voice by a few decibels, and to provide uniform…

  4. Microbial Populations in Extreme Environments: Investigations and Characterizations of the Microbiology and Geochemistry of Galapagos Island Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, L. E.; Childers, S. E.; Geist, D.

    2005-12-01

    The extreme physiochemical conditions, insularity, and wide range in ages of fumaroles of the Galapagos Islands provide an excellent opportunity to explore for novel microorganisms and to study life in extreme environments. This is the first study that measures microbial diversity of Galapagos fumaroles. Forty-seven samples were collected from six distinct fumarole fields on Sierra Negra and Alcedo volcanoes. Vulcan Chico, on Sierra Negra, was activated during the last eruption in 1979. Two of the other fumarole fields on Sierra Negra are associated with a long-lived fault system on the caldera floor and are therefore likely to be significantly older. The fault-associated fumaroles have widespread alteration haloes (up to 100 m in diameter) and thick deposits of native sulfur. The most vigorous of the fumarole fields on Alcedo activated in late 1993 to early 1994. The second fumarole field on Alcedo is associated with a recently extinct geyser and the third is located on a rhyolite vent. A diversity of colors was observed in the substrates at all of the fumarole fields and some may be the result of microbial activity. Collection sites were chosen on the basis of temperature and the variations in the substrate in order to obtain samples from a variety of environments. Temperatures at sample sites range from 25.0 to 178.5° C, and pH from 0 to 6. The material collected varies between sites and includes crystalline sulfur deposits, clay, sandy and rocky soils, and microbial mats. Substrate material is characterized by powder x-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy and gases collected from five of the fumarole fields are being analyzed to test for chemical controls on the microbial populations. Genomic DNA is being extracted from all of the samples. Primers for Bacteria and Archaea are used for PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. To date, 22 of 37 processed samples have amplifiable DNA. Microbial diversity of samples possessing amplifiable DNA is

  5. Impacts of Grownd water-over exploitation on agricultural development and Environment in north-west Libya (Garabolli area) using R.S and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shbeli, E.

    2003-04-01

    This study was carried out in Garabolli area nort-west of Libya which is east of Tripoli about 60km. This study reviews the development of grownd water abstraction in the area and displays its impacts on the aquifer water levels and salinity. Satellite data were used to produce land use land cover and soil maps scale 1:50000. Each soil mapping units investigated in the field and the soils were characterized and classified. The comparison between 2 different dates spot multispectral images were applied in this paper. GIS techniques were used to produce different maps and some statistics tables shows in the report.

  6. Improvement of pre- and post-processing environments of the dynamic two-dimensional reservoir model CE-QUAL-W2 based on GIS.

    PubMed

    Ha, S R; Bae, G J; Park, D H; Cho, J H

    2003-01-01

    An Environmental Information System (EIS) coupled with a Geographic Information System (GIS) and water quality models is developed to improve the pre- and post-data processing function of CE-QUAL-W2. Since the accuracy of the geometric data in terms of a diverse water body has a great effect on the water quality variables such as the velocity, kinetic reactions, the horizontal and vertical momentum, to prepare the bathymetry information has been considered a difficult issue for modellers who intend to use the model. For identifying Cross Section and Profile Information (CSPI), which precisely contains hydraulic features and geographical configuration of a waterway, the automated CSPI extraction program has been developed using Avenue Language of the PC Arc/view package. The program consists of three major steps: (1) getting the digital depth map of a waterway using GIS techniques; (2) creating a CSPI data set of segments in each branch using the program for CE-QUAL-W2 bathymetry input; (3) selecting the optimal set of bathymetry input by which the calculated water volume meets the observed volume of the water body. Through those approaches, it is clear that the model simulation results in terms of water quality as well as reservoir hydraulics rely upon the accuracy of bathymetry information. PMID:15137156

  7. Repast vector GIS integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Najlis, R.; North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Repast now supports the reading, writing, and display of shapefile data. In the Repast-GIS integration, these tasks are generally broken up into two different classes, a data class, and a display class. The data class allows data to be read into Repast from the GIS, and written out from Repast into a GIS format. The current implementation of GIS in Repast is focused on two systems: ESRI ArcMap and OpenMap. This paper will elucidate how to use each of these systems with Repast.

  8. Penicillium jejuense sp. nov., isolated from the marine environments of Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Houbraken, Jos; Sohn, Jae Hak; Hong, Seung-Beom; Lim, Young Woon

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of an unidentified Penicillium species were isolated during a fungal diversity survey of marine environments in Korea. These strains are described here as a new species following a multigene phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer barcodes (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), genes for β-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, and observation of macro-and micromorphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the three strains formed a strongly supported monophyletic group distinct from previously reported species of section Aspergilloides. Morphologically this species can be distinguished from its sister species, P. crocicola, by the reverse color on Czapek yeast autolysate agar, abundant production of sclerotia on malt extract agar and colony characters on yeast extract sucrose agar. We name this new species P. jejuense, after the locality where it was discovered. At 25 C for 7 d, P. jejuense colonies grew to 55-60 mm on CYA, 45-48 mm on MEA, 48-52 mm on YES and 23-26 mm on CREA. Conidia (2.2-3.4 × 2.0-2.6 μm) and sclerotia (160-340 × 125-210 μm) were globose to ellipsoidal.

  9. Comparison and validation of shallow landslides susceptibility maps generated by bi-variate and multi-variate linear probabilistic GIS-based techniques. A case study from Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, R.; Amaral, P.; Zêzere, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Goulart, C.

    2009-04-01

    Slope instability research and susceptibility mapping is a fundamental component of hazard assessment and is of extreme importance for risk mitigation, land-use management and emergency planning. Landslide susceptibility zonation has been actively pursued during the last two decades and several methodologies are still being improved. Among all the methods presented in the literature, indirect quantitative probabilistic methods have been extensively used. In this work different linear probabilistic methods, both bi-variate and multi-variate (Informative Value, Fuzzy Logic, Weights of Evidence and Logistic Regression), were used for the computation of the spatial probability of landslide occurrence, using the pixel as mapping unit. The methods used are based on linear relationships between landslides and 9 considered conditioning factors (altimetry, slope angle, exposition, curvature, distance to streams, wetness index, contribution area, lithology and land-use). It was assumed that future landslides will be conditioned by the same factors as past landslides in the study area. The presented work was developed for Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores), a study area of 9,5 km2, mainly composed of volcanic deposits (ash and pumice lapilli) produced by explosive eruptions in Furnas Volcano. This materials associated to the steepness of the slopes (38,9% of the area has slope angles higher than 35°, reaching a maximum of 87,5°), make the area very prone to landslide activity. A total of 1.495 shallow landslides were mapped (at 1:5.000 scale) and included in a GIS database. The total affected area is 401.744 m2 (4,5% of the study area). Most slope movements are translational slides frequently evolving into debris-flows. The landslides are elongated, with maximum length generally equivalent to the slope extent, and their width normally does not exceed 25 m. The failure depth rarely exceeds 1,5 m and the volume is usually smaller than 700 m3. For modelling

  10. Geography and GIS Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Guy Q.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the geographic information system (GIS), a database that permits the integration, management, and analysis of diverse geographical information. Reports that the GIS has brought gains in cartography and remote sensing but also has brought problems. Identifies the need to balance instruction in technical developments and mainstream…

  11. Online GIS Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, David A.; Olivero, Arlene

    1997-01-01

    Online geographic information system (GIS) services are expanding rapidly as private organizations, government agencies, and libraries are developing Web sites that deliver GIS data, graphics, and metadata. Such services are divided into five categories: graphic snapshots, spatial database catalogs and libraries, map generators, map browsers, and…

  12. The Quality of the Urban Environment around Public Housing Buildings in Montreal: An Objective Approach Based on GIS and Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apparicio, Philippe; Seguin, Anne-Marie; Naud, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The question of the "insertion" in space of public housing into the surrounding urban environment is not new. It has often been examined from the perspective of the social environment, but more rarely from that of the physical environment and the accessibility of public and private services and facilities. To qualify the immediate urban…

  13. Recent coastal evolution in a carbonate sandy environments and relation to beach ridge formation: the case of Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.

    2014-05-01

    In a changing climate context coastal areas will be affected by more frequent extreme events. Understanding the relationship between extreme events and coastal geomorphic response is critical to future adaptation plans. Beach ridge landforms commonly identified as hurricane deposits along tropical coasts in Australia and in the Caribbean Sea. However their formative processes in such environments are still not well understood. In particular, the role of different extreme wave events (storm waves, tsunami waves and extreme swell), in generating beach ridges is critical to their use as palaeotempestology archives. Anegada Island is a carbonate platform situated in the British Virgin Island between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Pleistocene in age, Anegada is surrounded by the Horseshoe fringing coral reef. Two Holocene sandy beach ridge plains are present on the western part of the island. The north beach ridge plain is Atlantic facing and has at least 30 ridges; the south beach ridge plain is Caribbean Sea facing and contains 10 ridges. Historical aerial photos enabled the shoreline evolution from 1953 to 2012 to be studied. Three different coastal domains are associate with the beach ridge plains: strong east-west longshore transport affects the north coastline, the south-west coastline from West End to Pomato Point represents an export corridor for these sediments and finally, along the southern coastline, from Pomato Point to Settling Point the area presents a depositional zone with little to no change in the last 70 years. The link between the extreme wave events that have affected Anegada Island in the last 70 years and beach ridge creation is discussed. Hurricane Donna crossed over Anegada Island in 1960: its geomorphological signature is tracked in the shoreline change analysis and its implication in beach ridge formation is discussed. Anegada Island has also been impacted by tsunami waves (Atwater et al., 2012) and a comparative discussion of the

  14. Investigation of the relationship between landform classes and electrical conductivity (EC) of water and soil using a fuzzy model in a GIS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokarram, Marzieh; Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Soil genesis is highly dependent on landforms as they control the erosional processes and the soil physical and chemical properties. The relationship between landform classification and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil and water in the northern part of Meharloo watershed, Fars province, Iran, was investigated using a combination of a geographical information system (GIS) and a fuzzy model. The results of the fuzzy method for water EC showed 36.6 % of the land to be moderately land suitable for agriculture; high, 31.69 %; and very high, 31.65 %. In comparison, the results of the fuzzy method for soil EC showed 24.31 % of the land to be as not suitable for agriculture (low class); moderate, 11.78 %; high, 25.74 %; and very high, 38.16 %. In total, the land suitable for agriculture with low EC is located in the north and northeast of the study area. The relationship between landform and EC shows that EC of water is high for the valley classes, while the EC of soil is high in the upland drainage class. In addition, the lowest EC levels for soil and water are in the plains class.

  15. COSMO-SkyMed and GIS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Pietro; Sole, Aurelia; Serio, Carmine

    2013-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing have become key technology tools for the collection, storage and analysis of spatially referenced data. Industries that utilise these spatial technologies include agriculture, forestry, mining, market research as well as the environmental analysis . Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent active sensor operating in the microwave band which exploits relative motion between antenna and target in order to obtain a finer spatial resolution in the flight direction exploiting the Doppler effect. SAR have wide applications in Remote Sensing such as cartography, surface deformation detection, forest cover mapping, urban planning, disasters monitoring , surveillance etc… The utilization of satellite remote sensing and GIS technology for this applications has proven to be a powerful and effective tool for environmental monitoring. Remote sensing techniques are often less costly and time-consuming for large geographic areas compared to conventional methods, moreover GIS technology provides a flexible environment for, analyzing and displaying digital data from various sources necessary for classification, change detection and database development. The aim of this work si to illustrate the potential of COSMO-SkyMed data and SAR applications in a GIS environment, in particular a demostration of the operational use of COSMO-SkyMed SAR data and GIS in real cases will be provided for what concern DEM validation, river basin estimation, flood mapping and landslide monitoring.

  16. Initiating the Use of GIS Technology in Wyoming Public Schools through In-Service Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Alan R.; McClurg, Patricia A.

    This paper reports the results of a 2-year study investigating the types of experiences and support necessary for in-service teachers to effectively integrate Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in their teaching/learning environments. The complex nature of GIS software prompted the authors to ask whether GIS can be a useful tool in the…

  17. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) at Schools without a Computer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that explored the applicability and effectiveness of a GIS-based exercise implemented by a teacher on a single computer in an ordinary classroom. The GIS-based exercise was implemented in two different environments with two different groups of students. The study reveals that implementing GIS exercises…

  18. Cloud Computing and Its Applications in GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Cao

    2011-12-01

    of cloud computing. This paper presents a parallel Euclidean distance algorithm that works seamlessly with the distributed nature of cloud computing infrastructures. The mechanism of this algorithm is to subdivide a raster image into sub-images and wrap them with a one pixel deep edge layer of individually computed distance information. Each sub-image is then processed by a separate node, after which the resulting sub-images are reassembled into the final output. It is shown that while any rectangular sub-image shape can be used, those approximating squares are computationally optimal. This study also serves as a demonstration of this subdivide and layer-wrap strategy, which would enable the migration of many truly spatial GIS algorithms to cloud computing infrastructures. However, this research also indicates that certain spatial GIS algorithms such as cost distance cannot be migrated by adopting this mechanism, which presents significant challenges for the development of cloud-based GIS systems. The third article is entitled "A Distributed Storage Schema for Cloud Computing based Raster GIS Systems". This paper proposes a NoSQL Database Management System (NDDBMS) based raster GIS data storage schema. NDDBMS has good scalability and is able to use distributed commodity computers, which make it superior to Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) in a cloud computing environment. In order to provide optimized data service performance, the proposed storage schema analyzes the nature of commonly used raster GIS data sets. It discriminates two categories of commonly used data sets, and then designs corresponding data storage models for both categories. As a result, the proposed storage schema is capable of hosting and serving enormous volumes of raster GIS data speedily and efficiently on cloud computing infrastructures. In addition, the scheme also takes advantage of the data compression characteristics of Quadtrees, thus promoting efficient data storage. Through

  19. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  20. Using Web GIS for Public Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Rajika E.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2016-01-01

    An interdisciplinary curriculum unit that used Web GIS mapping to investigate malaria disease patterns and spread in relation to the environment for a high school Advanced Placement Environmental Science course was developed. A feasibility study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of the unit to promote geospatial thinking and reasoning…

  1. The Application of Remote Sensing Data to GIS Studies of Land Use, Land Cover, and Vegetation Mapping in the State of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Christine A.

    1996-01-01

    A land cover-vegetation map with a base classification system for remote sensing use in a tropical island environment was produced of the island of Hawaii for the State of Hawaii to evaluate whether or not useful land cover information can be derived from Landsat TM data. In addition, an island-wide change detection mosaic combining a previously created 1977 MSS land classification with the TM-based classification was produced. In order to reach the goal of transferring remote sensing technology to State of Hawaii personnel, a pilot project was conducted while training State of Hawaii personnel in remote sensing technology and classification systems. Spectral characteristics of young island land cover types were compared to determine if there are differences in vegetation types on lava, vegetation types on soils, and barren lava from soils, and if they can be detected remotely, based on differences in pigments detecting plant physiognomic type, health, stress at senescence, heat, moisture level, and biomass. Geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assist in image rectification and classification. GIS was also used to produce large-format color output maps. An interactive GIS program was written to provide on-line access to scanned photos taken at field sites. The pilot project found Landsat TM to be a credible source of land cover information for geologically young islands, and TM data bands are effective in detecting spectral characteristics of different land cover types through remote sensing. Large agriculture field patterns were resolved and mapped successfully from wildland vegetation, but small agriculture field patterns were not. Additional processing was required to work with the four TM scenes from two separate orbits which span three years, including El Nino and drought dates. Results of the project emphasized the need for further land cover and land use processing and research. Change in vegetation

  2. Integration of GIS and Bim for Indoor Geovisual Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Zhang, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an endeavour of integration of GIS (Geographical Information System) and BIM (Building Information Modelling) for indoor geovisual analytics. The merits of two types of technologies, GIS and BIM are firstly analysed in the context of indoor environment. GIS has well-developed capabilities of spatial analysis such as network analysis, while BIM has the advantages for indoor 3D modelling and dynamic simulation. This paper firstly investigates the important aspects for integrating GIS and BIM. Different data standards and formats such as the IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) and GML (Geography Markup Language) are discussed. Their merits and limitations in data transformation between GIS and BIM are analysed in terms of semantic and geometric information. An optimized approach for data exchange between GIS and BIM datasets is then proposed. After that, a strategy of using BIM for 3D indoor modelling, GIS for spatial analysis, and BIM again for visualization and dynamic simulation of the analysis results is presented. Based on the developments, this paper selects a typical problem, optimized indoor emergency evacuation, to demonstrate the integration of GIS and BIM for indoor geovisual analytics. The block Z of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University is selected as a test site. Detailed indoor and outdoor 3D models of the block Z are created using a BIM software Revit. The 3D models are transferred to a GIS software ArcGIS to carry out spatial analysis. Optimized evacuation plans considering dynamic constraints are generated based on network analysis in ArcGIS assuming there is a fire accident inside the building. The analysis results are then transferred back to BIM software for visualization and dynamic simulation. The developed methods and results are of significance to facilitate future development of GIS and BIM integrated solutions in various applications.

  3. Mapping a Balance: Democratic Land-Use Planning on Galiano Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Meg

    2000-01-01

    The residents of Galiano Island, British Columbia, have used geographic information systems (GIS) to create a local information database that informs community decisions about sustainable use of forest land. The islanders' involvement with GIS promotes a democratic land-use planning process that is reasoned and well informed. (SV)

  4. GIS Application System Design Applied to Information Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qun, Zhou; Yujin, Yuan; Yuena, Kang

    Natural environment information management system involves on-line instrument monitoring, data communications, database establishment, information management software development and so on. Its core lies in collecting effective and reliable environmental information, increasing utilization rate and sharing degree of environment information by advanced information technology, and maximizingly providing timely and scientific foundation for environmental monitoring and management. This thesis adopts C# plug-in application development and uses a set of complete embedded GIS component libraries and tools libraries provided by GIS Engine to finish the core of plug-in GIS application framework, namely, the design and implementation of framework host program and each functional plug-in, as well as the design and implementation of plug-in GIS application framework platform. This thesis adopts the advantages of development technique of dynamic plug-in loading configuration, quickly establishes GIS application by visualized component collaborative modeling and realizes GIS application integration. The developed platform is applicable to any application integration related to GIS application (ESRI platform) and can be as basis development platform of GIS application development.

  5. How to set up a GIS program at a Minority University/College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannel, S.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation provides detailed ideas on how to set up a GIS program and how to develop it for maximum benefits in the areas of education, research, and community outreach. We draw our experience from setting up the GIS program at Oglala Lakota College (OLC), Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota and work at the University of the Virgin Islands. GIS can be useful in many fields and is inexpensive to set up. Native Americans applied science in the past and now embrace GIS technology for everyday decision making. This presentation shows the wide range of GIS applications using OLC's GIS program as an example. We present our educational activities, research and community outreach. This presentation will give detailed advice of what works (and what doesn't) and to promote geospatial technology to other tribal or non-tribal colleges and universities.

  6. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  7. Vegetation mapping from high-resolution satellite images in the heterogeneous arid environments of Socotra Island (Yemen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, Luca; Attorre, Fabio; Altobelli, Alfredo; Adeeb, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Michele; Taleb, Nadim M.; Scholte, Paul T.; Vitale, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Socotra Island (Yemen), a global biodiversity hotspot, is characterized by high geomorphological and biological diversity. In this study, we present a high-resolution vegetation map of the island based on combining vegetation analysis and classification with remote sensing. Two different image classification approaches were tested to assess the most accurate one in mapping the vegetation mosaic of Socotra. Spectral signatures of the vegetation classes were obtained through a Gaussian mixture distribution model, and a sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) classification was applied to account for the heterogeneity and the complex spatial pattern of the arid vegetation. This approach was compared to the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) classification. Satellite data were represented by a RapidEye image with 5 m pixel resolution and five spectral bands. Classified vegetation relevés were used to obtain the training and evaluation sets for the main plant communities. Postclassification sorting was performed to adjust the classification through various rule-based operations. Twenty-eight classes were mapped, and SMAP, with an accuracy of 87%, proved to be more effective than ML (accuracy: 66%). The resulting map will represent an important instrument for the elaboration of conservation strategies and the sustainable use of natural resources in the island.

  8. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios of anthropgenic organic matter in the coastal environment of Kosirina Bay (Murter Island, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenec, T.; Lambaša, Ž.; Lojen, S.; Rogan, N.; Kniewald, G.; Dolenec, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this study stable nitrogen isotopes ratios of particulate matter POM, zooplankton and selected biota such as Anemonia sulcata and Mytilus galloprovincialis were used to assessed the impact of anthropogenically derived organic matter from the untreated domestic sewage, municipal and industrial effluents on the coastal ecosystem of the Kosirina Bay (Murter Island). The differences in δ15N values observed in POM and organisms collected in Kosirina Bay as compared to POM and biota sampled at unaffected sites from the southern part of the Kornati Island and highly impacted Pirovac Bay revealed only a very minor effects of anthropogenic inputs of nutrients and organic matter which most probably derived from a sewage outfall south of the Tužbina Island. However, to get a better insight into the qualitative or quantitative shifts in the structure of aquatic food web caused by pollutants, more extended research on benthic population is needed, as well as a detailed investigation of seasonal variations of abundance and isotopic composition of POM and zooplankton as their presumed food source.

  9. Using stylized agent-based models for population-environment research: A case study from the Galápagos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Breckheimer, Ian; McCleary, Amy L.; Guzmán-Ramirez, Liza; Caplow, Susan C.; Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Agent Based Models (ABMs) are powerful tools for population-environment research but are subject to trade-offs between model complexity and abstraction. This study strikes a compromise between abstract and highly specified ABMs by designing a spatially explicit, stylized ABM and using it to explore policy scenarios in a setting that is facing substantial conservation and development challenges. Specifically, we present an ABM that reflects key Land Use / Land Cover (LULC) dynamics and livelihood decisions on Isabela Island in the Galápagos Archipelago of Ecuador. We implement the model using the NetLogo software platform, a free program that requires relatively little programming experience. The landscape is composed of a satellite-derived distribution of a problematic invasive species (common guava) and a stylized representation of the Galápagos National Park, the community of Puerto Villamil, the agricultural zone, and the marine area. The agent module is based on publicly available data and household interviews, and represents the primary livelihoods of the population in the Galápagos Islands – tourism, fisheries, and agriculture. We use the model to enact hypothetical agricultural subsidy scenarios aimed at controlling invasive guava and assess the resulting population and land cover dynamics. Findings suggest that spatially explicit, stylized ABMs have considerable utility, particularly during preliminary stages of research, as platforms for (1) sharpening conceptualizations of population-environment systems, (2) testing alternative scenarios, and (3) uncovering critical data gaps. PMID:20539752

  10. Open-Source GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Burk, Thomas E; Lime, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  11. GIS WORK GROUP: AN OVERVIEW (INCLUDES GIS-QA AND AUDITING GIS DATABASE SYSTEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to promote cooperation in the implementation of GIS in regional offices, a GIS Regional Workgroup was established by the ten Regions in 1989. Since that time the GIS Work Group evolved and now consists of members from each of the ten EPA Regional Offices, the Office of A...

  12. Integration of the geomorphological environment and cultural heritage for tourism promotion: a case study from Gozo (Maltese Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Gauci, Ritienne; Schembri, John A.; Soldati, Mauro; Tonelli, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    The paper aims to highlight the unique integration of natural and cultural heritage within the Dwejra area, a site of outstanding scenery located along the NW coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta). Dwejra displays a great variety of geological and geomorphological features as well as unusual and unique ecological systems, concentrated in a relatively small and remoteness area. The landscape is made of a large set of landforms created by several processes: karst dissolution, forming at least four solution subsidence structures in the area; fluvial processes (marked by the presence of perennial freshwater pools), seepage from cliffs, waterfall and several dry valley systems (widien); marine erosion processes as evidenced by the great variety of features, including with sea-caves, tunnel, arches, stacks and reefs. The presence of cultural features spanning from rubble walls and rural structures, to cart-ruts of unknown age and structures of the 19th Century enrich the interest in the area and allow it to become a landmark of cultural importance to the history of the island as a whole. This unique combination of geological l.s., cultural and biological heritage contributes in making Dwejra a site of extraordinary scientific importance and heritage value, an ideal tourist destination for fostering a varied form of geotourism. In perspective of tourism promotion and geoconservation measures, this paper aims at highlighting how the integration of environmental and cultural heritage aspects makes the Dwejra area a site of remarkable value to be promoted for a more holistic and varied tourism.

  13. Gene expression profiling in the ovary of Queen conch (Strombus gigas) exposed to environments with high tributyltin in the British Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Titley-O'Neal, Cassander P; Spade, Daniel J; Zhang, Yanping; Kan, Rosalinda; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Denslow, Nancy D; MacDonald, Bruce A

    2013-04-01

    Queen conch (Strombus gigas) are listed in CITES Appendix II. Populations may be declining due to anthropogenic inputs that include pollutants from boating activity. In the British Virgin Islands (BVI), some conch exhibit imposex, a condition in which male external genitalia are present in female conch. Previous studies suggest that tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling chemical used in boat paint, is correlated to increased incidence of imposex although the mechanisms leading to imposex are not known. The present study utilized a Queen conch microarray to measure the response of the ovarian transcriptome in conch inhabiting polluted environments with high TBT levels in the BVI. The polluted sites, Road Harbour (RH) and Trellis Bay (TB), are areas with high boating activity while the reference sites, Guana Island (GI) and Anegada (AN), are areas with low boating activity. There were 754 and 898 probes differentially expressed in the ovary of conch collected at RH and TB respectively compared to conch collected at GI. Of the genes that were differentially expressed at both sites, >10% were shared suggesting that these sites have additional environmental factors influencing gene expression patterns. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the biological processes of cell proliferation, translation, and oxidative stress were over-represented in the polluted sites. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that transcripts involved in the biological processes of general metabolism, immune, lipid metabolism, and stress were affected in conch from polluted environments. Interestingly, altered stress genes appeared to be more prevalent in conch collected from RH than TB, corresponding to the higher TBT load at RH compared to TB. Our study shows that stress pathways are affected in conch ovary in environments that experience heavy boating activity in the BVIs, although we are unable to directly link changes at the transcriptomics level to high TBT levels.

  14. Gene expression profiling in the ovary of Queen conch (Strombus gigas) exposed to environments with high tributyltin in the British Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Titley-O'Neal, Cassander P; Spade, Daniel J; Zhang, Yanping; Kan, Rosalinda; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Denslow, Nancy D; MacDonald, Bruce A

    2013-04-01

    Queen conch (Strombus gigas) are listed in CITES Appendix II. Populations may be declining due to anthropogenic inputs that include pollutants from boating activity. In the British Virgin Islands (BVI), some conch exhibit imposex, a condition in which male external genitalia are present in female conch. Previous studies suggest that tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling chemical used in boat paint, is correlated to increased incidence of imposex although the mechanisms leading to imposex are not known. The present study utilized a Queen conch microarray to measure the response of the ovarian transcriptome in conch inhabiting polluted environments with high TBT levels in the BVI. The polluted sites, Road Harbour (RH) and Trellis Bay (TB), are areas with high boating activity while the reference sites, Guana Island (GI) and Anegada (AN), are areas with low boating activity. There were 754 and 898 probes differentially expressed in the ovary of conch collected at RH and TB respectively compared to conch collected at GI. Of the genes that were differentially expressed at both sites, >10% were shared suggesting that these sites have additional environmental factors influencing gene expression patterns. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the biological processes of cell proliferation, translation, and oxidative stress were over-represented in the polluted sites. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that transcripts involved in the biological processes of general metabolism, immune, lipid metabolism, and stress were affected in conch from polluted environments. Interestingly, altered stress genes appeared to be more prevalent in conch collected from RH than TB, corresponding to the higher TBT load at RH compared to TB. Our study shows that stress pathways are affected in conch ovary in environments that experience heavy boating activity in the BVIs, although we are unable to directly link changes at the transcriptomics level to high TBT levels. PMID:23410894

  15. Designing and Implementing an Online GIS Tool for Schools: The Finnish Case of the PaikkaOppi Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riihelä, Juha; Mäki, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes initiatives implemented in Finland to create an online learning environment for studying geographic information systems (GIS). A development project produced an online GIS tool called PaikkaOppi, aimed at promoting GIS studies and spatial thinking skills in upper secondary schools. The project is reviewed through analysis of…

  16. EAARL topography: Assateague Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains 58 lidar-derived bare earth topography maps and GIS files for the Assateague Island National Seashore. These lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  17. EAARL topography: Gulf Islands National Seashore: Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains 33 lidar-derived bare earth topography maps and GIS files for the Gulf Islands National Seashore-Florida. These lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  18. EAARL Topography-Padre Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains 116 Lidar-derived bare earth topography maps and GIS files for Padre Island National Seashore-Texas. These Lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) Gulf Coast Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  19. EAARL topography: Gulf Islands National Seashore: Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains 30 lidar-derived bare earth topography maps and GIS files for the Gulf Islands National Seashore-Mississippi. These lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) Gulf Coast Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  20. Palaeoecology of well-preserved coral communities in a siliciclastic environment from the Late Pleistocene (MIS 7), Kish Island, Persian Gulf (Iran): the development of low-relief reef frameworks (biostromes) in increasingly restricted environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossadegh, Zahra Karimi; Parker, Justin; Gischler, Eberhard; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Blakeway, David; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2013-03-01

    Major changes in community structure and depositional relief of high-latitude coral communities in the southern Persian Gulf between marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 and the present day suggest that the area has become increasingly restricted. Corals and bivalves from outcrops on Kish Island, Iran, were identified in order to interpret the Late Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental setting. U/Th disequilibrium dating was used to constrain the ages of the stratigraphic units. During MIS 7, two coral-bearing sequences were deposited on what is now Kish Island. The lower sequence is dated as MIS 7.5 and changes laterally from an assemblage dominated by Cyphastrea sp. and Platygyra daedalea in the west to one characterized by branching Montipora in the east. By contrast, the upper sequence, dated as MIS 7.1, transitions from an assemblage dominated by platy Montipora in the west to a diverse assemblage of Platygyra and other faviids in the east. The assemblages of both sequences are within a marl matrix and bounded by thin lithified mollusc-rich layers. Corals and bivalves indicate that the sequences were deposited on gentle slopes in sheltered environments less than 20 m deep. The MIS 7 deposits may be classified as coral carpets or biostromes that developed a low-relief framework. During MIS 5, coral communities were no longer framework building and are now limited to an Acropora-rich layer of coral rubble that covers large parts of the island, and two small incipient reefs with sparse faviids. Similarities between the MIS 5 and modern nearshore coral communities suggest that the environmental conditions during MIS 5 were comparable to those of today. The late Pleistocene coral carpets and non-framework coral communities of the southern Persian Gulf may serve as models for coral biostromes in the fossil record, which formed under restricted environmental conditions such as elevated terrigenous input, high turbidity, and strong seasonal changes in temperature and/or salinity.

  1. A GIS-linked model for the assessment of nitrate contamination in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasserre, F.; Razack, M.; Banton, O.

    1999-11-01

    A simple GIS-linked model for groundwater nitrate transport has been developed in the IDRISI GIS environment. The transport model, based on advection transport only, is directly incorporated into a GIS subroutine using the Pascal computing language. This model requires less data than classical approaches and provides a user-friendly model environment. The GIS-model was tested on a 20 km 2 hydrogeologic catchment, particularly vulnerable to agricultural nitrate pollution. The model was coupled with an unsaturated zone transport model (AgriFlux), which simulates water and nitrate fluxes leaving the root zone. The results indicated that the simulated nitrate concentrations were in good agreement with measured values. In order to compare the GIS-linked model with a more complete model, simulations were also performed with MT3D-MODFLOW. The similarities between the results of the two models confirm the validity of the GIS-linked model.

  2. Earth Observation and GIS Services Integration Approach in MASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coene, Y.; Gianfranceschi, S.; Marchetti, P.

    This paper describes an environment for the integration of EO and GIS services supporting the provision of EO services and "information products" closer to customer expectations and processes. The paper explains how the adoption of readily available XML-based Web standards and protocols in an open environment can facilitate the integration.

  3. Application of GIS technology in public health: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie M; Caprarelli, Graziella

    2016-04-01

    The uptake and acceptance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has increased since the early 1990s and public health applications are rapidly expanding. In this paper, we summarize the common uses of GIS technology in the public health sector, emphasizing applications related to mapping and understanding of parasitic diseases. We also present some of the success stories, and discuss the challenges that still prevent a full scope application of GIS technology in the public health context. Geographical analysis has allowed researchers to interlink health, population and environmental data, thus enabling them to evaluate and quantify relationships between health-related variables and environmental risk factors at different geographical scales. The ability to access, share and utilize satellite and remote-sensing data has made possible even wider understanding of disease processes and of their links to the environment, an important consideration in the study of parasitic diseases. For example, disease prevention and control strategies resulting from investigations conducted in a GIS environment have been applied in many areas, particularly in Africa. However, there remain several challenges to a more widespread use of GIS technology, such as: limited access to GIS infrastructure, inadequate technical and analytical skills, and uneven data availability. Opportunities exist for international collaboration to address these limitations through knowledge sharing and governance. PMID:26831619

  4. Application of GIS technology in public health: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie M; Caprarelli, Graziella

    2016-04-01

    The uptake and acceptance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has increased since the early 1990s and public health applications are rapidly expanding. In this paper, we summarize the common uses of GIS technology in the public health sector, emphasizing applications related to mapping and understanding of parasitic diseases. We also present some of the success stories, and discuss the challenges that still prevent a full scope application of GIS technology in the public health context. Geographical analysis has allowed researchers to interlink health, population and environmental data, thus enabling them to evaluate and quantify relationships between health-related variables and environmental risk factors at different geographical scales. The ability to access, share and utilize satellite and remote-sensing data has made possible even wider understanding of disease processes and of their links to the environment, an important consideration in the study of parasitic diseases. For example, disease prevention and control strategies resulting from investigations conducted in a GIS environment have been applied in many areas, particularly in Africa. However, there remain several challenges to a more widespread use of GIS technology, such as: limited access to GIS infrastructure, inadequate technical and analytical skills, and uneven data availability. Opportunities exist for international collaboration to address these limitations through knowledge sharing and governance.

  5. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  6. Insecticide-degrading Burkholderia symbionts of the stinkbug naturally occupy various environments of sugarcane fields in a Southeast island of Japan.

    PubMed

    Tago, Kanako; Okubo, Takashi; Itoh, Hideomi; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Tomoyuki; Sato, Yuya; Nagayama, Atsushi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ikeda, Seishi; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The stinkbug Cavelerius saccharivorus, which harbors Burkholderia species capable of degrading the organophosphorus insecticide, fenitrothion, has been identified on a Japanese island in farmers' sugarcane fields that have been exposed to fenitrothion. A clearer understanding of the ecology of the symbiotic fenitrothion degraders of Burkholderia species in a free-living environment is vital for advancing our knowledge on the establishment of degrader-stinkbug symbiosis. In the present study, we analyzed the composition and abundance of degraders in sugarcane fields on the island. Degraders were recovered from field samples without an enrichment culture procedure. Degrader densities in the furrow soil in fields varied due to differences in insecticide treatment histories. Over 99% of the 659 isolated degraders belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The strains related to the stinkbug symbiotic group predominated among the degraders, indicating a selection for this group in response to fenitrothion. Degraders were also isolated from sugarcane stems, leaves, and rhizosphere in fields that were continuously exposed to fenitrothion. Their density was lower in the plant sections than in the rhizosphere. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that most of the degraders from the plants and rhizosphere clustered with the stinkbug symbiotic group, and some were identical to the midgut symbionts of C. saccharivorus collected from the same field. Our results confirmed that plants and the rhizosphere constituted environmental reservoirs for stinkbug symbiotic degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the composition and abundance of the symbiotic fenitrothion degraders of Burkholderia species in farmers' fields.

  7. Comparative analysis of essential genes in prokaryotic genomic islands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Peng, Chong; Zhang, Ge; Gao, Feng

    2015-07-30

    Essential genes are thought to encode proteins that carry out the basic functions to sustain a cellular life, and genomic islands (GIs) usually contain clusters of horizontally transferred genes. It has been assumed that essential genes are not likely to be located in GIs, but systematical analysis of essential genes in GIs has not been explored before. Here, we have analyzed the essential genes in 28 prokaryotes by statistical method and reached a conclusion that essential genes in GIs are significantly fewer than those outside GIs. The function of 362 essential genes found in GIs has been explored further by BLAST against the Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) and the phage/prophage sequence database of PHAge Search Tool (PHAST). Consequently, 64 and 60 eligible essential genes are found to share the sequence similarity with the virulence factors and phage/prophages-related genes, respectively. Meanwhile, we find several toxin-related proteins and repressors encoded by these essential genes in GIs. The comparative analysis of essential genes in genomic islands will not only shed new light on the development of the prediction algorithm of essential genes, but also give a clue to detect the functionality of essential genes in genomic islands.

  8. Evolution of a North Slope barrier island (Narwhal Island, North Arctic Alaska) 1955- 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Lee, W. J.

    2007-12-01

    In 1955, Narwhal island was a 4 km long and 30 to 200 m wide barrier island, located at 145 30' W; 70 24' N, about 20 km offshore of the North Slope coast by Foggy Island Bay and near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. According to available aerial photography, by 1979, the island had been breached in 4 locations creating a five island chain. By 1984, the chain consisted of 3 pieces indicating a reformation process. In subsequent years, the chain appears to have gone through a couple more cycles of breakup and reformation. The island is subject to wind waves, sea-ice impacts, and storm surges. Preliminary GIS analysis and recent GPS surveys indicate that, in the past 50 years, the western end of the island had migrated about 200 m to the west consistent with the direction of sea-ice movement and consistent with the frequent east winds during the summer (open water) period. The rate of migration is consistent with the findings of earlier studies. In addition to the island's westward migration, the northern (seaward) side of the island has retreated landward by about 5 m/year during the past decade. Here, the details of the GIS and GPS work are described. In addition, a preliminary wave (SWAN) and sediment transport model is presented that explains the morphodynamic changes. Considering continued sea ice retreat consequent to global warming, we speculate about future morphodynamic changes.

  9. Mapping a Course with GIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Russ P.; Keranen, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    Describes how students in a geoscience course are introduced to geographic information systems (GIS), a computer-assisted system for the acquisition, storage, analysis, and display of geographic data, through a practical experience involving collecting data and inputting it into a GIS program called IDRISI. (MKR)

  10. Students Individual Engagement in GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Christiansen, Frederik; Rump, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops two sets of concepts to theorize why students engage differently in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). These theoretical concepts are used as an analytical lens to explore empirical data on the experiences and engagement of students enrolled in an undergraduate GIS course in planning and management. The analysis shows that…

  11. Altered environment and risk of malaria outbreak in South Andaman, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India affected by tsunami disaster

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagoun; Jambulingam, Purushothaman; Natarajan, R; Shriram, AN; Das, Pradeep K; Sehgal, SC

    2005-01-01

    Background Pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, Anopheles sundaicus. Land uplifts in North Andaman and subsidence in South Andaman have been reported and subsidence may lead to environmental disturbances and vector proliferation. This warrants a situation analysis and vector surveillance in the tsunami hit areas endemic for malaria transmitted by brackish water mosquito, An. sundaicus to predict the risk of outbreak. Methods An extensive survey was carried out in the tsunami-affected areas in Andaman district of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India to assess the extent of breeding of malaria vectors in the habitats created by seawater flooding. Types of habitats in relation to source of seawater inundation and frequency were identified. The salinity of the water samples and the mosquito species present in the larval samples collected from these habitats were recorded. The malaria situation in the area was also analysed. Results South Andaman, covering Port Blair and Ferrargunj sub districts, is still under the recurring phenomenon of seawater intrusion either directly from the sea or through a network of creeks. Both daily cycles of high tides and periodical spring tides continue to cause flooding. Low-lying paddy fields and fallow land, with a salinity ranging from 3,000 to 42,505 ppm, were found to support profuse breeding of An. sundaicus, the local malaria vector, and Anopheles subpictus, a vector implicated elsewhere. This area is endemic for both vivax and falciparum malaria. Malaria slide positivity rate has started increasing during post-tsunami period, which can be considered as an indication of risk of malaria outbreak. Conclusion Paddy fields and fallow land with freshwater, hitherto not considered as potential sites for An. sundaicus, are now major breeding sites due to saline water. Consequently

  12. GIS4schools: a new approach in GIS education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demharter, Timo; Michel, Ulrich

    2012-10-01

    From a didactic point of view the procurement and the application of modern geographical methods and functions become more and more important. Although the integration of GIS in the classroom is repeatedly demanded, inter alia in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, the number of GIS users is small in comparison to other European countries or the USA. Possible reasons for this could, for instance, lie in the lack of GIS and computer knowledge of the teachers themselves and the subsequent extensive training effort in Desktop-GIS (KERSKI 2000, SCHLEICHER 2004). Today you have the technological possibilities to provide the broad public with geoinformation and geotechnology: Web technologies offer access to web-based, mobile and local applications through simple gateways. The objective of the project "GIS4schools" is to generate a service-based infrastructure, which can be operated via mobile clients as well as via Desktop-GIS or a Browser. Due to the easy availability of the services the focus is in particular on students. This circumstance is a novelty through which a differentiated approach to the implementation of GIS in schools is established. Accordingly, the pilot nature of this project becomes apparent as well as its greater importance beyond its actual content especially for the sector of media development at colleges of education. The continuity from Web-GIS to Desktop-GIS is innovative: The goal is to create an adapted multi-level solution which allows both, an easy introduction if desired or a detailed analysis - either to be achieved with a focus especially on students and their cooperation among one another.

  13. Measuring the benefits of GIS use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    The key to objectively measuring the benefits of GIS use is to realize that there are two different types of benefits and that different techniques must be used to measure each. Efficiency benefits occur when the same task previously done without the GIS can be done less expensively with the GIS. Effectiveness benefits occur when the GIS allows completion of a task that would not have been done without the GIS. Efficiency benefits can be measured by comparing the variable input costs of performing the application with the GIS to the variable input costs prior to the use of the GIS. Effectiveness benefits depend on the value of the unique GIS output. These benefits can be measured by identifying: (a) how the GIS output is different from the non-GIS output, (b) how this difference affects each user of the GIS output, and (c) the value of each of these effects.

  14. Titanic exploration with GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerski, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    To help teachers and students investigate one of the world's most famous historical events using the geographic perspective and GIS tools and methods, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created a set of educational lessons based on the RMS Titanic's April 1912 sailing. With these lessons, student researchers can learn about latitude and longitude, map projections, ocean currents, databases, maps, and images through the analysis of the route, warnings, sinking, rescue, and eventual discovery of the submerged ocean liner in 1985. They can also consider the human and physical aspects of the maiden voyage in the North Atlantic Ocean at a variety of scales, from global to regional to local. Likewise, their investigations can reveal how the sinking of the Titanic affected future shipping routes.

  15. SWAT Evaluation of Soil and Land Use GIS Data Sets on Simulated Stream Flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integration of geographical information systems (GIS) and hydrologic models provides the user the ability to simulate watershed scale processes within a spatially digitized computer based environment. Soil type and land cover data are essential GIS data layers used in a wide array of government ...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A CARBON MANAGEMENT GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) FOR THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Howard J. Herzog

    2004-03-01

    The Lab for Energy and Environment (LFEE) at MIT is developing a Geographic Information System (GIS) for carbon management. The GIS will store, integrate, and manipulate information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS can be used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. In the first year of this three year project, we focused on two tasks: (1) specifying the system design--defining in detail the GIS data requirements, the types of analyses that can be conducted, and the forms of output we will produce, as well as designing the computer architecture of the GIS and (2) creating the ''core'' datasets--identifying data sources and converting them into a form accessible by the GIS.

  17. Smart Caching Based on Mobile Agent of Power WebGIS Platform

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wu, Kehe; Chen, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Power information construction is developing towards intensive, platform, distributed direction with the expansion of power grid and improvement of information technology. In order to meet the trend, power WebGIS was designed and developed. In this paper, we first discuss the architecture and functionality of power WebGIS, and then we study caching technology in detail, which contains dynamic display cache model, caching structure based on mobile agent, and cache data model. We have designed experiments of different data capacity to contrast performance between WebGIS with the proposed caching model and traditional WebGIS. The experimental results showed that, with the same hardware environment, the response time of WebGIS with and without caching model increased as data capacity growing, while the larger the data was, the higher the performance of WebGIS with proposed caching model improved. PMID:24288504

  18. Smart caching based on mobile agent of power WebGIS platform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wu, Kehe; Chen, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Power information construction is developing towards intensive, platform, distributed direction with the expansion of power grid and improvement of information technology. In order to meet the trend, power WebGIS was designed and developed. In this paper, we first discuss the architecture and functionality of power WebGIS, and then we study caching technology in detail, which contains dynamic display cache model, caching structure based on mobile agent, and cache data model. We have designed experiments of different data capacity to contrast performance between WebGIS with the proposed caching model and traditional WebGIS. The experimental results showed that, with the same hardware environment, the response time of WebGIS with and without caching model increased as data capacity growing, while the larger the data was, the higher the performance of WebGIS with proposed caching model improved.

  19. Development of a GIS Based Dust Dispersion Modeling System.

    SciTech Connect

    Rutz, Frederick C.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Crandall, Duard W.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2004-08-12

    With residential areas moving closer to military training sites, the effects upon the environment and neighboring civilians due to dust generated by training exercises has become a growing concern. Under a project supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense, a custom application named DUSTRAN is currently under development that integrates a system of EPA atmospheric dispersion models with the ArcGIS application environment in order to simulate the dust dispersion generated by a planned training maneuver. This integration between modeling system and GIS application allows for the use of real world geospatial data such as terrain, land-use, and domain size as input by the modeling system. Output generated by the modeling system, such as concentration and deposition plumes, can then be displayed upon accurate maps representing the training site. This paper discusses the development of this integration between modeling system and Arc GIS application.

  20. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolated from chicken carcasses and environment at slaughter in Reunion Island: prevalence, genetic characterization and antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Granier, Sophie; Courtillon, Céline; Lalande, Françoise; Chemaly, Marianne; Salvat, Gilles; Cardinale, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of 71 chicken broiler flocks was investigated at the slaughterhouse in Reunion Island between October 2007 and January 2009. Samples were collected from live broiler chickens and chicken carcasses as well as the slaughterhouse environment. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 40 of 71 (56 % with a confidence interval 5 % [45-67]) broiler chicken flocks at slaughter. The most prominent serovars were Blockley (31 %), Typhimurium and Brancaster (14 %), Hadar (10 %), Salmonella multidrug resistant clinical organisms serotypes 1,4,[5],12:i:-, and Virchow (8 %) and Livingstone, St. Paul, Seftenberg, Llandoff, Infantis and Indiana. At the farm, 27 % of the broiler chicken flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 124 of 497 environmental samples (25 %). In most cases, there was no relationship between pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern and antibiotic resistance pattern. The predominant Salmonella serovars were susceptible to most of the tested antibiotic drugs, but S. Hadar exhibited multidrug resistance. This study highlighted the primary source of Salmonella was the farm of origin and downstream stages in processing could not remedy to but amplify this Salmonella contamination.

  1. Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion Island)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastélic, I.; Staudacher, T.; Deniel, C.; Devidal, J. L.; Devouard, B.; Finizola, A.; Télouk, P.

    2013-01-01

    The recent activity of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano offers a rare opportunity to address the issue of Pb isotope behavior in volcanic fumaroles, as the composition of the degassing source is accurately and precisely known. Gas sublimates formed between 2007 and 2011 at temperature ranging from 400 to ca. 100 °C include Na-K sulfate (aphthitalite), Ca-Cu sulfate (e.g., gypsum), Na sulfate (thenardite), Ca-Mg-Al-Fe fluoride (e.g., ralstonite) and native sulfur. The high-temperature deposits show trace element patterns typical of volcanic gas (with Pb concentration up to 836 ppm) while the low-temperature deposits are depleted in most volatile elements (Pb <1 ppm) with the exception of Pd and Tl (in fluorides) and Se (in native sulfur). Only for low-temperature fluoride samples do Pb isotope compositions plot significantly outside the field of lavas. The isotopic shift is ascribed to leaching ubiquitous unradiogenic phases (e.g., sulfides) by acidic gas condensates. The similarity in Pb isotope signature between lavas and sublimate samples more representative of the gas phase (sulfates) indicates that the net fractionation of Pb isotopes resulting from volatilization and condensation processes is smaller than the precision of Pb isotope measurements (better than 60 ppm/a.m.u.). The absence of net fractionation could result from negligible isotope fractionation during Pb volatilization followed by extensive condensation of gaseous Pb, with possibly significant isotopic fractionation at this stage. Although this scenario has to be refined by more direct measurement of the gas phase, and its general applicability tested, it suggests that a small fraction (<10%) of initially volatilized Pb ultimately escapes to the atmosphere, while the remaining dominant fraction is trapped in sublimates. As sublimates are rapidly dissolved and entrained by runoff, the fumarolic environment appears as a factory efficiently transferring isotopically unfractionated Pb from magmas

  2. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  3. QVAST: a new Quantum GIS plugin for estimating volcanic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Cappello, A.; Martí, J.; Del Negro, C.

    2013-08-01

    One of the most important tasks of modern volcanology is the construction of hazard maps simulating different eruptive scenarios that can be used in risk-based decision-making in land-use planning and emergency management. The first step in the quantitative assessment of volcanic hazards is the development of susceptibility maps, i.e. the spatial probability of a future vent opening given the past eruptive activity of a volcano. This challenging issue is generally tackled using probabilistic methods that use the calculation of a kernel function at each data location to estimate probability density functions (PDFs). The smoothness and the modeling ability of the kernel function are controlled by the smoothing parameter, also known as the bandwidth. Here we present a new tool, QVAST, part of the open-source Geographic Information System Quantum GIS, that is designed to create user-friendly quantitative assessments of volcanic susceptibility. QVAST allows to select an appropriate method for evaluating the bandwidth for the kernel function on the basis of the input parameters and the shapefile geometry, and can also evaluate the PDF with the Gaussian kernel. When different input datasets are available for the area, the total susceptibility map is obtained by assigning different weights to each of the PDFs, which are then combined via a weighted summation and modeled in a non-homogeneous Poisson process. The potential of QVAST, developed in a free and user-friendly environment, is here shown through its application in the volcanic fields of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and La Garrotxa (NE Spain).

  4. QVAST: a new Quantum GIS plugin for estimating volcanic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Cappello, A.; Martí, J.; Del Negro, C.

    2013-11-01

    One of the most important tasks of modern volcanology is the construction of hazard maps simulating different eruptive scenarios that can be used in risk-based decision making in land-use planning and emergency management. The first step in the quantitative assessment of volcanic hazards is the development of susceptibility maps (i.e., the spatial probability of a future vent opening given the past eruptive activity of a volcano). This challenging issue is generally tackled using probabilistic methods that use the calculation of a kernel function at each data location to estimate probability density functions (PDFs). The smoothness and the modeling ability of the kernel function are controlled by the smoothing parameter, also known as the bandwidth. Here we present a new tool, QVAST, part of the open-source geographic information system Quantum GIS, which is designed to create user-friendly quantitative assessments of volcanic susceptibility. QVAST allows the selection of an appropriate method for evaluating the bandwidth for the kernel function on the basis of the input parameters and the shapefile geometry, and can also evaluate the PDF with the Gaussian kernel. When different input data sets are available for the area, the total susceptibility map is obtained by assigning different weights to each of the PDFs, which are then combined via a weighted summation and modeled in a non-homogeneous Poisson process. The potential of QVAST, developed in a free and user-friendly environment, is here shown through its application in the volcanic fields of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and La Garrotxa (NE Spain).

  5. Towards a Proactive Risk Mitigation Strategy at La Fossa Volcano, Vulcano Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biass, S.; Gregg, C. E.; Frischknecht, C.; Falcone, J. L.; Lestuzzi, P.; di Traglia, F.; Rosi, M.; Bonadonna, C.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive risk assessment framework was built to develop proactive risk reduction measures for Vulcano Island, Italy. This framework includes identification of eruption scenarios; probabilistic hazard assessment, quantification of hazard impacts on the built environment, accessibility assessment on the island and risk perception study. Vulcano, a 21 km2 island with two primary communities host to 900 permanent residents and up to 10,000 visitors during summer, shows a strong dependency on the mainland for basic needs (water, energy) and relies on a ~2 month tourism season for its economy. The recent stratigraphy reveals a dominance of vulcanian and subplinian eruptions, producing a range of hazards acting at different time scales. We developed new methods to probabilistically quantify the hazard related to ballistics, lahars and tephra for all eruption styles. We also elaborated field- and GIS- based methods to assess the physical vulnerability of the built environment and created dynamic models of accessibility. Results outline the difference of hazard between short and long-lasting eruptions. A subplinian eruption has a 50% probability of impacting ~30% of the buildings within days after the eruption, but the year-long damage resulting from a long-lasting vulcanian eruption is similar if tephra is not removed from rooftops. Similarly, a subplinian eruption results in a volume of 7x105 m3 of material potentially remobilized into lahars soon after the eruption. Similar volumes are expected for a vulcanian activity over years, increasing the hazard of small lahars. Preferential lahar paths affect critical infrastructures lacking redundancy, such as the road network, communications systems, the island's only gas station, and access to the island's two evacuation ports. Such results from hazard, physical and systemic vulnerability help establish proactive volcanic risk mitigation strategies and may be applicable in other island settings.

  6. GIS and crop simulation modelling applications in climate change research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The challenges that climate change presents humanity require an unprecedented ability to predict the responses of crops to environment and management. Geographic information systems (GIS) and crop simulation models are two powerful and highly complementary tools that are increasingly used for such p...

  7. Professional Development: Teachers Use of GIS to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClurg, Patricia A.; Buss, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explains a professional development experience of fifth to twelfth grade teachers in using geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) technologies to enhance classroom teaching and learning environments. A key challenge faced by the developers was whether teachers would value the technology tools enough…

  8. Using GIS and GPS Technology as an Instructional Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.; Baxter, Ryan E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), two technologies that have been in general use for many years, but are more recently appearing in the educational sector, providing the opportunity to reap the benefits of technology while engaging young adolescents in an interactive environment. Discusses ways to…

  9. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  10. 2006, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin, and Lewisite from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for...

  11. Utilization of Geospatial Techniques for Extraction of Suitable River Islands for Construction of Eco-Friendly Tourism Places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuldeep, K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, most of the rivers form big size natural islands due to change in its course. However, identification of suitable river island is a very challenging task since these are exposed to river flooding. River islands with least vulnerability to the impacts of severe flooding can be a suitable place for construction of tourism destination such as eco-friendly Parks, Hotels etc. The study involves a two step approach viz. automatic extraction of river islands and model development for flood inundation mapping for extraction of eco-friendly tourism destinations. In this study, automatic extraction of the river islands has been carried out using knowledge based classification approach. The satellite data acquired by the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites sensors such as LISS-III and Cartosat-1 DEM have been used for analyses. In the first step, satellite imagery has been broadly categorized into 5 landuse/cover classes viz. Water, Sand, Islands, Settlements and Cropland. Extraction of such islands which remain unaffected during severe flooding has been accomplished with the flood inundation mapping which has been carried out in HEC-GeoRas with in GIS environment. The model utilizes the primary 4 inputs viz. geometry of the river (DEM, slope), time series data of water surface elevation, landuse/cover, and location of rain gauge station for flood inundation mapping. This paper also investigates the applicability of the eco-island concept to include protection of wetland, management of land-resources, sustainable use of natural resources and construction of ecological park/hotels. The output of the study will be very helpful for Government authorities in stabilizing economy, and enhancing the tourism infrastructure in a better way.

  12. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  13. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  14. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  15. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  16. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  17. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and Secondary) Designated area Does not meet... Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1 X Remainder of AQCR X 1 EPA designation replaces...

  18. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  19. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  20. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  1. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  2. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    PubMed

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  3. Aquifer characterization through an integrated GIS-based tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criollo, Rotman; Velasco, Violeta; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Serrano-Juan, Alejandro; Alcaraz, Mar; García-Gil, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic parameters of the subsurface (transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, storativity and specific storage) are important to achieve hydrogeological studies such as environmental impact assessments, water resources evaluations or groundwater contamination remediation, among others. There are several methods to determine aquifer parameters but pumping test is the most commonly used method to obtain them and generally leads to reliable hydraulic parameters. These parameters and other hydraulic data available for integration into the hydrogeological studies (which currently are supported by groundwater numerical models) usually has a very diverse origin and format and, therefore, a chance of bias in the interpretations. Consequently, it becomes necessary to have effective instruments that facilitate the pre-process, the visualization, the analysis and the validation (e.g. graphical analysis techniques) of this great amount of data. To achieve this in a clear and understandable manner, the GIS environment is a useful instrument. We developed a software to analyze pumping tests in a GIS platform environment to support the hydraulic parameterization of groundwater flow and transport models. This novel platform provides a package of tools for collecting, managing, analyzing, processing and interpreting data derived from pumping tests in a GIS environment. Additionally, within the GIS platform, it is possible to process the hydraulic parameters obtained from the pumping test and to create spatial distribution maps, perform geostatistical analysis and export the information to an external software platform. These tools have been applied in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) to tests out and improve their usefulness in hydrogeological analysis.

  4. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  5. Archive of ground penetrating radar data collected during USGS field activity 13BIM01—Dauphin Island, Alabama, April 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Smith, Christopher G.; Reynolds, Billy J.

    2016-03-18

    From April 13 to 20, 2013, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (USGS-SPCMSC) conducted geophysical and sediment sampling surveys on Dauphin Island, Alabama, as part of Field Activity 13BIM01. The objectives of the study were to quantify inorganic and organic accretion rates in back-barrier and mainland marsh and estuarine environments. Various field and laboratory methods were used to achieve these objectives, including subsurface imaging using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), sediment sampling, lithologic and microfossil analyses, and geochronology techniques to produce barrier island stratigraphic cross sections to help interpret the recent (last 2000 years) geologic evolution of the island.This data series report is an archive of GPR and associated Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in April 2013 from Dauphin Island and adjacent barrier-island environments. In addition to GPR data, marsh core and vibracore data were also collected collected but are not reported (or included) in the current report. Data products, including elevation-corrected subsurface profile images of the processed GPR data, unprocessed digital GPR trace data, post-processed GPS data, Geographic Information System (GIS) files and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata, can be downloaded from the Data Downloads page.

  6. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  7. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... of the Mariana Islands in 1914 (the first year of World War l) and Germany released the islands to Japan in 1919. Japan received a ... States by the United Nations. The wreckage of a World War II B-29 Superfortress, a four-engine propeller-driven bomber, lies on the north ...

  8. Layers of Information: Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Geographic Information System (GIS) which is capable of storing, manipulating, and displaying data allowing students to explore complex relationships through scientific inquiry. Explains applications of GIS in middle school classrooms and includes assessment strategies. (YDS)

  9. An Overview of the GIS Weasel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viger, Roland J.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a high-level description of the GIS Weasel, a software system designed to aid users in preparing spatial information as input to lumped and distributed parameter environmental simulation models (ESMs). The GIS Weasel provides geographic information system (GIS) tools to help create maps of geographic features relevant to the application of a user?s ESM and to generate parameters from those maps. The operation of the GIS Weasel does not require a user to be a GIS expert, only that a user has an understanding of the spatial information requirements of the model. The GIS Weasel software system provides a GIS-based graphical user interface (GUI), C programming language executables, and general utility scripts. The software will run on any computing platform where ArcInfo Workstation (version 8.1 or later) and the GRID extension are accessible. The user controls the GIS Weasel by interacting with menus, maps, and tables.

  10. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  11. [Evaluation of the exposure levels to radioactivity in the hot-spring environment of the Island of Ischia during a year].

    PubMed

    Bartoli, G; Carraturo, N; Gargiulo, E; Parrella, A; Santi, B

    1989-01-01

    It is known that the decay products of the U-238 are findable in nature in certain materials (such as tufa, limestone, etc.), therefore some populations are naturally exposed to radiations originated by building materials, houses and isotopes present in drinking-waters. It is evident that, for example, the residents of Campania or Lazio will be involved, on such conditions and during their whole life, in the action of natural radiations of decay products of Uranium and consequently of Radon, which is originated and, as gas, also findable in the air of those indoor areas, at a concentration inversely proportional to the relevant ventilation factors. Furthermore, it is known that this isotope is always found in thermal waters too and sometimes at levels which make them classify as radioactive and with therapeutic properties still subjects of studies and researches. Actually, presence of Radon in warm waters is particularly evident in some basins (the Baths of Badgastein in Austria) and is also findable in some italian thermal towns such as Merano Laurisia, Abano, Baths of Lucca or the island of Ischia itself. All underground waters and especially the warm ones, including, those of Ischia basins, hold radioactive isotopes, since their composition is related to the nature of the underground, which they come from, and is strongly influenced by the kind of rocks present in that area, by the granulometry of the geological strata or by existent fractures, by flow speed and finally by solubilization capacity. On such conditions it is evident that all waters, during their scouring, will be enriched by Radon 222 (a gaseous, therefore more soluble, element); just because of its physical state, it will be more present in external environment in case of warm waters such as those ones now examined. Consequently the environmental state from a radioecological point of view of the utilized waters has to be considered, as well as any other thermal resort, fundamentally due to Radon

  12. Continental shelf GIS for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Eittreim, Stephen L.

    2001-01-01

    A marine sanctuary is an environment where the interests of science and society meet. Sanctuary managers need access to the best scientific data available that describe the environment and environmental processes in sanctuaries. Seafloor mapping and sampling in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary have revealed new details about the geology, morphology, and active geologic processes of this region. Data from sidescan sonar, multibeam sonar bathymetry, physical samples, and instrument moorings, are consolidated with new and existing maps in a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS provides researchers and policymakers a view of the relationship among data sets to assist science studies and to help with economic and social policy-making decisions regarding this protected environment.

  13. Sedimentologic characteristics of recent washover deposits from Assateague Island, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernier, Julie C.; Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.; Ellis, Alisha M.; Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2016-06-08

    This report describes sediment data collected using sand augers in active overwash zones on Assateague Island in Maryland. Samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during two surveys in March/April and October 2014 (USGS Field Activity Numbers [FAN] 2014-301-FA and 2014-322-FA, respectively). The physical characteristics (for example, sediment texture or bedding structure) of and spatial differences among these deposits will provide information about overwash processes and sediment transport from the sandy barrier-island reaches to the back-barrier environments. Metrics derived from these data, such as mean grain size or deposit thicknesses, can be used to ground-truth remote sensing and geophysical data and can also be incorporated into sediment transport models. Data products, including sample location tables, descriptive core logs, core photographs and x-radiographs, the results of sediment grain-size analyses, and Geographic Information System (GIS) data files with accompanying formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata can be downloaded from the Data Downloads page.

  14. Sedimentologic characteristics of recent washover deposits from Assateague Island, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernier, Julie C.; Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.; Ellis, Alisha M.; Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes sediment data collected using sand augers in active overwash zones on Assateague Island in Maryland. Samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during two surveys in March/April and October 2014 (USGS Field Activity Numbers [FAN] 2014-301-FA and 2014-322-FA, respectively). The physical characteristics (for example, sediment texture or bedding structure) of and spatial differences among these deposits will provide information about overwash processes and sediment transport from the sandy barrier-island reaches to the back-barrier environments. Metrics derived from these data, such as mean grain size or deposit thicknesses, can be used to ground-truth remote sensing and geophysical data and can also be incorporated into sediment transport models. Data products, including sample location tables, descriptive core logs, core photographs and x-radiographs, the results of sediment grain-size analyses, and Geographic Information System (GIS) data files with accompanying formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata can be downloaded from the Data Downloads page.

  15. Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

  16. Moving GIS Research Indoors: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Agricultural Animals

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Courtney L.; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A.; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

  17. Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare.

  18. Geographical Literacy and the Role of GIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Bryan A.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can help develop student skills that enhance learning. Describes the application of GIS within secondary geography education, providing an example of its use at the Windaroo Valley State High School (Australia). Discusses GIS and geographic literacy. (CMK)

  19. GIS: A New Way To See.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melinda; Casper, Julie; Hissong, Frank; Rieben, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Geographic Information System (GIS) and its applications in interdisciplinary teaching approaches. Specifically focuses on natural resource management. Explains the data collection process of GIS and areas in which this technology is used. Makes recommendations for the classroom use of GIS. (YDS)

  20. Expanding Distance Education in the Spatial Sciences through Virtual Learning Entities and a Virtual GIS Computer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunwald, S.; Ramasundaram, V.; Bruland, G. L.; Jesseman, D. K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe the implementation of an emerging virtual learning environment to teach GIS and spatial sciences to distance education graduate students. We discuss the benefits and constraints of our mixed architecture with the main focus on the innovative hybrid architecture of the virtual GIS computer laboratory. Criteria that were…

  1. Epistemological Considerations for Approaching Teaching in an On-Line Environment Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Teacher Education Program: Reconsidering TPACK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Knight, Cecily; Lenoy, Max

    2015-01-01

    This research inquiry explores teacher educator knowledge, understandings and beliefs informing their teaching in a web-based Australian teacher education program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Through the use of a phenomenologically aligned interview process, the study investigates instructors' consideration of practice for…

  2. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  3. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  4. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  5. Lower granite GIS data description and collection guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.L.; Evans, B.J.; Perry, E.M.

    1995-12-01

    The Lower Granite Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) Walla Walla District and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of the project is to use GIS technology to analyze impacts of the drawdown mitigation option on the physical and biological environment of the Lower Granite Reservoir. The drawdown mitigation option is based on the hypothesis that faster juvenile salmon travel to the ocean would result in higher juvenile survival and greater smolt-to-adult return ratios; to accomplish this, reservoir elevations would be lowered to increase channel velocities. Altering the elevation of the reservoirs on the Snake River is expected to have a variety of impacts to the Physical environment including changes to water velocity, temperature, dissolved gases, and turbidity. The GIS was developed to evaluate these changes and the resulting impacts on the anadromous and resident fish of the Snake River, as well as other aquatic organisms and terrestrial wildlife residing in the adjacent riparian areas. The Lower Granite GIS was developed using commercial hardware and software and is supported by a commercial relational database. Much of the initial system development involved collecting and incorporating data describing the river channel characteristics, hydrologic properties, and aquatic ecology. Potentially meaningful data for the Lower Granite GIS were identified and an extensive data search was performed. Data were obtained from scientists who are analyzing the habitats, limnology, and hydrology of the Snake River. The next six sections of this document describe the bathymetry, fish abundance, substrate, sediment chemistry, and channel hydrology data.

  6. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  7. Authigenic pyrite formation and re-oxidation as an indicator of an unsteady-state redox sedimentary environment: Evidence from the intertidal mangrove sediments of Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hai; Yao, Suping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Two cores of intertidal mangrove sediments from the Tanmen and Qinglan Harbors on Hainan Island, China, were investigated for their geochemical characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, iron and sulfur and the pyrite morphology and framboidal pyrite size distribution. A modified sequential iron extraction procedure revealed extremely high FeHR/FeT ratios (0.81±0.07, n=28). The pyrite results determined by the nitric acid digestion and chromium reduction method show a strong correlation (r=0.91, n=28), indicating that most of the chromium-reducible sulfur is pyrite, whereas the proportion of elemental sulfur is minor. The organic carbon concentrations and the atomic C/N ratios demonstrate that the organic carbon in the mangrove sediments is derived predominantly from higher plants. The chromium-reducible sulfur (CRS) values show a good linear logarithmic correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC), indicating that the process of sulfate reduction increases rapidly with the concentration of TOC at Qinglan Harbor (QL), which has low TOC contents (<5 wt%). In contrast, sulfate reduction increases slowly with high TOC (>5 wt%) at Tanmen Harbor (TM). These data suggest that pyrite formation at the QL site is controlled by the TOC contents, whereas at the TM site, the primary factor controlling the pyritization process is the supply rate of sulfate. Both sites have significantly high sulfate contents (average 1.67±0.45 wt% and 0.80±0.32 wt% at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively), which are isotopically depleted in 34S (average -6.15±7.17‰ and -6.72±7.33‰ at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively) suggesting that the sulfate is mainly from the reoxidation of reduced sulfides (mainly pyrite) instead of seawater sulfate during burial. The distributions of pyrite textures suggest that the pyrite in the mangrove swamps is formed mainly as framboids and only a few pyrite crystals are formed directly as euhedral crystals. The high mean diameters and standard deviations (7.0±4

  8. Integrating Multiple Criteria Evaluation and GIS in Ecotourism: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd, Z. H.; Ujang, U.

    2016-09-01

    The concept of 'Eco-tourism' is increasingly heard in recent decades. Ecotourism is one adventure that environmentally responsible intended to appreciate the nature experiences and cultures. Ecotourism should have low impact on environment and must contribute to the prosperity of local residents. This article reviews the use of Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and Geographic Information System (GIS) in ecotourism. Multiple criteria evaluation mostly used to land suitability analysis or fulfill specific objectives based on various attributes that exist in the selected area. To support the process of environmental decision making, the application of GIS is used to display and analysis the data through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Integration between MCE and GIS tool is important to determine the relative weight for the criteria used objectively. With the MCE method, it can resolve the conflict between recreation and conservation which is to minimize the environmental and human impact. Most studies evidences that the GIS-based AHP as a multi criteria evaluation is a strong and effective in tourism planning which can aid in the development of ecotourism industry effectively.

  9. Three-dimensional GIS approach for management of assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Yee, S. X.; Majid, Z.; Setan, H.

    2014-02-01

    Assets play an important role in human life, especially to an organization. Organizations strive and put more effort to improve its operation and assets management. The development of GIS technology has become a powerful tool in management as it is able to provide a complete inventory for managing assets with location-based information. Spatial information is one of the requirements in decision making in various areas, including asset management in the buildings. This paper describes a 3D GIS approach for management of assets. An asset management system was developed by integrating GIS concept and 3D model assets. The purposes of 3D visualization to manage assets are to facilitate the analysis and understanding in the complex environment. Behind the 3D model of assets is a database to store the asset information. A user-friendly interface was also designed for more easier to operate the application. In the application developed, location of each individual asset can be easily tracked according to the referring spatial information and 3D viewing. The 3D GIS approach described in this paper is certainly would be useful in asset management. Systematic management of assets can be carried out and this will lead to less-time consuming and cost-effective. The results in this paper will show a new approach to improve asset management.

  10. Lost in the Cloud - New Challenges for Teaching GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellman, C. J.; Pupedis, G.

    2016-06-01

    As cloud based services move towards becoming the dominant paradigm in many areas of information technology, GIS has also moved into `the Cloud', creating a new opportunities for professionals and students alike, while at the same time presenting a range of new challenges and opportunities for GIS educators. Learning for many students in the geospatial science disciplines has been based on desktop software for GIS, building their skills from basic data handling and manipulation to advanced spatial analysis and database storage. Cloud-based systems challenge this paradigm in many ways, with some of the skills being replaced by clever and capable software tools, while the ubiquitous nature of the computing environment offers access and processing from anywhere, on any device. This paper describes our experiences over the past two years in developing and delivering a new course incorporating cloud based technologies for GIS and illustrates the many benefits and pitfalls of a cloud based approach to teaching. Throughout the course, students were encouraged to provide regular feedback on the course through the use of online journals. This allowed students to critique the approach to teaching, the learning materials available and to describe their own level of comfort and engagement with the material in an honest and non-confrontational manner. Many of the students did not have a strong information technology background and the journals provided great insight into the views of the students and the challenges they faced in mastering this technology.

  11. Genomic islands from five strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Tuanyok, Apichai; Leadem, Benjamin R; Auerbach, Raymond K; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James S; Mayo, Mark; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Brettin, Thomas S; Nierman, William C; Peacock, Sharon J; Currie, Bart J; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiologic agent of melioidosis, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality where this infection is endemic. Genomic differences among strains of B. pseudomallei are predicted to be one of the major causes of the diverse clinical manifestations observed among patients with melioidosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of genomic islands (GIs) as sources of genomic diversity in this species. Results We found that genomic islands (GIs) vary greatly among B. pseudomallei strains. We identified 71 distinct GIs from the genome sequences of five reference strains of B. pseudomallei: K96243, 1710b, 1106a, MSHR668, and MSHR305. The genomic positions of these GIs are not random, as many of them are associated with tRNA gene loci. In particular, the 3' end sequences of tRNA genes are predicted to be involved in the integration of GIs. We propose the term "tRNA-mediated site-specific recombination" (tRNA-SSR) for this mechanism. In addition, we provide a GI nomenclature that is based upon integration hotspots identified here or previously described. Conclusion Our data suggest that acquisition of GIs is one of the major sources of genomic diversity within B. pseudomallei and the molecular mechanisms that facilitate horizontally-acquired GIs are common across multiple strains of B. pseudomallei. The differential presence of the 71 GIs across multiple strains demonstrates the importance of these mobile elements for shaping the genetic composition of individual strains and populations within this bacterial species. PMID:19038032

  12. Supporting NASA Facilities Through GIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, Mary E.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA GIS Team supports NASA facilities and partners in the analysis of spatial data. Geographic Information System (G[S) is an integration of computer hardware, software, and personnel linking topographic, demographic, utility, facility, image, and other geo-referenced data. The system provides a graphic interface to relational databases and supports decision making processes such as planning, design, maintenance and repair, and emergency response.

  13. Offshore wind farm siting procedures applied offshore of Block Island, Rhode Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Christopher M.

    Since 2008, the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) has been leading a Rhode Island Ocean Area Management Plan (RIOSAMP) in partnership with the University of Rhode Island, resulting in an extensive multidisciplinary analysis of the Rhode Island offshore environment and its suitability for siting an offshore wind farm. As part of the RIOSAMP project, a standard siting optimization approach was first developed based on a siting index defined as the ratio of costs associated with the wind farm deployment to the available wind resource. This index, combined within a marine spatial planning approach to address ecological and societal constraints, provided an initial macro-siting tool (Spaulding et al., 2010). The multiple GIS layers required in this approach and the absence of theoretical support to optimize the resulting zoning, led to an extension of the initial optimization approach into a more comprehensive macro-siting optimization tool, integrating societal and ecological constraints into the siting tool, the Wind Farm Siting Index (WIFSI) (Grilli et al, 2012). The projects led to the definition of several favorable development areas including a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) off of Block Island, in State Waters. Deep Water Wind Inc. (DWW) plans to install and commission five 6 MW direct drive Siemens lattice jacket turbines in the REZ area, by 2014. In this thesis two major steps are accomplished to refine and expand the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool. First the macro-siting tool is expanded to include a model simulating the exclusionary zones defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Second a micro-siting model is developed, optimizing the relative position of each turbine within a wind farm area. The micro-siting objective is to minimize, (1) the loss in power due to the loss of wind resource in the wake of the turbines (wake "effect"), and (2) the cable costs that inter-connect the turbines and connecting the farm to the

  14. GIS application on modern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  15. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which

  16. Scientific Research on a Barrier Island: A Rice University In-service K-12 Summer Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, D. J.; Sawyer, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    In July 2011, a Rice University Summer course consisting of 21 in-service K-12 science teachers conducted fieldwork on Galveston Island, Texas. The goal of this class was to better prepare local teachers to teach the Texas state standards (TEKS) in addition to gaining valuable research, fieldwork, and technology experience. Participant groups developed independent research projects aimed at investigating hurricane impacts, barrier island erosion, nearshore oceanographic conditions, coastal environments, and natural versus anthropogenic dunes. These projects were carried out through the collection and use of ArcGIS, stratigraphical, sedimentological, and geophysical data comprised of satellite/aerial photography, elevation data, sediment push cores, and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Participants analyzed Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) elevation data and several years of Galveston Island imagery, in order to locate appropriate areas to collect cores and GPR lines. Sediment push cores up to ~2 meters in length were collected, and they provided a valuable stratigraphic framework. Participants analyzed core sections for grain size and color variations, mollusc shells, and organic material to make environmental interpretations. These cores revealed hurricane washover beds, dune stratigraphy, and shoreline facies. GPR profiles were collected along the central part of Galveston Island, and the teachers interpreted and characterized the subsurface to ~2 meters depth. Several coastal geologic features, such as beach ridges, swales, and barrier island seaward dipping reflectors, were imaged clearly. Furthermore, sediment cores were collected along many GPR lines in order to verify subsurface interpretations. To seamlessly record and share data in the field, 3G enabled iPads were incorporated into the course. Participants used these devices to take field notes, pictures, and videos, in addition to having access to LIDAR and satellite imagery processed on campus. Merging

  17. GeoBrainArc: Enabling Geospatial Interoperability in ArcGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; di, L.; Zhang, B.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, a growing number of geospatial Web services designed to deal with distributed geospatial information over network have emerged as the maturation of web service technologies. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has published a series of specifications that address geospatial interoperability requirement, standards and implementations to enhance the discovery, retrieval and handling of geospatial information and geospatial processing service. More and more government agencies, such as NASA, FGDC and EPA, publish their data using OGC protocols. ESRI is a leading global GIS software provider, and its flagship product ArcGIS Desktop has significant market share in commercial desktop solutions. To provide worldwide ArcGIS users an interoperable way of accessing OGC Web services for integrating and analyzing distributed heterogeneous geospatial data, we design and implement an extension of ArcGIS: GeoBrainArc. It can be easily installed as a component tool of ArcGIS. With the GeoBrainArc, ArcGIS users now is able to dynamically discover data and services over network using OGC Catalo Service for Web (CS/W), interactively access to and display remote sensing data from distributed OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) and OGC Web Map Service (WMS), and visualize and analyze vector data from different OGC Web Feature Service (WFS). Thus, all those data from OGC Web services, just like other local data, is seamlessly integrated into the ArcGIS environment regardless of their locations, formats and projections.

  18. Black Sea GIS developed in MHI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Isaeva, E.

    2016-08-01

    The work aims at creating the Black Sea geoinformation system (GIS) and complementing it with a model bank. The software for data access and visualization was developed using client server architecture. A map service based on MapServer and MySQL data management system were chosen for the Black Sea GIS. Php-modules and python-scripts are used to provide data access, processing, and exchange between the client application and the server. According to the basic data types, the module structure of GIS was developed. Each type of data is matched to a module which allows selection and visualization of the data. At present, a GIS complement with a model bank (the models build in to the GIS) and users' models (programs launched on users' PCs but receiving and displaying data via GIS) is developed.

  19. WebGIS Platform Adressed to Forest Fire Management Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Ramos-Simões, Nuno; Neto Paixão, Helena Maria; Granja Martins, Fernando Miguel; Pedras, Celestina; Lança, Rui; Silva, Elisa; Jordán, António; Zavala, Lorena; Soares, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the natural disasters that causes more damages in nature, as well as high material costs, and sometimes, a significant losses in human lives. In summer season, when high temperatures are attained, fire may rapidly progress and destroy vast areas of forest and also rural and urban areas. The forest fires have effect on forest species, forest composition and structure, soil properties and soil capacity for nutrient retention. In order to minimize the negative impact of the forest fires in the environment, many studies have been developed, e.g. Jordán et al (2009), Cerdà & Jordán (2010), and Gonçalves & Vieira (2013). Nowadays, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies are used as support tools in fire management decisions, namely during the fire, but also before and after. This study presents the development of a user-friendly WebGIS dedicated to share data, maps and provide updated information on forest fire management for stakeholders in Iberia Peninsula. The WebGIS platform was developed with ArcGIS Online, ArcGIS for Desktop; HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript. This platform has a database that includes spatial and alphanumeric information, such as: origin, burned areas, vegetation change over time, terrain natural slope, land use, soil erosion and fire related hazards. The same database contains also the following relevant information: water sources, forest tracks and traffic ways, lookout posts and urban areas. The aim of this study is to provide the authorities with a tool to assess risk areas and manage more efficiently forest fire hazards, giving more support to their decisions and helping the populations when facing this kind of phenomena.

  20. A GIS planning model for urban oil spill management.

    PubMed

    Li, J

    2001-01-01

    Oil spills in industrialized cities pose a significant threat to their urban water environment. The largest city in Canada, the city of Toronto, has an average 300-500 oil spills per year with an average total volume of about 160,000 L/year. About 45% of the spills was eventually cleaned up. Given the enormous amount of remaining oil entering into the fragile urban ecosystem, it is important to develop an effective pollution prevention and control plan for the city. A Geographic Information System (GIS) planning model has been developed to characterize oil spills and determine preventive and control measures available in the city. A database of oil spill records from 1988 to 1997 was compiled and geo-referenced. Attributes to each record such as spill volume, oil type, location, road type, sector, source, cleanup percentage, and environmental impacts were created. GIS layers of woodlots, wetlands, watercourses, Environmental Sensitive Areas, and Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest were obtained from the local Conservation Authority. By overlaying the spill characteristics with the GIS layers, evaluation of preventive and control solutions close to these environmental features was conducted. It was found that employee training and preventive maintenance should be improved as the principal cause of spills was attributed to human errors and equipment failure. Additionally, the cost of using oil separators at strategic spill locations was found to be $1.4 million. The GIS model provides an efficient planning tool for urban oil spill management. Additionally, the graphical capability of GIS allows users to integrate environmental features and spill characteristics in the management analysis. PMID:11379137

  1. Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands.

    PubMed

    Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Renoult, Julien P; Grégoire, Arnaud; Crochet, Pierre-André; Covas, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Island environments share distinctive characteristics that offer unique opportunities to investigate parallel evolution. Previous research has produced evidence of an island syndrome for morphological traits, life-history strategies and ecological niches, but little is known about the response to insularity of other important traits such as animal signals. Here, we tested whether birds' plumage colouration is part of the island syndrome. We analysed with spectrophotometry the colouration of 116 species endemic to islands and their 116 closest mainland relatives. We found a pattern of reduced brightness and colour intensity for both sexes on islands. In addition, we found a decrease in the number of colour patches on islands that, in males, was associated with a decrease in the number of same-family sympatric species. These results demonstrate a worldwide pattern of parallel colour changes on islands and suggest that a relaxation of selection on species recognition may be one of the mechanisms involved.

  2. Assessing community vulnerabilities to natural hazards on the Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Chris; Delparte, Donna

    2010-05-01

    The island of Hawaii is susceptible to numerous natural hazards such as tsunamis, flooding, lava flow, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, wildfires and storm surge. The impact of a natural disaster on the island's communities has the potential to endanger peoples' lives and threaten critical infrastructure, homes, businesses and economic drivers such as tourism. A Geographic Information System (GIS) has the ability to assess community vulnerabilities by examining the spatial relationships between hazard zones, socioeconomic infrastructure and demographic data. By drawing together existing datasets, GIS was used to examine a number of community vulnerabilities. Key areas of interest were government services, utilities, property assets, industry and transportation. GIS was also used to investigate population dynamics in hazard zones. Identification of community vulnerabilities from GIS analysis can support mitigation measures and assist planning and response measures to natural hazards.

  3. Teaching Thousands with Cloud-based GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Michael; DiBiase, David; Beale, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Teaching Thousands with Cloud-based GIS Educators often draw a distinction between "teaching about GIS" and "teaching with GIS." Teaching about GIS involves helping students learn what GIS is, what it does, and how it works. On the other hand, teaching with GIS involves using the technology as a means to achieve education objectives in the sciences, social sciences, professional disciplines like engineering and planning, and even the humanities. The same distinction applies to CyberGIS. Understandably, early efforts to develop CyberGIS curricula and educational resources tend to be concerned primarily with CyberGIS itself. However, if CyberGIS becomes as functional, usable and scalable as it aspires to be, teaching with CyberGIS has the potential to enable large and diverse global audiences to perform spatial analysis using hosted data, mapping and analysis services all running in the cloud. Early examples of teaching tens of thousands of students across the globe with cloud-based GIS include the massive open online courses (MOOCs) offered by Penn State University and others, as well as the series of MOOCs more recently developed and offered by Esri. In each case, ArcGIS Online was used to help students achieve educational objectives in subjects like business, geodesign, geospatial intelligence, and spatial analysis, as well as mapping. Feedback from the more than 100,000 total student participants to date, as well as from the educators and staff who supported these offerings, suggest that online education with cloud-based GIS is scalable to very large audiences. Lessons learned from the course design, development, and delivery of these early examples may be useful in informing the continuing development of CyberGIS education. While MOOCs may have passed the peak of their "hype cycle" in higher education, the phenomenon they revealed persists: namely, a global mass market of educated young adults who turn to free online education to expand their horizons. The

  4. Toward enterprise GIS design for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, P. M.; Riggs, T. L.; Witkowski, M. S.; Keating, G. N.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of institutions are challenged with implementing robust geographic information system (GIS) capabilities for a large number of individuals through information sharing and interconnected networks. In the past, numerous technological roadblocks hampered successful implementation of enterprise GIS (EGIS). With the advent of high-speed networks, increasingly fast computers, intelligent spatial data serving technologies, improved data architecture, and advances in GIS software, the newest challenge involves integration of the various technological and institutional components. This integration can be viewed as an inevitable stage in the evolution of GIS. Successful EGIS design depends on three elements: (1) distinct stakeholder roles, (2) a complete geospatial data cycle, and (3) proven data warehouse concepts.

  5. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... ocean are visible. The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are ...

  6. The application of GIS in environmental health sciences: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Tim, U S

    1995-11-01

    Understanding the complex spatio-temporal relationships between environmental pollution and disease and identifying exposures to environmental hazards in high-risk populations are essential elements of an effective environmental and public health management program. Modern computer technologies, such as geographic information systems (GIS), provide cost-effective tools for evaluating interventions and policies potentially affecting health outcomes. GIS analysis or display of environmental health data is also helpful in explaining disease patterns in terms of relationships with social, institutional, technological, and natural environments. This paper examines major issues related to the application of GIS in environmental health sciences. Specifically, the paper presents and discusses the basic principles, potential benefits, and major limitations of GIS in environmental health research. A real-world example application involving development and implementation of a prototype system called EMPHASIS (EnvironMental and Public Health datA analySIs System) to facilitate management, analysis, display, and presentation of environmental, socio-demographic, and health outcome data in Iowa is described. From the discussions and the example application, it is concluded that GIS can significantly add value to environmental and public health data in areas such as exploratory data analysis, hypotheses generation, confirmatory data analysis, and decision-making. The widespread adoption of GIS in these areas, however, is impeded by issues such as inconsistent spatial scales of the data, data quality and currency, lack of appropriate statistical functions for data analysis and interpretation, and data security and confidentiality.

  7. Research on the integrative strategy of spatial statistical analysis of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhong; Han, Qi Juan; Wu, Liang

    2008-12-01

    Presently, the spacial social and natural phenomenon is studied by both the GIS technique and statistics methods. However, plenty of complex practical applications restrict these research methods. The data models and technologies exploited are full of special localization. This paper firstly sums up the requirement of spacial statistical analysis. On the base of the requirement, the universal spatial statistical models are transformed into the function tools in statistical GIS system. A pyramidal structure of three layers is brought forward. Therefore, it is feasible to combine the techniques of spacial dada management, searches and visualization in GIS with the methods of processing data in the statistic analysis. It will form an integrative statistical GIS environment with the management, analysis, application and assistant decision-making of spacial statistical information.

  8. Water quality modeling using geographic information system (GIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Bernard A

    1992-01-01

    Protection of the environment and natural resources at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is of great concern. The potential for surface and ground water quality problems resulting from non-point sources of pollution was examined using models. Since spatial variation of parameters required was important, geographic information systems (GIS) and their data were used. The potential for groundwater contamination was examined using the SEEPAGE (System for Early Evaluation of the Pollution Potential of Agricultural Groundwater Environments) model. A watershed near the VAB was selected to examine potential for surface water pollution and erosion using the AGNPS (Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution) model.

  9. Applications of Mobile GIS in Forestry South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battad, D. T.; Mackenzie, P.

    2012-07-01

    South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestrySA) had been actively investigating the applications of mobile GIS in forestry for the past few years. The main objective is to develop an integrated mobile GIS capability that allows staff to collect new spatial information, verify existing data, and remotely access and post data from the field. Two (2) prototype mobile GIS applications have been developed already using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ARCGISR technology as the main spatial component. These prototype systems are the Forest Health Surveillance System and the Mobile GIS for Wetlands System. The Forest Health Surveillance System prototype is used primarily for aerial forest health surveillance. It was developed using a tablet PC with ArcMapR GIS. A customised toolbar was developed using ArcObjectsR in the Visual Basic 6 Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The resulting dynamic linked library provides a suite of custom tools which enables the following: - quickly create spatial features and attribute the data - full utilisation of global positioning system (GPS) technology - excellent screen display navigation tools, i.e. pan, rotate map, capture of flight path - seamless integration of data into GIS as geodatabase (GDB) feature classes - screen entry of text and conversion to annotation feature classes The Mobile GIS for Wetlands System prototype was developed for verifying existing wetland areas within ForestrySA's plantation estate, collect new wetland data, and record wetland conditions. Mapping of actual wetlands within ForestrySA's plantation estate is very critical because of the need to establish protection buffers around these features during the implementation of plantation operations. System development has been focussed on a mobile phone platform (HTC HD2R ) with WindowsR Mobile 6, ESRI's ArcGISR Mobile software development kit (SDK) employing ArcObjectsR written on C#.NET IDE, and ArcGIS ServerR technology. The system

  10. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  11. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  12. Use NASA GES DISC Data in ArcGIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Wenli; Pham, Long B.; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes GIS relevant data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), GES DISC Services and Support for GIS Users, and use cases of GES DISC data in ArcGIS.

  13. Section 4. The GIS Weasel User's Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viger, Roland J.; Leavesley, George H.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The GIS Weasel was designed to aid in the preparation of spatial information for input to lumped and distributed parameter hydrologic or other environmental models. The GIS Weasel provides geographic information system (GIS) tools to help create maps of geographic features relevant to a user's model and to generate parameters from those maps. The operation of the GIS Weasel does not require the user to be a GIS expert, only that the user have an understanding of the spatial information requirements of the environmental simulation model being used. The GIS Weasel software system uses a GIS-based graphical user interface (GUI), the C programming language, and external scripting languages. The software will run on any computing platform where ArcInfo Workstation (version 8.0.2 or later) and the GRID extension are accessible. The user controls the processing of the GIS Weasel by interacting with menus, maps, and tables. The purpose of this document is to describe the operation of the software. This document is not intended to describe the usage of this software in support of any particular environmental simulation model. Such guides are published separately.

  14. Learning Geography by Combining Fieldwork with GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favier, Tim; van der Schee, Joop

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) offer many possibilities for supporting student research projects. This paper deals with the results of the first phase of a design study on student research projects that combine (quantitative) data collection in the field with data visualisation, manipulation and analysis in GIS. In this study, we try to…

  15. From Workshop to Classroom: Bridging GIS Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonier, Francis; Hong, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    This article shares the first-time geographic information system (GIS) experiences of two advanced placement human geography classes. The teacher had participated in a summer GIS workshop and then brought those skills into her classroom for the students' benefit. Eighteen students shared their experiences researching their family history, working…

  16. GIS Live and Web Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

    2007-01-01

    GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

  17. Data Driven Program Planning for GIS Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarletto, Edith

    2013-01-01

    This study used both focus groups (qualitative) and survey data (quantitative) to develop and expand an instruction program for GIS services. It examined the needs and preferences faculty and graduate students have for learning about GIS applications for teaching and research. While faculty preferred in person workshops and graduate students…

  18. Effect of GIS Learning on Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…

  19. Geographic information system for Long Island: An epidemiologic systems approach to identify environmental breast cancer risks on Long Island. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    BNL is developing and implementing the project ``Geographic Information System (GIS) for Long Island`` to address the potential relationship of environmental and occupational exposures to breast cancer etiology on Long Island. The project is divided into two major phases: The four month-feasibility project (Phase 1), and the major development and implementation project (Phase 2). This report summarizes the work completed in the four month Phase 1 Project, ``Feasibility of a Geographic Information System for Long Island.`` It provides the baseline information needed to further define and prioritize the scope of work for subsequent tasks. Phase 2 will build upon this foundation to develop an operational GIS for the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

  20. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  1. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  2. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  3. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  4. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  5. Sustainable Living on the Tiwi Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burne, Cris; McKaige, Barbie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how the people of the Tiwi Islands (which lie in the Arafura Sea located off the coast of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory) have carefully observed the rhythms and patterns of their country, developing a complex and precise way of living sustainably in their island environment. In 2015, the Tiwi people shared their…

  6. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits. PMID:26376473

  7. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  8. A Novel Method to Predict Genomic Islands Based on Mean Shift Clustering Algorithm.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Daniel M; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; de Farias, Savio T; Batista, Leonardo V; do Rêgo, Thaís G

    2016-01-01

    Genomic Islands (GIs) are regions of bacterial genomes that are acquired from other organisms by the phenomenon of horizontal transfer. These regions are often responsible for many important acquired adaptations of the bacteria, with great impact on their evolution and behavior. Nevertheless, these adaptations are usually associated with pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance, degradation and metabolism. Identification of such regions is of medical and industrial interest. For this reason, different approaches for genomic islands prediction have been proposed. However, none of them are capable of predicting precisely the complete repertory of GIs in a genome. The difficulties arise due to the changes in performance of different algorithms in the face of the variety of nucleotide distribution in different species. In this paper, we present a novel method to predict GIs that is built upon mean shift clustering algorithm. It does not require any information regarding the number of clusters, and the bandwidth parameter is automatically calculated based on a heuristic approach. The method was implemented in a new user-friendly tool named MSGIP--Mean Shift Genomic Island Predictor. Genomes of bacteria with GIs discussed in other papers were used to evaluate the proposed method. The application of this tool revealed the same GIs predicted by other methods and also different novel unpredicted islands. A detailed investigation of the different features related to typical GI elements inserted in these new regions confirmed its effectiveness. Stand-alone and user-friendly versions for this new methodology are available at http://msgip.integrativebioinformatics.me. PMID:26731657

  9. A Novel Method to Predict Genomic Islands Based on Mean Shift Clustering Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Daniel M.; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; de Farias, Savio T.; Batista, Leonardo V.; do Rêgo, Thaís G.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic Islands (GIs) are regions of bacterial genomes that are acquired from other organisms by the phenomenon of horizontal transfer. These regions are often responsible for many important acquired adaptations of the bacteria, with great impact on their evolution and behavior. Nevertheless, these adaptations are usually associated with pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance, degradation and metabolism. Identification of such regions is of medical and industrial interest. For this reason, different approaches for genomic islands prediction have been proposed. However, none of them are capable of predicting precisely the complete repertory of GIs in a genome. The difficulties arise due to the changes in performance of different algorithms in the face of the variety of nucleotide distribution in different species. In this paper, we present a novel method to predict GIs that is built upon mean shift clustering algorithm. It does not require any information regarding the number of clusters, and the bandwidth parameter is automatically calculated based on a heuristic approach. The method was implemented in a new user-friendly tool named MSGIP—Mean Shift Genomic Island Predictor. Genomes of bacteria with GIs discussed in other papers were used to evaluate the proposed method. The application of this tool revealed the same GIs predicted by other methods and also different novel unpredicted islands. A detailed investigation of the different features related to typical GI elements inserted in these new regions confirmed its effectiveness. Stand-alone and user-friendly versions for this new methodology are available at http://msgip.integrativebioinformatics.me. PMID:26731657

  10. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF THE CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF THE CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN ON 6 APRIL 1968. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. DOE GIS core team - a best practice

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J.; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Bleakly, D. R.; Brady-Sabeff, Liz; Guber, Al; Guziel, K. A.; Hargrove, Susan; Lee, J.; Lee, R.; Mickus, Kurt; Morehouse, David; Moore, K.; Ramsdell, Amy; Rich, P. M.

    2004-01-01

    Large government organizations such as the Department of Energy (DOE) are challenged with identifying and implementing best geospatial information management practices to ensure that operational needs are met and government objectives are achieved. Geographic Information System (GIS) professionals, complex wide within the Department, conduct spatial information management practices on a daily basis to complete a wide variety of science and engineering tasks. The DOE Office of the CIO recognized the wealth of geospatial information management knowledge within the DOE complex and formed the DOE GIS Core Team in 2001 as a result. The team is comprised of GIS experts-representing all major DOE labs, site facilities, and programs-who volunteer their time to address issues impacting the entire complex. These include the President's management agenda (with emphasis on the Geospatial One-Stop), homeland security, emergency response, site management, software and geospatial data licensing, and federal, national, and international standards governing the creation and dissemination of geospatial data. The strength of the DOE GIS Core Team is the wide diversity of GIS and scientific expertise represented on the team, which allows it to provide the DOE CIO's office with sound guidance on complex wide issues from a GIS practitioner's perspective. The Core Team's mission is 'to foster technical excellence and communication, to identify and advocate best business practices, and to provide sound recommendations on policy and standards.' As a first step toward identifying best practices the feam conducted a survey of all known GIS assets across the DOE complex. The survey identified each site's GIS expertise, operating systems architecture and software applications, major project areas supported, and a number of other metrics important to the operation of a GIS organization. Results of the survey will be discussed, along with the mission of the Core Team. A broad overview of best

  12. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  13. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  14. Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world's islands.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Jetz, Walter; Kreft, Holger

    2013-09-17

    The Earth's islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world's marine islands >1 km(2) (∼98% of total island area). We consider area, temperature, precipitation, seasonality in temperature and precipitation, past climate change velocity, elevation, isolation, and past connectivity--key island characteristics and drivers of ecosystem processes. We find that islands are significantly cooler, wetter, and less seasonal than mainlands. Constrained by their limited area, they show less elevational heterogeneity. Wet temperate climates are more prevalent on islands, whereas desert climates are comparatively rare. We use ordination and clustering to characterize islands in multidimensional environmental space and to delimit island ecoregions, which provides unique insights into the environmental configuration and diversity of the world's islands. Combining ordination and classification together with global environmental data in a common framework opens up avenues for a more integrative use of islands in biogeography, macroecology, and conservation. To showcase possible applications of the presented data, we predict vascular plant species richness for all 17,883 islands based on statistically derived environment-richness relationships.

  15. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of the Atlanta, Georgia, Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Impacts on the Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    The twenty-first century is the first "urban century" according to the United Nations Development Program. The focus of cities reflects awareness of the growing percentage of the world's population that lives in urban areas. In environmental terms, cities are the original producers of many of the global problems related to waste disposal, air and water pollution, and associated environmental and ecological challenges. Expansion of cities, both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process. In 2000, approximately 3 billion people representing about 40% of the global population, resided in urban areas. Urban population will continue to rise substantially over the next several decades according to UN estimates, and most of this growth will Occur in developing countries. The UN estimates that by 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in urban areas. As a consequence, the number of"megacities" (those cities with populations of 10 million inhabitants or more) will increase by 100 by 2025. Thus, there is a critical need to understand urban areas and what their impacts are on environmental, ecological and hydrologic resources, as well as on the local, regional, and even global climate. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the increase in surface and air temperatures that lead to deterioration in air quality. In the United States, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet these new air quality standards for ground level ozone. Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect is actively being evaluated as a possible way to reduce ground ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. Foremost in the analysis of how the UHI affects air quality and other environmental factors is the use of remote sensing technology and data to characterize urban land covers in sufficient detail to quantifiably measure

  16. GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION

    SciTech Connect

    JUDI, DAVID; KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY; BERSCHEID, ALAN

    2007-01-17

    A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.

  17. An integrated GIS application system for soil moisture data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Shen, Runping; Huang, Xiaolong; Shi, Chunxiang

    2014-11-01

    The gaps in knowledge and existing challenges in precisely describing the land surface process make it critical to represent the massive soil moisture data visually and mine the data for further research.This article introduces a comprehensive soil moisture assimilation data analysis system, which is instructed by tools of C#, IDL, ArcSDE, Visual Studio 2008 and SQL Server 2005. The system provides integrated service, management of efficient graphics visualization and analysis of land surface data assimilation. The system is not only able to improve the efficiency of data assimilation management, but also comprehensively integrate the data processing and analysis tools into GIS development environment. So analyzing the soil moisture assimilation data and accomplishing GIS spatial analysis can be realized in the same system. This system provides basic GIS map functions, massive data process and soil moisture products analysis etc. Besides,it takes full advantage of a spatial data engine called ArcSDE to effeciently manage, retrieve and store all kinds of data. In the system, characteristics of temporal and spatial pattern of soil moiture will be plotted. By analyzing the soil moisture impact factors, it is possible to acquire the correlation coefficients between soil moisture value and its every single impact factor. Daily and monthly comparative analysis of soil moisture products among observations, simulation results and assimilations can be made in this system to display the different trends of these products. Furthermore, soil moisture map production function is realized for business application.

  18. Remote sensing data and GIS for hydrological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzeli, Evlambia; Lambrakis, Nikolaos; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the structure and contents of a hydro - geological GIS database that stores hydro - geological data and constitutes the basis for processing and extracting spatial and non spatial data. The geodatabase contains information on hydrology, hydrography, hydrochemistry, geology, topography, land use, protected area, administration as well as the maps that were produced using the data from the base. Additional data that related to hydrogeological study of the lakeside area located at the NW part of lake Trichonida and DEMs are also included at this database. Then a part of these files were used to make hyper- links whose objective was to give direct access to tables of precipitation and chemical data. With the SQL, various queries have been set in order to lead to the data retrieval. This hydrogeological database is implemented within a GIS (geographic information system) framework coupled to a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) as a file geodatabase (ESRI format) GIS technology. At this point must be emphasized the dynamic nature of the database as well as provide support for a multiuser environment. The structure of the hydro - geological database presented at this paper is exemplified for a study site around Aitoloakarnania in Western Greece.

  19. Differential adaptations between cold-stenothermal environments in the bivalve Lissarca cf. miliaris (Philobryidae) from the Scotia Sea islands and Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Adam J.; Linse, Katrin; Thatje, Sven

    2014-04-01

    The cold stenothermal nature of the Southern Ocean, and highly adapted fauna living within, raises the question of how much intra-specific variation there is among invertebrate populations, and how variation may have a role in speciation processes through ecological divergence, natural selection, and reproductive isolation. Despite decades of collecting biological material, this question remains largely unanswered, and many studies compare ‘populations' of pooled material from wide geographic ranges to compensate for sampling constraints. In this study, variations in ecophysiological traits are explored by measuring growth, reproduction, and shell morphology among six populations of the small bivalve Lissarca cf. miliaris (Philippi, 1845) from the Southern Ocean, which experience subtle differences in temperature, disturbance, and food availability. There are significant differences in shell morphology and growth among different populations and slower growth rates at higher latitude populations. Prodissoconch sizes show an inverse ‘U' shaped relationship with latitude, and are correlated with egg size at South Georgia and King George Island's Potter Cove. Higher brood sizes at the South Georgia population represent a trade-off with lower egg size, and correlate with shell morphology by offering lower internal capacity to brood young. Lower investment into offspring and morphological variations in L. cf. miliaris highlight the importance of local scale environmental variations on species' ecology. These variations in physical traits appear to be underestimated in the Southern Ocean, but may be important drivers of ecological divergence and speciation, which should be considered in future genetic investigations on different invertebrate populations.

  20. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  1. Environmental GIS: The world in a computer

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, T.

    1996-08-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) computer programs that manipulate and analyze spatial data represent one of the hottest growth areas in the world of computing. Depending on what is included in the category `GIS software,` the market is now worth between $550 million and $1 billion, and is growing at 15-24% every year. The number of software packages available for GIS analysis (1) is increasing, too, both at the high and low ends of capability. Much of this growth has been fueled by business applications, as companies recognize that GIS, with its ability to locate and sort potential customers, is a powerful marketing tool. But the environmental field continues to make up a large part of the GIS market as well. Environmental applications of GIS include site assessment and cleanup, wildlife management, pollution monitoring, risk analysis, vegetation mapping, and public information. Many natural resource managers now use or are familiar with GIS, and undergraduates in natural resource fields are likely to gain some experience with the technology before they graduate. 10 refs.

  2. Relation between the Classical Sciences and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, A.

    2012-04-01

    As is already known, in recent years, the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS is a deployable occupation. With their help, we offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge through spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric resolutions of remote sensing systems and through analysis and incorporation of data Gis. The representation of facts and results of research on the topography and geomorphology sites of archaeological interest, visualization of them with the help of modern software, is growing. The application of innovative technological methods in classical sciences was and is certainly a challenge for scientists, especially when using them to produce results that lead to understanding the history of a place. So far the formulation of conclusions from the archaeologists was with traditional practices, through sources from the extant ancient texts and by archaeological excavations. In some cases lack of data, to find the exact position of the archaeological monument needs to take place science and technology of Geoinformatics methods and techniques that enable the management of various information from anthropogenic and natural geographic area below of a single digital environment. Since that archeology examines the evolution of historical events through the geography, geomorphology, time and culture, the results of archaeological research is rich in spatial information. The Gis is an experienced program to process these large volumes of data, particularly those referred to the geomorphology. Consequently the aim of the paper is to show us that through the help of software can visualize the archaeological monuments of the region through the geomorphologic background mainly. Having as a study area the prefecture of Arcadia owned in the Peloponnese/ Greece shows the direct relation of geomorphology with archeology through the Geographic Information Systems. Keywords: Gis, Classic science, history, geomorphology and archeology

  3. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  4. Towards an Ontology for Reef Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duce, Stephanie

    Reef islands are complex, dynamic and vulnerable environments with a diverse range of stake holders. Communication and data sharing between these different groups of stake holders is often difficult. An ontology for the reef island domain would improve the understanding of reef island geomorphology and improve communication between stake holders as well as forming a platform from which to move towards interoperability and the application of Information Technology to forecast and monitor these environments. This paper develops a small, prototypical reef island domain ontology, based on informal, natural language relations, aligned to the DOLCE upper-level ontology, for 20 fundamental terms within the domain. A subset of these terms and their relations are discussed in detail. This approach reveals and discusses challenges which must be overcome in the creation of a reef island domain ontology and which could be relevant to other ontologies in dynamic geospatial domains.

  5. Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The island of Kauai, of the Hawaiian Island archipelago (22.0N, 159.5W) peeks out from scattered cloud cover. The island's volcanic origins are easily seen by the distinctive lava flow topography and lush vegetation.

  6. The Global Landscape of GIS in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerski, Joseph J.; Demirci, Ali; Milson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of GIS in schools in thirty-three countries and proposes recommendations for advancing the implementation and effectiveness of GIS in secondary education from an international perspective. Thirty-three countries have been evaluated in the study to assess the global landscape of educational GIS by analyzing how GIS is…

  7. On Using GIS to Teach in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how a professor can harness the power of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and use GIS to teach in the social sciences. She shows examples of how GIS can illustrate concepts during lecture or discussion, and provides two specific GIS assignments: one for undergraduate students and the other for graduate…

  8. Using Web-Based GIS in Introductory Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songer, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    Advocates for using a geographic information system (GIS) in education assert that GIS improves student learning. However, studies to clarify the relationship between learning and using GIS are still needed. This study examines the effects of using Web-based GIS maps in place of paper maps on students' geography content knowledge and motivation…

  9. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  10. Application of GIS in foreign direct investment decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianlan; Sun, Koumei

    2007-06-01

    It is important to make decisions on how to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) to China and know how the inequality of FDI introduction by locational different provinces. Following background descriptions on China's FDI economic environments and FDI-related policies, this paper demonstrates the uses of geographical information system (GIS) and multi-criterion decision-making (MCDM) framework in solving a spatial multi-objective problem of evaluating and ranking China's provinces for FDI introduction. It implements a foreign direct investment decision support system, which reveals the main determinants of FDI in China and gives some results of regional geographical analysis over spatial data.

  11. Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world’s islands

    PubMed Central

    Weigelt, Patrick; Jetz, Walter; Kreft, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The Earth’s islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world’s marine islands >1 km2 (∼98% of total island area). We consider area, temperature, precipitation, seasonality in temperature and precipitation, past climate change velocity, elevation, isolation, and past connectivity—key island characteristics and drivers of ecosystem processes. We find that islands are significantly cooler, wetter, and less seasonal than mainlands. Constrained by their limited area, they show less elevational heterogeneity. Wet temperate climates are more prevalent on islands, whereas desert climates are comparatively rare. We use ordination and clustering to characterize islands in multidimensional environmental space and to delimit island ecoregions, which provides unique insights into the environmental configuration and diversity of the world’s islands. Combining ordination and classification together with global environmental data in a common framework opens up avenues for a more integrative use of islands in biogeography, macroecology, and conservation. To showcase possible applications of the presented data, we predict vascular plant species richness for all 17,883 islands based on statistically derived environment–richness relationships. PMID:24003123

  12. EAARL topography: Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains 31 LIDAR-derived first return topography maps and GIS files for Fire Island National Seashore. These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  13. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  14. GIS Education at Geographical Departments in Japanese Universities in Relation to the Japan Standard GIS Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Midori; Oguchi, Takashi; Okabe, Atsuyuki; Sadahiro, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) education in Japan lags far behind that in Western developed countries. As such the development of systematic GIS education in Japanese universities, including the preparation of a GIS standard curriculum, becomes an urgent issue. This article examines the present situation and recent trends of GIS education in…

  15. An integrated remote sensing approach for landslide susceptibly mapping at the volcanic islands of Vulcano and Lipari (Eolian Island, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scifoni, Silvia; Palenzuela Baena, José A.; Marsella, Maria; Pepe, Susi; Sansosti, Eugenio; Solaro, Giuseppe; Tizzani, Piero

    2015-10-01

    Volcanic Island can be affected by instability phenomena such as landslide and partial collapse events, even in quiescent period. Starting from data collected by an aerial laser scanning survey at cm-level accuracy), a GIS based approach was implemented in order to perform a landslide-susceptibility analysis. The results of this analysis were compared and integrated with data derived from Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DinSAR) analysis able to identify the most active areas and quantify the on-going deformation processes. The analysis is focused on the on the active volcanic edifice of Vulcano Island and in some areas of Lipari island, both include in the Eaolian Islands in Sicily (Italy). The developed approach represent a step-forward for the compilation of hazard maps furnishing in an overall contest, updated and georeferenced quantitative data, describing the morphology and the present behaviour of the slopes in the area of investigation.

  16. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In identifying and characterizing wetland and adjacent features, the use of remote sensor and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies has been valuable. Remote sensors such as photographs and computer-sensor generated images can illustrate conditions of hydrology, exten...

  17. Fluvial geochemistry in São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal): source and fluxes of inorganic solutes in an active volcanic environment.

    PubMed

    Freire, P; Andrade, C; Coutinho, R; Cruz, J V

    2013-06-01

    River water chemistry in two of the major rivers in São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal) has been characterized monthly between June 2010 and October 2011 in order to estimate the main geochemical processes that explain water composition and to estimate solute fluxes and the thermal water input to rivers. Both rivers (Ribeira Grande - RRG, and Ribeira Quente - RRQ) drain active trachytic central volcanoes. The number of sampling stations is seven in RRG and six in RRQ. Rivers are mainly slightly acid to basic in nature (pH in the range 5.41-8.70 in RRG and 5.90-8.10 in RRQ) and from the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl water types. In both cases water temperature increases towards the river mouth and median values are slightly higher in Ribeira Quente (15.5-22.4°C) comparing to Ribeira Grande river (15.2-19.7°C). Electrical conductivity suggests poorly mineralized waters (139-456 μS/cm in RRG and 209-402 μS/cm in RRQ, and values increase downstream. Higher solute fluxes are associated to HCO3 and Na, and the total CO2 flux is equal to 3647 t/yr in RRQ and 7546 t/yr in RRG. Mixture with thermal water discharges also influences river water chemistry and in RRQ the contribution to the annual average discharge rate was estimated in 2.96×10(6)m(3)/yr (12.8% of overall discharge rate in the watershed). In RRG thermal water discharges were estimated in 2.4×10(6)m(3)/yr (14.9% of the discharge rate). The minimum total CO2-consumption associated with low-temperature weathering is equal to 0.58×10(6)mol/km(2)/yr in Ribeira Quente river and equal to 0.78×10(6)mol/km(2)/yr in Ribeira Grande river.

  18. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  19. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  20. 40 CFR 81.46 - U.S. Virgin Islands Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false U.S. Virgin Islands Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.46 U.S. Virgin Islands Air Quality Control Region. The U.S. Virgin Islands... outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): The entire U.S. Virgin Islands....

  1. 40 CFR 81.46 - U.S. Virgin Islands Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. Virgin Islands Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.46 U.S. Virgin Islands Air Quality Control Region. The U.S. Virgin Islands... outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): The entire U.S. Virgin Islands....

  2. 40 CFR 81.46 - U.S. Virgin Islands Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false U.S. Virgin Islands Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.46 U.S. Virgin Islands Air Quality Control Region. The U.S. Virgin Islands... outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): The entire U.S. Virgin Islands....

  3. Introducing a new open source GIS user interface for the SWAT model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is a robust watershed modelling tool. It typically uses the ArcSWAT interface to create its inputs. ArcSWAT is public domain software which works in the licensed ArcGIS environment. The aim of this paper was to develop an open source user interface ...

  4. Building Environmental Literacy through Participation in GIS and Multimedia Assisted Field Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, C. P.; Affolter, James M.; Reeves, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    A Learning Support System (LSS) that emphasizes experiential research in natural environments using the cutting-edge technologies of GIS and multimedia has been developed for teaching environmental literacy to undergraduate students at the University of Georgia. Computers are used as cognitive tools to create a context in which students become…

  5. Spatial Analysis and GIS Applications for Estimating Monthly Rainfall Totals on Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staub, C. G.; Stevens, F. R.; Waylen, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reliable gridded rainfall data are critical for GIS-based climate change impact assessments, water resources planning and management, design of hydraulic works and urban development. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are highly dependent on rainfall, more sensitive, and have a lower adaptive capacity to climate change than mainland countries yet are poorly studied. Extensive hydrometeorological records exist in Mauritius, offering a unique opportunity to model rainfall distribution and produce high resolution gridded datasets for GIS-based models. Multiple regression is used to model mean annual and monthly rainfall on the island for the period 1997 - 2011 and derive a physical basis for understanding spatial rainfall patterns. The models incorporate latitude, longitude, slope, distance to coast, elevation and their interactions accounting for 68% of the variance in mean annual rainfall and 55-72% of variance in mean monthly rainfall across the island. Spatial trends are removed from observed monthly rainfall totals and ordinary kriging is applied to the residuals. The regression and kriging results are combined to produce a high resolution, physically consistent gridded time-series dataset. Estimate and variance values from each month are then used to calculate 95% confidence interval surfaces. Cross-validation reveals close correspondence between predicted and observed values. This regression kriging approach captures what is currently understood about the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation in this mountainous sub-tropical location, giving us greater confidence in the reliability of the new rainfall estimates.

  6. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  7. Quantifying Barrier Island Recovery Following a Hurricane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, B.; Houser, C.

    2014-12-01

    Barrier islands are dynamic landscapes that are believed to minimize storm impact to mainland communities and also provide important ecological services in the coastal environment. The protection afforded by the island and the services it provides, however, depend on island resiliency in the face of accelerated sea level rise, which is in turn dependent on the rate of island recovery following storm events that may also change in both frequency and magnitude in the future. These changes in frequency may affect even large dunes and their resiliency, resulting in the island transitioning from a high to a low elevation. Previous research has shown that the condition of the foredune depends on the recovery of the nearshore and beach profile and the ability of vegetation to capture aeolian-transported sediment. An inability of the foredune to recover may result in mainland susceptibility to storm energy, inability for ecosystems to recover and thrive, and sediment budget instability. In this study, LiDAR data is used to quantify the rates of dune recovery at Fire Island, NY, the Outer Banks, NC, Santa Rosa Island, FL, and Matagorda Island, TX. Preliminary results indicate foredune recovery varies significantly both alongshore and in the cross-shore, suggesting that barrier island response and recovery to storm events cannot be considered from a strictly two-dimensional (cross-shore) perspective.

  8. The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. ); Handley, L. ); Michot, T. ); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

  9. Raster Data Partitioning for Supporting Distributed GIS Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Thai, B.; Olasz, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the geospatial sector big data concept also has already impact. Several studies facing originally computer science techniques applied in GIS processing of huge amount of geospatial data. In other research studies geospatial data is considered as it were always been big data (Lee and Kang, 2015). Nevertheless, we can prove data acquisition methods have been improved substantially not only the amount, but the resolution of raw data in spectral, spatial and temporal aspects as well. A significant portion of big data is geospatial data, and the size of such data is growing rapidly at least by 20% every year (Dasgupta, 2013). The produced increasing volume of raw data, in different format, representation and purpose the wealth of information derived from this data sets represents only valuable results. However, the computing capability and processing speed rather tackle with limitations, even if semi-automatic or automatic procedures are aimed on complex geospatial data (Kristóf et al., 2014). In late times, distributed computing has reached many interdisciplinary areas of computer science inclusive of remote sensing and geographic information processing approaches. Cloud computing even more requires appropriate processing algorithms to be distributed and handle geospatial big data. Map-Reduce programming model and distributed file systems have proven their capabilities to process non GIS big data. But sometimes it's inconvenient or inefficient to rewrite existing algorithms to Map-Reduce programming model, also GIS data can not be partitioned as text-based data by line or by bytes. Hence, we would like to find an alternative solution for data partitioning, data distribution and execution of existing algorithms without rewriting or with only minor modifications. This paper focuses on technical overview of currently available distributed computing environments, as well as GIS data (raster data) partitioning, distribution and distributed processing of GIS algorithms

  10. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E. L.; Welch, R.

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  11. Identification of genomic islands in six plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Ling

    2006-06-01

    Genomic islands (GIs) play important roles in microbial evolution, which are acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In this paper, the GIs of six completely sequenced plant pathogens are identified using a windowless method based on Z curve representation of DNA sequences. Consequently, four, eight, four, one, two and four GIs are recognized with the length greater than 20-Kb in plant pathogens Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58, Rolstonia solanacearum GMI1000, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri str. 306 (Xac), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. ATCC33913 (Xcc), Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000, respectively. Most of these regions share a set of conserved features of GIs, including an abrupt change in GC content compared with that of the rest of the genome, the existence of integrase genes at the junction, the use of tRNA as the integration sites, the presence of genetic mobility genes, the difference of codon usage, codon preference and amino acid usage, etc. The identification of these GIs will benefit the research for the six important phytopathogens.

  12. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt≡12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand

  13. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  14. GeoMEx: Geographic Information System (GIS) Prototype for Mars Express Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Frigeri, A.; Ivanov, A. B.

    2013-09-01

    As of today almost a decade of observational data have been returned by the multidisciplinary instruments on-board the ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. All data are archived into the ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which is the central repository for all ESA's Solar System missions [1]. Data users can perform advanced queries and retrieve data from the PSA using graphical and map-based search interfaces, or via direct FTP download [2]. However the PSA still offers limited geometrical search and visualisation capabilities that are essential for scientists to identify their data of interest. A former study has shown [3] that this limitation is mostly due to the fact that (1) only a subset of the instruments observations geometry information has been modeled and ingested into the PSA, and (2) that the access to that information from GIS software is impossible without going through a cumbersome and undocumented process. With the increasing number of Mars GIS data sets available to the community [4], GIS software have become invaluable tools for researchers to capture, manage, visualise, and analyse data from various sources. Although Mars Express surface imaging data are natural candidates for use in a GIS environment, other non-imaging instruments data (subsurface, atmosphere, plasma) integration is being investigated [5]. The objective of this work is to develop a GIS prototype that will integrate all the Mars Express instruments observations geometry information into a spatial database that can be accessed from external GIS software using standard WMS and WFS protocols. We will firstly focus on the integration of surface and subsurface instruments data (HRSC, OMEGA, MARSIS). In addition to the geometry information, base and context maps of Mars derived from surface mapping instruments data will also be ingested into the system. The system back-end architecture will be implemented using open-source GIS frameworks: PostgreSQL/PostGIS for the database, and Map

  15. GIS Meets Airborne MSS: Geospatial Applications of High-Resolution Multispectral Data

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Guber

    1999-07-27

    Bechtel Nevada operates and flies Daedalus multispectral scanners for funded project tasks at the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory. Historically, processing and analysis of multispectral data has afforded scientists the opportunity to see natural phenomena not visible to the naked eye. However, only recently has a system, more specifically a Geometric Correction System, existed to automatically geo-reference these data directly into a Geographic Information (GIS) database. Now, analyses, performed previously in a nongeospatial environment, are integrated directly into an Arc/Info GIS. This technology is of direct benefit to environmental and emergency response applications.

  16. GIS-based data model and tools for creating and managing two-dimensional cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteaker, Timothy L.; Jones, Norm; Strassberg, Gil; Lemon, Alan; Gallup, Doug

    2012-02-01

    While modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software is robust in handling maps and data in plan view, the software generally falls short when representing features in section view. Further complicating the issue is the fact that geologic cross sections are often drawn by connecting a series of wells together that do not fall along a single straight line. In this case, the x-axis of the cross section represents the distance along the set of individual lines connecting the series of wells, effectively "flattening out" the cross section along this path to create a view of the subsurface with which geologists often work in printed folios. Even 3D-enabled GIS cannot handle this type of cross section. A GIS data model and tools for creating and working with two-dimensional cross sections are presented. The data model and tools create a framework that can be applied using ESRI's ArcGIS software, enabling users to create, edit, manage, and print two-dimensional cross sections from within one of the most well-known GIS software packages. The data model is a component of the arc hydro groundwater data model, which means all two-dimensional cross sections are inherently linked to other features in the hydrogeologic domain, including those represented by xyz coordinates in real world space. Thus, the creation of two-dimensional cross sections can be guided by or completely driven from standard GIS data, and geologic interpretations established on two-dimensional cross sections can be translated back to real world coordinates to create three-dimensional features such as fence diagrams, giving GIS users the capacity to characterize the subsurface environment in a variety of integrated views that was not possible before. A case study for the Sacramento Regional Model in California demonstrates the application of the methodology in support of a regional groundwater management plan.

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GIS ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND ADOLESCENT MALE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: GIS CODING DIFFERENCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: It is not clear if relationships between GIS obtained environmental features and physical activity differ according to the method used to code GIS data. Methods: Physical activity levels of 210 Boy Scouts were measured by accelerometer. Numbers of parks, trails, gymnasia, bus stops, groc...

  18. EAARL coastal topography-Assategue Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Klipp, E.S.; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia. These datasets were acquired on March 19 and 24, 2010.

  19. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  20. On detection and assessment of statistical significance of Genomic Islands

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Raghunath; Chaudhuri, Keya; Chaudhuri, Probal

    2008-01-01

    Background Many of the available methods for detecting Genomic Islands (GIs) in prokaryotic genomes use markers such as transposons, proximal tRNAs, flanking repeats etc., or they use other supervised techniques requiring training datasets. Most of these methods are primarily based on the biases in GC content or codon and amino acid usage of the islands. However, these methods either do not use any formal statistical test of significance or use statistical tests for which the critical values and the P-values are not adequately justified. We propose a method, which is unsupervised in nature and uses Monte-Carlo statistical tests based on randomly selected segments of a chromosome. Such tests are supported by precise statistical distribution theory, and consequently, the resulting P-values are quite reliable for making the decision. Results Our algorithm (named Design-Island, an acronym for Detection of Statistically Significant Genomic Island) runs in two phases. Some 'putative GIs' are identified in the first phase, and those are refined into smaller segments containing horizontally acquired genes in the refinement phase. This method is applied to Salmonella typhi CT18 genome leading to the discovery of several new pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and metabolic islands that were missed by earlier methods. Many of these islands contain mobile genetic elements like phage-mediated genes, transposons, integrase and IS elements confirming their horizontal acquirement. Conclusion The proposed method is based on statistical tests supported by precise distribution theory and reliable P-values along with a technique for visualizing statistically significant islands. The performance of our method is better than many other well known methods in terms of their sensitivity and accuracy, and in terms of specificity, it is comparable to other methods. PMID:18380895

  1. Enhancing fieldwork learning using blended learning, GIS and remote supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Fieldwork is an important part of education in geosciences and essential to put theoretical knowledge into an authentic context. Fieldwork as teaching tool can take place in various forms, such as field-tutorial, excursion, or supervised research. Current challenges with fieldwork in education are to incorporate state-of-the art methods for digital data collection, on-site GIS-analysis and providing high-quality feedback to large groups of students in the field. We present a case on first-year earth-sciences fieldwork with approximately 80 students in the French Alps focused on geological and geomorphological mapping. Here, students work in couples and each couple maps their own fieldwork area to reconstruct the formative history. We present several major improvements for this fieldwork using a blended-learning approach, relying on open source software only. An important enhancement to the French Alps fieldwork is improving students' preparation. In a GIS environment, students explore their fieldwork areas using existing remote sensing data, a digital elevation model and derivatives to formulate testable hypotheses before the actual fieldwork. The advantage of this is that the students already know their area when arriving in the field, have started to apply the empirical cycle prior to their field visit, and are therefore eager to investigate their own research questions. During the fieldwork, students store and analyze their field observations in the same GIS environment. This enables them to get a better overview of their own collected data, and to integrate existing data sources also used in the preparation phase. This results in a quicker and enhanced understanding by the students. To enable remote access to observational data collected by students, the students synchronize their data daily with a webserver running a web map application. Supervisors can review students' progress remotely, examine and evaluate their observations in a GIS, and provide

  2. Natural hazard assessment through an oriented GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammarinaro, M. S.; Alletti, M.; Azzara, R. M.; Canzoneri, V.; Maiorana, S.; Rovelli, A.; Tertulliani, A.; Vallone, P.

    2003-04-01

    Natural and in particular seismic hazard assessment for urban areas, characterized by variable geological and physical-mechanical properties, requires a high spatial resolution. This difficult task is made feasible when a great deal of stratigraphic, geotechnical, and macroseismic data are available. However these data are affected by inhomogeneities and large dispersion, deriving from the different sources and the acquisition procedure. A suitable data processing, assisted by dedicated tools, makes data omogeneization possible, reduces the dispersion, working out a reliable dataset which is the starting line for risk assessment. The mutual spatial relationships and the correlations between different kinds of data are easily visualized in a GIS framework. This produces an increase of the information about the studied area. In an oriented GIS, instruments and research keys in equipment carry out specific elaborations useful for natural hazard evaluation. For these reasons a dedicated GIS is the optimal tool to identify and define, at a high spatial resolution, areas subjected to higher natural hazard. Such a GIS, called City-GIS, has been developed at the Department of Geology of the Palermo University. It is especially endowed by instruments and research keys devoted to seismic hazard. A very reliable dataset concerning the urban area of Palermo was elaborated through City-GIS and stored in it. City-GIS has been successfully used during the sequence following the September 6, 2002, ML 5.6 earthquake. During the emergency, the system was an efficient support tool to correlate surface geology with damage focalization observed in the southeastern sector of the city. Moreover the City-GIS was used to select the optimal sites where eight seismological stations were installed to quantify the variability of sesmic response inside the city. The recorded data confirmed that large variations of ground motion occur in the urban area of Palermo, according to predictions based

  3. Invasive species management and research using GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcombe, Tracy R.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2007-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are powerful tools in the field of invasive species management. GIS can be used to create potential distribution maps for all manner of taxa, including plants, animals, and diseases. GIS also performs well in the early detection and rapid assessment of invasive species. Here, we used GIS applications to investigate species richness and invasion patterns in fish in the United States (US) at the 6-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) level. We also created maps of potential spread of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in the southeastern US at the 8-digit HUC level using regression and environmental envelope techniques. Equipped with this potential map, resource managers can target their field surveys to areas most vulnerable to invasion. Advances in GIS technology, maps, data, and many of these techniques can be found on websites such as the National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org). Such websites provide a forum for data sharing and analysis that is an invaluable service to the invasive species community.

  4. GIS and RDBMS Used with Offline FAA Airspace Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J.; Simmons, J.; Scofield, E.; Talbott, B.

    1994-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) and relational database management system (RDBMS) were used in a Macintosh environment to access, manipulate, and display off-line FAA databases of airport and navigational aid locations, airways, and airspace boundaries. This proof-of-concept effort used data available from the Adaptation Controlled Environment System (ACES) and Digital Aeronautical Chart Supplement (DACS) databases to allow FAA cartographers and others to create computer-assisted charts and overlays as reference material for air traffic controllers. These products were created on an engineering model of the future GRASP (GRaphics Adaptation Support Position) workstation that will be used to make graphics and text products for the Advanced Automation System (AAS), which will upgrade and replace the current air traffic control system. Techniques developed during the prototyping effort have shown the viability of using databases to create graphical products without the need for an intervening data entry step.

  5. The construction and practice of GIS ontology service mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Wang, Jun; Peng, Shuang-yun; Cheng, Hong-ping

    2005-10-01

    With the development of Semantic Web technology, the spatial information service based on ontology is an effective way for sharing and interoperation of heterogeneous information resources in the distributed network environment. Based on the deep analysis for the spatial information service mechanism of geo-ontology, the system construction strategy and service workflow and combined with the present mainstream commercial GIS software packages, three solutions of system construction for spatial information sharing and interoperation have been proposed here in this paper. The different geographic information application systems distributed on the internet may be integrated dynamically and openly by using one of the three solutions for realizing the sharing and interoperation of heterogeneous spatial information resources in the distributing environment. In order to realize the practical applications of spatial information sharing and interoperation in different brunches of police system, a prototype system for crime case information sharing based on geo-ontology has also been developed by using the methods described above.

  6. The Fate of Soil OC in the Marine Environment: Examples from the Rapidly Eroding Landscapes of Two New Zealand North Island Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, N. E.; Leithold, E. L.; Thompson, C. E.; Childress, L. B.; Fournillier, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 10% of the OC lost from soils as a result of land use has been argued to be delivered to the ocean (Lal 2003). The fate of this OC is highly dependent on the organic geochemical composition of the soil pool and the nature of the marine environment that receives it. The conversion of bush to pastureland via burning in the Waipaoa and Waiapu watersheds increased erosion rates by an order of magnitude. Surface and bank erosion, coupled with landsliding and gullying deliver OC to the rivers. Visual observations, sediment budgets, C-isotope (12C, 13C, 14C) mass balances and biomarker analyses all indicate that the OC is a mixture of recent plant debris, charcoal, aged soil C (< 18 kyrs old) and Cretaceous - Neogene sedimentary rock-derived C. The vastly different ages of the OC pools might be expected to lead to different reactivities and fates in the seabed. Nearshore wave-driven deposition-resuspension cycles winnow fines from sands in water depths ~<50 m. The sand-sized sedimentary OC is dominated by rock C. Younger fractions of soil C are transported primarily as fines to deeper water. Marine OC is added to the fine-grained sediments as they encounter zones of primary production. Dissolved inorganic C (DIC) within the interstitial (pore) waters of the marine sediments is a mixture of seawater DIC and benthic respired C. The C-isotopic composition of the DIC reflects its source. Stable isotope and radiocarbon measurements indicate that contemporary terrestrial C3 plant OC oxidation dominates respiration on the Waiapu shelf nearshore (~60 m). Marine OC is preferentially oxidized at water depths >80 m. The rock-derived C does not seem to be oxidized on the shelf or upper slope. A comparison of riverine particulate organic C (POC) with shelf depocenter OC concentrations suggest the Waipaoa and Waiapu soil C burial efficiencies are ~50 and 85% respectively. This does not consider the fate of soil C dispersed beyond the depocenter where preservation

  7. Offshore wind resource assessment with Standard Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT): A Rhode Island case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Alexander Robert

    Motivated by the current Rhode Island Ocean SAMP (Special Area Management Plan) project and the growing need in the foreseeable future, analysis tools for wind resource assessment are assembled into a toolkit that can be accessed from a GIS. The analysis is demonstrated by application to the ongoing wind resource assessment of Rhode Island's offshore waters by the Ocean SAMP. The tool is called Standard Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT). SWAT utilizes a method for integrating observations from the study area or numerical model outputs to assemble the spatial distribution of the offshore wind resource. Available power is inferred from direct measurements of wind speed, but the shape of the atmospheric boundary layer or wind speed profile must be parameterized in order to extrapolate measurements to heights other than that of the measurements. The vertical wind speed profile is modeled with the basic power law assuming a 1/7 exponent parameter representing near-neutral or more accurately timeaverage conditions. As an alternate estimate from year long multi-level observations at a meteorological tower is employed. The basis for the power analysis is the 2- parameter Weibull probability distribution, recognized as standard in modeling typical wind speed distributions. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the Weibull probability density function provides the expected power densities at observation sites. Application to Rhode Island's coastal waters yields an estimated Weibull shape parameter of roughly 2 for the offshore environment and a Weibull scale parameter that increases with distance from the coast. Estimates of power in the SAMP study area range from 525 to 850 W/m² at an elevation of 80 meters based on an observed profile in the SAMP study area. Like the Weibull scale parameter, annual mean wind power increases with distance offshore.

  8. Archive of sediment data from vibracores collected in 2010 offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelso, Kyle W.; Flocks, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Selection of the core site locations was based on geophysical surveys conducted around the islands from 2008 to 2010. The surveys, using acoustic systems to image and interpret the nearsurface stratigraphy, were conducted to investigate the geologic controls on island evolution. This data series serves as an archive of sediment data collected from August to September 2010, offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands. Data products, including descriptive core logs, core photographs, results of sediment grain-size analyses, sample location maps, and geographic information system (GIS) data files with accompanying formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FDGC) metadata can be downloaded from the data products and downloads page.

  9. GIS and educational and instructional challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, Morton E.

    This paper discusses the educational and instructional challenges posed by the rapid development and acceptance of GIS as a tool for applied spatial analysis. Many commentators have noted the mismatch between the sophisticated capabilities of Spatial Analysis/GIS and the techniques that are actually employed in practice. It must be recognized that there is a challenge to educators to overcome this gap. This mismatch is especially apparent in the case of social science applications. This paper (a) discusses implications for training both future users and developers of GIS tools; (b) includes some observations on the tensions between the demand for skills (to satisfy certain applications) and the potential diversion of effort and talent from fundamental research; and (c) offers some thoughts for ways in which progress might be made.

  10. Automation technology using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Cynthia L.

    1994-01-01

    Airport Surface Movement Area is but one of the actions taken to increase the capacity and safety of existing airport facilities. The System Integration Branch (SIB) has designed an integrated system consisting of an electronic moving display in the cockpit, and includes display of taxi routes which will warn controllers and pilots of the position of other traffic and warning information automatically. Although, this system has in test simulation proven to be accurate and helpful; the initial process of obtaining an airport layout of the taxi-routes and designing each of them is a very tedious and time-consuming process. Other methods of preparing the display maps are being researched. One such method is the use of the Geographical Information System (GIS). GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware and software linking topographical, demographic and other resource data that is being referenced. The software can support many areas of work with virtually unlimited information compatibility due to the system's open architecture. GIS will allow us to work faster with increased efficiency and accuracy while providing decision making capabilities. GIS is currently being used at the Langley Research Center with other applications and has been validated as an accurate system for that task. GIS usage for our task will involve digitizing aerial photographs of the topology for each taxi-runway and identifying each position according to its specific spatial coordinates. The information currently being used can be integrated with the GIS system, due to its ability to provide a wide variety of user interfaces. Much more research and data analysis will be needed before this technique will be used, however we are hopeful this will lead to better usage of man-power and technological capabilities for the future.

  11. GIS4schools: custom-made GIS-applications for educational use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demharter, Timo; Michel, Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    From a didactic point of view the procurement and the application of modern geographical methods and functions become more and more important. Although the integration of GIS in the classroom is repeatedly demanded, inter alia in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, the number of GIS users is small in comparison to other European countries or the USA. Possible reasons for this could, for instance, lie in the lack of GIS and computer knowledge of the teachers themselves and the subsequent extensive training effort in Desktop-GIS [1]. Today you have the technological possibilities to provide the broad public with geoinformation and geotechnology: Web technologies offer access to web-based, mobile and local applications through simple gateways. The objective of the project "GIS4schools" is to generate a service-based infrastructure, which can be operated via mobile clients as well as via Desktop-GIS or a Browser. Due to the easy availability of the services the focus is in particular on students. This circumstance is a novelty through which a differentiated approach to the implementation of GIS in schools is established. Accordingly, the pilot nature of this project becomes apparent as well as its greater importance beyond its actual content especially for the sector of media development at colleges of education. The continuity from Web-GIS to Desktop-GIS is innovative: The goal is to create an adapted multi-level solution which allows both, an easy introduction if desired or a detailed analysis - either to be achieved with a focus especially on students and their cooperation among one another.

  12. Identification of Novel Genomic Islands in Liverpool Epidemic Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Segmentation and Clustering.

    PubMed

    Jani, Mehul; Mathee, Kalai; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in a myriad of infections and a leading pathogen responsible for mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Horizontal transfers of genes among the microorganisms living within CF patients have led to highly virulent and multi-drug resistant strains such as the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa, namely the LESB58 strain that has the propensity to acquire virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Often these genes are acquired in large clusters, referred to as "genomic islands (GIs)." To decipher GIs and understand their contributions to the evolution of virulence and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa LESB58, we utilized a recursive segmentation and clustering procedure, presented here as a genome-mining tool, "GEMINI." GEMINI was validated on experimentally verified islands in the LESB58 strain before examining its potential to decipher novel islands. Of the 6062 genes in P. aeruginosa LESB58, 596 genes were identified to be resident on 20 GIs of which 12 have not been previously reported. Comparative genomics provided evidence in support of our novel predictions. Furthermore, GEMINI unraveled the mosaic structure of islands that are composed of segments of likely different evolutionary origins, and demonstrated its ability to identify potential strain biomarkers. These newly found islands likely have contributed to the hyper-virulence and multidrug resistance of the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa.

  13. Identification of Novel Genomic Islands in Liverpool Epidemic Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Segmentation and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Mehul; Mathee, Kalai; Azad, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in a myriad of infections and a leading pathogen responsible for mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Horizontal transfers of genes among the microorganisms living within CF patients have led to highly virulent and multi-drug resistant strains such as the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa, namely the LESB58 strain that has the propensity to acquire virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Often these genes are acquired in large clusters, referred to as “genomic islands (GIs).” To decipher GIs and understand their contributions to the evolution of virulence and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa LESB58, we utilized a recursive segmentation and clustering procedure, presented here as a genome-mining tool, “GEMINI.” GEMINI was validated on experimentally verified islands in the LESB58 strain before examining its potential to decipher novel islands. Of the 6062 genes in P. aeruginosa LESB58, 596 genes were identified to be resident on 20 GIs of which 12 have not been previously reported. Comparative genomics provided evidence in support of our novel predictions. Furthermore, GEMINI unraveled the mosaic structure of islands that are composed of segments of likely different evolutionary origins, and demonstrated its ability to identify potential strain biomarkers. These newly found islands likely have contributed to the hyper-virulence and multidrug resistance of the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa. PMID:27536294

  14. Identification of Novel Genomic Islands in Liverpool Epidemic Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Segmentation and Clustering.

    PubMed

    Jani, Mehul; Mathee, Kalai; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in a myriad of infections and a leading pathogen responsible for mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Horizontal transfers of genes among the microorganisms living within CF patients have led to highly virulent and multi-drug resistant strains such as the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa, namely the LESB58 strain that has the propensity to acquire virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Often these genes are acquired in large clusters, referred to as "genomic islands (GIs)." To decipher GIs and understand their contributions to the evolution of virulence and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa LESB58, we utilized a recursive segmentation and clustering procedure, presented here as a genome-mining tool, "GEMINI." GEMINI was validated on experimentally verified islands in the LESB58 strain before examining its potential to decipher novel islands. Of the 6062 genes in P. aeruginosa LESB58, 596 genes were identified to be resident on 20 GIs of which 12 have not been previously reported. Comparative genomics provided evidence in support of our novel predictions. Furthermore, GEMINI unraveled the mosaic structure of islands that are composed of segments of likely different evolutionary origins, and demonstrated its ability to identify potential strain biomarkers. These newly found islands likely have contributed to the hyper-virulence and multidrug resistance of the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa. PMID:27536294

  15. Reconstructing palaeo-volcanic geometries using a Geodynamic Regression Model (GRM): Application to Deception Island volcano (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas, C.; Berrocoso, M.; Felpeto, A.; Torrecillas, M. D.; Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a reconstruction made of the palaeo-volcanic edifice on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) prior to the formation of its present caldera. Deception Island is an active Quaternary volcano located in the Bransfield Strait, between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The morphology of the island has been influenced mainly by the volcanic activity but geodynamics and volcanic deformation have also contributed. A volcanic reconstruction method, the Geodynamic Regression Model (GRM), which includes a terrain deformation factor, is proposed. In the case of Deception Island, the directions of this deformation are NW-SE and NE-SW, and match both the observed deformation of the Bransfield Strait and the volcanic deformation monitored over the last 20 years in the island, using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) techniques. Based on these data, possible volcanic deformation values of 5-15 mm/yr in these directions have been derived. A possible coastline derived from a current bathymetry is transformed, according to values for the chosen date, to obtain the palaeo-coastline of Deception Island of 100 k years ago. Topographic, geomorphologic, volcanological and geological data in a GIS system have been considered, for computation of the outside caldera slope, palaeo-coastline, palaeo-summit height and palaeo digital elevation model (DEM). The result is a 3D palaeo-geomorphological surface model of a volcano, reaching 640 m in height, with an increase of 4 km3 in volume compared to the current edifice, covering 4 km2 more surface area and the method reveals the previous existence of parasite volcanoes. Two photorealistic images of the island are obtained by superposition of textures extracted from a current Quick Bird satellite image also. This technique for reconstructing the terrain of an existing volcano could be useful for analysing the past and future geomorphology of this island and similar locations.

  16. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  17. Assessing Landslide Mobility Using GIS: Application to Kosrae, Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. E.; Brien, D. L.; Godt, J.; Schmitt, R. G.; Harp, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Deadly landslides are often mobile landslides, as exemplified by the disastrous landslide that occurred near Oso, Washington in 2014 killing 43. Despite this association, many landslide susceptibility maps do not identify runout areas. We developed a simple, GIS-based method for identifying areas potentially overrun by mobile slides and debris flows. Our method links three processes within a DEM landscape: landslide initiation, transport, and debris-flow inundation (from very mobile slides). Given spatially distributed shear strengths, we first identify initiation areas using an infinite-slope stability analysis. We then delineate transport zones, or regions of potential entrainment and/or deposition, using a height/length runout envelope. Finally, where these transport zones intersect the channel network, we start debris-flow inundation zones. The extent of inundation is computed using the USGS model Laharz, modified to include many debris-flow locations throughout a DEM. Potential debris-flow volumes are computed from upslope initiation areas and typical slide thicknesses. We applied this approach to the main island of Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). In 2002, typhoon Chata'an triggered numerous landslides on the neighboring islands of Chuuk State, FSM, resulting in 43 fatalities. Using an infinite-slope stability model calibrated to the Chuuk event, we identified potential landslide initiation areas on Kosrae. We then delineated potential transport zones using a 20º runout envelope, based on runout observations from Chuuk. Potential debris-flow inundation zones were then determined using Laharz. Field inspections on Kosrae revealed that our resulting susceptibility map correctly classified areas covered by previous debris-flow deposits and did not include areas covered by fluvial deposits. Our map has the advantage of providing a visual tool to portray initiation, transport, and runout zones from mobile landslides.

  18. The island syndrome and population dynamics of introduced rats.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Ringler, David; Trombini, Aurélien; Le Corre, Matthieu

    2011-11-01

    The island syndrome predicts directional changes in the morphology and demography of insular vertebrates, due to changes in trophic complexity and migration rates caused by island size and isolation. However, the high rate of human-mediated species introductions to some islands also increases trophic complexity, and this will reduce the perceived insularity on any such island. We test four hypotheses on the role of increased trophic complexity on the island syndrome, using introduced black rats (Rattus rattus) on two isolated coral atolls in the Mozambique Channel. Europa Island has remained relatively pristine and insular, with few species introductions, whereas Juan de Nova Island has had many species introductions, including predators and competitors of rats, anthropogenically increasing its trophic complexity. In the most insular environments, the island syndrome is expected to generate increases in body size and densities of rodents but decreases in the rates of reproduction and population cycling. Morphology and reproduction were compared using linear regression and canonical discriminant analysis, while density and population cycling were compared using spatially explicit capture-recapture analysis. Results were compared to other insular black rat populations in the Mozambique Channel and were consistent with predictions from the island syndrome. The manifestation of an island syndrome in rodents depends upon the trophic composition of a community, and may not relate to island size alone when many species additions, such as invasions, have occurred. The differing patterns of rodent population dynamics on each island provide information for future rodent eradication operations. PMID:21643994

  19. A WebGIS-based system for analyzing and visualizing air quality data for Shanghai Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Manyi; Liu, Chaoshun; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    An online visual analytical system based on Java Web and WebGIS for air quality data for Shanghai Municipality was designed and implemented to quantitatively analyze and qualitatively visualize air quality data. By analyzing the architecture of WebGIS and Java Web, we firstly designed the overall scheme for system architecture, then put forward the software and hardware environment and also determined the main function modules for the system. The visual system was ultimately established with the DIV + CSS layout method combined with JSP, JavaScript, and some other computer programming languages based on the Java programming environment. Moreover, Struts, Spring, and Hibernate frameworks (SSH) were integrated in the system for the purpose of easy maintenance and expansion. To provide mapping service and spatial analysis functions, we selected ArcGIS for Server as the GIS server. We also used Oracle database and ESRI file geodatabase to store spatial data and non-spatial data in order to ensure the data security. In addition, the response data from the Web server are resampled to implement rapid visualization through the browser. The experimental successes indicate that this system can quickly respond to user's requests, and efficiently return the accurate processing results.

  20. GIS supported solid waste management in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Sarptas, H; Alpaslan, N; Dolgen, D

    2005-01-01

    Planning of solid waste management (SWM) facilities in terrestrial as well as coastal areas addresses several situations, and requires considering numerous factors. This leads to large amounts of data and information that must be organized and analyzed. However, in many SWM systems, all of the relevant information cannot be managed properly due to insufficiencies in methods/tools and/or resources. To assist the solid waste decision making process, GIS-based decision support systems can be applied to deal with the multi-attribute and spatial nature of SWM systems. In this study, the application potential of GIS based decision support systems to functional elements of the SWM system are reviewed first. Then particular emphasis is given to landfill site selection. In this context, landfill siting process and key siting criteria were developed to incorporate the environmental, socio-political, engineering, and economic factors for an appropriate solution. To aid decision makers to determine landfill area requirements, an area estimation model, containing population projection and waste quantity forecasting modules, was developed in Visual Basic. Following the development of a graphical user interface, suitable areas for proposed landfill were determined in an IDRISI environment.

  1. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  2. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  3. Integrating GIS Education with Training: A Project-Oriented Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, X. Mara

    1998-01-01

    Argues that hands-on, project-oriented teaching offers an ideal approach to integrating Geographical Information Systems (GIS) education and training. Presents a project-oriented GIS teaching experience as an instructional paradigm that can be used to ensure balance between conceptual GIS learning and software-based hands-on training in…

  4. Visualizing Economic Development with ArcGIS Explorer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Megan L.; Milson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous educators have noted that Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for social studies teaching and learning. Yet the use of GIS has been hampered by issues such as the cost of the software and the management of large spatial data files. One trend that shows great promise for GIS in education is the move to cloud computing.…

  5. Advanced GIS Exercise: Predicting Rainfall Erosivity Index Using Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Christopher J.; Goddard, Megan A.; Mikhailova, Elena A.; Hall, Steven T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate students from a variety of agricultural and natural resource fields are incorporating geographic information systems (GIS) analysis into their graduate research, creating a need for teaching methodologies that help students understand advanced GIS topics for use in their own research. Graduate-level GIS exercises help students understand…

  6. Adding Value: A GIS Minor to Complement the Geology Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has proven to be a valuable addition to the geology curriculum at Georgia Southern University. The Department of Geology and Geography offers course work in GIS required for the geography major and has used these courses to create a minor in GIS. Approximately half the students graduating with degrees in geology during the last 5 years have taken the GIS minor. A working knowledge of GIS has helped students secure summer employment and internships. For some of them it was the key to immediate employment upon graduation and for others it was a valuable additional skill to present as part of graduate school applications. Although once daunting in the financial and intellectual capital required to create a program, GIS software has become much more user friendly and standard PCs are now the platform on which most GIS work is conducted. Georgia Southern's GIS minor is based on five courses taught by four members of the faculty (3 geographers and 1 geologist). The foundation of the minor is two courses integrating the fundamentals of GIS and cartography. The other three courses cover data bases and web-based applications of GIS, remote sensing, and a semester long project in applied GIS. Although missing topics that are part of the curriculum for certificates or degrees in GIS, this five-course sequence provides a sound basis for introductory level positions in government and industry and graduate programs in geology.

  7. An Approach to Teaching Applied GIS: Implementation for Local Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benhart, John, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the instructional method, Client-Life Cycle GIS Project Learning, used in a course at Indiana University of Pennsylvania that enables students to learn with and about geographic information system (GIS). Discusses the course technical issues in GIS and an example project using this method. (CMK)

  8. GIS In-Service Teacher Training Based on TPACK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jung Eun; Stonier, Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the geographic information systems (GIS) in-service teacher training, focusing on the intersection of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) for successful implementation of GIS in the classroom. Eleven social studies teachers in Georgia learned GIS technologies, inquiry-based learning, and social studies…

  9. The D-linking effect on extraction from islands and non-islands

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Grant

    2015-01-01

    “D-linked” wh-phrases such as which car are known to increase the acceptability of sentences with island violations. One influential account of this attributes the effect to working memory: the D-linked filler is easier to retrieve at the site of the gap and this leads to the amelioration in acceptability. Such an account predicts that this effect should occur in general with non-trivial wh-dependencies, not just in island environments. An experiment is presented here to test this prediction. Wh-questions with both D-linked and bare wh-phrases and with both island and non-island embedded clauses are presented to participants, who rate their acceptability on a 7-point scale. Results show that D-linking significantly increases acceptability in both island and non-island environments, in accord with analyses that attribute the effect to working memory. In addition, the increase in acceptability is uniform in both types of environments, suggesting that the island effect itself may not be attributable to working memory. PMID:25601844

  10. Gis-Based Wind Farm Site Selection Model Offshore Abu Dhabi Emirate, Uae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleous, N.; Issa, S.; Mazrouei, J. Al

    2016-06-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government has declared the increased use of alternative energy a strategic goal and has invested in identifying and developing various sources of such energy. This study aimed at assessing the viability of establishing wind farms offshore the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE and to identify favourable sites for such farms using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) procedures and algorithms. Based on previous studies and on local requirements, a set of suitability criteria was developed including ocean currents, reserved areas, seabed topography, and wind speed. GIS layers were created and a weighted overlay GIS model based on the above mentioned criteria was built to identify suitable sites for hosting a new offshore wind energy farm. Results showed that most of Abu Dhabi offshore areas were unsuitable, largely due to the presence of restricted zones (marine protected areas, oil extraction platforms and oil pipelines in particular). However, some suitable sites could be identified, especially around Delma Island and North of Jabal Barakah in the Western Region. The environmental impact of potential wind farm locations and associated cables on the marine ecology was examined to ensure minimal disturbance to marine life. Further research is needed to specify wind mills characteristics that suit the study area especially with the presence of heavy traffic due to many oil production and shipping activities in the Arabian Gulf most of the year.

  11. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  12. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  13. Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This cloudy view of the Hawaiian Islands (21.0N, 157.5W) demonstrates the phenomena of island water wakes and, to a lesser extent, cloud wakes as well. The islands form an obstruction to the ocean current flow and in effect create an observable turbulence in the water on the backside of the islands. The same effect can be observed in clouds as they leave wind blown wisps or streamers around obstacles in their path.

  14. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  15. Henderson Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Henderson Island (24.5S, 128.5W) Pacific Ocean southeast of the Tuamotu Archipelago, is a good example of the many barren islands that but for lack of a source of water could be another lush tropical paradise. The crew of HMS Bounty, in searching for a refuge, sailed past this island but rejected it in favor of nearby Pitcairn Island because of the lack of resources and water.

  16. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  18. Sharing knowledge of Planetary Datasets through the Web-Based PRoGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, M. G.; Morley, J. M.; Muller, J. P. M.; Barnes, R. B.; Tao, Y. T.

    2015-10-01

    The large amount of raw and derived data available from various planetary surface missions (e.g. Mars and Moon in our case) has been integrated withco-registered and geocoded orbital image data to provide rover traverses and camera site locations in universal global co-ordinates [1]. This then allows an integrated GIS to use these geocoded products for scientific applications: we aim to create a web interface, PRoGIS, with minimal controls focusing on the usability and visualisation of the data, to allow planetary geologists to share annotated surface observations. These observations in a common context are shared between different tools and software (PRoGIS, Pro3D, 3D point cloud viewer). Our aim is to use only Open Source components that integrate Open Web Services for planetary data to make available an universal platform with a WebGIS interface, as well as a 3D point cloud and a Panorama viewer to explore derived data. On top of these tools we are building capabilities to make and share annotations amongst users. We use Python and Django for the server-side framework and Open Layers 3 for the WebGIS client. For good performance previewing 3D data (point clouds, pictures on the surface and panoramas) we employ ThreeJS, a WebGL Javascript library. Additionally, user and group controls allow scientists to store and share their observations. PRoGIS not only displays data but also launches sophisticated 3D vision reprocessing (PRoVIP) and an immersive 3D analysis environment (PRo3D).

  19. Information Access through Conceptual Structures and GIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priss, Uta; Old, John

    1998-01-01

    Presents a new technique for information access based on a combination of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and conceptual structures as modeled in relational concept analysis. Describes a graphical interface that allows access of spatial, hierarchical, and linear data in a common manner; discusses its features and limits. (Author/AEF)

  20. Can PBL-GIS Work Online?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in an online geographic information systems (GIS) course for adult learners. Adults expect to take greater control of their learning and tend to be self-directed. Students are encouraged to take an active role as problem-solvers in PBL courses. The effectiveness of PBL in…

  1. Public health, GIS, and the internet.

    PubMed

    Croner, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Internet access and use of georeferenced public health information for GIS application will be an important and exciting development for the nation's Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies in this new millennium. Technological progress toward public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of GIS by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control, and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making. Emerging supercomputing, data mining, compression, and transmission technologies will play increasingly critical roles in national emergency, catastrophic planning and response, and risk management. Web-enabled public health GIS will be guided by Federal Geographic Data Committee spatial metadata, OpenGIS Web interoperability, and GML/XML geospatial Web content standards. Public health will become a responsive and integral part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure.

  2. Teaching Tectonics to Undergraduates with Web GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Sahagian, D. L.; Rutzmoser, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial reasoning skills provide a means for manipulating, interpreting, and explaining structured information and are involved in higher-order cognitive processes that include problem solving and decision-making. Appropriately designed tools, technologies, and curriculum can support spatial learning. We present Web-based visualization and analysis tools developed with Javascript APIs to enhance tectonic curricula while promoting geospatial thinking and scientific inquiry. The Web GIS interface integrates graphics, multimedia, and animations that allow users to explore and discover geospatial patterns that are not easily recognized. Features include a swipe tool that enables users to see underneath layers, query tools useful in exploration of earthquake and volcano data sets, a subduction and elevation profile tool which facilitates visualization between map and cross-sectional views, drafting tools, a location function, and interactive image dragging functionality on the Web GIS. The Web GIS platform is independent and can be implemented on tablets or computers. The GIS tool set enables learners to view, manipulate, and analyze rich data sets from local to global scales, including such data as geology, population, heat flow, land cover, seismic hazards, fault zones, continental boundaries, and elevation using two- and three- dimensional visualization and analytical software. Coverages which allow users to explore plate boundaries and global heat flow processes aided learning in a Lehigh University Earth and environmental science Structural Geology and Tectonics class and are freely available on the Web.

  3. Teaching Genocide through GIS: A Transformative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Good, Amy J.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and geobrowsers (Google Earth) have become increasingly prevalent in the study of genocide. These applications offer teachers and students the opportunity to analyze historical and contemporary genocidal acts from a critical geographic perspective in which the confluence of historical…

  4. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during ... sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. ...

  5. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Fracture trace analysis with a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, A.L.; Frohlich, R.K. )

    1993-03-01

    Lineaments on side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) and LANDSAT satellite imagery were mapped over the western two-thirds of Rhode Island for a study of fracture trace analysis. The Geographic Information System (GIS) with computer programs was used for storing, processing, and displaying geographic information including the lineaments, their lengths and orientations. Since the imagery is frequently slightly distorted, the location and orientation of the lineaments are corrected by a comparison of recognizable points on the imagery and a base map. The main purpose of the fracture trace analysis was to assist in the search for new landfill sites. Because of the demonstrated correlation between lineaments and high permeability bedrock zones, it is recommended to place candidate sites away from lineaments, particularly if they coincide with known faults or rock boundaries. Only lineaments larger than 1.6 km were used, since the map showing all lineaments looked chaotic and left little space for a candidate site. The lineaments were categorized by their correspondence with topographic features. They also received attributes expressed in correlations with geophysical anomalies, geologic boundaries, and with areas of a high density of small lineaments. A geologic interpretation of the lineaments is tenuous at this time, as they suggest that many faults have not been mapped. The lineament orientations suggest a system of faults and fractures that was caused by complicated stress conditions.

  7. Optimisation of MSW collection routes for minimum fuel consumption using 3D GIS modelling.

    PubMed

    Tavares, G; Zsigraiova, Z; Semiao, V; Carvalho, M G

    2009-03-01

    Collection of municipal solid waste (MSW) may account for more than 70% of the total waste management budget, most of which is for fuel costs. It is therefore crucial to optimise the routing network used for waste collection and transportation. This paper proposes the use of geographical information systems (GIS) 3D route modelling software for waste collection and transportation, which adds one more degree of freedom to the system and allows driving routes to be optimised for minimum fuel consumption. The model takes into account the effects of road inclination and vehicle weight. It is applied to two different cases: routing waste collection vehicles in the city of Praia, the capital of Cape Verde, and routing the transport of waste from different municipalities of Santiago Island to an incineration plant. For the Praia city region, the 3D model that minimised fuel consumption yielded cost savings of 8% as compared with an approach that simply calculated the shortest 3D route. Remarkably, this was true despite the fact that the GIS-recommended fuel reduction route was actually 1.8% longer than the shortest possible travel distance. For the Santiago Island case, the difference was even more significant: a 12% fuel reduction for a similar total travel distance. These figures indicate the importance of considering both the relief of the terrain and fuel consumption in selecting a suitable cost function to optimise vehicle routing. PMID:18835768

  8. Diverting the tourists: a spatial decision-support system for tourism planning on a developing island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beedasy, Jaishree; Whyatt, Duncan

    Mauritius is a small island (1865 km 2) in the Indian Ocean. Tourism is the third largest economic sector of the country, after manufacturing and agriculture. A limitation of space and the island's vulnerable ecosystem warrants a rational approach to tourism development. The main problems so far have been to manipulate and integrate all the factors affecting tourism planning and to match spatial data with their relevant attributes. A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning is therefore proposed. The proposed SDSS design would include a GIS as its core component. A first GIS model has already been constructed with available data. Supporting decision-making in a spatial context is implicit in the use of GIS. However the analytical capability of the GIS has to be enhanced to solve semi-structured problems, where subjective judgements come into play. The second part of the paper deals with the choice, implementation and customisation of a relevant model to develop a specialised SDSS. Different types of models and techniques are discussed, in particular a comparison of compensatory and non-compensatory approaches to multicriteria evaluation (MCE). It is concluded that compensatory multicriteria evaluation techniques increase the scope of the present GIS model as a decision-support tool. This approach gives the user or decision-maker the flexibility to change the importance of each criterion depending on relevant objectives.

  9. [Nested species subsets of amphibians and reptiles in Thousand Island Lake].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Yan-Ping; Ding, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a main cause for the loss of biological diversity. Combining line-transect methods to survey the amphibians and reptiles on 23 islands on Thousand Island Lake in Zhejiang province, along with survey data on nearby plant species and habitat variables collected by GIS, we used the"BINMATNEST (binary matrix nestedness temperature calculator)" software and the Spearman rank correlation to examine whether amphibians and reptiles followed nested subsets and their influencing factors. The results showed that amphibians and reptiles were significantly nested, and that the island area and habitat type were significantly associated with their nested ranks. Therefore, to effectively protect amphibians and reptiles in the Thousand Islands Lake area we should pay prior attention to islands with larger areas and more habitat types.

  10. Format conversion between CAD data and GIS data based on ArcGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qingqing; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Kailin; Wang, Zhichao

    2015-12-01

    To make full use of the data resources and realize a sharing for the different types of data in different industries, a method of format conversion between CAD data and GIS data based on ArcGIS was proposed. To keep the integrity of the converted data, some key steps to process CAD data before conversion were made in AutoCAD. For examples, deleting unnecessary elements such as title, border and legend avoided the appearance of unnecessary elements after conversion, as layering data again by a national standard avoided the different types of elements to appear in a same layer after conversion. In ArcGIS, converting CAD data to GIS data was executed by the correspondence of graphic element classification between AutoCAD and ArcGIS. In addition, an empty geographic database and feature set was required to create in ArcGIS for storing the text data of CAD data. The experimental results show that the proposed method avoids a large amount of editing work in data conversion and maintains the integrity of spatial data and attribute data between before and after conversion.

  11. 7th IGRSM International Remote Sensing & GIS Conference and Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    IGRSM This proceedings consists of the peer-reviewed papers from the 7th IGRSM International Conference and Exhibition on Remote Sensing & GIS (IGRSM 2014), which was held on 21-22 April 2014 at Berjaya Times Square Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The conference, with the theme Geospatial Innovation for Nation Building was aimed at disseminating knowledge, and sharing expertise and experiences in geospatial sciences in all aspects of applications. It also aimed to build linkages between local and international professionals in this field with industries. Highlights of the conference included: Officiation by Y B Datuk Dr Abu Bakar bin Mohamad Diah, Deputy Minister of Minister of Science, Technology & Innovation Keynote presentations by: Associate Professor Dr Francis Harvey, Chair of the Geographic Information Science Commission at the International Geographical Union (IGU) and Director of U-Spatial, University of Minnesota, US: The Next Age of Discovery and a Future in a Post-GIS World. Professor Dr Naoshi Kondo, Bio-Sensing Engineering, University of Kyoto, Japan: Mobile Fruit Grading Machine for Precision Agriculture. Datuk Ir Hj Ahmad Jamalluddin bin Shaaban, Director-General, National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM), Malaysia: Remote Sensing & GIS in Climate Change Analyses. Oral and poster presentations from 69 speakers, from both Malaysia (35) and abroad (34), covering areas of water resources management, urban sprawl & social mobility, agriculture, land use/cover mapping, infrastructure planning, disaster management, technology trends, environmental monitoring, atmospheric/temperature monitoring, and space applications for the environment. Post-conference workshops on: Space Applications for Environment (SAFE), which was be organised by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Evaluation Using GPS Simulation, which was be organised by the Science & Technology Research Institute for Defence

  12. Ancient Stone Tidal Weirs in Penghu Archipelago: Distribution, Category, Structure and Function, a Google Earth and GIS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, L.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, J.; Guo, H. D.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to give a comprehensive archaeological investigation for Penghu's stone tidal weirs (STWs) based on both Google Earth and GIS. Firstly, this study uses GoogleEarth Pro tools to clip a GeoEye-1 image (acquisition date: 22/07/2013) and a WorldView-2 image (acquisition date: 25/01/2014) for Chipei Island and Husi Island, respectively, and save them at a "premium resolution" of 4800 dpi. More, using 15 m panchromatic orthorectified Landsat images as a base, two clips were geo-referenced in ENVI 5.1 with minimal root mean square error. Furthermore, the STWs were manual extracted from the two GoogleEarth images in ArcGIS 10.1. Category and size statistics are presented; construction structure and weir function are discussed. Lastly, by using GIS analyses, STWs characteristics of intertidal flats across Penghu archipelago have been mapped and related to key geographical environmental variables. From spring to summer of 2015 our research team conducted investigations into Penghu's STWs based on different seasons and time periods of GoogleEarth historic images. Our results showed that, distributed amongst Penghu's coastline, there are 503 STWs. Compared with the official survey results (around 592 STWs), the counts are similar but the GoogleEarth-based method is more time-saving and efficient.

  13. Development of a graphical user interface in GIS raster format for the finite difference ground-water model code, MODFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzer, T.; Hansen, D.T.; Greer, W.; Sebhat, M.

    1996-12-31

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used in developing a graphical user interface (GUI) for use with the US Geological Survey`s finite difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW. The GUI permits the construction of a MODFLOW based ground-water flow model from scratch in a GIS environment. The model grid, input data and output are stored as separate raster data sets which may be viewed, edited, and manipulated in a graphic environment. Other GIS data sets can be displayed with the model data sets for reference and evaluation. The GUI sets up a directory structure for storage of the files associated with the ground-water model and the raster data sets created by the interface. The GUI stores model coefficients and model output as raster values. Values stored by these raster data sets are formatted for use with the ground-water flow model code.

  14. High-Density Transcriptional Initiation Signals Underline Genomic Islands in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qianli; Cheng, Xuanjin; Cheung, Man Kit; Kiselev, Sergey S.; Ozoline, Olga N.; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2012-01-01

    Genomic islands (GIs), frequently associated with the pathogenicity of bacteria and having a substantial influence on bacterial evolution, are groups of “alien” elements which probably undergo special temporal–spatial regulation in the host genome. Are there particular hallmark transcriptional signals for these “exotic” regions? We here explore the potential transcriptional signals that underline the GIs beyond the conventional views on basic sequence composition, such as codon usage and GC property bias. It showed that there is a significant enrichment of the transcription start positions (TSPs) in the GI regions compared to the whole genome of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. There was up to a four-fold increase for the 70% GIs, implying high-density TSPs profile can potentially differentiate the GI regions. Based on this feature, we developed a new sliding window method GIST, Genomic-island Identification by Signals of Transcription, to identify these regions. Subsequently, we compared the known GI-associated features of the GIs detected by GIST and by the existing method Islandviewer to those of the whole genome. Our method demonstrates high sensitivity in detecting GIs harboring genes with biased GI-like function, preferred subcellular localization, skewed GC property, shorter gene length and biased “non-optimal” codon usage. The special transcriptional signals discovered here may contribute to the coordinate expression regulation of foreign genes. Finally, by using GIST, we detected many interesting GIs in the 2011 German E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain TY-2482, including the microcin H47 system and gene cluster ycgXEFZ-ymgABC that activates the production of biofilm matrix. The aforesaid findings highlight the power of GIST to predict GIs with distinct intrinsic features to the genome. The heterogeneity of cumulative TSPs profiles may not only be a better identity for “alien” regions, but also provide hints to the special

  15. GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jing; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Geographically, poverty status is not only related with social-economic factors but also strongly affected by geographical environment. In the paper, GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis method is introduced for revealing their regional differences. More than 100000 poor villages and 592 national key poor counties are chosen for the analysis. The results show that poverty distribution tends to concentrate in most of west China and mountainous rural areas of mid China. Furthermore, the fifth census data are overlaid to those poor areas in order to gain its internal diversity of social-economic characteristics. By overlaying poverty related social-economic parameters, such as sex ratio, illiteracy, education level, percentage of ethnic minorities, family composition, finding shows that poverty distribution is strongly correlated with high illiteracy rate, high percentage minorities, and larger family member.

  16. A GIS-based Model for Natural Gas Data Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitik, E.; Seker, D. Z.; Denli, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    In Turkey gas utility sector has undergone major changes in terms of increased competition between gas providers, efforts in improving services, and applying new technological solutions. This paper discusses the challenges met by gas companies to switch from long workflows of gas distribution, sales and maintenance into IT driven efficient management of complex information both spatially and non-spatially. The aim of this study is migration of all gas data and information into a GIS environment in order to manage and operate all infrastructure investments with a Utility Management System. All data conversion model for migration was designed and tested during the study. A flowchart is formed to transfer the old data layers to the new structure based on geodatabase.

  17. Planetary mapping—The datamodel's perspective and GIS framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, S.; Nass, A.

    2011-09-01

    Demands for a broad range of integrated geospatial data-analysis tools and methods for planetary data organization have been growing considerably since the late 1990s when a plethora of missions equipped with new instruments entered planetary orbits or landed on the surface. They sent back terabytes of new data which soon became accessible for the scientific community and public and which needed to be organized. On the terrestrial side, issues of data access, organization and utilization for scientific and economic analyses are handled by using a range of well-established geographic information systems (GIS) that also found their way into the field of planetary sciences in the late 1990s. We here address key issues concerning the field of planetary mapping by making use of established GIS environments and discuss methods of addressing data organization and mapping requirements by using an easily integrable datamodel that is - for the time being - designed as file-geodatabase (FileGDB) environment in ESRI's ArcGIS. A major design-driving requirement for this datamodel is its extensibility and scalability for growing scientific as well as technical needs, e.g., the utilization of such a datamodel for surface mapping of different planetary objects as defined by their respective reference system and by using different instrument data. Furthermore, it is a major goal to construct a generic model which allows to perform combined geologic as well as geomorphologic mapping tasks making use of international standards without loss of information and by maintaining topologic integrity. An integration of such a datamodel within a geospatial DBMS context can practically be performed by individuals as well as groups without having to deal with the details of administrative tasks and data ingestion issues. Besides the actual mapping, key components of such a mapping datamodel deal with the organization and search for image-sensor data and previous mapping efforts, as well as the

  18. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E.L.; Welch, R.

    2009-01-01

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  19. GIS Modelling of Radionuclide Transport from the Semipalatinsk Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakay, L.; Zakarin, E.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the software complex GIS-project MigRad (Migration of Radionuclide) was developed, tested and applied for the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site/ polygon (Republic of Kazakhstan), where since 1961, in total 348 underground nuclear explosions were conducted. The MigRad is oriented on integration of large volumes of different information (mapping, ground-based, and satellite-based survey): and also includes modeling on its base local redistribution of radionuclides by precipitation and surface waters and by long-range transport of radioactive aerosols. The existing thermal anomaly on territory of the polygon was investigated in details, and the object-oriented analysis was applied for the studied area. Employing the RUNOFF model, the simulation of radionuclides migration with surface waters was performed. Employing the DERMA model, the simulation of long-term atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition patterns for cesium was conducted from 3 selected locations (Balapan, Delegen, and Experimental Field). Employing geoinformation technology, the mapping of the of the high temperature zones and epicenters of radioactive aerosols transport for the territory of the test site was carried out with post-processing and integration of modelling results into GIS environment. Contamination levels of pollution due to former nuclear explosions for population and environment of the surrounding polygon territories of Kazakhstan as well as adjacent countries were analyzed and evaluated. The MigRad was designed as instrument for comprehensive analysis of complex territorial processes influenced by former nuclear explosions on the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. It provides possibilities in detailed analyses for (i) extensive cartographic material, remote sensing, and field measurements data collected in different level databases; (ii) radionuclide migration with flows using accumulation and redistribution of soil particles; (iii) thermal anomalies

  20. LINKING GPS DATA TO GIS DATABASES IN NATURALISTIC STUDIES: EXAMPLES FROM DRIVERS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Yu, Lixi; Sewell, Kelly; Skibbe, Adam; Aksan, Nazan S.; Tippin, Jon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Summary In naturalistic studies, it is vital to give appropriate context when analyzing driving behaviors. Such contextualization can help address the hypotheses that explore a) how drivers perform within specific types of environment (e.g., road types, speed limits, etc.), and b) how often drivers are exposed to such specific environments. In order to perform this contextualization in an automated fashion, we are using Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained at 1 Hz and merging this with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases maintained by the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT). In this paper, we demonstrate our methods of doing this based on data from 43 drivers with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We also use maps from GIS software to illustrate how information can be displayed at the individual drive or day level, and we provide examples of some of the challenges that still need to be addressed. PMID:26665183

  1. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary...

  2. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  3. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  4. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  5. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  6. A web GIS based integrated flood assessment modeling tool for coastal urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A. T.; Mohanty, J.; Eldho, T. I.; Rao, E. P.; Mohan, B. K.

    2014-03-01

    Urban flooding has become an increasingly important issue in many parts of the world. In this study, an integrated flood assessment model (IFAM) is presented for the coastal urban flood simulation. A web based GIS framework has been adopted to organize the spatial datasets for the study area considered and to run the model within this framework. The integrated flood model consists of a mass balance based 1-D overland flow model, 1-D finite element based channel flow model based on diffusion wave approximation and a quasi 2-D raster flood inundation model based on the continuity equation. The model code is written in MATLAB and the application is integrated within a web GIS server product viz: Web Gram Server™ (WGS), developed at IIT Bombay, using Java, JSP and JQuery technologies. Its user interface is developed using open layers and the attribute data are stored in MySQL open source DBMS. The model is integrated within WGS and is called via Java script. The application has been demonstrated for two coastal urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai, India. Simulated flood extents for extreme rainfall event of 26 July, 2005 in the two urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai city are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the flood simulation tool in a web GIS environment to facilitate data access and visualization of GIS datasets and simulation results.

  7. Optimum municipal solid waste collection using geographical information system (GIS) and vehicle tracking for Pallavapuram municipality.

    PubMed

    Kanchanabhan, T E; Abbas Mohaideen, J; Srinivasan, S; Sundaram, V Lenin Kalyana

    2011-03-01

    Waste collection and transportation is the contact point between waste generators and waste management systems. A proposal for an innovative model for the collection and transportation of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is a part of a solid waste management system using a spatial geo database, integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment is presented. Pallavapuram is a fast-developing municipality of Chennai city in the southern suburbs about 20 km from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu in India. The disposal of MSW was previously occurring in an indiscriminate and irrational manner in the municipality. Hence in the present study an attempt was made to develop an engineered design of solid waste collection using GIS with a vehicle tracking system and final disposal by composting with investment costs. The GIS was used to analyse existing maps and data, to digitize the existing ward boundaries and to enter data about the wards and disposal sites. The proposed GIS model for solid waste disposal would give information on the planning of bins, vehicles and the optimal route. In the case of disposal, composting would be a successful strategy to accelerate the decomposition and stabilization of the biodegradable components of waste in MSW.

  8. A Framework for Sharing and Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS Models Based on Web Service

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zeqiang; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Liu, Deer; Bao, Ying; Ding, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    Sharing and integrating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System/Science (GIS) models are critical for developing practical application systems. Facilitating model sharing and model integration is a problem for model publishers and model users, respectively. To address this problem, a framework based on a Web service for sharing and integrating RS and GIS models is proposed in this paper. The fundamental idea of the framework is to publish heterogeneous RS and GIS models into standard Web services for sharing and interoperation and then to integrate the RS and GIS models using Web services. For the former, a “black box” and a visual method are employed to facilitate the publishing of the models as Web services. For the latter, model integration based on the geospatial workflow and semantic supported marching method is introduced. Under this framework, model sharing and integration is applied for developing the Pearl River Delta water environment monitoring system. The results show that the framework can facilitate model sharing and model integration for model publishers and model users. PMID:24901016

  9. D GIS Based Evaluation of the Available Sight Distance to Assess Safety of Urban Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, M.; Grasso, N.; Piras, M.

    2015-08-01

    The available sight distance (ASD) in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS) has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid problems related to the limitation associated with the use of digital terrain models typically employed in RDS, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software can use digital surface models (DSM) which are more flexible in the modelling of sight obstruction due to vegetation, street furniture, and vertical surfaces largely diffused in urbanized areas. The paper deals with the evaluation of GIS in the estimation of ASD in a typical urban road where the density of sight obstruction along the roadside is relatively high. The work explores the case study of a collector road in the city of Turin (Italy). Results confirm the potentiality of GIS software in capturing the complex morphology of the urban environment, thus confirming that GIS could become an important analysis tool for road engineers in the field of road safety. The investigation here described is part of the Pro-VISION Project (funded in 2014 by the Regione Piemonte, Italy).

  10. Natural Hazards in the Municipality of Dragash-Sharr, Its Mangagement by GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Mehmeti, Artan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper natural hazards in Dragash - Sharr region such as, erosion, floods, landslides, avalanches, are analyzed through GIS (Geographic Information System) technology. GIS is used to identify and analyze the surface where the natural phenomena happened before and which have affected natural and anthropogenic landscape. By localizing the place we can develop new and effective methods to reduce, as much as possible the impact of these risks in the future. GIS is one of the advanced methods for the study and management of natural hazards, especially of those geomorphological and climatic. In this case MapInfo program 10.5 Professional has been used; initially raster and vector database is created for each geographic object, then layers were integrated and analyzed with the raster of hazardous area (erosion and avalanche). For those geographical areas, is created a particular raster - vector base by GIS. By integrated analyzed raster conclusions about the expansion of natural hazards in Dragash (Sharr) and the opportunities of minimizing and preventing of their negative effects on the environment off the Municipality of Dragash (Sharr).

  11. Remote sensing and GIS approach for water-well site selection, southwest Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rangzan, K.; Charchi, A.; Abshirini, E.; Dinger, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Pabdeh-Lali Anticline of northern Khuzestan province is located in southwestern Iran and occupies 790 km2. This structure is situated in the Zagros folded belt. As a result of well-developed karst systems in the anticlinal axis, the water supply potential is high and is drained by many peripheral springs. However, there is a scarcity of water for agriculture and population centers on the anticlinal flanks, which imposes a severe problem in terms of area development. This study combines remotely sensed (RS) data and a geographical information system (GIS) into a RSGIS technique to delineate new areas for groundwater development and specific sites for drilling productive water wells. Toward these goals, RS data were used to develop GIS layers for lithology, structural geology, topographic slope, elevation, and drainage density. Field measurements were made to create spring-location and groundwater-quality GIS layers. Subsequently, expert choice and relational methods were used in a GIS environment to conjunctively analyze all layers to delineate preferable regions and 43 individual sites in which to drill water wells. Results indicate that the most preferred areas are, in preferential order, within recent alluvial deposits, the Bakhtiyari Conglomerates, and the Aghajari Sandstone. The Asmari Limestone and other units have much lower potential for groundwater supplies. Potential usefulness of the RSGIS method was indicated when six out of nine producing wells recently drilled by the Khozestan Water and Power Authority (which had no knowledge of this study) were located in areas preferentially selected by this technique.

  12. Sustainable transport planning using GIS and remote sensing: an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgoudis, Marios D.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Shiftan, Yoram

    2014-08-01

    The main advantage of using GIS is its ability to access and analyze spatially distributed data. The applications of GIS to transportation can be viewed as involving either on data retrieval; data integrator; or data analysis. The use of remote sensing can assist the retrieval of land use changes. Indeed, the integration of GIS and remote sensing will be used to fill the gap in the smart transport planning. A four step research is going to be done in order to try to integrate the usage of GIS and remote sensing to sustainable transport planning. The proposed research will be held in the city of Limassol, Cyprus. The data that are going to be used are data that are going to be collected through questionnaires, and other available data from the Cyprus Public Works Department and from the Remote Sensing Laboratory and Geo-Environment Research Lab of the Cyprus University of Technology. Overall, statistical analysis and market segmentation of data will be done, the land usage will be examined, and a scenario building on mode choice will be held. This paper presents an overview of the methodology that will be adopted.

  13. Real-time Web GIS to monitor marine water quality using wave glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneesa Amiruddin, Siti

    2016-06-01

    In the past decade, Malaysia has experienced unprecedented economic development and associated socioeconomic changes. As environmentalists anticipate these changes could have negative impacts on the marine and coastal environment, a comprehensive, continuous and long term marine water quality monitoring programme needs to be strengthened to reflect the government's aggressive mind-set of enhancing its authority in protection, preservation, management and enrichment of vast resources of the ocean. Wave Glider, an autonomous, unmanned marine vehicle provides continuous ocean monitoring at all times and is durable in any weather condition. Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is ideally suited as a tool for the presentation of data derived from continuous monitoring of locations, and used to support and deliver information to environmental managers and the public. Combined with GeoEvent Processor, an extension from ArcGIS for Server, it extends the Web GIS capabilities in providing real-time data from the monitoring activities. Therefore, there is a growing need of Web GIS for easy and fast dissemination, sharing, displaying and processing of spatial information which in turn helps in decision making for various natural resources based applications.

  14. A framework for sharing and integrating remote sensing and GIS models based on Web service.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zeqiang; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Liu, Deer; Bao, Ying; Ding, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    Sharing and integrating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System/Science (GIS) models are critical for developing practical application systems. Facilitating model sharing and model integration is a problem for model publishers and model users, respectively. To address this problem, a framework based on a Web service for sharing and integrating RS and GIS models is proposed in this paper. The fundamental idea of the framework is to publish heterogeneous RS and GIS models into standard Web services for sharing and interoperation and then to integrate the RS and GIS models using Web services. For the former, a "black box" and a visual method are employed to facilitate the publishing of the models as Web services. For the latter, model integration based on the geospatial workflow and semantic supported marching method is introduced. Under this framework, model sharing and integration is applied for developing the Pearl River Delta water environment monitoring system. The results show that the framework can facilitate model sharing and model integration for model publishers and model users.

  15. Geomorphology and Depositional Subenvironments of Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Rogers, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying coastal hazards and coastal change to improve our understanding of coastal ecosystems and to develop better capabilities of predicting future coastal change. One approach to understanding the dynamics of coastal systems is to monitor changes in barrier-island subenvironments through time. This involves examining morphological and topographic change at temporal scales ranging from millennia to years and spatial scales ranging from tens of kilometers to meters. Of particular interest are the processes that produce those changes and the determination of whether or not those processes are likely to persist into the future. In these analyses of hazards and change, both natural and anthropogenic influences are considered. Quantifying past magnitudes and rates of coastal change and knowing the principal factors that govern those changes are critical to predicting what changes are likely to occur under different scenarios, such as short-term impacts of extreme storms or long-term impacts of sea-level rise. Gulf Islands National Seashore was selected for detailed mapping of barrier-island morphology and topography because the islands offer a diversity of depositional subenvironments and the islands' areas and positions have changed substantially in historical time. The geomorphologic and subenvironmental maps emphasize the processes that formed the surficial features and also serve as a basis for documenting which subenvironments are relatively stable, such as the beach ridge complex, and those which are highly dynamic, such as the beach and active overwash zones. The primary mapping procedures used supervised functions within a Geographic Information System (GIS) that classified depositional subenvironments and features (map units) and delineated boundaries of the features (shapefiles). The GIS classified units on the basis of tonal patterns of a feature in contrast to adjacent features observed on georeferenced aerial

  16. Studying Venus using a GIS database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Maribeth; Suppe, John

    1993-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) can significantly enhance geological studies on Venus because it facilitates concurrent analysis of many sources of data, as demonstrated by our work on topographic and deformation characteristics of tesserae. We are creating a database of structures referenced to real-world coordinates to encourage the archival of Venusian studies in digital format and to foster quantitative analysis of many combinations of data. Contributions to this database from all aspects of Venusian science are welcome.

  17. CyberGIS software: a synthetic review and integration roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaowen; Anselin, Luc; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Cosby, Christopher; Goodchild, Michael; Liu, Yan; Nygers, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    CyberGIS defined as cyberinfrastructure-based geographic information systems (GIS) has emerged as a new generation of GIS representing an important research direction for both cyberinfrastructure and geographic information science. This study introduces a 5-year effort funded by the US National Science Foundation to advance the science and applications of CyberGIS, particularly for enabling the analysis of big spatial data, computationally intensive spatial analysis and modeling (SAM), and collaborative geospatial problem-solving and decision-making, simultaneously conducted by a large number of users. Several fundamental research questions are raised and addressed while a set of CyberGIS challenges and opportunities are identified from scientific perspectives. The study reviews several key CyberGIS software tools that are used to elucidate a vision and roadmap for CyberGIS software research. The roadmap focuses on software integration and synthesis of cyberinfrastructure, GIS, and SAM by defining several key integration dimensions and strategies. CyberGIS, based on this holistic integration roadmap, exhibits the following key characteristics: high-performance and scalable, open and distributed, collaborative, service-oriented, user-centric, and community-driven. As a major result of the roadmap, two key CyberGIS modalities gateway and toolkit combined with a community-driven and participatory approach have laid a solid foundation to achieve scientific breakthroughs across many geospatial communities that would be otherwise impossible.

  18. GIS characterization of spatially distributed lifeline damage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toprak, Selcuk; O'Rourke, Thomas; Tutuncu, Ilker

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the visualization of spatially distributed water pipeline damage following an earthquake using geographical information systems (GIS). Pipeline damage is expressed as a repair rate (RR). Repair rate contours are developed with GIS by dividing the study area into grid cells (n ?? n), determining the number of particular pipeline repairs in each grid cell, and dividing the number of repairs by the length of that pipeline in each cell area. The resulting contour plot is a two-dimensional visualization of point source damage. High damage zones are defined herein as areas with an RR value greater than the mean RR for the entire study area of interest. A hyperbolic relationship between visual display of high pipeline damage zones and grid size, n, was developed. The relationship is expressed in terms of two dimensionless parameters, threshold area coverage (TAC) and dimensionless grid size (DGS). The relationship is valid over a wide range of different map scales spanning approximately 1,200 km2 for the largest portion of the Los Angeles water distribution system to 1 km2 for the Marina in San Francisco. This relationship can aid GIS users to get sufficiently refined, but easily visualized, maps of damage patterns.

  19. Classification of corrosion risk zones using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Nikolas; Anastasiou, Constantina; Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Danezis, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the major deterioration factor of the RC infrastructures. Several factors are contributing towards increasing the corrosion risk like the exposure and environmental conditions which are a function of the geographical location of the infrastructure. Information for these conditions and their affected areas can be proved valuable at design stage and/or during maintenance planning. This study aims to relate corrosion risk of RC infrastructures with their geographical location. The corrosion risk is quantified through data from NDT methods and subsequently correlated with its location. Therefore high risk areas with structures prone to corrosion deterioration are identified. The latter is implemented via GIS tools in order to create maps that describe how corrosion risk is related to the location of each structure. Two GIS methods are suggested, the grid system and the use of classified areas. Corrosion data has been collected from labs about various constructions in Cyprus and used in conjunction with GIS tools to provide useful information on corrosion identification. The outcome is a digitized map of the Limassol area which indicates the risks levels associated with corrosion of the steel reinforcement.

  20. Towards an open architecture for vector GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunfey, Robert I.; Gittings, Bruce M.; Batcheller, James K.

    2006-12-01

    A range of open source software tools are now available to the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analyst. However these tools are not necessarily interoperable and rarely significantly interoperable with proprietary systems. The open architectures, which have been developed for web-oriented systems, together with those proposed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), suggest that an open GIS architecture could be developed as an alternative to proprietary systems. The architecture would use open source components to store, translate, analyse, render and visualise GI data and would escape many of the problems of monolithic systems. Particularly what is proposed permits the loose coupling of any number of components and data stores in a manner that is both open and flexible. This paper proposes such an architecture and focuses on determining the suitability of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), an open vector-oriented eXtensible Markup Language (XML) grammar, as a significant component of such architecture. SVG is shown as an effective means of rendering GI data, not least because of its compatibility with the WC3 Document Object Model (DOM), permitting GIS-specific client tools to be written and transmitted to the web browser along with the SVG pages. While realising that the technology is in its infancy, the conclusion reached is that SVG currently provides a powerful solution and has enormous future potential.

  1. 76 FR 55107 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Gulf Islands National Seashore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... alternatives. Alternative 2 would reduce the level of infrastructure rebuilt on the barrier islands and allow... of the Gulf of Mexico's barrier islands and coastal environments. Interpretive programs would focus on illustrating how barrier islands act as protectors of the mainland coastline, and the part...

  2. Heat Island Mitigation Measures in Response to Climate Change Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale a.; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Crosson, William; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation examines the effect of cities, the accompanying heat island effect, and other impacts that urbanization has had on the environment. Various satellite views of several urban areas are shown.

  3. Rockfall risk evaluation using geotechnical survey, remote sensing data, and GIS: a case study from western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Depountis, Nikolaos; Vagenas, Nikolaos; Kavoura, Katerina; Vlaxaki, Eleni; Kelasidis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a specific example of the synergistic use of geotechnical survey, remote sensing data and GIS for rockfall risk evaluation is presented. The study area is located in Western Greece. Extensive rockfalls have been recorded along Patras - Ioannina highway just after the cable-stayed bridge of Rio-Antirrio, at Klokova site. The rockfalls include medium- sized limestone boulders with volume up to 1.5m3. A detailed engineering geological survey was conducted including rockmass characterization, laboratory testing and geological - geotechnical mapping. Many Rockfall trajectory simulations were done. Rockfall risk along the road was estimated using spatial analysis in a GIS environment.

  4. A WebGIS tool for visualizing and exploring socioeconomic vulnerability to dengue fever in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Kienberger, Stefan; Hagenlocher, Michael; Delmelle, Eric; Casas, Irene

    2013-11-01

    WebGIS tools have the potential to disseminate the outputs of spatial vulnerability assessments to a wide range of communities, including public health decision-makers. Based on a previous assessment of socioeconomic vulnerability to dengue fever in Cali, Colombia, we developed and used a WebGIS tool to facilitate the visualization, exploration and dissemination of prevailing vulnerabilities to dengue fever in an interactive online environment. Results show that the tool presented here has distinct implications for policy and decision-making as it facilitates spatial prioritisation, both with respect to the intervention areas and the intervention measures needed to reduce human susceptibility and strengthen resilience to the disease.

  5. A GIS semiautomatic tool for classifying and mapping wetland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Ramón, Héctor; Marqués-Mateu, Angel; Ibáñez-Asensio, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are one of the most productive and biodiverse ecosystems in the world. Water is the main resource and controls the relationships between agents and factors that determine the quality of the wetland. However, vegetation, wildlife and soils are also essential factors to understand these environments. It is possible that soils have been the least studied resource due to their sampling problems. This feature has caused that sometimes wetland soils have been classified broadly. The traditional methodology states that homogeneous soil units should be based on the five soil forming-factors. The problem can appear when the variation of one soil-forming factor is too small to differentiate a change in soil units, or in case that there is another factor, which is not taken into account (e.g. fluctuating water table). This is the case of Albufera of Valencia, a coastal wetland located in the middle east of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain). The saline water table fluctuates throughout the year and it generates differences in soils. To solve this problem, the objectives of this study were to establish a reliable methodology to avoid that problems, and develop a GIS tool that would allow us to define homogeneous soil units in wetlands. This step is essential for the soil scientist, who has to decide the number of soil profiles in a study. The research was conducted with data from 133 soil pits of a previous study in the wetland. In that study, soil parameters of 401 samples (organic carbon, salinity, carbonates, n-value, etc.) were analysed. In a first stage, GIS layers were generated according to depth. The method employed was Bayesian Maxim Entropy. Subsequently, it was designed a program in GIS environment that was based on the decision tree algorithms. The goal of this tool was to create a single layer, for each soil variable, according to the different diagnostic criteria of Soil Taxonomy (properties, horizons and diagnostic epipedons). At the end, the program

  6. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  7. Long term volcanic hazard analysis in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Laín, L.; Llorente, M.; Mancebo, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    Historic volcanism in Spain is restricted to the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago formed by seven volcanic islands. Several historic eruptions have been registered in the last five hundred years. However, and despite the huge amount of citizens and tourist in the archipelago, only a few volcanic hazard studies have been carried out. These studies are mainly focused in the developing of hazard maps in Lanzarote and Tenerife islands, especially for land use planning. The main handicap for these studies in the Canary Islands is the lack of well reported historical eruptions, but also the lack of data such as geochronological, geochemical or structural. In recent years, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the improvement in the volcanic processes modelling has provided an important tool for volcanic hazard assessment. Although this sophisticated programs are really useful they need to be fed by a huge amount of data that sometimes, such in the case of the Canary Islands, are not available. For this reason, the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) is developing a complete geo-referenced database for long term volcanic analysis in the Canary Islands. The Canarian Volcanic Hazard Database (HADA) is based on a GIS helping to organize and manage volcanic information efficiently. HADA includes the following groups of information: (1) 1:25.000 scale geologic maps, (2) 1:25.000 topographic maps, (3) geochronologic data, (4) geochemical data, (5) structural information, (6) climatic data. Data must pass a quality control before they are included in the database. New data are easily integrated in the database. With the HADA database the IGME has started a systematic organization of the existing data. In the near future, the IGME will generate new information to be included in HADA, such as volcanological maps of the islands, structural information, geochronological data and other information to assess long term volcanic hazard analysis. HADA will permit

  8. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 81.340 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode...

  9. Open Source GIS Connectors to NASA GES DISC Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steve; Pham, Long; Yang, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) houses a suite of high spatiotemporal resolution GIS data including satellite-derived and modeled precipitation, air quality, and land surface parameter data. The data are valuable to various GIS research and applications at regional, continental, and global scales. On the other hand, many GIS users, especially those from the ArcGIS community, have difficulties in obtaining, importing, and using our data due to factors such as the variety of data products, the complexity of satellite remote sensing data, and the data encoding formats. We introduce a simple open source ArcGIS data connector that significantly simplifies the access and use of GES DISC data in ArcGIS.

  10. When Informationists Get Involved: the CHICA-GIS Project.

    PubMed

    Whipple, Elizabeth C; Odell, Jere D; Ralston, Rick K; Liu, Gilbert C

    2013-01-01

    Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA) is a computer decision support system (CDSS) that interfaces with existing electronic medical record systems (EMRS) and delivers "just-in-time" patient-relevant guidelines to physicians during the clinical encounter and accurately captures structured data from all who interact with the system. "Delivering Geospatial Intelligence to Health Care Professionals (CHICA-GIS)" (1R01LM010923-01) expands the medical application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by integrating a geographic information system with CHICA. To provide knowledge management support for CHICA-GIS, three informationists at the Indiana University School of Medicine were awarded a supplement from the National Library Medicine. The informationists will enhance CHICA-GIS by: improving the accuracy and accessibility of information, managing and mapping the knowledge which undergirds the CHICA-GIS decision support tool, supporting community engagement and consumer health information outreach, and facilitating the dissemination of new CHICA-GIS research results and services.

  11. Control of paleoshorelines by trench forebulge uplift, Loyalty Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Unlike most tropical Pacific islands, which lie along island arcs or hotspot chains, the Loyalty Islands between New Caledonia and Vanuatu owe their existence and morphology to the uplift of pre-existing atolls on the flexural forebulge of the New Hebrides Trench. The configuration and topography of each island is a function of distance from the crest of the uplifted forebulge. Both Maré and Lifou are fully emergent paleoatolls upon which ancient barrier reefs form highstanding annular ridges that enclose interior plateaus representing paleolagoon floors, whereas the partially emergent Ouvea paleoatoll rim flanks a drowned remnant lagoon. Emergent paleoshoreline features exposed by island uplift include paleoreef flats constructed as ancient fringing reefs built to past low tide levels and emergent tidal notches incised at past high tide levels. Present paleoshoreline elevations record uplift rates of the islands since last-interglacial and mid-Holocene highstands in global and regional sea levels, respectively, and paleoreef stratigraphy reflects net Quaternary island emergence. The empirical uplift rates vary in harmony with theoretical uplift rates inferred from the different positions of the islands in transit across the trench forebulge at the trench subduction rate. The Loyalty Islands provide a case study of island environments controlled primarily by neotectonics.

  12. The Contribution of GIS in Flood Mapping: Two Approaches Using Open Source Grass GIS Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, R.; Federici, B.; Cannata, M.; Cosso, T.; Syriou, A.

    2013-01-01

    The first step of a risk assessment analysis is the evaluation of flood-prone areas. Its importance is considered for both managing and planning emergency activities, such as hydraulic risk reduction management, and also town planning. Nowadays, using GIS technology for risk assessment analysis is very common. However, it is not widely used for defining inundated areas. LiDAR data, such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), makes GIS numerical models attractive methods for obtaining a flooded area automatically. Using GIS tools, is beneficial for effective processing and accuracy assessment in comparison to the traditional methods which are based on topographic maps and field surveys. A first approach (Federici and Sguerso, 2007; Marzocchi et al. 2009) is the use of a GIS module in order to create perifluvial flood maps, having as prerequisites (i) the conformation of the river floodplain by a high resolution DEM and (ii) a water surface profile along the river axis calculated for a given water discharge through a generic one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, Basement, MIKE 11, etc). On the other hand, a second approach is the use of a 2D model GIS embedded in order to create flooded areas due to a dam break (Cannata & Marzocchi, 2012). This module solves the conservative form of the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE) using a Finite Volume Method (FVM). The intercell flux is computed by a one-side upwind conservative scheme extended to a 2D problem (Ying et al., 2004). The new developed GIS module gives as an output maximum intensity maps which can be directly used during the risk assessment process. Both models implemented in GRASS GIS software (GRASS, 2013) and two new commands (r.inund.fluv and r.damflood) have been created. They are all available on the official GRASS website and they are distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). In this work we present a comparison between the two models mentioned above. We analyse the

  13. The Integration of GPR, GIS, and GPS for 3D Soil Morphologic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischler, M.; Collins, M. E.

    2005-05-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) has become a useful and efficient instrument for gathering information about subsurface diagnostic horizons in Florida soils. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are a popular and valuable tool for spatial data analysis of real world features in a digital environment. Ground-Penetrating Radar can be linked to GIS by using Global Positioning Systems (GPS). By combining GPR, GPS, and GIS technologies, a more detailed geophysical survey can be completed for an area of interest by integratinghydrologic, pedologic, and geologic data. Thus, the objectives of this research were to identify subsurface soil layers using GPR and their geographic position with a highly accurate GPS; to develop a procedure to import GPR data into a popular software package, such as ArcGIS, and; to create 3D subsurface models based on the imported GPR data. The site for this study was the Plant Science Research and Education Center in Marion County, Florida. The soils are characterized by Recent-Pleistocene-age sand over the clayey, marine deposited Plio-Miocene-age Hawthorn Formation which drapes the Eocene-age Ocala Limestone. Consequently, soils in the research area vary from deep quartz sands (Typic Quartzipsamments) to shallow outcrops of the Hawthorn Formation (Arenic Hapludalfs). A GPR survey was performed on a 160 m x 320 m grid to gather data for processing. Four subsurface models estimating the depth to argillic horizon were created using a variety of specialized GPR data filters and geostatistical data analyses. The models were compared with ground-truth points that measured the depth to argillic horizon to validate each model and calculate error metrics. These models may assist research station personnel to determine best management practices (including experimental plot placement, irrigation management, fertilizer treatment, and pesticide applications). In addition, the developed methodology exploits the potential of combining GPR and GIS.

  14. Identifying Skill Requirements for GIS Positions: A Content Analysis of Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the skill requirements for geographic information system (GIS) positions, including GIS analysts, programmers/developers/engineers, specialists, and technicians, through a content analysis of 946 GIS job advertisements from 2007-2014. The results indicated that GIS job applicants need to possess high levels of GIS analysis…

  15. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  16. U.S. Regional Demand Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-07-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a multi-sector, integrated model of the U.S. energy system put out by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. NEMS is used to produce the annual 20-year forecast of U.S. energy use aggregated to the nine-region census division level. The research objective was to disaggregate this regional energy forecast to the county level for select forecast years, for use in a more detailed and accurate regional analysis of energy usage across the U.S. The process of disaggregation using a geographic information system (GIS) was researched and a model was created utilizing available population forecasts and climate zone data. The model's primary purpose was to generate an energy demand forecast with greater spatial resolution than what is currently produced by NEMS, and to produce a flexible model that can be used repeatedly as an add-on to NEMS in which detailed analysis can be executed exogenously with results fed back into the NEMS data flow. The methods developed were then applied to the study data to obtain residential and commercial electricity demand forecasts. The model was subjected to comparative and statistical testing to assess predictive accuracy. Forecasts using this model were robust and accurate in slow-growing, temperate regions such as the Midwest and Mountain regions. Interestingly, however, the model performed with less accuracy in the Pacific and Northwest regions of the country where population growth was more active. In the future more refined methods will be necessary to improve the accuracy of these forecasts. The disaggregation method was written into a flexible tool within the ArcGIS environment which enables the user to output the results in five year intervals over the period 2000-2025. In addition, the outputs of this tool were used to develop a time-series simulation showing the temporal changes in electricity forecasts in terms of absolute, per capita, and density of demand.

  17. The academic success of GIS in geography: Problems and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, Paul A.

    The success of GIS has in some ways proved to be a mixed blessing to academic geography. While quantitative geography has developed as a disciplinary specialism over a long period of time, the infusion of GIS has been more rapid and applications-led. Geography has been a consumer, not producer, of mainstream GIS software, and as such GIS may even contribute towards accelerated de-skilling of the discipline. The technology nevertheless provides a crucial means of dealing with the current proliferation of digital data, and has important implications for the future development of geography.

  18. Expression Islands Clustered on the Symbiosis Island of the Mesorhizobium loti Genome

    PubMed Central

    Uchiumi, Toshiki; Ohwada, Takuji; Itakura, Manabu; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Nukui, Noriyuki; Dawadi, Pramod; Kaneko, Takakazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Tejima, Kouhei; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Omori, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Makoto; Maekawa, Takaki; Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Simomura, Kenshiro; Nomura, Mika; Suzuki, Akihiro; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Sioya, Kouki; Abe, Mikiko; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2004-01-01

    Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that are associated with host legumes. The establishment of rhizobial symbiosis requires signal exchanges between partners in microaerobic environments that result in mutualism for the two partners. We developed a macroarray for Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, a microsymbiont of the model legume Lotus japonicus, and monitored the transcriptional dynamics of the bacterium during symbiosis, microaerobiosis, and starvation. Global transcriptional profiling demonstrated that the clusters of genes within the symbiosis island (611 kb), a transmissible region distinct from other chromosomal regions, are collectively expressed during symbiosis, whereas genes outside the island are downregulated. This finding implies that the huge symbiosis island functions as clustered expression islands to support symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Interestingly, most transposase genes on the symbiosis island were highly upregulated in bacteroids, as were nif, fix, fdx, and rpoN. The genome region containing the fixNOPQ genes outside the symbiosis island was markedly upregulated as another expression island under both microaerobic and symbiotic conditions. The symbiosis profiling data suggested that there was activation of amino acid metabolism, as well as nif-fix gene expression. In contrast, genes for cell wall synthesis, cell division, DNA replication, and flagella were strongly repressed in differentiated bacteroids. A highly upregulated gene in bacteroids, mlr5932 (encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase), was disrupted and was confirmed to be involved in nodulation enhancement, indicating that disruption of highly expressed genes is a useful strategy for exploring novel gene functions in symbiosis. PMID:15060047

  19. Agroclimatological classification by using GIS, a case study of north west of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, R. B.; Rahimi, M.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to apply the GIS system for climatological classification. The Cilianinov Classification System (Hydrothermic Coefficient Method) has been used for the Azerbaijan Region. The first section of the paper presents an introduction into the GIS System and the advantages / disadvantages of its application for climatological identification. Subsequently the following steps for data analysis and interpretation of the outputs have been taken. The study ends with the preparation of climatological classification map of the Azerbaijan. Main steps of this study are: 1- Preparation of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in the UTM projection system in zones 38 and 39 in the IDRISI environment. 2- Collection of mean daily temperatures of each month and the annual precipitation of 73 climatological stations for a statistical period of 30 years (1961-1991). 3- Calculation of regression between the annual sum of active temperature and also the annual precipitation with elevation in the Azerbaijan region using the Stat graph software. 4- Compiling the layer maps of the annual sum of the active temperature and annual precipitation using the regression equations in IDRISI environment. 4- Compiling the corrective layers of the annual sum of the active temperature and annual precipitation in IDRISI environment. 5- Compiling the corrected layers of the annual sum of the active temperature and annual precipitation in IDRISI environment. 6- Compiling the Cilianinov Hydrothermic Coefficient layer in IDRISI environment. 7- Compiling the climatological layer map of the Azerbaijan region using the simple model of Cilianinov in IDRISI environment.

  20. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  1. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  2. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  3. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  4. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  5. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  6. Using expert informed GIS to locate important marine social-ecological hotspots.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Pouyan; Parkes, Margot; Stephen, Craig; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-09-01

    The marine environment provides significant benefits to many local communities. Pressure to develop coastal waterways worldwide creates an urgent need for tools to locate marine spaces that have important social or ecological values, and to quantify their relative importance. The primary objective of this study was to develop, apply and critically assess a tool to identify important social-ecological hotspots in the marine environment. The study was conducted in a typical coastal community in northern British Columbia, Canada. This expert-informed GIS, or xGIS, tool used a survey instrument to draw on the knowledge of local experts from a range of backgrounds with respect to a series of 12 social-ecological value attributes, such as biodiversity, cultural and economic values. We identified approximately 1500 polygons on marine maps and assigned relative values to them using a token distribution exercise. A series of spatial statistical analyses were performed to locate and quantify the relative social-ecological importance of marine spaces and the results were ultimately summarized in a single hotspot map of the entire study area. This study demonstrates the utility of xGIS as a useful tool for stakeholders and environmental managers engaged in the planning and management of marine resources at the local and regional levels. PMID:25864941

  7. Using expert informed GIS to locate important marine social-ecological hotspots.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Pouyan; Parkes, Margot; Stephen, Craig; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-09-01

    The marine environment provides significant benefits to many local communities. Pressure to develop coastal waterways worldwide creates an urgent need for tools to locate marine spaces that have important social or ecological values, and to quantify their relative importance. The primary objective of this study was to develop, apply and critically assess a tool to identify important social-ecological hotspots in the marine environment. The study was conducted in a typical coastal community in northern British Columbia, Canada. This expert-informed GIS, or xGIS, tool used a survey instrument to draw on the knowledge of local experts from a range of backgrounds with respect to a series of 12 social-ecological value attributes, such as biodiversity, cultural and economic values. We identified approximately 1500 polygons on marine maps and assigned relative values to them using a token distribution exercise. A series of spatial statistical analyses were performed to locate and quantify the relative social-ecological importance of marine spaces and the results were ultimately summarized in a single hotspot map of the entire study area. This study demonstrates the utility of xGIS as a useful tool for stakeholders and environmental managers engaged in the planning and management of marine resources at the local and regional levels.

  8. Development of Flood GIS Database of River Indus using RS and GIS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.

    Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.

  9. Advanced GIS Exercise: Performing Error Analysis in ArcGIS ModelBuilder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Steven T.; Post, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of Geographic Information Systems is quickly becoming an integral part of the natural resource professionals' skill set. With the growing need of professionals with these skills, we created an advanced geographic information systems (GIS) exercise for students at Clemson University to introduce them to the concept of error analysis,…

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: GIS\\KEY ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - GIS\\SOLUTIONS, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    GISVSolutions, Inc. has developed a software system that fulfills a set of needs that is typically answered by multiple, independently run pieces of software. GIS\\Key™ takes proven software and puts it under one shell. The results of this integration allow for enhanced data...

  11. Integration of GIS: a showcase study on GML based WebGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Tohid Ahmed; Komesli, Murat; Ercan, Tuncay; Sun, Yumei

    2008-10-01

    The growth of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) emerges as analytical decision-making tools utilizing highly specialized geographic data. However, a simple system still does not exist for the integration/sharing information among GIS. Different organizations working within various domains have built their own data models for collecting and analyzing data. Many data storage, analysis, and delivery issues have prevented these organizations from effectively sharing their data. This presentation aims to show how to share the geo referenced information by utilizing GML (Geography Markup Language) technology among heterogeneous GIS. At present, the updates are retrieved manually; often failing entirely results in information loss and major inconsistencies or referenced data set can be purchased from geographic information producers. The problems and expense associated with the integration of updates for geographic databases are documented. Moreover, a showcase study on a GML based Web-GIS application system has also been developed in order to show how to share geographic information by using GML. The application includes various coverage layers online maps, important textual information and selected case studies

  12. Using GIS tools to visually represent complex volcanic issues. Poas volcano, Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraldson, J.; Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    GIS software was used to visualize a series of extraordinary events that have occurred recently at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Maps, images, graphics and other visual instruments were produced during the course of an academic internship at OVSICORI-UNA. Spatial and temporal concepts related to volcano monitoring conventional observations are introduced. Poas (10 11 15 N, 84 13 48 W, and 2708 m.a.s.l) is one of the main massifs on the Central Volcanic range, Costa Rica. It is located NW of the Central Valley, where the most developed and populated cities are located. The volcanogenic pollution and its impact on the environment, as well as the implications over socio-economic activities developed at the surroundings of the volcano, are more severe during increases in subaerial fumarolic outgassing and these points to the important role played by the presence of the crater lake as a buffering system. This is an important aspect to consider due to the frequency of the events and to the prolonged periods of impact over the same areas. The work consisted in putting together a large amount of data varying from notebooks, maps, documents, conventional, multispectral and aerial photographs, in a format readable by the GIS interface, in this case ArcGIS 9.1. As most data refers to geographic locations, a great deal of the data could easily be represented in a GIS. Using the built-in analysis functionalities in ArcGIS, complex issues, concerning volcanogenic pollution and its impact on the surrounding environment, were allowed to be visually represented, using both two and three dimensions. Being able to visualize these issues, do not only help volcanologists to understand the processes involved, but also aids in the communication of these issues to concerned actors in the society. This is of importance due to the fact that volcanogenic pollution does address several areas handled by various authorities. GIS offers a platform for analysis and visualization that could aid in

  13. Visualizing the application of GIS in transformation towards a sustainable development and a low carbon society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. H.; Ariffin, A.; Malik, T. A.

    2014-02-01

    A strategy for sustainable development is a significant milestone on the road to a more socially, economically and environmentally responsible society. It creates a framework within which the stakeholders can make a strong contribution to a better future. Because of the merits and growing interest in sustainable development, the race is on for researchers and stakeholders in the construction sector to initiate actions to reduce the negative impacts of development and sharpen their competitive edge. The cities should be created with a vision which supports harmonious communities and living conditions through sustainable urban development. The resources must be used efficiently while reducing the development impact on human health and environment during the buildings' life cycle. Environmental auditing and pressure-state response based models to monitor sustainable development in Malaysia should be developed. A data availability and sharing system should be developed and implemented to facilitate for the use in the establishment of sustainable development and low carbon society. Ideas which affect millions of people and guide the policies of nations must be accessible to all. Only thus can they permeate the institutions from the local to the global level. Creating sustainable development and low carbon societies depends on the knowledge and involvement of all stakeholders in the industry. So what is our level of understanding of GIS and its application? The development of geospatial data in Malaysia is important because the successful implementation of sustainable development and low carbon projects depend largely on the availability of geospatial information. It would facilitate the stakeholders and resolve some of the problems regarding the availability, quality, organisation, accessibility and sharing of spatial information. The introduction of GIS may change the way for better sustainable urban development and low carbon society performance. The use of GIS is to

  14. Global GIS database; digital atlas of Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Hare, T.M.; Schruben, P.; Sherrill, D.; LaMar, C.; Tsushima, P.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a digital atlas of the countries of Africa. This atlas is part of a global database compiled from USGS and other data sources at a nominal scale of 1:1 million and is intended to be used as a regional-scale reference and analytical tool by government officials, researchers, the private sector, and the general public. The atlas includes free GIS software or may be used with ESRI's ArcView software. Customized ArcView tools, specifically designed to make this atlas easier to use, are also included.

  15. Gis in Tourism Development Using Spatial Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juodkienė, Vytautė

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with a spatial problem - setting the best places for tourism development in Panevėžys district (Lithuania). In order to select areas using ArcGIS software, there was developed a model that evaluated the criteria that influence the selection of areas suitable for tourism. The article presents a digital map, which indicates most suitable locations for rural development by evaluating zones by points in order of importance. The evaluation scale is from 10 points (the most suitable location) to 2 points (the least suitable location). Evaluation points in thematic maps indicate exact locations that are most suitable for tourism homesteads.

  16. Not anymore without the GIS (JGrass)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschi, Silvia; Antonello, Andrea; Rigon, Riccardo

    2010-05-01

    This contribution describes the experience of using JGrass in a class of basis hydrology, and discusses the characteristics that are deemed necessary for a GIS to be used in a class, and were therefore at the basis of the design of this GIS. Among these characteristics, the Authors believe that the system should have been Free Software (and Open Source), developed by free software, and thus they are developing JGrass which is licensed on LGPL3 and based on various Open Source contributions. This, was also encouraged by the idea in such a way, a professional tool could be distributed with no fee to users in developing countries. Besides, the GIS system had to be easily expandable to embed hydrological models of various complexity, with a customizable interface, for eventually simplifying some interactions, and supporting a modern scripting language to make able the students to master the model and the data in non-standard situations. The first issue has been solved by adopting the modeling-by-component paradigm through the creation of commands which are in fact OpenMi 1.4 components, the second by adoption Eclipse as interface, the third by creating a Groovy console. This structure of the system is clearly also close to the requests made by researchers, and this adaptability (to the needs of students, researchers and professionals) is, in the opinion of the Authors, the key to cope the tool with a fast evolving science. While mostly transparent to students, the system had to embed a data base in order to teach the student how to structure the data, and eventually prepare them to the mastering of massive data sets, as those coming from satellites and modern laser altimetry, which should not be foreign anymore to students in the web 2.0 age. Finally, JGrass is part of an ecosystem of tools (with BeeGIS and GEOPaparazzi) designed to cope with field activities that can thus be immediately transported into the main system. Experience of the use of these tools in

  17. Picturing the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Phyllis Scott

    2011-01-01

    Around Scout Island Education Center, a site used by schools in Fresno County to explore the area's natural environment, a total of 200 cylinder-shaped concrete stools display tiles representing small mammals, flying insects, birds, wildflowers, and more. Twenty sets have been created by elementary, middle, and high-school art students as part of…

  18. Coastal water quality from remote sensing and GIS. A case study on South West Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, U.; Ippoliti, M.; Venturini, C.; Falcone, P.; Marino, A.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the application of remote sensing image processing and GIS techniques in monitoring and managing coastal areas is proposed. The methodology has been applied to South-West Sardinia Coast where the environment is endangered by industrial plants and other human activities. The area is characterized by the presence of many submarine springs aligned along coastal cliffs. Water quality parameters (chlorophyll, suspended sediments and temperature) spatial and temporal variations, have been studied using Landsat TM images. Particularly, in this paper are reported the results referred to sea surface thermal gradients, considered as one of the main water quality index. Thermal gradients have been mapped in order to outline water circulation, thermal pollution and presence and distribution of submarine springs. Furthermore, a GIS approach of relating mono and multitemporal TM data with ground referenced information on industrial plants characteristics and distribution has been applied.

  19. GIS-based emergency response system for sudden water pollution accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yikang; Shen, Dingtao; Khalid, Shoaib; Yang, Zaigui; Wang, Jiechen

    The frequent occurrence of sudden water pollution accidents brings enormous risks to water environment safety. Therefore, there is great need for the modeling and development of early warning systems and rapid response procedures for current water pollution situation in China. This paper proposes an emergency response system based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and a hydraulic/water-quality model. Using the spatial analysis and three-dimensional visualization capabilities of GIS technology, we calculated pollutant diffusion measures, and visualized and analyzed the simulation results, in order to provide the services of early warning and emergency response for sudden water pollution accidents in the Xiangjia Dam area on the Yangtze River. The results show that the proposed system offers reliable technological support for emergency response to sudden water pollution events, and it shows good potential for wide applications in various aspects of water resources protection.

  20. Road network modeling in open source GIS to manage the navigation of autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiameli, Michele; Muscato, Giovanni; Mussumeci, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    The autonomous navigation of a robot can be accomplished through the assignment of a sequence of waypoints previously identified in the territory to be explored. In general, the starting point is a vector graph of the network consisting of possible paths. The vector graph can be directly available in the case of actual road networks, or it can be modeled, i.e. on the basis of cartographic supports or, even better, of a digital terrain model (DTM). In this paper we present software procedures developed in Grass-GIS, PostGIS and QGIS environments to identify, model, and visualize a road graph and to extract and normalize sequence of waypoints which can be transferred to a robot for its autonomous navigation.

  1. Using the fuzzy majority approach for GIS-based multicriteria group decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroushaki, Soheil; Malczewski, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    This paper is concerned with developing a framework for GIS-based multicriteria group decision-making using the fuzzy majority approach. The procedure for solving a spatial group decision-making problem involves two stages. First, each decision-maker solves the problem individually. Second, the individual solutions are aggregated to obtain a group solution. The first stage is operationalized by a linguistic quantifier-guided ordered weighted averaging (OWA) procedure to create individual decision-maker's solution maps. Then the individual maps are combined using the fuzzy majority procedure to generate the group solution map which synthesizes the majority of the decision-makers' preferences. The paper provides an illustrative example of the fuzzy majority method for a land suitability problem. It also demonstrates the implementation of the framework within the ArcGIS environment.

  2. Photovoltaic applications for remote-island needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, D. A.; Larson, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Electric power supply options available to many of the central and south Pacific island governments are severely constrained by remoteness, limited infrastructures, a corrosive natural environment, and the high delivered costs of many conventional energy sources. Photovoltaic energy systems offer a currently available, practical, and cost-effective source of electricity for many stand-alone applications in remote areas of the Pacific. Photovoltaic system definitions and cost analyses are provided for selected applications in the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Territory of American Samoa.

  3. A genomic island integrated into recA of Vibrio cholerae contains a divergent recA and provides multi-pathway protection from DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Rapa, Rita A; Islam, Atiqul; Monahan, Leigh G; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Charles, Ian G; Stokes, Harold W; Labbate, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) has been crucial in the evolution of the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. The two major virulence factors are present on two different mobile genetic elements, a bacteriophage containing the cholera toxin genes and a genomic island (GI) containing the intestinal adhesin genes. Non-toxigenic V. cholerae in the aquatic environment are a major source of novel DNA that allows the pathogen to morph via LGT. In this study, we report a novel GI from a non-toxigenic V. cholerae strain containing multiple genes involved in DNA repair including the recombination repair gene recA that is 23% divergent from the indigenous recA and genes involved in the translesion synthesis pathway. This is the first report of a GI containing the critical gene recA and the first report of a GI that targets insertion into a specific site within recA. We show that possession of the island in Escherichia coli is protective against DNA damage induced by UV-irradiation and DNA targeting antibiotics. This study highlights the importance of genetic elements such as GIs in the evolution of V. cholerae and emphasizes the importance of environmental strains as a source of novel DNA that can influence the pathogenicity of toxigenic strains.

  4. Seafloor and sub-seafloor landslide evidences. GIS data model focused on geohazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Ricardo; Gimenez, Julia; Medialdea, Teresa; Somoza, Luis; Gonzalez, Francisco Javier

    2016-04-01

    The wealth of landslide-information preserved over seafloor and inside stratigraphic horizons should be appropriately structured and modeled so that its storage in GIS format can be directly applied in the geohazard analysis. The main aim of risk analysis is to answer the "where, when and how" questions. In this sense, parameters related to: (i) geographical location, (ii) shape and magnitude of the event, (iii) age of event/s - period of recurrence; shall be carefully analyzed to be stored in an interoperable and accessible GIS structure that can be directly applied in the risk analysis. It is important that the above parameters will be stored separately of the trigger information (sedimentation rate, earthquakes, faults locations, seabed geology, etc...) but with a strong related link. The appropriate geographical representation of the landslide event inherits problems of the geomorphological maps and the standardized submarine geomorphological legend. This gives rise to considerations on how to represent-and store a landslide-event. We present a GIS submarine landslides catalogue of the Spanish continental margin and adjacent areas. It comprises the Atlantic and Mediterranean continental margins as well as hot-spot type volcanic islands and seamounts (Canary Archipelago). The catalogue, implemented in a geographic information system, stores a total of 317 submarine landslides and compiles information such as name, location, typology, age, volume, source, and lithology and published references. It is conceived as a first step in the submarine risk analysis, although other applications such as sedimentology, tectonic or volcanic studies or basin evolution are also taken into account.

  5. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  6. GIS multimedia view of local politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muddam, Sandeep Reddy

    The abstract mainly focuses on describing the prototype of the "GIS Multimedia View of Local Politics" of San Diego County. This project puts the local political information on a website which helps school children to learn about the structure of a political body and how it is organized, how the representatives are elected. It also puts up the statistics of the elections previously held. So for this, past and present election statistics have been collected. The shape files of San Diego county, congressional districts, council districts, supervisor districts have been collected. A sample community college districts is also presented. With these shape files we can show the information in an interactive map application which is based on GIS. Poll Watcher: A candidate, political party or political committee may ask someone to go to a polling place or early voting area and observe. This person is known as a poll watcher. The poll watcher observes the election process to see if any violation of the election laws occurs. If a violation occurs, the poll watcher is to refer the violation to the clerk of the election board.

  7. A New Image Processing and GIS Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D.; Luvall, J. C.; Cheng, T.

    1998-01-01

    The image processing and GIS package ELAS was developed during the 1980's by NASA. It proved to be a popular, influential and powerful in the manipulation of digital imagery. Before the advent of PC's it was used by hundreds of institutions, mostly schools. It is the unquestioned, direct progenitor or two commercial GIS remote sensing packages, ERDAS and MapX and influenced others, such as PCI. Its power was demonstrated by its use for work far beyond its original purpose, having worked several different types of medical imagery, photomicrographs of rock, images of turtle flippers and numerous other esoteric imagery. Although development largely stopped in the early 1990's the package still offers as much or more power and flexibility than any other roughly comparable package, public or commercial. It is a huge body or code, representing more than a decade of work by full time, professional programmers. The current versions all have several deficiencies compared to current software standards and usage, notably its strictly command line interface. In order to support their research needs the authors are in the process of fundamentally changing ELAS, and in the process greatly increasing its power, utility, and ease of use. The new software is called ELAS II. This paper discusses the design of ELAS II.

  8. Improving STEM Student Learning Outcomes with GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Longitudinal data collection initiated a decade ago as part of a successful NSF-CCLI grant proposal has resulted in a large - and growing - sample (200+) of students who report on their perceptions of self-improvement in Technology, Critical Thinking, and Quantitative Reasoning proficiencies upon completion of an introductory (200-level) GIS course at New Jersey City University, a Hispanic-Serving and Minority Institution in Jersey City, NJ. Results from student satisfaction surveys indicate that, not surprisingly, 80% of respondents report improved confidence in Technology Literacy. Critical Thinking proficiency is judged to be significantly improved by 60% of respondents. On the other hand, Quantitative Reasoning proficiency confidence is improved in only 30% of students. This latter finding has prompted the instructor to search for more easily recognizable (to the student) ways of embedding quantitative reasoning into the course, as it is obvious to any GIS professional that there is an enormous amount of quantitative reasoning associated with this technology. A second post-course questionnaire asks students to rate themselves in these STEM proficiency areas using rubrics. Results mirror those from the self-satisfaction surveys. On a 5-point Likkert scale, students tend to see themselves improving about one letter grade on average in each proficiency area. The self-evaluation rubrics are reviewed by the instructor and are judged to be accurate for about 75% of the respondents.

  9. NASA GES DISC DAAC Satellite Data for GIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickless, Darryl; Leptoukh, Gregory; Morahan, Michael; Pollack, Nathan; Savtchenko, Andrey; Teng, William

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) makes available a large and continually growing collection of spatially continuous global satellite observations of environmental parameters. These products include those from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on both Terra and Aqua platforms, and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). These data products are well suited for use within Geographic Information Systems (GIS), as both backdrops to cartographic products as well as spatial analysis. However, data format, file size, and other issues have limited their widespread use by traditional GIS users. To address these data usability issues, the GES DISC DAAC recently updated tools and improved documentation of conversion procedures. In addition, the GES DISC DAAC has also been working with a major GIS software vendor to incorporate the ability to read the native Hierarchial Data Format (HDF), the format in which most of the NASA data is stored. The result is the enabling of GIS users to realize the benefit of GES DISC DAAC data without a substantial expenditure in resources to incorporate these data into their GIS. Several documents regarding the potential uses of GES DISC DAAC satellite data in GIS have recently been created. These show the combinations of concurrent data from different satellite products with traditional GIS vector products for given geographic areas. These map products include satellite imagery of Hurricane Isabel and the California wildfires, and can be viewed at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/MODIS/GIS/.

  10. OVERVIEW OF GIS APPLICATIONS IN ESTUARINE MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geographic information systems (GIS) tools are now considered integral in estuarine monitoring and assessment research. A synopsis is presented of our estuarine applications of GIS in the Northeast region of the U.S. The applications discussed cover sample site selection, support...

  11. GIS in K-12 Education. An ESRI White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Systems Research Inst., Inc., Redlands, CA.

    Geographic information systems (GIS) consist of robust hardware, software, data, and a thinking operator. Together, they provide powerful tools for automated cartography and extensive analysis of information about places. Recent improvements in computer hardware and software allow the powers of GIS to move effectively and affordably into the…

  12. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as an Evaluation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renger, Ralph; Cimetta, Adriana; Pettygrove, Sydney; Rogan, Seumas

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to help evaluators convey complex information simply through a spatial representation. Demonstrates how GIS can be used to plot change over time, including impact and outcome data gathered by primary data collection. (SLD)

  13. Making Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Sustainable in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dascombe, Brett

    2006-01-01

    Spatial technologies, particularly Geographic Information Systems (GIS), have become invaluable and persuasive tools in society today. These technologies have also made their way into classrooms around the world and Australian teachers are leaders in implementing GIS technology into their classrooms. There is still a way to go in order to make…

  14. Enriching and improving the quality of linked data with GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniak, Adam; Kaczmarek, Iwona; Strzelecki, Marek; Lukowicz, Jaromar; Jankowski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Standardization of methods for data exchange in GIS has along history predating the creation of World Wide Web. The advent of World Wide Web brought the emergence of new solutions for data exchange and sharing including; more recently, standards proposed by the W3C for data exchange involving Semantic Web technologies and linked data. Despite the growing interest in integration, GIS and linked data are still two separate paradigms for describing and publishing spatial data on the Web. At the same time, both paradigms offer complementary ways of representing real world phenomena and means of analysis using different processing functions. The complementarity of linked data and GIS can be leveraged to synergize both paradigms resulting in richer data content and more powerful inferencing. The article presents an approach aimed at integrating linked data with GIS. The approach relies on the use of GIS tools for integration, verification and enrichment of linked data. The GIS tools are employed to enrich linked data by furnishing access to collection of data resources, defining relationship between data resources, and subsequently facilitating GIS data integration with linked data. The proposed approach is demonstrated with examples using data from DBpedia, OSM, and tools developed by the authors for standard GIS software.

  15. SSE Announcement - New GIS Web Mapping Applications and Services

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-30

    ... If you haven’t already noticed the link to the new SSE-GIS web application on the SSE homepage entitled “GIS Web Mapping Applications and Services”, we invite you to visit the site. The Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) v1.0.3 Web Mapping Application ...

  16. GIS in the Classroom: A New Zealand Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This article begins by describing the use of GIS at a local scale within a single school, and builds outwards to review the use of GIS in the contexts of national classrooms. The single school is Diocesan School for Girls in Auckland. It is an independent girls' school for Years 1-13, well resourced with IT staff, computer hardware and software.…

  17. Students Investigate Local Communities with Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Dick; Quinlan, Laurie A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in elementary and secondary school classrooms to analyze neighborhoods, cities, and regions. Discusses GIS software, databases, graphing data, and spatial analysis, and includes an example of a project for secondary school students investigating the local economy for summer jobs. (LRW)

  18. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: GIS\\KEY ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    GIS/Key™ is a comprehensive environmental database management system that integrates site data and graphics, enabling the user to create geologic cross-sections; boring logs; potentiometric, isopleth, and structure maps; summary tables; and hydrographs. GIS/Key™ is menu-driven an...

  19. GIS data for the Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Pilot Study to modernize FEMA flood hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Venturato, Angie J.; Geist, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    A Tsunami Pilot Study was conducted for the area surrounding the coastal town of Seaside, Oregon, as part of the Federal Emergency Management's (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). The Cascadia subduction zone extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to Vancouver Island, Canada. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities subject to tsunamis generated by far- and near-field (Cascadia) earthquakes. Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100-year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improving tsunami hazard assessment guidelines for FEMA and state and local agencies. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study model data and results are published separately as a geographic information systems (GIS) data report (Wong and others, 2006). The flood maps and GIS data are briefly described here.

  20. GIS in the World Trade Center Response: 10 Years after

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevany, M.

    2011-08-01

    The World Trade Center attack of 9/11/01 and the response brought major attention to GIS as a valuable tool for supporting emergency management and response. That attention led to the allocation of considerable resources to the enhancement of GIS. This paper is intended to provide a look back at the events prior to and immediately following the attack, review of GIS in the response and recovery efforts, explore the emergence of GIS in Emergency Management from the impetus generated in the NYC experience and explore the challenges yet facing the use of GIS in emergency management. The author participated in the WTC response as a member of the Emergency Mapping and Data Center component of the Emergency Operations Center through which the response was managed.