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Sample records for giuliani giovanni vignale

  1. Federated Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Federated Giovanni is a NASA-funded ACCESS project to extend the scope of the GES DISC Giovanni online analysis tool to 4 other Distributed Active Archive Centers within EOSDIS: OBPG, LP-DAAC, MODAPS and PO.DAAC. As such, it represents a significant instance of sharing technology across the DAACs. We also touch on several sub-areas that are also sharable, such as Giovanni URLs, workflows and OGC-accessible services.

  2. Education in New York: An Interview with Mayor Rudolph Giuliani.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    1995-01-01

    Mayor Rudolph Giuliani is angry about the way education works in New York City and is determined to debureaucratize schools and make them safer. Memories of his own parochial school education inspire Giuliani to hold up the Catholic school system as a possible reform model. He favors school choice and differs with the chancellor over safety and…

  3. Giovanni-4: The Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, C.; Hegde, M.; Smit, C.; Da Silva, D.; Bryant, K.; Zhao, P.; Liu, Z.; Shen, S.; Savtchenko, A.; Teng, W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    This talk discusses the new aspects of Giovanni-4. Covered in the talk are new features in Giovanni-4, including shape fileservices, seasonal analysis services, the Omnibus Portal, navigation among variables, and comparison services.

  4. Giovanni Fabrizio Bignami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Giovanni Fabrizio Bignami, 'Nanni' to his friends, suddenly passed away on 25 May 2017. A pioneer in the field of gamma-ray astrophysics, he identified Geminga: a mysterious, radio quiet, gamma-ray pulsar. He was an undisputed leader, manager, maestro, colleague and friend.

  5. Giovanni: Exploring, Visualizing, and Acquiring Atmospheric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, S.; Steven, K.; Greg, L.; Andrey, S.; Irina, G.; Steve, B.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) has made great strides in facilitating science and applications research by, in consultation with its users, developing innovative tools and data services. One such tool that has gained much popularity and continues to evolve in response to science research and application needs is Giovanni, an interactive data analysis and visualization tool, used primarily for exploring large and many NASA atmospheric datasets for atmospheric phenomena of interest. With the rapidly increasing amounts of archived atmospheric data from NASA missions: Aura (instruments: OMI, MLS, HIRDLS, TES), Aqua (MODIS, AIRS), and Terra (MODIS), and the newest missions (Cloudsat and CALIPSO), as well as data from heritage mission/instruments, such TOMS, UARS, and TOVS, Giovanni easily enables users to manipulate data and uncover nuggets of information that potentially lead to scientific discovery. The basic Giovanni capabilities of providing area plots, one or two variable time plots, Hovmoller plots, ASCII output, image animation, two parameter intercomparisons, two parameter plots, scatter plots (relationships between two parameters), and temporal correlation maps have been enhanced with many new and more advanced functions, such as vertical profiles, vertical cross-sections, zonal averages, and the newest function, multi-instrument vertical plots beneath the A-Train track. This presentation presents remote sensing atmospheric observations measured by several NASA remote sensing instruments utilizing and demonstrating Giovanni's features. A comprehensive list of geophysical parameters measured by the aforementioned instruments, including description of data preparation for utilization in Giovanni will be provided. By emphasizing Giovanni's newest features, which add to those of interest to the atmospheric community, advances in the GES DISC A-Train Data Depot (ATDD) will be described. In

  6. Comment on ``The quantum mechanics of electric conduction in crystals,'' by R. J. Olsen and G. Vignale [Am. J. Phys. 78 (9), 954-960 (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano

    2011-05-01

    In this note we use the notion of time-delay to explain the physical content of the transformation properties of transmission and reflection amplitudes, as a result of a displacement of the potential. Then, we reconsider the recent analysis of the scattering problem by a finite-periodic potential, by Olsen and Vignale, to obtain the total reflection condition in the limit of an infinite number of cells. In doing this, we obtain an expression of Hartman's effect, showing that the group velocity of the transmitted particle inside the potential chain can become arbitrary large, as the number of cells tends to infinity.

  7. Introducing Giovanni Gentile, the "Philosopher of Fascism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This essay aims to introduce Giovanni Gentile to scholars of Gramsci studies broadly and Gramsci-education studies more specifically. The largest part of the essay explores Gentile's academic life, his philosophical agenda, and his political career. Having established a basis for understanding the educational reform Gentile enacted as Mussolini's…

  8. Introducing Giovanni Gentile, the "Philosopher of Fascism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This essay aims to introduce Giovanni Gentile to scholars of Gramsci studies broadly and Gramsci-education studies more specifically. The largest part of the essay explores Gentile's academic life, his philosophical agenda, and his political career. Having established a basis for understanding the educational reform Gentile enacted as Mussolini's…

  9. Exploiting the Capabilities of NASA's Giovanni System for Oceanographic Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Petrucio, Emil; Leptoukh, Gregory; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Giovanni system [GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure] has significant capabilities for oceanographic education and independent research utilizing ocean color radiometry data products. Giovanni allows Web-based data discovery and basic analyses, and can be used both for guided illustration of a variety of marine processes and phenomena, and for independent research investigations. Giovanni's capabilities are particularly suited for advanced secondary school science and undergraduate (college) education. This presentation will describe a variety of ways that Giovanni can be used for oceanographic education. Auxiliary information resources that can be utilized will also be described. Several testimonies of Giovanni usage for instruction will be provided, and a recent case history of Giovanni utilization for instruction and research at the undergraduate level is highlighted.

  10. Remote Sensing Data Visualization, Fusion and Analysis via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, G.; Zubko, V.; Gopalan, A.; Khayat, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe Giovanni, the NASA Goddard developed online visualization and analysis tool that allows users explore various phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using MODIS aerosol data as an example, we formulate an approach to the data fusion for Giovanni to further enrich online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  11. Giovanni: The Bridge between Data and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Lynnes, Christopher; Kempler, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a web-based remote sensing and model data visualization and analysis system developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). This web-based tool facilitates data discovery, exploration and analysis of large amount of global and regional data sets, covering atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, oceanographic, and land surface. Data analysis functions include Lat-Lon map, time series, scatter plot, correlation map, difference, cross-section, vertical profile, and animation etc. Visualization options enable comparisons of multiple variables and easier refinement. Recently, new features have been developed, such as interactive scatter plots and maps. The performance is also being improved, in some cases by an order of magnitude for certain analysis functions with optimized software. We are working toward merging current Giovanni portals into a single omnibus portal with all variables in one (virtual) location to help users find a variable easily and enhance the intercomparison capability

  12. Federated Giovanni: multi-sensor data sharing and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, M.; Lynnes, C.; Acker, J. G.; Kempler, S. J.; Seiler, E.; Davis, J.; Strub, R. F.; Bryant, K.; Smit, C.; Zhao, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Laidlaw, R.; Hausman, J.; Lossing, R.; Bailey, S. W.; Kalb, V.; Hendrix, C.

    2015-12-01

    Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface) has long been a popular tool among remote sensing data users of the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). It supports about two dozen visualization and analysis services that enable interactive exploration of the data, which is a key early step in data analysis. Giovanni brings usability, a low learning curve, and the ability to provide informative visualizations without downloading large volumes of data to the user's location. Federated Giovanni allows each data center to configure and deploy its own Giovanni and curated data catalog, while allowing various Giovanni instances to share data from each other for data intercomparisons. Providing Giovanni's capabilities to other data providers through federation will allow a dramatically larger number of distributed datasets to be made available for interactive data exploration and inter-comparison. This capability is particularly beneficial to science researchers studying data from multiple sensors and satellites. In this presentation, we will describe the architecture as well as the process of curating and sharing Giovanni data catalogs to enable inter-comparison of data from multiple sensors.

  13. Exploring Remote Sensing Products Online with Giovanni for Studying Urbanization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina; Kempler, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a Large amount of MODIS land products at multi-spatial resolutions have been integrated into the online system, Giovanni, to support studies on land cover and land use changes focused on Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data. The customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI and Giovanni-MAIRS) are created to integrate land, atmospheric, cryospheric, and social products, that enable researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes and their relationships to climate at global and regional scales. This presentation documents MODIS land surface products in Giovanni system. As examples, images and statistical analysis results on land surface and local climate changes associated with urbanization over Yangtze River Delta region, China, using data in Giovanni are shown.

  14. Giovanni Berlinguer: socialist, sanitarian, and humanist!

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sonia

    2015-11-01

    This article highlights important aspects of the biography of Giovanni Berlinguer that led him to become a prominent scientist and political activist. His works were marked by a strong socialist conviction and deep humanism. His contribution to health in Brazil ranged from a vast academic output in the field of public health to an active involvement in the Brazilian Health Movement. His later publications addressing everyday bioethics reveal the common thread that runs through his entire works: the use of science to demonstrate the social determinants of health; the fight against unjust inequality; the defense of life against exploitation; and the struggle to prevent the commoditization of life, the human body, and health care.

  15. Giovanni Vitali: Discoverer of the paratympanic organ.

    PubMed

    Giannessi, Francesco; Ruffoli, Riccardo; von Bartheld, Christopher S

    2013-01-01

    One-hundred years ago, the Italian anatomist Giovanni Vitali reported the discovery of the paratympanic organ, a sense organ in the middle ear of birds, in two issues of the Anatomischer Anzeiger (1911, 1912). In this minireview, we summarize Vitali's biography, and examine the scientific impact of his discovery of this sense organ. We also compile - for the first time - the entire bibliography of published papers on the paratympanic organ. Vitali described the ontogenetic development of this sense organ, examined its distribution among species, recognized its evolutionary relationship with the spiracular sense organ of fishes, and he developed the theory that it functions as a detector of changes in air pressure. He was the first to postulate that the paratympanic and spiracular sense organs were homologous organs that originate from homologous placodes - currently a hotly debated topic. His morphological work indicating the sensory nature of the PTO was validated by subsequent ultrastructural studies. Vitali's discovery of the paratympanic organ prompted his nomination for the Nobel Prize in 1934. Nevertheless, the paratympanic organ and the presumed barometric sense of hundreds of billions of living birds have failed to receive the recognition they deserve. Conclusive evidence of the function of the paratympanic organ remains a formidable challenge in vertebrate sensory physiology.

  16. Giovanni Vitali: Discoverer of the Paratympanic Organ

    PubMed Central

    Giannessi, Francesco; Ruffoli, Riccardo; von Bartheld, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary One-hundred years ago, the Italian anatomist Giovanni Vitali reported the discovery of the paratympanic organ, a sense organ in the middle ear of birds, in two issues of the Anatomischer Anzeiger (1911 , 1912). In this minireview, we summarize Vitali’s biography, and examine the scientific impact of his discovery of this sense organ. We also compile – for the first time – the entire bibliography of published papers on the paratympanic organ. Vitali described the ontogenetic development of this sense organ, examined its distribution among species, recognized its evolutionary relationship with the spiracular sense organ of fishes, and he developed the theory that it functions as a detector of changes in air pressure. He was the first to postulate that the paratympanic and spiracular sense organs were homologous organs that originate from homologous placodes – currently a hotly debated topic. His morphological work indicating the sensory nature of the PTO was validated by subsequent ultrastructural studies. Vitali’s discovery of the paratympanic organ prompted his nomination for the Nobel Prize in 1934. Nevertheless, the paratympanic organ and the presumed barometric sense of hundreds of billions of living birds have failed to receive the recognition they deserve. Conclusive evidence of the function of the paratympanic organ remains a formidable challenge in vertebrate sensory physiology. PMID:22999077

  17. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  18. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  19. Exploring NASA and ESA Atmospheric Data Using GIOVANNI, the Online Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the NASA Goddard online visualization and analysis tool (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users explore various atmospheric phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using NASA MODIS (Terra and Aqua) and ESA MERIS (ENVISAT) aerosol data as an example, we demonstrate Giovanni usage for online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  20. Statistical Considerations of Data Processing in Giovanni Online Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suhung, Shen; Leptoukh, G.; Acker, J.; Berrick, S.

    2005-01-01

    The GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) is a web-based interface for the rapid visualization and analysis of gridded data from a number of remote sensing instruments. The GES DISC currently employs several Giovanni instances to analyze various products, such as Ocean-Giovanni for ocean products from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua; TOMS & OM1 Giovanni for atmospheric chemical trace gases from TOMS and OMI, and MOVAS for aerosols from MODIS, etc. (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) Foremost among the Giovanni statistical functions is data averaging. Two aspects of this function are addressed here. The first deals with the accuracy of averaging gridded mapped products vs. averaging from the ungridded Level 2 data. Some mapped products contain mean values only; others contain additional statistics, such as number of pixels (NP) for each grid, standard deviation, etc. Since NP varies spatially and temporally, averaging with or without weighting by NP will be different. In this paper, we address differences of various weighting algorithms for some datasets utilized in Giovanni. The second aspect is related to different averaging methods affecting data quality and interpretation for data with non-normal distribution. The present study demonstrates results of different spatial averaging methods using gridded SeaWiFS Level 3 mapped monthly chlorophyll a data. Spatial averages were calculated using three different methods: arithmetic mean (AVG), geometric mean (GEO), and maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Biogeochemical data, such as chlorophyll a, are usually considered to have a log-normal distribution. The study determined that differences between methods tend to increase with increasing size of a selected coastal area, with no significant differences in most open oceans. The GEO method consistently produces values lower than AVG and MLE. The AVG method produces values larger than MLE in some cases, but smaller in other cases. Further

  1. Giovanni Alfonso Borelli--the father of biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Pope, Malcolm H

    2005-10-15

    Giovanni Alfonso Borelli is often described as the father of biomechanics. He was born in Naples in 1608. His De Motu Animalium, published in 1680, extended to biology the rigorous analytical methods developed by Galileo in the field of mechanics. Borelli calculated the forces required for equilibrium in various joints of the human body well before Newton published The Laws of Motion Borelli was the first to understand that the levers of the musculoskeletal system magnify motion rather than force, so that muscles must produce much larger forces than those resisting the motion. Borelli died in Rome on December 31, 1679, but his impressive body of original work helped inspire a great number of future scientists, microscopists, and inventors. The highest honor bestowed by the American Society of Biomechanics is the Giovanni Borelli Award.

  2. Giovanni Schiaparelli: Visions of a colour blind astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, W.

    1997-02-01

    The greatest observer of Mars of the nineteenth century was the Italian astronomer Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli. In his classic compilation of Martian observations, La Planete Mars, published in 1892, Camille Flammarion readily conceded that Schiaparelli's was 'the greatest work which has been carried out with regard to Mars,'1 while another eminent Martian, Percival Lowell, referred to the Italian astronomer alone as his Martian master ('cher maitre Martien').

  3. Online Interactive Data Analysis of Multi-Sensor Data Using Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.; Teng, W.; Zhu, T.

    2005-12-01

    The goal of the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis System (Giovanni) is to provide earth science users a means for performing data analysis on data in the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) without having to download the data. Through Giovanni, users are able to apply statistical analysis on many individual gridded global data products across multiple instruments and even inter-compare parameters from more than one instrument. Giovanni currently allows users to select a time window and a region of interest to generate many graphical output types including area plots (time-averaged), time-series (area-averaged), Hovmoller (latitude vs. time, longitude vs. time), and animations for area plots. A number of graphical output types are also available for parameter inter-comparisons. ASCII output is also available for those who want to apply their own analysis software. Using the knowledge gained from Giovanni, a user can minimize the amount of data they need to download while maximizing the amount of relevant content in those data. The design challenges of Giovanni are (1) to successfully balance a simple, intuitive Web interface with the complexity and heterogeneity of our data, (2) to have a simple and flexible configuration so that new data sets and parameters can be added and organized for particular user communities, (3) to be agnostic with respect to the analysis software and graphing software and, (4) scalability. In a short time, the original Giovanni (Giovanni 1) has grown from two instances to eight (Giovanni 2), each tailored for a specific user community. The demand, however, for Giovanni and its capabilities continues to increase and in order to meet those demands, a redesign effort of Giovanni, which we call Giovanni 3, is being undertaken.

  4. Performance Comparison of Big Data Analytics With NEXUS and Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, J. C.; Huang, T.; Lynnes, C.

    2016-12-01

    NEXUS is an emerging data-intensive analysis framework developed with a new approach for handling science data that enables large-scale data analysis. It is available through open source. We compare performance of NEXUS and Giovanni for 3 statistics algorithms applied to NASA datasets. Giovanni is a statistics web service at NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs). NEXUS is a cloud-computing environment developed at JPL and built on Apache Solr, Cassandra, and Spark. We compute global time-averaged map, correlation map, and area-averaged time series. The first two algorithms average over time to produce a value for each pixel in a 2-D map. The third algorithm averages spatially to produce a single value for each time step. This talk is our report on benchmark comparison findings that indicate 15x speedup with NEXUS over Giovanni to compute area-averaged time series of daily precipitation rate for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM with 0.25 degree spatial resolution) for the Continental United States over 14 years (2000-2014) with 64-way parallelism and 545 tiles per granule. 16-way parallelism with 16 tiles per granule worked best with NEXUS for computing an 18-year (1998-2015) TRMM daily precipitation global time averaged map (2.5 times speedup) and 18-year global map of correlation between TRMM daily precipitation and TRMM real time daily precipitation (7x speedup). These and other benchmark results will be presented along with key lessons learned in applying the NEXUS tiling approach to big data analytics in the cloud.

  5. Teaching the Works of Nikki Giovanni: "The Same ol' Danger but a Brand New Pleasure."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    This paper intersperses events and experiences from the poet Nikki Giovanni's life--she emerged from the Black Rights Movement in the late 1960s--with student assignments in prereading, reading, discussion, and writing about Giovanni's poetry, specifically the poem "Nikki-Rosa." In addition, the paper describes an oral history project…

  6. Explore GPM IMERG and Other Global Precipitation Products with GES DISC GIOVANNI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Macritchie, K.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    New features and capabilities in the newly released GIOVANNI allow exploring GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) Early, Late and Final Run global half-hourly and monthly precipitation products as well as other precipitation products distributed by the GES DISC such as TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), NLDAS (North American Land Data Assimilation Systems), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc. GIOVANNI is a web-based tool developed by the GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences and Data Information Services Center), to visualize and analyze Earth science data without having to download data and software. The new interface in GIOVANNI allows searching and filtering precipitation products from different NASA missions and projects and expands the capabilities to inter-compare different precipitation products in one interface. Knowing differences in precipitation products is important to identify issues in retrieval algorithms, biases, uncertainties, etc. Due to different formats, data structures, units and so on, it is not easy to inter-compare these precipitation products. The recently added new features and capabilities (unit conversion, regridding, etc.) in GIOVANNI make inter-comparison possible. In this presentation, we will describe these new feature and capabilities along with examples. (Related URLs: GIOVANNI URL: http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/; GES DISC: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/)

  7. [The method of "rational medicine" of Giovanni Battista Morgagni].

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Giovanni Battista Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. His contribution can be contextualized within the sphere of the extraordinary development of anatomy between the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the period in which this discipline became the "queen" of the natural sciences. A new pathology based upon anatomy became possible thanks to the mechanistic perspective that had characterized this science in the seventeenth century, in particular with the work of Marcello Malpighi, whom Morgagni regarded as his master. The approach of Malpighi and of the other "iatromechanists" was the subject of an ample debate in which the advocates of mechanicism and empiricism were opposed to, and intertwined with, the supporters of the "ancient," that is to say, Galenic medicine, with respect to those of the "modern," i.e., "neoteric" one. The anatomic-clinical method of Morgagni can be fully understood only when contextualized within this debate.

  8. Use of Giovanni System in Public Health Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina; Kiang, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    The role of environment and climate in propagating infectious disease has long been recognized since the 5th century. The effect is particularly evident in vector-borne diseases such as malaria where temperature, precipitation and humidity influence the lifecycle of the pathogens and mosquitoes. Likewise, the transmission of respiratory diseases is also often associated with climatic factors. For example, a recent study showed that low humidity and temperature provides efficient condition for seasonal influenza transmission. Understanding of how environment and climate affect infectious diseases would essentially provide guides to prevent and control the spread of disease. Toward this end, our group has developed models for infectious disease risk such as for malaria, dengue and influenza that are driven by climatic and environmental inputs. Results will be presented, especially those that used TRMM data from GIOVANNI.

  9. [Darwin versus Marx? Reflections on a book by Giovanni Jervis].

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis'2002 book Individualismo e cooperazione. Psicologia della politica [Individualism and Cooperation: Psychology of Politics] is the outcome of a critical reflection begun by the author at the end of the 1970s in order to explore the manifestations and the problems of cooperation between individuals, and to identify some "universal" psychological factors that could define the role of psychology within politics and constitute an "objective foundation" of any human culture. Although Jervis was, so to speak,favoring Darwin against Marx, it is argued that,from his overall reasoning, several of his arguments actually are in favor of the inevitable "historicity" of individuals, due to the social conditioning they are subjected since birth: too often certain "universalistic" approaches transmit, together with scientific advances (or even without them), well identifiable ideological motives linked to precise and well defined historical and economic interests?

  10. Exploring Variability of Gaseous Composition of the Troposphere Using Giovanni Online Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptoukh, G.

    2006-05-01

    We present remote sensing observations of various gases in the atmospheric measured by several instruments aboard EOS NASA satellites. The emphasis is on providing options for quick exploration of these data using Giovanni, the NASA GES DISC developed online visualization and analysis tool. We describe the Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (http://acdisc.gsfc.nasa.gov), a one-stop shopping center for atmospheric composition. We provide a comprehensive list of geophysical parameters measured by TOMS, OMI, AIRS, MODIS, MLS, and other instruments, including description of data preparation for utilization in Giovanni. We describe various Giovanni functionalities, including time-series, area maps, vertical profiles, vertical cross- sections, zonal averages, etc., that allow Atmospheric Composition researches quickly and conveniently assess variability and intercompare behavior of various gases without even downloading data - everything is done online. We also discuss potential inclusion of ground station measurements of pollution into Giovanni, and utilization of this system in air-quality studies.

  11. Federated Giovanni: A Distributed Web Service for Analysis and Visualization of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Hegde, M.; Acker, J. G.; Mattmann, C. A.; D'Sa, E. J.; Thompson, C. K.; Kalb, V.; Ramirez, P.; Franz, B. A.; Lossing, R.; Fang, F.; Torbert, C.; Hendrix, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface (Giovanni) is a popular tool for users of the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and has been in use for over a decade. It provides a wide variety of algorithms and visualizations to explore large remote sensing datasets without having to download the data and without having to write readers and visualizers for it. Giovanni is now being extended to enable its capabilities at other data centers within the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). This "Federated Giovanni" will allow four other data centers to add and maintain their data within Giovanni on behalf of their user community. Those data centers are the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), and Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). Three tiers are supported: Tier 1 (GES DISC-hosted) gives the remote data center a data management interface to add and maintain data, which are provided through the Giovanni instance at the GES DISC. Tier 2 packages Giovanni up as a virtual machine for distribution to and deployment by the other data centers. Data variables are shared among data centers by sharing documents from the Solr database that underpins Giovanni's data management capabilities. However, each data center maintains their own instance of Giovanni, exposing the variables of most interest to their user community. Tier 3 is a Shared Source model, in which the data centers cooperate to extend the infrastructure by contributing source code.

  12. Federated Giovanni: A Distributed Web Service for Analysis and Visualization of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface (Giovanni) is a popular tool for users of the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and has been in use for over a decade. It provides a wide variety of algorithms and visualizations to explore large remote sensing datasets without having to download the data and without having to write readers and visualizers for it. Giovanni is now being extended to enable its capabilities at other data centers within the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). This Federated Giovanni will allow four other data centers to add and maintain their data within Giovanni on behalf of their user community. Those data centers are the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), and Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). Three tiers are supported: Tier 1 (GES DISC-hosted) gives the remote data center a data management interface to add and maintain data, which are provided through the Giovanni instance at the GES DISC. Tier 2 packages Giovanni up as a virtual machine for distribution to and deployment by the other data centers. Data variables are shared among data centers by sharing documents from the Solr database that underpins Giovanni's data management capabilities. However, each data center maintains their own instance of Giovanni, exposing the variables of most interest to their user community. Tier 3 is a Shared Source model, in which the data centers cooperate to extend the infrastructure by contributing source code.

  13. Visualization and Analysis of Multi-scale Land Surface Products via Giovanni Portals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.; Gerasimov, Irina V.

    2013-01-01

    Large volumes of MODIS land data products at multiple spatial resolutions have been integrated into the Giovanni online analysis system to support studies on land cover and land use changes,focused on the Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions through the LCLUC program. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data.Customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI andGiovanni-MAIRS) have been created to integrate land, atmospheric,cryospheric, and societal products, enabling researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes, and their relationships to climate, at global and regional scales. This presentation shows a sample Giovanni portal page, lists selected data products in the system, and illustrates potential analyses with imagesand time-series at global and regional scales, focusing on climatology and anomaly analysis. More information is available at the GES DISCMAIRS data support project portal: http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govmairs.

  14. [Giovanni Jervis: critical conscience of the Italian psychiatric reform].

    PubMed

    Onnis, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis, was one of the protagonist of the Italian psychiatric reform and was greatly involved in all the phases of its development, but, with his typical intellectual rigours, he was also very critical not toward the law 180 which abolished the shame of psychiatric asylums, but rather toward the ways of leading and governing the global reform process. In this paper four aspects of Jervis critical evaluations are emphasised: a) the criticism toward a "totalitarian" conception considering practices and everyday institutional management as the unique ways to research problem solutions; b) the criticism toward a renewal process exclusively focused inside the psychiatric hospital, which led Jervis to organise one of the most important outside experience in the Reggio Emilia territory; c) the criticism toward a sociological conception of mental illness, disregarding the subjective, psychological and relational aspects of the psychic suffering; d) the criticism toward the inadequacy of the mental health workers formation, which must become the basis of a real transformation of the "public services culture".

  15. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  16. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834.

  17. Explore GPM IMERG and Other Global Precipitation Products with GES DISC GIOVANNI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Vollmer, Bruce; MacRitchie, Kyle; Kempler, Steven

    2015-01-01

    New features and capabilities in the newly released GIOVANNI allow exploring GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) Early, Late and Final Run global half-hourly and monthly precipitation products as well as other precipitation products distributed by the GES DISC such as TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), NLDAS (North American Land Data Assimilation Systems), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc. GIOVANNI is a web-based tool developed by the GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences and Data Information Services Center) to visualize and analyze Earth science data without having to download data and software. The new interface in GIOVANNI allows searching and filtering precipitation products from different NASA missions and projects and expands the capabilities to inter-compare different precipitation products in one interface. Knowing differences in precipitation products is important to identify issues in retrieval algorithms, biases, uncertainties, etc. Due to different formats, data structures, units and so on, it is not easy to inter-compare precipitation products. Newly added features and capabilities (unit conversion, regridding, etc.) in GIOVANNI make inter-comparisons possible. In this presentation, we will describe these new features and capabilities along with examples.

  18. The Diverse Data, User Driven Services and the Power of Giovanni at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of remote sensing and model data at GES (Goddard Earth Sciences) DISC (Data and Information Services Center); Overview of data services at GES DISC (Registration with NASA data system; Searching and downloading data); Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online VisualizationANd aNalysis Infrastructure): online data exploration tool; and NASA Earth Data and Information System.

  19. Assessing U.S Air Quality Using CALIPSO and MODIS Data via Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados, A.; Leptoukh, G.; Alston, E.; Sokolik, I.

    2007-12-01

    The NASA Goddard online system Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) provides the scientific community with web based visualization, exploration, and analysis tools relevant to air quality. Relevant data products include MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), CALIOP aerosol information, and PM2.5 and ozone surface monitor data. Giovanni services include maps, time series, Hovmoller plots, statistical analysis of one or more data sets for a selected region, and image animations of satellite data. For A-Train sensors, Giovanni is capable of providing vertical profile information for various atmospheric components measured along the A-Train orbit tracks. Additionally, the capability to generate AOD/PM2.5 correlation maps, a research tool for understanding the utility of satellite data for monitoring U.S pollution at various temporal and spatial scales, has been added to the Giovanni system. We present several high pollution events in U.S based on these Giovanni analysis and visualization tools. On August 1-5, 2007 a combination of local pollution sources, long range transport of smoke from Canada and the U.S northwest, and hot and humid conditions lead to a high PM2.5 event over the eastern half of the continental U.S. CALIOP profile data from Giovanni are used here to analyze the vertical transport of the pollution plumes and to better understand the satellite observations and the relative contribution of the various pollution sources to surface PM2.5 concentrations. In the spring of 2007, large wildfires occurred in Georgia and Florida. During the active burning period, Atlanta experienced seven PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) exceedances, most occurring during May. Correctly predicting air quality during a wildfire can be difficult, as shown by the missed Air Quality Index (AQI) forecasts for those exceedance days. We use ground- based and multi-satellite data to characterize the impact of these fires on air quality in the Atlanta metropolitan

  20. Towards Infusing Giovanni with a Semantic and Provenance Aware Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio, N.; Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Lynnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by GES DISC that provides simple and intuitive ways to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensed data. Currently, the Giovanni visualization module is only aware of the physical links (i.e., hard-coded) between data and services and consequently cannot be easily adapted to new visualization scenarios. VisKo, a semantically enabled visualization framework, can be leveraged by Giovanni as a semantic bridge between data and visualization. VisKo relates data and visualization services at conceptual (i.e., ontological) levels and relies on reasoning systems to leverage the conceptual relationships to automatically infer physical links, facilitating an adaptable environment for new visualization scenarios. This is particularly useful for Giovanni, which has been constantly retrofitted with new visualization software packages to keep up with advancement in visualization capabilities. During our prototype integration of Giovanni with VisKo, a number of future steps were identified that if implemented could cement the integration and promote our prototype to operational status. A number of integration issues arose including the mediation of different languages used by each system to characterize datasets; VisKo relies on semantic data characterization to "match-up" data with visualization processes. It was necessary to identify mappings between Giovanni XML provenance and Proof Markup Language, which is understood by VisKo. Although a translator was implemented based on identified mappings, a more elegant solution is to develop a domain data ontology specific to Giovanni and to "align" this ontology with PML, enabling VisKo to directly ingest the semantic descriptions of Giovanni data. Additionally, the relationship between dataset components (e.g., variables and attributes) and visualization plot components (e.g., geometries, axes, titles) should also be modeled. In Giovanni, meta

  1. Giovanni: A System for Rapid Access, Visualization and Analysis of Earth Science Data Online

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, S.; Rui, H.; Liu, Z.; Zhu, T.; Lu, L.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Teng, W.; Acker, J.; Johnson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Collecting data and understanding data structures traditionally are the first steps that a user must take, before the core investigation can begin. This is a time-consuming and challenging task, especially when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data that are usually in different formats and internal structures. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has created the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure, Giovanni, to enable Web-based visualization and analysis of satellite remotely sensed meteorological, oceanographic, and hydrologic data sets, without users having to download data. The current operational Giovanni interfaces provide the capability to process a number of important satellite measurements, such as (1) ozone and other trace gases from TOMS, OMI, HALOE, and MLS; (2) air temperature, water vapor, and geopotential height from AIRS; (3) aerosols from MODIS TerrdAqua, and GOCART model; (4) precipitation from TRMM and ground measurements; (5) chlorophyll and other ocean color products from SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua; and (6) sea surface temperature from MODIS Aqua. Depending on the input data structure, the system provides simple statistical analysis and creates time-averaged area plot, area-averaged time series, animations, Hovmoller latitude vs. time and longitude vs. time plots, as well as vertical profiles. The inter-comparison interfaces allow a user to compare observations from different instruments, to conduct anomaly analysis, and to study basic relationships between physical parameters. Giovanni handles data with different temporal and spatial resolutions and, thus, enables both regional and global long-term climate research and short-term special events investigation, as well as data validations and assessments. Because of its simplicity of usage, Giovanni is powerful and versatile, able to assist a wide range of users, from the discipline scientists

  2. Aerosol Intercomparison Scenarios for the Giovanni Multi-sensor Data Synergy “Advisor”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, S. A.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Prados, A. I.; Shen, S.; Pan, J.; Rui, H.; Lynnes, C.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Zednik, S.

    2009-12-01

    The combination of remotely sensed aerosols datasets can result in synergistic products that are more useful than the sum of the individual datasets. Multi-sensor composite datasets can be constructed by data merging (taking very closely related parameters to create a single merged dataset to increase spatial and/or temporal coverage), cross-calibration (creating long-term climate data records from two very similar parameters), validation (using a parameter from one dataset to validate a closely related parameter in another), cross-comparison (comparing two datasets with different parameters), and data fusion (using two or more parameters to estimate a third parameter). However, care must be taken to note the differences in data provenance and quality when combining heterogeneous datasets. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is currently in its first year of funding for our project Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA or Giovanni Advisor) under the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems and Technology (AIST) program. The Giovanni Advisor will allow researchers to combine and compare aerosol data from multiple sensors using Giovanni, such that scientifically and statistically valid conclusions can be drawn. The Giovanni Advisor will assist the user in determining how to match up two (or more) sets of data that are related, yet significantly different in some way: in the exact phenomenon being measured, the measurement technique, or the location in space-time and/or the quality of the measurements. Failing to account for these differences in merging, validation, cross calibration, comparison or fusion is likely to yield scientifically dubious results. The Giovanni Advisor captures details of each parameter’s attributes, metadata, retrieval heritage, provenance and data quality and flags relevant differences so that the user can make appropriate “apples to apples” comparisons of

  3. Giovanni: A System for Rapid Access, Visualization and Analysis of Earth Science Data Online

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, S.; Rui, H.; Liu, Z.; Zhu, T.; Lu, L.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Teng, W.; Acker, J.; Johnson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Collecting data and understanding data structures traditionally are the first steps that a user must take, before the core investigation can begin. This is a time-consuming and challenging task, especially when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data that are usually in different formats and internal structures. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has created the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure, Giovanni, to enable Web-based visualization and analysis of satellite remotely sensed meteorological, oceanographic, and hydrologic data sets, without users having to download data. The current operational Giovanni interfaces provide the capability to process a number of important satellite measurements, such as (1) ozone and other trace gases from TOMS, OMI, HALOE, and MLS; (2) air temperature, water vapor, and geopotential height from AIRS; (3) aerosols from MODIS TerrdAqua, and GOCART model; (4) precipitation from TRMM and ground measurements; (5) chlorophyll and other ocean color products from SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua; and (6) sea surface temperature from MODIS Aqua. Depending on the input data structure, the system provides simple statistical analysis and creates time-averaged area plot, area-averaged time series, animations, Hovmoller latitude vs. time and longitude vs. time plots, as well as vertical profiles. The inter-comparison interfaces allow a user to compare observations from different instruments, to conduct anomaly analysis, and to study basic relationships between physical parameters. Giovanni handles data with different temporal and spatial resolutions and, thus, enables both regional and global long-term climate research and short-term special events investigation, as well as data validations and assessments. Because of its simplicity of usage, Giovanni is powerful and versatile, able to assist a wide range of users, from the discipline scientists

  4. Online Time Series Analysis of Land Products over Asia Monsoon Region via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis is critical to the study of land cover/land use changes and climate. Time series studies at local-to-regional scales require higher spatial resolution, such as 1km or less, data. MODIS land products of 250m to 1km resolution enable such studies. However, such MODIS land data files are distributed in 10ox10o tiles, due to large data volumes. Conducting a time series study requires downloading all tiles that include the study area for the time period of interest, and mosaicking the tiles spatially. This can be an extremely time-consuming process. In support of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) has processed MODIS land products at 1 km resolution over the Asia monsoon region (0o-60oN, 60o-150oE) with a common data structure and format. The processed data have been integrated into the Giovanni system (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) that enables users to explore, analyze, and download data over an area and time period of interest easily. Currently, the following regional MODIS land products are available in Giovanni: 8-day 1km land surface temperature and active fire, monthly 1km vegetation index, and yearly 0.05o, 500m land cover types. More data will be added in the near future. By combining atmospheric and oceanic data products in the Giovanni system, it is possible to do further analyses of environmental and climate changes associated with the land, ocean, and atmosphere. This presentation demonstrates exploring land products in the Giovanni system with sample case scenarios.

  5. Performance, Agility and Cost of Cloud Computing Services for NASA GES DISC Giovanni Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Chen, A.; Wharton, S.; Winter, E. L.; Lynnes, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is investigating the performance, agility and cost of Cloud computing for GES DISC applications. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure), one of the core applications at the GES DISC for online climate-related Earth science data access, subsetting, analysis, visualization, and downloading, was used to evaluate the feasibility and effort of porting an application to the Amazon Cloud Services platform. The performance and the cost of running Giovanni on the Amazon Cloud were compared to similar parameters for the GES DISC local operational system. A Giovanni Time-Series analysis of aerosol absorption optical depth (388nm) from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument)/Aura was selected for these comparisons. All required data were pre-cached in both the Cloud and local system to avoid data transfer delays. The 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month data were used for analysis on the Cloud and local system respectively, and the processing times for the analysis were used to evaluate system performance. To investigate application agility, Giovanni was installed and tested on multiple Cloud platforms. The cost of using a Cloud computing platform mainly consists of: computing, storage, data requests, and data transfer in/out. The Cloud computing cost is calculated based on the hourly rate, and the storage cost is calculated based on the rate of Gigabytes per month. Cost for incoming data transfer is free, and for data transfer out, the cost is based on the rate in Gigabytes. The costs for a local server system consist of buying hardware/software, system maintenance/updating, and operating cost. The results showed that the Cloud platform had a 38% better performance and cost 36% less than the local system. This investigation shows the potential of cloud computing to increase system performance and lower the overall cost of system management.

  6. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini.

    PubMed

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-03-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone.

  7. Data Visualization and Analysis for Climate Studies using NASA Giovanni Online System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Leptoukh, Gregory; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    With many global earth observation systems and missions focused on climate systems and the associated large volumes of observational data available for exploring and explaining how climate is changing and why, there is an urgent need for climate services. Giovanni, the NASA GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd ANalysis Infrastructure, is a simple to use yet powerful tool for analysing these data for research on global warming and climate change, as well as for applications to weather. air quality, agriculture, and water resources,

  8. Il sistema multiplo di Spica osservato dal Padre Giovanni Battista Audiffredi nel 1753

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2005-06-01

    The multiplicity of Spica's system has been first observed in 1753 by the dominican father Giovanni Battista Audiffredi through a lunar occultation. Audiffredi noted that the emersion's duration from the bright lunar limb was not instantaneous. Nowadays Spica has five known components, four of them have been discovered by occultation. This observation is presented along with a general introduction of lunar occultations, Watts' profiles, Cassini regions and grazes.

  9. NASA Giovanni: A Tool for Visualizing, Analyzing, and Inter-comparing Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, Bruce; deJeu, Richard; Fang, Fan; Lei, Guang-Dih; Parinussa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There are many existing satellite soil moisture algorithms and their derived data products, but there is no simple way for a user to inter-compare the products or analyze them together with other related data. An environment that facilitates such inter-comparison and analysis would be useful for validation of satellite soil moisture retrievals against in situ data and for determining the relationships between different soil moisture products. As part of the NASA Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) family of portals, which has provided users worldwide with a simple but powerful way to explore NASA data, a beta prototype Giovanni Inter-comparison of Soil Moisture Products portal has been developed. A number of soil moisture data products are currently included in the prototype portal. More will be added, based on user requirements and feedback and as resources become available. Two application examples for the portal are provided. The NASA Giovanni Soil Moisture portal is versatile and extensible, with many possible uses, for research and applications, as well as for the education community.

  10. Using NASA's Giovanni Web Portal to Access and Visualize Satellite-Based Earth Science Data in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, S. A.; Acker, J. G.; Prados, A. I.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2008-12-01

    One of the biggest obstacles for the average Earth science student today is locating and obtaining satellite- based remote sensing datasets in a format that is accessible and optimal for their data analysis needs. At the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) alone, on the order of hundreds of Terabytes of data are available for distribution to scientists, students and the general public. The single biggest and time-consuming hurdle for most students when they begin their study of the various datasets is how to slog through this mountain of data to arrive at a properly sub-setted and manageable dataset to answer their science question(s). The GES DISC provides a number of tools for data access and visualization, including the Google-like Mirador search engine and the powerful GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) web interface. Giovanni provides a simple way to visualize, analyze and access vast amounts of satellite-based Earth science data. Giovanni's features and practical examples of its use will be demonstrated, with an emphasis on how satellite remote sensing can help students understand recent events in the atmosphere and biosphere. Giovanni is actually a series of sixteen similar web-based data interfaces, each of which covers a single satellite dataset (such as TRMM, TOMS, OMI, AIRS, MLS, HALOE, etc.) or a group of related datasets (such as MODIS and MISR for aerosols, SeaWIFS and MODIS for ocean color, and the suite of A-Train observations co-located along the CloudSat orbital path). Recently, ground-based datasets have been included in Giovanni, including the Northern Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and EPA fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for air quality. Model data such as the Goddard GOCART model and MERRA meteorological reanalyses (in process) are being increasingly incorporated into Giovanni to facilitate model- data intercomparison. A full suite of data

  11. Some remarks on preparations for Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli's journey to Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    The present paper deals with the outline of some circumstances of the visit of Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli to the Nicolai Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Russia. There are some scan-copies of official letters displayed which belong to the collection from the diplomatic correspondence between the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Russia, and the Diplomatic Service of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The correspondence had been triggered by the application of Schiaparelli for his trip to the Pulkovo Observatory with the aim of perfection in Astronomy and Geodesy. The corresponding facsimile as well as its English translation is given

  12. NASA Giovanni Portals for NLDAS/GLDAS Online Visualization, Analysis, and Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David M.; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) are generating a series of land surface forcing (e.g., precipitation, surface meteorology, and radiation), state (e.g., soil moisture and temperature, and snow), and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products, simulated by several land surface models. To date, NLDAS and GLDAS have generated more than 30 (1979 - present) and 60 (1948 - present) years of data, respectively. To further facilitate data accessibility and utilization, three new portals in the NASA Giovanni system have been made available for NLDAS and GLDAS online visualization, analysis, and intercomparison.

  13. The Renaissance and the universal surgeon: Giovanni Andrea Della Croce, a master of traumatology.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Tarabella, Vittorio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Anna; Tomba, Patrizia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2013-12-01

    All the medical knowledge of all time in one book, the universal and perfect manual for the Renaissance surgeon, and the man who wrote it. This paper depicts the life and works of Giovanni Andrea della Croce, a 16th Century physician and surgeon, who, endowed with true spirit of Renaissance humanism, wanted to teach and share all his medical knowledge through his opus magnum, titled "Universal Surgery Complete with All the Relevant Parts for the Optimum Surgeon". An extraordinary book which truly represents a defining moment and a founding stone for traumatology, written by a lesser known historical personality, but nonetheless the Renaissance Master of Traumatology.

  14. Explore Earth Science Datasets for STEM with the NASA GES DISC Online Visualization and Analysis Tool, Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Acker, J.; Kempler, S.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center(DISC) is one of twelve NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Data Centers that provide Earth science data, information, and services to users around the world including research and application scientists, students, citizen scientists, etc. The GESDISC is the home (archive) of remote sensing datasets for NASA Precipitation and Hydrology, Atmospheric Composition and Dynamics, etc. To facilitate Earth science data access, the GES DISC has been developing user-friendly data services for users at different levels in different countries. Among them, the Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni, http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users to explore satellite-based datasets using sophisticated analyses and visualization without downloading data and software, which is particularly suitable for novices (such as students) to use NASA datasets in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) activities. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce Giovanni along with examples for STEM activities.

  15. Real Data and Rapid Results: Ocean Color Data Analysis with Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, J. G.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.; Gregg, W.; Berrick, S.; Zhu, T.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has taken a major step addressing the challenge of using archived Earth Observing System (EOS) data for regional or global studies by developing an infrastructure with a World Wide Web interface which allows online, interactive, data analysis: the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure, or "Giovanni." Giovanni provides a data analysis environment that is largely independent of underlying data file format. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project has created an initial implementation of Giovanni using monthly Standard Mapped Image (SMI) data products from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission. Giovanni users select geophysical parameters, and the geographical region and time period of interest. The system rapidly generates a graphical or ASCII numerical data output. Currently available output options are: Area plot (averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area); Time plot (time series averaged over any rectangular area); Hovmeller plots (image view of any longitude-time and latitude-time cross sections); ASCII output for all plot types; and area plot animations. Future plans include correlation plots, output formats compatible with Geographical Information Systems (GIs), and higher temporal resolution data. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project will produce sensor-independent ocean color data beginning with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) mission and extending through SeaWiFS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data sets, and will enable incorporation of Visible/lnfrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data, which will be added to Giovanni. The first phase of Giovanni will also include tutorials demonstrating the use of Giovanni and collaborative assistance in the development of research projects using the SeaWiFS and Ocean Color Time-Series Project data in the online Laboratory

  16. Real Data and Rapid Results: Ocean Color Data Analysis with Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, J. G.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.; Gregg, W.; Berrick, S.; Zhu, T.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has taken a major step addressing the challenge of using archived Earth Observing System (EOS) data for regional or global studies by developing an infrastructure with a World Wide Web interface which allows online, interactive, data analysis: the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure, or "Giovanni." Giovanni provides a data analysis environment that is largely independent of underlying data file format. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project has created an initial implementation of Giovanni using monthly Standard Mapped Image (SMI) data products from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission. Giovanni users select geophysical parameters, and the geographical region and time period of interest. The system rapidly generates a graphical or ASCII numerical data output. Currently available output options are: Area plot (averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area); Time plot (time series averaged over any rectangular area); Hovmeller plots (image view of any longitude-time and latitude-time cross sections); ASCII output for all plot types; and area plot animations. Future plans include correlation plots, output formats compatible with Geographical Information Systems (GIs), and higher temporal resolution data. The Ocean Color Time-Series Project will produce sensor-independent ocean color data beginning with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) mission and extending through SeaWiFS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data sets, and will enable incorporation of Visible/lnfrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data, which will be added to Giovanni. The first phase of Giovanni will also include tutorials demonstrating the use of Giovanni and collaborative assistance in the development of research projects using the SeaWiFS and Ocean Color Time-Series Project data in the online Laboratory

  17. Use of the NASA Giovanni Data System for Geospatial Public Health Research: Example of Weather-Influenza Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Soebiyanto, Radina; Kiang, Richard; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Giovanni data analysis system has been recognized as a useful tool to access and analyze many different types of remote sensing data. The variety of environmental data types has allowed the use of Giovanni for different application areas, such as agriculture, hydrology, and air quality research. The use of Giovanni for researching connections between public health issues and Earths environment and climate, potentially exacerbated by anthropogenic influence, has been increasingly demonstrated. In this communication, the pertinence of several different data parameters to public health will be described. This communication also provides a case study of the use of remote sensing data from Giovanni in assessing the associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters. In this study, logistic regression was employed with precipitation, temperature and specific humidity as predictors. Specific humidity was found to be associated (p 0.05) with influenza activity in both temperate and tropical climate. In the two temperate locations studied, specific humidity was negatively correlated with influenza; conversely, in the three tropical locations, specific humidity was positively correlated with influenza. Influenza prediction using the regression models showed good agreement with the observed data (correlation coefficient of 0.50.83).

  18. Striking presence of Egyptian blue identified in a painting by Giovanni Battista Benvenuto from 1524.

    PubMed

    Bredal-Jørgensen, Jørn; Sanyova, Jana; Rask, Vibeke; Sargent, Maria Louise; Therkildsen, Rikke Hoberg

    2011-09-01

    Egyptian blue has been identified in a painting from 1524 by the Italian artist Ortolano Ferrarese (Giovanni Battista Benvenuto). Egyptian blue is the oldest known synthetic pigment, invented by the Egyptians in the fourth dynasty (2613-2494 BC) of the Old Kingdom and extensively used throughout Antiquity. From about 1000 A.D., it disappeared from the historical record and was only reinvented in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The discovery of Egyptian blue in Ortolano Ferrarese's painting from 1524 shows that Egyptian blue was in fact available in the period from which it is normally considered not to exist. The identification of Egyptian blue is based on optical microscopy supported by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and visual light photon-induced spectroscopy, and finally confirmed by Raman microspectroscopy.

  19. AeroStat: NASA Giovanni Tool for Statistical Intercomparison of Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. C.; Petrenko, M.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Lynnes, C.; Da Silva, D.; Hegde, M.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Giovanni is a NASA's interactive online visualization and analysis tool for exploring very large global Earth science datasets. One of the new Giovanni analytical and statistical tools is called AeroStat, and it is designed to perform the direct statistical intercomparison of global aerosol parameters. Currently, we incorporate the MAPSS (A Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System) data that provides spatio-temporal statistics for multiple spatial spaceborne Level 2 aerosol products (MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, MISR, POLDER, OMI and CALIOP) sampled over AERONET ground stations. The dataset period, 1997-2011 (up to date), is long enough to encompass a number of scientifically challenging cases of long-term global aerosol validation from multi-sensors. AeroStat allows users to easily visualize and analyze in details the statistical properties of such cases, including data collected from multiple sensors and quality assurance (QA) properties of these data. One of the goals of AeroStat is to also provide a collaborative research environment, where aerosol scientists can share pertinent research workflow information, including data cases of interest, algorithms, best practices, and known errors, with the broader science community and enable other users of the system to easily reproduce and independently verify their results. Furthermore, AeroStat provides an easy access to the data provenance (data lineage) and quality information, which allows for a convenient tracing of scientific results back to their original input data, thus further ensuring the reliability of these results. Case studies will be presented to show the described functionality and capabilities of AeroStat, and possible directions of the future development.

  20. Catalog of Hymenoptera described by Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto

    2015-03-10

    Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym

  1. Using the NASA Giovanni DICCE Portal to Investigate Land-Ocean Linkages with Satellite and Model Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Zalles, Daniel; Krumhansl, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE), a NASA climate change education project, employs the NASA Giovanni data system to enable teachers to create climate-related classroom projects using selected satellite and assimilated model data. The easy-to-use DICCE Giovanni portal (DICCE-G) provides data parameters relevant to oceanic, terrestrial, and atmospheric processes. Participants will explore land-ocean linkages using the available data in the DICCE-G portal, in particular focusing on temperature, ocean biology, and precipitation variability related to El Ni?o and La Ni?a events. The demonstration includes the enhanced information for educators developed for the DICCE-G portal. The prototype DICCE Learning Environment (DICCE-LE) for classroom project development will also be demonstrated.

  2. 65 Years of Reprocessed GLDAS Version 2.0 Data and Their Exploration Using the NASA GES DISC Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Rodell, M.; Silberstein, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) has two components: (1) GLDAS-2.0, entirely forced with the Princeton meteorological forcing data and (2) GLDAS-2.1, forced with a combination of model and observation-based data sets. GLDAS-2.0 data from the Noah model have been reprocessed in July 2015 with updated Princeton forcing data and upgraded Land Information System (LIS) software. The temporal coverage of GLDAS 2.0 is extended to 1948 ~ 2012. The reprocessed GLDAS-2.0 data are archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), in self-describing and machine-independent NetCDF format, and can be accessed via HTTP for direct download, OPeNDAP for parameter and spatial subsetting, time aggregation, and format conversion, and Giovanni - Interactive Visualization and Analysis System. The OPeNDAP subsetting is also integrated into Simple Subset Wizard (SSW) for better User Interface and better downloading capability. This presentation describes the main characteristics of GLDAS data, the major improvements of the reprocessed data, and the access to the data. To further facilitate their use, reprocessed GLDAS-2.0 data are integrated into Giovanni, where the data can be easily explored with 17 visualization types, such as Lat-Lon Map and Animation, Time Series, Scatter Plot, and Histogram. This presentation also showcases the main climatology characteristics of 65 years of GLDAS, derived with Giovanni's new capabilities in computing climatology for user-defined time range and visualizing in Lat-Lon Map and Time Series. GLDAS-2.1 is analogous to and will soon replace GLDAS Version 1 (GLDAS-1), covering the time period from 2001 (or 2000 for the 0.25 degree data) to the present, with about a one-month latency. The data are also in NetCDF format and can be accessed via HTTP, OPeNDAP, and Giovanni.

  3. Using NASA DICCE GIOVANNI to Prepare Pre-service STEM Teachers to Teach Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Horizon oil spill incident on April 20, 2010 potentially compromised the Gulf Coast's ecosystem and human health through the marine food chain. One of the mitigation strategies to impede oil migration to the Gulf Coast's shorelines was to burn off crude oil, which resulted in the production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions such as, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene compounds. Noticeable high deaths of marine animals and a decline in phytoplankton productivity have been linked to PAH- and dispersant-toxicity. Phytoplankton plays a pivotal role in natural food chains, production of O2, and capture of CO2. Grambling State University's Water Quality Management students used the University of New Hampshire's Student Climate Data website and the NASA DICCE data portal in learning activities to understand impacts of spill mitigation on chlorophyll a concentrations. Students used NASA Giovanni data and spectral satellite images to examine phytoplankton productivity around coastal shorelines, including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida pan-handle. Area-averaged time series from Giovanni indicated that June was the peak month for chlorophyll a from 2007 to 2012. Spectral images showed that chlorophyll a concentrations between 2.5-30mg/m3 were widely distributed around the shorelines of Louisiana, Mississippi, and the Florida pan-handle from June 2007 to June 2008. Students then examined chlorophyll a concentrations in April 2010 and May 2010. Data obtained from spectral images by students showed phytoplankton blooms with a 2.5mg/m3 concentration dramatically decreased from that of April 2010. Next students examined phytoplankton productivity from 0.08-30mg/m3 in the month of June for 2010, 2011, and 2012. In June 2010, a pattern of movement in phytoplankton blooms was observed toward southwest Louisiana and Texas shorelines. Comparative data from June 2011 and June 2012 demonstrated a low

  4. "Some curious drawings". Mars through Giovanni Schiaparelli's eyes: between science and fiction.

    PubMed

    Canadelli, Elena

    2009-01-01

    From the second half of the 19th century up to the first part of the 20th century the drawings of Mars by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli became the centre of an international controversy concerning the existence of canals and the hypothetical habitability of the red planet. These images also generated a full impact on the popular culture of the time. This essays follows the scientific representations of Mars by Schiaparelli (drawings of discs and maps) from their birth in the hands of the astronomy community up to their growing old in the hands of scientific popularizers such as Camille Flammarion and science fiction writers such as Herbert George Wells. With its seas and canyons Mars turned into the ideal background for scientific and exotic romanticism, offering a suitable setting for novels and tales. The core question crossed paths with the contemporary early 20th century debate raging on about the evolutionary theory. The study of Mars moved from astronomy to extraterrestrial physiology, biology, meteorology and geography: astronomical images then became imaginary portraits of Martians and artificial Martian landscapes.

  5. Identification of Giovanni Battista Morgagni remains following historical, anthropological, and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Alberto; Zampieri, Fabio; Zampieri, Girolamo; Giuliodori, Alice; Thiene, Gaetano; Caenazzo, Luciana

    2014-11-01

    Morgagni died on December 5, 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim Church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children, four daughters, and one son were already buried. In 1868 and 1900, the tomb was opened to identify Morgagni. Among the remains of several adult individuals, two skulls considered of very old persons were identified and replaced in an earthenware jar inside the sepulcher. In 2011, we opened the tomb and found the remains described during the first two identifications, but additionally, we found the skulls fragments of three very young individuals which could have been Morgagni's children. An anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls inside the earthenware jar belonged to the oldest individuals ("senilis") between those found in the tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children. In conclusion, thanks to the interaction between historical studies, anthropological research, and molecular analysis that reinforce each other, we can assume that the skull is Giovanni Battista Morgagni's and that the series of skull fragments are from his children who were buried together with their parents.

  6. NASA Giovanni: A Tool for Visualizing, Analyzing, and Inter-Comparing Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, Bruce; deJeu, Richard; Fang, Fan; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2012-01-01

    There are many existing satellite soil moisture algorithms and their derived data products, but there is no simple way for a user to inter-compare the products or analyze them together with other related data (e.g., precipitation). An environment that facilitates such inter-comparison and analysis would be useful for validation of satellite soil moisture retrievals against in situ data and for determining the relationships between different soil moisture products. The latter relationships are particularly important for applications users, for whom the continuity of soil moisture data, from whatever source, is critical. A recent example was provided by the sudden demise of EOS Aqua AMSR-E and the end of its soil moisture data production, as well as the end of other soil moisture products that had used the AMSR-E brightness temperature data. The purpose of the current effort is to create an environment, as part of the NASA Giovanni family of portals, that facilitates inter-comparisons of soil moisture algorithms and their derived data products.

  7. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771): father of pathologic anatomy and pioneer of modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) was an Italian anatomist who introduced the anatomo-clinical concept in medicine and established anatomy as the instrument to identify the seat and etiology of any disease. He was professor of anatomy at the prestigious University of Padua for more than 50 years. His first documented text in anatomy, Adversaria Anatomica was published in three volumes between 1706 and 1719. His accurate anatomical descriptions of human organs enhanced his reputation as the most famous anatomist of Europe during that period. Morgagni published the most important work of his life, the masterpiece in pathologic anatomy, De Sedibus, in 1761. The text is based on his pathologic observations from about 700 autopsy dissections of patients whom he had treated during their lifetime. De Sedibus provides the reader with a precise correlation between the anatomo-pathologic findings at post-mortem and the clinical symptoms of a disease observed during a lifetime. Morgagni's ability to integrate and synthesize information set him apart from his contemporaries, and his anatomo-clinical method was a major breakthrough in the history of medicine as it helped physicians to diagnose a disease, analyse the prognosis of that disease and prepare a management protocol for the same. His achievements led to the emergence of pathologic anatomy as an exact science and with him began modern medicine.

  8. Exploring Climatology and Long-Term Variations of Aerosols from NASA Reanalysis MERRA-2 with Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana; Vollmer, Bruce; Li, Zhanqing

    2016-01-01

    Dust plays important roles in energy cycle and climate variations. The dust deposition is the major source of iron in the open ocean, which is an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton growth and therefore may influence the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2. Mineral dust can also act as fertilizer for forests over long time periods. Over 35 years of simulated global aerosol products from NASA atmospheric reanalysis, second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) are available from NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The MERRA-2 covers the period 1980-present, continuing as an ongoing climate analysis. Aerosol assimilation is included throughout the period, using MODIS, MISR, AERONET, and AVHRR (in the pre-EOS period). The aerosols are assimilated by using MERRA-2 aerosol model, which interact directly with the radiation parameterization, and radiatively coupled with atmospheric model dynamics in the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5). Dust deposition data along with other major aerosol compositions (e.g. black carbon, sea salt, and sulfate, etc.) are simulated as dry and wet deposition, respectively. The hourly and monthly data are available at spatial resolution of 0.5ox0.625o (latitude x longitude). Quick data exploration of climatology and interannual variations of MERRA-2 aerosol can be done through the online visualization and analysis tool, Giovanni. This presentation, using dust deposition as an example, demonstrates a number of MERRA-2 data services at GES DISC. Global distributions of dust depositions, and their seasonal and inter-annual variations are investigated from MERRA-2 monthly aerosol products.

  9. Issues in Data Fusion for Satellite Aerosol Measurements for Applications with GIOVANNI System at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalan, Arun; Zubko, Viktor; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    We look at issues, barriers and approaches for Data Fusion of satellite aerosol data as available from the GES DISC GIOVANNI Web Service. Daily Global Maps of AOT from a single satellite sensor alone contain gaps that arise due to various sources (sun glint regions, clouds, orbital swath gaps at low latitudes, bright underlying surfaces etc.). The goal is to develop a fast, accurate and efficient method to improve the spatial coverage of the Daily AOT data to facilitate comparisons with Global Models. Data Fusion may be supplemented by Optimal Interpolation (OI) as needed.

  10. Review of the " Chirurgia" of Giovanni de Vigo: estimate of his position in the history of surgery.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde

    2003-05-01

    Giovanni de Vigo, who was born in at Rapallo, Italy, lived in the early Renaissance period (1450-1525). In 1503, De Vigo became the personal surgeon to Pope Julius II. He wrote a surgical book, " Practica Copiosa in Arte Chirurgia," which was completed in 1514 and published in Latin. It was translated into English by Richard Traheron and printed by Edward Whytchurch in 1543. Vigo's " Chirurgia" consists of nine books ranging from a consideration of anatomy necessary for a surgeon, to sections on abscesses, wounds, ulcers, benign and malignant tumors, fractures and dislocations, pharmaceuticals, ointments and plasters, as well as sections on dentistry, exercise, diet, syphilis, among others. De Vigo introduces a novel approach for treating mandible dislocations and describes a trephine he invented, as well as a number of new instruments. Examination of his surgical piece demonstrates that he had a broad spectrum of knowledge in surgery based in part on the ancient Greek and Arabic medical literature but mainly on his personal experience. Giovanni de Vigo contributed significantly to the revival of medicine in the sixteenth century, and he can be considered as a bridge between Greek medicine of antiquity, Arabic medicine, and the Renaissance.

  11. Using NASA's Giovanni System to Simulate Time-Series Stations in the Outflow Region of California's Eel River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Lee, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    Oceanographic time-series stations provide vital data for the monitoring of oceanic processes, particularly those associated with trends over time and interannual variability. There are likely numerous locations where the establishment of a time-series station would be desirable, but for reasons of funding or logistics, such establishment may not be feasible. An alternative to an operational time-series station is monitoring of sites via remote sensing. In this study, the NASA Giovanni data system is employed to simulate the establishment of two time-series stations near the outflow region of California s Eel River, which carries a high sediment load. Previous time-series analysis of this location (Acker et al. 2009) indicated that remotely-sensed chl a exhibits a statistically significant increasing trend during summer (low flow) months, but no apparent trend during winter (high flow) months. Examination of several newly-available ocean data parameters in Giovanni, including 8-day resolution data, demonstrates the differences in ocean parameter trends at the two locations compared to regionally-averaged time-series. The hypothesis that the increased summer chl a values are related to increasing SST is evaluated, and the signature of the Eel River plume is defined with ocean optical parameters.

  12. Using NASA's Giovanni Web Portal to Access and Visualize Satellite-based Earth Science Data in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven; Acker, James G.; Prados, Ana I.; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles for the average Earth science student today is locating and obtaining satellite-based remote sensing data sets in a format that is accessible and optimal for their data analysis needs. At the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) alone, on the order of hundreds of Terabytes of data are available for distribution to scientists, students and the general public. The single biggest and time-consuming hurdle for most students when they begin their study of the various datasets is how to slog through this mountain of data to arrive at a properly sub-setted and manageable data set to answer their science question(s). The GES DISC provides a number of tools for data access and visualization, including the Google-like Mirador search engine and the powerful GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) web interface.

  13. Giovanni Battista Morgagni in the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo R

    2014-07-01

    The Italian physician Giovanni Battista Morgagni was the founder of the clinico-anatomical method. His masterpiece De sedibus, et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis represented a major breakthrough in the history of medicine. In the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology, Morgagni appears at the center of the fresco. With his left index finger points to the chest of a dying patient with a bulging pulsating aortic aneurysm below the left clavicle, and with his right hand, that holds a scalpel, shows the aneurysm found at the autopsy table. With this striking image the clinico-anatomical method is succinctly depicted. Professor Ignacio Chávez, the founder of the National Institute of Cardiology, gave the artist the elements to draw Morgagni, but the disposition and the importance of Morgagni in the fresco were due to the talent of Rivera.

  14. Hydrology Research with the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) Datasets at the NASA GES DISC Using Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Rui, Hualan; Acker, James G.

    2013-01-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a collaboration project between NASA/GSFC, NOAA, Princeton Univ., and the Univ. of Washington. NLDAS has created a surface meteorology dataset using the best-available observations and reanalyses the backbone of this dataset is a gridded precipitation analysis from rain gauges. This dataset is used to drive four separate land-surface models (LSMs) to produce datasets of soil moisture, snow, runoff, and surface fluxes. NLDAS datasets are available hourly and extend from Jan 1979 to near real-time with a typical 4-day lag. The datasets are available at 1/8th-degree over CONUS and portions of Canada and Mexico from 25-53 North. The datasets have been extensively evaluated against observations, and are also used as part of a drought monitor. NLDAS datasets are available from the NASA GES DISC and can be accessed via ftp, GDS, Mirador, and Giovanni. GES DISC news articles were published showing figures from the heat wave of 2011, Hurricane Irene, Tropical Storm Lee, and the low-snow winter of 2011-2012. For this presentation, Giovanni-generated figures using NLDAS data from the derecho across the U.S. Midwest and Mid-Atlantic will be presented. Also, similar figures will be presented from the landfall of Hurricane Isaac and the before-and-after drought conditions of the path of the tropical moisture into the central states of the U.S. Updates on future products and datasets from the NLDAS project will also be introduced.

  15. Computational Studies of Strongly Interacting Ultracold Atoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    In 1962, Overhauser showed that within HF the electron gas is unstable to a spin density wave (SDW) state. Determining the true HF ground state has... Overhauser states. We showed that the broken-symmetry state originates from pairing instabilities at the Fermi surface, and proposed a model to...236404, 2008. [20] A. W. Overhauser . Spin density waves in an electron gas. Phys. Rev., 128:1427, 1962. [21] G. F. Giuliani and G. Vignale. Quantum

  16. Spatial and Temporal Coherence of SeaWiFS Chlorophyll Concentration Anomalies in the North Atlantic Bloom (1998-2005) Examined with Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of climatological chlorophyll-a concentration data products from the SeaWiFS mission spanning the eight-year mission period allowed the creation of a climatological anomaly analysis function in Giovanni, the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure. This study utilizes the Giovanni anomaly analysis function to examine mesoscale anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean during the springtime North Atlantic Bloom. This examination indicates that areas exhibiting positive anomalies and areas exhibiting negative anomalies are coherent over significant spatial scales, with relatively abrupt boundaries between areas with positive and negative anomalies. Year-to-year variability in anomaly "intensity" can be caused by either variability in the temporal occurrence of the bloom peak or by variability in the peak chlorophyll concentration in a particular area. The study will also discuss the feasibility of combining chlorophyll anomaly analysis with other data types.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Coherence of SeaWiFS Chlorophyll Concentration Anomalies in the North Atlantic Bloom (1998-2005) Examined with Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of climatological chlorophyll-a concentration data products from the SeaWiFS mission spanning the eight-year mission period allowed the creation of a climatological anomaly analysis function in Giovanni, the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and ANalysis Infrastructure. This study utilizes the Giovanni anomaly analysis function to examine mesoscale anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean during the springtime North Atlantic Bloom. This examination indicates that areas exhibiting positive anomalies and areas exhibiting negative anomalies are coherent over significant spatial scales, with relatively abrupt boundaries between areas with positive and negative anomalies. Year-to-year variability in anomaly "intensity" can be caused by either variability in the temporal occurrence of the bloom peak or by variability in the peak chlorophyll concentration in a particular area. The study will also discuss the feasibility of combining chlorophyll anomaly analysis with other data types.

  18. [The Barrés test and Mingazzini test -Importance of the original paper by Giovanni Mingazzini].

    PubMed

    Hirose, Genjiro

    2015-01-01

    In order to find a subtle hemiparesis of the arms and legs, so called "Barré's test" has been routinely used in clinical practice. This eponym has been questioned by several neurologists. To clarify this, I searched and found the original paper by Giovanni Mingazzini, reported in Revue Neurologique in 1913. He showed arm drift test with his original photo, as asking the patient to stretch his arms in front, hands in the same horizontal plane with the manner of swearing and the fingers spread. The eyes are closed. The examiner observes downward drift of the hand after one half to a minute. He described a similar test for the legs in this article. The patient in supine position raises the legs in a 45 degree angle from the bed. If the leg drops downward too early, an organic hemiparesis could be present. Barré described a new leg drift test in 1919 with a patient lying on the abdomen. He also presented the Mingazzini's arm and leg tests with photos as carried by his patient-models in his article of 1937. He did not quote the original article of Mingazzini as a reference. These brought us incorrect information to consider the presence of Barré's arm test.

  19. Merging MODIS Terra and Aqua Level 3 Aerosol Optical Thickness for Giovanni Online Data Analysis and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, V.; Leptoukh, G.; Gopalan, A.

    2007-12-01

    With a vast amount of satellite-obtained environmental data held, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) researches ways to combine multi-sensor data to increase their usefulness, and to integrate it in the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni). Here, we studied the performance of various methods for merging-interpolating the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua Level 3 Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT). To quickly validate the accuracy of the merger, we introduced two confidence functions, which characterize the percentage of the merged AOT pixels as a function of the relative deviation of the merged AOT from original Terra and Aqua AOTs in respect to the original AOT standard deviations or AOT means. Experiment with three different methods for pure merging (no interpolation): simple arithmetic averaging (SIM), maximum likelihood estimate (MLE), and weighting by pixel counts (WPC) demonstrated the relative proximity of the resulting AOTs produced by the three methods with the MLE (SIM) being slightly preferable when validating with respect to AOT standard deviations (AOT means). Another experiment with eight different methods of combined merger-interpolation applied to a variety of scenes with different gap patterns showed that that the absolutely best method is when the merging of Terra and Aqua AOTs is done first followed by Optimal Interpolation to fill in the gaps. The sensitivity of the results to the gap patterns and radius of influence was assessed.

  20. A great enigma of the Italian Renaissance: paleopathological study on the death of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere (1498-1526) and historical relevance of a leg amputation.

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Gino; Bartolozzi, Pietro; Bartolozzi, Carlo; Rossi, Barbara; Menchi, Ilario; Piccioli, Andrea

    2014-09-10

    The Medici project consisted in archeological and paleopathological researches on some members of the great dynasty of the Italian Renaissance. The remains of Giovanni de' Medici, so-called "dalle Bande Nere" (Forlì 1498- Mantua 1526) have not been investigated yet. The enigma of the fatal injury and leg amputation of the famous Captain excited curiosity of paleopathologists, medical scientists and Italian Society of Orthopedic and Traumatology which contributed to realize the project of exhumation and study of his skeletal remains. The aim of the study is to report the first anthropological and paleopathological results. The tomb of Giovanni and his wife Maria Salviati was explored and the skeletal remains were investigated. Anthropological and paleopathological examination defined: age at death, physical constitution and activity, skeletal diseases. The bones of the leg were studied macroscopically, under stereoscopic microscope, at X-ray and CT scans to detect type of injury and level of amputation. The skeleton and muscular insertions of Giovanni revealed a young-adult and vigorous man, subjected to stresses of military activity since adolescence. Right tibia was amputated below the proximal half of diaphysis leaving long tibio-fibular stumps with a horizontal cut only at the lateral portion. Thus, the surgeon limited to complete the traumatic hemi-amputation. Amputation in the Sixteenth Century technically consisted in guillotine incisions below the knee using crescent shaped knife and bony saw, usually leaving a quite long tibial stump. Amputations in the Sixteenth Century were contaminated and grossly performed not providing vascular binding nor wound closure. The surgeon performed the procedure in conformity with surgical knowledge of that period.

  1. Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), author of a pioneering treatise on pituitary surgery: the foundations of this new field in Europe in the early 1900s.

    PubMed

    Pascual, José M; Mongardi, Lorenzo; Prieto, Ruth; Castro-Dufourny, Inés; Rosdolsky, María; Strauss, Sewan; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Winter, Eduard; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2017-05-27

    The field of pituitary surgery was born in the first decade of the twentieth century in Europe, and it evolved rapidly with the development of numerous innovative surgical techniques by some of the founding fathers of neurosurgery. This study investigates the pioneering Italian treatise on pituitary surgery, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), published in 1911 by Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), a surgeon from Pavía and one of Golgi's disciples. This little-known monograph compiles the earliest experience on pituitary surgery through the analysis of the first 50 procedures performed between 1903 and 1911. We conducted a biographical survey of Giovanni Verga and the motivations for his work on pituitary surgery. In addition, a systematic analysis of all original reports and historical documents about these pituitary procedures referenced in Verga's treatise was carried out. Verga's treatise provides a summary of the techniques employed and surgical outcomes for the first 50 attempted procedures of pituitary tumor removal. This monograph is the only scientific source that includes a complete account of the series of 10 pituitary tumors operated on by Sir Victor Horsley in the 1900s. Three major types of surgery were employed: (i) palliative procedures of craniectomy (n = 6); (ii) transcranial approaches to the pituitary gland, either subfrontal or subtemporal (n = 13); and (iii) transphenoidal routes to expose the sella turcica, either using an upper transnasal-transethmoidal approach (n = 19) or a lower sublabial/endonasal-transeptal one (n = 12). An operative mortality rate of 36% (n = 17) was observed in these early series. The pathological nature of the tumors operated on was available in 42 cases. There were 28 adenomas and 15 craniopharyngiomas. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and the Viennese surgeons Anton von Eiselsberg (1860-1939) and Oskar Hirsch (1877-1965) were the leading European figures in the development

  2. The island of Elba (Tuscany, Italy) at the crossroads of ancient trade routes: an archaeometric investigation of dolia defossa from the archaeological site of San Giovanni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manca, Rosarosa; Pagliantini, Laura; Pecchioni, Elena; Santo, Alba P.; Cambi, Franco; Chiarantini, Laura; Corretti, Alessandro; Costagliola, Pilario; Orlando, Andrea; Benvenuti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Dolia are large pottery containers used in Roman times for the storage and fermentation of wine. They were produced in specialized pottery workshops ( figlinae) and were typically marked with specific epigraphical stamps, which represent a major tool to unravel their provenance and trade. In this work we present the preliminary results of a study of two dolia defossa, recently found at San Giovanni (Portoferraio, island of Elba, Italy) during 2012-2014 archaeological excavations in a Roman farm (late 2nd cent. BC-1st cent. AD), devoted to wine production and probably constituting the antecedent archaeological phase of the adjacent "Villa delle Grotte". Based on archaeological (epigraphic) evidence, five different production areas have been hypothesized: 1) Elba island, where the dolia have been found; 2) the municipal figlinae in the Pisa territory; 3) the middle catchment of the Tiber river (central Latium) where "urban" figlinae occurred; 4) the figlinae of Minturno (southern Latium), a locality known both for wine production and exportation and for the presence of ancient figlinae; 5) the municipal figlinae in the Volterra territory. Archaeometric analysis of tempering agents intentionally added to the clay for the manufacturing of the dolia, particularly magmatic lithic fragments and clinopyroxene crystals, allowed us to suggest that the watershed of the central Tiber Valley - including different volcanic centres belonging to both Tuscany Magmatic Province (Monti Cimini) and Roman Magmatic Province (Monti Vulsini and Vico volcano) - could have been the most likely sites of production of the dolia found at San Giovanni. Alternatively, the site of Minturno (southern Latium) could be proposed.

  3. The clinico-pathological conference, based upon Giovanni Battista Morgagni's legacy, remains of fundamental importance even in the era of the vanishing autopsy.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fabio; Rizzo, Stefania; Thiene, Gaetano; Basso, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Walter Cannon and Richard Cabot inaugurated the clinico-pathological conference (CPC) at Harvard Medical School at the beginning of the twentieth century, but this approach to anatomo-clinical correlation was first introduced by Giovanni Battista Morgagni at the University of Padua in the eighteenth century. The CPC consists of the presentation of a clinical case, in which past and recent medical histories of the patient, with all relevant information about laboratory tests including biopsy results, therapy and, eventually in a fatal case, the autopsy, are discussed. This is done for an audience of trainees and all physicians involved in the care for the patient. The CPC is still in use in many academic hospitals, as a teaching tool not only for undergraduate and graduate medical trainees, but also for postgraduate continuous medical education, in spite of the progressively declining autopsy rate. CPCs represent the ideal occasion for fruitful discussion between the two "souls" of medicine, i.e., the clinical, with its focus on the patient, and the pathological, with its focus on understanding disease. To discontinue using them would be equal to denying that modern medicine originated in Morgagni's method.

  4. Integrated Techniques for Analysis and Monitoring of Historical Monuments: the case of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro in Brindisi (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calia, A.; Giannotta, M. T.; Masini, N.; Quarta, G.; Persico, R.

    2009-04-01

    Non destructive testing has been gaining a large interest in the field of the diagnostics applied to the cultural heritage. The exceptional and brittle nature of the investigated structures, in fact, discourages invasive investigation techniques even more than in other applications. In particular, non-destructive testing can be exploited for the detection of fractures or for the investigation of pillars and columns within churches of particular historical and/or architectural relevance. This has been recently done in the cathedral of Matera [1], and previously in the crypt of the Romanesque cathedral of Otranto [2]. In both cases, integrated prospecting has been performed, where GPR data have been considered together with acoustic sounding or resistive measurements and even microclimatic investigation. Integrated prospecting is a good help to perform not only the diagnosis of the structure but also its restoring and continuative preservation. In this contribution, we propose a case study where integrated methodologies have been adopted for the analysis of the conservation state of the architectural elements which constitute the church of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro, in Brindisi (Southern Italy). This church is a precious artifact of medieval age, which recently underwent restoration works. IBAM-CNR has been put in charge of the task to analyse the constitutive materials, the superficial finishing (paintings, patinas, plasters etc.) and the causes and the products of the decay. The information retrieved from the analysis of the materials have been fruitfully integrated with non-destructive testing of the structure. Some results will be shown at the conference. References [1] N. Masini, R. Persico, A. Guida, A. Pagliuca, "A Multifrequency and Multisensor Approach for the Study and the Restoration of Monuments: the Case of the Cathedral of Matera.", Advances in Geoscience, vol. 18, pp. 1-6, 2008. [2] G. Leucci, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "Detection of Fracture From GPR

  5. Educator Uses of Data-Enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE), An Online System for Accessing a Vast Portal of NASA Earth System Data Known As the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE) has made it easier and more technologically feasible for secondary and post-secondary instructors and students to study climate change and related Earth system phenomena using data products from the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI), a powerful portal of Earth observation data that provides access to numerous data products on Earth system phenomena representing the land biosphere, physical land, ocean biosphere, physical ocean, physical atmosphere, atmospheric gases, and energy and radiation system. These data products are derived from remote-sensing instruments on satellites, ground stations, and data assimilation models. Instructors and students can query the GIOVANNI data archive, then save the results as map images, time series plots, vertical profiles of the atmosphere, and data tables. Any part of the world can be selected for analysis. The project has also produced a tool for instructors to author and adapt standards-based lesson plans, student data investigation activities, and presentations around visualizations they make available to their students via DICCE-G. Supports are provided to students and teachers about how to interpret trends in data products of their choice at the regional level and a schema has been developed to help them understand how those data products fit into current scientific thinking about the certainties and uncertainties of climate change. The presentation will (1) describe the features of DICCE, (2) examples of curricula developed to make use of DICCE in classrooms, (3) how these curricula align to Next Generation Science Standards, and (4) how they align to science education research literature about how to make school science more engaging. Recently-analyzed teacher and student outcomes from DICCE use will also be reported.

  6. Using the Amatrice (Italy) seismic sequence we asses the soil-structure in the case of San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039) in Acquasanta Terme town. We tried to figure out how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caserta, A.; Doumaz, F.; Costanzo, A.; Buongiorno, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy) mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039) in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  7. Riccioli, Giambattista [Giovanni Battista] (1598-1671)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Italian astronomer, born in Ferrara, became a Jesuit and came into conflict with the Copernican system, like OSIANDER refuting it while acknowledging its use as a mathematical hypothesis. Mapped the Moon and introduced some of the names still used, in a chart published in the New Almagest in 1651. As a follower of the Ptolemaic system, he named major lunar craters after HIPPARCHUS, PTOLEMY and BR...

  8. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), the First Pediatric Pathologist.

    PubMed

    Abramowsky, Carlos R; Berkowitz, Frank E

    2015-01-01

    During the age of enlightenment in the 18th century, radical changes were occurring in the Western world in science, medicine, philosophy, religion, and socio-economic concepts. In medicine, major advances had already been underway since the days of Vesalius.

  9. Scientific method, history, Darwinism and laicism: a Giovanni Jervis's intellectual biography.

    PubMed

    Corbellini, Gilberto; Sirgiovanni, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Some authors marked a change of perspective from the early to the late Jervis's thought, in terms of a supposed turn towards conservatism. That laid him open to criticism from some Leftist Italian intellectuals. The aim of this paper is to show that conservatism never was a Jervis's thought feature. Mainly, subjects and methods leading the development of his philosophical views suggest a continuity between earlier writings and later ones. All over his thought, in fact, the idea of preeminence of scientific method and historical contextualization convinced him about naturalistic approaches to human behavior, which came to support his Darwinism and laicism in approaching socio-psychological and socio-political issues.

  10. 75 FR 1680 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition: Determinations: “Giovanni Boldini in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Paris'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority... Paris,'' imported from abroad for temporary ] exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians....

  11. Giovanni Battista Cambieri and the beginning of venereology in Rijeka region.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franjo; Brajac, Ines; Stanić-Zgombić, Zrinka

    2008-01-01

    In 1790, an infectious disease appeared in the village of Skrljevo near Rijeka, and spread to the nearby villages and then to Istria, Slovenia and other parts of Croatia. In 1800, the nature of the disease was first investigated by the protomedicus Massich, who believed it was a combination of syphilis and scabies. After him, the protomedicus of the region G. B. Cambieri, who graduated in Pavia and came to Rijeka in 1797, studied the illness, gave a description of the disease and believed it was a morbus sui generis, and termed it morbus of Scherlievo. He was a gifted physician, used all his knowledge, skills and organization capabilities to arrest the disease, and published his works in Italian journals (in 1812 and 1819). Cambieri studied the disease in thousands of patients in local hospitals, and took the initiative to open a new Civic Hospital with a department of syphilidology. He divided the disease into four stages and with permission of the authorities he tried different therapies. With time, he found the disease to be a form of syphilis and treated it with mercury compounds. After his death in 1838, he left his money to the Hospital of Holy Spirit in Rijeka (Cambieri Foundation), which permitted its development.

  12. Cassini, Gian Domenico [Giovanni Domenico; Jean Dominique; known as Cassini I] (1625-1712)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Italian-born French astronomer, born in Perinaldo, near Naples. Attracted to astrology in his youth, became Professor at Bologna, during which time he conducted hydrological studies for the Pope to mitigate flooding of the River Po. In 1669 Cassini moved to France and set up the Paris Observatory, remaining director for the rest of his career. He pushed continually for the observatory to acquire ...

  13. Illness, body and relationship: Giovanni Jervis and the field of clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Williams, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most of his contemporaries, Jervis felt it was necessary to give new answers to last century's clinical psychology crisis. He managed to show the relevance that psychological knowledge coming from other sectors (such as philosophy, evolutionary biology, cybernetics, ethology and, nowadays, neuroscience) could have for clinical psychology. He realized that the clinical world was at risk of loosing its cultural models of reference and threatened to break up with the scientific tradition with which it had not been able to establish a profitable dialogue. Jervis' views on mental functioning allowed him to delimit the field of action of clinical psychology. The focus on pathology and existential distress suggested that correct clinical evaluation and diagnosis are at the core of the activity of clinical psychologists. The tension between relational expectations, self-deceptive aspects of identity and the bodily sources of mental life show the dynamic field on which clinical psychology can deploy its transformative action.

  14. Developing GIOVANNI-based Online Prototypes to Intercompare TRMM-Related Global Gridded-Precipitation Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Teng, William; Kempler, Steven; Milich, Lenard

    2014-01-01

    New online prototypes have been developed to extend and enhance the previous effort by facilitating investigation of product characteristics and intercomparison of precipitation products in different algorithms as well as in different versions at different spatial scales ranging from local to global without downloading data and software. Several popular Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products and the TRMM Composite Climatology are included. In addition, users can download customized data in several popular formats for further analysis. Examples show product quality problems and differences in several monthly precipitation products. It is seen that differences in daily and monthly precipitation products are distributed unevenly in space and it is necessary to have tools such as those presented here for customized and detailed investigations. A simple time series and two area maps allow the discovery of abnormal values of 3A25 in one of the months. An example shows a V-shaped valley issue in the Version 6 3B43 time series and another example shows a sudden drop in 3A25 monthly rain rate, all of which provide important information when the products are used for long-term trend studies. Future plans include adding more products and statistical functionality in the prototypes.

  15. 65 Years of Reprocessed GLDAS Version 2.0 Data and Their Exploration Using the NASA GES DISC Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W.; Beaudoing, H.; Rodell, M.; Silberstein, D.

    2015-01-01

    GLDAS-2.0 data have been reprocessed with updated Princeton meteorological forcing data within the Land Information System (LIS) Version 7, and temporal coverage have been extended to 1948-2012.Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) has two components: GLDAS-2.0: entirely forced with the Princeton meteorological forcing data GLDAS-2.1: forced with atmospheric analysis and observation-based data after 2001In order to create more climatologically consistent data sets, NASA GSFC's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) has recently reprocessed the GLDAS-2.0, by using updated Princeton meteorological forcing data within the LIS Version 7.GLDAS-2.0 data and data services are provided at NASA GES DISC Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), in collaboration with HSL.

  16. Seismically induced environmental effects in costal areas : the 1783, 1905 and 1908 earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily, (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, S.; Esposito, E.; Violante, C.; Sacchi, M.; Guerrieri, L.; Serva, L.; Sciarrotta, S.

    2009-04-01

    important to consider the seismically induced effects with the aim to reduce the future risk for the population living along the cost and the potential damage to structures and natural environment, through a more precise estimate of their type, size and distribution. References .Barbano M. S.(2008), Il terremoto del 1908: effetti nei centri abitati. Oral presentation. Convegno "Cento anni dopo il terremoto del 1908" ISPRA- 12-13 Novembre 2008 Messina-Villa San Giovanni. .Bozzano, F., Chiocci, F.L., Mazzanti, P., Bosman, C., Casalbore, D., Giuliani,R., Martino, S., Prestininzi, A. & Scarascia Mugnozza G.(2006). Subaerial and submarine characterisation of the landslide responsible for the 1783 Scilla tsunami. EGU 2006, Geophysical Res. Abstracts, 8, 10422. .Graziani, L., Maramai, A. & Tinti, S., 2006b. A revision of the 1783 Calabrian (southern Italy) tsunamis. Natural Hazard and Earth System Sciences, 6, 1053-1060. .Porfido S., Esposito E., Guerrieri L., Serva L., (2008). Terremoti storici ed effetti ambientali nell'area dello stretto. Oral presentation. Convegno "Cento anni dopo il terremoto del 1908" ISPRA -12-13 Novembre 2008 Messina-Villa San Giovanni.

  17. From Euclid as Textbook to the Giovanni Gentile Reform (1867-1923): Problems, Methods and Debates in Mathematics Teaching in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacardi, Livia

    2006-01-01

    The earliest legislation aimed to give comprehensive organization to the Italian education system was the Casati law, from the name of the then Minister for Education Gabrio Casati who drafted it. Promulgated by King Vittorio Emanuele II on 13 November 1859, the new law was designed to reorganize the school system in Piedmont and Lombardy, and was…

  18. The Vatican museum and the organic natural products. The Raphael's frescoes and the "Last Judgment" by Nicolò and Giovanni.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Nazzareno; Guiso, Marcella; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2017-05-25

    In the second half of the 90s, alongside the restoration works of the Quattrocentisti (fifteenth century painters) in the Sistine Chapel, it also carried out the restoration of the frescoes of the Stanze di Raffaello. The results of scientific investigations conducted by the Scientific Research Laboratory of the Vatican Museums, previously presented in some assays of study, are summarised and presented in this letter to the Editor for the special issue of Natural Product Research: Natural Products in Cultural Heritage.

  19. From Euclid as Textbook to the Giovanni Gentile Reform (1867-1923): Problems, Methods and Debates in Mathematics Teaching in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacardi, Livia

    2006-01-01

    The earliest legislation aimed to give comprehensive organization to the Italian education system was the Casati law, from the name of the then Minister for Education Gabrio Casati who drafted it. Promulgated by King Vittorio Emanuele II on 13 November 1859, the new law was designed to reorganize the school system in Piedmont and Lombardy, and was…

  20. I do ... again. After Premier agrees to change, Greater New York Hospital Assn. avoids the seven-year itch and stays with its old GPO partner.

    PubMed

    Becker, Cinda

    2004-03-22

    A new contract between the Greater New York Hospital Association and Premier marks the next step in the evolution of GPOs. An entourage from the GNYHA, Premier and Giuliani Partners, at left, attended the contract signing.

  1. 75 FR 57017 - Venice Gathering System, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... be directed to counsel for Applicant, Mark K. Lewis, Esq., Bracewell & Giuliani, 2000 K St., NW...: Mark.Lewis@bglp.com . Any person may, within 60 days after the issuance of the instant notice by the...

  2. Nearshore Circulation in Complex Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Lehmberg, J. Giuliani , S. Obenschain, F. Hegeler, S, Swanekamp, and D. Weidenheimer Charging and Shielding of "Dust Grains" in a Plasma...133 J.L Giuliani , R.A. Meger, R.E. Pechacek, and G.M. Petrov INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS Evaluation of Electronic...159 J.M. Mauro , G.P. Anderson, E.R. Goldman, H. Mattoussi, and B.L. Justus Selective Resputtering-Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in High

  3. Anatomy of the Ocean Surface Roughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    129 J.D. Sethian, M. Myers, M. Friedman, R. Lehmberg, J. Giuliani , S...J.L. Giuliani , R.A. Meger, R.E. Pechacek, and G.M. Petrov INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS Evaluation of Electronic Documents for Preparing...159 J.M. Mauro , G.P. Anderson, E.R. Goldman, H. Mattoussi, and B.L. Justus Selective Resputtering-Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in High-Density

  4. Electronic Structure, Elementary Excitations, Optical and Transport Properties of Semiconductor Superlattices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Spectroscopy due to Collective Charge Density Excitations * (e) Plasmon in Quasi Periodic Layered Electron Gas Systems (2) Impurity Levels, Excitons ...34, (with G. Giuliani and G. Qin) Surface Sci. 142, 433 (1984). "Surface and Bulk Plasmon - Polariton Bands in Periodic Metallic Heterostructures", (with G... Plasmon Polaritons in Truncated Superlattices", R. Szenics, R. F. Wallis, G. Giuliani and J. J. Quinn, Surface Science (1986). "Ma.netic Polaron Effects in

  5. Exact Time-Dependent Exchange-Correlation Potential for a 2-Electron System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Irene; Vignale, Giovanni

    1998-03-01

    We present an exact solution for the Floquet state evolving from the ground state of a 2-electron system confined in a plane by an isotropic parabolic potential whose curvature is periodically modulated in time. >From this solution we extract the exact frequency-dependent exchange correlation potential V_xc which, when used in the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation (in addition to external and Hartree potentials) generates the exact time-dependent density. The exact V_xc is compared with the V_xc's obtained from the adiabatic local density approximation and from the retarded local current-density approximation (G. Vignale and W. Kohn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 2037 (1996); G. Vignale, C. Ullrich, and S. Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997)..

  6. New York, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Sol

    1999-01-01

    New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani's recent private-school voucher proposal has strained his close collaboration with Chancellor Rudolf F. Crew. Shackled by its immensity and complexity, the system has too many failing schools and students. Higher Regents standards, disappearing principal tenure, and lagging school repairs may further erode public…

  7. Keeping the Faith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1995-01-01

    After managing the nation's largest school system for two years, Chancellor Ray Cortines will be leaving New York City Public Schools on October 15th. Cortines insists his resignation was not spurred by Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's efforts to overhaul the schools, despite skirmishes over budgets, bureaucracy, and staff. Having trimmed the budget,…

  8. The Impact of School Vouchers on College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    In 1996, Cardinal John J. O'Connor, archbishop of New York, proposed to Rudy Crew, chancellor of the New York City public school system, that the city's most troubled public-school students be sent to Catholic schools, where he would see that they were given an education. New York City's mayor at that time, Rudolph Giuliani, a voucher supporter,…

  9. Intersubband collective excitations at the surface of a semiconductor superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawrylak, Pawel; Wu, Ji-Wei; Quinn, J. J.

    1985-06-01

    The intersubband and intrasubband collective excitations of a semi-infinite semiconductor superlattice are investigated. Surface intersubband excitations, similar to the intrasubband surface modes predicted by Giuliani and Quinn, are found for wavelengths shorter than a critical value λ*, which depends on the material parameters.

  10. Plasmons in layered films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, J. K.; Allen, P. B.

    1985-06-01

    A random-phase-approximation theory is given for the electronic collective modes of a film containing N equally spaced layers of two-dimensional electron gas. Raman line shapes are predicted. The Giuliani-Quinn surface-plasmon intensity is enhanced in transmission geometry.

  11. Discrete coupled plasmon-phonon modes in finite semiconductor multi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Sooryakumar, R.

    1987-11-01

    The coupled intra subband-phonon dispersion in N equally spaced quasi two-dimensional electron gas layers embedded in a polar semiconductor is analysed. The interactions of the Giuliani-Quinn surface plamon excitations with surface and bulk phonons are also investigated.

  12. An Assessment of the Global War on Terrorism, 2001-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Counter-Terrorism on the Home Front since 9/11 (London; New York: Continuum: Cromwell Press, Ld., 2008), 119. 17 EMediaMillWorks, "Giuliani at the United... Cromwell Press, LTd, 2008. Ibrahim, Raymond. The Al Qaeda reader. New York: Broadway Books, 2007. Icart, Romain and Jean-Baptiste Rivoire. “Script

  13. Electron Beam Pumped Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) Lasers for Fusion Energy: A Tutorial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-15

    1 Naval Research Laboratory M. Friedman M. Myers S. Obenschain R. Lehmberg J. Giuliani P. Kepple Commonwealth Tech F. Hegeler SAIC M. Wolford R...34Seed" for Rayleigh Taylor Instability 5 6 7 8 9 y (mm) 18 Shape laser pulse to help raise ablator isentrope: “main” Low

  14. The Impact of School Vouchers on College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    In 1996, Cardinal John J. O'Connor, archbishop of New York, proposed to Rudy Crew, chancellor of the New York City public school system, that the city's most troubled public-school students be sent to Catholic schools, where he would see that they were given an education. New York City's mayor at that time, Rudolph Giuliani, a voucher supporter,…

  15. What's NEW at the GES DISC: Evolution of Data Management and Services for Aura Mission and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    GES DISC world. Aura data usage and trend. Aura data users requests. GES DISC update (before/after); New Access method (ftp to http) with Earthdata Login System, New Website (DISC/Mirador to New Interface), New Giovanni (Giovanni to Now Federated). GES DISC support beyond Aura Mission; Multi-sensor coincident data subsets, Level 2 support (Sub-setter, Visualization), Data List.

  16. Democratic Consolidation and Comparative Political Perspective on the 2002 Presidential Election in the ROK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    combining presidential system with legislature where no single party has majority status is a kiss of death.”52 According to Giovanni Sartori , the...Cheibub and Limongi, “What Makes Democracies Endure?” p. 46. 53 Giovanni Sartori , Parties and Party Systems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

  17. Amplification of a new surface plasma mode in the type-I semiconductor superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, J.; Kempa, K.; Bakshi, P.

    1988-11-01

    Mode structure and drift velocity thresholds for instability have been investigated for the type-I superlattice, and a new current-induced mode is found to exist for high drifts. Simple separation of the single-layer physics and superlattice geometry has been achieved, leading to an analytical expression for the Giuliani-Quinn mode and universality relations for the instability threshold curves of the new mode.

  18. VLA Observations of the AGILE Cygnus Region Source Field Following its May 2008 Re-brightening in Gamma-rays, II: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. C.

    2008-06-01

    The AGILE team (Chen et al. ATel #1585) has detected a new flare (occurring on June 20/21, 2008) from AGL2021+4029, the variable gamma-ray source in the Cygnus region. The error circles of this new June flare and that of the newly reported position of the persistent source, both unfortunately, lie outside of the r~0.5 deg field we targeted with the VLA (ATel #1584) following the May 2008 rebrightening (Giuliani et al.

  19. The Electra KRF Laser System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Petzoldt, E. Stephens, F. Najmabadi, M. Tillack, R. Raffray, Z. Dragojlovic, D. Haynes, R. Peterson, G . Kulcinski , J. Hoffer, D. Geller, D...Schroen, J. Streit, C. Olson, T. Tanaka, T. Renk, G . Rochau, L . Snead, N. Ghoneim, and G . Lucas, "Fusion energy with lasers, direct drive targets, and...THE ELECTRA KRF LASER SYSTEM ∗ F. Hegeler+ξ, M. C. Myers, M. F. Wolford, J. D. Sethian, R. Jaynes++, P. Burns+++, M. Friedman+, J. L . Giuliani, T

  20. Numerical Simulation of the Laser-Target Interaction and Blast Wave Formation in the DNA/NRL (Defense Nuclear Agency/Naval Research Laboratory) Laser Experiment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-09

    Blast Wave Formation in the DNA/NRL Laser Experiment JOHN L. GIULIANI, JR. AND MARGARET MULBRANDON Geophysical and Plasma Dynamics Branch Plasma ...title " Plasma Structure Evolution." DTIC ELL7 TE N MAY I : 1986 LLJ NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY Washington, D.C. *Appro~ed for public releasec...the Defense Nuclear Agency under Subtask W99QMXVA, work unit 00010 and work unit title " Plasma Structure Evolution." 17 COSATI CODES 18s SUBJECT TERMS

  1. Online Analysis Enhances Use of NASA Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure, has provided researchers with advanced capabilities to perform data exploration and analysis with observational data from NASA Earth observation satellites. In the past 5-10 years, examining geophysical events and processes with remote-sensing data required a multistep process of data discovery, data acquisition, data management, and ultimately data analysis. Giovanni accelerates this process by enabling basic visualization and analysis directly on the World Wide Web. In the last two years, Giovanni has added new data acquisition functions and expanded analysis options to increase its usefulness to the Earth science research community.

  2. Online Analysis Enhances Use of NASA Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure, has provided researchers with advanced capabilities to perform data exploration and analysis with observational data from NASA Earth observation satellites. In the past 5-10 years, examining geophysical events and processes with remote-sensing data required a multistep process of data discovery, data acquisition, data management, and ultimately data analysis. Giovanni accelerates this process by enabling basic visualization and analysis directly on the World Wide Web. In the last two years, Giovanni has added new data acquisition functions and expanded analysis options to increase its usefulness to the Earth science research community.

  3. Viscosity contribution to the impurity resistivity of metals by means of the current-density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Vladimir U.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2008-03-01

    Within the time-dependent density functional theory formalism we relate the impurity resistivity ρ of a metal to the friction coefficient Q of the metal for the same impurity moving with the infinitesimally small velocity, i.e., ρ=niQ / ne^2 ,1), where ni and ne are the concentrations of the randomly distributed impurities and the valence electrons, respectively. While Eq.(1) occurs trivial within the single-particle theory with the scattering at the statically screened impurities, its general validity within the many-body theory with the dynamical exchange and correlation included presents a progress. We utilize results [1,2] on Q of the electron liquid to put the electron-electron scattering contribution into the terms of the viscosity coefficients [3]. Calculations of the residual resistivity of aluminum as a function of the atomic number of the impurity are performed, improving the agreement with experiment compared to the single- particle theory [4]. [1].V. U. Nazarov, J. M. Pitarke, C. S. Kim, and Y. Takada, Phys. Rev. B 71, 121106(R) (2005). [2].V. U. Nazarov, J. M. Pitarke, Y. Takada, G. Vignale, and Y.-C. Chang, Phys. Rev. B 76, 205103 (2007). [3].G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich, and S. Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4878 (1997). [4].M. J. Puska and R. M. Nieminen, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6121 (1983).

  4. Current-density functional theory of the friction of ions in an interacting electron gas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, V. U.; Pitarke, J. M.; Takada, Y.; Vignale, G.; Chang, Y.-C.

    2007-03-01

    Recently [1], the dynamical contribution to the friction coefficient of an electron gas for ions has been obtained quite generally in terms of the exchange and correlation (xc) kernel of the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). To implement this approach practically, an efficient approximation, like the local-density approximation (LDA), is needed for the dynamical xc kernel. It is, however, known that the scalar xc kernel of the TDDFT is a nonlocal quantity for which the LDA is not only inaccurate, but also contradictory [2]. Here we recast the theory into the terms of the tensorial xc kernel of the current-density functional theory [3] in which form the LDA can be applied. Our numerical results are in a considerably better agreement with the experimental stopping power of Al than it has been the case within the LDA to the TDDFT. [1] V.U.Nazarov et al., Phys. Rev. B71, 121106 (2005). [2] G.Vignale, Phys. Lett. A209, 206 (1995). [3] G.Vignale and W.Kohn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2037 (1996).

  5. Improving the Interface between Industry and Army Science and Technology: Some Thoughts on the Army’s Independent Research and Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Contacts with acquisition technical and industrial liaison offices ( TILOs ) were generally not productive. There was little awareness and use of... TILO , Army Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Edgewood Giovanni Pagan, Plans and Programs Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory

  6. Crystal Meth

    MedlinePlus

    ... from Other Parents Stories of Hope Crystal meth Crystal meth Story of Hope by giovanni January 3, ... about my drug addiction having to deal with Crystal meth. I am now in recovery and fighting ...

  7. Metrologia: uno sguardo alle grandezze fisiche fondamentali; il Pendolo, il Piano Inclinato e g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-07-01

    Metrology studies the standards utilized in physics, we focus on MKS introduced by Giovanni Giorgi at the turn of XIX-XX century. Galileo, the pendulum and the inclined plane are reviewed to obtain the universal g.

  8. Rich, Well-Educated Get Bigger Bang for Buck from Mediterranean Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... de Gaetano. He's head of the department of epidemiology and prevention at the I.R.C.C.S. ... online July 31 in the International Journal of Epidemiology. SOURCES: Giovanni de Gaetano, director, department of epidemiology ...

  9. TES/Aura L3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) Daily V3 (TL3HNOD)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-30

    ... Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  HNO3 Volume Mixing Ratio Precision Vertical Resolution Order Data:  ... Google Earth Visualizations Giovanni Visualization - Level3 Daily Related Data:  Level 3 ...

  10. TES/Aura L3 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Daily V4 (TL3CO2D)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-30

    ... Access:   Data Pool Parameters:  CO2 Volume Mixing Ratio Precision Vertical Resolution Order Data:  ... Google Earth Visualizations Giovanni Visualization - Level3 Daily Related Data:  Level 3 ...

  11. TES/Aura L3 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Daily V3 (TL3CO2D)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-30

    ... Access:   Data Pool Parameters:  CO2 Volume Mixing Ratio Precision Vertical Resolution Order Data:  ... Google Earth Visualizations Giovanni Visualization - Level3 Daily Related Data:  Level 3 ...

  12. TES/Aura L3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) Daily V4 (TL3HNOD)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-30

    ... Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  HNO3 Volume Mixing Ratio Precision Vertical Resolution Order Data:  ... Google Earth Visualizations Giovanni Visualization - Level3 Daily Related Data:  Level 3 ...

  13. Crystal Meth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Home / Stories of Hope / Crystal meth Crystal meth Story Of Hope By giovanni January 3rd, 2013 ... my drug addiction having to deal with Crystal meth. I am now in recovery and fighting my ...

  14. Department of Defense Training for Operations with Interagency, Multinational, and Coalition Partners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    project officer for this study was Frank DiGiovanni, director, Joint Training and Ranges, OUSD P&R. Frank DiGiovanni, Joseph Thome , and Carlton...Arlington, VA 22202-5050. More information about RAND is available at www.rand.org. v Contents Preface...some tasks could belong to more than one category, the team placed each task into the category where it fit best. 4 We are grateful to Frank

  15. Comment on «Tidal notches in the Mediterranean Sea: A comprehensive analysis» by Fabrizio Antonioli, Valeria Lo Presti, Alessio Rovere, Luigi Ferranti, Marco Anzidei, Stefano Furlani, Giuseppe Mastronuzzi, Paolo E. Orru, Giovanni Scicchitano, Gianmaria Sannino, Cecilia R. Spampinato, Rossella Pagliarulo, Giacomo Deiana, Eleonora de Sabata, Paolo Sansò, Matteo Vacchi and Antonio Vecchio. Quaternary Science Reviews 119 (2015) 66-84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evelpidou, Niki; Pirazzoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The paper of Antonioli et al. (2015) presents observations of 73 sites with erosion notches, which are called tidal notches, which in fact appear to be of various genetic origins, because a combination of several physical chemical and biological processes of formation is considered including, in addition to intertidal bioerosion, also carbonate rock solution, wetting and drying and wave abrasion that would produce different types of notches. Among the erosion notches, some «roof notches», in which the notch lacks a floor, are distinguished. For these isolated roofs, we would tend to ascribe erosion to dissolution by a freshwater spring undercutting a limestone cliff at sea level. Accompanying a rise in sea level, dissolution by freshwater will tend to continuously displace the roof of the notch upwards, while the base of the notch, dissolved, will tend to be missing. For such isolated roof of a solution notch, protruding above the waterline, the term «visor» has been proposed by Evelpidou et al. (2011).

  16. Dissipation of Intersubband Plasmons in Wide Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. B.; Sherwin, M. S.; Maranowski, K. D.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-07-01

    This Letter reports detailed measurements of the dissipation times τd of ~10 meV intersubband (ISB) plasmons, and of the (single-particle) transport lifetimes τμ, in a remotely doped 40 nm GaAs quantum well. Introduced here as the time for ISB plasmons to dissipate into other modes of the electron gas, τd is deduced from the homogeneous ISB absorption linewidth, measured as a function of sheet concentration and perpendicular dc electric field. Modeling in this and the next Letter [C. A. Ullrich and G. Vignale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037402 (2001)] indicates that scattering from rough interfaces dominates τd, while scattering from ionized impurities dominates τμ.

  17. Dissipation of intersubband plasmons in wide quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Williams, J B; Sherwin, M S; Maranowski, K D; Gossard, A C

    2001-07-16

    This Letter reports detailed measurements of the dissipation times tau(d) of approximately 10 meV intersubband (ISB) plasmons, and of the (single-particle) transport lifetimes tau(mu), in a remotely doped 40 nm GaAs quantum well. Introduced here as the time for ISB plasmons to dissipate into other modes of the electron gas, tau(d) is deduced from the homogeneous ISB absorption linewidth, measured as a function of sheet concentration and perpendicular dc electric field. Modeling in this and the next Letter [C. A. Ullrich and G. Vignale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037402 (2001)] indicates that scattering from rough interfaces dominates tau(d), while scattering from ionized impurities dominates tau(mu).

  18. Identification of Phason Anomalies in the Low-Temperature Specific Heat of the Alkali Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Roger; MacDonald, A. H.; Shukla, R. C.

    1981-02-01

    The low-temperature lattice specific heats of K, Rb, and Cs in a model in which a normal ground state is assumed have been evaluated. In comparing our results with experiment, no evidence has been seen that any of these materials have charge-density-wave ground states. It is argued that the apparent anomaly in Rb, identified by Giuliani and Overhauser and ascribed by them to phason excitations of a charge-density-wave ground state, reflects the dispersion of low-energy transverse-phonon modes.

  19. Plasmons in finite type-II semiconductor multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sy, H. K.; Song, L. M.

    1988-10-01

    We study finite type-II semiconductor multilayers consisting of alternate layers of two-dimensional electron and hole carriers. The collective excitation is investigated with use of the coupled Boltzmann equations. We obtain the equation determining the plasma modes for N (even) layers. For N=6, we have shown the numerical results for two cases of different electron and hole masses. The total number of plasmons, and the existence of Giuliani-Quinn surface plasmons which are not Landau damped, depend on the parameters used.

  20. System suitable for observing surface plasmon in a semi-infinite semiconductor superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yun; Cai, Shengshan; Zhou, Shixun

    1987-08-01

    A model of semi-infinite semiconductor superlattice topped with a metal-insulator (M-I-SL) is suggested. A modified Giuliani-Quinn surface plasmon is found. It is interesting to note that the frequency and critical wavelength can be arbitrarily chosen by varying thickness of the insulator. In particular, a new type of surface plasmon with null critical wave vector exists only below the bulk plasmon continuum, and the frequency is directly related to the ratio of thickness of the insulator d to the superlattice spacing a.

  1. The case of the Doppler effect for photons revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redžić, Dragan V.

    2013-11-01

    A detailed account is presented of the Doppler effect as a photon phenomenon, complementing a recent paper by Giuliani (2013 Eur. J. Phys. 34 1035-47). The essence of Schrödinger's pioneering derivation (1922 Phys. Z. 23 301-3) of a Doppler formula in terms of the corpuscular theory of light, using energy-momentum conservation, is related. Some neglected references that put the whole scene around the Ives-Stilwell experiment into a more precise perspective are highlighted. Atoms as clocks and particle-wave complementarity are also discussed briefly.

  2. Effective medium intrasubband surface plasmon-polaritons on semi-infinite GaAs/AlAs superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, N. C.; Elmzughi, F. G.

    1996-03-01

    The effective medium theory of the long wavelength surface electromagnetic excitations of a multi-layered medium is employed to describe the surface plasmon-polaritons of a semi-infinite array of strictly two-dimensional charge sheets. A virtual p-polarised surface plasmon polariton is predicted and its associated attenuated total reflection (ATR) reflectivity calculated for typical parameters. The existence criteria for this surface polariton are less restrictive than for the Giuliani and Quinn surface mode. A radiative Brewster mode is also found and this mode may be observed via oblique incidence reflectivity.

  3. Dimensional Crossover for Intrinsic dc Josephson Effect in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 2212 Single Crystal Whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, Yu. I.; Nevelskaya, J. E.; Monceau, P.

    1996-07-01

    The variations of the critical current Ic across the layers as a function of the parallel magnetic field H have been studied on small area stacked junctions fabricated from perfect single crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 whiskers. Intrinsic dc Josephson effect has been clearly demonstrated on structures with in-plane size L less than 20 μm. With L increases, a dimensional crossover to monotonic size independent behavior of Ic\\(H\\) has been observed. Ic\\(H\\) decrease in this region is proportional to H in accordance with the Fistul-Giuliani theory.

  4. Description of a new Tiporus Watts, 1985 from northern Queensland, Australia (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael; Watts, Chris H S

    2016-11-09

    Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is described from NE Queensland. The new species is similar to T. undecimmaculatus (Clark, 1862) and T. giuliani (Watts, 1978) from the Northern Territory and north-western Australia but well characterized by its larger size, more elongate habitus, and form of median lobe and parameres. Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is a lotic species being collected from rest pools of intermittent creeks and rivers with a sandy bottom. Important species-defining characters (habitus, median lobe, paramere, protibia of male) are illustrated. Together with T. queenslandicus sp. n. the genus comprises now 13 species.

  5. Electra: Repetitively Pulsed 700 J, 100 ns Electron Beam Pumped KrF Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Latkowski, L.J. Perkins, D. Goodin, R. Petzoldt, E. Stephens, F. Najmabadi, M. Tillack, R. Raffray, Z. Dragojlovic, D. Haynes, R. Peterson, G . Kulcinski , J...Hoffer, D. Geller, D. Schroen, J. Streit, C. Olson, T. Tanaka, T. Renk, G . Rochau, L . Snead, N. Ghoneim, and G . Lucas, "Fusion energy with lasers...J.L. Giuliani, P. Kepple, R.H. Lehmberg, M.C. Myers, J.D. Sethian, M.F. Wolford, F. Hegeler, and G . Petrov, " Orestes: A kinetics model for

  6. Finding faults with the data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Rudolph Giuliani and Hillary Rodham Clinton are crisscrossing upstate New York looking for votes in the U.S. Senate race. Also cutting back and forth across upstate New York are hundreds of faults of a kind characterized by very sporadic seismic activity according to Robert Jacobi, professor of geology at the University of Buffalo (UB), who conducted research with fellow UB geology professor John Fountain."We have proof that upstate New York is crisscrossed by faults," Jacobi said. "In the past, the Appalachian Plateau—which stretches from Albany to Buffalo—was considered a pretty boring place structurally without many faults or folds of any significance."

  7. Multi-sensor online visualization and analysis of precipitation, moisture, clouds, and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, A. V.; Liu, Z.; Leptoukh, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) is home of satellite data archives including those from Terra, Aqua, and TRMM satellites. The GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides unique facility of visualization and analysis, and data downloading capability of geophysical parameters retrieved from these satellites. In this poster presentation, accompanied by a computer demonstration, analysis of a variety of case studies of tropical and mid-latitude rain systems and associated moisture, clouds, and aerosols fields will be demonstrated by using Giovanni.

  8. History of the early dipteran systematics in Italy: from Lyncei to Battista Grassi.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, B

    2008-12-01

    This presentation starts with Galileo's discovery of the microscope and the first Lyncei. Giovanni Heckius and Francesco Stelluti demonstrated different kinds of mosquitoes. Later, in Florence, the Academy of Cimento solved the problem of mosquito reproduction with the discoveries of Francesco Redi, Pietro Paolo da Sangallo, Giuseppe Del Papa and Giovanni Maria Lancisi in the 18th century. In 19th century Eugenio Ficalbi reviewed the Italian Culicids. Once Battista Grassi solved the cycle of Anopheles and Plasmodia, further researches followed by Golgi, Celli, Marchiafava, Bastianelli and Bignami, as well as by Roland Ross.

  9. Testimonies to the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) and to the L'Aquila process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenda, Pavel; Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    Lot of confusions, misinformation, false solidarity, efforts to misuse geoethics and other unethical activities in favour of the top Italian seismologists responsible for a bad and superficial evaluation of the situation 6 days prior to the earthquake - that is a general characteristics for the whole period of 5 years separating us from the horrible morning of April 6, 2009 in L'Aquila with 309 human victims. The first author of this presentation as a seismologist had unusual opportunity to visit the unfortunate city in April 2009. He got all "first-hand" information that a real scientifically based prediction did exist already for some shocks in the area on March 29 and 30, 2009. The author of the prediction Gianpaolo Giuliani was obliged to stop any public information diffused by means of internet. A new prediction was known to him on March 31 - in the day when the "Commission of Great Risks" offered a public assurance that any immediate earthquake can be practically excluded. In reality the members of the commission completely ignored such a prediction declaring it as a false alarm of "somebody" (even without using the name of Giuliani). The observations by Giuliani were of high quality from the scientific point of view. G. Giuliani predicted L'Aquila earthquake in the professional way - for the first time during many years of observations. The anomalies, which preceded L'Aquila earthquake were detected on many places in Europe in the same time. The question is, what locality would be signed as potential focal area, if G. Giuliani would know the other observations in Europe. The deformation (and other) anomalies are observable before almost all of global M8 earthquakes. Earthquakes are preceded by deformation and are predictable. The testimony of the second author is based on many unfortunate personal experiences with representatives of the INGV Rome and their supporters from India and even Australia. In July 2010, prosecutor Fabio Picuti charged the Commission

  10. E-Learning--Long-Distance and Lifelong Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontes, Elvis, Ed.; Silva, Anderson, Ed.; Guelfi, Adilson, Ed.; Kofuji, Sergio Takeo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Chapters in this book include: (1) Adaptive Model for E-Learning in Secondary School (Todorka Glushkova); (2) Electronic- and Mobile-Learning in Electronics Courses Focused on FPGA (Giovanni Vito Persiano and Sergio Rapuano); (3) Promoting E-Learning in Distance Education Programs in an African Country (Kenneth Addah, Desmond Kpebu and Olivia A.…

  11. Metatarsal fracture (acute) - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 88. Richter M, Kwon JY, DiGiovanni CW. Foot injuries. In: Browner BD, Jupiter JB, Krettek C, Anderson ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Foot Injuries and Disorders Fractures Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  12. ARC-2010-ACD10-0244-004

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-17

    From left, Charlie Friedericks and Giovanni Minelli with the NASA's Ames Research Center; inspect the Ames-managed O/OREOS nana satellite at Kodiak Launch Complex on Kodiak Island, Alaska. in advance of the satellite's planned launch into orbit. Image credit: U.S. Air Force/Lou Hernandez

  13. Use of Satellite Remote Sensing to Improve Coastal Hypoxia Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe the use of Giovanni satellite remote sensing products in the development and testing of a new modeling system that represents the processes leading to hypoxia (defined as water O2 concentration < 63 mmol m-3) on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS). The modeling ...

  14. Use of Satellite Remote Sensing to Improve Coastal Hypoxia Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe the use of Giovanni satellite remote sensing products in the development and testing of a new modeling system that represents the processes leading to hypoxia (defined as water O2 concentration < 63 mmol m-3) on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS). The modeling ...

  15. Numbered Lives. Some Statistical Observations from 77 International Hostage Episodes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    film crew, members of an Olympic team, Je,.is" emigrds, passengers at airports, the crew of a ferry , doctors, stJc.t. irisbiunpries, and in several...the government and the ETA. 27. Giovanni Enrico Bucher, Swiss ambassador to Brazil, was kidnapped in Rio de Janeiro on December 7, 1970, by members of

  16. ARC-2010-ACD10-0244-003

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-18

    From left, Giovanni Minelli with the NASA's Ames Research Center; Center: Kitty Sedam with Aerospace Corp.; and Charlie Friedericks with Ames inspect the packing list and instructions for the Ames-managed O/OREOS and NanoSail-D from NASA's Marshall Space Flgith Center nano satellites at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska . Image credit: U.S. Air Force/Lou Hernandez

  17. 77 FR 27852 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    .... Giovanni B. Cerino, Jr. Mr. Cerino, 50, has had amblyopia in his right eye since childhood. The best.... Mathis Mr. Mathis, 40, has had amblyopia in his right eye since birth. The best corrected visual acuity.... Maul Mr. Maul, 31, has had amblyopia in his right eye since childhood. The best corrected visual acuity...

  18. Mars, the funny history of canals.1-the enigmatic planet. the plurality of worlds; Mars, la folle histoire des canaux. 1-l'énigmatique planète. la pluralité des mondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaitin, Gérard; Durand, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Since the 17th century, the study of the planet Mars interested astronomers. The changes observed on Mars were enigmatic. Several philosophers thought that this planet does have inhabitants. Giovanni Schiaparelli observed canals and their changes. Was it the sign of a life on this planet?

  19. The Key Political Decisions of the Military Government in Turkey, September 1980-November 1983 and the Impact on Those Decisions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    I-would argue that there is a relevant application of Professor Giovanni Sartoris theory of party systems to the Turkish case, especially in the 1979...1980 time frame. G. Sartori , Parties and Party Systems A Framework for Analysis (Cambridge Eng: Cambridge University Press, 1976). 7

  20. Two Great Professors: Formidable Intellects with Affection for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltzien, O. Allan

    1994-01-01

    This article profiles the teaching careers of history professor Giovanni Costigan of the University of Washington and English professor Tommy Howells of Whitman College in Walla Walla (Washington). It maintains that both men were accomplished lecturers who set the standard for their respective campuses and corners of Washington State. (MDM)

  1. Collaboration is key for new global tuberculosis strategy.

    PubMed

    Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Fleck, Fiona

    2014-05-01

    This month the World Health Assembly discusses the post-2015 global tuberculosis strategy and accompanying set of targets. Giovanni Battista Migliori tells Fiona Fleck how his institute - one of WHO's thousands of partners across the globe - can contribute in future to its implementation, once it is approved.

  2. E-Learning--Long-Distance and Lifelong Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontes, Elvis, Ed.; Silva, Anderson, Ed.; Guelfi, Adilson, Ed.; Kofuji, Sergio Takeo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Chapters in this book include: (1) Adaptive Model for E-Learning in Secondary School (Todorka Glushkova); (2) Electronic- and Mobile-Learning in Electronics Courses Focused on FPGA (Giovanni Vito Persiano and Sergio Rapuano); (3) Promoting E-Learning in Distance Education Programs in an African Country (Kenneth Addah, Desmond Kpebu and Olivia A.…

  3. GLARE: a Domain-Independent System for Acquiring, Representing and Executing Clinical Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Molino, Gianpaolo; Terenziani, Paolo; Montani, Stefania; Bottrighi, Alessio; Torchio, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    We briefly describe GLARE, a domain-independent system to acquire, represent and execute clinical guidelines, which as been developed since 1997 in a joint cooperation between Computer Sciences Departments and Az. Ospedaliera S.Giovanni Battista in Turin, one of the largest hospitals in Italy. A demo of the (prototypical) system is also available. PMID:17238656

  4. Wit and Irony in Militant Black Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffey, Ruthe

    1973-01-01

    Explores the thesis that the terror of militant poetry is mitigated by one step taken backward from the abyss of despair, a retreat into the saving grace of laughter, analyzing poetry by Mari Evans, Dudley Randall, Don L. Lee, Mikki Giovanni, and other young militant black poets. (Author/JM)

  5. NASA GES DISC Aerosol analysis and visualization services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. C.; Ichoku, C. M.; Petrenko, M.; Yang, W.; Albayrak, A.; Zhao, P.; Johnson, J. E.; Kempler, S.

    2015-12-01

    Among the known atmospheric constituents, aerosols represent the greatest uncertainty in climate research. Satellite data products are important for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if the satellite data are well utilized and interpreted. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite-borne sensors routinely measure aerosols. There is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. Such misunderstanding may be avoided by providing satellite data with accurate pixel-level (Level 2) information, including pixel coverage area delineation and science team recommended quality screening for individual geophysical parameters. NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) have developed multiple MAPSS applications as a part of Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface) data visualization and analysis tool - Giovanni-MAPSS and Giovanni-MAPSS_Explorer since 2007. The MAPSS database provides spatio-temporal statistics for multiple spatial spaceborne Level 2 aerosol products (MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, MISR, POLDER, OMI, CALIOP, SeaWiFS Deep Blue, and VIIRS) sampled over AERONET ground stations. In this presentation, I will demonstrate the improved features from Giovanni-MAPSS and introduce a new visualization service (Giovanni VizMAP) supporting various visualization and data accessing capabilities from satellite Level 2 data (non-aggregated and un-gridded) at high spatial resolution. Functionality will include selecting data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement), defining area-of-interest and temporal extents

  6. Classification and correction of the radar bright band with polarimetric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel; Kramer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The annular region of enhanced radar reflectivity, known as the Bright Band (BB), occurs when the radar beam intersects a layer of melting hydrometeors. Radar reflectivity is related to rainfall through a power law equation and so this enhanced region can lead to overestimations of rainfall by a factor of up to 5, so it is important to correct for this. The BB region can be identified by using several techniques including hydrometeor classification and freezing level forecasts from mesoscale meteorological models. Advances in dual-polarisation radar measurements and continued research in the field has led to increased accuracy in the ability to identify the melting snow region. A method proposed by Kitchen et al (1994), a form of which is currently used operationally in the UK, utilises idealised Vertical Profiles of Reflectivity (VPR) to correct for the BB enhancement. A simpler and more computationally efficient method involves the formation of an average VPR from multiple elevations for correction that can still cause a significant decrease in error (Vignal 2000). The purpose of this research is to evaluate a method that relies only on analysis of measurements from an operational C-band polarimetric radar without the need for computationally expensive models. Initial results show that LDR is a strong classifier of melting snow with a high Critical Success Index of 97% when compared to the other variables. An algorithm based on idealised VPRs resulted in the largest decrease in error when BB corrected scans are compared to rain gauges and to lower level scans with a reduction in RMSE of 61% for rain-rate measurements. References Kitchen, M., R. Brown, and A. G. Davies, 1994: Real-time correction of weather radar data for the effects of bright band, range and orographic growth in widespread precipitation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1231-1254. Vignal, B. et al, 2000: Three methods to determine profiles of reflectivity from volumetric radar data to correct

  7. Soft interfaces: complex, dynamic, reacting and evolving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Todd

    2015-03-01

    ``Dirac'' plasmons are self-sustained carrier density oscillations that occur in a doped graphene sheet. These collective modes have recently attracted enormous experimental and theoretical interest for their potential use in plasmonics. In this talk I will discuss the two most important figures of merit of ``graphene plasmonics,'' namely the ratio between the Dirac plasmon wavelength and the illumination wavelength, and the Dirac plasmon damping rate. I will emphasize the subtle difference between plasmon lifetime and Drude transport scattering time. I will then present a theoretical framework that enables fully microscopic calculations of Dirac plasmon damping rates due to electron-electron, electron-impurity, and electron-phonon collisions. Finally, I will conclude by discussing how our theoretical predictions compare with recent accurate measurements in high-quality graphene sheets encapsulated in boron nitride. Work done in collaboration with A. Principi, M. Carrega, G. Vignale, A. Woessner, M.B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, P. Alonso-González, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F.H.L. Koppens. ``Dirac'' plasmons are self-sustained carrier density oscillations that occur in a doped graphene sheet. These collective modes have recently attracted enormous experimental and theoretical interest for their potential use in plasmonics. In this talk I will discuss the two most important figures of merit of ``graphene plasmonics,'' namely the ratio between the Dirac plasmon wavelength and the illumination wavelength, and the Dirac plasmon damping rate. I will emphasize the subtle difference between plasmon lifetime and Drude transport scattering time. I will then present a theoretical framework that enables fully microscopic calculations of Dirac plasmon damping rates due to electron-electron, electron-impurity, and electron-phonon collisions. Finally, I will conclude by discussing how our theoretical predictions compare with recent accurate measurements in

  8. Effect of electron-electron interaction on hot ballistic electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäpers, Th.; Krüger, M.; Appenzeller, J.; Förster, A.; Lengeler, B.; Lüth, H.

    1995-06-01

    Electron-electron scattering of ballistic electrons in a two-dimensional electron gas was studied as a function of the electron excess energy above the Fermi energy and of temperature. At low temperatures of 1.4 K it is found that for excess energies of approximately 30% of the Fermi energy the electrons in a ballistic electron beam are already scattered significantly due to electron-electron interaction. A very good agreement between our experimental data and theory was found, when the measured data were compared with numerical calculations based on a theory of Giuliani and Quinn [Phys. Rev. B 26, 4421 (1982)], while the agreement was only poor for the analytical approximation of the electron-electron scattering rate.

  9. Hartree-Fock solutions for spin polarized states in low dimensional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, G. F.; Marinescu, D. C.

    2000-03-01

    In the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation, a two dimensional electron gas is known to exhibit a number of magnetic instabilities both in the absence as well as in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field. The situation is even more interesting in layered structures (e.g. bilayers and semiconducting superlattices) where the HF phase diagram is richer. Here HF states with non uniform magnetization have been predicted to occur and be actually physically realized under suitable conditions.(D.C. Marinescu, G. F. Giuliani, and J.J. Quinn, submitted) Although the HF approximation for the electron gas problem has been known for quite some time, there have been no detailed studies of the self-consistent solutions corresponding to non uniform states in these systems. Results of such a study are discussed in the present paper for a number of electronic systems in this class.

  10. Helicity scalings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunian, F.; Lessinnes, T.; Carati, D.; Stepanov, R.

    2011-12-01

    Using a helical shell model of turbulence, Chen et al. (2003) showed that both helicity and energy dissipate at the Kolmogorov scale, independently from any helicity input. This is in contradiction with a previous paper by Ditlevsen & Giuliani (2001) in which, using a GOY shell model of turbulence, they found that helicity dissipates at a scale larger than the Kolmogorov scale, and does depend on the helicity input. In a recent paper by Lessinnes et al. (2011), we showed that this discrepancy is due to the fact that in the GOY shell model only one helical mode (+ or -) is present at each scale instead of both modes in the helical shell model. Then, using the GOY model, the near cancellation of the helicity flux between the + and - modes cannot occur at small scales, as it should be in true turbulence. We review the main results with a focus on the numerical procedure needed to obtain accurate statistics.

  11. Ground State Energy of the Low Density Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiringer, Robert; Yin, Jun

    2008-06-01

    We derive a lower bound on the ground state energy of the Hubbard model for given value of the total spin. In combination with the upper bound derived previously by Giuliani (J. Math. Phys. 48:023302, [2007]), our result proves that in the low density limit the leading order correction compared to the ground state energy of a non-interacting lattice Fermi gas is given by 8 π a ϱ u ϱ d , where ϱ u( d) denotes the density of the spin-up (down) particles, and a is the scattering length of the contact interaction potential. This result extends previous work on the corresponding continuum model to the lattice case.

  12. Low-energy electron collisions with molybdenum atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartschat, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Giuliani, J. L.

    2002-10-01

    Reliable cross-section data for electron collisions with molybdenum atoms are important for various applications, such as monitoring the impurity influx in tokamaks or the modeling of a high-intensity metal-oxide discharge that represents a promising candidate for mercury-free lighting concepts. We have therefore extended our recent work on electron collisions with Mo I atoms in their ground state [1] and will present new results for electron-induced transitions between the lowest 15 septet and quintet states of neutral molybdenum. The dependence of our results from a non-relativistic R-matrix (close-coupling) approach on the details of the theoretical model, particularly on the structure description and the number of coupled states, is analyzed, with particular emphasis on the relevant transitions in a moly-oxide discharge lamp. [1.] K. Bartschat, A. Dasgupta, and J.L. Giuliani, J. Phys. B 35, in press (scheduled for July 2002).

  13. Local plasmon modes of a semiconductor superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloss, Walter L.

    1991-03-01

    The energy dispersion relation of the plasmon modes of an infinite periodic array of quantum wells where all the wells are doped with the same electron density except for one is calculated. In analogy to the local phonon modes of a vibrational lattice, we find that local plasmon modes exist. An explicit relation for the plasmon energy of the local mode is derived. Contrary to the surface plasmon mode of a semi-infinite superlattice predicted by Giuliani and Quinn [Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 919 (1983)], these local modes exist at all values of the wavevector. A low-lying acoustic mode (ω≊qv) is found whose velocity is determined by the local density of the symmetry breaking well. Implications for obtaining amplification by drift instabilities in these structures are discussed.

  14. Dielectric response of a semi-infinite layered electron gas and Raman scattering from its bulk and surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Jainendra K.; Allen, Philip B.

    1985-07-01

    An exact solution of the random-phase-approximation equations is worked out for the density-density correlation function of a semi-infinite system of two-dimensional electron-gas layers, with different dielectrics outside and inside the layered system. From this solution, analytic formulas are derived for the dispersion relations of the bulk and surface plasmons and for the intensity of the light scattered inelastically from such a system. The intensity is written as a sum of the bulk and the surface terms. The theory is applied to semiconductor multilayers. The line shape of the bulk-plasmon peak, obtained after cancellation of van Hove singularities in the bulk piece by the surface piece, is compared with experiment. Conditions for observation of the Giuliani-Quinn surface plasmon are outlined.

  15. Effective mass, Landè factor, and spin susceptibility of a two dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polini, Marco C.; Davoudi, Bahman; Giuliani, Gabriele F.; Tosi, Mario P.

    2002-03-01

    We present a detailed calculation of the quasiparticle properties of a two-dimensional electron gas following an earlier microscopic theory developed by Yarlagadda and Giuliani [Solid state Commun. 69, 677 (1989)]. This approach incorporates in the calculation of the quasiparticle energy the vertex corrections associated with charge- and spin-density fluctuations through the symmetric and antisymmetric many-body local-field factors. In our calculations, these functions are taken to be static, analytical expressions which reproduce the diffusion Monte Carlo data, and embody the exact asymptotic behaviors at both small and large wave number q. It is shown that this choice improves the results obtained by a simple Hubbard-like form, as previously employed in the literature.

  16. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  17. Mott-Hubbard Physics in a Patterned GaAs Heterostructure with Honeycomb Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2013-03-01

    This talk considers efforts directed towards the design and exploration of novel collective electron states in artificial lattice structures that are realized in semiconductor heterostructures by nanofabrication methods. These studies reveal striking interplays between electron interactions and geometrical constraints (topology). We focus on the honeycomb topology, or ``artificial graphene'' (AG), that supports Dirac fermions. Dirac fermions and the emergence of quantum phases, such as spin liquids and topologically protected states, can be studied by highly demanding inelastic light scattering methods and by electrical transport at low temperatures. In particular, we probed the excitation spectrum of electrons in the honeycomb lattice in a magnetic field identifying collective modes that emerged from the Coulomb interaction, as predicted by the Mott-Hubbard model. These observations allow us to determine the Hubbard gap and suggest the existence of a Coulomb-driven ground state. Studies of electrons confined to artificial lattices should provide key perspectives on strong electron correlation in condensed matter science. Work done in collaboration with A. Singha, M. Gibertini, M. Polini, B. Karmakar, M. Katsnelson, S. Yuan, A. Pinczuk, G. Vignale, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West

  18. Hydrodynamical approach to transport in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2006-03-01

    The electrical resistance induced by the viscous properties of the electron liquid has been recently derived.^1 In addition, it is known that the geometric constriction experienced by electrons flowing in a nanostructure gives rise to a fast ``collisional'' process.^2 These facts allow us to derive Navier-Stokes-type of equations, and therefore describe the electron flow on a par with a viscous and compressible liquid. By using this hydrodynamical approach we study electron transport in nanoscale systems and derive the conditions for the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in quantum point contacts. We also discuss possible experimental tests of these predictions. ^1 N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale, and M. Di Ventra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005).^2 M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004); N. Bushong, N. Sai and, M. Di Ventra, Nano Lett. (in press).Work supported by the Department of Energy (DE-FG02-05ER46204)

  19. Microscopic Current Flow Patterns in Nanoscale Quantum Point Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Na; Bushong, Neil; Hatcher, Ryan; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2006-03-01

    Transport in nanoscale conductors has been studied extensively mainly using the stationary scattering approach. However, the dynamical nature of transport, and in particular, the flow patterns of the microscopic current through a nanoscale junction, have remained poorly understood. We apply a novel time-dependent transport approach [1], which combines closed and finite geometries with time-dependent density functional theory,to study current flow patterns in nanoscale quantum point contacts [2]. The results of both atomistic and jellium calculations show that surface charges form dynamically at the junction-electrode interfaces in both abrupt and adiabatic junctions. The curr ent exhibits some characteristics of a classical hydrodynamic liquid but also displays unique patterns arising from the interaction with the surface charges. We also investigate the effect of the flow velocity, charge density, and lattice structures on the electron dynamics. If time permits we also discuss the effects of the viscosity of the electron liquid [3]. Work supported by DOE (DE-FG02-05ER46204). [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004). [2] N. Bushong, N. Sai and, M. Di Ventra, Nano Lett. (in press). [3] N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale, and M. Di Ventra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005 ).

  20. Nonadiabatic electron dynamics in time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, C. A.; Tokatly, I. V.

    2006-06-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) treats dynamical exchange and correlation (xc) via a single-particle potential, Vxc(r,t) , defined as a nonlocal functional of the density n(r',t') . The popular adiabatic local-density approximation (ALDA) for Vxc(r,t) uses only densities at the same space-time point (r,t) . To go beyond the ALDA, two local approximations have been proposed based on quantum hydrodynamics and elasticity theory: (a) using the current as the basic variable (C-TDDFT) [G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich, and S. Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4847 (1997)], (b) working in a comoving Lagrangian reference frame (L-TDDFT) [I. V. Tokatly, Phys. Rev. B 71, 165105 (2005)]. In this paper we illustrate, compare, and analyze both nonadiabatic theories for simple time-dependent model densities in the linear and nonlinear regime, for a broad range of time and frequency scales. C- and L-TDDFT are identical in certain limits, but, in general, exhibit qualitative and quantitative differences in their respective treatment of elastic and dissipative electron dynamics. In situations where the electronic density rapidly undergoes large deformations, it is found that nonadiabatic effects can become significant, causing the ALDA to break down.

  1. Relaxation and dissipation in time-dependent current-density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agosta, Roberto

    2005-03-01

    In a typical relaxation problem a many-particle system evolves from an initial excited state under the action of its own hamiltonian plus a ``thermal bath", until equilibrium (or the ground-state at T=0) is reached. Due to the presence of the thermal bath the time evolution of the system is not unitary, and an initially pure state will evolve into a statistical mixture of states. Here we show that the time-dependent current density functional theory^1 allows a hamiltonian description of the relaxation process, whereby the quantum state of the system undergoes a unitary time evolution without becoming entangled with a thermal bath. The essential feature that causes the system to eventually settle into a stationary state of the ground-state Kohn-Sham hamiltonian is the presence of an effective electric field, which is determined by the instantaneous values of the current and the density. Our theory is consistent with recent numerical results by Wijewardane and Ullrich^ 2.1. G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich, and S. Conti, PRL 79, 4878 (1997)2. H. O. Wijewardane and C. A. Ullrich, cond-mat/0411157

  2. Dynamical exchange-correlation potentials beyond the local density approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jianmin; Vignale, Giovanni

    2006-03-01

    Approximations for the static exchange-correlation (xc) potential of density functional theory (DFT) have reached a high level of sophistication. By contrast, time-dependent xc potentials are still being treated in a local (although velocity-dependent) approximation [G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich and S. Conti, PRL 79, 4879 (1997)]. Unfortunately, one of the assumptions upon which the dynamical local approximation is based appears to break down in the important case of d.c. transport. Here we propose a new approximation scheme, which should allow a more accurate treatment of molecular transport problems. As a first step, we separate the exact adiabatic xc potential, which has the same form as in the static theory and can be treated by a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) or a meta-GGA. In the second step, we express the high-frequency limit of the xc stress tensor (whose divergence gives the xc force density) in terms of the exact static xc energy functional. Finally, we develop a perturbative scheme for the calculation of the frequency dependence of the xc stress tensor in terms of the ground-state Kohn-Sham orbitals and eigenvalues.

  3. Linewidths of collective excitations of the inhomogeneous electron gas: Application to two-dimensional quantum strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, C. A.; Vignale, G.

    1998-09-01

    It is well known that high-frequency collective excitations in electronic systems are not Landau damped, i.e., they cannot decay effectively into single particle-hole pairs. The leading damping mechanism in this regime is instead provided by dynamical exchange and correlation effects, such as multipair production. These effects are not captured by the widely used adiabatic local-density approximation (ALDA), which accounts for Landau damping only. In the recently developed time-dependent current density-functional formalism [G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich, and S. Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4878 (1997)], exchange and correlation enter as viscoelastic stresses in the electron fluid, causing an additional damping that is not contained in the ALDA. We use this theory to derive an explicit formula for the linewidth of collective electronic excitations that are not Landau damped. The formula is then applied to calculate the linewidth of collective modes in two-dimensional (2D) quantum strips. In comparison with the corresponding modes in the homogeneous 2D electron gas, we find an order-of-magnitude enhancement of the linewidth due to the nonuniformity of the system.

  4. Meta-GGA-based adiabatic time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Vladimir; Vignale, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    The local-density approximation (LDA) to the ground-state density functional theory (DFT) is well known to allow for a generalization to the time-dependent case [1]. The assumption of the adiabaticity of the process greatly simplifies the theory. The further extension of the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is trivial. Here we address lifting the adiabatic TDDFT to the third rung of the ``Jacobs ladder'' [2] : We work out the kinetic energy density dependent (meta-GGA) TDDFT formalism. The new theory possesses remarkable properties not present in LDA and GGA: (i) It is non-local with respect to the particle density; (ii) In the case of bulk semiconductors, it supports the 1/q^2 singularity of the exchange-correlation kernel, where q is the wave-vector, the latter being important to reproduce the excitonic effect. We also present illustrative calculations of the optical absorption in semiconductors [3]. [4pt] [1] A. Zangwill and P. Soven, Phys. Rev. A, 21, 1561 (1980).[0pt] [2] J. Tao, J. P. Perdew, V. N. Staroverov, and G. E. Scuseria, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 146401 (2003).[0pt] [3] V. U. Nazarov and G. Vignale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 216402(2011).

  5. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to harmonize the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  6. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to "harmonize" the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  7. [Infectious diseases in the short stories written by Verga and Pirandello].

    PubMed

    Giusti, G

    2001-06-01

    The author invites to appreciate some short stories by Giovanni Verga and Luigi Pirandello, Italian writers who lived at the turn of the last century. These tales give an interesting description of two infectious diseases (malaria and cholera), and analyze their relationship with the conditions of poverty and ignorance spread across rural areas in Sicily--a region in the South of Italy--at that times.

  8. Discovery: Faculty Publications and Presentations, Fiscal Year 1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    of sub-bands. b. "A statistical Analysis of Phonemes." (Research in Progress) The analysis of the occurrence of specific vowels , consonants...connected. We ask how ethical and aesthetic values operate in the scientific method and in the lives of our scientists; and conversely, we show how fact. how...elements of my previous lecture on Mozart’s Don Giovanni. focusing on the aesthetic rather than the philosophical aspects of the opera. Finally, I revealed

  9. On the Link Between Ocean Biota Emissions, Aerosol, and Maritime Clouds: Airborne, Ground, and Satellite Measurements Off the Coast of California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-14

    Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202...material identified as marine exopolymer secretions (EPS) of algae and bacteria (Decho, 1990; Verdugo et al., 2004). It has been shown that a...Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) as part of the NASA’s Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center

  10. Conference Report: The 6th International Symposium on Waterborne Pathogens

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A review of current literature on the occurrence of waterborne pathogens in DW systems.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Rochelle, P., P. Klonicki, G. DiGiovanni, V. Hill, Y. Akagi, and E. Villegas. Conference Report: The 6th International Symposium on Waterborne Pathogens ISWP 2015. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION. American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, USA, 107(10): 24-32, (2015).

  11. The Definition of Production Quality Ada(trade name) Compiler.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-20

    UNIT ELEMENT NO. INO. INO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Clasification ) The Definition of a Production Quality Ada Compiler 12. PERSONAL...DIVISION AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND Los Angeles Air Force Station P.O. Box 92960, Worldway Postal Center Los Angeles, CA 90009-2960 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC ...Department, Engineering Group. Mr. Giovanni Bargero, SD/ALR, approved the report for the Air Force. This report has been reviewed by the Public Affairs

  12. Scientists condemn space-chief sacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-09-01

    The removal of Italian Space Agency (ASI) president Giovanni Bignami has left astronomers in Italy angry and dismayed. Bignami, himself an astronomer, was dismissed by the recently elected government of Silvio Berlusconi following the mass resignation of the agency's administrative council. He has been replaced by Enrico Saggese of aerospace company Finmeccanica. Critics of the change believe that it will weaken Italy's space-science community and damage its international reputation.

  13. Processing NASA Earth Science Data on Nebula Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Aijun; Pham, Long; Kempler, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three applications were successfully migrated to Nebula, including S4PM, AIRS L1/L2 algorithms, and Giovanni MAPSS. Nebula has some advantages compared with local machines (e.g. performance, cost, scalability, bundling, etc.). Nebula still faces some challenges (e.g. stability, object storage, networking, etc.). Migrating applications to Nebula is feasible but time consuming. Lessons learned from our Nebula experience will benefit future Cloud Computing efforts at GES DISC.

  14. New Global Precipitation Products and Data Service Updates at the NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Savtchenko, A.; DeShong, B.; Greene, M.; Vollmer, B.; Kempler, S.

    2016-01-01

    This poster describes recent updates of the ongoing GPM data service activities at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center(DISC) to facilitate access and exploration of GPM, TRMM and other NASA precipitation datasets for the global community. The poster contains -Updates on GPM products and data services -New features in Giovanni for precipitation data visualization -Precipitation data and service outreach activities.

  15. Passive Turbulence Generating Grid Arrangements in a Turbine Cascade Wind Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-02

    and Kurt P. Rouser Title: Passive Turbulence Generating Grid Arrangements in a Turbine Cascade Wind Tunnel Circle one: Abstract Tech Report Journal...in a Turbine Cascade Wind Tunnel p q Rec:x Connor J. Wiese’, Michael J. McClearnt, Giovanni Allevatot, and Richard T . Guttman 111§ Uni ted...States Air Force Academy, USAF A, CO, 80841 and Kurt P. Rouserf United States Air Force Academy, USAFA, CO, 80841 Turbine cascade wind tunnels

  16. Computational Performance of Intel MIC, Sandy Bridge, and GPU Architectures: Implementation of a 1D c++/OpenMP Electrostatic Particle-In-Cell Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    giovanni.lapenta@wis.kuleuven.be Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Electrostatic Explicit PIC Algorithm 2 3 Overview of the Test Architectures 3 3.1 Sandy Bridge...Acknowledgments 8 References 8 1. Introduction Simulations of physical plasma systems are quite challenging because they require extensive use of computing...fusion, space and astrophysical plasmas, but still the general picture can be presented quite well with the fluid approach [6, 7]. The microscopic

  17. Cyber Attacks and the Legal Justification for an Armed Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    the clause “reasonably expected to cause injury or death to persons, or damage or 14 Pascal ...2017. http://opiniojuris.org/2012/09/19/harold-koh-on-international-law-in- cyberspace/. Brangetto, Pascal , Tomas Minárik, and Jan Stinisson. “From...Mario Viola De Azevedo Cuna, Giovanni Sartor, and Pompeu Casanovas , 69-94. Florence: European Press Academic Publishing, 2009. Accessed December 15

  18. [Ettore Majorana and philosophy : Between elective affinities and philosophical reflections].

    PubMed

    Alunni, Charles

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to "take on" Ettore Majorana by establishing his "philosophical profile." Doing so, one not only finds that the question of "fiction" was central to his work, but one also discovers the important superationalist - and European - dimension of his elective affinities with Giovanni Gentile Junior. Indeed their work was part of a constructive and inductive mathematism (Gaston Bachelard, later Robert Blanché) that was in opposition to classical geometricism (Emile Meyerson), and spiritualist Pythagoreanism (Arthur Eddington).

  19. Exploring and Analyzing Climate Variations Online by Using NASA MERRA-2 Data at GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Vollmer, Bruce E.; Kempler, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) (http:giovanni.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgiovanni) is a web-based data visualization and analysis system developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current data analysis functions include Lat-Lon map, time series, scatter plot, correlation map, difference, cross-section, vertical profile, and animation etc. The system enables basic statistical analysis and comparisons of multiple variables. This web-based tool facilitates data discovery, exploration and analysis of large amount of global and regional remote sensing and model data sets from a number of NASA data centers. Long term global assimilated atmospheric, land, and ocean data have been integrated into the system that enables quick exploration and analysis of climate data without downloading, preprocessing, and learning data. Example data include climate reanalysis data from NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) which provides data beginning in 1980 to present; land data from NASA Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), which assimilates data from 1948 to 2012; as well as ocean biological data from NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM), which provides data from 1998 to 2012. This presentation, using surface air temperature, precipitation, ozone, and aerosol, etc. from MERRA-2, demonstrates climate variation analysis with Giovanni at selected regions.

  20. Constructing an AIRS Climatology for Data Visualization and Analysis to Serve the Climate Science and Application Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Feng; Keim, Elaine; Hearty, Thomas J.; Wei, Jennifer; Savtchenko, Andrey; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for NASA sounders: the present Aqua AIRS mission and the succeeding SNPP CrIS mission. The AIRS mission is entering its 15th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released product from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. Giovanni, a Web-based application developed by the GES DISC, provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download the data. Most important variables from version 6 AIRS product are available in Giovanni. We are developing a climatology product using 14-year AIRS retrievals. The study can be a good start for the long term climatology from NASA sounders: the AIRS and the succeeding CrIS. This presentation will show the impacts to the climatology product from different aggregation methods. The climatology can serve climate science and application communities in data visualization and analysis, which will be demonstrated using a variety of functions in version 4 Giovanni. The highlights of these functions include user-defined monthly and seasonal climatology, inter annual seasonal time series, anomaly analysis.

  1. Exploring NASA GES DISC Data with Interoperable Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Yang, W.; Hegde, M.; Wei, J. C.; Kempler, S. J.; Pham, L.; Teng, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has developed and operated Earth science data and information services to a number of science and applications user communities for decades. Earth science data are often varied with different provenance in terms of source platforms and instruments, spatial and temporal resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications. To facilitate users to discover, retrieve and visualize these Earth science data with open and interoperable services is one of our primary goals. This presentation will cover the challenges of and solutions to the development of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) and related rich Internet applications for a wide range of near-real time, level 2, and level 3 data products. GES DISC's Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface (Giovanni) enables users to explore a wide variety of satellite datasets through interactive mapping together with various algorithms including spatiotemporal average and correlation. We are developing a Giovanni WMS to provide a machine-to-machine interface to support Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) and Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). We will discuss how to implement the various style sheets support for data of different science contents, the timely on-demand generation of precise maps, and configuration of very different data products (types, spatiotemporal resolutions) in Giovanni WMS.

  2. A MODIS-based planetary probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, N.

    2016-12-01

    Despite an ever growing archive of Earth observation imagery, the data are not accessible or useful to policy makers without extensive technical expertise and efforts to derive information. Previous developments to enable access Earth imagery through easy to use interfaces have included broadly scoped analysis platforms (e.g. NASA's Giovanni, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/) as well as narrowly focussed decision support tools (e.g. for predicting primate habitat suitability, http://www.janegoodall.org/what-we-do/conservation-science/decision-support-system/). To date, a general-purpose tool to query local environmental condition and change trajectory, valid at any point on Earth, has not been available. Here we describe an easy to use probe, implemented with Google Earth Engine's graphical user interface API, that allows interested users to query a location to obtain charts of environmental vital statistics. The data are derived from the complete MODIS time series. Case studies demonstrate the utility of the tool for illustrating sudden and episodic disturbances to the land surface, seasonality and persistence or recovery of any disturbance. As the algorithm is based on a random walk, potential for a statistically based alerting system is also discussed. The results highlight the ability of cloud-based satellite image analysis to provide a monitoring tool similar to tools used in medical or financial fields.

  3. The NASA NEESPI Data Portal to Support Studies of Climate and Environmental Changes in Non-Boreal Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory; Loboda, Tatiana; Csiszar, Ivan; Romanov, Peter; Gerasimov, Irina

    2008-01-01

    NASA NEESPI (Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative) data portal is a NASA funded project that focuses on collecting satellite remote sensing data, providing tools, information, and services in support of NEESPI scientific objectives (Leptoukh, et al., 2007). The data can be accessed online through anonymous ftp, through an advanced data searching and ordering system Mirador that uses keywords to find data quickly in a Google-like interface, and through the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni). The portal provides preprocessed data from different satellite sensors and numerical models to the same spatial and temporal resolution and the same projection so that the data can be used easily to perform inter-comparison or relationship studies. In addition, it provides parameter and spatially subsetted data for regional studies. Studies of regional carbon, hydrology, aerosols in non-boreal Europe and their interactions with global climate are very challenging research topics. The NASA NEESPI data portal makes many satellite data available for such studies, including information on land cover types, fire, vegetation index, aerosols, land surface temperature, soil moisture, precipitation, snow/ice, and other parameters. This paper will introduce the features and products available in the system, focusing on the online data 1 tool, Giovanni NEESPI. An example that explores different data through Giovanni NEESPI in temperate region of non-boreal Europe will be presented.

  4. Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Escartín, J. M.; Vincendon, M.; Dinh, P. M.; Suraud, E.; Romaniello, P.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2015-02-28

    Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na{sub 2}. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.

  5. Particle-hole symmetry and Luttinger liquids in a quantum Hall circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddaro, Stefano

    2006-03-01

    I shall present recent experimental results on edge-state transport through quantum point contacts in the quantum Hall (QH) regime. Finite-bias backscattering measurements between edge channels at filling factor ν=1 will be presented at different temperatures. Transport through the constriction displays a non-linear Luttinger-like behavior even in the integer QH regime in contrast with the linear tunneling predicted for integer edge states [1,2]. Both zero-bias enhancement and suppression of the inter-edge tunneling will be shown in a controllable way as a function of gate bias [2,3,4]. The observed evolution is connected to the local charge depletion in the constriction region and offers new insight into the link between QH charge-conjugation and Luttinger liquid description of edge channels [2]. I shall discuss the relevance of these experimental results in the context of the dynamics of the highly-correlated edge channels in the fractional QH regime [5]. Finally I shall demonstrate how charge-conjugation can be exploited in the design of new QH circuits where the transport properties of the hole component of a partially filled Landau level can be directly addressed. [1] X.-G. Wen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2206 (1990); P. Fendley et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3005 (1995). [2] S. Roddaro, V. Pellegrini, F. Beltram, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 156804 (2005). [3] S. Roddaro, V. Pellegrini, F. Beltram, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 046801 (2004). [4] S. Roddaro, V. Pellegrini, F. Beltram, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, R. Raimondi, G. Vignale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 046805 (2003). [5] A. M. Chang, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 1449 (2003).

  6. Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime.

    PubMed

    Escartín, J M; Vincendon, M; Romaniello, P; Dinh, P M; Reinhard, P-G; Suraud, E

    2015-02-28

    Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.

  7. First-principles approach to Non-Collinear Magnetism: towards Spin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, E. K. U.

    2008-03-01

    Most formulations of spin density functional theory (SDFT) restrict the magnetization vector field to have global collinearity. Nevertheless, there exists a wealth of strong non-collinearity in nature, for example molecular magnets, spin-spirals, spin-glasses and all magnets at finite temperatures. The local spin density approximation (LSDA) can be extended to these non-collinear cases [1] but this extension has the undesirable property of having the exchange-correlation (xc) field parallel to the magnetization density at each point in space. When used in conjunction with the equation of motion for the spin magnetization in the absence of spin currents and external fields [2,3], this local collinearity eliminates the torsional term, resulting in no time evolution. This severe shortcoming of LSDA, where the physical prediction is qualitatively wrong, opens up an important new direction for the development of functionals where this time evolution is correctly described. Towards this goal, I will describe our extension of the Kohn-Sham optimized effective potential (OEP) method to the non-collinear case and derive the corresponding integral equations, applicable to both finite and extended systems [3,4]. Most importantly I'll show that the resulting magnetization and xc field are not locally collinear to each other for real solids, and will therefore produce manifestly different spin-dynamics. [1] J. Kuebler, K.-H. Hoeck, J. Sticht and A. R. Williams, J. Phys. F18, 469 (1993). [2] K. Capelle, G. Vignale and B. L. Gyoerffy, Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 206403 (2001). [3] S. Sharma, J. K. Dewhurst, C. Ambrosch-Draxl, S. Kurth, N. Helbig, S. Pittalis, S. Shallcross, L. Nordstroem and E.K.U. Gross Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 196405 (2007) S. Sharma, S. Pittalis, S. Kurth, S. Shallcross, J. K. Dewhurst and E.K.U. Gross Phys. Rev. B76, 100401 (Rapid Comm.) (2007)

  8. Transport in nanoscale systems: hydrodynamics, turbulence, and local electron heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    Transport in nanoscale systems is usually described as an open-boundary scattering problem. This picture, however, says nothing about the dynamical onset of steady states, their microscopic nature, or their dependence on initial conditions [1]. In order to address these issues, I will first describe the dynamical many-particle state via an effective quantum hydrodynamic theory [2]. This approach allows us to predict a series of novel phenomena like turbulence of the electron liquid [2], local electron heating in nanostructures [3], and the effect of electron viscosity on resistance [4]. I will provide both analytical results and numerical examples of first-principles electron dynamics in nanostructures using the above approach. I will also discuss possible experimental tests of our predictions. Work supported in part by NSF and DOE. [1] N. Bushong, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Approach to steady-state transport in nanoscale systems'' Nano Letters, 5 2569 (2005); M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, ``Transport in nanoscale systems: the microcanonical versus grand-canonical picture,'' J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004). [2] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, ``Hydrodynamic approach to transport and turbulence in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/05123326; J. Phys. Cond. Matt., in press. [3] R. D'Agosta, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Local electron heating in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/0605312; Nano Letters, in press. [4] N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale and M. Di Ventra, ``Dynamical corrections to the DFT-LDA electron conductance in nanoscale systems,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005).

  9. Time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of weakly disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, C. A.; Vignale, G.

    2002-05-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDFT) provides a way of calculating, in principle exactly, the linear response of interacting many-electron systems, and thus allows one to obtain their excitation energies. For extended systems, there exist excitations of a collective nature, such as bulk and surface plasmons in metals or intersubband plasmons in doped semiconductor quantum wells. This paper develops a quantitatively accurate first-principles description for the frequency and the linewidth of such excitations in inhomogeneous weakly disordered systems. A finite linewidth in general has intrinsic and extrinsic sources. At low temperatures and outside the region where electron-phonon interaction occurs, the only intrinsic damping mechanism is provided by electron-electron interaction. This kind of intrinsic damping can be described within TDFT, but one needs to go beyond the adiabatic approximation and include retardation effects. It has been shown [G. Vignale, C. A. Ullrich, and S. Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4878 (1997)] that a density-functional response theory that is local in space but nonlocal in time has to be constructed in terms of the currents, rather than the density. This theory will be reviewed in the first part of this paper. For quantitatively accurate linewidths, extrinsic dissipation mechanisms, such as impurities or disorder, have to be included in the response theory. In the second part of this paper, we discuss how extrinsic dissipation can be described within the so-called memory-function formalism. This formalism will first be introduced and reviewed for homogeneous systems. We will then present a synthesis of TDFT with the memory function formalism for inhomogeneous systems, which allows one to simultaneously account for intrinsic and extrinsic damping of collective excitations. As an example where both sources of dissipation are important and where high-quality experimental data are available for comparison, we discuss intersubband

  10. Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartín, J. M.; Vincendon, M.; Romaniello, P.; Dinh, P. M.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2015-02-01

    Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.

  11. Constrained Molecular Dynamics (CoMD) Model With Generalized Symmetry Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagun, Jaime; Hzheng, Hua; Bonasera, Aldo

    2014-09-01

    Constrained Molecular Dynamics is a computer program which models the dynamics and interactions of nucleons in nuclei. CoMD is a model in which the computational time is short enough to allow the study of the heaviest nuclei systems. Following the liquid drop model and including the Pauli Exclusion Principle, CoMD is used to study the Nuclear Equation of State (NEOS). Studying the NEOS through computer modeling can help predict and study exotic stable and unstable nuclei, light and heavy isotopes extending the chart of nuclides. Operation consists of producing ground state nuclei, and modeling collisions between these nuclei. It can also be used to predict whether or not a certain system consisting of any combination of nucleons can be stable. Since the model is currently fairly simple in principle, the goal is to modify the code adding a more robust equation for the symmetric potential energy, which in turn will produce more general data to study and analyze. The idea is that the symmetry potential takes a similar shape as the two body potential and the three body potential which is explained by Giuliani, Zheng and Bonasera, Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 76, 116 (2014). Once modified, it will be tested and compared to the original results. Constrained Molecular Dynamics is a computer program which models the dynamics and interactions of nucleons in nuclei. CoMD is a model in which the computational time is short enough to allow the study of the heaviest nuclei systems. Following the liquid drop model and including the Pauli Exclusion Principle, CoMD is used to study the Nuclear Equation of State (NEOS). Studying the NEOS through computer modeling can help predict and study exotic stable and unstable nuclei, light and heavy isotopes extending the chart of nuclides. Operation consists of producing ground state nuclei, and modeling collisions between these nuclei. It can also be used to predict whether or not a certain system consisting of any combination

  12. From Ultracompact to Extended H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Segura, Guillermo; Franco, Jose

    1996-09-01

    The dynamical evolution of H II regions and wind-driven bubbles in dense clouds is studied. In particular, we address two different issues: (1) the conditions under which ultracompact H II (UCHII) regions can reach pressure equilibrium with their surrounding medium (and thereby stall their expansion) and (2) the appearance of a powerful dynamic instability in expanding H II regions. At pressure equilibrium, the ionized regions become static, and as long as the ionization sources and the ambient gas densities remain about constant, the resulting UCHII regions are stable and long-lived. The equilibrium sizes and densities, Rs,eq ˜3 X 10-2F⅓48T⅔H II, 4P-⅔7 pc and ni,eq ˜4 × 104P7T-1H II, 4 cm-3 (where Fβ8 is the photoionizing flux in units of 1048 s-11, P7 is the pressure in units of 10-7 dyne cm-2, and TH II,4 is the ion temperature in units of 104 K), are similar to those actually observed in UCHII regions. Similarly, ultra- compact wind-driven bubbles can reach pressure equilibrium, and the resulting final sizes are similar to those of UCHII'S. The same is true for a combined ultracompact structure consisting of an interior wind- driven cavity and an external H II region. For nonmoving stars in a constant-density medium, the lifetimes for all types of ultracompact objects only depend on the stellar lifetimes. For cases with a density gradient, depending on the core size and slope of the density distribution, some regions never reach the static equilibrium condition. A powerful dynamic instability appears when cooling is included in the neutral gas swept up by an H II region or a combined wind-H II region structure. This instability was first studied by Giuliani and is associated with the thin-shell instability described by Vishniac. The internal ionization front exacerbates the growth of the thin-shell instability, creating a rapid shell fragmentation, and our numerical simulations confirm the linear analysis of Giuliani. The fragments tend to merge as

  13. From Ultracompact to Extended HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, J.; Garcia-Segura, G.

    1996-05-01

    The dynamical evolution of HII regions and wind-driven bubbles in dense clouds is studied. In particular, we address two different issues: 1) the conditions in which ultracompact HII (UCHII) regions can reach pressure equilibrium with their surrounding medium (and thereby stall their expansion), and 2) the appearance of a powerful dynamic instability in expanding HII regions. At pressure equilibrium the ionized regions become static and, as long as the ionization sources and the ambient gas densities remain about constant, the resulting UCHII regions are stable and long lived. The equilibrium sizes and densities, R_{S,eq} ~ 3 x 10(-2) F48(1/3) T_{HII,4}(2/3) P_7(-2/3) pc and n_{i,eq} ~ 4 x 10(4) P_7 T(-1) _{HII,4} cm(-3) (where F48 is the photoionizing flux in units of 10(48) s(-1) , P_7 is the pressure in units of 10(-7) dyn cm(-2) , and T_{HII,4} is the ion temperature in units of 10(4) K), are similar to those actually observed in UCHII regions. Similarly, ultracompact wind-driven bubbles can reach pressure equilibrium and the resulting final sizes are similar to those of UCHIIs. The same is true for a combined ultracompact structure consisting of an interior wind-driven cavity and an external HII region. For non-moving stars in a constant density medium, the lifetimes for all types of ultracompact objects only depend on the stellar lifetimes. For cases with a density gradient, depending on the core size and slope of the density distribution, some regions never reach the static equilibrium condition. A powerful dynamic instability appears when cooling is included in the neutral gas swept up by an HII region, or a combined wind-HII region structure. This instability was first studied by Giuliani (1979), and is associated with the thin-shell instability described by Vishniac (1983). The internal ionization front exacerbates the growth of the thin-shell instability, creating a rapid shell fragmentation, and our numerical simulations confirm the linear analysis of

  14. Advanced Science/Event-based Data Service Framework at GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has provided numerous Earth science data, information, and services to various research communities and general publics for decades. To maintain an overall fine service including improving serving our users with advanced data services has been our primary goal. We are developing an advanced science/event-based data service framework. The framework aims to effectively provide users with a sophisticatedly integrated data package via user-friendly discovering and selecting a system-preset science/event topic (e.g., hurricane, volcano, etc.) from an in-developing knowledge database of the framework. A data recipe page related to the Hurricane topic has been developed to demo the concept. More showcases of various subjects such as Volcano, Dust Storm, and Forest Fire are also under development. This framework is in developing on top of existing data services at GES DISC, such as Mirador (data search engine), Giovanni (visualization), OPeNDAP, and data recipes. It also involves other data tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, IDL, etc. The Hurricane Sandy (Oct 22-31 2012) event is used here for a sample description. As Hurricane Sandy being selected as a user case, a table containing nine system-preset data variables (i.e., precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea level pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, aerosols, soil moisture and surface runoff, and trace gases) linked to the respective data products with fine temporal and spatial resolutions from various in-house sources is provided. The "bundled" variable data can thus be readily downloaded through Mirador. The in-house Giovanni is accessible for users to acquire quick views of Level 3 (gridded) variables. For Level 2 (swath) or the Giovanni-unavailable Level 3 data, the system provides a link to data recipes that give a how-to guide to read and visualize the data using offline tools, such as Panoply, GrADS, or IDL.

  15. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-Line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Berrick, Steve; Leptuokh, Gregory; Liu, Zhong; Rui, Hualan; Pham, Long; Shen, Suhung; Zhu, Tong

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM On-line Visualization and Analysis System precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be ,integrated into existing operational decision support system for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that ,allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical ,parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output ,on screen in a matter of seconds.

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Kempler, S.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is also home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 17 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available: -Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products, DPR products -Level-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products, DPR products -Level-3 daily and monthly products, DPR products -Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data version control and provenance; documentation; science support for proper data usage, FAQ, help desk; monitoring services (e.g. Current Conditions) for applications. The United User Interface (UUI) is the next step in the evolution of the GES DISC web site. It attempts to provide seamless access to data, information and services through a single interface without sending the user to different applications or URLs (e.g., search, access

  17. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-Line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Berrick, Steve; Leptuokh, Gregory; Liu, Zhong; Rui, Hualan; Pham, Long; Shen, Suhung; Zhu, Tong

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM On-line Visualization and Analysis System precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be ,integrated into existing operational decision support system for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that ,allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical ,parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output ,on screen in a matter of seconds.

  18. Far and mid infrared spectroscopy of Titan's tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Thomas; Carrasco, Nathalie; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Vinatier, Sandrine; Correia, Jean-Jacques; Dumas, Paul; Giuliani, Alexandre; Szopa, Cyril; Cernogora, Guy

    2013-04-01

    In this work [1] we present mid- and far-Infrared absorption spectra of Titan's aerosol analogues produced in the PAMPRE experimental setup. We provide a complete dataset regarding the influence that the concentration of methane vapor in the gas mixture has on the tholins spectra. Among other effects, the intensity of the 2900 cm-1 pattern (also detected in Titan's atmosphere) increases with the methane concentration. On the opposite, tholins produced with low methane concentrations seem to be more amine based polymers. Moreover, we compare tholins spectrum with observation of Titan's atmosphere. It is shown that the position of the bands around 2900 cm-1 depends on the chemical environment of the methyl functional group. We conclude that the presence of these absorption bands in Titan's atmosphere, as measured with the VIMS instrument onboard Cassini [2] is in agreement with an aerosol contribution. In the far-infrared, tholins spectrum presents many similarities with the spectra of Titan's aerosols derived from recent Cassini-CIRS observations [3] and allows identification of bands in the spectrum of Titan's atmosphere REFERENCES 1. T. Gautier N. Carrasco, A. Mahjoub, S. Vinatier, C. Szopa, J.-J. Correia, P. Dumas, A. Giuliani and G. Cernogora. Icarus 221: 320-327(2012). 2. P. Rannou, T. Cours, S. Le Mouelic, S. Rodriguez, C. Sotin, P. Drossart, R. Brown, Icarus 208: 850-867 (2010). 3. C. M. Anderson and R. E. Samuelson, Icarus 212: 762-778 (2011)

  19. A nonlocal radiation transport and 1-D Boltzmann model for low pressure Hg-Ar discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzese, J.; Giuliani, J.; Petrov, G.

    2003-10-01

    A 1-D, steady state model for a low-pressure Ar-Hg plasma has been recently developed and used to study a positive column discharge with properties similar to the conventional mercury fluorescent lamp [1]. The model consists of the Boltzmann equation for the EEDF including the spatial gradient term self-consistently coupled to a collisional-radiative equilibrium description of 5 Ar and 11 Hg species, as well as the gas thermal balance equation and an equation for the ambipolar potential. The effect of radiation trapping on the resonant level populations was initially treated with effective lifetimes following the conventional Holstein theory. The description of the averaged plasma properties was found to be satisfactory, but some model predictions were not in accordance with radially resolved measurements. The model was then substantially improved by incorporating a 1-D radiation transport model. The latter includes the isotope structure of 254 and 185 nm lines, the effects of foreign gas collisional broadening, partial frequency redistribution of the emission profile of 185 nm line, Voigt profiles for all other lines, and nonlocal photopumping. The radiation transport model is self-consistently coupled with the kinetic part of the model through species population dynamics. [1] G. M. Petrov and J. Giuliani, J. Appl. Phys. vol. 94 (2003)

  20. A new limit on the observed amplitude of Jovian global oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, P. F.; Cacciani, A.; Dolci, M.; Giuliani, C.

    1999-09-01

    Doppler observations of Jupiter carried out in 1996 are reported [1]. A magneto-optical filter has been used providing the signals on the opposite wings of the Sodium D-lines (B, R) and the continuum reference signal. The two computed quantities cal R=(B-R)/(B+R) and cal S=(B+R)/conti\\-nuum have permitted to discriminate between oscillation and albedo "modes" and to compare the results with the previous ones obtained in 1991 [3] and 1993 [2]. A new upper limit on the modes amplitude has been setted at ~ 2 m s(-1) . The features of the intensity fluctuations in the power spectrum are due probably to albedo variations on Jupiter's surface and to instrumental effects. The authors thank the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione and the Osservatorio Astronomico "V.Cerulli" di Teramo for financial support. References [1] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., D'Alessio F., Giuliani C., Micolucci E., Di Cianno A., 1999: Search for global oscillations on Jupiter with a double-cell Sodium Magneto-Optical Filter, submitted to Astron. Astrophys. [2] Mosser B., Mekarnia D., Maillard J. P., Gay J., Gautier D., Delache Ph., 1993: Seismological observations with a Fourier transform spectrometer: detection of Jovian oscillations, Astron. Astrophys., 267, 604 [3] Schmider F. X., Mosser B., Fossat E., 1991: Possible detection of Jovian global oscillations, Astron. Astrophys., 248, 281}

  1. Electron-electron interaction in ballistic electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, F.; Lengeler, B.; Schäpers, Th.; Appenzeller, J.; Förster, A.; Klocke, Th.; Lüth, H.

    1995-02-01

    The transport of ballistic electrons emitted and detected by adjacent point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the system GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs was measured at 1.2 K as a function of the emitter current. Hot carriers with a surplus energy up to 15 meV above the Fermi level were generated by the current flow. It is shown that electron-electron scattering is the main limitation for the quasiparticle lifetime. The experimental data for the ballistic electron propagation from emitter to detector are explained without free parameters by a theory developed by Chaplik and by Giuliani and Quinn. In addition, it is shown that crossing ballistic electron beams in a 2DEG interact with one another, if one of the beams contains hot electrons in the zone of interaction. Experiments on the influence of impurities on the mean free path of ballistic electrons should be done with currents as low as 10 nA. Otherwise, the mean free path contains a contribution from electron-electron scattering. Electron-electron interaction of hot carriers is a serious basic limitation for future devices based on the transport of electrons in the mesoscopic transport regime.

  2. Sharp Bounds on the Critical Stability Radius for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andréasson, Håkan

    2009-06-01

    In a recent paper by Giuliani and Rothman [17], the problem of finding a lower bound on the radius R of a charged sphere with mass M and charge Q < M is addressed. Such a bound is referred to as the critical stability radius. Equivalently, it can be formulated as the problem of finding an upper bound on M for given radius and charge. This problem has resulted in a number of papers in recent years but neither a transparent nor a general inequality similar to the case without charge, i.e., M ≤ 4 R/9, has been found. In this paper we derive the surprisingly transparent inequality sqrt{M}≤sqrt{R}/3+sqrt{R/9+Q^2/3R}. The inequality is shown to hold for any solution which satisfies p + 2 pT ≤ ρ, where p ≥ 0 and pT are the radial- and tangential pressures respectively and ρ ≥ 0 is the energy density. In addition we show that the inequality is sharp, in particular we show that sharpness is attained by infinitely thin shell solutions.

  3. A conceptual design for a 60 kJ KrF laser amplifier*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethian, J. D.; Giuliani, J. R.; Kepple, P.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Obenschain, S. P.; Friedman, M.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weidenheimer, D.

    2003-10-01

    Sufficient progress has been made in the Electra krypton fluoride (KrF) laser program [1] that we can begin to evaluate laser amplifier concepts for a fusion power plant. This system would produce around 60 kJ of laser light and would be a full scale prototype for the (approximately) 40 beam lines in a fusion power plant. The amplifier is pumped with two opposing arrays of electron beams which are driven by solid state pulsed power systems. Each beam is injected through its own foil support structure into a common laser cell. This "segmented approach" minimizes the pulsed power cost and stresses on the foil support, and has marginal output loss due to absorption in the unpumped regions. The performance has been predicted with Orestes, a first principles KrF physics code that self-consistently couples the various physical processes such as e-beam pumping and amplified spontaneous emission. [1] See adjoining posters by F. Hegeler, J. Giuliani, and D. Rose.

  4. Comparative 2D Radiation MHD Simulations of Argon Gas Puff Z-pinch Plasma Experiments on the Sandia Z Machine Using the Radiative Diffusion and CRE Transport Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Y. K.; Thornhill Giuliani, J. W., Jr.; Apruzese, J. P.; Terry, R. E.; Davis, J.

    2001-10-01

    The recent development of the computationally efficient tabulated collisional radiative equilibrium (TCRE) radiation transport model(J.W. Thornhill, J.P. Apruzese, J. Davis, R.W. Clark, A.L. Velikovich, J.L. Giuliani, Jr., Y.K. Chong, K.G. Whitney, C. Deeney, C.A. Coverdale and F.L. Cochran, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3480 (2001).) has made possible full multidimensional radiation MHD simulations of hot dense Z-pinch plasmas with a realistic description of the non-LTE ionization dynamics and radiation transport physics. In this study, we focus on the implementation of the TCRE radiation transport model in the Mach2 2D radiation MHD code. An application of the model is made through a full dynamical simulation of an argon gas puff pinch driven by a circuit model of the Z generator. An analysis of the simulation, in particular, the K- and L-shell radiation yields, as well as the spectral and spatial characteristics of the radiation will be presented. In addition, a comparison of this multidimensional transport method will be made with the existing radiative diffusion model.

  5. Spin coating of superparamagnetic colloids with applied magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Viñas, Wenceslao; Pichumani, Moorthi

    2012-02-01

    We report experimental results on the behavior of dilute superparamagnetic colloids under shear stresses (using a commercial spin-coater and varying its rate of rotation) with applied magnetic fields. For the case of zero field, we compare the results obtained for different kind of particles (non-magnetic [1] vs PS based [2] vs silica based [3]) and solvents by analyzing the dried deposits obtained from the spin coating. All the data collapse in a single curve, when the appropriate scaling for the film thickness is performed. This agreement allows us to define a reference to measure the relative change in viscosity, when a magnetic field is applied during the spin coating. Thus, we show the magnetorheological properties of colloidal dispersions. These results shed light into the aggregation and clustering dynamics for colloids under external fields with shear and provide a new method to study the rheological properties of colloids.[4pt] [1] M. Giuliani et al. ``Dynamics of crystal structure formation in spin-coated colloidal films'' J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(9), 1481 (2010)[0pt] [2] M. Pichumani et al. ``Spin-coating of dilute magnetic colloids in a magnetic field'' Magnetohydrodynamics, 47(2), 191 (2011)[0pt] [3] M. Pichumani et al. In preparation

  6. Magnetic field induced metal insulator transitions in p-SiGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleridge, P. T.

    2003-09-01

    Low density modulation doped p-SiGe, where the holes lie in a strained SiGe quantum well, frequently exhibits anomalous insulating behaviour between filling factors ν=2 and 1. There is also anomalous metallic behavior with a metal-insulator transition between the two. It is shown that in these samples exchange effects are sufficiently large to induce the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition predicted by Giuliani and Quinn in 1985, also that the metallic and insulating behavior is associated with the coincidence of two Landau levels of opposite spin. A model calculation shows that while a ferromagnetic polarization may occur at integer filling factors screening suppresses it for non-integer filling factors. It is argued the Landau levels then stick-together and allow a spin-density instability to form. Because of the strong spin-orbit coupling in p-SiGe the transport properties of this state differ from those of other systems where a similar quantum Hall ferromagnet probably forms.

  7. Cyclotron-resonance transmission through potassium in a perpendicular magnetic field: Effects of the charge-density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Overhauser, A. W.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave transmission through potassium by Dunifer, Sambles, and Mace [J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 875 (1989)] in a perpendicular magnetic field shows five signals. They are Gantmakher-Kaner (GK) oscillations, conduction-electron-spin resonance, high-frequency oscillations, cyclotron resonance, and cyclotron-resonance subharmonics. Only the spin resonance has been successfully explained using a free-electron model. However, such a model predicts GK oscillations which are too large by several orders of magnitude. Lacueva and Overhauser [Phys. Rev. B 48, 16t935 (1993)] have shown that charge-density-wave (CDW) energy gaps which cut through the Fermi surface reduce the GK signal. CDW gaps also create a small Fermi-surface cylinder. The high-frequency oscillations were shown to result from Landau-level quantization in the cylinder. Recently we found that the anomalous microwave surface resistance, observed by Grimes and Kip [Phys. Rev. 132, 1991 (1963)], can be explained only if the cylinder axis is tilted ~45° with respect to the [110] crystal direction perpendicular to the surface. (Such a tilt was predicted by Giuliani and Overhauser [Phys. Rev. B 20, 1328 (1979)].) In this study we show that oscillatory motions, parallel to the field, of electrons in the tilted cylinder cause the cyclotron-resonance transmission. This signal and its subharmonics would be completely absent without the tilt. Consequently, four of the five transmission signals require a CDW broken symmetry.

  8. Microwave surface resistance of potassium in a perpendicular magnetic field: Effects of the charge-density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Overhauser, A. W.

    1996-07-01

    The microwave surface resistance of potassium in a perpendicular magnetic field, measured by Baraff, Grimes, and Platzman in 1969, has never been completely explained until now. The sharp cyclotron resonance peak (at a magnetic field Hc) is caused by the small cylindrical section of Fermi surface created by the charge-density-wave (CDW) minigaps, having periodicities K-->n=(n+1)Q-->-nG-->110. The shape of the observed resonance requires a tilt of the CDW vector Q--> away from [110], predicted by Giuliani and Overhauser in 1979. An abrupt drop of the surface resistance for \\|H\\|>~\\|Hc\\| is caused by the heterodyne gaps, which have periodicities K-->n=n(G-->110-Q-->). These very small gaps, which begin to undergo magnetic breakdown for fields H>~1 T, interrupt the cyclotron motion of equatorial orbits. The abrupt drop in surface resistance for \\|H\\|>~\\|Hc\\| is caused by the resulting partial loss of carrier effectiveness for electrons having velocities nearly parallel to the surface.

  9. Statistics of Helicity Flux in Shell Models of Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiaoning; Chen, Shiyi; Eyink, Gregory L.; Holm, Darryl D.

    2001-11-01

    We present results of simulations of two shell models of turbulence, the standard SABRA model and a helical version of the SABRA model ( called SABRA 3 ) patterned after the GOY 3 model of Biferale and Kerr. We investigate a known difference in helicity statistics between the standard and helical versions of the shell models. In standard GOY, the scaling exponents of absolute helicity flux structure functions were found by Ditlevsen and Giuliani to be larger than those of energy flux. In contrast, Biferale et al. have found the scaling exponents of energy and helicity flux for GOY 3 to be nearly equal. We confirm this difference in helicity flux scaling for standard SABRA and helical SABRA 3. We find that the identical scaling properties of energy and helicity flux in SABRA 3 are associated with strong statistical correlations of the two fluxes for large values. On the other hand, in SABRA there is a "blocking" effect, where large energy flux is associated to small helicity flux. By a conditional sampling of bursting events, we provide a dynamical explanation of blocking in SABRA and of its absence in SABRA 3. Finally, we discuss the relevance of both shell models to helicity statistics in 3D Navier-Stokes turbulence.

  10. The role of helicity on the turbulent energy flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toschi, Federico; Biferale, Luca; Musacchio, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    Three-dimensional turbulence is characterized by two inviscid constants of motion, kinetic energy and helicity. Helicity (i.e. the correlation between velocity and vorticity) is a key quantity in fluid turbulence, and has not a definite sign. This mere fact have since long been associated with the different phenomenology of 3d vs. 2d turbulence, which in contrast has two positive defined conserved quantities, energy and enstrophy (the square vorticity). In this study we investigate the role of helicity on the turbulent cascade process by decomposing the velocity field on the eigenmodes of the curl operator which have definite-sign helicity. We present numerical results on the statistical properties of the energy flux and velocity field in turbulent flows in which interactions between modes are selected according to their helicity. Minimal bibliography: P. D. Ditlevsen and P. Giuliani (2001) ``Cascades in helical turbulence'' PRE, 63(3), 036304. Q. Chen, S. Chen, and G.L. Eyink (2003) ``The joint cascade of energy and helicity in three-dimensional turbulence'' Physics of fluids, 15(2), 361. R. Benzi, L. Biferale, R. M. Kerr, and E. Trovatore (1996) ``Helical shell models for three- dimensional turbulence'' Phys. Rev. E 53, 3541. F. Waleffe (1992) ``The nature of triad interactions in homogeneous turbulence'' Phys. Fluids A, 4(2), 350.

  11. The challenge of characterizing an inefficient antenna field for health protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2006-03-01

    Growing evidence that the electromagnetic field around electrical wires is harmful to human health prompted a 1990s National Academy of Sciences study of power-frequency (50-60 Hz) fields; results for power-frequency fields were negative but data suggested that fields from transients may be hazardous.^1 Transients represent high frequencies that can reach into the radiofrequency (RF) range. What instrument can be used to measure an RF field around electric wires carrying RF current? Such an RF field is that of an inefficient antenna, which lacks the pure far-field region characteristic of an efficient antenna field for which standard RF measuring instruments are calibrated, making it impossible to obtain a properly calibrated measurement with such instruments. The magnetic induction current dB/dt is explored as an alternative way to characterize the inefficient antenna RF field sheathing electric wires carrying RF due to poor power quality (e.g., switching transients) or to utility use of power line carrier^2 or of FCC-approved broadband on power lines. ^1National Research Council, Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997. ^2M. Vignati & L. Giuliani, Environ. Health Perspect. 105(Suppl 6):1565-1568(1997).

  12. Coupled interface-plasmon modes of a superlattice and doped overlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloss, Walter L.

    1991-02-01

    We calculate the energy dispersion relation of the local interface-plasmon modes of a semi-infinite periodic array of quantum wells coupled to the surface-plasmon mode of a doped overlayer. For equal dielectric constants, an exact solution for the interface-plasmon modes is obtained. In the limit that the distance d separating the superlattice and overlayer is zero, one interface mode is found. This mode exists only for wave vectors larger than a critical value dependent upon the ratio of the density of the quantum well to the density of the overlayer. For arbitrary separation d, two local interface-plasmon eigenstates are found that correspond to the symmetric and antisymmetric combinations of the semi-infinite superlattice plasmon and the surface plasmon associated with the doped layer. These modes are shown to have a very intricate energy dispersion. They are distinctly different from the surface modes of Giuliani and Quinn [Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 919 (1983)], which do not exist in this case of equal dielectric constants.

  13. Cluster protein structures using recurrence quantification analysis on coordinates of alpha-carbon atoms of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Yu, Zu-Guo; Anh, Vo

    2007-08-01

    The 3-dimensional coordinates of alpha-carbon atoms of proteins are used to distinguish the protein structural classes based on recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). We consider two independent variables from RQA of coordinates of alpha-carbon atoms, %determ1 and %determ2, which were defined by Webber et al. [C.L. Webber Jr., A. Giuliani, J.P. Zbilut, A. Colosimo, Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet. 44 (2001) 292]. The variable %determ2 is used to define two new variables, %determ21 and %determ22. Then three variables %determ1, %determ21 and %determ22 are used to construct a 3-dimensional variable space. Each protein is represented by a point in this variable space. The points corresponding to proteins from the α, β, α+β and α/β structural classes position into different areas in this variable space. In order to give a quantitative assessment of our clustering on the selected proteins, Fisher's discriminant algorithm is used. Numerical results indicate that the discriminant accuracies are very high and satisfactory.

  14. Marijuana Treatment Entries Did Not Decrease After Aggressive Arrest Policies Were Implemented in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Sabet, Kevin A.; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    In the mid-late 1990s Mayor Rudy Giuliani and Police Chief William Bratton focused on arresting and detaining people for crimes that contributed to a lower “quality-of-life” in New York City. This aggressive arrest policy (AAP) resulted in a record growth in marijuana arrests. In 1992, the number of marijuana arrests was around 5,000. By 2000, the arrest rate hit an all-time high of about 60,000 (the large majority of which were for misdemeanor arrests in both years). Through a triangulation of data sources, including the Uniform Crime Reports and the Treatment Episode Data Set from 1992 to 2003, and other published accounts, this paper shows that entries into treatment for marijuana dramatically increased in New York City at the same time as misdemeanor and felony arrests for marijuana also rose. While it is unclear if these arrests caused the treatment increase (vis-à-vis criminal justice referral programs), the presence of these two phenomena show that policy regimes of increased treatment and increased law enforcement actions can co-exist. The oft-heard phrase “treatment versus law enforcement” may represent a false dichotomy in drug policy analysis. PMID:19129906

  15. Coherent uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from multiple satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-02-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS - altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products - were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/"target="_blank" >http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/"target="_blank" >http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow/ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the

  16. Utilizing Higher Resolution Land Surface Remote Sensing Data for Assessing Recent Trends over Asia Monsoon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The slide presentation discusses the integration of 1-kilometer spatial resolution land temperature data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with 8-day temporal resolution, into the NASA Monsoon-Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) Data Center. The data will be available for analysis and visualization in the Giovanni data system. It discusses the NASA MAIRS Data Center, presents an introduction to the data access tools, and an introduction of Products available from the service, discusses the higher resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) and presents preliminary results of LST Trends over China.

  17. Uncommon Variant of Type II Monteggia Fracture with Concomitant Distal Humeral Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Jihad F.; El Rassi, George S.; Abd El Nour, Hicham G.; El Asmar, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Monteggia fracture-dislocation, a common injury sustained by pediatric population, is a rare entity in adults. It was first observed by Giovanni Battista Monteggia and later classified by Bado into 4 groups. The term “Monteggia equivalent or variant” was introduced to describe certain injuries with similar radiographic pattern and biomechanism of injury. Since then various types and their variants have been described in the literature. We present a complex fracture pattern in a 55-year-old male not previously described in the literature along with its treatment modality and favorable outcome. PMID:26550509

  18. A-Train Data Depot: Integrating and Exploring Data Along the A-Train Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.; Smith, P.; Savtchenko, A.; Kummerer, R.; Gopalan, A.; Farley, J.; Chen, A.

    2007-01-01

    The immense potential for new science findings as a result of inter-instrument data analysis has led to the development of a new data portal at GSFC: the A-train Data Depot. The power and utility of this new service to the general public is amplified immensely when the archived data are used in conjunction with online data analysis services like Giovanni. This presentation details some of the challenges of data usage from multiple distinct missions and how the tool sets we have developed can help to overcome these challenges, considerably cut down on analysis overhead and promote science exploration in an otherwise very challenging arena.

  19. Proto-Examples of Data Access and Visualization Components of a Potential Cloud-Based GEOSS-AI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Lynnes, C.

    2014-12-01

    Once a research or application problem has been identified, one logical next step is to search for available relevant data products. Thus, an early component of a potential GEOSS-AI system, in the continuum between observations and end point research, applications, and decision making, would be one that enables transparent data discovery and access by users. Such a component might be effected via the system's "data agents." Presumably, some kind of data cataloging has already been implemented, e.g., in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). Both the agents and cataloging could also leverage existing resources external to the system. The system would have some means to accept and integrate user-contributed agents. The need or desirability for some data format internal to the system should be evaluated. Another early component would be one that facilitates browsing/visualization of the data, as well as some basic analyses. Three ongoing projects at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provide possible proto-examples of potential data access and visualization components of a cloud-based GEOSS-AI system. Reorganizing data archived as time-step arrays to point-time series ("data rods"), as well as leveraging the NASA Simple Subset Wizard (SSW), to significantly increase the number of data products available, at multiple NASA data centers, for production as on-the-fly (virtual) data rods. SSW's data discovery is based on OpenSearch. Both pre-generated and virtual data rods are accessible via Web services. Developing Web Feature Services to publish the metadata, and expose the locations, of pre-generated and virtual data rods in the GEOSS Portal and enable direct access of the data via Web services. SSW is also leveraged to increase the availability of both NASA and non-NASA data. Federating NASA Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface), for multi-sensor data exploration, that would allow each

  20. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  1. Coherent uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from multiple satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-07-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS - altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products - were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/"target="_blank">http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/"target="_blank">http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/. The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 7%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.8 for many of the analyzed products, while root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.07 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different land cover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the land cover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow/ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface closed shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which

  2. Infraspinatus strength assessment and ultrasound evaluation of posterior capsulotenodesis after arthroscopic hill-sachs remplissage in traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability: a retrospective controlled study protocol.

    PubMed

    Merolla, Giovanni; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Giovanni Merolla Co-investigator: Giuseppe Porcellini Investigation performed at the Biomechanics Laboratory "Marco Simoncelli", D. Cervesi Hospital, Cattolica - Italy PLAN OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION (PCI): Version 1.0 of June 12, 2012 Approved by AV/IRST Ethical Committee (Comitato Etico Area Vasta Romagna) and authorized by AUSL RN ("Determina AUSL Rimini numero 326 del 29/03/2013: Remplissage U.O Chirurgia della Spalla - Valutazione clinica ed ultrasonografica dell'infraspinato dopo capsulo-tenodesi artroscopica (remplissage) nell'instabilità anteriore traumatica di spalla con lesione di Bankart e difetto omerale di Hill-Sachs").

  3. Matthew Baillie: pioneer of systematic pathology.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2011-10-01

    This year is the 250th anniversary of the birth of Matthew Baillie, whose textbook Morbid Anatomy of the Human Body, published in 1793, and its accompanying atlas, published 6 years later, constituted the first textbook which dealt exclusively with system-based pathology. This adopted a new and convenient method of describing pathology according to the organs involved rather than according to symptoms, as Giovanni Morgagni (1682-1771) of Padua had adopted in his De Sedibus et Causis Morborum (On the sites and causes of disease). This, published in 1760, was rightly regarded as the first textbook which correlated symptoms in life with the appearance of the viscera at autopsy.

  4. A Case of Sudden Death in Decameron IV.6: Aortic Dissection or Atrial Myxoma?

    PubMed

    Toscano, Fabrizio; Spani, Giovanni; Papio, Michael; Rühli, Frank J; Galassi, Francesco M

    2016-07-08

    Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron contains a novella that details the sudden death of a young man called Gabriotto, including a portrayal of the discomfort that the protagonist experienced and a rudimentary autopsy performed by local physicians. The intriguing description of symptoms and pathologies has made it possible to read a 7-century-old case through the modern clinical lens. Thanks to the medical and philological analysis of the text-despite the vast difference between modern and medieval medicine-2 hypothetical diagnoses have emerged: either an aortic dissection or an atrial myxoma. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. [Hermeneutics and relativism].

    PubMed

    Miegge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis left us. There is only one way to cope with the irremediable separation: to give voice to what he said and wrote, by keeping open among us questions he asked, because they are also ours. In this dialogue with Giacomo Marramao let me begin with certain passages of the essay Psychoanalysis as a Critical Exercise that Jervis published in 1989. In the second part of the intervention I will try to explain why, in my opinion, hermeneutics cannot be equated with "relativism".

  6. Monteggia fracture-dislocations: A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Rehim, Shady A.; Maynard, Mallory A.; Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    The eponym Monteggia fracture-dislocation originally referred to a fracture of the shaft of the ulna accompanied by anterior dislocation of the radial head that was described by Giovanni Battista Monteggia of Italy in 1814. Subsequently, a further classification system based on the direction of the radial head dislocation and associated fractures of the radius and ulna was proposed by Jose Luis Bado of Uruguay in 1958. This article investigates the evolution of treatment, classification, and outcomes of the Monteggia injury and sheds light on the lives and contributions of Monteggia and Bado. PMID:24792923

  7. Fra Angelico's painting technique revealed by terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated with terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) the well-known Lamentation over the dead Christ panel painting (San Marco Museum, Florence) painted by Fra Giovanni Angelico within 1436 and 1441. The investigation provided a better understanding of the construction and gilding technique used by the eminent artist, as well as the plastering technique used during the nineteenth-century restoration intervention. The evidence obtained from THz-TDI scans was correlated with the available documentation on the preservation history of the art piece. Erosion and damages documented for the wooden support, especially in the lower margin, found confirmation in the THz-TD images.

  8. Europe's education experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Written on the seal of the University of Bologna - founded in 1088 and regarded as the oldest degree-granting university in the western world - are the words Alma mater studiorum. Translated into English, they mean, literally, "Nourishing mother of studies", which is apt given that the university's almuni include the astronomers Nicolas Copernicus and Giovanni Domenico Cassini - the first to observe Saturn's four moons. But Bologna has a much more recent claim to fame in the world of education: it was at the university that plans to create a common European higher-education system were set in motion exactly 10 years ago this month.

  9. Instrumentation for Quantum and Nonlinear Optical Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-09

    2003; presently at LLNL Giovanni Piredda – PhD Student, will graduate 2004 Vincent Wong – PhD Student, will graduate 2004 Aaron Schwensberg – PhD...Index Using Complete Spatio- Temporal Pulse Characterization, G. Piredda , C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, I. A. Walmsley, and R.W. Boyd, submitted to Optics...ultrashort pulse characterization, G. Piredda , R. W. Boyd, C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, presented at CLEO/QELS, May 19-24, Long Beach

  10. Central America: Region in Conflict; A Selective Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    published during the period19893 DO , ~ NO OI~ UOV SB S OSSO ETE SECURITY CLASSFICATfOR OF rNIS PAGE (When Date Entered) 8 4 10 01 1137.%7. .4. *V461 -j -. r...F1527 .S62 D53 Di Giovanni, Cleto, Jr., and Harvey, Hose L. CRISIS IN CENTRAL AMERICA: FACTS, ARGUMENTS, IMPORTANCE, DANGERS, RAMIFICATIONS. Washington...Land. AMERICA 142:245-246, March 22, 1980 "Mqilitary Excess and Democratic Hopes--An Inflammtory Mix." (With dis - cussion--E1 Salvador

  11. Evolving Arms Transfer Rationales: The Case of Italy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    began to 5 Libro Bianco-La Difesa, 1977, 57-92. 6 1bid. 23 reconstitute and reequip her armed forces. The 1950’s were tumultuous for the activity in...discussion of the early arms trade in Italy. 8 La Difesa-- Libro Bianco, Ministero della Difesa d’Italia, 1985. 74. 24 in recognizing the problem, the... Libro Bianco, p.xiv. This quote is a portion of the introduction to the White Book written by the Minister of Defense, Giovanni Spadolini. 31 however

  12. 50th Anniversary of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-23

    Nikki Giovanni, a poet and professor at Virginia Polytechnic and State University, reads her poem entitled "Quilting the Black-Eyed Pea (We’re Going to Mars)" via a pre-recorded video at an event celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on Monday, June 23, 2014 in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC. The event highlighted the influence of the Civil Rights Act on NASA. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  13. 50th Anniversary of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-23

    The audience watches as Nikki Giovanni, a poet and professor at Virginia Polytechnic and State University, reads her poem entitled "Quilting the Black-Eyed Pea (We’re Going to Mars)" via a pre-recorded video at at an event celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on Monday, June 23, 2014 in the James E. Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC. The event highlighted the influence of the Civil Rights Act on NASA. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  14. Proto-Examples of Data Access and Visualization Components of a Potential Cloud-Based GEOSS-AI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Once a research or application problem has been identified, one logical next step is to search for available relevant data products. Thus, an early component of a potential GEOSS-AI system, in the continuum between observations and end point research, applications, and decision making, would be one that enables transparent data discovery and access by users. Such a component might be effected via the systems data agents. Presumably, some kind of data cataloging has already been implemented, e.g., in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). Both the agents and cataloging could also leverage existing resources external to the system. The system would have some means to accept and integrate user-contributed agents. The need or desirability for some data format internal to the system should be evaluated. Another early component would be one that facilitates browsing visualization of the data, as well as some basic analyses.Three ongoing projects at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provide possible proto-examples of potential data access and visualization components of a cloud-based GEOSS-AI system. 1. Reorganizing data archived as time-step arrays to point-time series (data rods), as well as leveraging the NASA Simple Subset Wizard (SSW), to significantly increase the number of data products available, at multiple NASA data centers, for production as on-the-fly (virtual) data rods. SSWs data discovery is based on OpenSearch. Both pre-generated and virtual data rods are accessible via Web services. 2. Developing Web Feature Services to publish the metadata, and expose the locations, of pre-generated and virtual data rods in the GEOSS Portal and enable direct access of the data via Web services. SSW is also leveraged to increase the availability of both NASA and non-NASA data.3.Federating NASA Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface), for multi-sensor data exploration, that would allow each

  15. Analyzing a 35-Year Hourly Data Record: Why So Difficult?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2014-12-01

    At the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, we have recently added a 35-Year record of output data from the North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) to the Giovanni web-based analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) offers a variety of data summarization and visualization to users that operate at the data center, obviating the need for users to download and read the data themselves for exploratory data analysis. However, the NLDAS data has proven surprisingly resistant to application of the summarization algorithms. Algorithms that were perfectly happy analyzing 15 years of daily satellite data encountered limitations both at the algorithm and system level for 35 years of hourly data. Failures arose, sometimes unexpectedly, from command line overflows, memory overflows, internal buffer overflows, and time-outs, among others. These serve as an early warning sign for the problems likely to be encountered by the general user community as they try to scale up to "Big Data" analytics. Indeed, it is likely that more users will seek to perform remote web-based analysis precisely to avoid the issues, or the need to reprogram around them. We will discuss approaches to mitigating the limitations and the implications for data systems serving the user communities that try to scale up their current techniques to analyze Big Data.

  16. Analysis of Vegetation Index Variations and the Asian Monsoon Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Sunhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation growth depends on local climate. Significant anthropogenic land cover and land use change activities over Asia have changed vegetation distribution as well. On the other hand, vegetation is one of the important land surface variables that influence the Asian Monsoon variability through controlling atmospheric energy and water vapor conditions. In this presentation, the mean and variations of vegetation index of last decade at regional scale resolution (5km and higher) from MODIS have been analyzed. Results indicate that the vegetation index has been reduced significantly during last decade over fast urbanization areas in east China, such as Yangtze River Delta, where local surface temperatures were increased significantly in term of urban heat Island. The relationship between vegetation Index and climate (surface temperature, precipitation) over a grassland in northern Asia and over a woody savannas in southeast Asia are studied. In supporting Monsoon Asian Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, the data in this study have been integrated into Giovanni, the online visualization and analysis system at NASA GES DISC. Most images in this presentation are generated from Giovanni system.

  17. Constructing clinical science.

    PubMed

    Gaspare de Santo, Natale; Bisaccia, Carmela; Cirillo, Massimo; Salvatore de Santo, Luca; Richet, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Clinical practice became clinical science in the years 1720-1820. There were many reasons for this transformation. The discoveries by Santorio Santorio, William Harvey, Marcello Malpighi, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Lorenzo Bellini, Thomas Sydenham, Giovanni Maria Lancisi, were perceived by students who asked for changes in the medical curriculum. In 1761 Morgagni centered the study of diseases on morbid anatomy, a way to control at autopsy the validity of diagnosis. J.P. Frank who worked on public health and John Locke who supported a method of scientific reasoning based on asking questions were also instrumental for changes. Hospitals, formerly hospices for the poor, became places for curing and healing. Military hospitals represented models to be followed. In Vienna Marie Therese inaugurated the Allegemein Krankenhaus in 1785. In revolutionary France Fourcroy with the law Frimaire An III, 1794 gave a new rationale. Medicine and surgery were unified in the curriculum. Basic sciences were introduced. Dissection became compulsory, practical teaching became the rule. But it was with John Hunter, Domenico Cotugno and P. Joseph Desault that the great advancement was achieved. They were anatomists and therefore they made the knowledge of human body the core of medical curriculum. However experimentation on animals, as well as practical bedside teaching at the hospital also became important. Through their work hospitals and universities were associated in a common goal.

  18. Online Comparison of Precipitation Products during the GPM Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    During the TRMM era, online services (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation/tovas) have been developed to facilitate intercomparison of TRMM and other global precipitation products. Through Giovanni TOVAS, users can conduct intercomparison of TMPA 3-hourly, daily and monthly products as well as other TRMM and climatology products in areas of interest without downloading data and software. In this presentation, samples of using the IPWG validation statistics will be presented. In addition, a new method will be presented to reveal the difference between two products at the grid point level over a selected time period, giving local information regarding how the two products perform at such level, compared to the regional approach on the IPWG web site. During the GPM era, the first implementation is to include the GPROF daily and monthly precipitation products in Giovanni TOVAS. For the time being, there are 9 GPROF products for the daily and monthly, respectively. Meanwhile, online services for comparing Level-2 data, such as TRMM TMI, PR and TCI will be prototyped because for multi-sensor products, such as TMPA or IMERG, the capability to compare Level-2 products is needed for further understanding of product differences. Examples of such activity will be presented as well.

  19. Analyzing a 35-Year Hourly Data Record: Why So Difficult?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    At the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, we have recently added a 35-Year record of output data from the North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) to the Giovanni web-based analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) offers a variety of data summarization and visualization to users that operate at the data center, obviating the need for users to download and read the data themselves for exploratory data analysis. However, the NLDAS data has proven surprisingly resistant to application of the summarization algorithms. Algorithms that were perfectly happy analyzing 15 years of daily satellite data encountered limitations both at the algorithm and system level for 35 years of hourly data. Failures arose, sometimes unexpectedly, from command line overflows, memory overflows, internal buffer overflows, and time-outs, among others. These serve as an early warning sign for the problems likely to be encountered by the general user community as they try to scale up to Big Data analytics. Indeed, it is likely that more users will seek to perform remote web-based analysis precisely to avoid the issues, or the need to reprogram around them. We will discuss approaches to mitigating the limitations and the implications for data systems serving the user communities that try to scale up their current techniques to analyze Big Data.

  20. Global Magnetospheric Simulations: coupling with ionospheric and solar wind models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Amaya, Jorge; Deca, Jan; Markidis, Stefano; Vapirev, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    We present results on the global fully kinetic model of the magnetosphere of the Earth. The simulations are based on the iPic3D code [1] that treats kinetically all plasma species solving implicitly the equations of motion for electrons and ions, coupled with the Maxwell equations. We present results of our simulations and discuss the coupling at the inner boundary near the Earth with models of the ionosphere and at the outer boundary with models of the arriving solar wind. The results are part of the activities of the Swiff FP7 project: www.swiff.eu [1] Stefano Markidis, Giovanni Lapenta, Rizwan-uddin, Multi-scale simulations of plasma with iPIC3D, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Volume 80, Issue 7, March 2010, Pages 1509-1519, ISSN 0378-4754, 10.1016/j.matcom.2009.08.038 [2] Giovanni Lapenta, Particle simulations of space weather, Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 231, Issue 3, 1 February 2012, Pages 795-821, ISSN 0021-9991, 10.1016/j.jcp.2011.03.035.

  1. Multi-Sensor Data from A-Train Instruments Brought Together for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter M.; Kempler, Steven J.; Leptoukh, Greg; Savtchenko, Andrey; Stephens, Graeme; Winker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The A-Train is comprised of a series of instruments, developed independently, that measure highly related atmospheric components along the same flight path. In order to intercompare data from this multitude of sensors, researchers must access, subset, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmosphere measurements from the various A-Train instruments. The A-Train Data Depot (ATDD) has been operational for over a year, successfully performing the aforementioned functions on behalf of researchers, thus providing co-registered data from the Cloudsat, CALIOP, AIRS, and MODIS instruments for further intercomparisons. Of late, significant data from OM1 and POLDER are now included in the 'depot'. By specifying the desired spatial and temporal range, the researcher can subset, visualize, co-register, and access multi-sensor A-Train data related to: Cloud, aerosol, atmospheric temperature, and water vapor parameters (vertical profile visualizations); Cloud Pressure, cloud top temperature, water vapor, cloud optical thickness, and aerosol products (horizontal strips subsetted +/- 100km from the profile visualizations), and; Cloud pressure parameters (2-D line plots overlayed on the vertical profiles). All data is plotted using the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. A new feature of GIOVANNI is its ability to have collocated and subsetted data sets as well as PNG image files downloaded to the researcher's computing facility. By providing a convenient way to visualize and acquire multi-sensor data, ATDD affords users more time and effort to further their research.

  2. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Pham, L.; Shen, S.; Zhu, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are (1) area plot - averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; (2) time plot - time series averaged over any rectangular area; (3) Hovmoller plots - longitude-time and latitude-time plots; (4) ASCII

  3. Preparing Precipitation Data Access, Value-added Services and Scientific Exploration Tools for the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Kempler, S. J.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google: NASA PDISC), located at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC), is home of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. For over 15 years, the GES DISC has served not only TRMM, but also other space-based, airborne-based, field campaign and ground-based precipitation data products to the precipitation community and other disciplinary communities as well. The TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products are the most popular products in the TRMM product family in terms of data download and access through Mirador, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) and other services. The next generation of TMPA, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) to be released in 2014 after the launch of GPM, will be significantly improved in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. To better serve the user community, we are preparing data services and samples are listed below. To enable scientific exploration of Earth science data products without going through complicated and often time consuming processes, such as data downloading, data processing, etc., the GES DISC has developed Giovanni in consultation with members of the user community, requesting quick search, subset, analysis and display capabilities for their specific data of interest. For example, the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS, http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/) has proven extremely popular, especially as additional datasets have been added upon request. Giovanni will continue to evolve to accommodate GPM data and the multi-sensor data inter-comparisons that will be sure to follow. Additional PDISC tool and service capabilities being adapted for GPM data include: An on-line PDISC Portal (includes user guide, etc

  4. Geogenic Enrichment of PTEs and the " Serpentine Syndrome"(H. Jenny, 1980). A proxy for soil remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Serpentine soils have relatively high concentrations of PTEs (e.g., Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni) but generally low amounts of major nutrients. They often bear a distinctive vegetation, and a frequently-used approach to understanding serpentine ecology and environmental hazard has been the chemical analysis of soils and plants. Long-term studies on aspects of serpentine soils and their vegetation provide results on total concentrations, or on plant-available fractions, of soil elements which counteract ecological conditions. For example, there is evidence of Ni toxicity at Ni-concentration >0.3 mg/L in the soil solution (Johnston and Proctor, 1981). The serpentine vegetation differs from the conterminous non-serpentine areas, being often endemic, and showing macroscopic physionomical characters such as dwarfism, prostrate outcome, glaucescence and glabrescence, leaves stenosis, root shortening (what Jenny, 1980, called "the serpentine syndrome"). Similarly, at microscopic level cytomorphological characteristics of the roots and variations in biochemical parameters such as LPO and phenols have been recorded in serpentine native vegetation (Giuliani et al., 2008). Light microscopy observations showed depressed mitotic activity in the meristematic zone, and consequent reduced root growth (Gabbrielli et al., 1990) The metal content of plants growing on serpentine soils at sites with different microclimatic conditions has been examined by several authors (e.g. Bini et al., 1993; Dinelli and Lombini, 1996) . A preferential Ni distribution in epidermis and sclerenchima has been observed in the stem of Alyssum bertoloni, a well known Ni-accumulator plant (Vergnano Gambi, 1975). The different tolerance mechanisms responsible for plant adaption to high concentrations of PTEs in serpentine soils can be related to the capacity of plants either to limit metal uptake and translocation or to accumulate metals in non toxic forms. The majority of serpentine species (e.g. Silene italica) tend

  5. Analytical and Hydrodynamical Investigation of the Effect of Supernova Asymmetry on the Shape of Pulsar Wind-blown Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, J.

    2003-03-01

    In the simplest model of the expansion of a pulsar wind-blown bubble, the density of the supernova (SN) ejecta is assumed to be spherically symmetric, and thus not contributing to any asymmetries in the bubble itself. However, wind-blown bubbles are observed to be asymmetric. A possible cause of this asymmetry is intrinsic asymmetry in the SN ejecta, because it is now well established that SN explosions are not spherically symmetric. Analytical work has been done to determine how polar asymmetry in SN ejecta would affect the shape of the bubble. Giuliani's thin-shell approximation has been used to model the swept shell enclosing the bubble. The magnetic fields surrounding the pulsar are assumed to be turbulent, and thus not contributing to any asymmetry. At late times it is assumed that the bubble asymptotically attains a self-similar solution over time as it expands into the ejecta. At early times, when the pulsar starts blowing a bubble after an initial delay, the bubble may also be described by a self-similar solution. In both cases the bubble shape is asymmetric and time invariant. Surprisingly, multiple solutions are allowed within the framework of the thin-shell approximation. Hydrodynamical simulations with the VH-1 hydrocode have been performed to corroborate these analytical findings. At late times the Raleigh-Taylor instability in the accelerating bubble reduces its asymmetry much below the analytical predictions. At early times a better agreement is found between the analytical predictions and the simulations. We explore a transition between these two self-similar stages through hydrodynamical simulations.

  6. Project for a world-wide network devoted to the seismology of the giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciani, A.; Moretti, P. F.; Dolci, M.; Giuliani, C.; Patriarchi, P.

    1999-09-01

    An increasing interest has been devoted in recent years to the seismology of Jupiter and Saturn, as it is an intermediate case between the Sun and the stars. Besides the theoretical modelling, few observations have been carried out so far. An instrument, currently used in Helioseismology, has been adapted to deal with the low photon flux from the stars. It is based on the Magneto-Optical Filter (MOF), which provides two narrow (40 m Angstroms) bandpasses centered on the Sodium D-lines, 80 m Angstroms/ apart from the central wavelenght. A continuum broad-band channel is simultaneously available. The MOF stability and reference wavelenght permit to reach an high sensitivity in the power spectrum of the oscillations, despite the very low spectral-limited transmitted light. The most recent version of the instrument has characteristics of portability (60x10x10 cm x 10 Kg, PMT not included), fast mounting and low cost. Preliminary results obtained during the impact of Comet SL-9 on Jupiter in 1994 and in 3 consecutive nights in 1996 are presented [1,2]. The importance of continuous observations for an unambigous detection and identification of the oscillation frequencies requires a network of at least 1m--class telescopes all around the world. The authors thank the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione and the Osservatorio Astronomico "V.Cerulli" di Teramo for financial support. References [1] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., Brocato E., Smith E. J., 1995: Doppler Observations of the Impact of Comet P/Shoemaker-Levy/9, Fragment A, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2437 [2] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., D'Alessio F., Giuliani C., Micolucci E., Di Cianno A., 1999: Search for global oscillations on Jupiter with a double-cell Sodium Magneto-Optical Filter, submitted to Astron. Astrophys.

  7. Relation between Radon Concentration and Jet Stream at Abruzzo M6.3 Earthquake of April 6, 2009 in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.

    2009-12-01

    The jet stream is usually related to the formation of cyclones, frontal zones, and some severe storms. The front ends of the jet stream groups were located near to the vicinities of the epicenters. For earthquake with magnitudes M = 6.3 on April 6, 2009, located at Abruzzo (42.33N,13.33E) in Italy, resulted in a death toll of 295. The front end of a 108-km/h jet stream group were twisted and directly pointed out the vicinity of the epicenter on January 29, 2009. The time of jet stream’ phenomenon was close to the time of the radon concentration surging by observation of seismologist Gioacchino Giuliani in Italy. The cause of these jet stream anomalies is not clearly understood. Because the front ends of the jet stream groups were in the vicinities of the epicenters, it is possible that there is some relationship between the jet streams and the earthquakes. If these anomalies in the jet streams are caused by earthquakes, the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LAI) coupling model, processing physical and chemical reaction in air from the ionization of radon, may be considered as an explanation for the front ends of jet stream groups remaining in the vicinities of the epicenters before strong earthquakes. Ps. this earthquake has been predicted in advance on 2009/02/03, and sent to Dr. Dimitar Ouzounov. The information is shown as following. 2009/01/29-2009/03/01 Italy (41.7N15.9E) 5.5>M>4.5 100%

  8. The detectability of global oscillations on Jupiter and Saturn with the Magneto-Optical Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolci, M.; Cacciani, A.

    1999-09-01

    The Magneto-Optical Filter (MOF) transmits the light in two very narrow (40 m Angstroms) bandpasses (B and R) located on the opposite wings of a spectral line. With a suitable elaboration of the transmitted channels (cal R=(B-R)/(B+R) or cal S=(B+R)/continuum) it is possible to get direct information about the velocity fields present on the surface of the observed object. Jovian sesimological observations, carried out in the past with this technique, found "global oscillations" with amplitudes around 8 m s(-1) [3]; these "modes", however, could also be due to albedo fluctuations on Jupiter's surface [2]. Recent observations have detected no oscillations and given strong support to the albedo hypothesis [1]. The various experimental results can be reconciled if the sensitivities of cal R and cal S to the different oscillation or albedo "modes" is carefully computed. These sensitivities change with the mode degree (l,m) and with the observation date tobs. When applied to the two above-mentioned experiments, they agree very well with the observed results. The authors thank the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione and the Osservatorio Astronomico "V.Cerulli" di Teramo for financial support. References [1] Cacciani A., Moretti P. F., Dolci M., D'Alessio F., Giuliani C., Micolucci E., Di Cianno A., 1999: Search for global oscillations on Jupiter with a double-cell Sodium Magneto-Optical Filter, submitted to Astron. Astrophys. [2] Lederer S. M., Marley M. S., Mosser B., Maillard J. P., Chanover N. J., Beebe R. F., 1995: Albedo Features and Jovian Seismology, Icarus, 114, 269 [3] Schmider F. X., Mosser B., Fossat E., 1991: Possible detection of Jovian global oscillations, Astron. Astrophys., 248, 281

  9. Once-daily, high-concentration MMX mesalamine in active ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kamm, Michael A; Sandborn, William J; Gassull, Miguel; Schreiber, Stefan; Jackowski, Lechoslaw; Butler, Todd; Lyne, Andrew; Stephenson, David; Palmen, Mary; Joseph, Raymond E

    2007-01-01

    SPD476 (LIALDA in the US; MEZAVANT in the EU; otherwise known as MMX mesalamine; Shire Pharmaceuticals Inc., Wayne, PA, under license from Giuliani SpA, Milan, Italy) is a novel, once-daily, high-strength (1.2 g/tablet) formulation of mesalamine, utilizing MMX Multi Matrix System (MMX) technology designed to deliver the active drug throughout the colon. We performed a double-blind, multicenter study, comparing MMX mesalamine vs placebo for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis. A delayed-release oral mesalamine (ASACOL; Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH) reference arm was included. Three hundred forty-three patients with active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis received MMX mesalamine 2.4 g/day or 4.8 g/day given once daily, ASACOL 2.4 g/day given in 3 divided doses, or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients in clinical and endoscopic remission (modified ulcerative colitis disease activity index of < or =1 with rectal bleeding and stool frequency scores of 0, no mucosal friability, and a > or =1-point reduction in sigmoidoscopy score from baseline). A significantly greater proportion of patients receiving MMX mesalamine 2.4 g/day given once daily (40.5%; P = .01) and 4.8 g/day given once daily (41.2%; P = .007) achieved clinical and endoscopic remission at week 8, vs placebo (22.1%). The clinical and endoscopic remission rate for ASACOL (32.6%; P = .124) was not significantly superior to placebo. All active treatments were well-tolerated. Once-daily MMX mesalamine was efficacious and well-tolerated for the induction of clinical and endoscopic remission. MMX mesalamine offers effective and convenient mesalamine therapy, potentially improving treatment compliance.

  10. Online Visualization and Analysis of Merged Global Geostationary Satellite Infrared Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Leptoukh, G.; Mehta, A.

    2008-01-01

    presentation software, such as, Microsoft PowerPoint. The prototype will be integrated into GIOVANNI and existing GIOVANNI capabilities, such as, data download, Google Earth KMZ, etc will be available. Users will also be able to access other data products in the GIOVANNI family.

  11. NASA Satellite and Model Data and Services to Support NEESPI and MAIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Gerasimov, I.

    2009-12-01

    During the past two to three decades, the Northern Eurasia and Asian Monsoon regions have experienced significant changes in agriculture, industry and economics. Studies have indicated that land use and land cover changes due to climate change and human activities not only changes local climate but also influence global climate system. However, the interaction between human activity, land processes, and climate change are not fully understood. Having integrated interdisciplinary multi-sensor data are important for speeding up studies of climate and environmental changes. During the past three years, more than thirty monthly and daily global satellite datasets for atmospheric, land surface, and cryosphere were collected and an automated data processing, archive, and distribution system was established in supporting the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) project. Data tools and services, such as temporal and spatial search, parameter and spatial subsetting, advanced data downloading, are available. Most data have been integrated into the Web-based online data analyses and visualizations system, Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). The established data services infrastructure will be used and improved further for supporting Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MARIS) project. We plan to integrate higher resolution land process data into the Giovanni system, such as vegetation index, land surface temperature, and active fire at 5km and 1km from the standard MODIS products. About 30 years (since 1979) simulated land products from the NASA Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), and simulated atmospheric products from the NASA MERRA project will be available through the NASA MAIRS data portal. Due to large overlap of the geographic coverage and many similar interesting of NEESPI and MAIRS, collected data will serve for both projects. In this presentation, in addition to the introduction of

  12. Online Visualization and Analysis of Merged Global Geostationary Satellite Infrared Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Leptoukh, G.; Mehta, A.

    2008-12-01

    can save an animation as a file (animated gif) and import it in other presentation software, such as, Microsoft PowerPoint. These capabilities along with examples will be presented in this poster. The prototype will be integrated into GIOVANNI and existing GIOVANNI capabilities, such as, data download, Google Earth KMZ, etc. will be available. Users will also be able to access other data products in the GIOVANNI family.

  13. [Hospital care for acute stroke at the Palestrina hospital: comparison of cost and quality of care with an “hospital at home” care model].

    PubMed

    Paradiso, M A; Alvaro, M R; Liotta, G

    2013-01-01

    In the Lazio Region (Central Italy) the Emergency Care network has been recently re-arranged in order to improve the effectiveness of care. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of stroke patient care on both cost and organization of the hospital of Palestrina (Lazio Region). An analysis of cost and path of care of all stroke patients (239) with stroke attending the hospital in 2010 has been carried out. The care was more expensive than the one offered to the stroke patients attending the “Hospital at Home” service managed by the San Giovanni Battista Hospital in Turin; moreover the care was incomplete because of the lack of rehabilitation services in the hospital catchment area. The care model offered to stroke patient hit by stroke in Palestrina needs to be deeply revised.

  14. Red, White and Black: Colors of Beauty, Tints of Health and Cosmetic Materials in Early Modern English Art Writing.

    PubMed

    Sammern, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Alongside Richard Haydocke's translation of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo's treatise on painting (1598), the article examines concepts of color concerning cosmetics, painting and complexion as they relate to aesthetics, artistic and medical practice in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Beginning with white and red as ideal colors of beauty in Agnolo Firenzuola's Discourse on the beauty of women (1541), the essay places color in relation to major issues in art, medicine and empiricism by discussing beauty as a quality of humoral theory and its colors as visual results of physiological processes. Challenging the relation of art and nature, gender and production, Lomazzo's account of complexion and Haydocke's additions on cosmetic practices and face-painting provide key passages that shed light on the relation of cosmetics colors, art writing and artistic practices at the convergence of the body, art and medicine in the context of the emerging English virtuosi around 1600.

  15. The representation of insects in the seventeenth century: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Meli, Domenico Bertoloni

    2010-07-01

    The investigation and representation of insects in the seventeenth century posed huge problems: on the one hand, their size and texture required optical tools and fixation techniques to disentangle and identify their tiny parts; on the other, the esoteric nature of those parts required readers to make sense of images alien to their daily experiences. Naturalists and anatomists developed sophisticated techniques of investigation and representation, involving tacit and unusual conventions that even twentieth-century readers found at times baffling. This essay develops a comparative approach based on seven pairs of investigations involving Francesco Stelluti, Francesco Redi, Giovanni Battista Hodierna, Robert Hooke, Marcello Malpighi, and Jan Swammerdam. Seen together, they document an extraordinary time in the study of insects and reconstruct a number of iconographic dialogues shedding light on the conventions and styles adopted.

  16. The astronomical revolution. Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyré, A.

    The work was originally published in 1961 under the title "La révolution astronomique" as part of the series, Histoire de la pensée. This book is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation, by R. E. W. Maddison, originally published in 1973 (see 10.003.074). The author elucidates, precisely and in stages, the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus as well as the work of two other thinkers who made major contributions to the astronomical revolution: Johannes Kepler and Giovanni Borelli. He illuminates the exact contribution of each man, placing his work in its historical context and dispelling a host of misconceptions about it. In order to effectively recapture the ferment and flavor of the times, the author, whenever possible, has allowed Copernicus, Kepler and Borelli to speak for themselves by quoting key passages from their writings. Many of these passages were here translated for the first time.

  17. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  18. [The representation of Italian psychiatry in Italian Treccani Encyclopedia in 1930's].

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Testa, Luana; Coccanari dè Fornari, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943). A prevalent positivistic approach to science is well testified by their specific attention to preventive and social medicine, researches in Genetics and in biotypological constitutions. Psycopathological and psycological lemmas are very limited, underlying the medical disinterest towards contemporary philosophy and psycology.

  19. Elena: A case of dissociative identity disorder from the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Schimmenti, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    In 1930, Italian psychiatrist Giovanni Enrico Morselli described the history, diagnosis, and treatment of his patient Elena. The case of Elena has been considered in literature as one of the most remarkable cases of multiple personality ever published. In fact, before treatment, Elena showed alternating French- and Italian-speaking personalities, with the Italian personality knowing nothing of her French counterparts. After a difficult treatment involving recovered memories of incestuous attacks by her father, which were proven to be true, Elena fully recovered from her symptoms. In this article, the author presents details of the case that were not available in the international literature before. He also discusses Elena's psychological and somatoform symptoms according to a contemporary perspective on the relationally traumatic origins of dissociation and dissociative identity disorder.

  20. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce; Jasinski, Michael; Mocko, David; Kempler, Steven

    2016-01-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and indicator data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. The NCA-LDAS data will be archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp, THREDDS, Mirador search and download, and Giovanni visualization and analysis system.

  1. [The spread of the plague: A sciento-historiographic review].

    PubMed

    Cuadrada, Coral

    2015-01-01

    There is still uncertainty about the diagnosis and nature of the plague; some scholars have been forced to abandon certainties and be filled with doubts: from believing that the mediaeval Black Plague was, in reality, the bubonic plague (although with unusual characteristics) to stating that there is very little evidence to support a retro-diagnosis. This article looks at this in depth, not only reviewing the historiography but also giving new interpretations which question previous hypotheses through research on images of the time, comparing them to the most recent investigative data. Two primary sources are analysed: Renaissance treaties written by four Italian doctors: Michele Savonarola, Marsilio Ficino, Leonardo Fioravanti and Gioseffo Daciano; and iconography: an illustrated manuscript of the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio and a Hebrew Haggadah from the XIVth century. The results are compared to the most recent research on DNA and in micropaleontology.

  2. Turin-2013, the 8th IAA symposium on the future of space Exploration: Towards the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpetti, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    The history of this IAA symposium on advanced space missions began with an edition held in Turin (1996). Subsequently, for various problems, it took place in the very nice Italian city of Aosta, the regional capital of Valle d'Aosta, in the north-west of Italy. Six editions were particularly successful, there, in the years 1998, 2000, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011. The main motif in such editions regarded Realistic Scientific Missions to the Outer Solar System and Beyond. Dr. Leslie Robert Shepherd (one of the co-founders of IAA) and Dr. Giovanni Vulpetti served as chairperson sequentially. This symposium has been tied to the activities of the IAA Inter-Stellar Exploration Committee (ISEC), which was proposed, realized, and chaired by Dr. Shepherd from 1983 to 1994. Then, Dr. Vulpetti took over the chair of ISEC until 2001. Throughout all editions, Prof. Giancarlo Genta (Polytechnic of Turin) was in the chair of the Local Organizing Committee (LOC).

  3. [Medicine in the Giornale de'letterati].

    PubMed

    Conforti, M

    2001-01-01

    The Giornale de' letterati published in Rome from 1668 to 1681 was the first Italian scientific journal. It was meant to be the Italian version of the French Journal des Sçavans or the English Philosophical Transactions. Unlike these two, it was not backed by a formal or informal scientific institution, even if one of its editors, Giovanni Giustino Ciampini, was the founder of the Accademia Fisico-Matematica, the leading scientific academy in Rome in the second half of the XVIIth century. The paper, a preliminary step in a study on the diffusion and communication of European medical culture in Rome in this period, indexes and broadly examines the articles pertaining to medicine published in the journal.

  4. [Jervis and scientific research in psychoterapy: reflections on the problem of plurality of research methods].

    PubMed

    Migone, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    It is documented that psychotherapy and its scientific investigation interested Giovanni Jervis since the early 1960s. In this paper an aspect of psychotherapy research that attracted Jervis' interest is discussed. While there is more agreement on the hierarchy among the various methods of outcome research in psychotherapy, it is argued that in the field of process research the discussion on how the many process methods should relate to each other is still open. It is not clear which method is "superior" or "more useful" than others in understanding and measuring behaviour change. This problem is discussed also in its epistemological aspects, e.g., regarding the knowledge of "reality" (the patient's mind) and the eye(glasses) we have (the research methods or "lens" we use). A subdivision of the methods of psychotherapy process research into "thematic" and "structural" methods, used also for the classification of projective tests in personality psychology, is suggested.

  5. The Chimenti controversy.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    Jacopo Chimenti (c 1551-1640), an artist from Empoli, made two sketches of a young man holding a compass and a plumb line. When these were seen, mounted next to one another, by Alexander Crum Brown in 1859, he combined them by overconvergence and described the stereoscopic depth he saw. Brown's informal observation was conveyed to David Brewster, who suggested that the drawings were produced for a stereoscope, possibly made by Giovanni Battista della Porta. There followed a bitter debate about the supposed stereoscopic effects that could be seen when the pictures combined. Brewster's claims were finally dispelled when precise measurements were made of the drawings: some parts were stereoscopic and others were pseudoscopic. Brewster's attempts to wrest the invention of the stereoscope from Wheatstone were unsuccessful.

  6. Division B Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Green, D. W. E.; Samus, N. N.; Aksnes, K.; Gilmore, A. C.; Nakano, S.; Sphar, T.; Tichá, J.; Williams, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 6 ``Astronomical Telegrams'' had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).

  7. Medical semiotics; its influence on art, psychoanalysis and Sherlock Holmes.

    PubMed

    Moore-McCann, Brenda

    2016-11-01

    Semiotics is the analysis and interpretation of signs and the basis of medicine since antiquity. It is suggested that the growth of technology has led to the virtual eclipse of the clinical examination with consequent loss of skill, empathy and patient trust. This paper views the value of medical semiotics through the method of the 19th century Italian doctor, Giovanni Morelli, which has had a significant but little recognised impact on the early development of psychoanalysis, the detective novel and art connoisseurship. Semiotics and, specifically, the linguistic semiotics of Ferdinand Saussure have been influential in the fields of the visual arts, literature and the social sciences since the 20th century. With its roots in the medical treatises of antiquity, medical semiotics should again be brought to the forefront of medical practice.

  8. Community mental health care in Trieste and beyond: an "open door-no restraint" system of care for recovery and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Mezzina, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Since Franco Basaglia's appointment in 1971 as director of the former San Giovanni mental hospital, Trieste has played an international benchmark role in community mental health care. Moving from deinstitutionalization, the Department of Mental Health (DMH) has become a laboratory for innovation on social psychiatry, developing a model that can be defined as the "whole system, whole community" approach. The DMH provides care through a network of community services but also places great emphasis on working with the wider community with a view to promoting mental health and taking care of the social fabric. The network of services is based on 24/7 Community Mental Health Services, whose organization and activities are here described in detail. Data are provided on activity and outcome. The performance of DMH as a World Health Organization collaborating center disseminating best community mental health practices is also reviewed.

  9. A historical perspective on the discovery of the accessory duct of the pancreas, the ampulla 'of Vater' and pancreas divisum.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, C D

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of the accessory duct of the pancreas is usually ascribed to Giovanni Domenico Santorini (1681-1737), after whom this structure is named. The papilla duodeni (ampulla 'of Vater', or papilla 'of Santorini') is named after Abraham Vater (1684-1751) or after GD Santorini. Pancreas divisum, a persistence through non-fusion of the embryonic dorsal and ventral pancreas is a relatively common clinical condition, the discovery of which is usually ascribed to Joseph Hyrtl (1810-1894). In this review I report that pancreas divisum, the accessory duct and the papilla duodeni (ampulla 'of Vater') had all been observed and the observations published during the 17th century by at least seven anatomists before Santorini, Vater, and Hyrtl. I further suggest, in the light of frequent anatomical misattributions in common usage, that anatomical structures be referred to only by their proper anatomical names. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3512385

  10. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  11. UUI: Reusable Spatial Data Services in Unified User Interface at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M.; Hegde, M.; Bryant, K.; Pham, L.

    2016-12-01

    Unified User Interface (UUI) is a next-generation operational data access tool that has been developed at Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key data services available at GES DISC, including subsetting (Simple Subset Wizard - SSW), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other legacy spatial data services. UUI has been built based on a flexible infrastructure of reusable web services - self-contained building blocks that can easily be plugged into spatial applications, including third-party clients or services, to easily enable new functionality as new datasets and services become available. In this presentation, we will discuss our experience in designing UUI services based on open industry standards. We will also explain how the resulting framework can be used for a rapid development, deployment, and integration of spatial data services, facilitating efficient access and dissemination of spatial data sets.

  12. Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Maggi, Stefania; Marengoni, Alessandra; Martini, Alessandro; Memo, Maurizio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Quaranta, Nicola; Stella, Roberto; Lin, Frank R

    2014-12-01

    The association between hearing impairment, the diagnosis of dementia, and the role of sensory therapy has been proposed for some time, but further research is needed. Current understanding of this association requires the commitment of those experts who can integrate experience and research from several fields to be able to understand the link from hearing to dementia. A workshop whose panelists included experts from many areas, ranging from ear, nose and throat (ENT) to dementia's specialists, was promoted and organized by the Giovanni Lorenzini Medical Science Foundation (Milan, Italy; Houston, TX, USA) to increase the awareness of the relationship between hearing loss and dementia, and included questions and comments following a presentation from the clinical researcher, Frank Lin, who has been evaluating the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline since 2009.

  13. Remote sensing assessment of absorbing aerosol over Peninsular Malaysia from OMI onboard Aura satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2017-05-01

    The observation of aerosol index derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Dutch-Finnish Aura satellite with spatial resolution 1° x 1° have been analyzed over Peninsular Malaysia for 2013-2015, from June to September, respectively. The results show significant spatial and temporal variabilities in aerosol index with higher values during June 2013 and September 2015. On the other hand, the aerosol index does not show significant differences between the Peninsular Malaysia for the remaining study duration. The high positive aerosol index values over Southern Peninsular Malaysia clearly reveal the ultraviolet absorbing nature of smoke particles affecting the area during Indonesia forest fire, associated with the Southwest monsoon season. The spatial distribution of aerosol index has been analyzed using monthly OMI/Aura data obtained from the NASA-operated Giovanni. The result shows that the satellite measurements can measure and observe the increase of the aerosol index over different regions.

  14. UUI: Reusable Spatial Data Services in Unified User Interface at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, Maksym; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Bryant, Keith; Pham, Long B.

    2016-01-01

    Unified User Interface (UUI) is a next-generation operational data access tool that has been developed at Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center(GES DISC) to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key data services available at GES DISC, including subsetting (Simple Subset Wizard -SSW), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other legacy spatial data services. UUI has been built based on a flexible infrastructure of reusable web services self-contained building blocks that can easily be plugged into spatial applications, including third-party clients or services, to easily enable new functionality as new datasets and services become available. In this presentation, we will discuss our experience in designing UUI services based on open industry standards. We will also explain how the resulting framework can be used for a rapid development, deployment, and integration of spatial data services, facilitating efficient access and dissemination of spatial data sets.

  15. [The "myologie dynamique" by Girolamo Fabrizi da Aquapendente in the scientific language in the Renaissance age (XVI-XVII)].

    PubMed

    Stroppiana, L

    1989-01-01

    Beginning from the XV century, mechanical materialism underwent an evolution in "biological mechanics" within the scientific doctrine. Among the greatest exponents of this new current there were two Italian men, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Girolamo da Acquapendente (1533-1619). By the trend given by Leonardo, the myology, instead of being a static science, took a dynamic meaning and valence. Later, Fabrizi resumed and investigated the subject above all in its less known expression, elaborating an original theory. With Acquapendente, the anatomy lost its merely descriptive pecularity and evolved in analysis of the structure in connection with the function. Moreover, he opposed the syllogism against the mechanic language and the mathematical formulation. A new scientific way will be afterwards characterized by Galileo Galilei in the field of the physics and by Giovanni Alfonso Borrelli in the biology.

  16. Berengario da Carpi.

    PubMed

    De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, L S; De Santo, R M; Di Leo, V A; Papalia, T; Cirillo, M; Touwaide, A

    1999-01-01

    Berengario da Carpi was magister of anatomy and surgery at the University of Bologna from 1502 to 1527. Eustachio and Falloppia defined him as 'the restaurator of anatomy'. He was a great surgeon, anatomist and physician of illustrious patients including Lorenzo II dei Medici, Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, Galeazzo Pallavicini, Cardinal Colonna, and Alessandro Soderini. He had strong links to the intellectuals of his time (Forni, Bonamici, Manuzio, Pomponazzi) as well as with the Medici family. He was respected by the Popes Julius II, Leo X and Clement VII. His main contributions are the Isogogae Breves, De Fractura calvae sive cranei, and the illustrated Commentaria on the Anatomy of Mondino de Liucci, a textbook utilized for more than 200 years, which Berengario aimed to restore to its initial text. The Commentaria constitutes the material for the last part of this paper which concludes with a personal translation of some passages on 'The kidney', where the author gives poignant examples of experimental ingenuity.

  17. A scholarly intermediary between the Ottoman Empire and Renaissance Europe.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Robert

    2014-03-01

    This essay studies Moses Galeano, a Jewish scholar with ties to Crete and the Ottoman Sultan's court, who traveled to the Veneto around 1500. After describing Galeano's intellectual milieu, it focuses, first, on circumstantial evidence that he transmitted information central to the rise of Renaissance astronomy. Galeano knew of theories that strongly resemble portions of astronomy texts written by Giovanni Battista Amico and Girolamo Fracastoro at Padua a few decades later. He also knew about theories pioneered by the Damascene Ibn al-Shāţir (d. 1375) that strongly resemble portions of Copernicus's work. Next, the article turns to concrete evidence showing that Galeano was part of a network of Jewish scholars who did have contact with Christian scholars in Europe. The essay concludes that, while it is impossible to prove that Galeano had direct contact with Copernicus, he most likely had contact with some European astronomer(s) in the Veneto.

  18. THE MAUNDER MINIMUM IS NOT AS GRAND AS IT SEEMED TO BE

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I. E-mail: d.ponyavin@spbu.ru

    2015-02-10

    The Maunder Minimum (MM), which occurred between 1645 and 1715, is mainly known as an almost spotless period on the Sun. We analyze the nominal number of sunspot groups for each observer individually. Comparing the sunspot drawings and textual reports, we conclude that the latter underestimate the number of sunspots. We also argue that the different points of view of observers in the seventeenth century on the origin of sunspots resulted in the underestimation of sunspot groups or even gaps in observational reports. We demonstrate that Jean Picard and Giovanni Domenico Cassini of the Paris Observatory did not report any sunspots, while other observers reported on the occurrence of spots. Moreover, compared with other observers, La Hire underestimated the solar activity. The MM looks like an ordinary secular minimum with a depressed 11 yr solar cyclicity.

  19. The Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism and multiple congenital anomalies. 1984.

    PubMed

    Neri, Giovanni; Martini-Neri, Maria Enrica; Katz, Ben E; Opitz, John M

    2013-11-01

    The ensuing paper by Professor Giovanni Neri and colleagues was originally published in 1984, American Journal of Medical Genetics 19:195–207. The original article described a new family with a condition that the authors designated as the Perlman syndrome. This disorder, while uncommon, is an important multiple congenital anomaly and dysplasia syndrome; the causative gene was recently identified. This paper is a seminal work and is graciously republished by Wiley-Blackwell in the Special Festschrift issue honoring Professor Neri. We describe a familial syndrome of renal dysplasia, Wilms tumor, hyperplasia of the endocrine pancreas, fetal gigantism, multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. This condition was previously described by Perlman et al. [1973, 1975] and we propose to call it the "Perlman syndrome." It appears to be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The possible relationships between dysplasia, neoplasia and malformation are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Using data mining techniques in monitoring diabetes care. The simpler the better?

    PubMed

    Gregori, Dario; Petrinco, Michele; Bo, Simona; Rosato, Rosalba; Pagano, Eva; Berchialla, Paola; Merletti, Franco

    2011-04-01

    We aim at evaluating how data-mining statistical techniques can be applied on medical records and administrative data of diabetes and how they differ in terms of capabilities of predicting outcomes (e.g. death). Data on 3,892 outpatient patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes from the San Giovanni Battista Hospital in Torino. Six statistical classifiers were applied: Logistic regression (LR), Generalized Additive Model (GAM), Projection pursuit Regression (PPR), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). All models selected the same subset of covariates. ANN is the model performing worse, whereas simpler models, like LR, GAM and LDA seem to perform better. GAM is associated with a very small misclassification rate. The agreement in predicting individual outcomes among models is 0.23 (SE 0.06, Kappa). Monitoring on the basis of patients' characteristics is highly dependent from the statistical properties of the chosen statistical model.

  1. The Maunder Minimum is Not as Grand as it Seemed to be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I.

    2015-02-01

    The Maunder Minimum (MM), which occurred between 1645 and 1715, is mainly known as an almost spotless period on the Sun. We analyze the nominal number of sunspot groups for each observer individually. Comparing the sunspot drawings and textual reports, we conclude that the latter underestimate the number of sunspots. We also argue that the different points of view of observers in the seventeenth century on the origin of sunspots resulted in the underestimation of sunspot groups or even gaps in observational reports. We demonstrate that Jean Picard and Giovanni Domenico Cassini of the Paris Observatory did not report any sunspots, while other observers reported on the occurrence of spots. Moreover, compared with other observers, La Hire underestimated the solar activity. The MM looks like an ordinary secular minimum with a depressed 11 yr solar cyclicity.

  2. The Maunder minimum: a revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, Nadezhda; Ponyavin, Dmitri

    2015-08-01

    One of the most enigmatic features of the solar history in the past was the Maunder minimum (1645-1715). We estimated the daily nominal sunspot counts of each observer individually from 1610 to 1720. Simultaneous comparison of textual reports, tables, and sunspot drawings reveals a significant difference between them. Some observers (among whom were Jean Picard and Giovanni Domenico Cassini, both from the Royal Observatory in Paris) systematically made gaps in reports when others noticed sunspots. Philippe de La Hire announced only fewer sunspot groups compared with the other observers. We argue that different points of view of observers of the seventeenth-century on the origin of sunspots resulted in strong underestimation of sunspot groups. Our findings suggest that the Maunder minimum was an ordinary secular minimum with reduced but non-stopped solar cyclicity.

  3. [Pinocchio and the unattained identity: Jervis' contribution to child clinical psychology].

    PubMed

    Meacci, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis is mainly known as a psychiatrist, but he also worked on psychological methodology and tackled important issues in clinical psychology. This essay describes the concept of personal identity elaborated by Jervis and its importance in Child Clinical Psychology. The problems related to personal identity appear very early in Jervis' work, influenced by the ethnologist Ernesto De Martino. His first considerations are found in his Preface to The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi (1968), in which Jervis describes the unhappy upbringing, the anti-social behaviour, and the unattained identity of the wooden puppet. Subsequently, in Presenza e identith (1984), Fondamenti di Psicologia Dinamica (1993) and La conquista dell'identith (1997), Jervis dealt with the theme of identity from a Dynamic Psychology perspective, showing that the formation of personal identity is a basic aspect of the development of the individual that starts in early childhood.

  4. Morgagni Spine Fractures-Dislocations per Anatomen Indagatis: Since the Dawn of Modern Medicine A Taxonomy and Pathomorphology Problem.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Alessandro; Frati, Alessandro; Caruso, Riccardo; Wierzbicki, Venceslao; Raco, Antonino

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to retrieve and bring back to light a part of the astonishing and painstaking work of the legendary Italian father of modern pathology Giovanni Battista Morgagni, concerning one of most discussed topics in spine surgery: spine fractures-dislocations. All the excerpts selected for this study are contained in De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, the summa maxima of the entire production of Morgagni. This treatise encloses the enormous experience of Morgagni in anatomic dissections and pathologic investigations. With the aid of a strict dissection and description methodology, Morgagni identified and described many of the most important aspects of spinal fractures-dislocations, from the importance of the mechanism of injury, to the relevance of ligamentous complex, or the risk of posttraumatic kyphosis and the clinical expression of spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring and Visualizing A-Train Instrument Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Stephens, G.; Winker, D.; Reinke, D.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of US and international satellites that follow each other in close succession, known as the A-Train, affords an opportunity to atmospheric researchers that no single platform could provide: Increasing the number of observations at any given geographic location.. . a more complete "virtual science platform". However, vertically and horizontally, co-registering and regridding datasets from independently developed missions, Aqua, Calipso, Cloudsat, Parasol, and Aura, so that they can be inter-compared can be daunting to some, and may be repeated by many. Scientists will individually spend much of their time and resources acquiring A-Train datasets of interest residing at various locations, developing algorithms to match up and graph datasets along the A-Train track, and search through large amounts of data for areas and/or phenomena of interest. The aggregate amount of effort that can be expended on repeating pre-science tasks could climb into the tens of millions of dollars. The goal of the A-Train Data Depot (ATDD) is to enable free movement of remotely located A-Train data so that they are combined to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. The innovative approach of analyzing and visualizing atmospheric profiles along the platforms track (i.e., time) is accomplished by through the ATDDs Giovanni data analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni brings together data from Aqua (MODIS, AIRS, AMSR-E), Cloudsat (cloud profiling radar) and Calipso (CALIOP, IIR), as well as the Aura (OMI, MLS, HIRDLS, TES) to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. This easy to learn and use exploration tool will allow users to create vertical profiles of any desired A-Train dataset, for any given time of choice. This presentation shows the power of Giovanni by describing and illustrating how this tool facilitates and aids A-Train science and research. A web based display system

  6. [For a history of medical teaching in the 'Marche". Libraries and universities: Lancisi and the University Library of Urbino].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Stefania; Moranti, Maria; Patti, Maria

    2004-01-01

    During the Modern Age, in the Marche, in the Pontifical State, it was possible to study medicine and to obtain a degree in medicine in Macerata, Fermo, Urbino, Camerino and Fano. In these cities, from the end of the XVII century to the beginning of the XIX century, public libraries were founded also to support academic teaching. Private collections of medical books, generally formed in Rome, arrived in the Marche to increase the newborn public libraries. In 1720 Pope Clemens XI founded a public library in the monastery of Saint Francis in Urbino. In this library the medical books were bequeathed by the famous Roman physician Giovanni Maria Lancisi. The present article provides the first results of a research, which aims at identifying Lancisi's medical books.

  7. Improving conservation properties of a 5D gyrokinetic semi-Lagrangian code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latu, Guillaume; Grandgirard, Virginie; Abiteboul, Jérémie; Crouseilles, Nicolas; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Garbet, Xavier; Ghendrih, Philippe; Mehrenberger, Michel; Sarazin, Yanick; Sonnendrücker, Eric

    2014-11-01

    In gyrokinetic turbulent simulations, the knowledge of some stationary states can help reducing numerical artifacts. Considering long-term simulations, the qualities of the Vlasov solver and of the radial boundary conditions have an impact on the conservation properties. In order to improve mass and energy conservation mainly, the following methods are investigated: fix the radial boundary conditions on a stationary state, use a 4D advection operator that avoids a directional splitting, interpolate with a delta-f approach. The combination of these techniques in the semi-Lagrangian code gysela leads to a net improvement of the conservation properties in 5D simulations. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  8. The Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote-Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, J.; Riebeek, H.; Ledley, T. S.; Herring, D.; Lloyd, S.

    2008-12-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observational research and data collection conducted by non- professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local and regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote-sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens And Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museums and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  9. The CEAP-L classification for lymphedemas of the limbs: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Gasbarro, V; Michelini, S; Antignani, P L; Tsolaki, E; Ricci, M; Allegra, C

    2009-08-01

    A method to classificate lymphedema has been needed to gather all the important information on the clinical evolution of the disease using a common language and an easy clinical applicability. The proposal for a new classification of the limb lymphedema was inspired by the C.E.A.P. classification for chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limb. The classification adopts the acronym C.E.A.P. by adding the letter L to underline the aspect ''lymphedema'' and is based on clinical data such as extension of lymphedema, presence of lymphangitis, leg ulcers and loss of functionality of the limb and instrumental criteria that permit to confirm and precise diagnosis. The Clinical classification is based on the most objective sign in these patients, the edema which is subdivided into 5 classes depending on the clinical manifestations. The etiological aspect considers 2 types of alterations of the lymphatic system: congenital and acquired. The anatomic is aimed to locate the anatomical structures involved. Pathophysiological conditions are gathered into 5 groups: agenesia or hypoplasia, hyperplasia, reflux, overload, obstruction. The classification has already been appraised after 4 years of activity at the unit of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of Ferrara, at the S. Giovanni Battista Hospital in Rome, at the Umberto I Ancona Hospital and at the S. Giovanni-Addolorata Hospital in Rome. The proposal for a new classification of lymphedema C.E.A.P. L was developed in order to categorize patients with definite and objective marks, creating clinical reports with a common vocabulary, clear to all clinicians, permitting to stage the disease, evaluate treatment and finally obtain epidemiological and statistical data.

  10. Accessing and Utilizing Remote Sensing Data for Vectorborne Infectious Diseases Surveillance and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Kempler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Background: The transmission of vectorborne infectious diseases is often influenced by environmental, meteorological and climatic parameters, because the vector life cycle depends on these factors. For example, the geophysical parameters relevant to malaria transmission include precipitation, surface temperature, humidity, elevation, and vegetation type. Because these parameters are routinely measured by satellites, remote sensing is an important technological tool for predicting, preventing, and containing a number of vectorborne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, etc. Methods: A variety of NASA remote sensing data can be used for modeling vectorborne infectious disease transmission. We will discuss both the well known and less known remote sensing data, including Landsat, AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), EO-1 (Earth Observing One) ALI (Advanced Land Imager), and SIESIP (Seasonal to Interannual Earth Science Information Partner) dataset. Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. It provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data. After remote sensing data is obtained, a variety of techniques, including generalized linear models and artificial intelligence oriented methods, t 3 can be used to model the dependency of disease transmission on these parameters. Results: The processes of accessing, visualizing and utilizing precipitation data using Giovanni, and acquiring other data at additional websites are illustrated. Malaria incidence time series for some parts of Thailand and Indonesia are used to demonstrate that malaria incidences are reasonably well modeled with generalized linear models and artificial

  11. [History of blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Izaguirre Avila, Raúl; de Micheli, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The idea of transfusing blood of an animal to another or from an animal to a man or from one to another man, is very ancient. When the doctrine of blood circulation was diffused, in the first third of the XVII century, this idea was give fresh impetus. On began also to inject some substance into the blood, wich will permit to introduce medicaments intravenously. It is worthy to be remembered that in the same year when the Harveyan monography De motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus was published (1628), the Paduan professor Giovanni Colle suggested a procedure for blood transfusions. Later (1645) the Tuscan physician Francesco Folli showed another procedure, in the presence of the great duke of Toscana, Ferdinando II de Medici. On his side, the surgeon Giovanni Guglielmo Riva realized blood transfusions from animals to men in 1668. Transfusions were already carried out by Richard Lower in London and by Jean-Baptiste Denis in Paris. During the XVIII century, blood transfusions were not effectuated because of some failure occurred in the formed century and of the proscription by civil and religious authorities. Nevertheless these were renewed during the first third of the XIX century in England as well as in the continental Europe. In Mexico the first blood transfusion was effectuated in 1845 by the physician Matias D. Beistegui. At the time persisted the problem of blood coagulation, which could be resolved during the XX century in North America (Crile, 1906) as well as in Latin America (Luis Agote, 1914). Moreover the blood groups were described in 1900 by the Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner, who identified later the Rh factor. It seems completely justified the inscription shining on the façade of the National Archive in Washington: "The past is only prologue".

  12. The NASA NEESPI Data Portal: Products, Information and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Laboda, T.; Csiszar, I.; Romanov, P.; Gerasimov, I.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have indicated that land cover and use changes in Northern Eurasia influence global climate system. However, the procedures are not fully understood and it is challenging to understand the interactions between the land changes in this region and the global climate. Having integrated data collections from multiple disciplines are important for studies of climate and environmental changes. Remote sensed and model data are particularly important due to sparse in situ measurements in many Eurasia regions especially in Siberia. The NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) NEESPI data portal provides satellite remote sensing and numerical model data for atmospheric, land surface, and cryosphere through an online, easily-accessible data archive and distribution system. Data searching, subsetting, and downloading functions are available. One useful tool is the Web-based online data analyses and visualizations system, Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure), that allows scientists to assess easily the state and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems in Northern Eurasia and their interactions with global climate system. Recently, we have developed a metadata database prototype to expend the NASA NEESPI data portal for providing a venue for NEESPI scientists to find the desired data easily and leveraging data sharing within NEESPI projects. The database provides product level information, which are grouped into three topics: atmosphere, land surface, and cryosphere. The desired data can be found through navigation and free text search and narrowed down by filtering with a number of constraints. The standard metadata includes product name, product description, temporal and spatial coverage, data source, person of contact, etc. This presentation introduces the infrastructure of NEESPI data portal: products, tools, and information. Sample studies will be presented that demonstrates the usefulness of

  13. The Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network (CARSON) Guide: Merging NASA Remote Sensing Data with Local Environmental Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Riebeek, Holli; Ledley, Tamara Shapiro; Herring, David; Lloyd, Steven

    2008-01-01

    "Citizen science" generally refers to observatoinal research and data collection conducted by non-professionals, commonly as volunteers. In the environmental science field, citizen scientists may be involved with local nad regional issues such as bird and wildlife populations, weather, urban sprawl, natural hazards, wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, and a spectrum of public health concerns. Some citizen scientists may be primarily motivated by the intellectual challenge of scientific observations. Citizen scientists may now examine and utilize remote-sensing data related to their particular topics of interest with the easy-to-use NASA Web-based tools Giovanni and NEO, which allow exploration and investigation of a wide variety of Earth remote sensing data sets. The CARSON (Citizens and Remote Sensing Observational Network) Guide will be an online resource consisting of chapters each demonstrating how to utilize Giovanni and NEO to access and analyze specific remote-sensing data. Integrated in each chapter will be descriptions of methods that citizen scientists can employ to collect, monitor, analyze, and share data related to the chapter topic which pertain to environmental and ecological conditions in their local region. A workshop held in August 2008 initiated the development of prototype chapters on water quality, air quality, and precipitation. These will be the initial chapters in the first release of the CARSON Guide, which will be used in a pilot project at the Maryland Science Center in spring 2009. The goal of the CARSON Guide is to augment and enhance citizen scientist environmental research with NASA satellite data by creating a participatory network consisting of motivated individuals, environmental groups and organizations, and science-focused institutions such as museuma and nature centers. Members of the network could potentially interact with government programs, academic research projects, and not-for-profit organizations focused on

  14. Seismic and aseismic activity associated with the 2008 Mw 6.3 Damxung earthquake, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bie, Lidong; Ryder, Isabelle; Nippress, Stuart

    2013-04-01

    SAR postseismic time series starts 20 days after the Damxung earthquake, there is a possibility that the very early afterslip pattern looked different. We also carry out modeling of viscoelastic relaxation in a Maxwell half-space to constrain the lower bound of mid-crustal viscosity. By calculating the RMS misfit of the residual between observed and modelled postseismic displacements using a range of viscosities, we infer a lower bound of 1 × 1018 Pa s. This is consistent with viscosity estimates in other studies of postseismic deformation across the Tibetan Plateau. 1. D'Agostino, N., Cheloni, D., Fornaro, G., Giuliani, R., & Reale, D. (2012). Space-time distribution of afterslip following the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(B2), B02402.

  15. Loss cone evolution and particle escape in collapsing magnetic trap models in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eradat Oskoui, Solmaz; Neukirch, Thomas; Grady, Keith James

    2014-03-01

    Context. Collapsing magnetic traps (CMTs) have been suggested as one possible mechanism responsible for the acceleration of high-energy particles during solar flares. An important question regarding the CMT acceleration mechanism is which particle orbits escape and which are trapped during the time evolution of a CMT. While some models predict the escape of the majority of particle orbits, other more sophisticated CMT models show that, in particular, the highest-energy particles remain trapped at all times. The exact prediction is not straightforward because both the loss cone angle and the particle orbit pitch angle evolve in time in a CMT. Aims: Our aim is to gain a better understanding of the conditions leading to either particle orbit escape or trapping in CMTs. Methods: We present a detailed investigation of the time evolution of particle orbit pitch angles in the CMT model of Giuliani and collaborators and compare this with the time evolution of the loss cone angle. The non-relativistic guiding centre approximation is used to calculate the particle orbits. We also use simplified models to corroborate the findings of the particle orbit calculations. Results: We find that there is a critical initial pitch angle for each field line of a CMT that divides trapped and escaping particle orbits. This critical initial pitch angle is greater than the initial loss cone angle, but smaller than the asymptotic (final) loss cone angle for that field line. As the final loss cone angle in CMTs is larger than the initial loss cone angle, particle orbits with pitch angles that cross into the loss cone during their time evolution will escape whereas all other particle orbits are trapped. We find that in realistic CMT models, Fermi acceleration will only dominate in the initial phase of the CMT evolution and, in this case, can reduce the pitch angle, but that betatron acceleration will dominate for later stages of the CMT evolution leading to a systematic increase of the pitch

  16. The joint cascade of energy and helicity in three-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiaoning; Chen, Shiyi; Eyink, Gregory L.

    2003-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) turbulence has both energy and helicity as inviscid constants of motion. In contrast to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, where a second inviscid invariant—the enstrophy—blocks the energy cascade to small scales, in 3D there is a joint cascade of both energy and helicity simultaneously to small scales. It has long been recognized that the crucial difference between 2D and 3D is that enstrophy is a nonnegative quantity whereas the helicity can have either sign. The basic cancellation mechanism which permits a joint cascade of energy and helicity is illuminated by means of the helical decomposition of the velocity into positively and negatively polarized waves. This decomposition is employed in the present study both theoretically and also in a numerical simulation of homogeneous and isotropic 3D turbulence. It is shown that the transfer of energy to small scales produces a tremendous growth of helicity separately in the + and - helical modes at high wave numbers, diverging in the limit of infinite Reynolds number. However, because of a tendency to restore reflection invariance at small scales, the net helicity from both modes remains finite in that limit. Since energy and helicity are not separately conserved in the + and - modes, there are four "fluxlike" quantities for both invariants, which correspond to transfer either out of large scales or into small scales and either to + helical or to - helical modes. The helicity fluxes out of large scales in the separate + and - channels are not constant in wave number up to the Kolmogorov dissipation wave number kE but only up to a smaller wave number kH, recently identified by Ditlevsen and Giuliani [Phys. Fluids 13, 3508 (2001); Phys. Res. E 63, 036304 (2001)]. However, contrary to their argument, the net helicity flux is shown to be constant all the way up to the Kolmogorov wave number: there is no shorter inertial range for helicity cascade than for energy cascade. The transfer of energy and

  17. Numerical study of the steady state fluctuation relations far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Evans, Denis J.

    2006-05-01

    A thermostatted dynamical model with five degrees of freedom is used to test the fluctuation relation of Evans and Searles (Ω-FR) and that of Gallavotti and Cohen (Λ-FR). In the absence of an external driving field, the model generates a time-independent ergodic equilibrium state with two conjugate pairs of Lyapunov exponents. Each conjugate pair sums to zero. The fluctuation relations are tested numerically both near and far from equilibrium. As expected from previous work, near equilibrium the Ω-FR is verified by the simulation data while the Λ-FR is not confirmed by the data. Far from equilibrium where a positive exponent in one of these conjugate pairs becomes negative, we test a conjecture regarding the Λ-FR [Bonetto et al., Physica D 105, 226 (1997); Giuliani et al., J. Stat. Phys. 119, 909 (2005)]. It was conjectured that when the number of nontrivial Lyapunov exponents that are positive becomes less than the number of such negative exponents, then the form of the Λ-FR needs to be corrected. We show that there is no evidence for this conjecture in the empirical data. In fact, when the correction factor differs from unity, the corrected form of Λ-FR is less accurate than the uncorrected Λ-FR. Also as the field increases the uncorrected Λ-FR appears to be satisfied with increasing accuracy. The reason for this observation is likely to be that as the field increases, the argument of the Λ-FR more and more accurately approximates the argument of the Ω-FR. Since the Ω-FR works for arbitrary field strengths, the uncorrected Λ-FR appears to become ever more accurate as the field increases. The final piece of evidence against the conjecture is that when the smallest positive exponent changes sign, the conjecture predicts a discontinuous change in the "correction factor" for Λ-FR. We see no evidence for a discontinuity at this field strength.

  18. A simple procedure for estimating soil porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Holden, Nick

    2016-04-01

    , indicating the impacts of soil management. Reference Piwowarczyk, A., Giuliani, G. & Holden, N.M. 2011. Can soil moisture deficit be used to forecast when soils are at high risk of damage owing to grazing animals? Soil Use and Management, 27, 255-263.

  19. Geochemical Analysis for Sedimentary Emerald Mineralization in Western Emerald belt, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino Vasquez, Gabriel Felipe; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    1Gabriel Felipe Nino Vasquez and 1Sheng-Rong Song 1Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University Colombia hosts a large quantity of mineral resources due to its complex tectonic arrangement, and emerald deposits are one of the most representatives for the country. Emeralds in Colombia occur mainly in black shale, and are located in eastern Andes Cordillera with two parallel belts separated by approximately 130 Km: the Western belt (WB) and the Eastern belt (EB). The geological, mineralogical and tectonic features from these belts are quite similar (Buenaventura 2002). Previous researchers concluded that emeralds in Colombia came from hydrothermal sedimentary processes without any magmatic influence, and suggested that the source of Cr, V and Be (which are important components of the beryl) was the host rock. According to their results, the process which allowed the shale to release these cations was the metasomatism (albitization and carbonization), which was resulted from the interaction between the rocks and the alkaline brines. Fractures and fault planes originated by these tectonic movements were fulfilled by enriched fluids, which they allowed emeralds and the other minerals precipitation with decreasing alkalinity and pressure (Giuliani et al. 1994). However, there were several pitfalls of conclusions drawn from previous researches. Firstly, Cr and V were widely distributed and come from mafic and ultramafic rocks, and Be was mostly found in pegmatites, finding these elements in sedimentary rocks suggest that probably the ultramafic rocks occurred not far from the deposits. Secondly, there was an inconsistency in the estimated temperatures of emeralds formation, i.e. temperature of hydrothermal sedimentary deposits was only 200° C, while laboratory analysis showed that the formation of emeralds was higher than 300° C. Therefore, there might still be an allocthonus influence on emerald formation that significantly increases the temperature. This

  20. Study of Fractal Features of Geomagnetic Activity Through an MHD Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, M.; Nigro, G.; Munoz, V.; Carbone, V.

    2013-12-01

    . Boffetta, V. Carbone, P. Giuliani, P. Veltri, and A. Vulpiani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4662 (1999). [7] P. S. Addison, Fractals and Chaos, an Illustrated Course, vol. 1 (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia, 1997), second ed. [8] M. Domínguez, V. Muñoz, and J. A. Valdivia, Temporal evolution of fractality in the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar photosphere, in preparation.

  1. Numerical study of the steady state fluctuation relations far from equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stephen R; Searles, Debra J; Evans, Denis J

    2006-05-21

    A thermostatted dynamical model with five degrees of freedom is used to test the fluctuation relation of Evans and Searles (Omega-FR) and that of Gallavotti and Cohen (Lambda-FR). In the absence of an external driving field, the model generates a time-independent ergodic equilibrium state with two conjugate pairs of Lyapunov exponents. Each conjugate pair sums to zero. The fluctuation relations are tested numerically both near and far from equilibrium. As expected from previous work, near equilibrium the Omega-FR is verified by the simulation data while the Lambda-FR is not confirmed by the data. Far from equilibrium where a positive exponent in one of these conjugate pairs becomes negative, we test a conjecture regarding the Lambda-FR [Bonetto et al., Physica D 105, 226 (1997); Giuliani et al., J. Stat. Phys. 119, 909 (2005)]. It was conjectured that when the number of nontrivial Lyapunov exponents that are positive becomes less than the number of such negative exponents, then the form of the Lambda-FR needs to be corrected. We show that there is no evidence for this conjecture in the empirical data. In fact, when the correction factor differs from unity, the corrected form of Lambda-FR is less accurate than the uncorrected Lambda-FR. Also as the field increases the uncorrected Lambda-FR appears to be satisfied with increasing accuracy. The reason for this observation is likely to be that as the field increases, the argument of the Lambda-FR more and more accurately approximates the argument of the Omega-FR. Since the Omega-FR works for arbitrary field strengths, the uncorrected Lambda-FR appears to become ever more accurate as the field increases. The final piece of evidence against the conjecture is that when the smallest positive exponent changes sign, the conjecture predicts a discontinuous change in the "correction factor" for Lambda-FR. We see no evidence for a discontinuity at this field strength.

  2. Data Reorganization for Optimal Time Series Data Access, Analysis, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Teng, W. L.; Strub, R.; Vollmer, B.

    2012-12-01

    The way data are archived is often not optimal for their access by many user communities (e.g., hydrological), particularly if the data volumes and/or number of data files are large. The number of data records of a non-static data set generally increases with time. Therefore, most data sets are commonly archived by time steps, one step per file, often containing multiple variables. However, many research and application efforts need time series data for a given geographical location or area, i.e., a data organization that is orthogonal to the way the data are archived. The retrieval of a time series of the entire temporal coverage of a data set for a single variable at a single data point, in an optimal way, is an important and longstanding challenge, especially for large science data sets (i.e., with volumes greater than 100 GB). Two examples of such large data sets are the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC; Hydrology Data Holdings Portal, http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology/data-holdings). To date, the NLDAS data set, hourly 0.125x0.125° from Jan. 1, 1979 to present, has a total volume greater than 3 TB (compressed). The GLDAS data set, 3-hourly and monthly 0.25x0.25° and 1.0x1.0° Jan. 1948 to present, has a total volume greater than 1 TB (compressed). Both data sets are accessible, in the archived time step format, via several convenient methods, including Mirador search and download (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/), GrADS Data Server (GDS; http://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/dods/), direct FTP (ftp://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/s4pa/), and Giovanni Online Visualization and Analysis (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni). However, users who need long time series currently have no efficient way to retrieve them. Continuing a longstanding tradition of facilitating data access, analysis, and

  3. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  4. New data and capabilities in the NASA Goddard Hurricane Data Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Leptoukh, G.; Ostrenga, D.; Savtchenko, C.; Kempler, S.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation describes new additions to the NASA Goddard Hurricane Data Portal, a dedicated web portal (URL: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hurricane/) has been designed for viewing and studying Atlantic hurricanes by utilizing various measurements by NASA remote-sensing instruments. The portal consists of the following main components: · Current conditions (in pre-selected regions and updated 3-hourly or daily): the latest maps, animation and profiles from NASA satellites. At present, images or plots created using data from TRMM, AIRS, MODIS, MLS and CloudSat are available. Later, data from OMI and other instruments will be added. A new feature will be added to allow users to easily download/subset data associated with these images. · Current and past hurricane archive: maps, animation and profiles of past hurricanes were created using data from TRMM, AIRS, MODIS, MLS and CloudSat, allowing users to explore past hurricanes and download/subset data if necessary. A new feature has just been released to allow searching past hurricanes. Also users can view imagery via Google Earth. · Science focus: examples/stories describing data usage in hurricane monitoring and research. · Tools: descriptions and links of a number of in-house developed tools for hurricane exploration and event- based data ordering. For example, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni, URL: http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov), a series of online visualization and analysis systems, allows users to access data ranging from near-real-time to historical archives and generate customized analysis maps, plots and data on the fly over the Internet. A hurricane instance of Giovanni is under development. However, a prototype that allows investigating Quikscat ocean surface wind, TRMM precipitation and TRMM microwave sea surface temperature is available now (URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/hurricane/trmm_quikscat_analysis.shtml). Mirador (URL: http://g0dup05u

  5. Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud Computing technology has been used to offer high-performance and low-cost computing and storage resources for both scientific problems and business services. Several cloud computing services have been implemented in the commercial arena, e.g. Amazon's EC2 & S3, Microsoft's Azure, and Google App Engine. There are also some research and application programs being launched in academia and governments to utilize Cloud Computing. NASA launched the Nebula Cloud Computing platform in 2008, which is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deliver on-demand distributed virtual computers. Nebula users can receive required computing resources as a fully outsourced service. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) migrated several GES DISC's applications to the Nebula as a proof of concept, including: a) The Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) for processing scientific data; b) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data process workflow for processing AIRS raw data; and c) the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) for online access to, analysis, and visualization of Earth science data. This work aims to evaluate the practicability and adaptability of the Nebula. The initial work focused on the AIRS data process workflow to evaluate the Nebula. The AIRS data process workflow consists of a series of algorithms being used to process raw AIRS level 0 data and output AIRS level 2 geophysical retrievals. Migrating the entire workflow to the Nebula platform is challenging, but practicable. After installing several supporting libraries and the processing code itself, the workflow is able to process AIRS data in a similar fashion to its current (non-cloud) configuration. We compared the performance of processing 2 days of AIRS level 0 data through level 2 using a Nebula virtual computer and a local Linux computer. The result shows that Nebula has significantly

  6. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    could be possible to infer the genesis of the scarps as due to complex tectono-karstic phenomena. As for case (ii), our ongoing analyses are aimed to analyze the tectonic "significance" of some closed depressions, up to 4 km long and to 0,5-1 km large, that occur along the south-western slope of the Gran Sasso Range. All these small depression are NW-SE trending. As already described by Bosi et al. (1989), Galadini and Giuliani (1993), D'Agostino et al. (1998), Falcucci et al. (2015), these closed depressions are bounded by scarps carved onto the carbonate bedrock and, subordinately, onto early Quaternary slope deposits, reaching height of up to 5 m. These scarps are preferentially NE dipping, even if in few cases some SW dipping scarp are also present . The field work has permitted to attest that these scarps are related to shear planes that that displaced two subsequent of Early Pleistocene breccias formations (the Valle Valiano Fm. and Fonte Vedice Fm.; Bosi e Bertini, 1993; D'agostino et al., 1997). A paleoseismological trench was also performed across one of these scarps, attesting the activity of these shear planes also in recent times, providing indications result about the deformation style. Reference Bertini, T., & Bosi, C. (1993). La tettonica quaternaria della conca di Fossa (L'Aquila). Il Quaternario, 6(2), 293-314. Bertini, T., Bosi, C., & Galadini, F. (1989). La conca di Fossa-S. Demetrio dei Vestini. CNR, Centro di Studio per la Geologia Tecnica, ENEA, PAS in Elementi di tettonica pliocenicoquaternaria ed indizi di sismicita olocenica nell'Appennino laziale-abruzzese, Societa Geologica Italiana, L'Aquila, 26-58. Bosi, C., & Bertini, T. (1970). Geologia della media valle dell'Aterno. Memorie Società Geologica Italiana, 9(4), 719-777. D'Agostino, N., F. Speranza, & R. Funiciello., (1997) "Le Brecce Mortadella dell'Appennino Centrale: primi risultati di stratigrafia magnetica." Il Quaternario10.2: 385-388. D'Agostino, N., Chamot-Rooke, N., Funiciello, R

  7. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http://pmm.nasa.gov/GPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM "Core Observatory" satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding

  8. Biogenic sediments from coastal ecosystems to beach-dune systems: implications for the adaptation of mixed and carbonate beaches to future sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Falco, Giovanni; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Conforti, Alessandro; Simeone, Simone; Tonielli, Renato

    2017-07-01

    Coastal ecosystems produce and store carbonate particles, which play a significant role in the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas and may contribute to the sediment budget of adjacent beaches. In the nearshore seabed of temperate zones (e.g. Mediterranean Sea and South Australia), marine biogenic carbonates are mainly produced inside seagrass meadows. This study quantifies the contribution of biogenic sediments, mainly produced in Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows and secondarily in photophilic algal communities, to the sediment budget of a Mediterranean beach-dune system (San Giovanni beach, western Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). A set of geophysical, petrographic and sedimentological data was used to estimate the sediment volume and composition of the beach-dune system as a whole. The San Giovanni beach-dune system contains 3 797 000 ± 404 000 t of sediment, 83 % (3 137 000 ± 404 000 t) of which is located in the coastal wedge, 16 % (619 000 ± 88 000 t) in the dune fields and 1 % (41 000 ± 15 000 t) in the subaerial beach. The sediments are composed of mixed modern bioclastic and relict bioclastic and non-bioclastic grains from various sources. The system receives a large input of modern bioclastic grains, mainly composed of rhodophytes, molluscs and bryozoans, which derive from sediment production of present-day carbonate factories, particularly P. oceanica seagrass meadows. Radiocarbon dating of modern bioclastic grains indicated that they were produced during the last 4.37 kyr. This value was used to estimate the long-term deposition rates of modern bioclastic sediments in the various beach compartments. The total deposition rate of modern bioclastic grains is 46 000 ± 5000 t century-1, mainly deposited in the coastal wedge (39 000 ± 4 000 t century-1) and dunes (7000 ± 1000 t century-1), and 46 000 t represents ˜ 1.2 % of the total beach-dune sediment mass. Carbonate production from coastal ecosystems was estimated to be 132 000/307 000 t

  9. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    Armani Paolo (Università di Trento) Benhar Omar (INFN Roma) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonanno Luca (Università di Ferrara) Catara Francesco (Università di Catania) Cò Giampaolo (Università di Lecce) Colonna Maria (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN Catania) Colonna Nicola (INFN Bari) Conti Francesco (Università di Pavia) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Cristoforetti Marco (Technische Universität München, Germania) Cuofano Carmine (Università di Ferrara) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) Drago Alessandro (Università di Ferrara) Faccioli Pietro (Università di Trento) Farina Nicola (INFN Roma) Finelli Paolo (Università di Bologna) Fiorentini Giovanni (Università di Ferrara) Fortunato Lorenzo (Università di Padova) Gambacurta Danilo (Università di Catania) Gandolfi Stefano (Università di Trento) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (INFN Pisa) Giusti Carlotta (INFN Pavia) Illarionov Alexei (SISSA Trieste) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Leidemann Winfried (Università di Trento) Lenzi Silvia (Università di Padova) Lipparini Enrico (Università di Trento) Lissia Marcello (Università di Cagliari) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Maieron Chiara (Università di Lecce) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Millo Raffaele (Università di Trento) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pastore Alessandro (Univeristy of Jyväskylä, Finlandia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pisent Gualtiero (Università di Padova) Prete Gianfranco (INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) Quarati Piero (Politecnico di Torino) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Salmè Giovanni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Traini Marco (Università di Trento) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Vitturi Andrea (Universit

  10. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: 1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products. 2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products. 3. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products. (early, late, and final)A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data

  11. Supporting Hydrometeorological Research and Applications with Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Products and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; MacRitchie, K.; Greene, M.; Kempler, S.

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation is an important dataset in hydrometeorological research and applications such as flood modeling, drought monitoring, etc. On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data. The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). GPM products currently available include the following:1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products (Level-2 and Level-3)3. GPM dual-frequency precipitation radar and their combined products (Level-2 and Level-3)4. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final run)GPM data can be accessed through a number of data services (e.g., Simple Subset Wizard, OPeNDAP, WMS, WCS, ftp, etc.). A newly released Unified User Interface or UUI is a single interface to provide users seamless access to data, information and services. For example, a search for precipitation products will not only return TRMM and GPM products, but also other global precipitation products such as MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc.New features and capabilities have been recently added in GIOVANNI to allow exploring and inter-comparing GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) half-hourly and monthly precipitation

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2014-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following:Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer productsLevel-2 Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner productsLevel-3 daily and monthly productsIntegrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time

  13. Community-Based Services that Facilitate Interoperability and Intercomparison of Precipitation Datasets from Multiple Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Kempler, Steven; Teng, William; Leptoukh, Gregory; Ostrenga, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 12 years, large volumes of precipitation data have been generated from space-based observatories (e.g., TRMM), merging of data products (e.g., gridded 3B42), models (e.g., GMAO), climatologies (e.g., Chang SSM/I derived rain indices), field campaigns, and ground-based measuring stations. The science research, applications, and education communities have greatly benefited from the unrestricted availability of these data from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and, in particular, the services tailored toward precipitation data access and usability. In addition, tools and services that are responsive to the expressed evolving needs of the precipitation data user communities have been developed at the Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google NASA PDISC), located at the GES DISC, to provide users with quick data exploration and access capabilities. In recent years, data management and access services have become increasingly sophisticated, such that they now afford researchers, particularly those interested in multi-data set science analysis and/or data validation, the ability to homogenize data sets, in order to apply multi-variant, comparison, and evaluation functions. Included in these services is the ability to capture data quality and data provenance. These interoperability services can be directly applied to future data sets, such as those from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. This presentation describes the data sets and services at the PDISC that are currently used by precipitation science and applications researchers, and which will be enhanced in preparation for GPM and associated multi-sensor data research. Specifically, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) will be illustrated. Giovanni enables scientific exploration of Earth science data without researchers having to

  14. Modern Era Retrospective Restrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrick, Stephen W.; Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana

    2008-01-01

    keywords, location names or latitude/longitude box, and date/time, with responses within a few seconds. (2) Giovanni is a GES DISC developed Web application that provides data visualization and analysis online. Giovanni features popular visualizations such as latitude-longitude maps, animations, cross sections, profiles, time series, etc. and some basic statistical analysis functions such as scatter plots and correlation coefficient maps. Users are able to download results in several different formats, including Google Earth. (3) On-the-fly parameter subsetting of data within a spatial/temporal window is provided through a simple select and click Web page. (4) MERRA data are also available via OPeNDAP, GrADS Data Server (GDS) and can be converted to netCDF on the fly.

  15. Enhancing Access to NASA Data via Seamless Integration Into Decision Support Systems: two Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Rui, H.; Rishe, N.; Tetrault, R.

    2005-12-01

    The amount and variety of information that can be extracted from NASA satellite data form a rich resource that is largely untapped by the applications user community. In part, this is because of the complexity and cost of using such data. Many approaches, such as subsetting, have been taken to ameliorate this situation. Mostly, however, they have not sufficiently addressed the core needs of the applications community. The latter is generally not interested in the data per se (e.g., how they are processed), but rather in the specific measurements (e.g., surface rain) from the data, which can be infused in some decision support system. These measurements should ideally be seamlessly accessible. To rapidly bridge the gap between NASA information systems and services and the practical needs of the applications (and research) community, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has collaborated with the Florida International University High Performance Database Research Center (FIU HPDRC) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS) to demonstrate the feasibility of making NASA data more easily and seamlessly accessible via the Web, from within the FIU's TerraFly and the FAS' Crop Explorer environments, respectively. TerraFly currently serves a broad segment of the research and applications community (some 10,000 unique users per day), by facilitating the access to various textual, remotely sensed, and vector data. Crop Explorer is the primary decision support tool used by the FAS analysts to monitor the production, supply, and demand of agricultural commodities worldwide. The key NASA information system providing the data integrated into TerraFly and Crop Explorer is the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni), which enables users to easily and quickly obtain science information from the data, without having to download and handle large amounts of data. The

  16. GES DISC Greenhouse Gas Data Sets and Associated Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Elliot; Wei, Jennifer; Vollmer, Bruce; Meyer, David

    2017-01-01

    subsetting, format conversion, and image viewing. Additional data exploration, data preview, and preliminary analysis capabilities are available via NASA Giovanni, which obviates the need forusers to download the data (Acker and Leptoukh, 2007). Giovanni provides a bridge between the data and science and has been very successful in extending GES DISC data to educational users and to users with limited resources.

  17. Community-based Services that Facilitate Interoperability and Inter-comparison Between Precipitation Data Sets from Multiple Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Kempler, S. J.; Teng, W. L.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ostrenga, D.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 12 years, large volumes of precipitation data have been generated from space-based observatories (e.g., TRMM), merging of data products (e.g., gridded 3B42), models (e.g., GMAO), climatologies (e.g., Chang SSM/I derived rain indices), field campaigns, and ground-based measuring stations. The science research, applications, and education communities have greatly benefited from the unrestricted availability of these data from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and, in particular, the services tailored toward precipitation data access and usability. In addition, tools and services that are responsive to the expressed evolving needs of the precipitation data user communities have been developed at the Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google NASA PDISC), located at the GES DISC, to provide users with quick data exploration and access capabilities. In recent years, data management and access services have become increasingly sophisticated, such that they now afford researchers, particularly those interested in multi-data set science analysis and/or data validation, the ability to homogenize data sets, in order to apply multi-variant, comparison, and evaluation functions. Included in these services is the ability to capture data quality and data provenance. These interoperability services can be directly applied to future data sets, such as those from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. This presentation describes the data sets and services at the PDISC that are currently used by precipitation science and applications researchers, and which will be enhanced in preparation for GPM and associated multi-sensor data research. Specifically, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) will be illustrated. Giovanni enables scientific exploration of Earth science data without researchers having to

  18. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrick, S. W.; Ostrenga, D.; Shen, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset is a NASA 30 year (1979 - 2007) reanalysis using the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5). The project, run out of NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center, provides the science and application communities with a state-of-the-art global analysis with emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle over a broad range of weather and climate time scales. MERRA products are generated as a long-term synthesis that places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The MERRA analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 2/3 x 1/2 degrees and at 72 levels, extended 0.01 hPa. Hourly, two-dimensional diagnostic fields are at the native horizontal resolution. Other products are available on a coarser horizontal grid with resolutions of 1.25 x 1.25 and 1.0 x 1.25 degrees. Daily and monthly MERRA products (with others to follow later) are archived and distributed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through its Modeling DISC Web (MDISC) portal. Multiple data access methods and services are available for MERRA data through MDISC: (1) Mirador offers a quick, comprehensive search of MERRA and all GES DISC archived data holdings, allowing searches on keywords, location names or latitude/longitude box, and date/time, with responses within a few seconds. (2) Giovanni is a GES DISC developed Web application that provides data visualization and analysis online. Giovanni features popular visualizations such as latitude- longitude maps, animations, cross sections, profiles, time series, etc. and some basic statistical analysis functions such as scatter plots and correlation coefficient maps. Users are able to download results in several different formats, including Google Earth. (3) On-the-fly parameter subsetting of data within a spatial/temporal window is

  19. Coupling Fluid and Kineitc Effects in Space Weather: an interdisciplinary task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; González-Herrero, Diego; Boella, Elisabetta; Siddi, Lorenzo; Cazzola, Emanuele

    2017-04-01

    Two agents are key to space weather: electromagentic fields and energetic particles. Magnetic fields carried by plasmas in the solar wind interact with the Earth magnetosphere and solar energetic particles produced by solar events or in cosmic rays affect the space environment. Describing both is challenging. Magnetized plasmas are most effectively described by magneto-hydrodynamics, MHD, a fluid theory based on describing some fields defined in space: electromagnetic fields, density, velocity and temperature of the plasma. High energy particles, instead need a more detailed approach , kinetic theory, where statistical distributions of particles are governed by the Boltzmann equation. While fluid models are based on the ordinary space and time, kinetic models require a six dimensional space, called phase space, besides time. The two methods are not separated, the processes leading to the production of energetic particles are the same that involve space plasamas and fields. Arriving at a single self-consistent model has been the goal of the Swiff project funded by the EC in FP7 and it is now a key goal of the ongoing DEEP-ER project. We present a new approach developed with the goal of extending the reach of kinetic models to the fluid scales. Kinetic models are a higher order description and all fluid effects are included in them. However, the cost in terms of computing power is much higher and it has been so far prohibitively expensive to treat space weather events fully kinetically. We have now designed a new method capable of reducing that cost by several orders of magnitude making it possible for kinetic models to study space weather events [1,2]. We will report the new methodology and show its application to space weather mdeling. [1] Giovanni Lapenta,Exactly Energy Conserving Semi-Implicit Particle in Cell Formulation, to appear, JCP, arXiv:1602.06326 [2] Giovanni Lapenta, Diego Gonzalez-Herrero, Elisabetta Boella, Multiple scale kinetic simulations with the

  20. North American Land Data Assimiliation (NLDAS) Data: 30 Years of Hourly Gridded Precipitation, Surface Meteorology and Fluxes, Soil Moisture, Runoff, and Snow Cover Available at the NASA Goddard GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocko, D. M.; Cosgrove, B.; Xia, Y.; Ek, M. B.; Mitchell, K.; Fang, H.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Lei, G.; Wood, E. F.; Luo, L.; Sheffield, J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Livneh, B.; Alonge, C. J.; Meng, C. J.; Wei, H.; Koren, V.; Schaake, J. C.; Mo, K. C.; Robock, A.

    2009-12-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) has produced 30-years (1979 to present in near real-time) of hourly 1/8th-degree surface meteorology and hydrology datasets over CONUS and parts of Canada and Mexico. The NLDAS project has many government and university partners involved in producing and using these datasets, many funded under the Climate Prediction Program of the Americas (CPPA). NLDAS combines observations from many different sources (rain gauges, radar, satellite, model reanalysis) to generate a surface forcing dataset, which is used to drive several different land-surface models. Hourly datasets of gridded precipitation, surface meteorology and surface fluxes, soil moisture at multiple depths, surface runoff and baseflow, and snow cover are produced and available to users. This presentation will describe NLDAS forcing and land-surface model output datasets, and provide an example or two of the many applications of NLDAS data already in use. One such application is the NLDAS Drought Monitor, which updates in near real-time using several different drought indices. All 30-plus years of hourly data are now available at the NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Users can access the data by searching and downloading via anonymous ftp or Mirador. Mirador, a Spanish word for a window offering an extensive view, uses keywords to find data quickly in a Google-like interface. The NLDAS data are also provided via a GrADS Data Server (GDS). GDS users can access the data and perform subsetting and analysis operations online. More advanced tools will be provided in later releases, such as spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and an online visualization and analysis tool (Giovanni). Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by the GES DISC that provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download

  1. Badlands and the Carbon cycle: a significant source of petrogenic organic carbon in rivers and marine environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copard, Yoann; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frederique; Radakovitch, Olivier; Poirel, Alain; Raimbault, Patrick; Lebouteiller, Caroline; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Di-Giovanni, Christian

    2016-04-01

    , which represent less than 0.25 % of the Rhône surface, may yield 15 % of the POC annually delivered to the sea. In other words, 50% of the petrogenic OC would have a badlands origin. At a global scale, we assume that badlands could significantly contribute to the delivery of petrogenic OC to the marine environments. references: Copard Y, Amiotte-Suchet P, Di-Giovanni C, 2007. Earth Planet. Sci. Let., 258, 345-357. Galy V, Peuker-Ehrenbrinck B, Eglinton T, 2015. Nature, 501, 204-208. Graz Y, Di Giovanni C, Copard Y, Mathys N, et al. 2012. Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 37, 1263-1271. Ronov AB, Yaroshevsky AA, 1976. Geochem. Intern. 13, 1761-1795.

  2. Coherent Uncertainty Analysis of Aerosol Measurements from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow / ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in

  3. Issues in Data Fusion for Use in an Interactive Online Analysis System using MODIS Terra and Aqua Daily Aerosol Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, A.; Zubko, V.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2008-12-01

    Data Fusion defined here as a consisting of merging and interpolation is a method of combining spatio- temporally near-coincident satellite observations to provide complete global or regional maps of geophysical variables for comparison with transport models and ground station observations. We investigate various methods, challenges and limitations of data fusion, with and without interpolation, as a first step towards merging datasets archived in the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) and made public through the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) data portals. As a prototype for the data fusion algorithm, this study uses daily global observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), as measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. The goal is to develop a very fast online method for data fusion for implementation into Giovanni. We demonstrate three different methods for fusion (without interpolation): Simple Arithmetic Averaging (SIM), Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) and Weighting by Pixel Counts (WPC). All three methods are roughly comparable, with the MLE (SIM) being slightly preferable when validating with respect to the AOT standard deviations (AOT means). To evaluate the fused product, we introduce two confidence functions, which characterize the percentage of the fused AOT pixels as a function of the relative deviation of the fused AOT from the initial Terra and Aqua AOTs. Gaps in the daily global maps of AOT's arise from regions in sun glint, clouds, gaps between orbit tracks at low latitudes, and other sources of missing data. Data fusion with spatial interpolation produces spatially contiguous fields (global and regional maps) for dust event tracking and comparison with and input to 3-D global and regional models. Eight combinations of merger-interpolation are applied to scenes with regular and irregular

  4. Sir Victor Horsley: pioneer craniopharyngioma surgeon.

    PubMed

    Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the

  5. Normal modes of oscillation of the Asinelli and Garisenda towers in Bologna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, A.; Azzara, R. M.; Cavaliere, A.; Zaccarelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Asinelli and Garisenda medieval towers represent the best-know city landmark in Bologna. Asinelli is also known to physics historians for early experiments on free fall of bodies for the first measurements of g (Giovanni Battista Riccioli, ca. 1650) and proof of Earth rotation (Giovanni Battista Guglielmini, 1791). The Two Towers (as they are commonly known) are essentially tall, square cross-section hollow masonry cuboids. Taller Asinelli, built between 1109 and 1119, is 97 m high, with an overhang of 2.2 m, while more seriously leaning Garisenda has an overhang of 3.2 m with a heigth of 48 m. During the summer of 2012 -- in the aftermath of two M≈6 earthquakes occurred in the proximity of the city -- the permanent engineering monitoring system of the towers has been temporarily supplemented by 6 seismometric stations installed at different levels inside the masonry buildings, to study their dynamical response to induced vibrations. We have thus been able to observe and measure the oscillation of the two towers excited by ambient noise, mostly due to city traffic. The two towers show similar behaviour, more clear in taller Asinelli. The first three flexural normal modes of oscillation, and the first torsional mode, can easily be detected. Their frequencies are split because of the asymmetry due to leaning of the tower. This asymmetry produces slightly different frequencies of oscillation in two orthogonal directions, quite consistent with preliminary dynamical modeling. Horizontal particle-motion polarization plots clearly show the cyclic energy transfer between these two degrees of freedom of the system. Oscillations of taller Asinelli influence its close sister, such that the Asinelli spectral signature can also be easily recognized in the motion recorded at the base of Garisenda, overimposed over Garisenda own free oscillations. Horizontal component polarization analysis done simultaneously at the two ground-level stations often point to a nearby common

  6. The Cucurbit Images (1515–1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome

    PubMed Central

    JANICK, JULES; PARIS, HARRY S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background The gorgeous frescoes organized by the master Renaissance painter Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520) and illustrating the heavenly adventures of Cupid and Psyche were painted between 1515 and 1518 to decorate the Roman villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina) of the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi (1466–1520). Surrounding these paintings are festoons of fruits, vegetables and flowers painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine (1487–1564), which include over 170 species of plants. A deconstruction and collation of the cucurbit images in the festoons makes it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of cucurbits in Renaissance Italy 500 years ago. • Findings The festoons contain six species of Old World cucurbits, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) and Momordica balsamina (balsam apple), and two or three species of New World cucurbits, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo and, perhaps, C. moschata (pumpkin, squash, gourd). The images of C. maxima are the first illustrations of this species in Europe. PMID:16314340

  7. Eight Year Climatologies from Observational (AIRS) and Model (MERRA) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Won, Young-In; Theobalk, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Manning, Evan; Smith, Peter; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We examine climatologies derived from eight years of temperature, water vapor, cloud, and trace gas observations made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flying on the Aqua satellite and compare them to similar climatologies constructed with data from a global assimilation model, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We use the AIRS climatologies to examine anomalies and trends in the AIRS data record. Since sampling can be an issue for infrared satellites in low earth orbit, we also use the MERRA data to examine the AIRS sampling biases. By sampling the MERRA data at the AIRS space-time locations both with and without the AIRS quality control we estimate the sampling bias of the AIRS climatology and the atmospheric conditions where AIRS has a lower sampling rate. While the AIRS temperature and water vapor sampling biases are small at low latitudes, they can be more than a few degrees in temperature or 10 percent in water vapor at higher latitudes. The largest sampling biases are over desert. The AIRS and MERRA data are available from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The AIRS climatologies we used are available for analysis with the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. (see, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  8. [Asbestos in pre-industrial times: from natural wonder to subject of scientific investigation].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, F

    2012-01-01

    The author proposes a reading of "Concerning incombustible flax or asbestos stone" which was published in 1696 by Giovanni Giustino Ciampini, who was a historian, a man of the church and scientist in Rome. The text, which was originally written in Latin, is an excellent and early description of the need felt by the majority of scientists in Europe at that time for a change in method: that is, to use scientific experiments to explain and control the natural phenomena observed and even perhaps mythologized right from antiquity. In the case of asbestos this was necessary to check the veracity and consistency of a series of recommendations handed down by the earliest authors but also to revive and reinvent the techniques that had largely been lost so as to be able to utilize and develop a substance that it was thought could be of great benefit to society. In the presentation of Ciampini's text an attempt is made to recall and contextualize the earliest knowledge on asbestos and follow its evolution over a long historical period, up to the first half of the nineteenth century. It can thus be seen how asbestos, once considered "a wonder of nature", became a raw material widely used in industrial applications. The most significant steps in this phase of transformation were taken thanks to Italian entrepreneurs and technicians and to the presence of asbestos in the Alpine valleys of Italy.

  9. [Steri's graffiti of Palermo and medical knowledges].

    PubMed

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The graffiti left by prisoners in the Inquisition gaols of Palermo's represent a testimony of the historical period between 1600 to 1793. In that period, by order of the viceroy Caracciolo, all the testimonies were removed at the same time in which the Inquisition court was suppressed. In this work the historical subdivision between sacred and profane themes is analyzed with the purpose to study human body in an anthropological key as a language in condition of limited freedom and under torture. Many of the profane graffiti are devoted to medical knowledge suggesting that doctors were involved in the activities of this religious court likewise happened in civil courts. Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, the well-known proto-medical physician of the kingdom, in his treatise, wrote in 1578 and entitled Methodus dandi relationes ... reports many examples of the role of medical doctors in attesting fitness to torture of inquired people or the necessity of graduating torture when they were hill or in a morbid conditions.

  10. Astrology in court: The Spanish Inquisition, authority, and expertise.

    PubMed

    Lanuza-Navarro, Tayra M C

    2017-06-01

    Astrology, its legitimacy, and the limits of its acceptable practice were debated in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe. Many of the related arguments were mediated by the work of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and the responses to it. Acknowledging the complexities of the relationship between astrological ideas and Christian teachings, this paper focuses on the Catholic debates by specifically considering the decisions about astrology taken by the Spanish Inquisition. The trials of astrologers are examined with the aim of understanding the role of experts in astrology in early modern Spain. This study brings into view the specific nature of the debate on astrology in Spain, the consequences of the actions of the Inquisition and the social control it exerted. The historical events discussed comprise a particular case and also mirror the general debates about astrology taking place in early modern Europe. The experts' opinions expressed in trials and in reports about the discipline received by the Inquisition reveal two key traits of the debate: the dispute about who had the authority to decide on the legitimacy of astrology and the disagreement about what constituted natural and judicial astrological practices. These led to different opinions about what was to be done with each defendant and about what content in their books ought to be forbidden.

  11. The history of gait analysis before the advent of modern computers.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Aristotle (384-322 BCE) can be attributed with the earliest recorded comments regarding the manner in which humans walk. It was not until the renaissance that further progress was made through the experiments and theorising of Giovanni Borelli (1608-1679). Although several scientists wrote about walking through the enlightenment period it was the brothers Willhelm (1804-1891) and Eduard (1806-1871) Weber, working in Leipzig who made the next major contribution based on very simple measurements. Both Jules Etienne Marey (1830-1904), working in France, and Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904), working in America, made significant advances in measurement technology. These were developed further by Otto Fischer (1861-1917) in collaboration with Willhelm Braune (1831-1892). The major developments in the early twentieth century were in the development of force plates and the understanding of kinetics. The team headed by Verne Inman (1905-1980) and Howard Eberhart (1906-1993) made major advances in America shortly after the Second War. David Sutherland (1923-2006) and Jacquelin Perry pioneered clinical applications in America and Jurg Baumann (1926-2000) in Europe. It was not until the advent of modern computers that clinical gait analysis became widely available.

  12. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The presentation describes the recently awarded ACCESS project to provide data management of NASA remote sensing data for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The project targets integration of remote sensing data from MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US-satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEP/NCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  13. Reusing Information Management Services for Recommended Decadal Study Missions to Facilitate Aerosol and Cloud Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steve; Alcott, Gary; Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Vollmer, Bruce; Berrick, Steve

    2008-01-01

    NASA Earth Sciences Division (ESD) has made great investments in the development and maintenance of data management systems and information technologies, to maximize the use of NASA generated Earth science data. With information management system infrastructure in place, mature and operational, very small delta costs are required to fully support data archival, processing, and data support services required by the recommended Decadal Study missions. This presentation describes the services and capabilities of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and the reusability for these future missions. The GES DISC has developed a series of modular, reusable data management components currently in use. They include data archive and distribution (Simple, Scalable, Script-based, Science [S4] Product Archive aka S4PA), data processing (S4 Processor for Measurements aka S4PM), data search (Mirador), data browse, visualization, and analysis (Giovanni), and data mining services. Information management system components are based on atmospheric scientist inputs. Large development and maintenance cost savings can be realized through their reuse in future missions.

  14. The Beginnings of Pancreatology as a Field of Experimental and Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the history of discoveries concerning the pancreas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages knowledge about the anatomy of the pancreas was very limited and its function was completely unknown. Significant progress was first made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Johann Georg Wirsüng, the prosector of the University of Padua, discovered the main pancreatic duct, and Giovanni Santorini discovered the accessory duct. Regnier de Graaf was the first to perform pancreatic exocrine studies, and Paul Langerhans's 1869 discovery of pancreatic islets was the first step toward recognizing the pancreas as an endocrine gland. The twentieth century brought the discovery of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. To date, histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry enabled the discovery of five cell types with identified hormonal products in adult human pancreatic islets. Twentieth-century pancreatic studies led to crucial advances in scientific knowledge and were recognized, among other things, with seven Nobel Prizes. The first of these went to Ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The most recent was awarded to Günter Blobel in 1999 for discovering signaling mechanisms that govern the transport and localization of proteins within pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26180777

  15. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome: an X-linked encephalo-tropho-schisis syndrome. 1988.

    PubMed

    Neri, G; Marini, R; Cappa, M; Borrelli, P; Opitz, J M

    2013-11-01

    The following paper by Professor GiovanniNeri and colleagues was originally published in 1988, American Journal of Medical Genetics 30:287–299. This paper represented a seminal work at the time of publication as it not only reported a new family with a disorder that had been called the “gigantism-dysplasia syndrome”, but also suggested naming the condition the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. This eponym has clearly stood “the test of time”, and that designation is now widely accepted. This paper is graciously republished by Wiley-Blackwell in the Special Festschrift issue honoring Professor Neri. We report on another family with the so-called "gigantism-dysplasia syndrome", an X-linked condition characterized by pre-and postnatal overgrowth, characteristic face with apparent coarseness, dysplastic changes in several tissues, and mild intellectual impairment. This condition has been called the Golabi-Rosen syndrome; however, we agree that is the same entity as that described, in a milder form, by Simpson et al. in 1975 and by Behmel et al. in 1984. Therefore, we suggest that this entity be designated the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. The manifestations in affected individuals suggest that this condition represents an X-linked encephalo-tropho-schisis syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Sky on Earth project: a synergy between formal and informal astronomy education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sabrina; Giordano, Enrica; Lanciano, Nicoletta

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present the Sky on Earth project funded in 2008 by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, Research and University, inside its annual public outreach education program. The project’s goal was to realise a stable and open-access astronomical garden, where children, teachers and citizens could be engaged in investigations about day and night sky phenomena. The project was designed taking into account our prior researches in formal and informal astronomy education. It was realised in the garden of GiocheriaLaboratori, an out-of-school K-6 educational structure of Sesto San Giovanni municipality (near Milan, Italy). Setting and tools were designed with the help of some students of the ‘Altiero Spinelli’ vocational school and their science and technology teachers. Since its installation, the astronomical garden has been used in workshops and open-days, teachers’ preparation courses and research experiences. We might conclude that the Sky on Earth project represents an example of a positive and constructive collaboration between researchers, educators, high school students and teachers. It may also be considered as a potential attempt to face on the well-known gap between research in science education and school practices.

  17. [Is disease merely illness?: Biomedicine, "parallel" forms of care and power].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Eduardo L

    2015-09-01

    Following Giovanni Berlinguer's proposal that health/disease processes are one of the primary spies into the contradictions of a system, this article describes cases that occurred in central and peripheral capitalist contexts as well as in the so-called "real socialist" States that allow such a role to be seen. Secondly, we observe the processes and above all the interpretations developed in Latin America and especially Mexico regarding the role attributed to traditional medicine in the identity and sense of belonging of indigenous peoples, which emphasize the incompatibility of indigenous worldviews with biomedicine. To do so we analyze projects that were carried out under the notion of intercultural health, which in large part resulted in failure both in health and political terms. The almost entirely ideological content and perspective of these projects is highlighted, as is the scant relationship they hold with the reality of indigenous people. Lastly, the impact and role that the advance of these conceptualizations and health programs might have had in the disengagement experienced over the last nearly ten years in the ethnic movements of Latin America is considered.

  18. A Third Note: Helmholtz, Palestrina, and the Early History of Musicology.

    PubMed

    Kursell, Julia

    2015-06-01

    This contribution focuses on Hermann von Helmholtz's work on Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Helmholtz used his scientific concept of distortion to analyze this music and, reversely, to find corroboration for the concept in his musical analyses. In this, his work interlocked with nineteenth-century aesthetic and scholarly ideals. His eagerness to use the latest products of historical scholarship in early music reveals a specific view of music history. Historical documents of music provide the opportunity for the discovery of new experimental research topics and thereby also reveal insights into hearing under different conditions. The essay argues that this work occupies a peculiar position in the history of musicology; it falls under the header of "systematic musicology," which eventually emerged as a discipline of musicology at the end of the nineteenth century. That this discipline has a history at all is easily overlooked, as many of its contributors were scientists with an interest in music. A history of musicology therefore must consider at least the following two caveats: parts of it take place outside the institutionalized field of musicology, and any history of musicology must, in the last instance, be embedded in a history of music.

  19. Using Selection Pressure as an Asset to Develop Reusable, Adaptable Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrick, Stephen; Lynnes, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) at NASA has over the years developed and honed several reusable architectural components for supporting large-scale data centers with a large customer base. These include a processing system (S4PM) and an archive system (S4PA) based upon a workflow engine called the Simple Scalable Script based Science Processor (S4P) and an online data visualization and analysis system (Giovanni). These subsystems are currently reused internally in a variety of combinations to implement customized data management on behalf of instrument science teams and other science investigators. Some of these subsystems (S4P and S4PM) have also been reused by other data centers for operational science processing. Our experience has been that development and utilization of robust interoperable and reusable software systems can actually flourish in environments defined by heterogeneous commodity hardware systems the emphasis on value-added customer service and the continual goal for achieving higher cost efficiencies. The repeated internal reuse that is fostered by such an environment encourages and even forces changes to the software that make it more reusable and adaptable. Allowing and even encouraging such selective pressures to software development has been a key factor In the success of S4P and S4PM which are now available to the open source community under the NASA Open source Agreement

  20. Quantifying precipitation characteristics of the severe cyclone Thane along the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Abhishek; Trivedi, Utkal; Ghosh, Sat

    2013-04-01

    Hurricane "Thane" devastated the eastern coast of peninsular India during Dec 2011-the associated storm surges were high and the updraughts strong. In this paper, we first calculate the associated Cloud Cover, using MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)retrievals. A preliminary analysis indicates a substantially larger cloud cover than those associated with normal north east monsoon activity. The precipitable water amounts are analysed using THOR (Tool for High-resolution Observation Review) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) retrievals. An analysis of Thane's morphology indicated that warm rain microphysics was the main triggering mechanism for the onset of precipitation. In this paper, we first quantify precipitable water amounts using the UK Meteorological Office Large Eddy Simulation Model, and then compare these amounts with those retrieved from the Giovanni NASA Project MODIS TERRA and AQUA Level 3 data. Finally, we grow a cloud droplet spectrum from aerosol distributions over the region, using a microphysical parcel model, and then feed the resulting cloud spectrum into a stochastic collection model to obtain the rain masses mediated by warm rain microphysics.

  1. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Ramapriyan, H.; Leon, A.; Tsontos, V. M.; Liu, Z.; Shie, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use.Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Science themes can be: Specific applications (uses) of the data, e.g., landslide prediction Geophysical events (e.g., Hurricane Sandy) A specific science research problem Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer. Eligible resources include anything accessible via URL: data files: data file URLs data subsets: OPeNDAP, webification or Web Coverage Service URLs data visualizations: Web Map Service data search results: OpenSearch Atom response custom analysis workflows: e.g., Giovanni analysis URL

  2. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of vegetation and report of mummified apple seeds found in the cellar of a first-century Roman villa on Elba Island.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Claudio; Scali, Monica; Vignani, Rita; Cambi, Franco; Dugerdil, Lucas; Faleri, Claudia; Cresti, Mauro

    In the late Roman Republic period (2nd-1st century BC), in the area of San Giovanni on Elba Island, previously subject to intense extraction of iron ore, a rustic villa was established by Marco Valerio Messalla, a supreme Roman magistrate. The foundations of the walls were discovered and excavated by an archaeological mission. Palaeobotanical analysis of a set of stratigraphic layers was performed. Palynological slides showed remains of palynomorphic and non-pollen objects, while data combined with anthracological investigations confirmed the hypothesis that in the 1st century AD the villa was destroyed by a fire that created a compact crust under which were discovered four broken Roman amphorae containing about five hundred apple seeds. Comparisons of archaeological and fresh seeds from reference collections showed discontinuous morphology except for one group of archaeological samples. DNA was isolated from seeds that had well-preserved embryos in all groups. DNA extracts from archaeological, wild and modern domestic seeds (controls) were amplified by PCR and tested with SSR molecular markers, followed by genome analysis.

  3. Volumic visual perception: principally novel concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    The general concept of volumic view (VV) as a universal property of space is introduced. VV exists in every point of the universe where electromagnetic (EM) waves can reach and a point or a quasi-point receiver (detector) of EM waves can be placed. Classification of receivers is given for the first time. They are classified into three main categories: biological, man-made non-biological, and mathematically specified hypothetical receivers. The principally novel concept of volumic perception is introduced. It differs chiefly from the traditional concept which traces back to Euclid and pre-Euclidean times and much later to Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Battista della Porta's discoveries and practical stereoscopy as introduced by C. Wheatstone. The basic idea of novel concept is that humans and animals acquire volumic visual data flows in series rather than in parallel. In this case the brain is free from extremely sophisticated real time parallel processing of two volumic visual data flows in order to combine them. Such procedure seems hardly probable even for humans who are unable to combine two primitive static stereoscopic images in one quicker than in a few seconds. Some people are unable to perform this procedure at all.

  4. Optimal Reorganization of NASA Earth Science Data for Enhanced Accessibility and Usability for the Hydrology Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Strub, Richard; Vollmer, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing "Digital Divide" in data representation exists between the preferred way of data access by the hydrology community and the common way of data archival by earth science data centers. Typically, in hydrology, earth surface features are expressed as discrete spatial objects (e.g., watersheds), and time-varying data are contained in associated time series. Data in earth science archives, although stored as discrete values (of satellite swath pixels or geographical grids), represent continuous spatial fields, one file per time step. This Divide has been an obstacle, specifically, between the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. and NASA earth science data systems. In essence, the way data are archived is conceptually orthogonal to the desired method of access. Our recent work has shown an optimal method of bridging the Divide, by enabling operational access to long-time series (e.g., 36 years of hourly data) of selected NASA datasets. These time series, which we have termed "data rods," are pre-generated or generated on-the-fly. This optimal solution was arrived at after extensive investigations of various approaches, including one based on "data curtains." The on-the-fly generation of data rods uses "data cubes," NASA Giovanni, and parallel processing. The optimal reorganization of NASA earth science data has significantly enhanced the access to and use of the data for the hydrology user community.

  5. Diego Rivera's fresco and the case taken from Morgagni's De sedibus.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fabio; Zanatta, Alberto; Scattolin, Giuliano; Stramare, Roberto; Thiene, Gaetano

    2013-09-01

    The fresco by Diego Rivera (1886 to 1957) on the history of cardiology was displayed at the "Instituto Nacional de Cardiología" of Mexico City at the time of inauguration on April 14, 1944. Some of the most important masters of the Padua Medical School were depicted, namely Vesalius, Harvey, and Morgagni. There is a vivid description of the anatomoclinical method introduced by Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682 to 1771), when he was professor of Theoretical Medicine first and then of Anatomy at the University of Padua (1711 to 1771). By reading Morgagni's De sedibus, we found the case of aortic syphilitic aneurysm that corresponds perfectly with the one represented in Diego Rivera's mural. In the Museum of Pathological Anatomy of the Padua University, an anatomical specimen that displays the same lesion is preserved, and we have performed a computed tomography scan to analyze the state of the heart and aneurysm, thus finding diffuse calcific deposits of aorta and pericardium. In conclusion, in Diego Rivera's fresco the clinicopathologic method of Morgagni is well represented and the case of syphilitic aneurysm, reported by Morgagni in his De sedibus, depicted.

  6. A Hanged From the Past: Medical Consideration on the Judas Iscariot Fresco-Chapelle Notre-Dame-des-Fontaines, La Brigue (15th Century).

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    The medieval chapel of Notre Dame-des-Fontaines (Our Lady of the Fountains), in the French Maritime Alps, is entirely covered by the fresco cycle of the Passion (15th century) that depicts the last days of Jesus from the Last Supper to the Resurrection. Under a small window, there is the brutal representation of the suicide of Judas Iscariot, hanging from a tree, with the abdomen quartered from which his soul, represented by a small man, is kidnapped by a devil. The author, Giovanni Canavesio, represented the traitor's death with very detailed anatomical structures, differently thus from other paintings of the same subject; it is therefore possible to assume that the artist had become familiar with the human anatomy. In particular, the realism of the hanged man's posture, neck bent in an unnatural way, allows us to hypothesize that it probably comes from direct observation of the executions of capital punishment, not infrequently imposed by the public authorities in low medieval Italy.

  7. Spatial Aspects of Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Zubko, V.; Gopalan, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) investigated the applicability and limitations of combining multi-sensor data through data fusion, to increase the usefulness of the multitude of NASA remote sensing data sets, and as part of a larger effort to integrate this capability in the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni). This initial study focused on merging daily mean Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), as measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, to increase spatial coverage and produce complete fields to facilitate comparison with models and station data. The fusion algorithm used the maximum likelihood technique to merge the pixel values where available. The algorithm was applied to two regional AOT subsets (with mostly regular and irregular gaps, respectively) and a set of AOT fields that differed only in the size and location of artificially created gaps. The Cumulative Semivariogram (CSV) was found to be sensitive to the spatial distribution of gap areas and, thus, useful for assessing the sensitivity of the fused data to spatial gaps.

  8. Comparison of methods and TAT assessment: Volumetric AQUIOS CL and bead-based FACS CANTO II cytometers.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Valentina; Infantino, Maria; Meacci, Francesca; Bellio, Emanuele; Bellio, Valerio; Ciotta, Giovanna; Priami, Fiorella; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Li Gobbi, Francesca; Damiani, Arianna; Benucci, Maurizio; Manfredi, Mariangela

    2017-01-20

    Measurement of lymphocyte subpopulations is a crucial parameter in the diagnosis and monitoring of therapy in a wide variety of clinical conditions. We compared different flow cytometry-based methods to determine lymphocyte subsets counts of routine samples by volumetric AQUIOS CL (Beckman Coulter) and bead-based FACS CANTO II (BD Biosciences) cytometers. We evaluated the possible decrease of the labor intensive technical work using the fully automated AQUIOS CL system in the pre and post analytical steps in comparison with our routine flow cytometer FACS CANTO II, toward the reduction of laboratory analytical turnaround time (TAT). The analytical performance of AQUIOS CL flow cytometer compared with FACS CANTO II was evaluated testing 224 routine samples, attending the Immunology and Allergology Laboratory Unit, S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, (Florence, Italy) between September and October 2015. Bland-Altman plot of the differences between the two methods showed an excellent agreement for absolute and percentage counts. Furthermore, the study showed that automated AQUIOS CL system is simple to be used during all analytical steps with a reduction of TAT. In routine conditions, AQUIOS CL flow cytometer could be a suitable tool for subpopulations subset analysis. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  9. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The presentation describes the recently awarded ACCESS project to provide data management of NASA remote sensing data for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The project targets integration of remote sensing data from MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US-satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEP/NCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  10. Accessing Recent Trend of Land Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Romanov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Land surface temperature (Ts) is an important element to measure the state of terrestrial ecosystems and to study surface energy budgets. In support of the land cover/land use change-related international program MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study), we have collected global monthly Ts measured by MODIS since the beginning of the missions. The MODIS Ts time series have approximately 11 years of data from Terra since 2000 and approximately 9 years of data from Aqua since 2002, which makes possible to study the recent climate, such as trend. In this study, monthly climatology from two platforms are calculated and compared with that from AIRS. The spatial patterns of Ts trends are accessed, focusing on the Eurasia region. Furthermore, MODIS Ts trends are compared with those from AIRS and NASA's atmospheric assimilation model, MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications). The preliminary results indicate that the recent 8-year Ts trend shows an oscillation-type spatial variation over Eurasia. The pattern is consistent for data from MODIS, AIRS, and MERRA, with the positive center over Eastern Europe, and the negative center over Central Siberia. The calculated climatology and anomaly of MODIS Ts will be integrated into the online visualization system, Giovanni, at NASA GES DISC for easy use by scientists and general public.

  11. The NASA NEESPI Data Portal: Products, Information, and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory; Loboda, Tatiana; Csiszar, Ivan; Romanov, Peter; Gerasimov, Irina

    2008-01-01

    Studies have indicated that land cover and use changes in Northern Eurasia influence global climate system. However, the procedures are not fully understood and it is challenging to understand the interactions between the land changes in this region and the global climate. Having integrated data collections form multiple disciplines are important for studies of climate and environmental changes. Remote sensed and model data are particularly important die to sparse in situ measurements in many Eurasia regions especially in Siberia. The NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) NEESPI data portal has generated infrastructure to provide satellite remote sensing and numerical model data for atmospheric, land surface, and cryosphere. Data searching, subsetting, and downloading functions are available. ONe useful tool is the Web-based online data analysis and visualization system, Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure), which allows scientists to assess easily the state and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems in Northern Eurasia and their interactions with global climate system. Recently, we have created a metadata database prototype to expand the NASA NEESPI data portal for providing a venue for NEESPI scientists fo find the desired data easily and leveraging data sharing within NEESPI projects. The database provides product level information. The desired data can be found through navigation and free text search and narrowed down by filtering with a number of constraints. In addition, we have developed a Web Map Service (WMS) prototype to allow access data and images from difference data resources.

  12. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  13. [Seed and harvest - German psychiatry and psychology in Perú].

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Bravo De Rueda, Maria

    2002-05-01

    The influence of German psychiatry and German psychology in Perú was very strong in the beginning of the 20(th) Century. This is not well-known either in Germany or even in Perú or seems to be forgotten. The basis of it was the influence of German philosophy of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries. A review is being given of the work of those that we consider to have been the pioneers of the German thought in these disciplines in Perú: Juan (Giovanni) Copello, Hermilio Valdizán (1885 - 1929), Dora Mayer (1868 - 1959), Enrique Encinas (1895 - 1971), Pedro Zulen (1889 - 1925), Honorio Delgado (1892 - 1967), Walter Blumenfeld (1882 - 1967), and some of their pupils. Without these it would not have been possible to advance in the knowledge, neither would it had been possible to set the basis for a national psychology and psychiatry. Due to the development of the American theories that cropped up in the fifties and invaded the theoretical field as much as the practical one in both, psychology and psychiatry, this era has come to an end. These latter theories now prevail in the current university teaching. The "indigenous" sources, which helped to develop the psychological thought in the country were left aside, but are still very vivid in the discussions of international ethnopsychology and ethnopsychiatry.

  14. Bridging the Gap between NASA Hydrological Data and the Geospatial Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David M.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph; Gary, Mark; Maidment, David; Hooper, Richard

    2011-01-01

    There is a vast and ever increasing amount of data on the Earth interconnected energy and hydrological systems, available from NASA remote sensing and modeling systems, and yet, one challenge persists: increasing the usefulness of these data for, and thus their use by, the geospatial communities. The Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), part of the Goddard Earth Sciences DISC, has continually worked to better understand the hydrological data needs of the geospatial end users, to thus better able to bridge the gap between NASA data and the geospatial communities. This paper will cover some of the hydrological data sets available from HDISC, and the various tools and services developed for data searching, data subletting ; format conversion. online visualization and analysis; interoperable access; etc.; to facilitate the integration of NASA hydrological data by end users. The NASA Goddard data analysis and visualization system, Giovanni, is described. Two case examples of user-customized data services are given, involving the EPA BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating point & Non-point Sources) project and the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System, with the common requirement of on-the-fly retrieval of long duration time series for a geographical point

  15. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  16. Antonino D'Antona (1842-1913) was the first in describing the crush syndrome with renal failure following the Messina earthquake of December 28, 1908.

    PubMed

    Bisaccia, Carmela; De Santo, Natale Gaspare; De Santo, Luca S

    2016-02-01

    There is confusion about the first description of the association between crush syndrome and renal failure. It has been traditionally attributed to Bywaters and Beall. The present study aims to analyze the problem by analyzing medical reports on the Messina-Reggio Calabria earth-quake of December 28, 1908 by using documents heretofore unknown. It demonstrates that first description of rabdomyolysis with renal failure is attributed to Antonino DAntona (1842- 1913). DAntona, professor of surgery at the University of Naples, coordinated the health net organized in Naples to assist persons wounded during the quake. Many of them in shock were transferred to Naples by ships. Franz von Colmers (1875-1960) was the chief surgeon of the German Mission of the Red Cross after the quake. Because his late arrival, he did not treat patients with shock. He described rabdomyolysis. The third medical report is that of Rocco Caminiti (1868-1946), collaborator of DAntona at the University of Naples, and chief of surgery at the Loreto Hospital. He directed a rescue group in Villa San Giovanni and Reggio Calabria. In 1910, he reported on rabdomyolysis in patients treated in the place of the disaster. Therefore the present study indicates that Antonino DAntona holds the priority for description of rabdomyolysis and kidney injury. There is no longer a place for the eponym Bywaters syndrome.

  17. Dosimetric, mechanical, and geometric verification of conformal dynamic arc treatment.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, T; Landoni, V; delle Canne, S; Bufacchi, A; Marmiroli, L; Caspiani, O; Bonanni, A; Tortoreto, F; Leone, M V; Capparella, R; Fragomeni, R; Begnozzi, L

    2003-01-01

    A conformal dynamic arc (CD-arc) technique has been implemented at the S. Giovanni Calibita-Fatebenefratelli Hospital Radiotherapy Center. This technique is performed by rotational beams and a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC): during the treatment delivery the gantry rotates and the field shape, formed by the DMLC changes continuously. The aim of this study was to perform dosimetric, mechanical, and geometric verification to ensure that the dose calculated by a commercial treatment planning system and administered to the patient was correct, before and during the clinical use of this technique. Absolute dose values, at the isocenter and at other points placed in dose heterogeneity zone, have been verified with an ionization chamber in a solid homogeneous phantom. In uniform dose regions measured dose values resulted in agreements with the calculated doses within 2%. Isodose distributions have also been determined by radiographic films and compared with those predicted by the planning system. Distance to agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in dose gradient zone was within 2 mm. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the CD-arc technique for achieving highly conformal dose distributions. Up till now 20 patients have been treated with CD-arc therapy.

  18. Multi-scale simulations of space problems with iPIC3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Bettarini, Lapo; Markidis, Stefano

    The implicit Particle-in-Cell method for the computer simulation of space plasma, and its im-plementation in a three-dimensional parallel code, called iPIC3D, are presented. The implicit integration in time of the Vlasov-Maxwell system removes the numerical stability constraints and enables kinetic plasma simulations at magnetohydrodynamics scales. Simulations of mag-netic reconnection in plasma are presented to show the effectiveness of the algorithm. In particular we will show a number of simulations done for large scale 3D systems using the physical mass ratio for Hydrogen. Most notably one simulation treats kinetically a box of tens of Earth radii in each direction and was conducted using about 16000 processors of the Pleiades NASA computer. The work is conducted in collaboration with the MMS-IDS theory team from University of Colorado (M. Goldman, D. Newman and L. Andersson). Reference: Stefano Markidis, Giovanni Lapenta, Rizwan-uddin Multi-scale simulations of plasma with iPIC3D Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Available online 17 October 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matcom.2009.08.038

  19. The Beginnings of Pancreatology as a Field of Experimental and Clinical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the history of discoveries concerning the pancreas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages knowledge about the anatomy of the pancreas was very limited and its function was completely unknown. Significant progress was first made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Johann Georg Wirsüng, the prosector of the University of Padua, discovered the main pancreatic duct, and Giovanni Santorini discovered the accessory duct. Regnier de Graaf was the first to perform pancreatic exocrine studies, and Paul Langerhans's 1869 discovery of pancreatic islets was the first step toward recognizing the pancreas as an endocrine gland. The twentieth century brought the discovery of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. To date, histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry enabled the discovery of five cell types with identified hormonal products in adult human pancreatic islets. Twentieth-century pancreatic studies led to crucial advances in scientific knowledge and were recognized, among other things, with seven Nobel Prizes. The first of these went to Ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The most recent was awarded to Günter Blobel in 1999 for discovering signaling mechanisms that govern the transport and localization of proteins within pancreatic acinar cells.

  20. [Psychiatric institutions in the regno delle due Sicilie].

    PubMed

    Leoni, F

    1993-01-01

    Before 1510 there wasn't a single hospital in Southern Italy which took in mental patients, with the possible exception of L'ospedale degli Incurabili, which in any case dealt with other kinds of illnesses as well. Finally, in 1813 the decision was taken to found an institution in the city of Aversa which would deal exclusively with mental patients. This institution was put under the control of Giovanni Maria Linguiti. He took care of all patients using his therapeutic methods, with such excellent results that his reputation spread outside the kingdom. In 1816 in Sicily, an attempt was made to repeat the success of Aversa, but not until 1824 was it decided that L'ospizio di Santa Teresa should care for mental patients. Don Pietro Pisani was delegated to coordinate that hospital and, in 1827, he published a number of theories and guidelines concerning mental healthcare similar to those of Linguiti. In December 1864 a Royal Decree forced through parliament a statute which laid down the rules for the reorganization of these hospitals. Finally in August 1874, after numerous financial difficulties and struggles between political bodies and health service management, a Royal Decree was established and a new guiding statute was passed.

  1. [The human typology: at the origin of the Italian school].

    PubMed

    Bernabeo, R A; D'Este, B R

    1989-01-01

    Figurative arts were the first supporters of typology inequalities. In fact in every time artists felt the need of looking for a system of measures fit for reproducing the armony of the human body as a "whole". Doctors generally neglected the anthropomorphic logic till modern times, mostly limiting themselves to the relationship among the various parts. Only later Quetelet fixed the first law, which allowed the consideration for the human kind unity. Starting from this principle a lot of schools developed at the end of the 20th century they dictated a great variety of typologie classifications. In Italy it was De Giovanni who came to the definition of "constitutional medicine", and later Viola and Pende referred to it. So some categories of individuals (biotypes) were outlined from the most tender years. This method proved to be indispensable, among other things, both to appreciate everybody's sporting bent and to start people in an athletic training, and to discover the causes of the symptoms of the disease--typical of growth--and to interfere with them in a prophylactic way, by means of fitting physical exercises too.

  2. The Kerr Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.; Visser, Matt; Scott, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    List of illustrations; Contributors; Foreword; Part I. General Relativity: Classical Studies of the Kerr Geometry: 1. The Kerr spacetime: a brief introduction Matt Visser; 2. The Kerr and Kerr-Schild metrics Roy P. Kerr; 3. Roy Kerr and twistor theory Roger Penrose; 4. Global and local problems solved by the Kerr metric Brandon Carter; 5. Four decades of black hole uniqueness theorems David C. Robinson; 6. Ray-traced visualisations Benjamin R. Lewis, Susan M. Scott; Part II. Astrophysics: The Ongoing Observational Revolution: 7. The ergosphere and dyadosphere of the Kerr black hole Remo Ruffini; 8. Supermassive Black Holes Fulvio Melia; 9. The X-ray spectra of accreting Kerr black holes Andrew C. Fabian, Giovanni Miniutti; 10. Cosmological flashes from rotating black holes Maurice H.P.M. van Putten; Part III. Quantum Gravity: Rotating Black Holes at the Theoretical Frontiers: 11. Horizon constraints and black hole entropy Steve Carlip; 12. Higher dimensional generalizations of the Kerr black hole Gary T. Horowitz; Part IV. Appendices: 13. Gravitational field of a spinning mass … Roy P. Kerr; 14. Gravitational collapse and rotation Roy P. Kerr; Index.

  3. Science Rather than God: Riccioli's Review of the Case For and Against the Copernicus Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    2012-05-01

    In 1651 the Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista Riccioli published within his Almagestum Novum, a massive 1500 page treatise on astronomy, a discussion of 126 arguments for and against the Copernican hypothesis (49 for, 77 against). A synopsis of each argument is presented here, with discussion and analysis. Seen through Riccioli's 126 arguments, the debate over the Copernican hypothesis appears dynamic and indeed similar to more modern scientific debates. Both sides present good arguments as point and counter-point. Religious arguments play a minor role in the debate; careful, reproducible experiments a major role. To Riccioli, the anti-Copernican arguments carry the greater weight, on the basis of a few key arguments against which the Copernicans have no good response. These include arguments based on telescopic observations of stars, and on the apparent absence of what today would be called "Coriolis Effect" phenomena; both have been overlooked by the historical record (which paints a picture of the 126 arguments that little resembles them). Given the available scientific knowledge in 1651, a geo-heliocentric hypothesis clearly had real strength, but Riccioli presents it as merely the "least absurd" available model - perhaps comparable to the Standard Model in particle physics today - and not as a fully coherent theory. Riccioli's work sheds light on a fascinating piece of the history of astronomy, and highlights the competence of scientists of his time.

  4. Mechanisms of life in the seventeenth century: Borelli, Perrault, Régis.

    PubMed

    Des Chene, Dennis

    2005-06-01

    In Descartes's reformulation of natural philosophy, two aspects of what came to be known as the mechanical philosophy were intimately joined: mechanism as an ontology of nature, according to which all natural things had only 'mechanical' properties; and mechanism as a method of explanation. One could, and many philosophers did, adopt mechanism as a method of explanation without adopting a mechanistic ontology. I examine two successors of Descartes who did just that, and one who did not. Giovanni Alfonso Borelli in his De motu animalium (1680) and Charles Perrault in his Mécanique de animaux (1680-1688, Vol. 3) propose and argue for a variety of mechanical accounts of the operations of animals, in particular of their muscles. They reject, however, the Cartesian reduction of animal souls to mechanical forces; the principle of animal motion for them remains a non-mechanical soul. Pierre Sylvain Régis in his Cours entier de philosophie (1690, 1691) follows Descartes in taking the 'physical cause' of motion in animals to be the fermentation of blood in the heart, and thus denies animal souls any role in his physiology. That he can do so while taking over, sometimes word for word, Perrault's accounts of animal motion shows that mechanistic explanation and mechanistic ontology could easily part company.

  5. [The Temple of Aesculapius in Diocletian's palace in Split].

    PubMed

    Kraljević, L

    1995-01-01

    Many temples, sanctuaries and even the entire small towns have been dedicated to Aesculapius's, the god of medicine. The remnants of Aesculapius temples in the Republic of Croatia have been found on locations of Narona, Salona, Pola and in Diocletian's palace in Split. The first archbishop of Split, "Giovanni di Ravenna", at the end of the 8th century or at the beginning of the 9th century, gave to Diocletian's Mausoleum the name of "Templum Jouis" and reassigned it to Christian church. Thomas the Archdeacon in the 13th century mentioned three temples in Diocletian's Palace: "templa...Jouis, Asclepii, Martis", while in 1567 Antonio Proculiano described four temples: the octogonal temple on the east dedicated to Jupiter (the present cathedral), the rectangular temple on the west (the present baptistry), a minor round temple on the south and a round-hexagonal temple on the north. The majority of authors, for centuries, called the baptistry: Aesculapius's temple, while only a few others called it Jupiter's or Janu's temple. It seems logical to assume that there was only one Jupiter's temple in Diocletian's Palace, namely the present cathedral. Four cultic edifices within the Diocletian's Palace were given six names: "Jouis, Asclepii, Martis, Janus's Kibela's and Venus's. Should the recent research prove the baptistry not to be Aesculapius's temple, the question might be raised whether one of the two, recently discovered small temples, Kibela's or Venus's, was dedicated to Aesculapius?

  6. Michelangelo's eye disease.

    PubMed

    Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reusable Social Networking Capabilities for an Earth Science Collaboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Da Silva, D.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ramachandran, R.

    2011-12-01

    A vast untapped resource of data, tools, information and knowledge lies within the Earth science community. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to share the full spectrum of these entities, particularly their full context. As a result, most knowledge exchange is through person-to-person contact at meetings, email and journal articles, each of which can support only a limited level of detail. We propose the creation of an Earth Science Collaboratory (ESC): a framework that would enable sharing of data, tools, workflows, results and the contextual knowledge about these information entities. The Drupal platform is well positioned to provide the key social networking capabilities to the ESC. As a proof of concept of a rich collaboration mechanism, we have developed a Drupal-based mechanism for graphically annotating and commenting on results images from analysis workflows in the online Giovanni analysis system for remote sensing data. The annotations can be tagged and shared with others in the community. These capabilities are further supplemented by a Research Notebook capability reused from another online analysis system named Talkoot. The goal is a reusable set of modules that can integrate with variety of other applications either within Drupal web frameworks or at a machine level.

  8. Optimal Reorganization of NASA Earth Science Data for Enhanced Accessibility and Usability for the Hydrology Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Strub, Richard; Vollmer, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing "Digital Divide" in data representation exists between the preferred way of data access by the hydrology community and the common way of data archival by earth science data centers. Typically, in hydrology, earth surface features are expressed as discrete spatial objects (e.g., watersheds), and time-varying data are contained in associated time series. Data in earth science archives, although stored as discrete values (of satellite swath pixels or geographical grids), represent continuous spatial fields, one file per time step. This Divide has been an obstacle, specifically, between the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. and NASA earth science data systems. In essence, the way data are archived is conceptually orthogonal to the desired method of access. Our recent work has shown an optimal method of bridging the Divide, by enabling operational access to long-time series (e.g., 36 years of hourly data) of selected NASA datasets. These time series, which we have termed "data rods," are pre-generated or generated on-the-fly. This optimal solution was arrived at after extensive investigations of various approaches, including one based on "data curtains." The on-the-fly generation of data rods uses "data cubes," NASA Giovanni, and parallel processing. The optimal reorganization of NASA earth science data has significantly enhanced the access to and use of the data for the hydrology user community.

  9. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed Central

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-01-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  10. The Diary of Schiaparelli in Berlin (26 October 1857-10 May 1859): a guide for his future scientific activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, P.

    In February 1857, three years after his degree in Turin, Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli moved to Berlin with a scholarship from the Sardinian government. There he lived for over two years and from October he attended the University. Berlin was an important astronomical center at the time and the young Schiaparelli had the opportunity to study with some of the most distinguished astronomers of his epoch and to be in one of the best equipped observatory in the world. During his staying in Berlin Schiaparelli regularly wrote a diary which runs from Monday, October 26, 1857 to Tuesday, May 10, 1859. The Diary is very important for the reconstruction of Schiaparelli's training as an astronomer. In this communication I'll give some information about the sections of the Diary which deal more strictly with astronomy. In the Diary all astronomical trainings of the mature Schiaparelli are outlined. But there is an exception: Mars and the inhabitability of other worlds. This rises an intere-sting historiographical problem which pushes historians to find elsewhere the origins of a research which is inextricably linked to Schiaparelli and that allowed him to found the planetology as a new astronomical discipline.

  11. Around a camphoric-acid boat, is the surfactant adsorbed on to the interface or dissolved in the bulk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandre, Shreyas; Akella, Sathish; Singh, Dhiraj; Singh, Ravi; Bandi, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    A camphoric-acid boat (c-boat for short), a cylindrical gel tablet infused with camphoric acid, moves spontaneously when placed on an air-water interface. This system is a classic example of propulsion driven by Marangoni forces. Despite rich history on particles propelled by Marangoni forces, including contributions by figures such as Benjamin Franklin, Allesandro Volta, and Giovanni Venturi, the underlying fluid dynamics remains poorly understood. A key missing piece is the nature of the surfactant; in our case, the question is whether the camphoric acid is dissolved in the bulk or adsorbed on to the interface. We gain insight into this piece by holding the c-boat stationary and measuring the surrounding axisymmetric flow velocity to a precision needed to distinguish between the two possibilities. For soluble surfactants, it is known that the velocity field decays as r - 2 / 3, where r is the distance from the center of the c-boat. Whereas, for surfactant adsorbed on to the air-water interface, we derive that the surrounding velocity fields decays as r - 3 / 5. Based on our measurements we deduce that, even though soluble in water, the Marangoni flow results from a layer of camphoric acid adsorbed to the air-water interface.

  12. New neuronal networks involved in ethanol reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Hyytiä, Petri; Samson, Herman H; Engel, Jörgen A; Svensson, Lennart; Söderpalm, Bo; Larsson, Anna; Colombo, Giancarlo; Vacca, Giovanni; Finn, Deborah A; Bachtell, Ryan K; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2003-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 ISBRA/RSA meeting in San Francisco. The organizers were Kalervo Kiianmaa and Andrey E. Ryabinin. The chairs were Kalervo Kiianmaa and Jörgen A. Engel. The presentations were (1) The role of opioidergic and dopaminergic networks in ethanol-seeking behavior, by Kalervo Kiianmaa and Petri Hyytiä; (2) Interaction between the dopamine systems in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens during ethanol self-administration, by Herman H. Samson; (3) Neurochemical and behavioral studies on ethanol and nicotine interactions, by Jörgen A. Engel, Lennart Svensson, Bo Söderpalm, and Anna Larsson; (4) Involvement of the GABA receptor in alcohol reinforcement in sP rats, by Giancarlo Colombo and Giovanni Vacca; (5) Neuroactive steroids and ethanol reinforcement, by Deborah A. Finn, and (6) Potential contribution of the urocortin system to regulation of alcohol self-administration, by Andrey E. Ryabinin and Ryan K. Bachtell.(B)

  13. Engaging Minority University STEM Education Professors in the Science of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Froburg, E.; Martin, M.; Moore, T.; Wicklein, H. F.

    2012-12-01

    Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) and the University of New Hampshire (UNH) partnered to develop a program to enhance climate education for faculty from participating Minority Serving Institutions (MSI). This effort leverages the ongoing partnership between ECSU and UNH to increase the quality of climate education offered to under-represented pre-service teachers within STEM subjects. The program included a one-week workshop for STEM MSI faculty who teach STEM pre-service teachers. The workshop components focused on terrestrial and ocean climate education and relied on NASA datasets and web-based tools. Specifically, participants were introduced to methods for estimating carbon storage in forests and estimating primary production using ocean color remote sensing. The online data visualization tool GIOVANNI was utilized by participants so they can retrieve and utilize data within their own geographic contexts at their home institutions. After the workshop, participants revised their courses to include workshop components appropriate for pre-service teachers at their college or university. Two ECSU graduate students continue to provide technical Help Desk support for troubleshooting challenges for faculty to fully utilize the datasets and online tools. The ECSU and UNH faculty also continue to provide another layer of support for the MSI as they adapted their syllabi and lesson plans to include workshop materials and activities. Sixteen faculty drawn from 11 MSI in 7 states participated in the 2012-13 program.

  14. Rehabilitative management of oropharyngeal dysphagia in acute care settings: data from a large Italian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Antonio; Vincon, Elena; Grosso, Elena; Miletto, Anna Maria; Di Rosa, Rosalba; Schindler, Oskar

    2008-09-01

    A high incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) in acute-care settings has been reported; however, no data on its management are found in the literature. Here we report the experience with rehabilitative management of OD in a large Italian hospital. The characteristics of inpatients with OD during 2004 have been studied prospectively. For each patient, demographic data, the department referring the patient, the disease causing OD, and the presence of a communication disorder were registered. The swallowing level at the beginning and at the end of rehabilitation were recorded. Of the 35,590 inpatients admitted to San Giovanni Battista Hospital of Turin during 2004, 222 of them were referred for the assessment and rehabilitation of OD. The inpatients with OD came from different departments and mainly had a neurologic disease. In 110 patients a communication disorder was present. The swallowing impairment was moderate to severe at the moment of referral, while on average patients were able to eat by mouth after swallowing therapy. Dysphagia rehabilitation in an acute care setting is requested from different departments because of its prevalence and severity; skilled specialists are needed for early assessment and the best management.

  15. MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Bias Adjustment Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, A.; Wei, J. C.; Petrenko, M.; Lary, D. J.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, global aerosol observations have been conducted by space-borne sensors, airborne instruments, and ground-base network measurements. Unfortunately, quite often we encounter the differences of aerosol measurements by different well-calibrated instruments, even with a careful collocation in time and space. The differences might be rather substantial, and need to be better understood and accounted for when merging data from many sensors. The possible causes for these differences come from instrumental bias, different satellite viewing geometries, calibration issues, dynamically changing atmospheric and the surface conditions, and other "regressors", resulting in random and systematic errors in the final aerosol products. In this study, we will concentrate on the subject of removing biases and the systematic errors from MODIS (both Terra and Aqua) aerosol product, using Machine Learning algorithms. While we are assessing our regressors in our system when comparing global aerosol products, the Aerosol Robotic Network of sun-photometers (AERONET) will be used as a baseline for evaluating the MODIS aerosol products (Dark Target for land and ocean, and Deep Blue retrieval algorithms). The results of bias adjustment for MODIS Terra and Aqua are planned to be incorporated into the AeroStat Giovanni as part of the NASA ACCESS funded AeroStat project.

  16. Abraham's discovery of the 'bad mother'. A contribution to the history of the theory of depression.

    PubMed

    May, U

    2001-04-01

    The author shows how, after Freud struggled in vain from the 1890s to develop a theory of depression, Abraham succeeded for the first time in finding an approach to the understanding of depression a few years before the publication of Freud's 'Mourning and melancholia'. It is contained in his study of the painter Giovanni Segantini (1911), which also includes a description, imbued with a new atmospheric quality, of the mother-son relationship that centres on the concept of the 'bad mother'. The author points out that Abraham's 'good/bad' dimension is effectively absent from Freud's published work up to 1911 and is also at variance with his view of the relationship between son and mother. In later contributions, too, Abraham maintained that unconscious hate directed at the mother, who is experienced as 'bad' but longed for as 'good', was a central factor in the aetiology of depression, a view he had to defend vis-à-vis Freud. The author contends that in the Segantini paper Abraham was describing an inner world similar to that evinced by the work of Melanie Klein and significantly different from Freud's. It is characterised by hate, revenge, death wishes and guilt feelings on the one hand and tranquillity and inner peace on the other.

  17. [Whole-body vibration risk among operators in railway engines shunting ].

    PubMed

    Abbate, A; Saffioti, G; Malara, G; Licordari, P; Carrello, S; De Pasquale, D; Giorgianni, C

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the present note is to assess the risk from Whole-body vibration (WBV) in operators employed in the shunting of engines within the railway stations. The study has been conducted in the cockpits of the shunting engines used within the railway station of Villa S. Giovanni (RC). The measures have been taken through accelerometer IHVM 100 Larson-Davis, placed on the seat of each locomotives for a recording time of around 15 minutes. A standard measure has been effected besides, positioning the sensor on the floor of the same locomotives. The measurements indicate that the risk to these workers is negligible because in any case the value is exceeded action daily 0.5 m/s2, having recorded values range from 0.1 to 0.2 m / s2. In conclusion it holds him necessary, to the preventive goals, in respect to how much anticipated from the D.L.gs 187/05 the necessary technical, organizational and formative measures to the containment of the risk.

  18. Using Selection Pressure as an Asset to Develop Reusable, Adaptable Software Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrick, S. W.; Lynnes, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) at NASA has over the years developed and honed a number of reusable architectural components for supporting large-scale data centers with a large customer base. These include a processing system (S4PM) and an archive system (S4PA) based upon a workflow engine called the Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor (S4P); an online data visualization and analysis system (Giovanni); and the radically simple and fast data search tool, Mirador. These subsystems are currently reused internally in a variety of combinations to implement customized data management on behalf of instrument science teams and other science investigators. Some of these subsystems (S4P and S4PM) have also been reused by other data centers for operational science processing. Our experience has been that development and utilization of robust, interoperable, and reusable software systems can actually flourish in environments defined by heterogeneous commodity hardware systems, the emphasis on value-added customer service, and continual cost reduction pressures. The repeated internal reuse that is fostered by such an environment encourages and even forces changes to the software that make it more reusable and adaptable. Allowing and even encouraging such selective pressures to software development has been a key factor in the success of S4P and S4PM, which are now available to the open source community under the NASA Open Source Agreement.

  19. First data on trace elements in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) from southern Italy: Safety issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the concentrations of 10 metals in wild specimens of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) (Linnaeus, 1758) from three sites along the southern Italian coast: Gulf of Catania (CT), the Northern Coast of Messina (ME) and the harbor of Villa San Giovanni (VSG). The species is commonly found in the area and has significant commercial value. Additionally, it is long lived, thus suitable as bioindicator of the environmental monitoring. The potential human health risks due to consumption of Ht have been assessed by estimated average daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of metals, respectively. In particular arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were quantified in the edible tissue of specimens by acid digestion of the samples and ICP-MS determination. The highest concentrations were found in CT sample area for most metals analyzed. Mean values for Pb, Cd and Hg were lower than the maximum levels (MLs) set for bivalve mollusks by Regulation (CE) no. 1881/2006 in all sites, and average intake values below the risk levels for human consumption.

  20. Recent progress in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truhlar, Donald

    2014-03-01

    Ongoing work involves several areas of density functional theory: new methods for computing electronic excitation energies, including a new way to remove spin contamination in the spin-flip Tamm-Dancoff approximation and a configuration-interaction-corrected Tamm-Dancoff Approximation for treating conical intersections; new ways to treat open-shell states, including a reinterpreted broken-symmetry method and multi-configuration Kohn-Sham theory; a new exchange-correlation functional; new tests of density functional theory against databases for electronic transition energies and molecules and solids containing metal atoms; and applications. A selection of results will be presented. I am grateful to the following collaborators for contributions to the ongoing work: Boris Averkiev, Rebecca Carlson, Laura Fernandez, Laura Gagliardi, Chad Hoyer, Francesc Illas, Miho Isegawa, Shaohong Li, Giovanni Li Manni, Sijie Luo, Dongxia Ma, Remi Maurice, Rubén Means-Pañeda, Roberto Peverati, Nora Planas, Prasenjit Seal, Pragya Verma, Bo Wang, Xuefei Xu, Ke R. Yang, Haoyu Yu, Wenjing Zhang, and Jingjing Zheng. Supported in part by the AFOSR and U.S. DOE.

  1. A Semantic Provenance-aware Expert Advisory System in a Web-based Science Data Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, S.; Lynnes, C.; Fox, P. A.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Pan, J.

    2010-12-01

    Web-based science analysis and processing tools allow users to access, analyze, and generate visualizations of data while alleviating users from having to directly manage complex data processing operations. These tools provide value by streamlining the data analysis process, but usually shield users from details of the data processing steps, algorithm assumptions, caveats, etc. Correct interpretation of the final analysis requires user understanding of how data has been generated and processed and what potential biases, anomalies, or errors may have been introduced. By providing services that leverage data lineage provenance and domain-expertise, expert systems can be built to aid the user in understanding data sources, processing, and the suitability for use of products generated by the tools. As an example of such a system, we describe a semantic, provenance-aware, expert-knowledge advisory system applied to an existing web-based Earth science data analysis tool (e.g. Giovanni from NASA/GSFC). First we introduce our integrated semantic data model, which is comprised of provenance, data processing, and science domain ontologies. Then we describe how we developed an initial set of expert rules, to reason over our data model and discover conditions in the processing provenance that could lead to anomalies or errors in the processing results. Finally we will highlight how knowledge from the semantic data model and inferences of the advisory expert ruleset may be presented to the user to assist in user understanding of the suitability of products generated by the analysis tool.

  2. Numerical Studies of Magnetohydrodynamic Activity Resulting from Inductive Transients Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sovinec, Carl R.

    2005-08-29

    This report describes results from numerical studies of transients in magnetically confined plasmas. The work has been performed by University of Wisconsin graduate students James Reynolds and Giovanni Cone and by the Principal Investigator through support from contract DE-FG02-02ER54687, a Junior Faculty in Plasma Science award from the DOE Office of Science. Results from the computations have added significantly to our knowledge of magnetized plasma relaxation in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) and spheromak. In particular, they have distinguished relaxation activity expected in sustained configurations from transient effects that can persist over a significant fraction of the plasma discharge. We have also developed the numerical capability for studying electrostatic current injection in the spherical torus (ST). These configurations are being investigated as plasma confinement schemes in the international effort to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for environmentally benign energy production. Our numerical computations have been performed with the NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) using local computing resources and massively parallel computing hardware at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. Direct comparisons of simulation results for the spheromak with laboratory measurements verify the effectiveness of our numerical approach. The comparisons have been published in refereed journal articles by this group and by collaborators at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (see Section 4). In addition to the technical products, this grant has supported the graduate education of the two participating students for three years.

  3. [The anatomical pathology, an indispensable discipline, and its only Latin American journal].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    As a medical discipline, pathological anatomy was born between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the bases for scientific and technological development, as we know them today, were established. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), one of the greatest clinicians of the 18th century, introduced the concept of correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological anatomic structures. Just like that the pathology has contributed to the characterization of many diseases. Correlation of anatomopathological changes with signs and symptoms of disease is still common practice to date, which constitutes the basis for one of the most relevant pedagogical activities in medicine: the clinical pathological conference. The American Society of Investigative Pathology describes pathology as "the medical specialty that provides the scientific foundation of medical practice". Advances in this discipline have been transmitted mainly in periodical publications as early as the 19th century, and many scientific journals dedicated to communication of relevant findings from all over the world have been created since. The uninterrupted publication of a scientific journal for 51 years, the journal Patología. Revista Latinoamericana, dedicated to one of the most important medical disciplines is, undoubtedly, an achievement worthy of celebration, for being the only one in Spanish in Latin America.

  4. Application of the Sinc method to a dynamic elasto-plastic problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdella, K.; Yu, X.; Kucuk, I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the application of Sinc bases to simulate numerically the dynamic behavior of a one-dimensional elastoplastic problem. The numerical methods that are traditionally employed to solve elastoplastic problems include finite difference, finite element and spectral methods. However, more recently, biorthogonal wavelet bases have been used to study the dynamic response of a uniaxial elasto-plastic rod [Giovanni F. Naldi, Karsten Urban, Paolo Venini, A wavelet-Galerkin method for elastoplasticity problems, Report 181, RWTH Aachen IGPM, and Math. Modelling and Scient. Computing, vol. 10, 2000]. In this paper the Sinc-Galerkin method is used to solve the straight elasto-plastic rod problem. Due to their exponential convergence rates and their need for a relatively fewer nodal points, Sinc based methods can significantly outperform traditional numerical methods [J. Lund, K.L. Bowers, Sinc Methods for Quadrature and Differential Equations, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1992]. However, the potential of Sinc-based methods for solving elastoplasticity problems has not yet been explored. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the possible application of Sinc methods through the numerical investigation of the unsteady one dimensional elastic-plastic rod problem.

  5. Use of computed radiography in the study of an historic painting.

    PubMed

    Reiner, B I; Siegel, E L; French, K J; Dentry, R S; Mazan, W T; Maroney, M J

    1997-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the use of radiography in the investigation of an historic painting and describe the potential benefits of computed radiography compared with conventional screen-film radiography. The subject for the comparison was a 16 x 19-foot oil-on-canvas painting, Scipio Africanus Freeing Massiva, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Radiographs of the painting were obtained by using a portable, industrial radiographic unit and both conventional screen-film and photostimulable phosphor plate cassettes. For this investigation, computed radiography had a number of advantages over screen-film radiography, largely due to its wider dynamic range and its capabilities for enhancing the digital images with image processing tools such as magnification, edge enhancement, colorization, and airbrushing. The ability to electronically combine images from the large painting into a single composite image file was extremely valuable, as this technique was much less cumbersome and resulted in much higher quality composite images than could be achieved with conventional radiography. An additional advantage of computed radiography includes the capability to easily archive and transmit these images in a digital format for subsequent review.

  6. The history of spinal biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sanan, A; Rengachary, S S

    1996-10-01

    The history of spinal biomechanics has its origins in antiquity. The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus, an Egyptian document written in the 17th century BC, described the difference between cervical sprain, fracture, and fracture-dislocation. By the time of Hippocrates (4th century BC), physical means such as traction or local pressure were being used to correct spinal deformities but the treatments were based on only a rudimentary knowledge of spinal biomechanics. The Renaissance produced the first serious attempts at understanding spinal biomechanics. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) accurately described the anatomy of the spine and was perhaps the first to investigate spinal stability. The first comprehensive treatise on biomechanics, De Motu Animalium, was published by Giovanni Borelli in 1680, and it contained the first analysis of weight bearing by the spine. In this regard, Borelli can be considered the "Father of Spinal Biomechanics." By the end of the 19th century, the basic biomechanical concepts of spinal alignment and immobilization were well entrenched as therapies for spinal cord injury. Further anatomic delineation of spinal stability was sparked by the anatomic analyses of judicial hangings by Wood-Jones in 1913. By the 1960s, a two-column model of the spine was proposed by Holdsworth. The modern concept of Denis' three-column model of the spine is supported by more sophisticated testing of cadaver spines in modern biomechanical laboratories. The modern explosion of spinal instrumentation stems from a deeper understanding of the load-bearing structures of the spinal column.

  7. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  8. Mummified saints of the Northern Croatian Littoral.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Skrobonja, Ante; Bosnar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Istrian town of Vodnjan hosts a collection of mummified bodies and relics. Three mummies are completely preserved and belong to Blessed Leon Bembo, St Giovanni Olini, and St Nicolosa Bursa, while the other three are mummified remains of St Barbara, St Sebastian, and St Mary of Egypt. This article gives an overview of the three completely preserved bodies, including their external condition, hagiographic data, statements and hypotheses that need verification by future targeted scientific research. Although local populations attribute divine properties to the remains and treat their continued preservation as a mystery, their origin is probably similar to that of other mummified saints. A scientific study performed on the mummies will probably help to reveal the true origin and type of mummification of the bodies. Additional paleopathological research could also determine the cause of death, if the saints died by natural causes, or attest to any mutilation or sign of torture suffered in life and confirm them as the cause of death. Proper bioarchaeological research could bring useful osteobiographical updates to the existing records about these saints.

  9. The Daniell cell, Ohm's law, and the emergence of the International System of Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40 s and flourished in the following decades but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell, but each telegraphy company had their own resistance standard. In 1862, the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873, they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as 109 emu units of resistance and the volt as 108 emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the Joule). As it was, the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By introducing another unit X (where X could be any of the practical electrical units), Giorgi demonstrated that a self-consistent MKSX system was tenable without the need for multiplying factors. Ultimately, the ampere was selected as the fourth unit. It took nearly 60 years, but in 1960, Giorgi's proposal was incorporated as the core of the newly inaugurated International System of Units (SI). This article surveys the physics, physicists, and events that contributed to those developments.

  10. Mining Tacitus: secrets of empire, nature and art in the reason of state.

    PubMed

    Keller, Vera

    2012-06-01

    A new political practice, the 'reason of state', informed the ends and practices of natural study in the late sixteenth century. Informed by the study of the Roman historian Tacitus, political writers gathered 'secrets of empire' from both history and travel. Following the economic reorientation of 'reason of state' by Giovanni Botero (1544-1617), such secrets came to include bodies of useful particulars concerning nature and art collected by an expanding personnel of intelligencers. A comparison between various writers describing wide-scale collections, such as Botero, Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Jakob Bornitz (1560-1625) and Matthias Bernegger (1582-1640), reveals that seventeenth-century natural intelligencers across Europe not only were analogous to political intelligencers, but also were sometimes one and the same. Those seeking political prudence cast themselves as miners, prying precious particulars from the recesses of history, experience and disparate disciplines, including mathematics, alchemy and natural philosophy. The seventeenth-century practice of combining searches for secrets of empire, nature and art contests a frequent historiographical divide between empirical science and Tacitism or reason of state. It also points to the ways political cunning shaped the management of information for both politics and the study of nature and art.

  11. Accessing Recent Trend of Land Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Romanov, P.

    2011-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important element to measure the state of the terrestrial ecosystems and to study the surface energy budgets. In support of the land cover/land use change related international program MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study), we have collected the global monthly LST measured by MODIS since the beginning of the missions. The MODIS LST time series have ~11 years of data from Terra since 2000 and ~9 years of data from Aqua since 2002, which makes possible to study the recent climate, such as trend and variability. In this study, monthly climatology from two satellite platforms are calculated and compared. The spatial patterns of LST trends are accessed, focusing on the Asian Monsoon region. Furthermore, the MODIS LST trends are compared with the skin temperature trend from the NASA's atmospheric assimilation model, MERRA (MODERN ERA RETROSPECTIVE-ANALYSIS FOR RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS), which has longer data record since 1979. The calculated climatology and anomaly of MODIS LST will be integrated into the online visualization system, Giovanni, at NASA GES DISC for easy access and use by scientists and general public.

  12. Infuence of Averaging Method on the Evaluation of a Coastal Ocean Color Event on the U.S. Northeast Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Uz, Stephanie Schollaert; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2010-01-01

    Application of appropriate spatial averaging techniques is crucial to correct evaluation of ocean color radiometric data, due to the common log-normal or mixed log-normal distribution of these data. Averaging method is particularly crucial for data acquired in coastal regions. The effect of averaging method was markedly demonstrated for a precipitation-driven event on the U.S. Northeast coast in October-November 2005, which resulted in export of high concentrations of riverine colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to New York and New Jersey coastal waters over a period of several days. Use of the arithmetic mean averaging method created an inaccurate representation of the magnitude of this event in SeaWiFS global mapped chl a data, causing it to be visualized as a very large chl a anomaly. The apparent chl a anomaly was enhanced by the known incomplete discrimination of CDOM and phytoplankton chlorophyll in SeaWiFS data; other data sources enable an improved characterization. Analysis using the geometric mean averaging method did not indicate this event to be statistically anomalous. Our results predicate the necessity of providing the geometric mean averaging method for ocean color radiometric data in the Goddard Earth Sciences DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni).

  13. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Associated with Mandibular Fractures at Risk: A Two-Center Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K.; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury in mandibular fractures. This study is based on two databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two departments—Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy. Demographic, anatomic, and etiology variables were considered for each patient and statistically assessed in relation to the neurosensory IAN impairment. Statistically significant associations were found between IAN injury and fracture displacement (p = 0.03), isolated mandibular fractures (p = 0.01), and angle fractures (p = 0.004). A statistically significant association was also found between IAN injury and assaults (p = 0.03). Displaced isolated mandibular angle fractures could be considered at risk for increased incidence of IAN injury. Assaults seem to be the most important etiological factor that is responsible for IAN lesions. PMID:25383147

  14. The opportunity of the 2016 transit of Mercury for measuring the solar diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Castiglioni, Francesco; Cicogna, Domenico; Cardoso, Felipe

    2016-05-01

    The transit of Mercury occurred two times in this century: 2003, May 7 and 2006, November 8. In 2016 there is another opportunity to observe this phenomenon and measure the solar diameter with the method of comparing the ephemerides with the observations. This method has been presented by I. I. Shapiro in 1980, the data of the observed transits (since 1631) have been re-analyzed by Sveshnikov (2002) and an improvement on the observed data, to avoid the confusion given by the black-drop effect, has been presented by C. Sigismondi and collaborators since 2005 by exploiting the idea of measuring the chord drawn by the solar limb with the disk of the transiting planet presented by G. Di Giovanni (2005) on the transit of Venus: the improvement is obtained by extrapolating to zero the analytic chord fitting the observations without the black drop, but in the ingress/egress phases. For the transit of 2006 K. Reardon with IBIS (California) and J. Pasachoff with Mauna Kea (Hawaij) telescopes were ready to get useful data but the weather's conditions were not good, and only the SOHO data (M. Emilio, 2012) contributed to the solar diameter monitoring. A network of European observers (IOTA/ES) and observatories (coronograph of Bialkow, PL 56 cm; IRSOL, Locarno CH - 45 cm Gregorian telescope; carte du ciel, Paris, FR 30 cm, Torre Solare di Monte Mario, Rome 26 cm) are active for the 2016 transit.

  15. Short History of Malaria and Its Eradication in Italy With Short Notes on the Fight Against the Infection in the Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Majori, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    In Italy at the end of 19th Century, malaria cases amounted to 2 million with 15,000–20,000 deaths per year. Malignant tertian malaria was present in Central-Southern areas and in the islands. Early in the 20th Century, the most important act of the Italian Parliament was the approval of laws regulating the production and free distribution of quinine and the promotion of measures aiming at the reduction of the larval breeding places of Anopheline vectors. The contribution from the Italian School of Malariology (Camillo Golgi, Ettore Marchiafava, Angelo Celli, Giovanni Battista Grassi, Amico Bignami, Giuseppe Bastianelli) to the discovery of the transmission’s mechanism of malaria was fundamental in fostering the initiatives of the Parliament of the Italian Kingdom. A program of cooperation for malaria control in Italy, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation started in 1924, with the establishment of the Experimental Station in Rome, transformed in 1934 into the National Institute of Public Health. Alberto Missiroli, Director of the Laboratory of Malariology, conducted laboratory and field research, that with the advent of DDT brought to Italy by the Allies at the end of the World War II, allowed him to plan a national campaign victorious against the secular scourge. PMID:22550561

  16. Plasmodium falciparum immunodetection in bone remains of members of the Renaissance Medici family (Florence, Italy, sixteenth century).

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina; Ferroglio, Ezio; Gino, Sarah; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2010-09-01

    Medical accounts and ancient autopsy reports imply that tertian malarial fevers caused the death of four members of the Medici family of Florence: Eleonora of Toledo (1522-1562), Cardinal Giovanni (1543-1562), don Garzia (1547-1562) and Grand Duke Francesco I (1531-1587). All members of the Medici family hunted in the endemic malarial areas of Tuscany, such as the marshy areas surrounding their villas and along the swampy Maremma and were, therefore, highly exposed to the risk of being infected by Falciparum malaria. To determine if the original death certificates issued by the court physicians were correct, we carried out immunological investigations and then compared the biological results to the historical sources. Bone samples were examined for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich- protein-2 (PfHRP2) and P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) using two different qualitative double-antibody immunoassays. Our findings provide the first modern laboratory evidence of the presence of P. falciparum ancient proteins in the skeletal remains of four members of the Medici family. We confirm the clinical diagnosis of the court physicians, using modern methods. Finally, this study demonstrates that immunodetection can be successfully applied not only to mummified tissues but also to skeletal remains, thus opening new paths of investigation for large archaeological series.

  17. The evolution of the DGR approach to model electron density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicella, S. M.; Leitinger, R.

    The paper describes the evolution of the "profiler" proposed by Di Giovanni and Radicella (1990) to calculate the electron density distribution with height up to the F2 peak based on the Epstein layer introduced originally by Rawer. Such model uses ionospheric characteristics routinely scaled from ionograms or models of such characteristics. Radicella and Zhang (1995) presented an improved version of the profiler able to give the electron density distribution on both the bottom and topside of the ionosphere and the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) by introducing a constant shape factor for the semi-Epstein layer above the F2 peak. This version of the DGR model was adopted by the European COST 238 action as the basis for its regional model of the ionosphere. Further efforts were made to improve the topside part of the profiler by taking into account the contribution of the plasmaspherie electron density. The three separate solutions that have been implemented are described. One of them was adopted by the European COST 251 as basis for its regional ionospheric model. Another one developed partially with European Space Agency (ESA) support has been adopted in the ESA European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System project ionospheric specifications. A modified version of this profiler has been implemented to forecast TEC values over Europe as a joint effort with the CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom and the Geophysical Institute, Sofia, Bulgaria.

  18. Supporting Coral Reef Ecosystem Management Decisions Appropriate to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendee, J. C.; Fletcher, P.; Shein, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    There has been a perception that the myriad of environmental information products derived from satellite and other instrumental sources means ipso facto that there is a direct use for them by environmental managers. Trouble is, as information providers, for the most part we don't really know what decisions managers face daily, nor is it a trivial matter to ascertain the effect of management decisions on the environment, at least in a time frame that facilitates timely maintenance and enhancement of decision support software. To bridge this gap in understanding, we conducted a Needs Assessment (using methodology from the NOAA/Coastal Services Center's Product Design and Evaluation training program) from December, 2011 through May, 2012, in which we queried 15 resource managers in southeast Florida to identify the types of climate data and information products they needed to understand the effects of climate change in their region of purview, and how best these products should be delivered and subsequently enhanced or corrected. Our intent has been to develop a suite of software and information products customized specifically for environmental managers. This report summarizes our success to date, including a report on the development of software for gathering and presenting specific types of climate data, and a narrative about how some U.S. government sponsored efforts, such as Giovanni and TerraVis, as well as non-governmental sponsored efforts such as Marxan, Zonation, SimCLIM, and other off-the-shelf software might be customized for use in specific regions.

  19. Contrasting strike-slip motions on thrust and normal faults: Implications for space-geodetic monitoring of surface deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Andrea; Li, Tao; Maniatis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    emphasizes that understanding fault-parallel slip components and associated surface displacements is essential for inferring regional deformation patterns from space-geodetic and fault-slip data. References: Cheloni, D., N. D'Agostino, E. D'Anastasio, A. Avallone, S. Mantenuto, R. Giuliani, M. Mattone, S. Calcaterra, P. Gambino, D. Dominici, F. Radicioni, G. Fastellini (2010) Coseismic and initial post-seismic slip of the 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, Italy, from GPS measurements: Geophysical Journal International, 181, 1539-1546. Hampel, A., T. Li, G. Maniatis (in press) Contrasting strike-slip motions on thrust and normal faults: Implications for space-geodetic monitoring of surface deformation: Geology. Hsu, Y.-J., S.-B Yu, H.-Y. Chen (2009) Coseismic and postseismic deformation associated with the 2003 Chengkung, Taiwan, earthquake: Geophysical Journal International, 176, 420-430. Jackson, J.A., J. Gagnepain, G. Houseman, G.C.P. King, P. Papadimitriou, C. Soufleris, J. Virieux (1982) Seismicity, normal faulting, and the geomorphological development of the Gulf of Corinth (Greece): The Corinth earthquakes of February and March 1981: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 57, 377-397. Roberts, G.P., I. Koukouvelas (1996) Structural and seismological segmentation of the Gulf of Corinth fault system: Implications for models of fault growth: Annali di Geofisica, 39, 619-646. Serpelloni, E., L. Anderlini, M.E. Belardinelli (2012) Fault geometry, coseismic-slip distribution and Coulomb stress change associated with the 2009 April 6, Mw 6.3, L'Aquila earthquake from inversion of GPS displacements: Geophysical Journal International, 188, 473-489.

  20. Hydrological Scenario Using Tools and Applications Available in enviroGRIDS Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacu, V.; Mihon, D.; Stefanut, T.; Rodila, D.; Cau, P.; Manca, S.; Soru, C.; Gorgan, D.

    2012-04-01

    the other hand, the applications can collaborate at the same architectural levels, which represent the horizontal interoperability. Both the horizontal and vertical interoperability is accomplished by services and by exchanging data. The calibration procedure requires huge computational resources, which are provided by the Grid infrastructure. On the other hand the scenario development through BASHYT requires a flexible way of interaction with the SWAT model in order to easily change the input model. The large user community of SWAT from the enviroGRIDS consortium or outside may greatly benefit from tools and applications related with the calibration process, scenario development and execution from the enviroGRIDS portal. [1]. enviroGRIDS project, http://envirogrids.net/ [2]. Gorgan D., Abbaspour K., Cau P., Bacu V., Mihon D., Giuliani G., Ray N., Lehmann A., Grid Based Data Processing Tools and Applications for Black Sea Catchment Basin. IDAACS 2011 - The 6th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications 15-17 September 2011, Prague. IEEE Computer Press, pp. 223 - 228 (2011). [3]. Soil and Water Assessment Tool, http://www.brc.tamus.edu/swat/index.html [4]. Bacu V., Mihon D., Rodila D., Stefanut T., Gorgan D., Grid Based Architectural Components for SWAT Model Calibration. HPCS 2011 - International Conference on High Performance Computing and Simulation, 4-8 July, Istanbul, Turkey, ISBN 978-1-61284-381-0, doi: 10.1109/HPCSim.2011.5999824, pp. 193-198 (2011). [5]. Manca S., Soru C., Cau P., Meloni G., Fiori M., A multi model and multiscale, GIS oriented Web framework based on the SWAT model to face issues of water and soil resource vulnerability. Presentation at the 5th International SWAT Conference, August 3-7, 2009, http://www.brc.tamus.edu/swat/4thswatconf/docs/rooma/session5/Cau-Bashyt.pdf [6]. Bacu V., Mihon D., Stefanut T., Rodila D., Gorgan D., Cau P., Manca S., Grid Based Services and

  1. Quantum many-body systems with short-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun

    potentials with shallow and/or narrow negative parts. For Fermi gases, in [32], Lieb, Seiringer and Solovej proved the correction on ground energy is 8pi aϱuϱd. Here ϱu (d) are the density of the spin up(down) particles. We extend the lower bound part of the result in [32] to the Hubbard model, i.e., the correction per volume on the ground energy of Fermi gas in Hubbard model is not less than 8pi aϱuϱd, our result completes the discussion in [15] where Giuliani proved the upper bound part. Our discussion can be easily generalized to other short-range interacting Fermi gas systems in Lattice.

  2. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Integration of geological data in the new Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brentini, Maud; Favre, Stéphanie; Rusillon, Elme; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    , such as HARMOS (official Swiss stratigraphic framework; Morard, 2014, Strasser et al., 2016) is essential to evaluate this type of harmonization system. The current work is establishing composite logs and a stratigraphic catalog where clear stratigraphic framework for the GGB is defined. This will provide a better understanding of the subsurface and a general framework for the new State database. The GEothermie 2020 Program has raised the importance of harmonizing and correlating data in order to understand better the GGB subsurface geology. The future database will be based on a clear and accurate geological and stratigraphic framework where relevant data will be integrated. It will offer a valuable tool to the State of Geneva and external users to find data easily, generate correlations, subsurface models and extract information with specific inquiries. The development of this intelligent and interactive data management system is pivotal to offer an easier and smart management of subsurface resources to the State. REFERENCES Clerc, N., Rusillon, E., Cardello, L., Moscariello, A. and Renard, P., 2016. Structural Modeling of the Geneva Basin for Geothermal Ressource Assessment. Abstract, 14th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, Geneva, Switzerland. Favre, S., Brentini, M., Giuliani, G. and Lehmann, A., 2017. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Architecture of the new Information System. Abstract, EGU General Assembly 2017, Vienna, Austria. Morard, A., 2014. Correlations beyond HARMOS: how, where, why? Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2014. Platform Geosciences, Swiss Academy of Science, SCNAT. Conference paper. Moscariello A. 2016: Geothermal exploration in SW Switzerland, Proceeding of the European Geotermal Congress, Strasbourg 19-23 september 2016, 9 pp. Rusillon, E., Clerc, N., Makhloufi, Y., Brentini and M., Moscariello, A., 2017. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Structural and reservoir quality

  3. Integrated Geophysycal Prospecting in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Sites in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Muci, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the results of some integrated geophysical prospecting (magnetometric and GPR) are exposed. This work has been performed in collaboration between archaeologists and geophysicists within the research project "History and Global Archaeology of the Rural Landascapes in Italy, between Late Antiquity and Medieval period. Integrated systems of sources, methodologies, and technologies for a sustainable development", financed by the Italian Ministry for Instruction, University and Research MIUR. In particular, the archaeological sites of Badia and San Giovanni in Malcantone, both in the Apulia Region (eastern-southern Italy) have been prospect. The sites have been identified on the basis of available documents, archaeological surveys and testimonies. In particular, we know that in Badia [1] it was probable the presence of an ancient roman villa of the late ancient period (strongly damaged by the subsequent ploughing activities). Whereas in San Giovanni there is still, today, a small chapel (deconsecrated) that was likely to be part of a previous larger church (probably a basilica of the early Christian period) restricted in the subsequent centuries (probably in more phases). The Saracen raids of the XVI centuries made the site ruined and abandoned. In both sites integrated prospecting have been performed [2-6] with a the integration of archaeological, magnetometer and a GPR data have provided some interesting results, allowing to overcome the difficulties relative to an extensive GPR prospecting, that could not be performed because of the intrinsic superficial roughness and/or the intensive ploughing activities. The prospecting activities, in particular, have added elements that seem to confirm the main archaeological hypothesis that motivate their performing, as it will be show at the conference. References [1] M. T, Giannotta, G. Leucci, R. Persico, M. Leo Imperiale, The archaeological site of Badia in terra d'Otranto: contribution of the

  4. Diachronic 3d Reconstruction for Lost Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.; Russo, M.

    2011-09-01

    Cultural Heritage artifacts can often be underestimated for their hidden presence in the landscape. Such problem is particularly large in countries like Italy, where the massive amount of "famous" artifacts tends to neglect other presences unless properly exposed, or when the remains are dramatically damaged leaving very few interpretation clues to the visitor. In such cases a virtual presentation of the Cultural Heritage site can be of great help, specially for explaining the evolution of its status, giving sometimes sense to few spare stones. The definition of these digital representations deal with two crucial aspects: on the one hand the possibility of 3D surveying the relics in order to have an accurate geometrical image of the current status of the artifact; on the other hand the presence of historical sources both in form of written text or images, that once properly matched with the current geometrical data, may help to recreate digitally a set of 3D models representing visually the various historical phases (diachronic model), up to the current one. The core of this article is the definition of an integrated methodology that starts from an high-resolution digital survey of the remains of an ancient building and develops a coherent virtual reconstruction from different historical sources, suggesting a scalable method suitable to be re-used for generating a 4D (geometry + time) model of the artifact. This approach has been experimented on the "Basilica di San Giovanni in Conca" in Milan, a very significant example for its complex historic evolution that combines evident historic values with an invisible presence inside the city.

  5. Atmospheric Trace Gases, Aerosols, and Cloud Data from the EOS Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. P.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Tamminen, J.; Bhartia, P.; Veefkind, P. J.; van den Oord, B.; Joiner, J.; Fleig, A.; Johnson, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) along with the other three instruments MLS, HIRDLS and TES is flown (July 2004) on the Aura satellite. OMI is a nadir imaging sensor which measures ultraviolet and visible solar and earth-atmosphere radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm, and a spatial resolution of 13x24 km2 (http://www.knmi.nl/omi). OMI is the primary instrument on Aura for tracking the expected recovery of the ozone layer, the sources of aerosol and its transport over oceans and continents, and trace gases that effect air quality. The primary data product from OMI is total column ozone. The other major products are tropospheric ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and aerosol optical depth (four of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's six criteria pollutants), formaldehyde, bromine monoxide, chlorine dioxide, cloud fraction and height, and surface erythemal UV-B irradiances. After preliminary validation (based on limited in-situ observations), some of these products (version 2.0) are released to the public and are available from Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC (http://acdisc.gsfc.nasa.gov/). This presentation will provide an overview of the OMI data products and its applications, along with the software and web based on-line tool (OMI Giovanni) that have been developed for the subsetting, manipulation and analysis of these data. Details of the data access and data mining tools will be provided in another presentation (see J. Johnson et al. at this AGU session).

  6. European team gauges a gamma-ray star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    Italian astrophysicists have pushed the Hubble Space Telescope to the limit of its powers in finding the distance of Geminga, a pointlike object 500 light-years from the Earth. It is the prototype of a novel kind of star, a radio-silent neutron star, which may be much more common in the Universe than previously supposed. Geminga is so weak in visible light that Hubble had to stare at the spot for more than an hour to register it adequately. The object is nevertheless one of the brightest sources of gamma-rays in the sky, and its output of this very energetic form of radiation can now be accurately ganged. Neutron stars, first discovered as radio pulsars in 1967, are fantastic creations of exploding stars, just one step short of a black hole. They are heavier than the Sun yet only about twenty kilometres wide. Made of compressed nuclear matter, they have gravity and magnetic fields many billions of times stronger than on the Earth. With the first direct measurement of the distance of a radio-silent neutron star, astrophysicists can assess Geminga's power and speed of motion. The astronomical task was like judging the width of a one- franc piece in Paris, seen from the distance of Sicily. Geminga's low brightness greatly aggravated the difficulties. Patrizia Caraveo and her colleagues at the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan arranged for Hubble's wide-field camera (WFPC2) to make its prolonged observations of Geminga three times. Their findings will be published in Astrophysical Journal Letters on 20 April 1996. Caraveo's co-authors are Giovanni Bignami and Roberto Mignani of Milan, and Laurence Taff of Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. The Italians took advantage of the European Space Agency's collaboration with NASA in the Hubble mission, which gives European astronomers privileged access to the Space Telescope. Shifts of millionths of a degree The three sightings of Geminga, made at intervals of six months, revealed small shifts in the position of the faint

  7. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The presentation describes data management of NASA remote sensing data for Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). Many types of ground and integrative (e.g., satellite, GIs) data will be needed and many models must be applied, adapted or developed for properly understanding the functioning of Northern Eurasia cold and diverse regional system. Mechanisms for obtaining the requisite data sets and models and sharing them among the participating scientists are essential. The proposed project targets integration of remote sensing data from AVHRR, MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US- satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEPNCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  8. Lessons Learned from a Decade of Serving Data to Students and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Martin, A. M.; Riebeek, H.; Jackson, R.

    2015-12-01

    NASA holds petabytes of Earth science data from a fleet of satellites going back decades. While these data can be invaluable for use in STEM education and communication (E/C), the simple fact that the archive is public is not enough. The key to successful use is to provide technological tools in strategic combination with best practices to meet the needs of various audiences. Students and teachers need access points that are specifically tailored to meet the technology resources in the classroom; citizen scientists need to feel a connection to NASA, easy-to-use technological interfaces, and are motivated by contributing to real research activities; the general public needs short, focused, easily digested tidbits. NASA's Earth science E/C teams have developed strategies combining audience knowledge with new technical capabilities through programs like MY NASA DATA, S'COOL, Earth Observatory, Giovanni, climate.gov, etc. The capability to offer a range of resources targeted to specific audience needs has advanced along several fronts over the last decade through use of the following key strategies: Regularly publishing articles, fact sheets and image captions written with greater detail than media releases to connect basic science concepts with current NASA research. Providing for differing levels of engagement, with basic, intermediate and advanced data access tools as well as lesson plans for grades K-2 through high school. Facilitating the important scientific process of asking questions once students are actively engaged though exploration and manipulation of current Earth data delivered through desktop and mobile apps.. Providing curated data sets that students can more easily interpret. Assessing users' needs through ongoing formative evaluation. Using Analytics to make data-driven decisions about technologies and approaches. We will survey the range of approaches to enabling data use for STEM E/C and will share some of the key lessons learned.

  9. Psychological well-being and posttraumatic growth in caregivers of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Claudia; Romito, Francesca; Viscanti, Giovanna; Turaccio, Marina; Lorusso, Vito; Mattioli, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although research has shown that many cancer patients report positive life changes following cancer diagnosis, there are few data in the literature related to PTG in caregivers of cancer patients. However, the few studies available have shown that this kind of positive changes can also be experienced by family members. The aims of this study were to explore PTG in caregivers of cancer patients and to investigate correlations between the Posttraumatic growth, psychological status and QoL of caregivers and those of patients, taking into account also clinical and socio-demographic aspects. Methods: We enrolled 60 patient/caregiver pairs in the Department of Medical Oncology of the National Research Center “Giovanni Paolo II” in Bari. Both patients and caregivers were assessed using the following scales: Posttraumatic growth Inventory (PTGI); Hospital anxiety and depression scale; Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36); ECOG Performance Status. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected. Results: Caregivers showed significantly higher scores than patients in the dimension of “personal strength.” Furthermore, we found a significantly close association between anxiety and depression of caregivers with those of patients. Younger caregivers were better than older ones in terms of physical activity, vitality, mental health, and social activities. Although the degree of relationship with the patient has no significant effect on the dependent variables of the study, it was found that caregivers with a degree of kinship more distant to the patient have less physical pain than the closest relatives. Conclusion: Results of the present study show that caregivers of cancer patients may experience post-traumatic growth as the result of their caregiver role. It would be interesting to investigate in future research which factor may mediate the presence of post-traumatic growth. PMID:25477853

  10. Astronomy in the Age of Leonardo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, B. L.

    1997-12-01

    In the 1450s, when Leonardo da Vinci was born, horoscopes were still based primarily on the 13th-century tables developed in the court of Alfonso el Sabio of Spain. By the 15th century European astronomers were computing revised forms of the tables. In Italy, for example, Giovanni Bianchini of Ferrara completed his Tabulae astronomicae in the 1440s. It was finally published posthumously in Venice in 1495. By the 1480s Domenico Maria Novara, a professor of astronomy in Bologna, was publishing annual prognostications of eclipses, conjunctions, and other celestial phenomena. Against this background of traditional astronomy in Italy, two Florentines recorded observations of the sun and moon, comets, and meteorology. Paolo dal Pozzi Toscanelli flourished in the first half of the 15th century and Leonardo da Vinci in the last half. Their observations of celestial phenomena were not primarily for astronomical purposes; they were spinoffs of other pursuits such as medicine, astrology, optics, engineering, and studies of light and shadow. As a physician and cartographer, Toscanelli practiced astrology, studied omens, observed comets and plotted their paths on homemade maps. He also was associated with the construction of a gnomon at the top of the Duomo to observe the summer solstice. It was this project that may have brought him into contact with the young artisan, Leonardo da Vinci. As a painter, Leonardo's approach to science and engineering was to observe, sketch and analyze. His interest in light and shadow led him to notice how the earth, moon and planets all reflect sunlight. His extant manuscripts have geometric sketches for eclipses and for the phenomenon known as "old moon in new moon's arms." Unfortunately, because neither Toscanelli nor Leonardo published their observations, they made no impact on the history of astronomical thought or observation. Their contemporaries did not know or write about their work. Astronomers in the 16th century did not know about

  11. Moon-Struck: Artists Rediscover Nature And Observe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    We discuss rare early depictions of the Moon by artists who actually observed Earth's nearest neighbor rather than relying on stylized formulas. The earliest, from the 14th and 15th centuries, reveal that revolutionary advances in both pre-telescopic astronomy and naturalistic painting could go hand-in-hand. This link suggests that when painters observed the world, their definition of world could also include the heavens and the Moon. Many of the artists we discuss - e.g., Pietro Lorenzetti, Giotto, and Jan Van Eyck - actually studied the Moon, incorporating their studies into several works. We also consider the star map on the dome over the altar in the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo, Florence (c. 1442), whose likely advisor was Toscanelli. In addition, we examine representations by artists who painted for Popes Julius II and Leo X - Raphael and Sebastiano del Piombo, both of whom were influenced by individuals at the papal court, such as the astronomer, painter, and cartographer Johann (Giovanni) Ruysch and Leonardo da Vinci. We also discuss Leonardo's pre-telescopic notes and lunar drawings as they impacted on art and science in Florence, where Galileo would study perspective and chiaroscuro. Galileo's representations of the Moon (engraved in his Sidereus Nuncius, 1610) are noted, together with those by Harriot and Galileo's friend, the painter Cigoli. During the 17th century, the Moon's features were telescopically mapped by astronomers with repercussions in art, e.g., paintings by Donati Creti and Raimondo Manzini as well as Adam Elsheimer. Ending with a consideration of the 19th-century artists/astronomers John Russell and John Brett and early lunar photography, we demonstrate that artistic and scientific visual acuity belonged to the burgeoning empiricism of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries that eventually yielded modern observational astronomy.

  12. Some historical crossroads between astronomy and visual neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlucchi, G.

    The histories of astronomy and visual neuroscience share some important events. Observation of the sky provided early basic information about visual acuity and sensitivity to light and their variations at different retinal locations. Some of the early tests of visual functions were inspired by astronomical knowledge existing since antiquity and possibly since human prehistory. After science became a hallmark of human civilization, astronomy played a crucial part in the discovery of the laws of nature. At the turn of the 19th century, astronomers discovered interindividual variability in detecting the time of stellar transit and tried to measure the so-called personal equation, a supposedly inherent individual bias in making observations, judgements and measurements. Convinced that the reliability of scientific observations depended on the reliability of the observer, they were the first scientists to realize that studying man and human psychophysiology was essential for achieving accuracy and objectivity in astronomy and other sciences alike. There is general consensus that the science of experimental psychology grew out of astronomy and physiology in connection with the development of the reaction time method and the so-called mental chronometry. The crucial role of the observer in astronomical observations appears to have been neglected by astronomers in the second half of the 19th century after Giovanni Schiaparelli described ``canals" on the surface of the planet Mars. Percival Lowell and others thought that these canals had been constructed by a Martian intelligent population in order to distribute water from the polar regions to the equatorial deserts on the planet. Since it has been ascertained that the Mars canals seen by Schiaparelli do not exist, some speculations are offered from a neuroscientific viewpoint as to why he and others were mistaken in their observations of Mars.

  13. Utilizing the NASA Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education Resource for Elementary Pre-service Teachers in a Technology Integration Education Course.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, E. M.; Moore, T.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.

    2014-12-01

    The preservice teachers enrolled in the EDUC 203 Introduction to Computer Instructional Technology course, primarily for elementary-level had created climate change educational lessons based upon their use of the NASA Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE). NASA climate education datasets and tools were introduced to faculty of Minority Serving Institutions through a grant from the NASA Innovations in Climate Education program. These lessons were developed to study various ocean processes involving phytoplankton's chlorophyll production over time for specific geographic areas using the Giovanni NASA software tool. The pre-service teachers had designed the climate change content that will assist K-4 learners to identify and predict phytoplankton sources attributed to sea surface temperatures, nutrient levels, sunlight, and atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with annual chlorophyll production. From the EDUC 203 course content, the preservice teachers applied the three phases of the technology integration planning (TIP) model in developing their lessons. The Zunal website (http://www.zunal.com) served as a hypermedia tool for online instructional delivery in presenting the climate change content, the NASA climate datasets, and the visualization tools used for the production of elementary learning units. A rubric was developed to assess students' development of their webquests to meet the overall learning objectives and specific climate education objectives. Accompanying each webquest is a rubric with a defined table of criteria, for a teacher to assess students completing each of the required tasks for each lesson. Two primary challenges of technology integration for elementary pre-service teachers were 1) motivating pre-service teachers to be interested in climate education and 2) aligning elementary learning objectives with the Next Generation science standards of climate education that are non-existent in the Common Core State

  14. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The presentation describes data management of NASA remote sensing data for Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). Many types of ground and integrative (e.g., satellite, GIs) data will be needed and many models must be applied, adapted or developed for properly understanding the functioning of Northern Eurasia cold and diverse regional system. Mechanisms for obtaining the requisite data sets and models and sharing them among the participating scientists are essential. The proposed project targets integration of remote sensing data from AVHRR, MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US- satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEPNCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  15. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data and Services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Vollmer, Bruce; Teng, Bill; Jasinski, Michael; Mocko, David; Loeser, Carlee; Kempler, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The National Climate Assessment-Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) is an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, and is one of NASAs contributions to the NCA of the United States. The NCA-LDAS has undergone extensive development, including multi-variate assimilation of remotely-sensed water states and anomalies as well as evaluation and verification studies, led by the Goddard Space Flight Centers Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL). The resulting NCA-LDAS data have recently been released to the general public and include those from the Noah land-surface model (LSM) version 3.3 (Noah-3.3) and the Catchment LSM version Fortuna-2.5 (CLSM-F2.5). Standard LSM output variables including soil moistures temperatures, surface fluxes, snow cover depth, groundwater, and runoff are provided, as well as streamflow using a river routing system. The NCA-LDAS data are archived at and distributed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The data can be accessed via HTTP, OPeNDAP, Mirador search and download, and NASA Earth data Search. To further facilitate access and use, the NCA-LDAS data are integrated into the NASA Giovanni, for quick visualization and analysis, and into the Data Rods system, for retrieval of time series of long time periods. The temporal and spatial resolutions of the NCA-LDAS data are, respectively, daily-averages and 0.125x0.125 degree, covering North America (25N 53N; 125W 67W) and the period January 1979 to December 2015. The data files are in self-describing, machine-independent, CF-compliant netCDF-4 format.

  16. Information Technology Infusion Case Study: Integrating Google Earth into the A-Train Data Depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. M.; Kempler, S. J.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Chen, A.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the NASA funded project, ‘Utilizing 3 Dimensional Data Views to Access Data and Discover Relationships Between Multiple Heterogeneous Data Sets Along the A-Train Tracks’ (Kempler, PI, NASA ROSES NNH07ZDA001N ACCESS Proposal) was to employ the latest 3 dimensional visualization technology to explore and provide direct data access to heterogeneous A-Train datasets, ‘operationally’, along, and on either side of the A-Train tracks. Google Earth (tm) provides the foundation for organizing, visualizing, publishing, and synergizing Earth science data in virtual 3 dimensions, for this project. Successful integration of Google Earth (tm) into the A-Train Data Depot (ATDD), resulted in: a) visualizing two-, three- and four-dimensional Earth science data on Google Earth (tm); b) visualizing and synergizing analyzed results derived from the Giovanni online analysis system; and c) visualizing results derived from other standard web services (e.g. OGC WMS). These implementations produce KMZ files that can be opened and visualized via a Google Earth (tm). Integrating A-Train data on Google Earth (tm) through ATDD (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/atdd) affords users the ability to more efficiently discover, access, manipulate and analyze A-Train atmospheric data. The integration of Google Earth (tm) into the ATDD came with anticipated and unanticipated challenges, and solutions, insulated far beneath the easily obtainable ATDD Google Earth (tm) images and data downloads. In addition, some components of integration went rather smoothly. This presentation will discuss the challenges and non-challenges encountered and innovative solutions implemented to enable displaying NASA vertical and horizontal Earth science data within Google Earth (tm) technology. Findings discussed, include: - Interoperability between ATDD and Google Earth (tm) - Required enhancements to existing systems - Reuse of infused technology - Making the total greater than the some of the parts It is

  17. "Bundle Data" Approach at GES DISC Targeting Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Shen, S.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Severe natural phenomena such as hurricane, volcano, blizzard, flood and drought have the potential to cause immeasurable property damages, great socioeconomic impact, and tragic loss of human life. From searching to assessing the "Big", i.e., massive and heterogeneous scientific data (particularly, satellite and model products) in order to investigate those natural hazards, it has, however, become a daunting task for Earth scientists and applications researchers, especially during recent decades. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has served "Big" Earth science data, and the pertinent valuable information and services to the aforementioned users of diverse communities for years. In order to help and guide our users to online readily (i.e., with a minimum effort) acquire their requested data from our enormous resource at GES DISC for studying their targeted hazard/event, we have thus initiated a "Bundle Data" approach in 2014, first targeting the hurricane event/topic. We have recently worked on new topics such as volcano and blizzard. The "bundle data" of a specific hazard/event is basically a sophisticated integrated data package consisting of a series of proper datasets containing a group of relevant ("knowledge-based") data variables readily accessible to users via a system-prearranged table linking those data variables to the proper datasets (URLs). This online approach has been developed by utilizing a few existing data services such as Mirador as search engine; Giovanni for visualization; and OPeNDAP for data access, etc. The online "Data Cookbook" site at GES DISC is the current host for the "bundle data". We are now also planning on developing an "Automated Virtual Collection Framework" that shall eventually accommodate the "bundle data", as well as further improve our management in "Big Data".

  18. The legacy of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774): a 4-generation dynasty of anatomists.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Rashid M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Goebbel, Luminita; Pait, T Glenn; Shields, Christopher B

    2010-04-01

    Few families have had an impact on medicine to equal that of the Meckel family. Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder is of special interest to the neurosciences, given that his dissertation on the fifth cranial nerve included the first description of the arachnoid space investing the trigeminal nerve into the middle fossa. He was interested in neuroanatomy, along with botany and pathology of the inguinal hernia and the lymphatic system. His mentors included the eminent Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) and August Buddaeus (1695-1753), and he extended his own influence on the work of Giovanni Morgagni and Alexander Monro II. He spent the latter part of his life in Berlin as professor of anatomy, botany, and obstetrics. His son, Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803), was one of the founders of the current collection of anatomic specimens at the University of Halle and provided important groundwork for the practice of obstetrics. Meckel the Elder's grandson, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), was a more prolific investigator and founder of the science of teratology. Many anatomic structures, such as Meckel's diverticulum, bear his name, and he vastly expanded the university's anatomic collection. August Albrecht Meckel (1789-1829), Meckel the Younger's brother, practiced legal medicine and investigated avian anatomy but died prematurely from tuberculosis. August's son, Johann Heinrich Meckel (1821-1856), took the instructor's position in pathologic anatomy at the University of Berlin that his great-grandfather had held at the Charité. After his untimely death from pulmonary disease, his position was filled by Rudolf Virchow. The history of this family is discussed in detail.

  19. Function and structure in early modern muscular mechanics. Four episodes and a dialogue between Stensen and Borelli on two chief muscular systems.

    PubMed

    Kardel, T

    1997-01-01

    The dispute on the movement of skeletal muscles in 1667 between Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, who maintained the ancient movement caused by inflation theory, and Niels Stensen (Nicolaus Steno), who proposed the first recorded theory of fibre contraction, had far reaching implications for understanding the relation between muscle morphology and function. A dialogue is reconstructed from citations from the two authors' main works. They had a similar dispute on the movement of the heart along the lines of the debate in the 1630s between William Harvey favouring contraction and René Descartes favouring swelling. Evidence is provided for the delayed general acceptance of fibre contraction in both heart and skeletal muscles. It is shown that the inflation interpretation of muscular mechanics elaborated by Borelli, Johann Bernoulli, his son Daniel, and by others, was maintained from ancient authors and Descartes in part due to a conceptual block resulting from the mechanical philosophy that denied any force of attraction in nature. The alternative theory, that of fibre contraction, was thought of as self-motion, which violated an accepted mechanical principle and therefore was rejected. In the mid-18th century, Albrecht von Haller recorded no microscopic structures in support of inflation. He adopted the view that contraction in fibres of muscles is generated through an 'irritability'. Research on this entity has taken place ever since with a clear preponderance of studies on single fibre properties and subcellular structures. Haller did not, however, refer to the original contribution of Stensen on fibre contraction. Haller even rejected Stensen's functional architecture of skeletal muscle. This structure, now called the unipennate, or semipennate, actuator, was overlooked and had to await confirmation by anatomical rediscovery and pragmatic demonstration through successful applications in computer models of muscular contraction in the 1980s.

  20. Data Access Services that Make Remote Sensing Data Easier to Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the processes that NASA uses to make the remote sensing data easy to use over the World Wide Web. This work involves much research into data formats, geolocation structures and quality indicators, often to be followed by coding a preprocessing program. Only then are the data usable within the analysis tool of choice. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center is deploying a variety of data access services that are designed to dramatically shorten the time consumed in the data preparation step. On-the-fly conversion to the standard network Common Data Form (netCDF) format with Climate-Forecast (CF) conventions imposes a standard coordinate system framework that makes data instantly readable through several tools, such as the Integrated Data Viewer, Gridded Analysis and Display System, Panoply and Ferret. A similar benefit is achieved by serving data through the Open Source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), which also provides subsetting. The Data Quality Screening Service goes a step further in filtering out data points based on quality control flags, based on science team recommendations or user-specified criteria. Further still is the Giovanni online analysis system which goes beyond handling formatting and quality to provide visualization and basic statistics of the data. This general approach of automating the preparation steps has the important added benefit of enabling use of the data by non-human users (i.e., computer programs), which often make sub-optimal use of the available data due to the need to hard-code data preparation on the client side.

  1. Approach to Managing MeaSURES Data at the GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vollmer, Bruce; Kempler, Steven J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2009-01-01

    A major need stated by the NASA Earth science research strategy is to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. (NASA Solicitation for Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) 2006-2010) Selected projects create long term records of a given parameter, called Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), based on mature algorithms that bring together continuous multi-sensor data. ESDRs, associated algorithms, vetted by the appropriate community, are archived at a NASA affiliated data center for archive, stewardship, and distribution. See http://measures-projects.gsfc.nasa.gov/ for more details. This presentation describes the NASA GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) approach to managing the MEaSUREs ESDR datasets assigned to GES DISC. (Energy/water cycle related and atmospheric composition ESDRs) GES DISC will utilize its experience to integrate existing and proven reusable data management components to accommodate the new ESDRs. Components include a data archive system (S4PA), a data discovery and access system (Mirador), and various web services for data access. In addition, if determined to be useful to the user community, the Giovanni data exploration tool will be made available to ESDRs. The GES DISC data integration methodology to be used for the MEaSUREs datasets is presented. The goals of this presentation are to share an approach to ESDR integration, and initiate discussions amongst the data centers, data managers and data providers for the purpose of gaining efficiencies in data management for MEaSUREs projects.

  2. TRMM Precipitation Application Examples Using Data Services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.; Greene, M.

    2012-01-01

    Data services to support precipitation applications are important for maximizing the NASA TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and the future GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) mission's societal benefits. TRMM Application examples using data services at the NASA GES DISC, including samples from users around the world will be presented in this poster. Precipitation applications often require near-real-time support. The GES DISC provides such support through: 1) Providing near-real-time precipitation products through TOVAS; 2) Maps of current conditions for monitoring precipitation and its anomaly around the world; 3) A user friendly tool (TOVAS) to analyze and visualize near-real-time and historical precipitation products; and 4) The GES DISC Hurricane Portal that provides near-real-time monitoring services for the Atlantic basin. Since the launch of TRMM, the GES DISC has developed data services to support precipitation applications around the world. In addition to the near-real-time services, other services include: 1) User friendly TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS; URL: http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/); 2) Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/), a simplified interface for searching, browsing, and ordering Earth science data at GES DISC. Mirador is designed to be fast and easy to learn; 3) Data via OPeNDAP (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/services/opendap/). The OPeNDAP provides remote access to individual variables within datasets in a form usable by many tools, such as IDV, McIDAS-V, Panoply, Ferret and GrADS; and 4) The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/services/wxs_ogc.shtml). The WMS is an interface that allows the use of data and enables clients to build customized maps with data coming from a different network.

  3. Remote Sensing of Atmospheric and Ionospheric Signals Prior to the Mw 8.3 Illapel Earthquake, Chile 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri Daneshvar, Mohammad Reza; Freund, Friedemann T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, a number of atmospheric and some ionospheric anomalies are analyzed, which were recorded prior to the Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake of September 16, 2015. This very large earthquake occurred in Central Chile, close to the coast, as the result of thrust faulting on the interface between the Nazca Plate and South American continent. Using remotely sensed data extracted from NASA/Giovanni, NOAA/NCEP, and NOAA/NGDC, atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies were observed that co-registered 35-40 and 25-30 days prior to the main shock, respectively. With reference to long-term time series over the epicentral area, significant atmospheric anomalies were recorded for cloud cover, geopotential height, precipitation rates, surface air pressure, omega, stream function, and wind vectors—all in the time window of August 5-10, 2015, 35-40 days prior to the main shock. Anomalous TEC maps were recorded for the same time period. Satellite images indicate the formation of an unusual cyclone, presumably triggered by air turbulences and abnormal atmospheric conditions over the epicentral area, including strong vertical winds. Data from the Jicamarca radio observatory in Peru, more than 2000 km to the North, reveal anomalous ionospheric variations on August 15-20, 2015 with respect to international reference ionosphere thickness parameters and the altitude of the F layer. The observed anomalies are consistent with processes that occur at the ground-to-air interface due to the stress activation of peroxy defects in the hypocentral volume. The flow of positive hole charge carriers to the Earth surface expected to have led to massive air ionization, generating at first primarily positive airborne ions, then negative air ions plus ozone. Understanding the sequence of processes inside the Earth's crust and at the ground-to-air interface provides information not previously available about the causal and temporal linkages between the various pre-earthquake phenomena and the

  4. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  5. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello

    2012-08-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.

  6. Annals of morphology. Atavisms: phylogenetic Lazarus?

    PubMed

    Zanni, Ginevra; Opitz, John M

    2013-11-01

    Dedication: with highest respect and affection to Prof. Giovanni Neri on the eve of his official administrative retirement as Chair of the Institute of Medical Genetics of the Università Cattolica of Rome for leadership in medical genetics and medical science and friendship for decades. The concept "atavism," reversion, throwback, Rückschlag remains an epistemological challenge in biology; unwise or implausible over-interpretation of a given structure as such has led some to almost total skepticism as to its existence. Originating in botany in the 18th century it became applied to zoology (and humans) with increasing frequency over the last two centuries such that the very concept became widely discredited. Presently, atavisms have acquired a new life and reconsideration given certain reasonable criteria, including: Homology of structure of the postulated atavism to that of ancestral fossils or collateral species with plausible soft tissue reconstructions taking into account relationships of parts, obvious sites of origin and insertion of muscles, vascular channels, etc. Most parsimonious, plausible phylogenetic assumptions. Evident rudimentary or vestigial anatomical state in prior generations or in morphogenesis of a given organism. Developmental instability in prior generations, that is, some closely related species facultatively with or without the trait. Genetic identity or phylogenomic similarity inferred in ancestors and corroborated in more or less closely related species. Fluctuating asymmetry may be the basis for the striking evolutionary diversification and common atavisms in limbs; however, strong selection and developmental constraints would make atavisms in, for example, cardiac or CNS development less likely. Thus, purported atavisms must be examined critically in light of the above criteria. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Boccioni's coin.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Sergio; Teja, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The Ardito was a fighter as well as a competitor whose status as a 'warrior' was based on courage and superior physical performance: a superior man. In addition, his exuberant conduct, both on and off the battlefield, introduced a significant new sub-culture into post-war Italian society, contributing to the attachment of notable value to virility and Mussolini's cult of the 'strong man'. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impact of this 'arditismo' (spirit of daring) on the early post-war period in particular, including the different 'male image' of the Italian citizen, and to study the sense of virility in the transition from the liberal, easy-going 'Little Italy' of Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928) to a manly, combative, and ambitious nation. Together with some of the vitalistic tendencies in the Futurist movement, the main characteristics and mentality of the ex-Ardito (former Special Forces) would thus be significantly influential in the ideology of nascent Fascism. Indeed, the 'arditismo' influence, together with the article and social movement known as Futurism would constitute the two most highly structured foundations of early Fascist culture, bringing a political and social revolution necessary to create a 'new man'. It was as if the Arditi and the new method of military training had transferred their experience from the military into civilian life, contributing to a renewal of the image of the Italian male in the collective imagination. Indirectly, the image of women would also begin to absorb and adapt to new sports models imported from abroad, which would create for the Italian Ardito, a grudgingly tolerated rival. The main sources for this paper are the archives of the Historical Office of the Army, advertising and manuals from the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century, placards and graphic publicity from books and journals or private collections, and exhibition catalogues.

  8. Tools and Data Services from the GSFC Earth Sciences DAAC for Aura Science Data Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, S.; Johnson, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Ahmad, S.; Pham, L.; Eng, E.; Berrick, S.; Teng, W.; Vollmer, B.

    2004-01-01

    In these times of rapidly increasing amounts of archived data, tools and data services that manipulate data and uncover nuggets of information that potentially lead to scientific discovery are becoming more and more essential. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has made great strides in facilitating science and applications research by, in consultation with its users, developing innovative tools and data services. That is, as data users become more sophisticated in their research and more savvy with information extraction methodologies, the GES DAAC has been responsive to this evolution. This presentation addresses the tools and data services available and under study at the GES DAAC, applied to the Earth sciences atmospheric data. Now, with the data from NASA's latest Atmospheric Chemistry mission, Aura, being readied for public release, GES DAAC tools, proven successful for past atmospheric science missions such as MODIS, AIRS, TRMM, TOMS, and UARS, provide an excellent basis for similar tools updated for the data from the Aura instruments. GES DAAC resident Aura data sets are from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). Data obtained by these instruments afford researchers the opportunity to acquire accurate and continuous visualization and analysis, customized for Aura data, will facilitate the use and increase the usefulness of the new data. The Aura data, together with other heritage data at the GES DAAC, can potentially provide a long time series of data. GES DAAC tools will be discussed, as well as the GES DAAC Near Archive Data Mining (NADM) environment, the GIOVANNI on-line analysis tool, and rich data search and order services. Information can be found at: http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/upperatm/aura/. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Performance comparison of GES DISC data as a service between server-based system and cloud system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, L.; Chen, A.; Winter, E.; Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC), in cooperation with the Goddard Information Technology & Communications Directorate, demonstrates and evaluates provision of "Data-as-a-Service" in a cloud environment using the OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) protocols. The demonstration requires porting the OPeNDAP software to the cloud platform along with a representative set of data and then exercising the server using several clients. The evaluation examines two aspects of using open source software in the cloud to serve large volumes of satellite data for public access and simple subsetting: a) Ease of porting and operating OPeNDAP in the Goddard Cloud and Amazon Elastic Cloud Computing (EC2) and Simple Storage Service (S3) environments, including evaluation of the time needed to setup one instance; b) Access performance, e.g. data access stability and speed of the cloud environments as compared to existing GES DISC capabilities. Four kinds of satellite data products with different data formats (HDF4, HDF5) were selected as the test data: Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the Aqua satellite, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). For each product, 25 granules were used to test access stability and speed. The Giovanni (GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) and GrADS (Grid and Analysis System) data services were also deployed to the cloud platforms to compare the data analysis performance between existing systems and cloud systems. We also evaluated the challenges to migrating these services to the cloud architectures examined.

  10. UUI: Unified User Interface to Support Effective and Intuitive Data Discovery, Dissemination, and Analysis at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, M.; Petrenko, M.; Bryant, K.; Johnson, J. E.; Ritrivi, A. J.; Shen, S.; Vollmer, B.; Pham, L.

    2015-12-01

    Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been providing access to scientific data sets since 1990s. Beginning as one of the first Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) archive centers, GES DISC has evolved to offer a wide range of science-enabling services. With a growing understanding of needs and goals of its science users, GES DISC continues to improve and expand on its broad set of data discovery and access tools, subsetting services, and visualization tools. Nonetheless, the multitude of the available tools, a partial overlap of functionality, and independent and uncoupled interfaces employed by these tools often leave the end users confused as of what tools or services are the most appropriate for a task at hand. As a result, some the services remain underutilized or largely unknown to the users, significantly reducing the availability of the data and leading to a great loss of scientific productivity. In order to improve the accessibility of GES DISC tools and services, we have designed and implemented UUI, the Unified User Interface. UUI seeks to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key services available at GES DISC, including subsetting (Simple Subset Wizard), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other services. In this poster, we will discuss the main lessons, obstacles, and insights encountered while designing the UUI experience. We will also present the architecture and technology behind UUI, including NodeJS, Angular, and Mongo DB, as well as speculate on the future of the tool at GES DISC as well as in a broader context of the Space Science Informatics.

  11. Galileo as a Patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiene, G.; Basso, C.

    2011-06-01

    The clinical history of Galileo, as it turns out from hundred letters he wrote and received, is so informative as to make it possible to delineate the natural history of his body. It is well known that he suffered from recurrent episodes of fever (terzana) since 1606, when he was in Florence as guest of Cristina Lorena for education of the future granduke Cosimo II. By reading signs and symptoms he reported several times, it is clear that he had various diseases (rheumatism, haemorroids, kidney stones, arrhythmias). When in December 1632, at the age of 68, Galileo delayed his journey to Rome claiming sickness, Pope Urban VIII committed 3 physicians to examine him. They reported that Galileo was affected by "pulsus intermittens" (most probably atrial fibrillation), large hernia at risk of rupture, dizziness, diffuse pain, hypochondriacal melancholy as a consequence of the "declining age". It was in February 1637 that he started to have eye disease with lacrimation and progressive loss of sight, which in 10 months led to loose at first the right eye and then also the left one. According to the consultation, asked at distance to Giovanni Trullio on February 1538 in Rome, the diagnosis of blindness due to bilateral uveitis came out. Keeping with the current medicine, the illnes might have been explained in the setting of an immune rheumatic disease (Reiter's syndrome). The cause of Galileo's death, which occurred on 8 January 1642 at the age of 78, is not known since it was not submitted to autopsy. We can speculate cardiac death due to pneumonia complicating congestive heart failure.

  12. Unified User Interface to Support Effective and Intuitive Data Discovery, Dissemination, and Analysis at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Hegde, M.; Bryant, K.; Johnson, J. E.; Ritrivi, A.; Shen, S.; Volmer, B.; Pham, L. B.

    2015-01-01

    Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been providing access to scientific data sets since 1990s. Beginning as one of the first Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) archive centers, GES DISC has evolved to offer a wide range of science-enabling services. With a growing understanding of needs and goals of its science users, GES DISC continues to improve and expand on its broad set of data discovery and access tools, sub-setting services, and visualization tools. Nonetheless, the multitude of the available tools, a partial overlap of functionality, and independent and uncoupled interfaces employed by these tools often leave the end users confused as of what tools or services are the most appropriate for a task at hand. As a result, some the services remain underutilized or largely unknown to the users, significantly reducing the availability of the data and leading to a great loss of scientific productivity. In order to improve the accessibility of GES DISC tools and services, we have designed and implemented UUI, the Unified User Interface. UUI seeks to provide a simple, unified, and intuitive one-stop shop experience for the key services available at GES DISC, including sub-setting (Simple Subset Wizard), granule file search (Mirador), plotting (Giovanni), and other services. In this poster, we will discuss the main lessons, obstacles, and insights encountered while designing the UUI experience. We will also present the architecture and technology behind UUI, including NodeJS, Angular, and Mongo DB, as well as speculate on the future of the tool at GES DISC as well as in a broader context of the Space Science Informatics.

  13. The Florence Baptistery: 3-D Survey as a Knowledge Tool for Historical and Structural Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Fiorini, L.; Conti, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Baptistery of San Giovanni is one of the most important pieces of architecture in Florence. It is an octagonal building, encrusted with marble both internally and externally (including the pyramidal roof) and covered inside by a magnificent dome with sparkling gold mosaics. During Dante's time, it appeared much older than the other monuments, so its origins were considered as hailing straight from Florence's most remote and mythical history. Even though we have much more data now, scholars still disagree over the interpretations on the origin and construction sequence of the monument. Survey has always been considered a main instrument for understanding historical architecture, mostly from constructional and structural points of view. During the last century, the Baptistery was surveyed using both traditional techniques and the most up-to-date instruments available at the time, such as topography, close-range photogrammetry and laser scanning. So, a review of those early applications, even if partial or isolated, can significantly attest to the state of the art and evolution of survey techniques. During recent years, the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore promoted new research and a wide range of diagnostic investigations aimed at acquiring greater knowledge of the monument in anticipation of the cleaning and restoration of the outer wall surfaces during 2015. Among this research, GeCo Lab carried out a new systematic and complete laser scanner survey of the whole Baptistery, acquiring data for the more inaccessible parts that were given little attention during other survey campaigns. First of all, the paper analyses recent contributions given by instrumental surveys in advancing knowledge of the building, with references to the cutting-edge techniques and measurement tools used at the time. Then, it describes the new survey campaign, illustrating the approach followed in the planning, data acquisition and data elaboration phases; finally, it gives examples of some

  14. Emerico Luna, an anatomist and a fervid intellectual.

    PubMed

    Gerbino, Aldo

    2004-01-01

    On 11 March 2004, the Section of Human Anatomy of Palermo was dedicated and registered to the anatomist Emerico Luna (Palermo 1882-1963) with a ceremony (moderated by Giovanni Zummo) with the participation of institutional personalities and Italian anatomists. Luna, who was an acute morphologist and a scholar of Riccardo Versari (1865-1943), was the continuator of Francesco Todaro's Anatomical School and occupied the Chair at the University of Palermo that had belonged to Levi since 1919. His wide histo-anatomical culture culminates in the collaboration to the "Trattato di Neurologia", the richly composed treatise by Bertelli (1931). Then his studies and his teaching reached to the Anatomia Clinica Regionale (1951). In charge of Histology and Normal Human Anatomy in 1920-21, he became a full professor and a master till 1952. He had so many students: among them Ignazio Fàzzari (1889-1986) who had the chair in the University of Florence, Alberto Monroy who had the charge of Compared Anatomy in the University of Palermo and Arcangelo Pasqualino from Marineo. Luna was co-founder and leader of the "Italian Society of Anatomy". He developed an intense research above all on the nervous system, the connective tissues, the arteries of the brain, and the experimental embryology, developing the radiological and clinical anatomy. He also dedicated himself to literature writing in 1953, among the scientific and literary works, a booklet titled Alla Fiera Delle Fantasie where he discuss the fantasy in a style that recall the literary evasion of the last period of crepuscolarism.

  15. General linear response formula for non integrable systems obeying the Vlasov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patelli, Aurelio; Ruffo, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Long-range interacting N-particle systems get trapped into long-living out-of-equilibrium stationary states called quasi-stationary states (QSS). We study here the response to a small external perturbation when such systems are settled into a QSS. In the N → ∞ limit the system is described by the Vlasov equation and QSS are mapped into stable stationary solutions of such equation. We consider this problem in the context of a model that has recently attracted considerable attention, the Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model. For such a model, stationary inhomogeneous and homogeneous states determine an integrable dynamics in the mean-field effective potential and an action-angle transformation allows one to derive an exact linear response formula. However, such a result would be of limited interest if restricted to the integrable case. In this paper, we show how to derive a general linear response formula which does not use integrability as a requirement. The presence of conservation laws (mass, energy, momentum, etc.) and of further Casimir invariants can be imposed a posteriori. We perform an analysis of the infinite time asymptotics of the response formula for a specific observable, the magnetization in the HMF model, as a result of the application of an external magnetic field, for two stationary stable distributions: the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium distribution and the Fermi-Dirac one. When compared with numerical simulations the predictions of the theory are very good away from the transition energy from inhomogeneous to homogeneous states. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  16. Customer-oriented Data Formats and Services for Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products at the NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H.; Kato, H.; Rodell, M.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) has been generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products, simulated by four land surface models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current GLDAS data hosted at HDISC include a set of 1.0° data products, covering 1979 to the present, from the four models and a 0.25° data product, covering 2000 to the present, from the Noah model. In addition to the basic anonymous ftp data downloading, users can avail themselves of several advanced data search and downloading services, such as Mirador and OPeNDAP. Mirador is a Google-based search tool that provides keywords searching, on-the-fly spatial and parameter subsetting of selected data. OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) enables remote OPeNDAP clients to access OPeNDAP served data regardless of local storage format. Additional data services to be available in the near future from HDISC include (1) on-the-fly converter of GLDAS to NetCDF and binary data formats; (2) temporal aggregation of GLDAS files; and (3) Giovanni, an online visualization and analysis tool that provides a simple way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of data without having to download the data.

  17. Some historical reflections on the neural control of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Clarac, François

    2008-01-01

    Thought on the neural control of locomotion dates back to antiquity. In this article, however, the focus is more recent by starting with some major 17th century concepts, which were developed by René Descartes, a French philosopher; Thomas Willis, an English anatomist; and Giovanni Borelli, an Italian physiologist and physicist. Each relied on his personal expertise to theorize on the organization and control of movements. The 18th and early 19th centuries saw work on both the central and peripheral control of movement: the former most notably by Johann Unzer, Marie Jean-Pierre Flourens and Julien-Jean-César Legallois, and the latter by Unzer, Jirí Procháska and many others. Next in the 19th century, neurologists used human locomotion as a precise tool for characterizing motor pathologies: e.g., Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne's description of locomotor ataxia. Jean-Martin Charcot considered motor control to be organized at two levels of the central nervous system: the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord. Maurice Philippson's defined the dog's step cycle and considered that locomotion used both central and reflex mechanisms. Charles Sherrington explained that locomotor control was usually thought to consist of a succession of peripheral reflexes (e.g., the stepping reflexes). Thomas Graham Brown's then contemporary evidence for the spinal origin of locomotor rhythmicity languished in obscurity until the early 1960s. By then the stage was set for an international assault on the neural control of locomotion, which featured research conducted on both invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. These contributions have progressively became more integrated and interactive, with current work emphasizing that locomotor control involves a seamless integration between central locomotor networks and peripheral feedback.

  18. Characterize Aerosols from MODIS/MISR/OMI/MERRA-2: Dynamic Image Browse Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. C.; Yang, W.; Shen, S.; Zhao, P.; Albayrak, A.; Johnson, J. E.; Kempler, S. J.; Pham, L.

    2016-12-01

    Among the known atmospheric constituents, aerosols still represent the greatest uncertainty in climate research. To understand the uncertainty is to bring altogether of observational (in-situ and remote sensing) and modeling datasets and inter-compare them synergistically for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if these earth science data (satellite and modeling) are well utilized and interpreted. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite-borne sensors routinely measure aerosols. There is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) have developed multiple MAPSS (Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System) applications as a part of Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Interface) data visualization and analysis tool since 2007. The MAPSS database provides spatio-temporal statistics for multiple spatial spaceborne Level 2 aerosol products (MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, MISR, POLDER, OMI, CALIOP, SeaWiFS Deep Blue, and VIIRS) sampled over AERONET ground stations. In this presentation, I will demonstrate a new visualization service (NASA Level 2 Data Quality Visualization, DQViz) supporting various visualization and data accessing capabilities from satellite Level 2 (MODIS/MISR/OMI) and long term assimilated aerosols from NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2 displaying at their own native physical-retrieved spatial resolution. Functionality will include selecting data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement), defining

  19. Observation of phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton groups from space using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy on SCIAMACHY data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracher, Astrid; Dinter, Tilman; Burrows, John P.; Vountas, Marco; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Peeken, Ilka

    In order to understand the marine phytoplankton's role in the global marine ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles it is necessary to derive global information on the distribution of major functional phytoplankton types (PFT) in the world oceans. In our study we use instead of the common ocean color sensors such as CZCS, SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS, with rather low spectral resolution, the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) to study the retrieval of phytoplankton distribution and absorption with the satellite sensor Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). SCIAMACHY measures back scattered solar radiation in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral region with a high spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm). We used in-situ measured phytoplankton absorption spectra from two different RV Polarstern expeditions where different phytoplankton groups were representing or dominating the phytoplankton composition in order to identify these characteristic absorption spectra in SCIAMACHY data in the range of 430 to 500 nm and also to identify absorption from cyanobacterial photosynthetic pigment phycoerythrin. Our results show clearly these absorptions in the SCIAMACHY data. The conversion of these differential absorptions by including the information of the light penetration depth (according to Vountas et al., Ocean Science, 2007) globally distributed pigment concentrations for these characteristic phytoplankton groups for two monthly periods (Feb-March 2004, Oct-Nov 2005 and Oct-Nov 2007) are derived. The satellite retrieved information on cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp. and Prochlorococcus sp.) and diatoms distribution matches well with the concentration measured from collocated water samples with HPLC technique and also to global model analysis with the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM from http://reason.gsfc.nasa.gov/OPS/Giovanni/) according to Gregg and Casey 2006 and Gregg 2006. Results are of great importance for global modelling of

  20. Bundle Data Approach at GES DISC Targeting Natural Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Severe natural phenomena such as hurricane, volcano, blizzard, flood and drought have the potential to cause immeasurable property damages, great socioeconomic impact, and tragic loss of human life. From searching to assessing the Big, i.e., massive and heterogeneous scientific data (particularly, satellite and model products) in order to investigate those natural hazards, it has, however, become a daunting task for Earth scientists and applications researchers, especially during recent decades. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has served Big Earth science data, and the pertinent valuable information and services to the aforementioned users of diverse communities for years. In order to help and guide our users to online readily (i.e., with a minimum effort) acquire their requested data from our enormous resource at GES DISC for studying their targeted hazard event, we have thus initiated a Bundle Data approach in 2014, first targeting the hurricane event topic. We have recently worked on new topics such as volcano and blizzard. The bundle data of a specific hazard event is basically a sophisticated integrated data package consisting of a series of proper datasets containing a group of relevant (knowledge--based) data variables readily accessible to users via a system-prearranged table linking those data variables to the proper datasets (URLs). This online approach has been developed by utilizing a few existing data services such as Mirador as search engine; Giovanni for visualization; and OPeNDAP for data access, etc. The online Data Cookbook site at GES DISC is the current host for the bundle data. We are now also planning on developing an Automated Virtual Collection Framework that shall eventually accommodate the bundle data, as well as further improve our management in Big Data.

  1. [Suicidal ideation and completed suicide in The Decameron].

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry

    2014-01-01

    To extend our understanding of suicidal ideation and completed suicide via examination of a medieval Italian text-in particular, examination of the role of social and environmental triggers in such events. Previous studies have successfully examined the texts of ancient Greco-Roman, Old Norse, and Finnish civilizations to better understand the circumstances associated with suicidal ideation and completed suicide. Those texts included depictions of suicide by people without any apparent mental disorder in response to painful social/environmental circumstances. The Decameron, a collection of 100 short stories written by Giovanni Boccaccio in 1349-51, was examined in detail. The setting of The Decameron is during the Black Death and concerns a group of 10 people that leave plague-ridden Florence for a holiday in the countryside. On each of the 10 days of their trip, each individual tells a story, which in total form the 100 stories of Boccaccio's work. For the present study, all mentions of suicidal ideation and completed suicide were listed and arranged with appropriate headings. In total, 9 accounts of suicidal ideation and 4 accounts of completed suicide were identified, all of which were in response to social stressors, particularly romantic problems. Suicidal ideation and completed suicide in response to social stressors was a feature of The Decameron and it is feasible that this may have been a feature of medieval Italian culture. This would be in agreement with the findings of other studies that suggest that although commonly occurring in response to mental disorder, suicide can occur independently of such disorder as a result of a predicament in which an individual finds him/herself.

  2. Validation therapy (VT) in nursing home: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tondi, L; Ribani, L; Bottazzi, M; Viscomi, G; Vulcano, V

    2007-01-01

    VT is a method for communicating with elderly people with dementia. It has been applied since 2001 at the "Istituto Giovanni XXIII" in Bologna, a public trust, housing over 500 not self-sufficient elderly people. Around 75% of these subjects suffer from cognitive impairment, associated to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in over 35%. To assess the effectiveness of VT, we carried out a study involving 50 subjects divided in two groups, of cases and controls, made up by 27 and 23 patients, respectively. In both groups neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) and the Bedford Alzheimer nursing severity scale (BANSS) were used before the start and after the end of the study; the case group underwent both individual and group VT. The results show a marked decrease of the average NPI symptom score in the case group (from 22.0 to 9.5) vs. a rise in the control group (from 21.7 to 24.1). Agitation, apathy, irritability and nighttime behaviors were the most improved NPI items among the subjects who underwent the VT. In these patients also the NPI distress score turned out reduced, vs. a small increase in the control group. In the case group an improvement occurred with BANSS too, even if much slighter changes were registered vs. the control group. Although the small number of subjects enlisted does not allow to draw firm inferences, the study suggests that VT is able to reduce the severity and frequency of BPSD, thus improving the relationship with and the management of patients having diagnosis of dementia without any side effects.

  3. INTEGRAL high-energy monitoring of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, G.; Bazzano, A.; Martínez Núñez, S.; Stratta, G.; Tarana, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.

    2007-09-01

    KS 1741-293, discovered in 1989 by the X-ray camera TTM on the Kvant module of the Mir space station and identified as an X-ray burster, had not been detected in the hard X-ray band until the advent of the INTEGRAL observatory. Moreover, this source has recently been the object of scientific discussion, being also associated with a nearby extended radio source that in principle could be the supernova remnant produced by the accretion-induced collapse in the binary system. Our long-term monitoring with INTEGRAL, covering the period from 2003 February to 2005 May, confirms that KS 1741-293 is transient in the soft and hard X-ray bands. When the source is active, from a simultaneous JEM-X and IBIS data analysis, we provide a wide-band spectrum from 5 to 100 keV, which can be fitted by a two-component model: a multiple blackbody for the soft emission and a Comptonized or a cut-off power-law model for the hard component. Finally, by the detection of two X-ray bursters with JEM-X, we confirm the bursting nature of KS 1741-293, including this source in the class of hard-tailed X-ray bursters. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), the Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA. E-mail: giovanni.decesare@iasf-roma.inaf.it ‡ INAF personnel resident at ASDC.

  4. Metrics: A Synoptic Analysis of User Data and Service Usage at GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C. L.; Kempler, S. J.; Alcott, G. T.; Lei, G. D.; Vadnais, E.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) has provided massive Earth science data, information, and services to diverse research communities and general publics for decades. How to genuinely maintain our overall data and service quality, as well as continually improve serving our users (such as research scientists, applications scientists, general publics, and students) with better data services have always been our primary goal. A synoptic metric analysis involving the data and service usages by our diverse user communities at GES DISC that should help us better understand our overall data services, as well as further improve them has therefore been performed. The results of this metrics analysis, along with its purpose, which will be presented at the meeting can be genuinely categorized into the "Five Ws and One H" concept, seemingly cliché, yet by all means pertinent and useful. * What: Metrics involving our archived and served data products addressing useful info's such as "volume of data in archive"; "number of granules in archive"; "volume of data distributed"; "number of granules distributed"; "number of distinct users"; and "relative data usage". a) Remote Sensing: GPM/TRMM, AIRS, OCO-2, etc. b) Modeling: MERRA-2/MERRA, NLDAS, GLDAS, etc. c) Projects: MEaSUREs-2006, MEaSUREs-2012, etc. * Why: The goal: a synoptic (overall) metric analysis should help us better understand and learn from our overall user and data services so that we may further improve them accordingly. * When: Metrics for data during the past decade or longer. Trends or/and usages for specific seasons (e.g., summer or holidays) may also be studied. * Where: Maps showing users from global, continents, countries, and specific area of interests. * Who: Users from various domains/backgrounds: .gov, .edu, .com, .org, anonymous, countries. * How: Data download or service usage via HTTP, FTP, Giovanni, etc.

  5. Italian contributions to Turkish paediatrics during the Ottoman Empire.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok, Murat; Cataldi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The Ottoman Empire maintained close relations with the neighbouring Italian city states in the 16th and 17th century. Yacub Pasha (1425-1481), personal physician of Mehmed II the Conqueror, was an Italian Jew who advanced to the title of pasha and vizier. Domenico Hierosolimitano (ca. 1552-1622), the third physician to Sultan Murad III, was a Jerusalemite rabbi. His book is an important source about everyday life and medical practice in Istanbul at the time. Nuh bin Abd al-Mennab (1627-1707), also of Italian stock, was the Chief Physician of the Ottoman Empire, who translated a pharmacopoeia into Turkish. In the same century, two Italians, Israel Conegliano (Conian) and Tobia Cohen became private physicians to leading Ottoman pashas and the Grand Vizier. A. Vuccino (1829-1893) and Antoine Calleja Pasha (1806-1893) taught at the Istanbul Medical School. Italy was a favoured country for medical education during the early period of Ottoman westernisation. Sanizade Mehmet Ataullah Efendi (1771-1826) translated the first medical book printed in the Ottoman Empire from Italian into Turkish. Mustafa Behcet Efendi (1774-1833), chief physician to the Sultan and the founder of the first western medical school in Turkey, translated several medical books from Italian into Turkish. The first printed pharmacopeia in the Ottoman Empire was also originally Italian In the 19th century, Edouard Ottoni and his son Giuseppe Ottoni were well-known military pharmacists, both under the name of Faik Pasha. Probably the most influential physician of Italian origin was Giovanni Battista Violi (1849-1928), who had practiced paediatrics in Turkey for more than fifty years. Violi was the founder of the first children's hospital, the first vaccine institute, and the first paediatric journal in the Ottoman Empire.

  6. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data and services at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Jasinski, M. F.; Mocko, D. M.; Kempler, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment-Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) is an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, and is one of NASA's contributions to the NCA of the United States. The NCA-LDAS has undergone extensive development, including multi-variate assimilation of remotely-sensed water states and anomalies as well as evaluation and verification studies, led by the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL). The resulting NCA-LDAS data have recently been released to the general public and include those from the Noah land-surface model (LSM) version 3.3 (Noah-3.3) and the Catchment LSM version Fortuna-2.5 (CLSM-F2.5). Standard LSM output variables including soil moistures/temperatures, surface fluxes, snow cover/depth, groundwater, and runoff are provided, as well as streamflow using a river routing system. The NCA-LDAS data are archived at and distributed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The data can be accessed via HTTP, OPeNDAP, Mirador search and download, and NASA Earthdata Search. To further facilitate access and use, the NCA-LDAS data are integrated into the NASA Giovanni, for quick visualization and analysis, and into the Data Rods system, for retrieval of time series of long time periods. The temporal and spatial resolutions of the NCA-LDAS data are, respectively, daily-averages and 0.125x0.125 degree, covering North America (25N 53N; 125W 67W) and the period January 1979 to December 2015. The data files are in self-describing, machine-independent, CF-compliant netCDF-4 format. This presentation summarizes the major characteristics of the NCA-LDAS data and describes the data services and access methods.

  7. Aerosol Regional Dimming, Droughts, El Niño and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    South eastern Australia endured an exceptional long term drought during the last decade with the River Murray, the major waterway in the area, experiencing inflows at record low levels in 2006-07 which were more than 40% below the previous low. As both the IPCC and the USA Climate Change Science Program suggest that aerosols can affect the large-scale atmospheric circulation and hydrologic cycle I examine the relationship between aerosols, droughts, El Niño events and other regional aspects of climate change. The global aerosol coverage is highly heterogeneous and variable at monthly, annual and decadal scales. I identify eight continental scale, aerosol plumes that occur each year and show that the aerosol optical depth (“AOD”) and aerosol index (“AI”) of the South East Asian Plume (“SEAP”) and the volume of aerosols ejected by volcanoes (tephra) in south east Asia correlate with: drought in Australia; ENSO events; and the Indian Ocean Dipole (“IOD”) Mode Index. I conclude that aerosol plumes over south eastern Asia are the cause of drought in Australia, ENSO and IOD events and propose a new component of surface radiative forcing, Regional Dimming, which, by altering the surface radiation budget, forces the regional Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and Hadley Cells into abnormal seasonal positions and, in the case of the SEAP, suppresses the Walker Cell circulation. These effects alter the regional atmospheric circulation systems and hydrologic cycle thereby causing drought and climate change. NASA Giovanni AOD Oct 2006 showing the South East Asian Plume (SEAP) over Sumatra and Borneo and the East Asian Plume with remnants of five other plumes in S America, Africa, South Asia and the Middle East Correlations Interannual Differences Sept Oct Nov AOD/AI Central SEAP Area and Australian Drought Characterstics AOD-Aerosol Optical Depth; AI Aerosol Index. Significance <0.01 unless stated in []. [nil] no significance.

  8. Crafting glass vessels: current research on the ancient glass collections in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Alexander; McCarthy, Blythe; Bowe, Stacy

    Our knowledge of glass production in ancient Egypt has been well augmented by the publication of recently excavated materials and glass workshops, but also by more recent materials analysis, and experiments of modern glass-makers attempting to reconstruct the production process of thin-walled coreformed glass vessels. From the mounting of a prefabricated core to the final glass product our understanding of this profession has much improved. The small but well preserved glass collection of the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. is a valid tool for examining and studying the technology and production of ancient Egyptian core formed glass vessels. Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919) acquired most of the material from Giovanni Dattari in Cairo in 1909. Previously the glass had received only limited discussion, suggesting that most of these vessels were produced in the 18th Dynasty in the 15th and 14th centuries BCE, while others date from the Hellenistic period and later. In an ongoing project we conducted computed radiography in conjunction with qualitative x-ray fluorescence analysis on a selected group of vessels to understand further aspects of the ancient production process. This paper will provide an overview of our recent research and present our data-gathering process and preliminary results. How can the examinations of core formed glass vessels in the Freer Gallery contribute to our understanding of ancient glass production and technology? By focusing on new ways of looking at old assumptions using the Freer Gallery glass collections, we hope to increase understanding of the challenges of the production process of core-vessel technology as represented by these vessels.

  9. Tools and Data Services from the GSFC Earth Sciences DAAC for Aura Science Data Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, S.; Johnson, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Ahmad, S.; Pham, L.; Eng, E.; Berrick, S.; Teng, W.; Vollmer, B.

    2004-01-01

    In these times of rapidly increasing amounts of archived data, tools and data services that manipulate data and uncover nuggets of information that potentially lead to scientific discovery are becoming more and more essential. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has made great strides in facilitating science and applications research by, in consultation with its users, developing innovative tools and data services. That is, as data users become more sophisticated in their research and more savvy with information extraction methodologies, the GES DAAC has been responsive to this evolution. This presentation addresses the tools and data services available and under study at the GES DAAC, applied to the Earth sciences atmospheric data. Now, with the data from NASA's latest Atmospheric Chemistry mission, Aura, being readied for public release, GES DAAC tools, proven successful for past atmospheric science missions such as MODIS, AIRS, TRMM, TOMS, and UARS, provide an excellent basis for similar tools updated for the data from the Aura instruments. GES DAAC resident Aura data sets are from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). Data obtained by these instruments afford researchers the opportunity to acquire accurate and continuous visualization and analysis, customized for Aura data, will facilitate the use and increase the usefulness of the new data. The Aura data, together with other heritage data at the GES DAAC, can potentially provide a long time series of data. GES DAAC tools will be discussed, as well as the GES DAAC Near Archive Data Mining (NADM) environment, the GIOVANNI on-line analysis tool, and rich data search and order services. Information can be found at: http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/upperatm/aura/. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Syphilis and Scherlievo in Dalmatia.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Franjo; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the emergence of syphilis in Dalmatia, the coastal part of Croatia, at the very end of the 15(th) and the beginning of the 16(th) century, its presence up to the 20(th) century, making reference to the most important physicians that tried to cure the new disease. The archives of Dalmatian towns, their statutes, some literary works, travel writers, physician books, and articles by historians of medicine contain data on syphilis in Dalmatia. Syphilis was first observed in Zadar (1500), Trogir (1501) and Dubrovnik (1502). Among the first physicians who treated patients in Dubrovnik were Mariano Santo and Amatus Lusitanus. The latter was the first to make prosthesis for the palate defect to cure tertiary syphilis lesions. According to the statutes of Dalmatia towns, each had one or more paid physicians and pharmacists. The Ottoman travel writer Evlija Celebi gave an account of syphilis in Dalmatia in the 17(th) century. At the end of the 18(th) century and during the 19(th) century, endemic syphilis known as morbus de Scherlievo and morbus Brenensis appeared in Dalmatia. Because of the numerous cases observed in the region, new hospitals were opened in Dalmatian towns and the patients were hospitalized. Among the physicians who were engaged in the fight against syphilis in the 19th century, mention should be made of Giovanni Battista Cambieri, Nikola Selak and Božo Peričić. They all treated the affected patients and described syphilis and 'Scherlievo disease'in Croatian as well as in other languages. Syphilis was present in Dalmatia towns during the 15(th)-20(th) century, remaining a challenge and arousing the interest of current dermatovenereologists as well as other specialists.

  11. Data Access Services that Make Remote Sensing Data Easier to Use (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2010-12-01

    The tall pole for exploiting remote sensing data is often preparing data for use. Typically, this involves much research into data formats, geolocation structures and quality indicators, often to be followed by coding a preprocessing program. Only then are the data usable within the analysis tool of choice. The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center is deploying a variety of data access services that are designed to dramatically shorten the time consumed in the data preparation step. On-the-fly conversion to the standard network Common Data Form (netCDF) format with Climate-Forecast (CF) conventions imposes a standard coordinate system framework that makes data instantly readable through several tools, such as the Integrated Data Viewer, Gridded Analysis and Display System, Panoply and Ferret. A similar benefit is achieved by serving data through the Open Source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), which also provides subsetting. The Data Quality Screening Service goes a step further in filtering out data points based on quality control flags, based on science team recommendations or user-specified criteria. Further still is the Giovanni online analysis system which goes beyond handling formatting and quality to provide visualization and basic statistics of the data. This general approach of automating the preparation steps has the important added benefit of enabling use of the data by non-human users (i.e., computer programs), which often make sub-optimal use of the available data due to the need to hard-code data preparation on the client side.

  12. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  13. Corrosion of calcite crystals by metal-rich mud in caves: Study case in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Forti, Paolo; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Rull, Fernando; Sanz, Aurelio

    2013-09-01

    Unusual orange ochre crusts were recently discovered in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (San Giovanni Mine, SW Sardinia). These speleothems appear covering the cave walls on hydrothermal calcite spars as well as filling widened spaces between calcite crystals. Planar crusts display geometrical forms following the boundaries between the calcite spars. EDX-SEM microanalyses reveal that these deposits comprise substances of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and O that occur as solid inclusions in pits on the surface of altered calcite microcrystals. Micro-Raman spectroscopy analyses suggest the presence of calcite and ferromanganese oxides with a low degree of crystallinity. The genetic mechanism proposed for these speleothems describes an initial stage of precipitation of euhedral calcite crystals from warm water under subaqueous conditions. The crystal surfaces were eroded and corroded by colder aggressive water that smoothed the surfaces of the crystals and slightly widened the spaces between calcite spars. Metal-rich mud coming from alteration of bedrock and ore bodies filled the cave, also penetrating along the spaces between the calcite spars. When the water table fell below the cave level, part of the sediments was eroded but the cave walls remained covered with metal-rich clayey sediments. Under aerobic conditions, metals - which were reduced in previous stages - oxidized to oxides, lowering the pH and thus the crystal surface and the calcite planes between the spars were corroded. Subsequently, the polymetallic crusts became harder through evaporation within the cave, "fossilizing" the products of this process within the planes between spars. Finally, the exposed calcite surfaces continued to be altered due to CO2 diffusion into condensation water, while the boundaries between crystals were preserved against corrosion thanks to the crust coating. As a result, the external crystal edges protrude by several centimeters from the current cave wall, while the crystal surfaces are

  14. Addressing and Presenting Quality of Satellite Data via Web-Based Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, C.; Ahmad, S.; Fox, P.; Zednik, S.; West, P.

    2011-01-01

    With the recent attention to climate change and proliferation of remote-sensing data utilization, climate model and various environmental monitoring and protection applications have begun to increasingly rely on satellite measurements. Research application users seek good quality satellite data, with uncertainties and biases provided for each data point. However, different communities address remote sensing quality issues rather inconsistently and differently. We describe our attempt to systematically characterize, capture, and provision quality and uncertainty information as it applies to the NASA MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth data product. In particular, we note the semantic differences in quality/bias/uncertainty at the pixel, granule, product, and record levels. We outline various factors contributing to uncertainty or error budget; errors. Web-based science analysis and processing tools allow users to access, analyze, and generate visualizations of data while alleviating users from having directly managing complex data processing operations. These tools provide value by streamlining the data analysis process, but usually shield users from details of the data processing steps, algorithm assumptions, caveats, etc. Correct interpretation of the final analysis requires user understanding of how data has been generated and processed and what potential biases, anomalies, or errors may have been introduced. By providing services that leverage data lineage provenance and domain-expertise, expert systems can be built to aid the user in understanding data sources, processing, and the suitability for use of products generated by the tools. We describe our experiences developing a semantic, provenance-aware, expert-knowledge advisory system applied to NASA Giovanni web-based Earth science data analysis tool as part of the ESTO AIST-funded Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor project.

  15. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory: Building partnerships and developing tools to support local Tribal community response to climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. D.; Wee, B.; Kuslikis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Response of Tribal nations and Tribal communities to current and emerging climate change challenges requires active participation of stakeholders who have effective access to relevant data, information and analytical tools. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory (TLC), currently under development, is a joint effort between the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri), and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). The vision of the TLC is to create an integrative platform that enables coordination between multiple stakeholders (e.g. Tribal resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, farmers, ranchers, and other local community members) to collaborate on locally relevant climate change issues. The TLC is intended to facilitate the transformation of data into actionable information that can inform local climate response planning. The TLC will provide the technical mechanisms to access, collect and analyze data from both internal and external sources (e.g. NASA's Giovanni climate data portal, Ameriflux or USA National Phenology Network) while also providing the social scaffolds to enable collaboration across Tribal communities and with members of the national climate change research community. The prototype project focuses on phenology, a branch of science focused on relationships between climate and the seasonal timing of biological phenomena. Monitoring changes in the timing and duration of phenological stages in plant and animal co­­­­mmunities on Tribal lands can provide insight to the direct impacts of climate change on culturally and economically significant Tribal resources . The project will leverage existing phenological observation protocols created by the USA-National Phenology Network and NEON to direct data collection efforts and will be tailored to the specific needs and concerns of the community. Phenology observations will be captured and managed within the Collaboratory

  16. Integrating NASA Satellite Data Into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment To Improve Agricultural Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; deJeu, Richard; Kempler, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. The goal of the current project is to improve WAOB estimates by integrating NASA satellite precipitation and soil moisture observations into WAOB's decision making environment. Precipitation (Level 3 gridded) is from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). Soil moisture (Level 2 swath and Level 3 gridded) is generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) and operationally produced by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GBS DISC). A root zone soil moisture (RZSM) product is also generated, via assimilation of the Level 3 LPRM data by a land surface model (part of a related project). Data services to be available for these products include GeoTIFF, GDS (GrADS Data Server), WMS (Web Map Service), WCS (Web Coverage Service), and NASA Giovanni. Project benchmarking is based on retrospective analyses of WAOB analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns and estimated crop yields. An analog index (AI) was developed to introduce a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years. Results thus far show that crop yield estimates derived from TMPA precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface-based precipitation measurements. Work is continuing to include LPRM surface soil moisture data and model-assimilated RZSM.

  17. PREFACE: International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberauer, Lothar; Raffelt, Georg; Wagner, Robert

    2012-07-01

    'Tor Vergata' K DanzmannMax Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics S DodelsonFermilab G DomogatskyINR Moscow E FioriniUniversità di Milano Bicocca & INFN K FreeseUniversity of Michigan M FukugitaICRR Tokyo T GaisserUniversity of Delaware G GerbierCEA Saclay F HalzenUniversity of Wisconsin W HaxtonLNBL & UC Berkeley J HoughGlasgow University E KomatsuUniversity of Texas E KatsavounidisMassachusetts Institute of Technology M LindnerMax Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics K LeskoLBNL & UC Berkeley A McDonaldQueens University & SNO Laboratory H MurayamaIPMU Tokyo & UC Berkeley A OlintoUniversity of Chicago L ResvanisUniversity of Athens A RubbiaETH Zurich S SarkarUniversity of Oxford A SmirnovICTP Trieste N SmithSNO Laboratory C SpieringDESY Zeuthen N SpoonerUniversity of Sheffield Y SuzukiICRR Tokyo M TeshimaMax Planck Institute for Physics J W F ValleIFIC & University of Valencia L VotanoLNGS E WaxmanWeizmann Institute J WilkersonUniversity of North Carolina TAUP Steering Committee F T AvignoneUniversity of South Carolina B C BarishCaltech E BellottiUniversity of Milan Bicoccia & INFN J BernabeuUniversity of Valencia A BottinoUniversity of Turin & INFN (chair) N FornengoUniversity of Turin & INFN T KajitaICRR Tokyo C W KimJohns Hopkins University & KIAS V MatveevINR Moscow G RaffeltMax Planck Institute for Physics D SinclairUniversity of Carleton M SpiroCEA Saclay Parallel Session Conveners Dark Matter - Candidates and Searches J-C LanfranchiTechnische Universität München T Marrodán UndagoitiaUniversity of Zurich T BringmannUniversität Hamburg Cosmology J WellerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität München S HannestadUniversity of Aarhus Double Beta Decay, Neutrino Mass M HirschIFIC/CSIC - University of Valencia A GiulianiCNRS Orsay Neutrino Oscillations T LachenmaierUniversität Tübingen F SuekaneTohoku University Low-Energy Neutrinos (Geo, Solar, Supernova) A DigheTIFR Mumbai M ChenQueen's University M WurmUniversität Hamburg Gravitational Waves E Coccia

  18. A-Train Data Depot: Integrating, Visualizing, and Extracting Cloudsat, CALIPSO, MODIS, and AIRS Atmospheric Measurements Along the A-Train Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Stephens, Graeme; Winkler, Dave; Leptoukh, Greg; Reinke, Don; Smith, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The succession of US and international Earth observing satellites that follow each other, seconds to minutes apart, across the local afternoon equator crossing is called the ATrain. The A-Train consists of the following satellites, in order of equator crossing: OCO, EOS Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, and EOS Aura. Flying in such formation increases the number of observations, validates observations, and enables coordination between science observations, resulting in a more complete virtual science platform (Kelly, 2000). The goal of this project is to create the first ever A-Train virtual data portal/center, the A-Train Data Depot (ATDD), to process, archive, access, visualize, analyze and correlate distributed atmosphere measurements from various A-Train instruments along A-Train tracks. The ATDD will enable the free movement of remotely located A-Train data so that they are combined to create a consolidated vertical view of the Earth's Atmosphere along the A-Train tracks. Once the infrastructure of the ATDD is in place, it will be easily evolved to serve data from all A-Train data measurements: one stop shopping. The innovative approach of analyzing and visualizing atmospheric profiles along the platforms track (i.e., time) will be accommodated by reusing the GSFC Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) visualization and analysis tool, GIOVANNI, existing data reduction tools, on-line archiving for fast data access, access to remote data without unnecessary data transfers, and data retrieval by users finding data desirable for further study. Initial measurements utilized include CALIPSO lidar backscatter, CloudSat radar reflectivity, clear air relative humidity, water vapor and temperature from AIRS, and cloud properties and aerosols from both MODIS. This will be foilowed by associated measurements from TVILS, =MI, HIRDLS, sad TES. Given the independent nature of instrumentlplatform development, the ATDD project has been met with

  19. An innovative multi-source approach for environmental monitoring of landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Mei, Alessandro; Paciucci, Lucia; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of downscaling approach, based on the products obtained by remote sensing and in situ survey, for the geo-environmental analysis of landfill site, located in the San Giovanni in Fiore Municipalty (CS) in the Southern Italy (Calabria District). The aim of the study focused on the optimization of techniques for the monitoring of landfill area by optical remote sensing, which represents a crucial issue since usual investigation methods are expensive and time-consuming. This approach integrated data with different spectral and spatial resolutions extracting parameters descriptive of superficial condition. The use of remote sensing provided a synoptic perspective considering time and spatial ranges which were useful for the monitoring of different environmental matrices and the assessment of biogas and leachate migration. Indeed the multispectral data of Worldview 2 (2012) and Pléiades (2014 and 2015) operating in the range from visible to near-infrared, were adopted for the retrieval of indices descriptive of the vegetation and soil targets with high spatial resolution. The orthophoto dataset integrated the temporal analysis not covered by spectral imagery showing a general increasing of land consumption and highlighting area with no or senescent vegetation cover. These evidences, due to the intensive human activities and to geological, hydraulic and land cover conditions, provided the general setting of the area and its evolution identifying ongoing processes in the study area. The Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) airborne sensor extended the remote sensing analysis up to the thermal domain highlighting superficial anomalies of landfill capping linked to local phenomena such as biogas migration or local humidity into the ground. The dataset of products obtained by remote sensing data processing was validated by in situ analysis. The evidences of ground anomalies were collected by field surveys and

  20. Between a Map and a Data Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Rui, Hualan; Strub, Richard; Vollmer, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A Digital Divide has long stood between how NASA and other satellite-derived data are typically archived (time-step arrays or maps) and how hydrology and other point-time series oriented communities prefer to access those data. In essence, the desired method of data access is orthogonal to the way the data are archived. Our approach to bridging the Divide is part of a larger NASA-supported data rods project to enhance access to and use of NASA and other data by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS) and the larger hydrology community. Our main objective was to determine a way to reorganize data that is optimal for these communities. Two related objectives were to optimally reorganize data in a way that (1) is operational and fits in and leverages the existing Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) operational environment and (2) addresses the scaling up of data sets available as time series from those archived at the GES DISC to potentially include those from other Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data archives. Through several prototype efforts and lessons learned, we arrived at a non-database solution that satisfied our objectivesconstraints. We describe, in this presentation, how we implemented the operational production of pre-generated data rods and, considering the tradeoffs between length of time series (or number of time steps), resources needed, and performance, how we implemented the operational production of on-the-fly (virtual) data rods. For the virtual data rods, we leveraged a number of existing resources, including the NASA Giovanni Cache and NetCDF Operators (NCO) and used data cubes processed in parallel. Our current benchmark performance for virtual generation of data rods is about a years worth of time series for hourly data (9,000 time steps) in 90 seconds. Our approach is a specific implementation of

  1. Sensitivity studies of SREM instrument response and spectral unfolding to particle environment anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Xiao, Hualin; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw

    2016-04-01

    , p 1105-1112 [3] Martin Siegl, Hugh D. R. Evans, Eamonn J. Daly, Giovanni Santin, Petteri J. Nieminen, and Paul Bühler, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. vol. 57, no. 4, p 2017-2023 [4] H.D.R. Evans, P. Buehler, W. Hajdas, E.J. Daly, P.Nieminen, A. Mohammadzadeh, Results from the ESA SREM monitors and comparison with existing radiation belt models, Advances in Space Research 42, 1527 (2008)

  2. Citations Prize 2009 Citations Prize 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2009 Citations Prize winners Some of the winning authors with their certificates, and Christian Morel with the Rotblat Medal, at the award ceremony in Orsay, near Paris. From left to right are Corinne Groiselle, Lydia Maigne, David Brasse, Irène Buvat, Dimitris Visvikis, Giovanni Santin, Uwe Pietrzyk, Pierre-François Honore, Christian Morel, Sébastien Jan and Arion Chatziioannou. The winner of the 2009 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2004-2008) is GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT Authors: S Jan, G Santin, D Strul, S Staelens, K Assié, D Autret, S Avner, R Barbier, M Bardiès, P M Bloomfield, D Brasse, V Breton, P Bruyndonckx, I Buvat, A F Chatziioannou, Y Choi, Y H Chung, C Comtat, D Donnarieix, L Ferrer, S J Glick, C J Groiselle, D Guez, P-F Honore, S Kerhoas-Cavata, A S Kirov, V Kohli, M Koole, M Krieguer, D J van der Laan, F Lamare, G Largeron, C Lartizien, D Lazaro, M C Maas, L Maigne, F Mayet, F Melot, C Merheb, E Pennacchio, J Perez, U Pietrzyk, F R Rannou, M Rey, D R Schaart, C R Schmidtlein, L~Simon, T Y Song, J-M Vieira, D Visvikis, R Van de Walle, E Wieörs and C Morel Reference: S Jan et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4543-61 Since its publication in 2004 this article has received over 200 citations. This extremely high figure is a testament to the great influence and usefulness of the work to the nuclear medicine community. More discussion of the winning paper can be found on

  3. Pregnancy-related venous thrombosis: comparison between spontaneous and ART conception in an Italian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Michela; Dentali, Francesco; Colaizzo, Donatella; Tiscia, Giovanni Luca; Vergura, Patrizia; Petruccelli, Tiziana; Petruzzelli, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Margaglione, Maurizio; Grandone, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in an Italian cohort the incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Setting Thrombosis and Haemostasis Unit at I.R.C.C.S. ‘Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza’, S. Giovanni Rotondo. Participants A prospective cohort of 998 women advised to undergo ART was referred by local fertility clinics from April 2002 to July 2011. Follow-up information was obtained during the check-up and/or by phone interviews. In a cohort of women who consecutively gave birth (n=3339) after spontaneous conception in our Institution, information on the diagnoses of pregnancy-related venous thromboses was obtained by linkage to a patient administrative register. Primary and secondary outcome measures We calculated the incidence of VTE and superficial venous thrombosis in successful ART cycles and compared it with that of the general population conceiving spontaneously. Results Overall, 684 ART cycles were carried out by 234 women, who achieved a clinical pregnancy; in case of more than one successful cycle, only the first pregnancy was considered. Three vein thromboses (two VTE and one superficial vein thrombosis) were recorded. An antithrombotic prophylaxis with LMWH alone or combined with low-dose aspirin was prescribed in 23/234 (9.8%) women. In the reference cohort of 3339 women, a total of 11 vein thromboses were observed: six VTE and five SVT. The two-tailed Fisher exact test showed a trend towards statistical significance (p: 0.06, OR: 3.9, 95% CI 0.87 to 15.3). After the exclusion of superficial thromboses in both the groups, we found that the incidence of VTE in our population of women who had undergone ART was 2/234 pregnancies (8.5 ‰), whereas that in our reference population was 6/3339 (1.8 ‰) (p: 0.09). Conclusions Our data show a slightly higher incidence of vein thromboses in pregnancies after ART than in those after natural conception. PMID:26443651

  4. The NASA Innovations in Climate Education Project: 'Instructional Strategies for Expanding Climate Change Concepts within Readng/Literacy Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton-Jaggers, L. J.; Johnson, D.; Hayden, L. B.; Hale, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. In 2010 the standards were designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that young people need for success in college and careers. In 2013 the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in connection with the CCSS developed revised science standards in performance, prior standards documents listed what students should know or understand, foundations were each performance expectation incorporates all three dimensions from a science or engineering practice, a core disciplinary idea, and a crosscutting concept, and coherence that connects each set of performance expectations lists connections to other ideas within the disciplines of science and engineering. Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) in Elizabeth City, North Carolina has joined with the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in Durham, New Hampshire under the NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) grant to empower faculty of education programs at Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) to better engage their pre-service teachers in teaching and learning about global climate change through the use of NASA Earth observation sets. Specifically, professors from MSIs received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization And aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) to engage pre-service teachers in facets of climate education. Grambling State University faculty members served as participants of the NICE workshop for 2012 and were encouraged to develop lessons in climate education from information shared at the workshop. A corresponding project that incorporated the CCSS and NGSS at Grambling State University in Grambling, Louisiana was headed by Dr. Loretta Jaggers. This paper documents activities that pre-service students in the GSU Curriculum and

  5. The Marocche rock avalanches (Trentino, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Martin, Silvana; Campedel, Paolo; Viganò, Alfio; Alberti, Silvio; Rigo, Manuel; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2015-04-01

    The floors of the Adige and Sarca River valleys are punctuated by numerous rock avalanche deposits of undetermined age. With a view to understanding predisposition and triggering factors, thus ultimately paleoseismicity in the region, we are studying the geomorphology and timing of the largest rock avalanches of the River Sarca-Lake Garda area (e.g., Marocche, Monte Spinale, Lago di Tovel, Lago di Molveno, San Giovanni and Torbole). Among the most extensive of these deposits, with an area of 13 km2 and a volume of about 109 m3, are the Marocche. Marocche deposits cover the lower Sarca valley north of Lake Garda for a length of more than 8 km with 200 m of debris. Both collapse and bedding parallel sliding are a consequence of dip slopes and the extreme relief on the right side of the valley of nearly 2000 m from the bedrock below the valley floor to the peaks combined with the zones of structural weakness. The rock avalanches developed within carbonate rocks of Mesozoic age, mainly limestones of the Jurassic Calcari Grigi Group. The main scarps are located on the western side of the lower Sarca Valley, along the steep faces of Mt. Brento and Mt. Casale. The presence of these scarps is strictly related to the Southern Giudicarie and the Ballino fault systems. The former is here constituted by regular NNE-directed ESE-vergent thrust faults. The latter has been reactivated as normal faults. These complicated structural relationships favored complex failure mechanisms, including rock slide and massive collapse. At the Marocche itself, based on field relationships and analysis of lidar imagery, we differentiated two large rock avalanches: the Marocca di Kas in the south which overlies and in part buries the Marocche (s.s.) in the northern sector. Previous mapping had suggested up to five rock avalanches in the area where we differentiate two. In spite of hypotheses suggesting failure of the rock avalanches onto stagnating late Pleistocene glaciers, preliminary 36Cl

  6. Petrogenesis of contrasting Hercynian granitoids from the Calabrian Arc, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottura, A.; Bargossi, G. M.; Caironi, V.; Del Moro, A.; Maccarrone, E.; Macera, P.; Paglionico, A.; Petrini, R.; Piccarreta, G.; Poli, G.

    1990-03-01

    The granitoids of the southern Calabrian Arc have been investigated for whole-rock and phase chemistry, zircon typology, REE, Sr and Nd isotopes. Two distinct granitoid associations, which are related in time and partly in space, are present: a calc-alkaline one and a peraluminous one. The prevailing calc-alkaline association is compositionally expanded (SiO 2=48-70%) and biotite dominated, with tonalites and granodiorites as predominant rock types. The peraluminous association is compositionally restricted (SiO 2=67-76%) and contains two-mica ± Al-silicates. Distinct peraluminous typologies occur also as core facies within the calc-alkaline types. All granitoids are ilmenite-bearing. The Cittanova (CN), Villa S. Giovanni (VSG) and Capo Rasocolmo (CR) peraluminous granites display zircon typology, REE patterns, ɛSrt- (+51 to +113) and ɛNdt-values (-8.5 to -4.6) at 290 Ma, suggesting a dominantly quartzofeldspathic metasedimentary source. In more detail, the CN types and the CR-VSG types require heterogeneous and different sources. The calc-alkaline granitoids display very variable REE patterns (Ce N=25-227 and Yb N=3.5-18.5 in the tonalites-granodiorites) and variable age-corrected ɛNdt-values (-8.5 to -0.25), whereas Sr values vary little (+82 to +93). Thus, in terms of ɛNdt ɛSrt covariation, the data points define a vertical array, which is inconsistent with a model involving crustal contamination by mantle derivatives. A more viable mechanism seems to be the melting of hydrous and heterogeneous mafic lower crust (and/or basic underplate), producing distinct magma batches evolving independently. Crustal contamination, mingling and fractionation processes may all have contributed to the observed geochemical variations within the granitoids. The peraluminous granodiorites occurring within the Serre and Capo Vaticano multipulse calc-alkaline plutons exhibit isotopic ratios ( ɛNdt = -6.11 to +0.33 and ɛSrt = +93 to +97) which are similar to those of the

  7. PREFACE: 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Across Physical and Behavioural Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Rossi, Giovanni; Crenna, Francesco; Belotti, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    measurement, focused on a common objective: the human being. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Symposium Steering and International Programme Committees, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers presented here under a very short timescale, as well as our sponsor, National Instruments. The editors hope that this volume will provide a useful contribution to enhancing the science, technology, education, and training in measurement and instrumentation. Giovanni Battista Rossi, Francesco Crenna and Vittorio Belotti Editors Università degli Studi di Genova - DIME/MEC Laboratorio di Misure Via all'Opera Pia 15 a I - 16145 Genova Italy LogoLogoLogo

  8. The Federated Data System DataFed: Experiences in Data Homogenization and Networking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, R. B.; Hoijarvi, K.; Falke, S.; Robinson, E. M.; Leptoukh, G.

    2008-05-01

    -specific theme, e.g.: Biodiversity in Barcelona, Spain, Tsunami in Seoul, Korea, Wind Energy in Beijing, China, and Air Quality in Denver, Colorado. The experiences and the emerging best practices from these experiments will be presented, including the insights generated through two-way networking with NASA's Giovanni data system. The result of interoperability experiments are encouraging but we recognize that considerable work is to be done on extending the WCS protocol, including the accommodation of new coverage classes and additional returned data types.

  9. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masahiko; Ueda, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    the conference. Finally, the chairs would like to express their thanks to all the participants for contributing to lively and fruitful discussions throughout the conference. Masahiko Takahashi and Kiyoshi Ueda International Advisory Board Lorenzo Avaldi (Italy)Klaus Bartschat (USA) Azzedine Lahmam-Bennani (France)Jamal Berakdar (Germany) Nora Berrah (USA)Igor Bray (Australia) XiangJun Chen (China)Claude Dal Cappello (France) Reinhard Dörner (Germany)Alexander Dorn (Germany) Danielle Dowek (France)Alexey Grum-Grzhimailo (Russia) Noriyuki Kouchi (Japan)Birgit Lohmann (Australia) Don Madison (USA)Fernando Martin (Spain) Andrew Murray (England)Bernard Piraux (Belgium) Roberto Rivarola (Argentina)Emma Sokell (Ireland) Giovanni Stefani (Italy) Conference photograph

  10. On the use of Multisensor and multitemporal data for monitoring risk degradation and looting in archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risks which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world. They cause a massive loss of artefacts but also, and above all, a loss of the cultural context, which makes the subsequent interpretation of archaeological remains very difficult. Remote sensing offers a suitable chance to quantify and analyse this phenomenon, especially in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is not much effective and time consuming or non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In this paper we focus on the use of GeoEye and Google Earth imagery to quantitatively assess looting in Ventarron (Lambayeque, Peru) that is one of most important archaeological sites in Southern America. Multitemporal satellite images acquired for the study area have been processed by using both autocorrelation statistics and unsupervised classification to highlight and extract looting patterns. The mapping of areas affected by looting offered the opportunity to investigate such areas not previously systematically documented. Reference Lasaponara R.; Giovanni Leucci; Nicola Masini; Raffaele Persico 2014 ": Investigating archaeological looting using very high resolution satellite images and georadar: the experience in Lambayeque in North Peru JASC13-61R1 Cigna Francesca, Deodato Tapete, Rosa Lasaponara and Nicola Masini, 2013 Amplitude Change Detection with ENVISAT ASAR to Image the Cultural Landscape of the Nasca Region, Peru (pages 117-131). Archeological Prospection Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1451 Tapete Deodato, Francesca Cigna, Nicola Masini and Rosa Lasaponara 2013. Prospection and Monitoring of the Archaeological Heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR Archeological Prospection (pages 133-147) Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1449 Lasaponara Rosa 2013: Geospatial analysis from space: Advanced approaches for data processing

  11. Declarative Visualization Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    necessarily entirely exposed to scientists writing visualization queries, facilitates the automated construction of visualization pipelines. VisKo queries have been successfully used in support of visualization scenarios from Earth Science domains including: velocity model isosurfaces, gravity data raster, and contour map renderings. Our synergistic environment provided by our CYBER-ShARE initiative at the University of Texas at El Paso has allowed us to work closely with Earth Science experts that have both provided us our test data as well as validation as to whether the execution of VisKo queries are returning visualizations that can be used for data analysis. Additionally, we have employed VisKo queries to support visualization scenarios associated with Giovanni, an online platform for data analysis developed by NASA GES DISC. VisKo-enhanced visualizations included time series plotting of aerosol data as well as contour and raster map generation of gridded brightness-temperature data.

  12. Utilizing Satellite-derived Precipitation Products in Hydrometeorological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.; Huffman, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Each year droughts and floods happen around the world and can cause severe property damages and human casualties. Accurate measurement and forecast are important for preparedness and mitigation efforts. Through multi-satellite blended techniques, significant progress has been made over the past decade in satellite-based precipitation product development, such as, products' spatial and temporal resolutions as well as timely availability. These new products are widely used in various research and applications. In particular, the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products archived and distributed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) provide 3-hourly, daily and monthly near-global (50° N - 50° S) precipitation datasets for research and applications. Two versions of TMPA products are available, research (3B42, 3B43, rain gauge adjusted) and near-real-time (3B42RT). At GES DISC, we have developed precipitation data services to support hydrometeorological applications in order to maximize the TRMM mission's societal benefits. In this presentation, we will present examples of utilizing TMPA precipitation products in hydrometeorological applications including: 1) monitoring global floods and droughts; 2) providing data services to support the USDA Crop Explorer; 3) support hurricane monitoring activities and research; and 4) retrospective analog year analyses to improve USDA's world agricultural supply and demand estimates. We will also present precipitation data services that can be used to support hydrometeorological applications including: 1) User friendly TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS; URL: http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/); 2) Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/), a simplified interface for searching, browsing, and ordering Earth science data at GES DISC; 3) Simple Subset Wizard (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/SSW/ ) for data subsetting and format conversion; 4) Data

  13. Global Long-Term SeaWiFS Deep Blue Aerosol Products available at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Sayer, A. M.; Bettenhausen, C.; Wei, J. C.; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Hsu, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term climate data records of aerosols are needed in order to study regional air quality and the uncertainty of aerosol radiative forcing with numerical models. Recently, global long-term (over 13 years from 1997 to 2010) SeaWiFS Deep Blue (SWDB) aerosol products have become available. The SWDB aerosol dataset has been produced by the "Consistent Long-Term Aerosol Data Records over Land and Ocean from SeaWIFS" project led by Dr. N. Christina Hsu as part of the Making Earth Science data records for Use in Research for Earth Science (MEaSUREs) program. The latest Deep Blue algorithm retrieves aerosol properties not only over bright desert surfaces, but also vegetated surfaces, oceans, and inland water bodies. Comparisons with AERONET observations have shown that the data are suitable for quantitative scientific use. The resolution of the Level 2 pixels is 13.5x13.5 km2 at the center of the swath. The Level 3 daily and monthly data are composed by using best quality level 2 pixels at resolution of both 0.5x0.5 and 1.0x1.0 degrees. This presentation, focusing over the south Asia region, will show sample higher resolution Level 2 images of dust events and the Level 3 monthly climatology at large scale. The data are compared with the widely-used MODIS (Deep Blue and Dark Target) aerosol dataset. The SWDB aerosol data are available from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through a number of data services, such as FTP; the data search system, Mirador; OPeNDAP; and online subsetting services. The global daily and monthly Level 3 products are also available in the innovative online visualization and analysis system, Giovanni. More information about SWBD aerosol products can be found from the project portal: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/dust. Seasonal climatology of SeaWiFS Deep Blue Aerosol Optical Depth at 550nm for the period from 1997.09 to 2010.12.

  14. Improved methods for dewarping images in convex mirrors in fine art: applications to van Eyck and Parmigianino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, Yumi; Stork, David G.; Fujiki, Jun; Hino, Hideitsu; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

    2011-03-01

    We derive and demonstrate new methods for dewarping images depicted in convex mirrors in artwork and for estimating the three-dimensional shapes of the mirrors themselves. Previous methods were based on the assumption that mirrors were spherical or paraboloidal, an assumption unlikely to hold for hand-blown glass spheres used in early Renaissance art, such as Johannes van Eyck's Portrait of Giovanni (?) Arnolfini and his wife (1434) and Robert Campin's Portrait of St. John the Baptist and Heinrich von Werl (1438). Our methods are more general than such previous methods in that we assume merely that the mirror is radially symmetric and that there are straight lines (or colinear points) in the actual source scene. We express the mirror's shape as a mathematical series and pose the image dewarping task as that of estimating the coefficients in the series expansion. Central to our method is the plumbline principle: that the optimal coefficients are those that dewarp the mirror image so as to straighten lines that correspond to straight lines in the source scene. We solve for these coefficients algebraically through principal component analysis, PCA. Our method relies on a global figure of merit to balance warping errors throughout the image and it thereby reduces a reliance on the somewhat subjective criterion used in earlier methods. Our estimation can be applied to separate image annuli, which is appropriate if the mirror shape is irregular. Once we have found the optimal image dewarping, we compute the mirror shape by solving a differential equation based on the estimated dewarping function. We demonstrate our methods on the Arnolfini mirror and reveal a dewarped image superior to those found in prior work|an image noticeably more rectilinear throughout and having a more coherent geometrical perspective and vanishing points. Moreover, we find the mirror deviated from spherical and paraboloidal shape; this implies that it would have been useless as a concave

  15. Linking Present Environmental Change on Earth to Rapid Climate Change on Mars at the Noachian/Hesperian Boundary: Implications for Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastan, A.; Cabrol, N. A.; Phillips, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Earth has undergone numerous periods of climatic fluctuations over geologic time, but the abrupt and global change currently ongoing offers a unique opportunity to observe Earth's climate evolution in real time. This provides the chance to both better understand current and past changes on our own planet and extend our knowledge of other planetary climates. Mineralogy and morphology show that Mars underwent a period of rapid environmental change between 3.7 and 3.2 Ga, transitioning from a wet and possibly warm climate to the arid, cold environment seen presently. Here, we present results of satellite imagery studies and orbital remote sensing data acquired for four sites, over a period of almost a decade but extending to three decades in some instances. These locations were chosen as Mars analog environments on Earth, and are currently undergoing rapid environmental change. We use these studies to establish parameters that both characterize the nature and rapidity of the changes observed and could be employed to detect evidence of past global change on Mars. Using NASA's Giovanni databases, we have extracted aerosols, UV radiation, ozone levels, precipitation and atmospheric data such as relative humidity, air temperature, surface pressure, and others for four locations in the Andes: Aguas Calientes (23.21 S, 67.40 W); Llullaillaco (24.43 S, 68.32 W); Laguna Negra (33.38 S, 70.07 W); and Cipreses (34.42 S, 70.20 W). Initial results show a steady increase in carbon dioxide fraction. Temperature at the surface and throughout the atmosphere has remained stable in the past decade (2003-2011). H2O mass mixing ratios show a more varied result, with stable values at all atmospheric elevations above the surface, but larger variations often observed at ground level. Relative humidity values showed significant yearly fluctuations at all elevations in the atmosphere. In contrast, total aerosol levels appear to have decreased by almost a third in recent years (2000

  16. Developing Data Citations from Digital Object Identifier Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has been processing information for the registration of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for the last five years of which an automated system has been in operation for the last two years. The ESDIS DOI registration system has registered over 2000 DOIs with over 1000 DOIs held in reserve until all required information has been collected. By working towards the goal of assigning DOIs to the 8000+ data collections under its management, ESDIS has taken the first step towards facilitating the use of data citations with those products. When registering DOIs, ESDIS requires certain DOI elements be collected for the DOI landing page as recommended by NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG). The landing page provides sufficient information to 1) identify NASA data as referenced in a science publication, 2) credit data creators and distributors, and 3) access the data itself enabling the trace-ability and reproducibility of the data. However, the required elements for this DOI landing page are also the core required elements for forming an Earth science data citation. Data citations are getting significant attention from the scientific community and data centers alike. So to encourage the citing of Earth science data products, each product DOI landing page displays a sample data citation and makes the required citation elements available to DataCite for use in its Data Citation generation tool. This paper will describe that process. ESDIS data centers are constantly developing technologies to better serve the Earth science user community such as Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI), Land and Atmospheric Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE), and advanced tools that support virtual data collections, and virtual data products. These all provide easier access to data and make possible the creation of data products with user specified parameters

  17. Multidisciplinary Investigations embedded in a photogrammatric three dimensional survey in an archaeological site and St Peter and Paul Church in Agro Valley (Messina, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, Vincenza; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Majolino, Domenico; Paladini, Giuseppe; Persico, Raffaele; Saccone, Mauro; Spagnolo, Grazia; Venuti, Valentina

    2017-04-01

    for Step-frequency Continuous-Wave Penetrating Radar: the Case Study of "Palazzo Vecchio" Walls (Firenze, Italy), Research on Nondestructive Evaluation, vol. 17, pp. 71-83, 2006 [2] Masini N, Persico R., Rizzo E, Calia A, Giannotta M. T., Quarta G., Pagliuca A., "Integrated Techniques for Analysis and Monitoring of Historical Monuments: the case of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro in Brindisi (Southern Italy)." Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 8 (5), pp. 423-432, 2010. [3] F. Soldovieri, R. Persico and G. Leone, "Effect of source and receiver radiation characteristics in subsurface prospecting within the DBA", Radio Science, vol. 40, RS3006, May 2005.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Science and Eastern Orthodoxy. From the Greek Fathers to the Age of Globalization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaidis, E.; Sterken, C.

    2014-01-01

    the teaching of the history of science and philosophy. It is a well-researched work, with more than 450 notes, and a dozen pages of references. It is a pity, though, that the substantial geographical references and descriptions are not supported by even a single geographical map to guide the reader around Greece and Byzantium. Unfortunately, this publication is pockmarked by just too many typographical errors that were left in place during the copy-editing process. Worse even is the terrible habit of the translator of transposing native first names into modern English look-alikes: John the Grammarian, Marc Eugenicos, John Moisiodax, and the most ridiculous "John Dominique" Cassini (for Giovanni Domenico/Jean-Dominique).

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer and VRIJHK photometry of V582 Mon (Arulanantham+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulanantham, N. A.; Herbst, W.; Cody, A. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Rebull, L. M.; Agol, E.; Windemuth, D.; Marengo, M.; Winn, J. N.; Hamilton, C. M.; Mundt, R.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Gutermuth, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have continued to obtain ground-based optical and near-infrared photometry over the last two years using A Novel Dual Imaging CAMera (ANDICAM) on the 1.3m telescope at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The instrument is operated by the SMARTS consortium. Data were collected almost nightly from 2013 October through 2014 April. Observations were resumed in 2014 September and continued until 2015 April. Each night, four 150s exposures were obtained in each of the three optical bands (VRI) along with 10-15 dithered exposures (30s each) in the near-infrared bands (JHK). All images have a 10.2'*10.2' field of view. The data acquisition and reduction processes are discussed briefly in Appendix A, and a more complete description is given by Windemuth & Herbst 2014 (cat. J/AJ/147/9). The VRIJHK magnitudes from the last two observing seasons have been added to the entire set of CCD data obtained since 1995, which is presented here as Table1. Images of KH 15D were collected with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during six observational runs with five separate PI's spanning three distinct epochs since 2004 (2004 Mar 6 and 2004 Oct 08, PI Giovanni Fazio, Program ID=37; 2004 Oct 5-12 and 2005 Oct 21-29, PI Massimo Marengo, Program ID=3441; 2006 Mar 23-27, PI Eric Agol, Program ID=3469; 2008 Nov 1-2, PI Lucas A. Cieza, Program ID=50773). The fifth set of observations was obtained by the CSI 2264 team (PI=John R. Stauffer, Program ID=61027, 80040) as part of a large campaign to monitor young variable objects in NGC2264 (Cody et al. 2014, cat. J/AJ/147/82). These data were obtained over 28 consecutive days of observation in 2011 December (2011 Dec 3-2012 Jan 1). A final set of observations was obtained on eight nights between 2013 December and 2014 January (2013 Dec 22-2014 Jan 20, PI William Herbst, Program ID=90154, 90098). The full set of Spitzer photometry at all epochs is given in Table3. (2 data files).

  20. Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 media briefing - 19 April 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    On 19 April over 150 scientists from all ESA member states will convene at the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, for a three-day symposium entitled "Trends in Space Science and Cosmic Vision 2015-2025". The conference will include a number of invited talks giving an overview of the scientific themes that will form the basis of future ESA missions. Topics to be addressed now will keep space scientists busy over the next 15-20 years. Amongst them are: the nature of planets beyond our solar system; a possible mission to Jupiter and its moon Europa, or perhaps back to Titan; spotting the first black holes; an interstellar probe powered by a solar sail; and many others. Open questions include the priority ESA should give to near-Earth objects and the threat they pose, or whether and when we should return to a comet after Rosetta. Members of the media are invited to a press conference at 10.00 CET on 19 April, at ESA's Visitor Centre (Space Expo) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The press briefing will provide an overview of the current ideas for new missions, the expected results and their implications for the advancement of science and human knowledge. Programme 09.30 - Arrival/Registration/Coffee in the Mars Corner at Space Expo 10.00 - Welcome 10.00 - Present and future of ESA's Science Programme - Prof. David Southwood (ESA Director of Science) 10.15 - Hubble: Fifteen years of discovery - Dr Duccio Macchetto (Head of ESA Space Telescope Division) 10.30 - Europe's space science in fifteen years’ time - Prof. Giovanni Bignami (Chairman of ESA Space Science Advisory Committee) 10.45 - Question and answer time 11.00 - End Members of the media interested in attending the briefing or listening to it via telephone should complete the form below and return it as soon as possible by fax as indicated. Instructions on how to listen in via the telephone line will be given to those that register. The presentation material will be made