Science.gov

Sample records for giving transparency concepts

  1. Teaching the Concept of Resonance with Transparent Overlays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a visual transparency method to develop the concept of resonance with respect to molecular resonance hybrid structures and partial charge on the atoms of an ion. Discusses the distinction between tautomerism and resonance, and emphasizes clarification of the Lewis structure concept. (JM)

  2. Association Analysis of Alumni Giving: A Formal Concept Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Ray R.; Le Blanc, Louis A.; Bahar, Mahmood; Traywick, Bryan

    A large sample (initially 33,000 cases representing a ten percent trial) of university alumni giving records for a large public university in the southwestern United States are analyzed by Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). This likely represents the initially attempt to perform analysis of such data by means of a machine learing technique. The variables employed include the gift amount to the university foundation (UF) as well as traditional demographic variables such as year of graduation, gender, ethnicity, marital status, etc. The UF serves as one of the institution's non-profit, fund-raising organizations. It pursues substantial gifts that are designated for the educational or leadership programs of the giver's choice. Although they process gifts of all sizes, the UF focus is on major gifts and endowments.

  3. Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  4. Example of a "Concept Practical"-Giving Meaning to the Concept of Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekkers, Peter J. J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a concept practical in a physics class. Uses the example of students predicting and testing what will happen to the speed and acceleration of a ball rolling down variously-sloped railings. Some evidence of conceptual development was indicated by pre- and post-test scores. Suggests that a well-conducted class…

  5. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution before conception date and likelihood of giving birth to girls in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Zhijiang; Liu, Tao; Di, Qian; Qian, Zhengmin; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhao, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    A few studies have linked ambient air pollution with sex ratio at birth. Most of these studies examined the long-term effects using spatial or temporal comparison approaches. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exposure to air pollution before conception date could affect the likelihood of the offspring being male or female. We used the information collected in a major maternal hospital in Guangzhou, China. The parental exposure to air pollution was assessed using the air pollution concentration before the conception date. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between air pollution exposure and birth sex with adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, parental education levels, long-term trend, season, and weather condition (mean temperature and relative humidity). The analysis revealed that higher air pollution was associated with higher probability of female newborns, with the effective exposure around one week prior to conception date. In the one-pollutant models, PM10, SO2 and NO2 had significant effects. For example, the excess risk was 0.61% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36%, 0.86%) for a 10 ug/m3 increase in lag 2 day's PM10, 0.42% (95% CI: 0.21%, 0.64%) for lag 3 day's SO2 and 0.97% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.50%) for lag 3 day's NO2; and in two-pollutant models, PM10 remained statistically significant. These results suggest that parental exposure to ambient air pollution a few days prior to conception might be a contributing factor to higher probability of giving birth to female offspring in Guangzhou.

  6. Altruism, gift giving and reciprocity in organ donation: a review of cultural perspectives and challenges of the concepts.

    PubMed

    Sharp, C; Randhawa, G

    2014-10-01

    Living and deceased organ donation are couched in altruism and gift discourse and this article reviews explores cultural views towards these concepts. Altruism and egoism theories and gift and reciprocity theories are outlined from a social exchange theory perspective to highlight the key differences between altruism and the gift and the wider implications of reciprocation. The notion of altruism as a selfless act without expectation or want for repayment juxtaposed with the Maussian gift where there are the obligations to give, receive and reciprocate. Lay perspectives of altruism and the gift in organ donation are outlined and illustrate that there are differences in motivations to donate in different programmes of living donation and for families who decide to donate their relative's organs. These motivations reflect cultural views of altruism and the gift and perceptions of the body and death.

  7. Soils. Transparency Masters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This document is a collection of 43 overhead transparency masters to be used as teaching aids in a course of study involving soils such as geology, agronomy, hydrology, earth science, or land use study. Some transparencies are in color. Selected titles of transparencies may give the reader a better understanding of the graphic content. Titles are:…

  8. Concepts of burden in giving care to older relatives: A study of female caregivers in a Mexico City neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Kennedy, David P.; Wallace, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study examined how women in a Mexico City suburb conceptualized the construct of burden within the context of giving care to older relatives. Methods Data were collected on forty-one women through semi-structured interviews regarding their caregiving experiences to elderly relatives. Phenomenological principles were used to analyze meanings and understandings of caregiving experiences. Results Burden was a multi-dimensional construct that referred to specific situations that made caregivers feel emotionally or physical “heavy.” Burden also referred to “being a burden” by being in the way, making things difficult, or being a ‘weight’ on caregivers' shoulders. However, women in this study also viewed burden as a positive sacrifice that involved love, initiative, and good will. Discussion This study is an important first step in defining the ways in which caregiving is positively and negatively meaningful for Mexican caregivers and their families. Our findings offer an additional dimension of caregiver burden to broaden our understanding and measurement of the construct. The development of culturally appropriate instruments to measure caregiving burden in Mexico is necessary to provide an empirical foundation for policy recommendations that address the growing need for institutional support of caregivers. Moreover, our findings suggest that researchers studying caregiving in Mexico should think about how burden is measured on existing instruments before adapting them for widespread use. PMID:18324460

  9. Transparencies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  10. Giving effective poster presentations

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J A

    1998-08-27

    Giving an effective poster presentation can be easy and rewarding with attention to a few proven concepts. Define your audience. Keep the words and graphics clear, concise, and eye-catching. Remember, you have three seconds to attract attention and 30 seconds to get your message across.

  11. CRIS Guidelines (Checklist for Reporting In-vitro Studies): A concept note on the need for standardized guidelines for improving quality and transparency in reporting in-vitro studies in experimental dental research

    PubMed Central

    Krithikadatta, Jogikalmat; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Datta, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies form a pivotal role in dental research contribution to a substantial evidence base. The reporting standards of these studies are not uniform thus resulting in lacunae in evidence reported. The effort of this concept note is to propose a Checklist for Reporting in vitro Studies (CRIS guidelines) that would promote quality and transparency in reporting in vitro studies. PMID:25125839

  12. Is the Concept of Conservation of Volume in Solids Really More Difficult than for Liquids, or Is the Way We Test Giving Us an Unfair Comparison?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twidle, John

    2006-01-01

    Background: Traditional studies of children's mastery of conservation of volume in liquids and solids have reported that conservation of volume in liquids is an easier concept to master than its solid counterpart. However, the two concepts have been assessed in different ways, with the assessment tool for solids employing a more complex process.…

  13. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  14. Maintaining Transparency

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The lens and cornea are transparent and usually avascular. Controlling nutrient supply while maintaining transparency is a physiological challenge for both tissues. During sleep and with contact lens wear the endothelial layer of the cornea may become hypoxic, compromising its ability to maintain corneal transparency. The mechanism responsible for establishing the avascular nature of the corneal stroma is unknown. In several pathological conditions, the stroma can be invaded by abnormal, leaky vessels, leading to opacification. Several molecules that are likely to help maintain the avascular nature of the corneal stroma have been identified, although their relative contributions remain to be demonstrated. The mammalian lens is surrounded by capillaries early in life. After the fetal vasculature regresses, the lens resides in a hypoxic environment. Hypoxia is likely to be required to maintain lens transparency. The vitreous body may help to maintain the low oxygen level around the lens. The hypothesis is presented that many aspects of the aging of the lens, including increased hardening, loss of accommodation (presbyopia), and opacification of the lens nucleus, are caused by exposure to oxygen. Testing this hypothesis may lead to prevention for nuclear cataract and insight into the mechanisms of lens aging. Although they are both transparent, corneal pathology is associated with an insufficient supply of oxygen, while lens pathology may involve excessive exposure to oxygen. PMID:17920963

  15. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  16. Price transparency.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Lola

    2014-06-01

    Payers and patients want to know up front the cost of the care they're paying for, and to be able to compare providers on value. Hospitals are using a variety of strategies to be more transparent on cost and quality.

  17. Welcoming Transparency

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education (JPE) discusses why there is a need for transparency to improve maternity care. The editor also describes the contents of this JPE issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth. PMID:19516885

  18. Palliative care concept gives patients another option.

    PubMed

    Sansovich, D

    1998-01-01

    New drug treatments with protease inhibitors and total parenteral nutrition are changing long-term care strategies. Case studies are presented of two patients with end-stage AIDS, both of whom would have been expected to die shortly. One made a strong recovery with drugs, although his prognosis had been so poor that hospice was under consideration. The other, in hospice care, was being given nutrients intravenously. Ethical concerns exist with both approaches to AIDS treatment.

  19. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Andrés, Luis; Menéndez, María Fe; Gómez, David; Martínez, Ana Luisa; Bristow, Noel; Kettle, Jeffrey Paul; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-01

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 μm, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 Ω/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed.

  20. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    José Andrés, Luis; Fe Menéndez, María; Gómez, David; Luisa Martínez, Ana; Bristow, Noel; Paul Kettle, Jeffrey; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-01

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 μm, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 Ω/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed. PMID:26056864

  1. Could Transparency Bring Economic Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    The Spellings Commission report calls for greater access to higher education for low- and moderate-income students, greater transparency in the way higher education works and greater accountability for producing results. These recommendations are all significant in their own right, but the three concepts also converge to provide powerful support…

  2. Transparent switchboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A tin oxide coating is formed on a plate of glass and the coating is then etched away from the glass in thin lines to form separate electrical conductors which extend to one end of the plate and connect to either a vertical (column) or horizontal (row) position sensing SCR circuit. A thin transparent insulating coating is formed over the oxide layer except at selected touch points which are positioned in a matrix pattern of vertical columns and horizontal rows. Touching one of these points with a finger bridges the thin line between adjacent conductors to activate trigger circuits in the particular row and column sensing circuits associated with the point touched. The row and column sensing circuits are similar and are powered with a low frequency, ac voltage source. The source for the row circuits is 180 out of phase with the source for the column circuits so that one circuit acts as ground for the other during half of the supply voltage cycle. The signals from the sensing circuits are input to a logic circuit which determines the presence of a valid touch, stores a binary matrix number associated with the touched point, signals a computer of the presence of a stored number and prevents storage of a new number before receiving an enable signal from the computer.

  3. Lines that induce phenomenal transparency.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Alba; Roncato, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Three neighbouring opaque surfaces may appear split into two layers, one transparent and one opaque beneath, if an outline contour is drawn that encompasses two of them. The phenomenon was originally observed by Kanizsa [1955 Rivista di Psicologia 69 3-19; 1979 Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Psychology (New York: Praeger)], for the case where an outline contour is drawn to encompass one of the two parts of a bicoloured figure and a portion of a background of lightest (or darkest) luminance. Preliminary observations revealed that the outline contour yields different effects: in addition to the stratification into layers described by Kanizsa, a second split, opposite in depth order, may occur when the outline contour is close in luminance to one of the three surfaces. An initial experiment was designed to investigate what conditions give rise to the two phenomenal transparencies: this led to the conclusion that an outline contour superimposed on an opaque surface causes this surface to emerge as a transparent layer when the luminances of the contour and the surface differ, in absolute value, by no more than 13.2 cd m(-2). We have named this phenomenon 'transparency of the intercepted surface', to distinguish it from the phenomenal transparency arising when the contour and surface are very different in luminance. When such a difference exists, the contour acts as a factor of surface definition and grouping: the portion of the homogeneous surface it bounds emerges as a fourth surface and groups with a nearby surface if there is one close in luminance. The transparency phenomena ('transparency of the contoured surface') perceived in this context conform to the constraints of Metelli's model, as demonstrated by a second experiment, designed to gather 'opacity' ratings of stimuli. The observer judgments conformed to the values predicted by Metelli's formula for perceived degree of transparency, alpha. The role of the outline contour in conveying figural and

  4. Transparent displays enabled by resonant nanoparticle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Qiu, Wenjun; Shapira, Ofer; Delacy, Brendan G.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-01-01

    The ability to display graphics and texts on a transparent screen can enable many useful applications. Here we create a transparent display by projecting monochromatic images onto a transparent medium embedded with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the projected wavelength. We describe the optimal design of such nanoparticles, and experimentally demonstrate this concept with a blue-color transparent display made of silver nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. This approach has attractive features including simplicity, wide viewing angle, scalability to large sizes and low cost.

  5. Transparency in nursing leadership: a chosen ethic.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2009-01-01

    The concept of transparency has been viewed as an essential leadership attribute or element in healthcare organizational structures and processes. While viewed as something that is desired and valued, there is a lack of nursing disciplinary literature that defines the concept and its possible meanings. This column provides a beginning definition of transparency from the humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective and launches a discussion with potential ethical implications for leadership in nursing practice and education.

  6. Giving behavior of millionaires.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Paul; Bauer, Rob; Gneezy, Uri

    2015-08-25

    This paper studies conditions influencing the generosity of wealthy people. We conduct incentivized experiments with individuals who have at least €1 million in their bank account. The results show that millionaires are more generous toward low-income individuals in a giving situation when the other participant has no power, than in a strategic setting, where the other participant can punish unfair behavior. Moreover, the level of giving by millionaires is higher than in any other previous study. Our findings have important implications for charities and financial institutions that deal with wealthy individuals. PMID:26261327

  7. Giving behavior of millionaires

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Paul; Bauer, Rob; Gneezy, Uri

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies conditions influencing the generosity of wealthy people. We conduct incentivized experiments with individuals who have at least €1 million in their bank account. The results show that millionaires are more generous toward low-income individuals in a giving situation when the other participant has no power, than in a strategic setting, where the other participant can punish unfair behavior. Moreover, the level of giving by millionaires is higher than in any other previous study. Our findings have important implications for charities and financial institutions that deal with wealthy individuals. PMID:26261327

  8. Giving behavior of millionaires.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Paul; Bauer, Rob; Gneezy, Uri

    2015-08-25

    This paper studies conditions influencing the generosity of wealthy people. We conduct incentivized experiments with individuals who have at least €1 million in their bank account. The results show that millionaires are more generous toward low-income individuals in a giving situation when the other participant has no power, than in a strategic setting, where the other participant can punish unfair behavior. Moreover, the level of giving by millionaires is higher than in any other previous study. Our findings have important implications for charities and financial institutions that deal with wealthy individuals.

  9. Effects of Transparency on Pilot Trust and Agreement in the Autonomous Constrained Flight Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri; Ho, Nhut; Hoffmann, Lauren; Lyons, Joseph; Johnson, Walter; Shively, Robert; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    We performed a human-in-the-loop study to explore the role of transparency in engendering trust and reliance within highly automated systems. Specifically, we examined how transparency impacts trust in and reliance upon the Autonomous Constrained Flight Planner (ACFP), a critical automated system being developed as part of NASA's Reduced Crew Operations (RCO) Concept. The ACFP is designed to provide an enhanced ground operator, termed a super dispatcher, with recommended diversions for aircraft when their primary destinations are unavailable. In the current study, 12 commercial transport rated pilots who played the role of super dispatchers were given six time-pressured all land scenarios where they needed to use the ACFP to determine diversions for multiple aircraft. Two factors were manipulated. The primary factor was level of transparency. In low transparency scenarios the pilots were given a recommended airport and runway, plus basic information about the weather conditions, the aircraft types, and the airport and runway characteristics at that and other airports. In moderate transparency scenarios the pilots were also given a risk evaluation for the recommended airport, and for the other airports if they requested it. In the high transparency scenario additional information including the reasoning for the risk evaluations was made available to the pilots. The secondary factor was level of risk, either high or low. For high-risk aircraft, all potential diversions were rated as highly risky, with the ACFP giving the best option for a bad situation. For low-risk aircraft the ACFP found only low-risk options for the pilot. Both subjective and objective measures were collected, including rated trust, whether the pilots checked the validity of the automation recommendation, and whether the pilots eventually flew to the recommended diversion airport. Key results show that: 1) Pilots trust increased with higher levels of transparency, 2) Pilots were more likely to

  10. Giving through life insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, John C.

    Your Union's Gift Steering Committee has pointed out from time to time various methods of contributing to the Union that may provide certain members with the satisfaction of recognizing the value and attainments of the organization, and the part it played in the individual's career, combined with a maximum of convenience as well as tax and other advantages. One such method is to make the Union a beneficiary of one or more life insurance policies.The committee recently learned of an example of such giving that seems so pertinent to the committee's thinking that it is here called to the attention of the membership. The example is a gift to The George Washington University (GW) and was discussed in some detail on page 3 of the November 1982 GW Times under the heading ‘Getting and Giving: Carol Brosnari's Story.’

  11. The art of transparency

    PubMed Central

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles. PMID:23145252

  12. Give/Take

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-12

    Give and Take are set of companion utilities that allow a secure transfer of files from one user to another without exposing the files to third parties. The named files are copied to a spool area. The reciever can retrieve the files by running the "take" program. Ownership of the files remains with the giver until they are taken. Certain users may be limited to take files only from specific givers. For these users, files may only be taken from givers who are members of the gt-uid-group where uid is the UNIX id of the limited user.

  13. Give/Take

    2007-09-12

    Give and Take are set of companion utilities that allow a secure transfer of files from one user to another without exposing the files to third parties. The named files are copied to a spool area. The reciever can retrieve the files by running the "take" program. Ownership of the files remains with the giver until they are taken. Certain users may be limited to take files only from specific givers. For these users, filesmore » may only be taken from givers who are members of the gt-uid-group where uid is the UNIX id of the limited user.« less

  14. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  15. Is the Universe transparent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kai; Avgoustidis, A.; Li, Zhengxiang

    2015-12-01

    We present our study on cosmic opacity, which relates to changes in photon number as photons travel from the source to the observer. Cosmic opacity may be caused by absorption or scattering due to matter in the Universe, or by extragalactic magnetic fields that can turn photons into unobserved particles (e.g., light axions, chameleons, gravitons, Kaluza-Klein modes), and it is crucial to correctly interpret astronomical photometric measurements like type Ia supernovae observations. On the other hand, the expansion rate at different epochs, i.e., the observational Hubble parameter data H (z ), are obtained from differential ageing of passively evolving galaxies or from baryon acoustic oscillations and thus are not affected by cosmic opacity. In this work, we first construct opacity-free luminosity distances from H (z ) determinations, taking into consideration correlations between different redshifts for our error analysis. Moreover, we let the light-curve fitting parameters, accounting for distance estimation in type Ia supernovae observations, free to ensure that our analysis is authentically cosmological-model independent and gives a robust result. Any nonzero residuals between these two kinds of luminosity distances can be deemed as an indication of the existence of cosmic opacity. While a transparent Universe is currently consistent with the data, our results show that strong constraints on opacity (and consequently on physical mechanisms that could cause it) can be obtained in a cosmological-model-independent fashion.

  16. Making Usable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Suzanne T.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to make opaque and transparent soap, using cold and semi boiled processes respectively, and surfactant tests that measure the pH of the prepared soap, is introduced. The experiment shows an easy method to make soap by giving a choice to select oils and scents for the soap, which can be used at home.

  17. Toward transparent clinical policies.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  18. Highly compliant transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shian, Samuel; Diebold, Roger M.; McNamara, Alena; Clarke, David R.

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive optical devices based on electric field induced deformation of dielectric elastomers require transparent and highly compliant electrodes to conform to large shape changes. Electrical, optical, and actuation properties of acrylic elastomer electrodes fabricated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been evaluated. Based on these properties, a figure of merit is introduced for evaluating the overall performance of deformable transparent electrodes. This clearly indicates that SWCNTs outperform AgNWs. Under optimal conditions, optical transparency as high as 91% at 190% maximum actuation strain is readily achievable using SWCNT electrodes.

  19. A Dictionary for Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2001-11-15

    There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

  20. Transparent communications permit unmanned operations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Not-normally-manned platforms are not a new development. However, their use in harsher environments has until recently, been limited. Development of reliable communications networks capable of handling the large amounts of data required for process control in real time with distributed control systems (DCSs) has been a key factor in making the concept viable for harsher, more remote environments. The article below examines the transparent communications network and DCS installed on Pickerill field, offshore UK, by Fisher-Rosemount Systems and its operational parameters. Pickerill field, some 50 mi off the Lincolnshire coast, comprises two small unmanned platforms producing gas under remote control from Arco`s operations base at Great Yarmouth about 60 mi south. Reliable communication is required both with the two platforms offshore and with Conoco`s gas processing operators at Theddlethorpe. Fundamental to project success was the ability of the process control system to provide entirely secure and transparent communication with equipment offshore and thus enable operators at Great Yarmouth to interact with the process as if it were local to their control center.

  1. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400 C to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings. 8 figures.

  2. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  3. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  4. [Camouflage and transparency].

    PubMed

    Silveira, M F; Sobral, V; Junqueira, C S

    2000-01-01

    This study establishes analogies between some universal symbols and death rituals developed in nursing, based on the comprehension of ELIADE. It shows the existent camouflage of these rituals in the nursing profession and points out to the need of eliciting (making transparent) these practices in order to enrich nursing practice, thus benefitting caretakers and patients.

  5. Transparent spinel development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Mark; Caiazza, Jenni E.; Roy, Donald W.

    2000-10-01

    The optical and mechanical properties of polycrystalline MgAl2O4 spinel make this material of interest for transparent armor and for window and dome applications in the 0.3 micrometers to 5.5 micrometers range. Spinel was briefly produced commercially, and qualified for a range of dome and window applications in the early 1990's. Since 1993 however, there has been no commercial producer and consequently the interest in the application of spinel has waned. This paper summarizes development efforts by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA&T) to fabricate transparent spinel with high optical quality for both transparent armor, and a selection of window and dome applications. A cooperative research and development agreement between TA&T and the US Army Research Laboratory is focused at optimizing processing parameters to maximize strength and transparency while minimizing the costs for fabrication by the hot-press/HIP approach. Present interest is in fabricating large armor panels of spinel up to 15 inches square and 0.5 inches thick, and in the fabrication of thinner windows and domes with the view to establishing TA&T as a commercial supplier of spinel in the near future.

  6. Planned Giving for Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbeau, Mary Ann

    Good development officers in elementary and high schools need to be aware of planned giving and knowledgeable about a variety of gift categories. Most school-development directors are not experts in this complex field. Yet, when a school decides to initiate a planned-giving program, the director of development must make a serious commitment to…

  7. Visibly Transparent Heaters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Rao, K D M; Kiruthika, S; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2016-05-25

    Heater plates or sheets that are visibly transparent have many interesting applications in optoelectronic devices such as displays, as well as in defrosting, defogging, gas sensing and point-of-care disposable devices. In recent years, there have been many advances in this area with the advent of next generation transparent conducting electrodes (TCE) based on a wide range of materials such as oxide nanoparticles, CNTs, graphene, metal nanowires, metal meshes and their hybrids. The challenge has been to obtain uniform and stable temperature distribution over large areas, fast heating and cooling rates at low enough input power yet not sacrificing the visible transmittance. This review provides topical coverage of this important research field paying due attention to all the issues mentioned above. PMID:27176472

  8. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Next- Generation Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary; Sultana, Mahmooda; Hess, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite. It is optically transparent and has high electron mobility, and thus has great potential to make transparent conductive electrodes. This invention contributes towards the development of graphene transparent conductive electrodes for next-generation microshutter arrays. The original design for the electrodes of the next generation of microshutters uses indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode material. ITO is widely used in NASA flight missions. The optical transparency of ITO is limited, and the material is brittle. Also, ITO has been getting more expensive in recent years. The objective of the invention is to develop a graphene transparent conductive electrode that will replace ITO. An exfoliation procedure was developed to make graphene out of graphite crystals. In addition, large areas of single-layer graphene were produced using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with high optical transparency. A special graphene transport procedure was developed for transferring graphene from copper substrates to arbitrary substrates. The concept is to grow large-size graphene sheets using the LPCVD system through chemical reaction, transfer the graphene film to a substrate, dope graphene to reduce the sheet resistance, and pattern the film to the dimension of the electrodes in the microshutter array. Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are expected to have a transparency of 97.7%. This covers the electromagnetic spectrum from UV to IR. In comparison, ITO electrodes currently used in microshutter arrays have 85% transparency in mid-IR, and suffer from dramatic transparency drop at a wavelength of near-IR or shorter. Thus, graphene also has potential application as transparent conductive electrodes for Schottky photodiodes in the UV region.

  9. The New Planned Giving Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Ronald R.; Quynn, Katelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    A planned giving officer is seen as an asset to college/university development for technical expertise, credibility, and connections. Attorneys, certified public accountants, bank trust officers, financial planners, investment advisers, life insurance agents, and real estate brokers may be qualified but probably also need training. (MSE)

  10. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  11. The New Planned Giving Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerschbaecher, Lynda

    1987-01-01

    The best way to support charitable causes after tax reform is planned giving. Seven changes in the new tax laws that may affect donors are identified: charitable deduction, fewer deductions, fewer itemizers, increased capital gains tax, alternative minimum tax, generation-skipping tax, and retirement plan restrictions. (MLW)

  12. Recognition and Transparency of Vocational Qualifications; The Way Forward. Discussion Paper = Anerkennung und Transparenz von beruflichen Befahigungsnachweisen; Neue Wege. Diskussionspapier = Reconnaissance et transparence des qualifications professionelles; La voie a suivre. Document de discussion. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Sellin, Burkart

    The European Union's most important challenge is to establish permanent, reliable methodologies and systems that support transparency and recognition of vocational qualifications. The concept of "transparency of qualifications" has replaced "recognition" and "comparability.""Transparency" points to the need to make national qualifications more…

  13. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation. PMID:26240313

  14. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future. PMID:26872163

  15. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  16. The transparency of aging.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2007-03-01

    This article is not meant to provide answers but to provoke thinking related to the questions we should be asking about the ethical personhood of aging adults. Are we covering over the rich opportunities to learn from their stories with an invisible cloak of transparency? Health care professionals have a moral obligation to rethink the assumptions that underlie their definitions of quality of life in aging. We cannot know what should be done unless we learn to listen to the life stories of aging people. This may even help us to see what is most real. PMID:17396715

  17. Corneal structure and transparency

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Keith M.; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. PMID:26145225

  18. Corneal structure and transparency.

    PubMed

    Meek, Keith M; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. PMID:26145225

  19. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  20. How hospitals approach price transparency.

    PubMed

    Houk, Scott; Cleverley, James O

    2014-09-01

    A survey of finance leaders found that hospitals with lower charges were more likely than other hospitals to emphasize making prices defensible rather than simply transparent. Finance leaders of hospitals with higher charges were more likely to express concern that price transparency would cause a reduction in hospital revenue by forcing them to lower charges. Those respondents said commercial payers likely will have to agree to renegotiate contracts for price transparency to be a financially viable proposition. PMID:25647890

  1. Multiphoton electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Lingling; Kang, Hoonsoo; Zhu, Yifu; Wu, Ying

    2003-05-01

    We show that in multi-level atomic systems coupled by multiple laser fields, all linear and nonlinear absorptions may be completely suppressed, leading to the multiphoton electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Under suitable conditions, multiphoton EIT may be used to realize selective steady-state population inversion in coherently pumped atomic systems and achieve efficient nonlinear light generation at low light intensities. As examples, we will present studies of multiphoton EIT in five-level and six-level atomic systems, which demonstrate steady-state population inversion from selective nonlinear excitation. We will also present studies of resonant hyper-Raman and four-wave mixing processes that are enhanced via suppression of the lower-order linear and nonlinear absorptions, and are capable of generating short-wavelength, coherent light at low pump intensities.

  2. Competitive helping in online giving.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Smith, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    Unconditional generosity in humans is a puzzle. One possibility is that individuals benefit from being seen as generous if there is competition for access to partners and if generosity is a costly-and therefore reliable-signal of partner quality [1-3]. The "competitive helping" hypothesis predicts that people will compete to be the most generous, particularly in the presence of attractive potential partners [1]. However, this key prediction has not been directly tested. Using data from online fundraising pages, we demonstrate competitive helping in the real world. Donations to fundraising pages are public and made sequentially. Donors can therefore respond to the behavior of previous donors, creating a potential generosity tournament. Our test of the competitive helping hypothesis focuses on the response to large, visible donations. We show that male donors show significantly stronger responses (by donating more) when they are donating to an attractive female fundraiser and responding to a large donation made by another male donor. The responses for this condition are around four times greater than when males give to less-attractive female (or male) fundraisers or when they respond to a large donation made by a female donor. Unlike males, females do not compete in donations when giving to attractive male fundraisers. These data suggest that males use competitive helping displays in the presence of attractive females and suggest a role for sexual selection in explaining unconditional generosity.

  3. Giving a grand rounds presentation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Laura J; Portenoy, Russell

    2010-12-01

    Giving a Grand Rounds presentation provides the hospice and palliative medicine subspecialist with the occasion to participate in a time-honored and respected event. It remains an opportunity to promote the discipline, support institutional culture change, and favorably influence the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and performance of colleagues. For those pursuing academic careers, it also is a chance to establish academic currency and develop teaching and presentation skills. In most academic settings, the format of Grand Rounds has shifted over time from a patient and problem-based discussion to a didactic, topic-focused lecture. A body of literature questions the value of this shift toward a more passive learner. Limited evidence prevents a definitive answer but many advocate for the integration of more interactive methods to improve the effectiveness of Grand Rounds. This article provides a flexible framework to guide those preparing to give a Grand Rounds and those teaching and supporting others to do so. To do this well, adult learning principles must be thoughtfully incorporated into a presentation style and method appropriate to the venue. The approach emphasizes learner-centeredness, interactive strategies, and evaluation. Room for creativity exists at every step and can add enjoyment and challenge along the way. PMID:21155643

  4. Price Transparency in the Online Age.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonathan L; Mills, Parker H

    2016-05-01

    Plastic surgeons are sometimes hesitant to provide their pricing information online, due to several concerns. However, if implemented right, price transparency can be used as a lead generation tool that provides consumers with the pricing information they want and gives the physician the consumer's contact information for follow-up. This study took place during the author's first year in private practice in a new city. An interactive price transparency platform (ie, cost estimator) was integrated into his website, allowing consumers to submit a "wishlist" of procedures to check pricing on these procedures of interest. However, the consumer must submit their contact information to receive the desired breakdown of costs that are tailored based on the author's medical fees. During that first year, without any advertising expenditure, the author's website received 412 wishlists from 208 unique consumers. Consumers (17.8%) that submitted a wishlist came in for a consultation and 62% of those booked a procedure. The average value of a booked procedure was over US $4000 and cumulatively, all of the leads from this one lead source in that first year generated over US $92,000 in revenue. When compared with non-price-aware patients, price-aware patients were 41% more likely to book a procedure. Price transparency led to greater efficiency and reduced consultations that ended in "sticker shock." When prudently integrated into a medical practice, price transparency can be a great lead generation source for patients that are (1) paying out of pocket for medically necessary services due to a high-deductible health plan or (2) paying for services not typically covered by insurance, such as cosmetic services.

  5. Creating financial transparency in public health: examining best practices of system partners.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Clarke, Richard L; Mead, Dean Michael; Menditto, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    Financial transparency is based on concepts for valid, standardized information that is readily accessible and routinely disseminated to stakeholders. While Congress and others continuously ask for an accounting of public health investments, transparency remains an ignored concept. The objective of this study was to examine financial transparency practices in other industries considered as part of the public health system. Key informants, regarded as financial experts on the operations of hospitals, school systems, and higher education, were a primary source of information. Principal findings were that system partners have espoused some concepts for financial transparency beginning in the early 20th century--signifying an 80-year implementation gap for public health. Critical features that promote accountability included standardized data collection methods and infrastructures, uniform practices for quantitative analysis of financial performance, and credentialing of the financial management workforce. Recommendations are offered on the basis of these findings to aid public health to close this gap by framing a movement toward transparency.

  6. Creating financial transparency in public health: examining best practices of system partners.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Clarke, Richard L; Mead, Dean Michael; Menditto, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    Financial transparency is based on concepts for valid, standardized information that is readily accessible and routinely disseminated to stakeholders. While Congress and others continuously ask for an accounting of public health investments, transparency remains an ignored concept. The objective of this study was to examine financial transparency practices in other industries considered as part of the public health system. Key informants, regarded as financial experts on the operations of hospitals, school systems, and higher education, were a primary source of information. Principal findings were that system partners have espoused some concepts for financial transparency beginning in the early 20th century--signifying an 80-year implementation gap for public health. Critical features that promote accountability included standardized data collection methods and infrastructures, uniform practices for quantitative analysis of financial performance, and credentialing of the financial management workforce. Recommendations are offered on the basis of these findings to aid public health to close this gap by framing a movement toward transparency. PMID:17299315

  7. P-type transparent conducting oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-09-28

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of 'chemical modulation of the valence band' to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d (10) orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu(+)-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd (6) spinel oxides, Cr(3+)-based oxides (3d (3)) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns (2)). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p-n junctions will also be briefly discussed.

  8. P-type transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H. L.; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G.; Egdell, Russell G.

    2016-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu+-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr3+-based oxides (3d 3) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p-n junctions will also be briefly discussed.

  9. P-type transparent conducting oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-09-28

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of 'chemical modulation of the valence band' to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d (10) orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu(+)-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd (6) spinel oxides, Cr(3+)-based oxides (3d (3)) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns (2)). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p-n junctions will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27459942

  10. P-type transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H. L.; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G.; Egdell, Russell G.

    2016-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu+-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr3+-based oxides (3d 3) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p–n junctions will also be briefly discussed.

  11. The Notion of Adminstrative Transparency among Academic Leaderships at Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Mohammed Hasan

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the notion of transparency among academic leaderships at Jordanian universities. To this effect, the interview-based approach was used in order to delineate the concept of transparency. Eighty individual academic leaderships were interviewed across various schools in Jordan. Upon collection of data and information,…

  12. Laminar cortical dynamics of 3D surface perception: stratification, transparency, and neon color spreading.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, Stephen; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2005-06-01

    The 3D LAMINART neural model is developed to explain how the visual cortex gives rise to 3D percepts of stratification, transparency, and neon color spreading in response to 2D pictures and 3D scenes. Such percepts are sensitive to whether contiguous image regions have the same contrast polarity and ocularity. The model predicts how like-polarity competition at V1 simple cells in layer 4 may cause these percepts when it interacts with other boundary and surface processes in V1, V2, and V4. The model also explains how: the Metelli Rules cause transparent percepts, bistable transparency percepts arise, and attention influences transparency reversal.

  13. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  14. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  15. Transparent volume imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wixson, Steve E.

    1990-07-01

    Transparent Volume Imaging began with the stereo xray in 1895 and ended for most investigators when radiation safety concerns eliminated the second view. Today, similiar images can be generated by the computer without safety hazards providing improved perception and new means of image quantification. A volumetric workstation is under development based on an operational prototype. The workstation consists of multiple symbolic and numeric processors, binocular stereo color display generator with large image memory and liquid crystal shutter, voice input and output, a 3D pointer that uses projection lenses so that structures in 3 space can be touched directly, 3D hard copy using vectograph and lenticular printing, and presentation facilities using stereo 35mm slide and stereo video tape projection. Volumetric software includes a volume window manager, Mayo Clinic's Analyze program and our Digital Stereo Microscope (DSM) algorithms. The DSM uses stereo xray-like projections, rapidly oscillating motion and focal depth cues such that detail can be studied in the spatial context of the entire set of data. Focal depth cues are generated with a lens and apeture algorithm that generates a plane of sharp focus, and multiple stereo pairs each with a different plane of sharp focus are generated and stored in the large memory for interactive selection using a physical or symbolic depth selector. More recent work is studying non-linear focussing. Psychophysical studies are underway to understand how people perce ive images on a volumetric display and how accurately 3 dimensional structures can be quantitated from these displays.

  16. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers.

    PubMed

    Neves, A I S; Bointon, T H; Melo, L V; Russo, S; de Schrijver, I; Craciun, M F; Alves, H

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn. PMID:25952133

  17. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas.

  18. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas. PMID:27276698

  19. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers

    PubMed Central

    Neves, A. I. S.; Bointon, T. H.; Melo, L. V.; Russo, S.; de Schrijver, I.; Craciun, M. F.; Alves, H.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn. PMID:25952133

  20. Transparent, abrasion resistant coating compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Ashlock, L.T.; Mukamal, H.; White, W.H.

    1985-02-19

    There is disclosed transparent, abrasion resistant coating compositions comprising a colloidal dispersion of a water insoluble dispersant in a water-alcohol solution of the partial condensate of silanol wherein the dispersant comprises metals, alloys and salts thereof.

  1. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, Julius; Henesian, Mark A.

    1986-01-01

    A low pressure gas electrode utilizing ionized gas in a glow discharge regime forms a transparent electrode for electro-optical switches. The transparent electrode comprises a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the electrode is a transparent electrode. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. The plasma can be created either by the main high voltage pulser used to charge up the crystal or by auxiliary discharges or external sources of ionization. A typical configuration utilizes 10 torr argon in the discharge region adjacent to each crystal face.

  2. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members. PMID:17405387

  3. Inspection of transparent polymers by photothermal detection of ultraviolet-laser generated thermal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmeier, Achim; Bahners, Thomas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    1991-11-01

    The concept of photothermal wave imaging has been adapted to the nondestructive inspection of transparent polymeric samples by specific generation of thermal waves. Utilization of light sources according to the absorption properties of the material secured pure surface heating which is necessary for sensible measurements. Thickness profiles of thin films made of poly(ethylene terephthalate), which are transparent in the visible spectrum, could be measured using a pulsed KrF laser. Examples for the nondestructive inspection of complex textile samples such as coated fabrics are presented.The photothermal analysis (PTA) of optically generated thermal waves is a powerful tool for nondestructive, contactless inspection and evaluation of intrinsic properties of a sample.1,2 The method has been used for the observation of dynamic processes in adhesives, for the inspection of coatings on metal and of carbon fiber composites. A modulated light source, e.g., a chopped HeNe- or Ar+ laser, is used for local, modulated heating at the sample's surface resulting in a time- and space-dependent temperature modulation which propagates through the material. In the case of a homogeneous layer heated only in a small volume at the surface the solution of the heat diffusion equation gives a heavily damped thermal wave T(x,y,z;t). In a one-dimensional model3 only the direction z perpendicular to the surface is considered and we obtain

  4. Rapid microfabrication of transparent materials using filamented femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkus, S.; Gaižauskas, E.; Paipulas, D.; Viburys, Ž.; Kaškelyė, D.; Barkauskas, M.; Alesenkov, A.; Sirutkaitis, V.

    2014-01-01

    Microfabrication of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses has showed good potential towards industrial application. Maintaining pulse energies exceeding the critical self-focusing threshold by more than 100-fold produced filaments that were used for micromachining purposes. This article demonstrates two different micromachining techniques using femtosecond filaments generated in different transparent media (water and glass). The stated micromachining techniques are cutting and welding of transparent samples. In addition, cutting and drilling experiments were backed by theoretical modelling giving a deeper insight into the whole process. We demonstrate cut-out holes in soda-lime glass having thickness up to 1 mm and aspect ratios close to 20, moreover, the fabrication time is of the order of tens of seconds, in addition, grooves and holes were fabricated in hardened 1.1 mm thick glass (Corning Gorilla glass). Glass welding was made possible and welded samples were achieved after several seconds of laser fabrication.

  5. Toward transparent and self-activated graphene harmonic transponder sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyu Harry; Sakhdari, Maryam; Hajizadegan, Mehdi; Shahini, Ali; Akinwande, Deji; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2016-04-01

    We propose the concept and design of a transparent, flexible, and self-powered wireless sensor comprising a graphene-based sensor/frequency-modulator circuitry and a graphene antenna. In this all-graphene device, the multilayered-graphene antenna receives the fundamental tone at C band and retransmits the frequency-modulated sensed signal (harmonic tone) at X band. The frequency orthogonality between the received/re-transmitted signals may enable high-performance sensing in severe interference/clutter background. Here, a fully passive, quad-ring frequency multiplier is proposed using graphene field-effect transistors, of which the unique ambipolar charge transports render a frequency doubling effect with conversion gain being chemically sensitive to exposed gas/molecular/chemical/infectious agents. This transparent, light-weight, and self-powered system may potentially benefit a number of wireless sensing and diagnosis applications, particularly for smart contact lenses/glasses and microscope slides that require high optical transparency.

  6. Coherent-state-induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogyan, A.; Malakyan, Yu.

    2016-04-01

    We examine electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an ensemble of cold Λ -type atoms induced by a quantum control field in multimode coherent states and compare it with the transparency created by the classical light of the same intensity. We show that the perfect coincidence is achieved only in the case of a single-mode coherent state, whereas the transparency sharply decreases, when the number of the modes exceeds the mean number of control photons in the medium. The origin of the effect is the modification of photon statistics in the control field with increasing the number of the modes that weakens its interaction with atoms resulting in a strong probe absorption. For the same reason, the probe pulse transforms from EIT-based slow light into superluminal propagation caused by the absorption.

  7. Transparent ceramics for spacecraft windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical properties of several transparent ceramics were investigated to determine if their use might lighten next generation spacecraft windows. The measured fracture toughness and slow crack growth parameters were used as inputs to functions describing the required mass for a desired window life. Transparent magnesium aluminate (spinel, MgAlO4) and AlON exhibit superior slow crack resistance relative to fused silica, which is the historical material of choice. For spinel, slow crack growth, strength and fracture toughness are significantly influenced by the grain size, and alumina rich phases and porosity at the grain boundaries lead to intergranular fracture in coarse grain spinel. The results imply that transparent ceramics can lighten window panes from a slow crack growth perspective.

  8. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  9. How to Give Your Child Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... any questions you have about the medicine. For liquid medicines, the pharmacist should give you a measuring ... make medicine taste better to your child. Put liquid medicines in the refrigerator before giving them to ...

  10. Transparent Conveyor of Dielectric Liquids or Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mantovani, James G.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of a transparent conveyor of small loose dielectric parti cles or small amounts of dielectric liquids has emerged as an outgro wth of an effort to develop efficient, reliable means of automated re moval of dust from solar cells and from windows of optical instrumen ts. This concept is based on the previously reported concept of an e lectrodynamic screen, according to which a grid-like electric field is established on and near a surface and is moved along the surface p erpendicularly to the grid lines. The resulting electrodynamic force s on loose dielectric particles or dielectric liquid drops in the vic inity would move the particles or drops along the surface. In the or iginal dust-removal application, dust particles would thus be swept out of the affected window area. Other potential applications may occ ur in nanotechnology -- for example, involving mixing of two or more fluids and/or nanoscale particles under optical illumination and/or optical observation.

  11. Charitable giving expenditures and the faith factor.

    PubMed

    Showers, Vince E; Showers, Linda S; Beggs, Jeri M; Cox, James E

    2011-01-01

    Using a permanent income hypothesis approach and an income-giving status interaction effect, a double hurdle model provides evidence of significant differences from the impact of household income and various household characteristics on both a household's likelihood of giving and its level of giving to religion, charity, education, others outside the household, and politics. An analysis of resulting income elasticity estimates revealed that households consider religious giving a necessity good at all levels of income, while other categories of giving are generally found to be luxury goods. Further, those who gave to religion were found to give more to education and charity then those not giving to religion, and higher education households were more likely to give to religion than households with less education. This analysis suggests that there may be more to religious giving behavior than has been assumed in prior studies and underscores the need for further research into the motivation for religious giving. Specifically, these findings point to an enduring, internal motivation for giving rather than an external, “What do I get for what I give,” motive. PMID:21322897

  12. Income Tax Policy and Charitable Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Arthur C.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies over the past 20 years have looked at the response of charitable donations to tax incentives--the tax price elasticity of giving. Generally, authors have assumed this elasticity is constant across all types of giving. Using the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data on charitable giving, this paper estimates the tax price elasticity…

  13. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that "transparency" is a unique feature of social networking services. Transparency…

  14. Optical transparency of crystalline germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplunov, I. A.; Smirnov, Yu. M.; Kolesnikov, A. I.

    2005-02-01

    This paper discusses the optical transparency of single-crystal and polycrystalline germanium. It is shown that the attenuation of IR radiation is affected by the presence of impurities (their form and concentration) and the structure of the material. The temperature dependences of the attenuation factor are obtained.

  15. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, G. C.

    2005-09-01

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  16. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to

  17. Photopatternable transparent conducting oxide nanoparticles for transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won Jin; Kim, Sung Jin; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2013-02-01

    We report a method to fabricate tailored transparent electrodes using photopatternable transparent conducting oxide nanoparticles (TCO NPs). We demonstrate solution-processed micropatterns by a conventional photolithography technique. We have synthesized indium tin oxide (ITO) NPs and functionalized them with a photolabile group, such as t-butoxycarbonyl (t-BOC), which can be deprotected by a chemical amplification reaction in the solid state film. The chemical amplification reaction leads to a shortening of the ligand that changes the solubility of the resulting ITO films. This ligand shortening process also contributes to a reduction of the sheet resistance in the resulting photopatterned ITO films. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the general viability and strength of this approach by also photopatterning zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs.

  18. The Role of Effective Modeling in the Development of Self-Efficacy: The Case of the Transparent Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibe, Kevin P.; Mennecke, Brian E.; Luse, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Computing technology augments learning in education in a number of ways. One particular method uses interactive programs to demonstrate complex concepts. The purpose of this article is to examine one type of interactive learning technology, the transparent engine. The transparent engine allows instructors and students to view and directly interact…

  19. Fracture properties and behavior of transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Parimal J.; Swab, Jeffrey J.; Gilde, Gary A.

    2000-10-01

    For the past several decades, the Army has been interested in materials transparent to visible and infrared wavelengths for use in armor, IR windows and sensor windows. Future requirements for transparent armor are systems that can defeat greater threats without increased weight and thickness and minimal optical distortion. The Army Research Laboratory is developing transparent armor systems to increase the performance of new windows. Aluminum oxynitride spinel and single-crystal sapphire are two of the ceramic candidates for advanced transparent armor applications.

  20. Transparency and Oversight in Local Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger…

  1. Making It with Media. Transparency Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Augie E.; Palmer, Carolyn G.

    This guide to the design and production of overhead transparencies begins with a matching test of related terminology and definitions. Introductory materials include an outline of advantages and disadvantages of using transparencies; a list of recommended uses of the overhead and transparencies; tips for overhead presentations; general…

  2. Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yongmin; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-04-17

    Making metals transparent, which could lead to fascinating applications, has long been pursued. Here we demonstrate that with narrow slit arrays metallic plates become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths; the high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. This work provides a guideline to develop novel devices, including transparent conducting panels, broadband metamaterials, and antireflective solar cells.

  3. Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yongmin; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-04-17

    Making metals transparent, which could lead to fascinating applications, has long been pursued. Here we demonstrate that with narrow slit arrays metallic plates become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths; the high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. This work provides a guideline to develop novel devices, including transparent conducting panels, broadband metamaterials, and antireflective solar cells. PMID:22431279

  4. Dipole-Induced Electromagnetic Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Sukharev, Maxim; Atabek, Osman; Charron, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We determine the optical response of a thin and dense layer of interacting quantum emitters. We show that, in such a dense system, the Lorentz redshift and the associated interaction broadening can be used to control the transmission and reflection spectra. In the presence of overlapping resonances, a dipole-induced electromagnetic transparency (DIET) regime, similar to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), may be achieved. DIET relies on destructive interference between the electromagnetic waves emitted by quantum emitters. Carefully tuning material parameters allows us to achieve narrow transmission windows in, otherwise, completely opaque media. We analyze in detail this coherent and collective effect using a generalized Lorentz model and show how it can be controlled. Several potential applications of the phenomenon, such as slow light, are proposed.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Abraham J.; Mayer, Shannon K.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in rubidium gas. The theoretical absorption profile of a weak probe laser beam at 780.2nm (5S1/2→5P3/2) is modeled in the presence of a strong coupling laser beam at 776.0nm (5P3/2→5D5/2) and the absorption transparency window is characterized. We use two grating-feedback diode lasers and observe EIT experimentally in rubidium and compare the results to the theory. This experiment brings quantum optics into the advanced undergraduate laboratory and utilizes equipment and expertise commonly available in laboratories equipped to perform diode-laser-based absorption spectroscopy of rubidium.

  6. Transparent multiprocessing boosts MUC throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Kinder, D.

    1982-04-15

    Although multitasking and multiprocessing have become common features of microprocessor operating sytems, rarely can the software support multiple processors. One exception is the IMAX operating sytem, written in ADA and running on IAPX 432 general-purpose data processors. By keeping tasks independent of the processors which operate on them, IMAX makes multiprocessing transparent. The 432's multiprocessing architecture solves the problem of keeping task dispatching independent of processors. The system is described.

  7. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  8. Optically transparent/colorless polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, A. K.; Stclair, T. L.; Slemp, W.; Ezzell, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    Several series of linear aromatic polyimide films have been synthesized and characterized with the objective of obtaining maximum optical transparency. Two approaches have been used as part of this structure-property relationship study. The first approach is to vary the molecular structure so as to separate chromophoric centers and reduce electronic interactions between polymer chains to lower the intensity of color in the resulting polymer films. A second and concurrent approach is to perform polymerizations with highly purified monomers. Glass transition temperatures of thermally cured polyimide films are obtained by thermomechanical analysis and thermal decomposition temperatures are determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Transmittance UV-visible spectra of the polyimide films are compared to that of a commercial polyimide film. Fully imidized films are tested for solubility in common organic solvents. The more transparent films prepared in this study are evaluated for use on second-surface mirror thermal control coating systems. Lightly colored to colorless films are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy before and after exposure to 300 equivalent solar hours UV irradiation and varying doses of 1 MeV electron irradiation. The effects of monomer purity, casting solvent and cure atmosphere on polyimide film transparency are also investigated.

  9. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed. PMID:27545510

  10. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed.

  11. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    PubMed

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2002-08-01

    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  12. Charitable Giving by Married Couples Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of gender differences and household bargaining on charitable giving. I replicate the study of Andreoni, Brown, and Rischall (2003) using a different data set--the recently available Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) supplement on charitable giving--and test the sensitivity of their results to inclusion of…

  13. Optically transparent high temperature shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xinli; Qiu, Xueying; Kong, Deyan; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-03-21

    Optically transparent shape memory polymers (SMPs) have potential in advanced optoelectronic and other common shape memory applications, and here optically transparent shape memory polyimide is reported for the first time. The polyimide possesses a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 171 °C, higher than the Tg of other transparent SMPs reported, and the influence of molecular structure on Tg is discussed. The 120 μm thick polyimide film exhibits transmittance higher than 81% in 450-800 nm, and the possible mechanism of its high transparency is analyzed, which will benefit further research on other transparent high temperature SMPs. The transparent polyimide showed excellent thermomechanical properties and shape memory performances, and retained high optical transparency after many shape memory cycles. PMID:26686222

  14. Motion transparency: making models of motion perception transparent.

    PubMed

    Snowden; Verstraten

    1999-10-01

    In daily life our visual system is bombarded with motion information. We see cars driving by, flocks of birds flying in the sky, clouds passing behind trees that are dancing in the wind. Vision science has a good understanding of the first stage of visual motion processing, that is, the mechanism underlying the detection of local motions. Currently, research is focused on the processes that occur beyond the first stage. At this level, local motions have to be integrated to form objects, define the boundaries between them, construct surfaces and so on. An interesting, if complicated case is known as motion transparency: the situation in which two overlapping surfaces move transparently over each other. In that case two motions have to be assigned to the same retinal location. Several researchers have tried to solve this problem from a computational point of view, using physiological and psychophysical results as a guideline. We will discuss two models: one uses the traditional idea known as 'filter selection' and the other a relatively new approach based on Bayesian inference. Predictions from these models are compared with our own visual behaviour and that of the neural substrates that are presumed to underlie these perceptions.

  15. Giving Leads to Happiness in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Aknin, Lara B.; Hamlin, J. Kiley; Dunn, Elizabeth W.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary models of cooperation require proximate mechanisms that sustain prosociality despite inherent costs to individuals. The “warm glow” that often follows prosocial acts could provide one such mechanism; if so, these emotional benefits may be observable very early in development. Consistent with this hypothesis, the present study finds that before the age of two, toddlers exhibit greater happiness when giving treats to others than receiving treats themselves. Further, children are happier after engaging in costly giving – forfeiting their own resources – than when giving the same treat at no cost. By documenting the emotionally rewarding properties of costly prosocial behavior among toddlers, this research provides initial support for the claim that experiencing positive emotions when giving to others is a proximate mechanism for human cooperation. PMID:22720078

  16. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... urging consumers to carefully read the labels of liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants to avoid giving the ... less concentrated version for all children. Until now, liquid acetaminophen marketed for infants has only been available ...

  17. Fully transparent and rollable electronics.

    PubMed

    Mativenga, Mallory; Geng, Di; Kim, Byungsoon; Jang, Jin

    2015-01-28

    Major obstacles toward the manufacture of transparent and flexible display screens include the difficulty of finding transparent and flexible semiconductors and electrodes, temperature restrictions of flexible plastic substrates, and bulging or warping of the flexible electronics during processing. Here we report the fabrication and performance of fully transparent and rollable thin-film transistor (TFT) circuits for display applications. The TFTs employ an amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide semiconductor (with optical band gap of 3.1 eV) and amorphous indium-zinc oxide transparent conductive electrodes, and are built on 15-μm-thick solution-processed colorless polyimide (CPI), resulting in optical transmittance >70% in the visible range. As the CPI supports processing temperatures >300 °C, TFT performance on plastic is similar to that on glass, with typical field-effect mobility, turn-on voltage, and subthreshold voltage swing of 12.7 ± 0.5 cm(2)/V·s, -1.7 ± 0.2 V, and 160 ± 29 mV/dec, respectively. There is no significant degradation after rolling the TFTs 100 times on a cylinder with a radius of 4 mm or when shift registers, each consisting of 40 TFTs, are operated while bent to a radius of 2 mm. For handling purposes, carrier glass is used during fabrication, together with a very thin (∼1 nm) solution-processed carbon nanotube (CNT)/graphene oxide (GO) backbone that is first spin-coated on the glass to decrease adhesion of the CPI to the glass; peel strength of the CPI from glass decreases from 0.43 to 0.10 N/cm, which eases the process of detachment performed after device fabrication. Given that the CNT/GO remains embedded under the CPI after detachment, it minimizes wrinkling and decreases the substrate's tensile elongation from 8.0% to 4.6%. Device performance is also stable under electrostatic discharge exposures up to 10 kV, as electrostatic charge can be released via the conducting CNTs. PMID:25526282

  18. Biometrics between opacity and transparency.

    PubMed

    Gutwirth, Serge

    2007-01-01

    The overall aim of the democratic constitutional state is to protect a social order in which the individual liberty of the citizen is a major concern. As a consequence the democratic constitutional state should guarantee simultaneously and paradoxically a high level of individual freedom and an order in which such freedom is made possible and guaranteed. Biometrics provide a strong and expressive example both of the necessity to address the issue of opacity and transparency and the complexity of the process. Indeed, the large scale use of biometrics does not only question the position of the individual in society, but it also alters the architecture or nature of this society as such.

  19. Care giving and nursing, work conditions and Humanitude®.

    PubMed

    Biquand, Sylvain; Zittel, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Increased lifespan in western societies causes the increase of hospitalization in the old age, notably for patient showing forms of dementia including Altzheimer disease. These patients relate poorly to care givers and nurses, and cases of maltreatment have repeatedly been reported. To prevent abuse and increase patient's quality of life, Gineste and Pelissier (2007) proposed a philosophy of care based on the Humanitude® concept. Acknowledging that being human is being vertical and related to other humans, the pillars of Humanitude® are gaze, touch, talk, and standing. These modes of relation are systematically developed in care giving techniques derived from the concept. After several studies in geriatric hospitals, to assess psychosocial and ergonomic aspects of work, we present an analysis of the gap between the logic of human care and the logic of hospital organization, impacting employees work conditions and psychological welfare. Care giving is not only a "one to one" relation with the patient but needs to be integrated in the whole organization. Psychologists and ergonomists should be instrumental in defining the project and the organization linking human care giving towards the patients and better work conditions for healthcare employees. PMID:22316980

  20. Thermal property of transparent silver nanowire films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. W.; Shin, D. K.; Ahn, J.; Lee, J. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Through a comparison with transparent polymer composite films, we investigate the thermal property of transparent silver nanowire (AgNW) films that may be employed for heat sink in transparent electronic devices. To fabricate transparent polymer composite films and enhance their thermal property, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution featuring high transparency (∼90%) and thermal emissivity (0.9) is mixed with thermal conductive fillers such as aluminum nitride (AlN) and silicon carbide (SiC). It is observed that the thermal emissivity of the AgNW films is decreased as the sheet resistance is reduced. However, we have found that the AgNW film shows the most excellent heat dissipation property (53.7 °C) while maintaining relatively higher transparency (77.1% at 520 nm), followed by the PMMA:SiC and then PMMA:AlN films.

  1. Metamaterial transparency induced by cooperative electromagnetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Stewart D; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2013-10-01

    We propose a cooperative asymmetry-induced transparency, CAIT, formed by collective excitations in metamaterial arrays of discrete resonators. CAIT can display a sharp transmission resonance even when the constituent resonators individually exhibit broad resonances. We further show how dynamically reconfiguring the metamaterial allows one to actively control the transparency. While reminiscent of electromagnetically induced transparency, which can be described by independent emitters, CAIT relies on a cooperative response resulting from strong radiative couplings between the resonators.

  2. Family care giving: what price love?

    PubMed

    Sterneck, J G

    1990-01-01

    The role played by family care givers is critical to the well-being of their impaired elderly family members and to the well-being of society as a whole. Studies indicate that a key determinant of institutional placement is the breakdown of an older person's informal caregiving system. Given the demographics of our aging population and the medical advancements of recent years, the giving and receiving of care is an issue that will affect most individuals' daily lives during some part of the life cycle. The responsibilities for giving care will continue to fall more and more disproportionately upon elderly spouses who themselves may have health problems and upon daughters and daughters-in-law who often have work commitments outside the home and young children in the home. Giving care often results in financial, physical, social, and emotional problems and stresses. Current demographic trends such as marriage at a later age, the increasing number of divorces, fewer and later births, and the rising number of women in the work force will only serve to complicate the role conflicts and exacerbate the stresses of care giving on family members. In order for family care giving to continue--indeed, to raise it to a more productive and satisfactory level--a range of supportive fiscal, medical, and social services must be provided to families. National public policy must begin to address the needs of families by supporting options other than institutional care for the disabled elderly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10106870

  3. The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2012-01-01

    Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

  4. Adaptive lenses using transparent dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shian, Samuel; Diebold, Roger; Clarke, David

    2013-03-01

    Variable focal lenses, used in a vast number of applications such as endoscope, digital camera, binoculars, information storage, communication, and machine vision, are traditionally constructed as a lens system consisting of solid lenses and actuating mechanisms. However, such lens system is complex, bulky, inefficient, and costly. Each of these shortcomings can be addressed using an adaptive lens that performs as a lens system. In this presentation, we will show how we push the boundary of adaptive lens technology through the use of a transparent electroactive polymer actuator that is integral to the optics. Detail of our concepts and lens construction will be described as well as electromechanical and optical performances. Preliminary data indicate that our adaptive lens prototype is capable of varying its focus by more than 100%, which is higher than that of human eyes. Furthermore, we will show how our approach can be used to achieve certain controls over the lens characteristics such as adaptive aberration and optical axis, which are difficult or impossible to achieve in other adaptive lens configurations.

  5. The STAR-C power system with high-efficiency transparent thermionic converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Fitzpatrick, Gary O.; Ernst, Donald M.

    1991-01-01

    Described is an improvement to the STAR-C space nuclear power system concept in which the ``conventional'' thermionic converters are replaced with thermionic converters having ``transparent'' collectors. There are two variants of this new STAR-C design: one in which the ``transparent'' converters are located at the outside of the STAR-C core, as are the converters in the reference STAR-C, and the other in which the heat from the core is transported by heat pipes to the converters on the opposite side of the sheld from the reactor. The ``transparent'' thermionic converter is a recent novel concept based upon the use of sapphire or diamond as the converter collector base material (Fitzpatrick 1989). The actual collector is a thin semi-transparent surface layer of metal. The collector is therefore largely transparent in that the thermal radiation absorbed from the emitter is small. Reduction in the radiative loss from the emitter has the direct effect of increasing conversion efficiency. This transparent collector feature has been examined for application to ignited, unignited and quasi-vacuum mode converters (Fitzpatrick and Allen 1990a).

  6. Care giving as an occupational role in the dying process.

    PubMed

    Reid, C L; Reid, J K

    2000-01-01

    Being involved in the death and dying process as a professional, family member, friend, or patient means taking on an occupational role that will impact one's life. Types of occupational roles associated with death and dying, and how these roles influence the participants, are explored in relation to concepts presented in the Model of Human Occupation. Also addressed is the potential for a care-giving role to bring on distress in the form of role imbalance or role changes, or because of inability to adequately fulfill the role. Suggestions for seeking relative balance within and among roles are presented. PMID:23951991

  7. Can We Feel Physics Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…

  8. On the Nature of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninnes, L. E.

    It is difficult to give a precise meaning to the term "concept" because to specify any sense to the term is already to be using concepts. It is impossible to talk about concepts without at the same time having made epistemological and metaphysical commitments. If the epistemological and metaphysical commitments are inadequate, then the sense given…

  9. Biometrics between opacity and transparency.

    PubMed

    Gutwirth, Serge

    2007-01-01

    The overall aim of the democratic constitutional state is to protect a social order in which the individual liberty of the citizen is a major concern. As a consequence the democratic constitutional state should guarantee simultaneously and paradoxically a high level of individual freedom and an order in which such freedom is made possible and guaranteed. Biometrics provide a strong and expressive example both of the necessity to address the issue of opacity and transparency and the complexity of the process. Indeed, the large scale use of biometrics does not only question the position of the individual in society, but it also alters the architecture or nature of this society as such. PMID:17536155

  10. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  11. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  12. Children's Causal Attributions regarding Help Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cathleen L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Second- and third-grade children receiving no consequences or only social consequences for donating to needy peers attributed their behavior to a concern for the other child. Children receiving material consequences together with social consequences tended to attribute their help giving to external sources. (JMB)

  13. Community College Alumni: Predicting Who Gives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skari, Lisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Due to the decrease in public funding, community colleges are in a position where they need to generate private gifts. Alumni represent the largest untapped pool of prospective donors, and the success of alumni giving at 4-year institutions illustrates the potential that exists for community colleges. To develop effective fundraising strategies,…

  14. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  15. Recent developments in transparent spinel ceramic and composite windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jas; Chin, Geoff; Hunt, Michael; Sadowski, Bryan; Miklos, Fritz; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has pioneered the development of sintering processes for making highly transparent optical ceramics. For example, we have demonstrated the fabrication of record low absorption loss spinel as an exit window for High Energy Laser systems and rare earth doped Y2O3 and Lu2O3 for solid-state ceramic lasers. We have also developed thick spinel windows for submarine photonic masts and predicted the performance of an imaging system using testing and modeling. More recently, we have developed a novel approach of hot pressing where a transparent ceramic is produced in the net shape without requiring post polishing. This technology will result in significant cost savings associated with polishing the final optical element. We are also developing motheye structures on spinel surface to provide rugged anti-reflective solutions. We had earlier identified a Barium GalloGermanate (BGG) glass with matching index and expansion coefficient to spinel. We had demonstrated fabrication of a laminated dome for the Joint Air to Ground Missile (JAGM) program and the technology was transitioned to industry. We have pushed this technology further by developing a BGG glass - spinel ceramic transparent micro-composite, which can be processed well below spinel sintering temperatures. To address the relatively lower strength of BGG glass compared with spinel, we developed an ion-exchange process and achieved strengths up to 450 MPa. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  16. Broadband Absorbing Exciton-Plasmon Metafluids with Narrow Transparency Windows.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jihua; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Wheeler, Lance M; Besteiro, Lucas V; Hogan, Christopher J; Govorov, Alexander O; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2016-02-10

    Optical metafluids that consist of colloidal solutions of plasmonic and/or excitonic nanomaterials may play important roles as functional working fluids or as means for producing solid metamaterial coatings. The concept of a metafluid employed here is based on the picture that a single ballistic photon, propagating through the metafluid, interacts with a large collection of specifically designed optically active nanocrystals. We demonstrate water-based metafluids that act as broadband electromagnetic absorbers in a spectral range of 200-3300 nm and feature a tunable narrow (∼100 nm) transparency window in the visible-to-near-infrared region. To define this transparency window, we employ plasmonic gold nanorods. We utilize excitonic boron-doped silicon nanocrystals as opaque optical absorbers ("optical wall") in the UV and blue-green range of the spectrum. Water itself acts as an opaque "wall" in the near-infrared to infrared. We explore the limits of the concept of a "simple" metafluid by computationally testing and validating the effective medium approach based on the Beer-Lambert law. According to our simulations and experiments, particle aggregation and the associated decay of the window effect are one example of the failure of the simple metafluid concept due to strong interparticle interactions. PMID:26808215

  17. Physical impairment aware transparent optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antona, Jean-Christophe; Morea, Annalisa; Zami, Thierry; Leplingard, Florence

    2009-11-01

    As illustrated by optical fiber and optical amplification, optical telecommunications have appeared for the last ten years as one of the most promising candidates to increase the transmission capacities. More recently, the concept of optical transparency has been investigated and introduced: it consists of the optical routing of Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) channels without systematic optoelectronic processing at nodes, as long as propagation impairments remain acceptable [1]. This allows achieving less power-consuming, more scalable and flexible networks, and today partial optical transparency has become a reality in deployed systems. However, because of the evolution of traffic features, optical networks are facing new challenges such as demand for higher transmitted capacity, further upgradeability, and more automation. Making all these evolutions compliant on the same current network infrastructure with a minimum of upgrades is one of the main issues for equipment vendors and operators. Hence, an automatic and efficient management of the network needs a control plan aware of the expected Quality of Transmission (QoT) of the connections to set-up with respect to numerous parameters such as: the services demanded by the customers in terms of protection/restoration; the modulation rate and format of the connection under test and also of its adjacent WDM channels; the engineering rules of the network elements traversed with an accurate knowledge of the associated physical impairments. Whatever the method and/or the technology used to collect this information, the issue about its accuracy is one of the main concerns of the network system vendors, because an inaccurate knowledge could yield a sub-optimal dimensioning and so additional costs when installing the network in the field. Previous studies [1], [2] illustrated the impact of this knowledge accuracy on the ability to predict the connection feasibility. After describing usual methods to build

  18. Transparency of Vocational Qualifications: The Leonardo da Vinci Approach. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pettersson, Sten

    This report gives an overview of the situation of transparency of vocational qualifications by presenting measures introduced at the European Community level and by drawing attention to projects within the Leonardo da Vinci Program dealing with the issue. A 16-page executive summary appears first. Chapter 1 provides general background and aims.…

  19. Highly Anisotropic, Highly Transparent Wood Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingwei; Song, Jianwei; Li, Tian; Gong, Amy; Wang, Yanbin; Dai, Jiaqi; Yao, Yonggang; Luo, Wei; Henderson, Doug; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, two types of highly anisotropic, highly transparent wood composites are demonstrated by taking advantage of the macro-structures in original wood. These wood composites are highly transparent with a total transmittance up to 90% but exhibit dramatically different optical and mechanical properties.

  20. Hovercraft Project Gives Learning a Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benini, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an activity for the author's Principles of Technology class in which students bring together the concepts of force, work, and rate, and show how they apply to mechanical, fluid, electrical, and thermal systems by building and flying a hovercraft. Building, testing, flying, and racing hovercrafts isn't something very many…

  1. Giving E-Commerce a Boost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A former Ames employee, Monte Zweben, founded a new company, Blue Martini Software, that provides software to companies seeking to personalize their products to individual customers. This customer targeting approach is accomplished through the use of artificial intelligence concepts Zweben worked on while at Ames. The Ames AI research has found applications in clickstream mining and purchasing behavior data collection.

  2. Oboe Transparency Results - Oboes 1-9

    SciTech Connect

    Heinle, R A

    2002-10-15

    The motivation for the ''Transparency'' experiment is that DOE/DP would like to have data available to show to interested parties, such as the JASONs. The U1a subcritical experiments are consistent with U.S. policy on nuclear testing. This would be done in a spirit of ''Transparency'' if doubts should arise. Thus, the objective of the ''Transparency'' measurements on the Oboe series is to place an upper bound on the nuclear energy released in the subcritical experiments. Two separate experimental packages cover the transparency measurement issue thoroughly. These are: (1) Neutron Track-Etch Dosimetry. (2) Scintillator Fission Neutron/Gamma Rate Measurement. Because the containment barrier is only 1-inch steel, plus 6-inch shotcrete, it is quite transparent to fission neutrons and, thus, both experiments can be mounted outside the containment barrier and can be recovered post shot. An additional group of dosimeters was placed on the lid of the vessel for greater sensitivity.

  3. Tunable Broadband Printed Carbon Transparent Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Wan, Jiayu

    Transparent conductors have been widely applied in solar cells, transparent smart skins, and sensing/imaging antennas, etc. Carbon-based transparent conductor has attracted great attention for its low cost and broad range transparency. Ion intercalation has been known to highly dope graphitic materials, thereby tuning materials' optoelectronic properties. For the first time, we successfully tune the optical transmittance of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/CNT network from mid-IR range to visible range by means of Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. We also observed a simultaneous increase of the electrical conductivity with the Li-ion intercalation. This printed carbon hybrid thin film was prepared through all solution processes and was easily scalable. This study demonstrates the possibility of using ion intercalation for low cost, tunable broadband transparent conductors.

  4. 'I give staff time to care'.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Clare

    Flo Panel-Coates is working to improve care at a heavily criticised NHS trust. Since taking on the director of nursing post in October 2012, she has secured more support for ward leaders, giving them time to do their job, improved the skill mix of staff, and cut senior nurses' paperwork. Ensuring staff work consistently to the highest standard is the NHS's biggest challenge, she says.

  5. X-ray transparent Microfluidics for Protein Crystallization and Biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opathalage, Achini

    Protein crystallization demands the fundamental understanding of nucleation and applying techniques to find the optimal conditions to achieve the kinetic pathway for a large and defect free crystal. Classical nucleation theory predicts that the nucleation occurs at high supersaturation conditions. In this dissertation we sought out to develop techniques to attain optimal supersaturation profile to a large defect free crystal and subject it to in-situ X-ray diffraction using microfluidics. We have developed an emulsion-based serial crystallographic technology in nanolitre-sized droplets of protein solution encapsulated in to nucleate one crystal per drop. Diffraction data are measured, one crystal at a time, from a series of room temperature crystals stored on an X-ray semi-transparent microfluidic chip, and a 93% complete data set is obtained by merging single diffraction frames taken from different un-oriented crystals. As proof of concept, the structure of Glucose Isomerase was solved to 2.1 A. We have developed a suite of X-ray semi-transparent micrfluidic devices which enables; controlled evaporation as a method of increasing supersaturation and manipulating the phase space of proteins and small molecules. We exploited the inherently high water permeability of the thin X-ray semi-transparent devices as a mean of increasing the supersaturation by controlling the evaporation. We fabricated the X-ray semi-transparent version of the PhaseChip with a thin PDMS membrane by which the storage and the reservoir layers are separated, and studies the phase transition of amorphous CaCO3.

  6. Transparencies. Art Education: Art I 6673.03, CM Art I 6693.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Thomas F.

    This Quinmester Visual Arts course is offered to provide experience in the development and design of transparencies utilizing various audio-visual equipment. Designed for 9th through 12th grade students, with no prerequisite, emphasis is placed on the concept of projecting the creative efforts on a screen and using the elements of design. At the…

  7. Effect of Translucency on Transparency and Symbol Learning for Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept of iconicity, the iconicity hypothesis was emphasized for decades. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of translucency on transparency and symbol learning for children with and without cerebral palsy. Twenty children with cerebral palsy and forty typical peers participated in the study. Ten symbols with high…

  8. The Search for the Onset of Color Transparency: a Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Dipangkar; Hafidi, Kawtar

    2012-07-01

    Color transparency (CT) refers to the vanishing of the hadron-nucleon interaction for hadrons produced inside a nucleus in high momentum exclusive processes. We briefly review the concept behind this unique quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phenomenon, the experimental search for its onset and the recent progress made at intermediate energies.

  9. Role-modeling and conversations about giving in the socialization of adolescent charitable giving and volunteering.

    PubMed

    Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering.

  10. Role-modeling and conversations about giving in the socialization of adolescent charitable giving and volunteering.

    PubMed

    Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering. PMID:24331305

  11. Advice on Giving a Scientific Talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    2006-04-01

    What makes one speaker exciting and another boring? You have been to good talks and you have sat through far too many poor ones, so what makes the difference? It doesn't really matter whether it is a scientific talk, a public talk or a classroom lecture: Your prime concern is to think about the audience. You are talking to them. You are performing. Look at them; talk to them; think about what they are hearing and seeing. They very much want you to give a good talk -- that is why they have chosen to be your audience. But at the start of your talk they are worried you might not, so they are nervous. Your first job is to relax them and get their trust that you are going to do a good job. Then you will relax and you will be off to a great start. Of course your content matters; if you have a great discovery, they will forgive you anything. But it is still better to make a good presentation. I give some advice here on what to do, and what not to do, when giving any kind of talk, but with emphasis on short scientific talks presented at conferences. You should be a little nervous at the start of a talk - that is caused by your concern to do a good job. With a good start your talk will flow, you will then present your discoveries, and with a good ending your audience will applaud appreciatively and want to ask you questions. You will have enjoyed performing and want to do it again. Speaking can be fun for you, and rewarding for your audiences.

  12. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses.

  13. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses. PMID:25087266

  14. CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASER, ROBERT

    REVIEWED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS THEY RELATE TO CONCEPT TEACHING. AN ANALYSIS IS MADE OF THE NATURE OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS IT IS STUDIED IN THE PSYCHOLOGIST'S LABORATORY, INCLUDING THE NATURE OF CONCEPT TASKS AS THEY APPEAR IN SUBJECT MATTER LEARNING. THE PRIMARY KINDS OF CONCEPT LEARNING SITUATIONS, INCLUDING THE…

  15. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  16. Concept of Operations: Essence

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, William J.

    2014-04-01

    This concept of operations is designed to give the reader a brief overview of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association’s Essence project and a description of the Essence device design. The data collected by the device, how the data are used, and how the data are protected are also discussed in this document.

  17. p-type transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Su; Fang, Guojia; Li, Chun; Xu, Sheng; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2006-06-01

    The recent advance of p-type transparent conductive oxide thin films is reviewed. The focus is on p-type transparent oxide semiconductors CuAlO2, CuGaO2, CuInO2, SrCu2O2, and LaCuOCh (Ch = chalcogen). These materials and related device applications are then shown as examples. Room temperature operation of current injection emission from ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on p-SCO/n-ZnO p-n junctions has been demonstrated. This changed with the discovery of p-type transparent conducting oxides, thereby opening up the possibility for all-oxide transparent electronics.

  18. Coloured Rings Produced on Transparent Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhr, Wilfried; Schlichting, H. Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful colored interference rings can be produced by using transparent plates such as window glass. A simple model explains this effect, which was described by Newton but has almost been forgotten. (Contains 11 figures.)

  19. Visual perception of thick transparent materials.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Roland W; Jäkel, Frank; Maloney, Laurence T

    2011-06-01

    Under typical viewing conditions, human observers readily distinguish between materials such as silk, marmalade, or granite, an achievement of the visual system that is poorly understood. Recognizing transparent materials is especially challenging. Previous work on the perception of transparency has focused on objects composed of flat, infinitely thin filters. In the experiments reported here, we considered thick transparent objects, such as ice cubes, which are irregular in shape and can vary in refractive index. An important part of the visual evidence signaling the presence of such objects is distortions in the perceived shape of other objects in the scene. We propose a new class of visual cues derived from the distortion field induced by thick transparent objects, and we provide experimental evidence that cues arising from the distortion field predict both the successes and the failures of human perception in judging refractive indices.

  20. Visual perception of thick transparent materials.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Roland W; Jäkel, Frank; Maloney, Laurence T

    2011-06-01

    Under typical viewing conditions, human observers readily distinguish between materials such as silk, marmalade, or granite, an achievement of the visual system that is poorly understood. Recognizing transparent materials is especially challenging. Previous work on the perception of transparency has focused on objects composed of flat, infinitely thin filters. In the experiments reported here, we considered thick transparent objects, such as ice cubes, which are irregular in shape and can vary in refractive index. An important part of the visual evidence signaling the presence of such objects is distortions in the perceived shape of other objects in the scene. We propose a new class of visual cues derived from the distortion field induced by thick transparent objects, and we provide experimental evidence that cues arising from the distortion field predict both the successes and the failures of human perception in judging refractive indices. PMID:21597102

  1. Motion-Driven Transparency and Opacity

    PubMed Central

    Anstis, Stuart; Ho, Alan

    2016-01-01

    When two adjacent surfaces move in step, this can generate a sensation of transparency, even in the absence of intersections. Stopping the motion of one surface makes it look suddenly opaque. PMID:27698992

  2. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhihua; Yang, Xu; Gu, Jianqiang; Jiang, Jun; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2013-05-31

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range.

  3. Induced Transparency and Absorption in Coupled Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok

    2004-01-01

    We review the conditions for the occurrence of coherence phenomena in passive coupled optical microresonators. We derive the effective steady-state response and determine conditions for induced transparency and absorption in these systems.

  4. Transparency Film for Demonstration of Biaxial Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Explains why transparency film demonstrates biaxial optical properties. Provides detailed descriptions of the procedure and equipment needed for large-scale optics demonstrations of the polarization interference pattern produced by biaxial crystals. (DDR)

  5. Transparency--"Deal or no deal"?

    PubMed

    Lutz, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, transparency is becoming an ideal worthy of Mom and apple pie, like quality in healthcare. Physicians, payers, hospitals, business associations, and organizations representing patients have all chimed in expressing support. At the local, state, and national levels a variety of transparency initiatives are under way. How will transparency affect the healthcare industry? Transparency could profoundly change today's balance of power, for it is about information, and information is power. As employers push more cost sharing to workers, hospitals and health systems will have to construct a pricing structure that is meaningful to consumers. What are providers to do? To be successful with this new demand, providers should make sure they are making quality information as well as pricing information available to consumers. They will have to know the market, know what their own prices mean, consider the customer, and reengineer business processes around the patient rather than around the billing side of business. PMID:17405388

  6. Transparent Soil for Imaging the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Downie, Helen; Holden, Nicola; Otten, Wilfred; Spiers, Andrew J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of soil processes is essential for addressing the global issues of food security, disease transmission and climate change. However, techniques for observing soil biology are lacking. We present a heterogeneous, porous, transparent substrate for in situ 3D imaging of living plants and root-associated microorganisms using particles of the transparent polymer, Nafion, and a solution with matching optical properties. Minerals and fluorescent dyes were adsorbed onto the Nafion particles for nutrient supply and imaging of pore size and geometry. Plant growth in transparent soil was similar to that in soil. We imaged colonization of lettuce roots by the human bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 showing micro-colony development. Micro-colonies may contribute to bacterial survival in soil. Transparent soil has applications in root biology, crop genetics and soil microbiology. PMID:22984484

  7. Giving birth. Voices of Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Kartchner, Robin; Callister, Lynn

    2003-06-01

    The meaning of the childbirth experience for Chinese women living in the People's Republic of China is described in this phenomenological study. Ten primiparous women participated in audiotaped interviews within 5 months of giving birth, 9 from Beijing and 1 from Chongqing. The interviews were translated by a bilingual native Chinese speaker and transcribed by the researcher. Themes were identified from the rich narrative data, including the One Child Policy's influence on childbearing, the transition to motherhood, and the influence of the cultural practice of "doing the month" (zuo yue zi). The findings provide insights into how nurses can provide better nursing care by learning about and validating specific cultural practices related to childbearing. The rising number of Chinese immigrants to the United States reflects the increasing need for more culturally competent care by nurses to ensure positive perinatal health outcomes.

  8. Do Market Incentives Crowd Out Charitable Giving?

    PubMed

    Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O

    2013-12-01

    Donations and volunteerism can be conceived as market transactions with a zero explicit price. However, evidence suggests people may not view zero as just another price when it comes to pro-social behavior. Thus, while markets might be expected to increase the supply of assets available to those in need, some worry such financial incentives will crowd out altruistic giving. This paper reports laboratory experiments directly investigating the degree to which market incentives crowd out large, discrete charitable donations in a setting related to deceased organ donation. The results suggest markets increase the supply of assets available to those in need. However, as some critics fear, market incentives disproportionately influence the relatively poor.

  9. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  10. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  11. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Duenow, Joel N.; Barnes, Teresa; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  12. Non-reciprocal Brillouin scattering induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhwan; Kuzyk, Mark C.; Han, Kewen; Wang, Hailin; Bahl, Gaurav

    2015-03-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency provides a powerful mechanism for controlling light propagation in a dielectric medium, and for producing slow and fast light. Electromagnetically induced transparency traditionally arises from destructive interference induced by a non-radiative coherence in an atomic system. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of light from propagating hypersonic acoustic waves has also been used successfully for the generation of slow and fast light. However, Electromagnetically induced transparency-type processes based on stimulated Brillouin scattering were considered infeasible because of the short coherence lifetime of hypersonic phonons. Here, we report a new Brillouin scattering induced transparency phenomenon generated by acousto-optic interaction of light with long-lived propagating phonons in a silica resonator. We demonstrate that Brillouin scattering induced transparency is uniquely non-reciprocal owing to the propagating acoustic wave and accompanying momentum conservation requirement. We also show that Brillouin scattering induced transparency enables ultralow-power ultralow-footprint slow-light generation with delay-bandwidth product comparable to state-of-the-art stimulated Brillouin scattering systems.

  13. Transparent polymer nanocomposites for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saotome, Tsuyoshi

    Transparent polymer nanocomposites (PNC) with carbon nano-fillers such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) or C60 fullerene were studied. Fabrication of PNC with covalently functionalized C60 fullerene, which acquired high visible light transparency, was performed to study how it would affect the optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the base polycarbonate (chapter two). Novel mechanical and chemical approaches were applied to a dilute CNT mat, a thin layer of fibrous multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), in order to investigate how those approaches would affect the optical and electrical properties of the CNT mat (chapter three and four). The objective of this study is to deepen our understanding of transparent PNC with carbon nano-fillers from optical, mechanical, thermal, and electrical perspectives. Based on these understandings, we propose a future plan to achieve multifunctional transparent PNC, which is mechanically robust and capable of generating electricity out of UV light when combined with p-CuAlO 2/n-ZnO transparent solar cell. Such multifunctional, transparent PNC can be applied to large space structures. An abstract of each study is detailed at the beginning of the individual chapters.

  14. Lutetium oxide-based transparent ceramic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Seeley, Zachary; Cherepy, Nerine; Kuntz, Joshua; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-19

    In one embodiment, a transparent ceramic of sintered nanoparticles includes gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with europium having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YEu.sub.YO.sub.3, where X is any value within a range from about 0.05 to about 0.45 and Y is any value within a range from about 0.01 to about 0.2, and where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm. In another embodiment, a transparent ceramic scintillator of sintered nanoparticles, includes a body of sintered nanoparticles including gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with a rare earth activator (RE) having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YRE.sub.YO.sub.3, where RE is selected from the group consisting of: Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy, where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm.

  15. Broadband Tunable Transparency in rf SQUID Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Jung, Philipp; Butz, Susanne; Ustinov, Alexey; Anlage, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a metamaterial with broadband tunable transparency in microwave electromagnetic fields. This metamaterial is made of Radio Frequency Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (rf SQUIDs). We show both experimentally and theoretically that the resonance of this metamaterial totally disappears when illuminated with electromagnetic waves of certain power ranges, so that waves can propagate through the metamaterial with little dissipation in a wide frequency spectrum. Unlike traditional electromagnetically induced transparency, high transmission through this metamaterial is due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of the rf SQUID. Transparency occurs when the metamaterial enters its bistability regime. We can control the metamaterial to be transparent or opaque by switching between the two states depending on the initial conditions and signal scanning directions. We also show that the degree of transparency can be tuned by temperature, power of the incident wave, and dc magnetic field and discuss analytical and numerical models that reveal how to systematically control the transparency regime. The metamaterial has potential application in fast tunable digital filter, power limiter and auto-cloaking. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  16. Disorder-induced transparency in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with optical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yongyou Dong, Guangda; Zou, Bingsuo

    2014-05-07

    Disorder influence on photon transmission behavior is theoretically studied in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with a series of optical cavities. For this sake, we propose a concept of disorder-induced transparency appearing on the low-transmission spectral background. Two kinds of disorders, namely, disorders of optical cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases in the waveguide side coupled with optical cavities are considered to show the disorder-induced transparency. They both can induce the optical transmission peaks on the low-transmission backgrounds. The statistical mean value of the transmission also increases with increasing the disorders of the cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases.

  17. Sun-tracking optical element realized using thermally activated transparency-switching material.

    PubMed

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Lilliu, Samuele; Chiesa, Matteo

    2015-07-27

    We present a proof of concept demonstration of a novel optical element: a light-responsive aperture that can track a moving light beam. The element is created using a thermally-activated transparency-switching material composed of paraffin wax and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Illumination of the material with a focused beam causes the formation of a localized transparency at the focal spot location, due to local heating caused by absorption of a portion of the incident light. An application is proposed in a new design for a self-tracking solar collector. PMID:26367692

  18. On the Quality of Collective Decisions in Sociotechnical Systems: Transparency, Fairness, and Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porello, Daniele

    The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for evaluating the quality of collective decisions in sociotechnical systems (STS). We propose using a foundational ontology for conceptualizing the complex hierarchy of information involved in decisions in STS (e.g., normative, conceptual, factual, perceptual). Moreover, we introduce the concept of transparency of decisions as a necessary condition in order to assess the quality of decision-making in STS. We further view transparency as an entitlement of the agent affected by the decision: i.e., the collective decision should be justified.

  19. Spectroscopic study of transparency current in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Revin, Dmitry G; Hassan, Randa S; Krysa, Andrey B; Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey; Kennedy, Kenneth; Atkins, Chris N; Cockburn, John W

    2012-08-13

    We report measurements which give direct insight into the origins of the transparency current for λ ~5 µm In0.6Ga0.4As/In0.42Al0.58As quantum cascade lasers in the temperature range of 80-280 K. The transparency current values have been found from broadband transmission measurements through the laser waveguides under sub-threshold operating conditions. Two active region designs were compared. The active region of the first laser is based on double-LO-phonon relaxation approach, while the second device has only one lower level, without specially designed resonant LO-phonon assisted depopulation. It is shown that transparency current contributes more than 70% to the magnitude of threshold current at high temperatures for both designs.

  20. A Columbine study: giving voice, hearing meaning.

    PubMed

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2008-01-01

    On a quiet spring morning, the 20th of April 1999, Columbine High School emerged from relative anonymity as a typical suburban high school and became internationally recognized as a symbol of school violence and tragic loss. As a parent whose child was in the school at the time of the attack, I struggled to make sense of the tragedy. I decided to conduct research into the experience as a way to learn lessons that might help others exposed to community-wide trauma in the future. Through modified oral history interviews of other Columbine parents in combination with other qualitative research strategies, I collected and studied stories of the events of that day and the years following. An unexpected by-product emerged from the study, for it seemed that I was not only learning about crisis response and trauma care but also offering a means for parents to gain comfort in reflecting on their own experience. This paper describes the distinct approach that I employed to create a gateway to understanding this experience. It does not explicate the findings of the Columbine study but instead explores the potential for positive outcomes for those who, by giving voice to their stories, can connect to a deeper appreciation for their own experience. PMID:19256102

  1. A Columbine study: giving voice, hearing meaning.

    PubMed

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2008-01-01

    On a quiet spring morning, the 20th of April 1999, Columbine High School emerged from relative anonymity as a typical suburban high school and became internationally recognized as a symbol of school violence and tragic loss. As a parent whose child was in the school at the time of the attack, I struggled to make sense of the tragedy. I decided to conduct research into the experience as a way to learn lessons that might help others exposed to community-wide trauma in the future. Through modified oral history interviews of other Columbine parents in combination with other qualitative research strategies, I collected and studied stories of the events of that day and the years following. An unexpected by-product emerged from the study, for it seemed that I was not only learning about crisis response and trauma care but also offering a means for parents to gain comfort in reflecting on their own experience. This paper describes the distinct approach that I employed to create a gateway to understanding this experience. It does not explicate the findings of the Columbine study but instead explores the potential for positive outcomes for those who, by giving voice to their stories, can connect to a deeper appreciation for their own experience.

  2. Still Giving Thanks for Good Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Still Giving Thanks for Good Health (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this full-circle panorama of the region near 'Husband Hill' (the peak just to the left of center) over the Thanksgiving holiday, before ascending farther. Both the Spirit and Opportunity rovers are still going strong, more than a year after landing on Mars.

    This 360-degree view combines 243 images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera over several martian days, or sols, from sol 318 (Nov. 24, 2004) to sol 325 (Dec. 2, 2004). It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from images taken through the camera's 750-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. The view is presented here in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit is now driving up the slope of Husband Hill along a path about one-quarter of the way from the left side of this mosaic.

  3. Stereo transparency and the disparity gradient limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKee, Suzanne P.; Verghese, Preeti

    2002-01-01

    Several studies (Vision Research 15 (1975) 583; Perception 9 (1980) 671) have shown that binocular fusion is limited by the disparity gradient (disparity/distance) separating image points, rather than by their absolute disparity values. Points separated by a gradient >1 appear diplopic. These results are sometimes interpreted as a constraint on human stereo matching, rather than a constraint on fusion. Here we have used psychophysical measurements on stereo transparency to show that human stereo matching is not constrained by a gradient of 1. We created transparent surfaces composed of many pairs of dots, in which each member of a pair was assigned a disparity equal and opposite to the disparity of the other member. For example, each pair could be composed of one dot with a crossed disparity of 6' and the other with uncrossed disparity of 6', vertically separated by a parametrically varied distance. When the vertical separation between the paired dots was small, the disparity gradient for each pair was very steep. Nevertheless, these opponent-disparity dot pairs produced a striking appearance of two transparent surfaces for disparity gradients ranging between 0.5 and 3. The apparent depth separating the two transparent planes was correctly matched to an equivalent disparity defined by two opaque surfaces. A test target presented between the two transparent planes was easily detected, indicating robust segregation of the disparities associated with the paired dots into two transparent surfaces with few mismatches in the target plane. Our simulations using the Tsai-Victor model show that the response profiles produced by scaled disparity-energy mechanisms can account for many of our results on the transparency generated by steep gradients.

  4. Design Concepts. Teacher Edition. Marketing Education LAPs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Jana

    This learning activity packet is designed to help prepare students to acquire a competency: how to use design concepts in preparation for a career in the fashion industry. The unit consists of the competency, four objectives, suggested learning activities, transparency masters, and a pretest/posttest with answer keys. Activities include a…

  5. A Visual Approach to Algebra Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morelli, Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities to visually explore the algebraic concepts of variable, constant, the distributive property, and combining like terms. Presents four transparencies that use visual models to understand exercises in students perform the same mental calculations on a number of their choice and obtain the same result. (MDH)

  6. Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

  7. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  8. Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, R. A.; Zhu, H.; Preston, Colin; LeMieux, M.; Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Hu, L. Salamanca-Riba, L. G.; Mansour, A.; Zavalij, P. Y.; Rabin, O.

    2015-05-11

    Researchers seeking to enhance the properties of metals have long pursued incorporating carbon in the metallic host lattice in order to combine the strongly bonded electrons in the metal lattice that yield high ampacity and the free electrons available in carbon nanostructures that give rise to high conductivity. The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of carbon incorporated in concentrations up to 5 wt. % (∼22 at. %) into the crystal structure of copper. Carbon nanoparticles of 5 nm–200 nm in diameter in an interconnecting carbon matrix are formed within the bulk Cu samples. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the C-Cu binary phase diagram. This material, so-called, Cu covetic, makes deposition of Cu films containing carbon with similar microstructure to the metal possible. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors.

  9. Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilper, Dan; Jensen, Rich; Petermann, Klaus; Karasek, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    Guest Feature Editors

    Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors

    Submission deadline: 15 June 2007
    Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications. More than a decade of research and development on transparent network technologies together with the requisite traffic growth has culminated in the recent deployment of commercial optically transparent systems. Although many of the traditional research goals of optical transmission remain important, optical transparency introduces new challenges. Greater emphasis is placed on system efficiency and control. The goal of minimizing signal terminations, which has been pursued through increasing reach and channel capacity, also can be realized through wavelength routing techniques. Rather than bounding system operation by rigid engineering rules, the physical layer is controlled and managed by automation tools. Many static signal impairments become dynamic due to network reconfiguration and transient fault events. Recently new directions in transmission research have emerged to address transparent networking problems. This special issue of the Journal of Optical Networking will examine the technologies and theory underpinning transmission in optically transparent core networks, including both metropolitan and long haul systems.

    Scope of Submission

    The special issue editors are soliciting high-quality original research papers related to transmission in optically transparent core networks. Although this does not include edge networks such as access or enterprise networks, core networks that have access capabilities will be considered in scope as will topics

  10. Promoting Improved Ballistic Resistance of Transparent Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Patel, P; Templeton, D W

    2011-01-01

    Transparent armor is a material or system of materials designed to be optically transparent, yet protect from fragmentation or ballistic impacts. Although engineered to defeat specific threats, or a range of threats, there are general requirements common to all of these designs. The primary requirement for a transparent armor system is to not only defeat the designated threat but also provide a multi-hit capability with minimized distortion of surrounding areas. Ground platforms have several parameters that must be optimized, such as weight, space efficiency, and cost versus performance. Glass exhibits tensile failure stress that is very much dependent on the amount of material being stressed, the side being tensile-stressed (i.e., air-versus tin-side if a float glass), and where it is being tensile stressed (i.e., in the middle or near an edge). An axiom arising from those effects is a greater amount of allowable deflection (i.e., higher failure stress) of a ballistically impacted transparent armor will result in improved ballistic resistance. Therefore, the interpretation and management of those tensile-failure-stress dependencies shall ultimately improve ballistic resistance and its predictability of transparent armor. Each of those three dependencies (size, side, and location) in a soda-lime silicate glass is described.

  11. Transparent Metal-Salt-Filled Polymeric Radiation Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David; Lennhoff, John; Harris, George

    2003-01-01

    "COR-RA" (colorless atomic oxygen resistant -- radiation shield) is the name of a transparent polymeric material filled with x-ray-absorbing salts of lead, bismuth, cesium, and thorium. COR-RA is suitable for use in shielding personnel against bremsstrahlung radiation from electron-beam welding and industrial and medical x-ray equipment. In comparison with lead-foil and leaded-glass shields that give equivalent protection against x-rays (see table), COR-RA shields are mechanically more durable. COR-RA absorbs not only x-rays but also neutrons and rays without adverse effects on optical or mechanical performance. The formulation of COR-RA with the most favorable mechanical-durability and optical properties contains 22 weight percent of bismuth to absorb x-rays, plus 45 atomic percent hydrogen for shielding against neutrons.

  12. Double electromagnetically induced transparency and its application in quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zeng-Bin; Marzlin, Karl-Peter; Sanders, Barry C.

    2006-08-01

    Strong optical cross-phase modulation (XPM) for weak fields is tremendously important for optical quantum information (QI) processing and for all-optical switches in classical communication. A sufficiently large XPM would allow the design of deterministic controlled quantum gates for photonic qubits and thus enable universal optical quantum computation. Recently, several proposals have been brought forward to create large XPM using double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) in which two weak signal light pulses travel at equally slow group velocity, but creating DEIT still poses an experimental challenge. We give a brief overview about DEIT and discuss its applications and limitations. A scheme that combines the best features of previous proposals and optimizes the large XPM parameter for DEIT schemes is outlined. Finally we devise a scheme to perform universal quantum information processing, which respects the bound on the achievable nonlinearity and addresses the requirement of quantum error correction.

  13. Preparation and properties of transparent conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Transparent, electrically conductive films have been prepared from several different metal oxides, including those of tin, indium and zinc. Deposition methods for these materials are reviewed, and their properties summarized and compared. A figure of merit for a transparent conductor may be defined as the ratio of the electrical conductivity to the optical absorption coefficient of the film. The figure of merit for fluorine-doped zinc oxide is shown to be larger than that of other transparent conductors, such as boron-doped zinc oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and tin-doped indium oxide. Physical, chemical and thermal durability, deposition temperature, and cost are other factors which may also influence the choice of material for a particular application.

  14. Transparency and public involvement in animal research.

    PubMed

    Pound, Pandora; Blaug, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    To be legitimate, research needs to be ethical, methodologically sound, of sufficient value to justify public expenditure and be transparent. Animal research has always been contested on ethical grounds, but there is now mounting evidence of poor scientific method, and growing doubts about its clinical value. So what of transparency? Here we examine the increasing focus on openness within animal research in the UK, analysing recent developments within the Home Office and within the main group representing the interests of the sector, Understanding Animal Research. We argue that, while important steps are being taken toward greater transparency, the legitimacy of animal research continues to be undermined by selective openness. We propose that openness could be increased through public involvement, and that this would bring about much needed improvements in animal research, as it has done in clinical research.

  15. Transparency and public involvement in animal research.

    PubMed

    Pound, Pandora; Blaug, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    To be legitimate, research needs to be ethical, methodologically sound, of sufficient value to justify public expenditure and be transparent. Animal research has always been contested on ethical grounds, but there is now mounting evidence of poor scientific method, and growing doubts about its clinical value. So what of transparency? Here we examine the increasing focus on openness within animal research in the UK, analysing recent developments within the Home Office and within the main group representing the interests of the sector, Understanding Animal Research. We argue that, while important steps are being taken toward greater transparency, the legitimacy of animal research continues to be undermined by selective openness. We propose that openness could be increased through public involvement, and that this would bring about much needed improvements in animal research, as it has done in clinical research. PMID:27256456

  16. Transparent Ceramic Scintillator Fabrication, Properties and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N J; Kuntz, J D; Roberts, J J; Hurst, T A; Drury, O B; Sanner, R D; Tillotson, T M; Payne, S A

    2008-08-24

    Transparent ceramics offer an alternative to single crystals for scintillator applications such as gamma ray spectroscopy and radiography. We have developed a versatile, scaleable fabrication method, using Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) to produce feedstock which is readily converted into phase-pure transparent ceramics. We measure integral light yields in excess of 80,000 Ph/MeV with Cerium-doped Garnets, and excellent optical quality. Avalanche photodiode readout of Garnets provides resolution near 6%. For radiography applications, Lutetium Oxide offers a high performance metric and is formable by ceramics processing. Scatter in transparent ceramics due to secondary phases is the principal limitation to optical quality, and afterglow issues that affect the scintillation performance are presently being addressed.

  17. Basic materials physics of transparent conducting oxides.

    PubMed

    Edwards, P P; Porch, A; Jones, M O; Morgan, D V; Perks, R M

    2004-10-01

    Materials displaying the remarkable combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency already from the basis of many important technological applications, including flat panel displays, solar energy capture and other opto-electronic devices. Here we present the basic materials physics of these important materials centred on the nature of the doping process to generate n-type conductivity in transparent conducting oxides, the associated transition to the metallic (conducting) state and the detailed properties of the degenerate itinerant electron gas. The aim is to fully understand the origins of the basic performance limits of known materials and to set the scene for new or improved materials which will breach those limits for new-generation transparent conducting materials, either oxides, or beyond oxides. PMID:15452622

  18. Switchable invisibility cloak, anticloak, transparent cloak, superscatterer, and illusion for the Laplace equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong Feng; Mei, Zhong Lei; Yang, Xin Yu; Ma, Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-04-01

    For ideal invisibility cloaks, electromagnetic radiations cannot penetrate through the cloaking shell. However, researchers have suggested that the originally hidden object with a cloaking shell is visible to the outside world when it is covered by an "anticloak." In this paper, we give the first experimental verification of the "anticloak" for the Laplace equation, which requires negative conductivity profiles. The proposed device consists of two layers—the cloak and anticloak, which can work individually or collectively and give rise to different functions. Functionality switching among the invisibility cloak, anticloak, transparent cloak, superscatterer, and illusion is suggested and demonstrated. Based on the circuit theory, we fabricate a switching resistor network with both positive and negative resistors to emulate the cloaking and anticloaking interactions. The switchable cloaking, anticloaking, transparent, superscatterer, and illusion performances are confirmed by the experiments and/or numerical simulations.

  19. P-type transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauber, Renaud Emmanuel

    2003-10-01

    Transparent conductors have important energy and general technology applications as transparent front contacts to photovoltaic cells, electrochromic windows and flat panel displays. Conventional transparent conductors such as SnO 2 are n-type (electron) conductors. As yet, there are no comparable, p-type (hole) analogues. However, researchers have recently reported that CuAlO2, N:ZnO and SrCu2O2 films (among others) may be viable p-type transparent conductors, albeit with carrier concentrations three orders of magnitude lower than n-type SnO2. If these materials could be more effectively hole-doped, they would enhance existing technologies and enable new photovoltaic designs through improved transparent contacts to p-type materials and as possible heterojunction partners. This thesis describes our program for growing and evaluating CuAlO2, ZnO and SrCu 2O2 thin films for use as p-type transparent conductors. Our work on CuAlO2 focused on the optimization of crystal growth and transport properties by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and sputtering. The films with the best surface morphology and phase-purity were formed by annealing precursors that had been sputtered at room temperature at 940°C in 10T of O2. The phase-purity and transparency of these films is higher than any reported in the literature, and we provided the first experimental confirmation of Kawazoe's work on CuAlO2 [1] as a potential p-type conductor. We also attempted to make transparent electrically conductive p-type ZnO by PLD and sputtering using N2, N2O, NO, and NH 3 gases. Expanding on the work of Kawai and coworkers [2,3], we used an ion source, rather than an ECR source in the PLD chamber to dissociate N2O gas, and explored the use of aluminum in addition to gallium as potential co-dopants. The most promising results have been obtained with DC reactive sputtering of un-doped zinc metal targets in NO or NH3. A three to six order of magnitude reduction in n-type conductivity occurred when 2% of

  20. Nuclear transparencies from photoinduced pion production

    SciTech Connect

    W. Cosyn; M.C. Martinez; J. Ryckebusch; B. Van Overmeire

    2006-12-01

    We present a relativistic and cross-section factorized framework for computing nuclear transparencies extracted from A({gamma}, {pi} N) reactions at intermediate energies. The proposed quantum mechanical model adopts a relativistic extension to the multiple-scattering Glauber approximation to account for the final state interactions of the ejected nucleon and pion. The theoretical predictions are compared against the experimental {sup 4}He({gamma},p {pi}{sup -}) data from Jefferson Lab. For those data, our results show no conclusive evidence for the onset of mechanisms related to color transparency.

  1. Transparent conductive coatings in the far ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jongmin; Zukic, Muamer; Park, Jung HO; Wilson, Michele M.; Keffer, Charles E.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    In certain cases a space-borne optical instrument with a dielectric window requires a transparent conductive coating deposited on the window to remove the electrostatic charge collected due to the bombardment of ionized particles. Semiconductor and metal films are studied for use as transparent conductive coatings for the front window of far ultraviolet camera. Cr is found to be the best coating material. The theoretical search for the semiconductor and metal coating materials and experimental results for ITO and Cr films are reported.

  2. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  3. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  4. New concept for organic light-emitting devices under high excitations using emission from a metal-free area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, Irma; Fischer, Axel; Gutsche, Stefan; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Lenk, Simone; Reineke, Sebastian; Leo, Karl

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new organic light-emitting device (OLED) structure is proposed that allows light-emission from a metal-free device region, thus reducing the hurdles towards an electrically pumped organic solid state laser (OSL). Our design concept employs a stepwise change from a highly conductive but opaque metal part to a highly transparent but less conductive intrinsic emission layer. Here, the high current densities are localized to an area of a few micrometer in square, which is in the range of the mode volume of the transverse mode of an organic vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Besides these experimental results, we present findings from simulations which further support the feasibility of our design concept. Using an equivalent circuit approach, representing the current flow in the device, we calculate the time-dependent length of the emission zone and give estimations for appropriate material parameters.

  5. Giving Students New Eyes: The Benefits of Having Students Find Media Clips to Illustrate Management Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Catherine L.; Anderson, Marc H.; Tyler, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    An extensive literature in management education addresses the pedagogical technique of showing video clips from feature films, animated films, and television shows. The bulk of this literature either asserts the benefits of using video clips or identifies specific clips and discusses how those clips can be effectively used to teach various…

  6. Where Are the Facts? "Jason's Gold" Gives Meaning to the Yukon Gold Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasta, Stephanie; Lott, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how fictional works can give a purposeful context and an appropriate venue for developing essential social studies concepts in middle-school students. The author uses the example of a National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) notable book, "Jason's Gold" that blends history with story to become historical…

  7. REPLY: Reply to 'Comments on "Optoelectronic properties of sprayed transparent and conducting indium doped zinc oxide thin films"'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, S. S.; Shinde, P. S.; Bhosale, C. H.; Rajpure, K. Y.

    2008-11-01

    This communication is a response to the comments made by Tiburcio-Silver and Castañeda on our recently published paper entitled 'Optoelectronic properties of sprayed transparent and conducting indium doped zinc oxide thin films'. Each one of the points questioned is clarified in order to give the respective reasons, and additional information is given that supports the content of our paper.

  8. Compliment-Giving among Filipino College Students: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojica, Leonisa A.

    2002-01-01

    Studies syntactic patterns in compliment-giving among Filipino students at six universities in Manila. Finds differences between male and female student compliment-giving patterns, such as greater frequency of female compliment-giving. Also finds sex differences in the purpose of compliment-giving. (PKP)

  9. Transparent superstrate terrestrial solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, and testing of the transparent solar cell module were examined. Cell performance and material process characteristics were determined by extensive tests and design modifications were made prior to preproduction fabrication. These tests included three cell submodules and two full size engineering modules. Along with hardware and test activity, engineering documentation was prepared and submitted.

  10. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  11. Transparency Master: Planaria in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Lauritz A.; Allen, A. Lester

    1983-01-01

    Background information on the morphology and physiology of planarians and uses of the organism in schools is provided. Also provided is a transparency master demonstrating a planarian with an everted proboscis, two-headed/two-tailed planarians, and a planarian demonstrating the digestive tract. (JN)

  12. 47 CFR 8.3 - Transparency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.3 Transparency. A person engaged in the provision of broadband Internet access service shall publicly disclose accurate information regarding the network management practices, performance, and commercial terms of its broadband...

  13. 47 CFR 8.3 - Transparency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.3 Transparency. A person engaged in the provision of broadband Internet access service shall publicly disclose accurate information regarding the network management practices, performance, and commercial terms of its broadband...

  14. 47 CFR 8.3 - Transparency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.3 Transparency. A person engaged in the provision of broadband Internet access service shall publicly disclose accurate information regarding the network management practices, performance, and commercial terms of its broadband...

  15. 47 CFR 8.3 - Transparency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.3 Transparency. A person engaged in the provision of broadband Internet access service shall publicly disclose accurate information regarding the network management practices, performance, and commercial terms of its broadband...

  16. Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huizhang; Lin, Na; Chen, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhenwei; Xie, Qingshui; Zheng, Tongchang; Gao, Na; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In pondering of new promising transparent conductors to replace the cost rising tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), metal nanowires have been widely concerned. Herein, we demonstrate an approach for successful synthesis of long and fine Cu nanowires (NWs) through a novel catalytic scheme involving nickel ions. Such Cu NWs in high aspect ratio (diameter of 16.2 ± 2 nm and length up to 40 μm) provide long distance for electron transport and, meanwhile, large space for light transmission. Transparent electrodes fabricated using the Cu NW ink achieve a low sheet resistance of 1.4 Ohm/sq at 14% transmittance and a high transparency of 93.1% at 51.5 Ohm/sq. The flexibility and stability were tested with 100-timebending by 180°and no resistance change occurred. Ohmic contact was achieved to the p- and n-GaN on blue light emitting diode chip and bright electroluminescence from the front face confirmed the excellent transparency. PMID:23900572

  17. Transparency Master: The Annual Aphid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessions, Mary Lynne

    1983-01-01

    Aphids, often referred to as plant lice, can be found in great numbers on stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. In many cases these organisms are potentially harmful to their plant hosts. Provided is a description of the annual life cycle of the aphid and an accompanying transparency master. (Author/JN)

  18. Transparent Watercolor. Art Education: 6673.07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, Jean E.

    An introductory course designed to develop skills and techniques in transparent watercolor offers an exploration of a variety of techniques emphasizing drawing and composition and allowing the student to create and matt his own paintings. Students in grades 7 through 12 develop competencies in flat and graded wash and dry and stipple brush…

  19. Semantic transparency affects memory conjunction errors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mungchen; Rotello, Caren M.

    2009-01-01

    Memory conjunction errors occur when aspects of two different events are falsely recognized or recalled as having occurred as parts of the same event. One theoretical account of conjunction errors is rooted in traditional dual-process models of recognition judgments, in which responses are based on an item’s familiarity or the retrieval of recollected details associated with the encoding of that item. We manipulated the familiarity of test probes by varying their semantic overlap with studied items, taking advantage of the inherent semantic transparency of compound words. Transparent compounds are those whose component parts (lexemes) are semantically related to the meaning of the entire word. In contrast, opaque compounds’ lexemes do not contribute directly to the meaning of the compound. We showed that the familiarity of semantically transparent assembly lures created from their lexemes (study dog and house, test on doghouse) is greater than the familiarity of opaque assembly lures (study back and draw, test on drawback). A response-signal experiment revealed no evidence for the use of a recall-to-reject process for either semantically transparent or opaque lures. PMID:19966238

  20. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance.

  1. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Param H.; Hunt, Arlon J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

  2. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-09-04

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

  3. Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido Alzar, C. L.; Martinez, M. A. G.; Nussenzveig, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In a system of just two coupled harmonic oscillators subject to a harmonic driving force, we reproduce the phenomenology observed in EIT. We also describe a simple experiment with two linearly coupled RLC circuits which can be incorporated into an undergraduate laboratory.

  4. Color transparency experiments at higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Filippone, B.W.

    1994-04-01

    The phenomena of Color Transparency has recently attracted a significant amount of theoretical (and experimental) interest. With an increase in the CEBAF beam energy to 8 - 10 GeV, important new data on the process could become available. The present status of the experiments and future prospects at CEBAF are discussed.

  5. Lattice-induced transparency in planar metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-10-01

    Lattice modes are intrinsic to periodic structures and they can be easily tuned and controlled by changing the lattice constant of the structural array. Previous studies have revealed the excitation of sharp absorption resonances due to lattice mode coupling with the plasmonic resonances. Here, we report an experimental observation of a lattice-induced transparency (LIT) by coupling the first-order lattice mode (FOLM) to the structural resonance of a terahertz asymmetric split ring resonator. The observed sharp transparency is a result of the destructive interference between the bright mode and the FOLM assisted dark mode. As the FOLM is swept across the metamaterial resonance, the transparency band undergoes a large change in its bandwidth and resonance position. We propose a three-oscillator model to explain the underlying coupling mechanism in LIT system that shows good agreement with the observed results. Besides controlling the transparency behavior, LIT also shows a huge enhancement in its Q factor and exhibits a high group delay of 28 ps with an enhanced group index of 4.5 ×104 , which could be pivotal in ultrasensitive sensing and slow-light device applications.

  6. Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huizhang; Lin, Na; Chen, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhenwei; Xie, Qingshui; Zheng, Tongchang; Gao, Na; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2013-07-01

    In pondering of new promising transparent conductors to replace the cost rising tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), metal nanowires have been widely concerned. Herein, we demonstrate an approach for successful synthesis of long and fine Cu nanowires (NWs) through a novel catalytic scheme involving nickel ions. Such Cu NWs in high aspect ratio (diameter of 16.2 +/- 2 nm and length up to 40 μm) provide long distance for electron transport and, meanwhile, large space for light transmission. Transparent electrodes fabricated using the Cu NW ink achieve a low sheet resistance of 1.4 Ohm/sq at 14% transmittance and a high transparency of 93.1% at 51.5 Ohm/sq. The flexibility and stability were tested with 100-timebending by 180°and no resistance change occurred. Ohmic contact was achieved to the p- and n-GaN on blue light emitting diode chip and bright electroluminescence from the front face confirmed the excellent transparency.

  7. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Glatkowski, P. J.; Landis, D. A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  8. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  9. Glare-Tunable Transparent Electrochemical Smart Window Coupled with Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Takayuki; Shibasaki, Masaaki; Matsuzaki, Tatsuya; Nagata, Yujiro

    2013-04-01

    We fabricated a novel device assembled by coupling a transparent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED) and a glare-tunable transparent electrochemical device. This device could be operated in six different states, namely, (1) transparent, (2) mirror, (3) black, (4) dual emission, (5) single-side emission with mirror, and (6) single-side emission with black. Switching between each of these states could be tuned by varying/selecting the applied DC bias voltage. The device showed 63.8% transmittance in the transparent state, and 42.1% reflectance in the mirror state at 700 nm. Transmittance in both the mirror and black states was less than 0.1% in the visible range.

  10. 76 FR 1180 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Directive instructing executive departments and agencies to take specific actions to implement the principles of transparent, collaborative, and participatory government. The Open Government Directive was issued December 8, 2009. Under the leadership of Secretary of Health and Human Services,...

  11. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  12. A Method for Making Color-Lift Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines a procedure for making color-lift transparencies by using photos or drawings from glossy-stock (clay-coated paper) magazines and transparent contact paper. Includes possible periodicals as sources of biological illustrations. (DC)

  13. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  14. Transparent Laser Ceramics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, T

    2007-06-28

    LLNL has been using the largest transparent laser ceramics for the last two years in the solid-state heat capacity laser (SSHCL). The lab is very interested in extending the use of transparent ceramics to other laser applications. In this talk we will discuss work at the laboratory aimed at better understanding the sintering and the criteria needed for good ceramic transparency, the application of transparent ceramics in the SSHCL laser and possible new applications of tailored ceramics.

  15. An Excel sheet for inferring children's number-knower levels from give-N data.

    PubMed

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W; Lee, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Number-knower levels are a series of stages of number concept development in early childhood. A child's number-knower level is typically assessed using the give-N task. Although the task procedure has been highly refined, the standard ways of analyzing give-N data remain somewhat crude. Lee and Sarnecka (Cogn Sci 34:51-67, 2010, in press) have developed a Bayesian model of children's performance on the give-N task that allows knower level to be inferred in a more principled way. However, this model requires considerable expertise and computational effort to implement and apply to data. Here, we present an approximation to the model's inference that can be computed with Microsoft Excel. We demonstrate the accuracy of the approximation and provide instructions for its use. This makes the powerful inferential capabilities of the Bayesian model accessible to developmental researchers interested in estimating knower levels from give-N data.

  16. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving.

    PubMed

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  17. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20–74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19–89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  18. Transparent Information Systems through Gateways, Front Ends, Intermediaries, and Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E.

    1986-01-01

    Provides overview of design requirements for transparent information retrieval (implies that user sees through complexity of retrieval activities sequence). Highlights include need for transparent systems; history of transparent retrieval research; information retrieval functions (automated converters, routers, selectors, evaluators/analyzers);…

  19. Competing Triggers: Transparency and Opacity in Vowel Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimper, Wendell A.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation takes up the issue of transparency and opacity in vowel harmony--that is, when a segment is unable to undergo a harmony process, will it be skipped over by harmony (transparent) or will it prevent harmony from propagating further (opaque)? I argue that the choice between transparency and opacity is best understood as a…

  20. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Soules, Thomas F.

    2011-10-18

    According to one embodiment, a method for forming a transparent ceramic preform includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, adding the suspension to a mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the suspension in the mold for forming a preform. The suspension includes a dispersant but does not include a gelling agent. In another embodiment, a method includes creating a mixture without a gelling agent, the mixture including: inorganic particles, a solvent, and a dispersant. The inorganic particles have a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm. The method also includes agitating the mixture, adding the mixture to a mold, and curing the mixture in the mold at a temperature of less than about 80.degree. C. for forming a preform. Other methods for forming a transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several embodiments.

  1. Transparent superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic coatings.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liangliang; Gao, Di

    2010-01-01

    We report a facile process for fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic surfaces through assembly of silica nanoparticles and sacrificial polystyrene nanoparticles. The silica and polystyrene nanoparticles are first deposited by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The polystyrene nanoparticles are then removed by calcination, which leaves a porous network of silica nanoparticles. The cavities created by the sacrificial polystyrene particles form overhang structures on the surfaces. Modified with a fluorocarbon molecule, such surfaces are superhydrophobic and transparent. They also repel liquids with low surface tensions, such as hexadecane, due to the overhang structures that prevent liquids from getting into the air pockets even though the intrinsic contact angles of these liquids are less than 90 degrees. PMID:21043414

  2. Environmentally benign processing of YAG transparent wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Yiquan

    2015-12-01

    Transparent yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) wafers were successfully produced via aqueous tape casting and vacuum sintering techniques using a new environmentally friendly binder, a copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride with the commercial name ISOBAM (noted as ISOBAM). Aqueous YAG slurries were mixed by ball-milling, which was followed by de-gassing and tape casting of wafers. The final YAG green tapes were homogenous and flexible, and could be bent freely without cracking. After the drying and sintering processes, transparent YAG wafers were achieved. The microstructures of both the green tape and vacuum-sintered YAG ceramic were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Phase compositions were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical transmittance was measured in UV-VIS regions with the result that the transmittance is 82.6% at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  3. Transparent material thickness measurements by Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Pershin, Sergey M; Lednev, Vasily N; Yulmetov, Renat N; Klinkov, Vladimir K; Bunkin, Alexey F

    2015-07-01

    An efficient and simple and convenient technique for transparent samples thickness measurements by Raman spectroscopy is suggested. The elastic scattering can be effectively used for sample border indication if the refractive index changes more than 3%, while it fails to detect an ice-to-water border of floating ice. The alternative is to use Raman spectroscopy to detect the interface between different layers of transparent materials. The difference between the Raman spectra of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and water, and between ice and liquid water were employed to locate the PMMA-water and ice-water interfaces, while elastic scattering was used for air-solid surface detection. This approach yields an error of 2%-5% indicating that it is promising to express a remote and noninvasive thickness measurement technique in field experiments. PMID:26193136

  4. Transparent monolithic metal ion containing nanophase aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Risen, W. M., Jr.; Hu, X.; Ji, S.; Littrell, K.

    1999-12-01

    The formation of monolithic and transparent transition metal containing aerogels has been achieved through cooperative interactions of high molecular weight functionalized carbohydrates and silica precursors, which strongly influence the kinetics of gelation. After initial gelation, subsequent modification of the ligating character of the system, coordination of the group VIII metal ions, and supercritical extraction afford the aerogels. The structures at the nanophase level have been probed by photon and electron transmission and neutron scattering techniques to help elucidate the basis for structural integrity together with the small entity sizes that permit transparency in the visible range. They also help with understanding the chemical reactivities of the metal-containing sites in these very high surface area materials. These results are discussed in connection with new reaction studies.

  5. Transparent conducting materials: overview and recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deelen, Joop; Illiberi, Andrea; Hovestad, Arjan; Barbu, Ionut; Klerk, Lennaert; Buskens, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    An overview of different transparent conductors is given. In addition, atmospheric pressure CVD of ZnO resulted in conductivities below 1 mΩ cm for a temperature of 480°C, whereas at a process temperature of 200°C a value of 2 mΩ cm was obtained. Also atmospheric pressure spatial ALD was used to make conductive ZnO. Furthermore, the properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) can be enhanced by application of metallic grids. This way, sheet resistances of below 0.1 Ω/sq and transmittances above 85 % can be achieved. Modeling indicates that the performance of thin film cells can be enhanced by18% using a grid/TCO combination. Light scattering is a vital element of thin film solar cells and both texturization and multimaterial approaches for advanced light management such as plasmonics are discussed.

  6. Controlling optomechanically induced transparency through rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Zhu, Shiyao

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we describe controlling the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) phenomena through rotation. An optomechanical cavity, which is coupled to a weak probe field and to a strong drive field, is placed along the diameter of a rotating table. When the table rotates, the centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity because of which the transparency window in OMIT disappears. We further point out that OMIT can be recovered by shifting both the drive and probe frequencies simultaneously. We derived an analytic parameter to estimate the minimum angular velocity that can effect OMIT for a given optomechanical cavity. In other words, we describe turning on and turning off OMIT by controlling the rotation rate.

  7. Transparent superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic coatings.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liangliang; Gao, Di

    2010-01-01

    We report a facile process for fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic surfaces through assembly of silica nanoparticles and sacrificial polystyrene nanoparticles. The silica and polystyrene nanoparticles are first deposited by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The polystyrene nanoparticles are then removed by calcination, which leaves a porous network of silica nanoparticles. The cavities created by the sacrificial polystyrene particles form overhang structures on the surfaces. Modified with a fluorocarbon molecule, such surfaces are superhydrophobic and transparent. They also repel liquids with low surface tensions, such as hexadecane, due to the overhang structures that prevent liquids from getting into the air pockets even though the intrinsic contact angles of these liquids are less than 90 degrees.

  8. Transparent data service with multiple wireless access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Richard A.; Levesque, Allen H.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid introduction of digital wireless networks is an important part of the emerging digital communications scene. The introduction of Digital Cellular, LEO and GEO Satellites, and Personal Communications Services poses both a challenge and an opportunity for the data user. On the one hand wireless access will introduce significant new portable data services such as personal notebooks, paging, E-mail, and fax that will put the information age in the user's pocket. On the other hand the challenge of creating a seamless and transparent environment for the user in multiple access environments and across multiple network connections is formidable. A summary of the issues associated with developing techniques and standards that can support transparent and seamless data services is presented. The introduction of data services into the radio world represents a unique mix of RF channel problems, data protocol issues, and network issues. These problems require that experts from each of these disciplines fuse the individual technologies to support these services.

  9. Transparent magnetic photoresists for bioanalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Gach, Philip C; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2010-11-01

    Microfabricated devices possessing magnetic properties are of great utility in bioanalytical microdevices due to their controlled manipulation with external magnets. Current methods for creating magnetic microdevices yield a low-transparency material preventing light microscopy-based inspection of biological specimens on the structures. Uniformly transparent magnetic photoresists were developed for microdevices that require high transparency as well as consistent magnetism across the structure. Colloidal formation of 10 nm maghemite particles was minimized during addition to the negative photoresists SU-8 and 1002F through organic capping of the nanoparticles and utilization of solvent-based dispersion techniques. Photoresists with maghemite concentrations of 0.01-1% had a high transparency due to the even dispersal of maghemite nanoparticles within the polymer as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These magnetic photoresists were used to fabricate microstructures with aspect ratios up to 4:1 and a resolution of 3 μm. Various cell lines showed excellent adhesion and viability on the magnetic photoresists. An inspection of cells cultured on the magnetic photoresists with TEM showed cellular uptake of magnetic nanoparticles leeched from the photoresists. Cellular contamination by magnetic nanoparticles was eliminated by capping the magnetic photoresist surface with native 1002F photoresist or by removing the top layer of the magnetic photoresist through surface roughening. The utility of these magnetic photoresists was demonstrated by sorting single cells (HeLa, RBL and 3T3 cells) cultured on arrays of releasable magnetic micropallets. 100% of magnetic micropallets with attached cells were collected following release from the array. 85-92% of the collected cells expanded into colonies. The polymeric magnetic materials should find wide use in the fabrication of microstructures for bioanalytical technologies. PMID:20719380

  10. Measurement Of Composition In Transparent Model Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.; Perry, Gretchen L.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    Variation of FTIR technique developed to enable study of growth of cells of different solid phase in unidirectional solidification of these organic mixtures, which serve as transparent anologs of opaque monotectic metal alloys. Study of organic analogs expected to contribute to understanding of formation of aligned rods and particles in directional solidification of metal alloys. Advantage of technique is redistribution of material caused by solidification determined after fact, to very fine scale.

  11. Experiments On Transparent Conductive Films For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; De Groh, Kim K.; Hung, Ching-Cheh; Malave-Sanabria, Tania; Hambourger, Paul; Roig, David

    1995-01-01

    Report describes experiments on thin, transparent, electrically conductive films made, variously, of indium tin oxide covered by magnesium fluoride (ITO/MgF2), aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), or pure zinc oxide (ZnO). Films are candidates for application to such spacecraft components, including various optoelectronic devices and window surfaces that must be protected against buildup of static electric charge. On Earth, such films useful on heat mirrors, optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, and automotive and aircraft windows.

  12. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  13. Transparent heat-spreader for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo

    2014-11-04

    An optoelectronic cooling system is equally applicable to an LED collimator or a photovoltaic solar concentrator. A transparent fluid conveys heat from the optoelectronic chip to a hollow cover over the system aperture. The cooling system can keep a solar concentrator chip at the same temperature as found for a one-sun flat-plate solar cell. Natural convection or forced circulation can operate to convey heat from the chip to the cover.

  14. Capture and transparency in coarse quantized images.

    PubMed

    Morrone, M C; Burr, D C

    1997-09-01

    This study examines the effect of coarse quantization (blocking) on image recognition, and explores possible mechanisms. Thresholds for noise corruption showed that coarse quantization reduces drastically the recognizability of both faces and letters, well beyond the levels expected by equivalent blurring. Phase-shifting the spurious high frequencies introduced by the blocking (with an operation designed to leave both overall and local contrast unaffected, and feature localization) greatly improved recognizability of both faces and letters. For large phase shifts, the low spatial frequencies appear in transparency behind a grid structure of checks or lines. We also studied a more simple example of blocking, the checkerboard, that can be considered as a coarse quantized diagonal sinusoidal plaid. When one component of the plaid was contrast-inverted, it was seen in transparency against the checkerboard, while the other remained "captured" within the block structure. If the higher harmonics are then phase-shifted by pi, the contrast-reversed fundamental becomes captured and the other seen in transparency. Intermediate phase shifts of the higher harmonics cause intermediate effects, which we measured by adjusting the relative contrast of the fundamentals until neither orientation dominated. The contrast match varied considerably with the phase of the higher harmonics, over a range of about 1.5 log units. Simulations with the local energy model predicted qualitatively the results of the recognizability of both faces and letters, and quantitatively the apparent orientation of the modified checkerboard pattern. More generally, the model predicts the conditions under which an image will be "captured" by coarse quantization, or seen in transparency.

  15. Getting a charge out of transparent tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Randal

    2000-01-01

    When two pieces of transparent tape are placed on top of each other (sticky side to nonsticky side) and then separated, it is observed that one piece becomes negatively charged and the other positively charged. The sign of the charge on each piece depends on the brand of tape used. This phenomenon is frequently used to investigate the properties of charge and charged objects in introductory physics courses.

  16. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-14

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration.

  17. 27 CFR 29.51 - Failure to give notice; penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to give notice... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS STILLS AND MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS Stills § 29.51 Failure to give notice; penalty. Failure to give notice of manufacture of still or notice of setup of still...

  18. Rapid Dissolving-Debonding Strategy for Optically Transparent Paper Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinbo; Han, Xiaogang; Fang, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Fan; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Pengbo; Li, Jun; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Elspas, Raphael; Jiang, Yuhao; Liu, Detao; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-01-01

    Transparent paper is an alternative substrate for electronic devices due to its unique properties. However, energy-intensive and/or time-consuming procedures currently limit the scalable production of transparent paper. In this report, we demonstrate a rapid process to fabricate optically transparent paper with regenerative cellulose fibers (RCFs) by employing a dissolving-debonding strategy. The RCFs have an average width of 19.3 μm and length of several hundred microns and are prepared into transparent paper by vacuum filtration. This new dissolving-debonding approach enables high production efficiency while creating transparent paper with excellent optical and mechanical properties. PMID:26657809

  19. Who gives? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable giving, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility.

  20. Who gives? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable giving, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility. PMID:22985116

  1. The STAR-C nuclear power system with high-efficiency transparent thermionic converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Fitzpatrick, Gary O.; Ernst, Donald M.

    STAR-C is a nuclear space power concept for the power range of a few to 50 kWe per single unit for long duration applications. Here, an improvement to the STAR-C concept is described in which the 'conventional' thermionic converters are replaced by thermionic converters with 'transparent' collectors. The latter concept involves a collector consisting of a thin semitransparent surface layer of metal which absorbs little thermal radiation from the emitter. The reduction in radiative loss from the emitter increases conversion efficiency. Two variants of this concept are described: one in which the converters are located on the outside of the STAR-C core, and another in which the heat from the core is transported by heat pipes to the converters on the opposite side of the shield from the reactor.

  2. Interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, Roberto; Colonna, Daniele; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2013-02-11

    In this paper we analyze the interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells by varying fabrication parameters such as the thickness of the nano-crystalline TiO(2) layer, the dye loading and the dye type. Both transparency and efficiency show a saturation trend when plotted versus dye loading. By introducing the transparency-efficiency plot, we show that the relation between transparency and efficiency is linear and is almost independent on the TiO(2) thickness for a certain thickness range. On the contrary, the relation between transparency and efficiency depends strongly on the type of the dye. Moreover, we show that co-sensitization techniques can be effectively used to access regions of the transparency-efficiency space that are forbidden for single dye sensitization. The relation found between transparency and efficiency (T&E) can be the general guide for optimization of Dye Solar Cells in building integration applications.

  3. Transparent Conductive Nanofiber Paper for Foldable Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nogi, Masaya; Karakawa, Makoto; Komoda, Natsuki; Yagyu, Hitomi; Nge, Thi Thi

    2015-01-01

    Optically transparent nanofiber paper containing silver nanowires showed high electrical conductivity and maintained the high transparency, and low weight of the original transparent nanofiber paper. We demonstrated some procedures of optically transparent and electrically conductive cellulose nanofiber paper for lightweight and portable electronic devices. The nanofiber paper enhanced high conductivity without any post treatments such as heating or mechanical pressing, when cellulose nanofiber dispersions were dropped on a silver nanowire thin layer. The transparent conductive nanofiber paper showed high electrical durability in repeated folding tests, due to dual advantages of the hydrophilic affinity between cellulose and silver nanowires, and the entanglement between cellulose nanofibers and silver nanowires. Their optical transparency and electrical conductivity were as high as those of ITO glass. Therefore, using this conductive transparent paper, organic solar cells were produced that achieved a power conversion of 3.2%, which was as high as that of ITO-based solar cells. PMID:26607742

  4. Method of forming macro-structured high surface area transparent conductive oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Arnold J.; Chen, Zhebo; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-05

    A method of forming a high surface area transparent conducting electrode is provided that includes depositing a transparent conducting thin film on a conductive substrate, where the transparent conducting thin film includes transparent conductive particles and a solution-based transparent conducting adhesive layer which serves to coat and bind together the transparent conducting particles, and heat treating the transparent conducting adhesion layer on the conductive substrate, where an increased surface area transparent conducting electrode is formed.

  5. Transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors based on multilayer transparent source-drain electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yongsheng; Lin, Jie; Li, Yantao; Liu, Xingyuan

    2016-08-01

    A fabrication method for transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors with transparent Sb2O3/Ag/Sb2O3 (SAS) source and drain electrodes has been developed. A pentacene/N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (PTCDI-C13) bilayer heterojunction is used as the active semiconductor. The electrodes are deposited by room temperature electron beam evaporation. The devices are fabricated without damaging the active layers. The SAS electrodes have high transmittance (82.5%) and low sheet resistance (8 Ω/sq). High performance devices with hole and electron mobilities of 0.3 cm2/V s and 0.027 cm2/V s, respectively, and average visible range transmittance of 72% were obtained. These transistors have potential for transparent logic integrated circuit applications.

  6. Tuning optical properties of transparent conducting barium stannate by dimensional reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We report calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of doped n-type perovskite BaSnO{sub 3} and layered perovskites. While doped BaSnO{sub 3} retains its transparency for energies below the valence to conduction band onset, the doped layered compounds exhibit below band edge optical conductivity due to transitions from the lowest conduction band. This gives absorption in the visible for Ba{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}. Thus, it is important to minimize this phase in transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Ba{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Ba{sub 4}Sn{sub 3}O{sub 10} have strong transitions only in the red and infrared, respectively. Thus, there may be opportunities for using these as wavelength filtering TCO.

  7. Tuning optical properties of transparent conducting barium stannate by dimensional reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-30

    We report calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of doped n-type perovskite BaSnO3 and layered perovskites. While doped BaSnO3 retains its transparency for energies below the valence to conduction band onset, the doped layered compounds exhibit below band edge optical conductivity due to transitions from the lowest conduction band. This gives absorption in the visible for Ba2SnO4. It is important to minimize this phase in transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Ba3Sn2O7 and Ba4Sn3O10 have strong transitions only in the red and infrared, respectively. Thus, there may be opportunities for using these as wavelength filtering TCO.

  8. Electrochemical and Optical Evaluation of Noble Metal-and Carbon-ITO Hybrid Optically Transparent Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zudans, Imants; Paddock, Jean R.; Kuramitz, Hideki; Maghasi, Anne T.; Wansapura, Chamika M.; Conklin, Sean D.; Kaval, Necati; Shtoyko, Tanya; Monk, David J.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Richardson, John N.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2004-04-15

    Optically transparent hybrid electrodes were constructed by sputtering or thermally evaporating layers of varying thickness of Au, Pd, Pt, or C onto an existing conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) layer on glass. These electrodes were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry; redox probes examined were potassium ferricyanide, tris-(2, 2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride, hydroquinone, and para-aminophenol (PAP). Each type of hybrid was evaluated and compared with other hybrids, as well as with bare ITO electrodes and commercially available Au, Pt, and glassy carbon disk electrodes. Our results indicated that these hybrid electrodes are reasonably robust, easy to prepare, and extend the capabilities of bare ITO surfaces with respect to the electrochemical response (especially for organic redox probes), while giving up little in the way of optical transparency. Because of these characteristics, hybrid electrodes should be especially suited to many spectroelectrochemical applications.

  9. Tuning optical properties of transparent conducting barium stannate by dimensional reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-30

    We report calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of doped n-type perovskite BaSnO3 and layered perovskites. While doped BaSnO3 retains its transparency for energies below the valence to conduction band onset, the doped layered compounds exhibit below band edge optical conductivity due to transitions from the lowest conduction band. This gives absorption in the visible for Ba2SnO4. It is important to minimize this phase in transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Ba3Sn2O7 and Ba4Sn3O10 have strong transitions only in the red and infrared, respectively. Thus, there may be opportunities for using these as wavelength filtering TCO.

  10. Workshop II: Nanotechnology and Advanced Cell Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Workshop focused on few emerging concepts(beyond tandem cells): 1. Engineering incident sun spectrum and transparency losses a) Nano emitters (dot concentrator); b) Surface plasmonics; c) Up converters; d) Down converter. 2. Intermediate band solar cells a) Efficiency projections (detail energy balance projections); b) Inserting 0,1 and 2D semiconductor structures in solar cells 3. Polymer and hybrid cells a) Nanotubes/dot polymers; b) Exciton dissociation.

  11. Printed optically transparent graphene cellulose electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas; Andrushchenko, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    Optically transparent electrodes are a key component in variety of products including bioelectronics, touch screens, flexible displays, low emissivity windows, and photovoltaic cells. Although highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are often used in these electrode applications, the raw material is very expensive and the electrodes often fracture when mechanically stressed. An alternative low-cost material for inkjet printing transparent electrodes on glass and flexible polymer substrates is described in this paper. The water based ink is created by using a hydrophilic cellulose derivative, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), to help suspend the naturally hydrophobic graphene (G) sheets in a solvent composed of 70% DI water and 30% 2-butoxyethanol. The CMC chain has hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional sites which allow adsorption on G sheets and, therefore, permit the graphene to be stabilized in water by electrostatic and steric forces. Once deposited on the functionalized substrate the electrical conductivity of the printed films can be "tuned" by decomposing the cellulose stabilizer using thermal reduction. The entire electrode can be thermally reduced in an oven or portions of the electrode thermally modified using a laser annealing process. The thermal process can reduce the sheet resistance of G-CMC films to < 100 Ω/sq. Experimental studies show that the optical transmittance and sheet resistance of the G-CMC conductive electrode is a dependent on the film thickness (ie. superimposed printed layers). The printed electrodes have also been doped with AuCl3 to increase electrical conductivity without significantly increasing film thickness and, thereby, maintain high optical transparency.

  12. High-durability infrared transparent coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Tustison, Randal W.

    1994-09-01

    LWIR windows are exposed to harsh conditions during high speed flight. These include high speed rain drop impact, sand abrasion, corrosion, and aerothermodynamic load. With the possible exception of diamond, there are no LWIR transparent window/dome materials which can withstand these various environments. Rain erosion protective (REP) and oxide based abrasion resistant/oxidation resistant durable antireflection (DAR) coatings have been developed for LWIR applications. These coatings have demonstrated a substantial degree of raindrop impact protection (i.e., damage threshold velocities of approximately Mach 1, for 2 mm equivalent waterdrop impacts at normal incidence). The combination of REP + DAR coating have also demonstrated excellent resistance to sand abrasion in simulated flight environments. The high degree of abrasion resistance makes the DAR coatings applicable to ground based systems, using ZnS and ZnSe, windows as well. An additional advantage of the Raytheon REP + DAR combination is that they are transparent from the visible to the LWIR (8 to 12 mm), making them suitable for applications requiring broadband transparency. Furthermore, the DAR coatings have protected ZnS substrates from oxidation at temperatures up to 1000 degree(s)C. The combination of ZnS REP coating and DAR coating are ideally suited for protecting high speed LWIR missiles from rain and sand damage during captive carry, as well as protecting the dome/window from oxidation during high speed flight. Data are presented to demonstrate the rain/sand and oxidation protection provided by these coatings. The REP and DAR coatings have been scaled up to coat windows and domes for far infrared applications.

  13. Surface-scribed transparency-based microplates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin Ye; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Somers, Anthony; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2013-01-15

    Transparency sheets, which are normally associated with use on overhead projectors, offer lowered costs and high amenability for optical diagnostics in microplate instrumentation. An alternative microplate design in which circles are scribed on the surface of the transparency to create the boundaries to hold the drop in place is investigated here. The 3D profile of the scribed regions obtained optically showed strong likelihood of affecting three-phase contact line interactions. During dispensation, the contact angle (≈95°) was larger than the drop advancing state (≈80°) due to a period of nonadhesion, where the contact angle later reduced to the drop advancing state followed by increase in the liquid area coverage on the substrate. It was established that 50 μL was needed to fill the well fully, and the maximum volume retainable before breaching was 190 μL. While the tilt angle needed for displacement reduced significantly from 50 to 95 μL, this was markedly better than nonscribed surfaces, where tilt angles always had to be kept to within 30°. It was found that there was greater ability to fill the well with smaller volumes with dispensation at the center. This was attributed to the growing contact line not meeting the scribed edge in parallel if liquid was dispensed closer to it, wherein pinning reduction in some directions permitted liquid travel along the scribed edge to undergo contact angle hysteresis. Fluorescence measurements conducted showed no performance compromise when using scribed transparency microplates over standard microplates. PMID:23215012

  14. Satellite imagery and discourses of transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chad Vincent

    In the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in satellite imagery available in the commercial marketplace and to the public in general. Satellite imagery systems and imagery archives, a knowledge domain formally monopolized by nation states, have become available to the public, both from declassified intelligence data and from fully integrated commercial vendors who create and market imagery data. Some of these firms have recently launched their own satellite imagery systems and created rather large imagery "architectures" that threaten to rival military reconnaissance systems. The increasing resolution of the imagery and the growing expertise of software and imagery interpretation developers has engendered a public discourse about the potentials for increased transparency in national and global affairs. However, transparency is an attribute of satellite remote sensing and imagery production that is taken for granted in the debate surrounding the growing public availability of high-resolution satellite imagery. This paper examines remote sensing and military photo reconnaissance imagery technology and the production of satellite imagery in the interests of contemplating the complex connections between imagery satellites, historically situated discourses about democratic and global transparency, and the formation and maintenance of nation state systems. Broader historical connections will also be explored between satellite imagery and the history of the use of cartographic and geospatial technologies in the formation and administrative control of nation states and in the discursive formulation of national identity. Attention will be on the technology itself as a powerful social actor through its connection to both national sovereignty and transcendent notions of scientific objectivity. The issues of the paper will be explored through a close look at aerial photography and satellite imagery both as communicative tools of power and as culturally relevant

  15. Epitaxial Growth of Transparent Conductive Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Hiromichi; Orita, Masahiro; Hirano, Masahiro; Ueda, Kazushige; Hosono, Hideo

    Transparent conductive oxides of ITO, ZnO, β-Ga2O3, and CuGaO2 SrCu2O2 were grown on single crystal substrates of α-Al2O3 and YSZ by pulsed-laser deposition, and their crystallinity was evaluated by using high-resolution X-ray diffraction and electron microscope. Heteroepitaxial growth was observed in spite of relatively large lattice mismatches between film and substrate. A few disordered layers were generated automatically at film/substrate boundary, played buffer layer to suppress propagation of edge dislocations.

  16. Space radiation resistant transparent polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.

    1977-01-01

    A literature search in the field of ultraviolet and charged particle irradiation of polymers was utilized in an experimental program aimed at the development of radiation stable materials for space applications. The rationale utilized for material selection and the synthesis, characterization and testing performed on several selected materials is described. Among the materials tested for ultraviolet stability in vacuum were: polyethyleneoxide, polyvinylnaphthalene, and the amino resin synthesized by the condensation of o-hydroxybenzoguanamine with formaldehyde. Particularly interesting was the radiation behavior of poly(ethyleneoxide), irradiation did not cause degradation of optical properties but rather an improvement in transparency as indicated by a decrease in solar absorptance with increasing exposure time.

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Yanhong; Wang Tun; Baryakhtar, Maria; Jiang Liang; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Van Camp, Mackenzie; Crescimanno, Michael; Hohensee, Michael; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Phillips, David F.; Yelin, Susanne F.

    2009-10-15

    We demonstrate and characterize two coherent phenomena that can mitigate the effects of laser phase noise for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT): a laser-power-broadening-resistant resonance in the transmitted intensity cross correlation between EIT optical fields, and a resonant suppression of the conversion of laser phase noise to intensity noise when one-photon noise dominates over two-photon-detuning noise. Our experimental observations are in good agreement with both an intuitive physical picture and numerical calculations. The results have wide-ranging applications to spectroscopy, atomic clocks, and magnetometers.

  18. Transparent Seismic Mitigation for Community Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, C. D.; Pekelnicky, R.

    2008-12-01

    Healthy communities continuously grow by leveraging their intellectual capital to drive economic development while protecting their cultural heritage. Success, in part, depends on the support of a healthy built environment that is rooted in contemporary urban planning, sustainability and disaster resilience. Planners and policy makers are deeply concerned with all aspects of their communities, including its seismic safety. Their reluctance to implement the latest plans for achieving seismic safety is rooted in a misunderstanding of the hazard they face and the risk it poses to their built environment. Probabilistic lingo and public debate about how big the "big one" will be drives them to resort to their own experience and intuition. There is a fundamental lack of transparency related to what is expected to happen, and it is partially blocking the policy changes that are needed. The solution: craft the message in broad based, usable terms that name the hazard, defines performance, and establishes a set of performance goals that represent the resiliency needed to drive a community's natural ability to rebound from a major seismic event. By using transparent goals and measures with an intuitive vocabulary for both performance and hazard, earthquake professionals, working with the San Francisco Urban Planning and Research Association (SPUR), have defined a level of resiliency that needs to be achieved by the City of San Francisco to assure their response to an event will be manageable and full recovery achievable within three years. Five performance measures for buildings and three for lifeline systems have been defined. Each declares whether people will be safe inside, whether the building will be able to be repaired and whether they will be usable during repairs. Lifeline systems are further defined in terms of the time intervals to restore 90%, 95%, and full service. These transparent categories are used in conjunction with the expected earthquake level to describe

  19. Triplet absorption spectroscopy and electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoor, F.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.

    2016-09-01

    Coherence phenomena in a four-level atomic system, cyclically driven by three coherent fields, are investigated thoroughly at zero and weak magnetic fields. Each strongly interacting atomic state is converted to a triplet due to a dynamical Stark effect. Two dark lines with a Fano-like profile arise in the triplet absorption spectrum with anomalous dispersions. We provide conditions to control the widths of the transparency windows by means of the relative phase of the driving fields and the intensity of the microwave field, which closes the optical system loop. The effect of Doppler broadening on the results of the triplet absorption spectroscopy is analysed in detail.

  20. Transparent electromagnetic shielding enclosure with CVD graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Tong; Wu, Bian; Zhang, Yu; Hao, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Cavity resonant modes of shielding enclosure for housing electronic circuits may cause electromagnetic interference (EMI). Here, we present an effective approach by using graphene to suppress unwanted resonant modes while maintaining good transparency to visible light. The structure consists of graphene sheet on quartz substrate attached to the shielding enclosure made from indium tin oxide. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed approach can lead to good absorption of microwave waves at a wide frequency range from 5 to 12 GHz and high attenuation of cavity modes up to 20-30 dB. Its effectiveness of EMI shielding averaged 20 dB is proven to be comparable with conventional metallic enclosures.

  1. Transparent nanowire network electrode for textured semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinwei; Pei, Ke; Sun, Tianyi; Wang, Yaohui; Zhang, Linghai; Peng, Weijin; Lin, Qinggeng; Giersig, Michael; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Wang, Yang

    2013-03-11

    This work presents an inexpensive and easily manufacturable, highly conductive and transparent nanowire network electrode for textured semiconductors. It is based on lines of silver nanoparticles transformed into a nanowire network by microwave or furnace sintering. The nanonetwork electrode on crystalline silicon is demonstrated experimentally, with the nanoparticles self-assembling in the valleys between the pyramids of the textured surface. Optical experiments show that this conductive nanowire network electrode can be essentially 'invisible' when covered with the conventional anti-reflection coating (ARC), and thus could be employed in photovoltaic applications.

  2. Nanostructured transparent conducting oxide electrochromic device

    DOEpatents

    Milliron, Delia; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2016-05-17

    The embodiments described herein provide an electrochromic device. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic device includes (1) a substrate and (2) a film supported by the substrate, where the film includes transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes (a) an electrolyte, where the nanostructures are embedded in the electrolyte, resulting in an electrolyte, nanostructure mixture positioned above the substrate and (b) a counter electrode positioned above the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a conductive coating deposited on the substrate between the substrate and the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a second substrate positioned above the mixture.

  3. Dynamic failure of a transparent polycrystalline ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazamias, J. U.; Bless, S. J.; Simha, C. Hari Manoj; Hartnett, T. M.

    2000-04-01

    We have performed bar impact experiments on aluminum oxynitride (AlON), a transparent polycrystalline ceramic, measuring the peak stress and taking high-speed photographs. The peak stress measured in the AlON bars is 4 GPa, about 10% higher than that measured in AD-99.5 bars. Failure was observed propagating up the center of the bar, leaving the outer part intact at relatively late times. There was anomalous damage to the witness bar, similar to what happens with glass bars, indicating either retained strength in the center column or explosive fracture of the AlON bar.

  4. Advanced two-photon photolithography for patterning of transparent, electrically conductive ionic liquid-polymer nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtina, Natalia A.; MacKinnon, Neil; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in micro- and nanotechnology is the direct patterning of functional structures. For example, it is highly desirable to possess the ability to create three-dimensional (3D), conductive, and optically transparent structures. Efforts in this direction have, to date, yielded less than optimal results since the polymer composites had low optical transparency over the visible range, were only slightly conductive, or incompatible with high resolution structuring. We have previously presented the novel cross-linkable, conductive, highly transparent composite material based on a photoresist (IP-L 780, OrmoComp, or SU-8) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. Material patterning by conventional and two-photon photolithography has been demonstrated as proof-of-concept. Aiming to increase the resolution and to extend the spectrum of exciting applications we continued our research into identifying new ionic liquid - polymer composites. In this paper, we report the precise 3D single-step structuring of optically transparent and electrically conductive ionic liquid - polymer nanostructures with the highest spatial resolution (down to 150 nm) achieved to date. This was achieved via the development of novel cross-linkable composite based on the photoresist IP-G 780 and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. The successful combination of the developed material with the advanced direct laser writing technique enabled the time- and cost-saving direct manufacturing of transparent, electrically conductive components. We believe that the excellent characteristics of the structured material will open a wider range of exciting applications.

  5. Nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Newly eco-friendly high light transparency film with plant-based materials was investigated to future development of liquid crystal displays and optical devices with water repellency as a chemical design concept of nanoimprint lithography. This procedure is proven to be suitable for material design and the process conditions of ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency. The developed formulation of advanced nanoimprinted materials design derived from lactulose and psicose, and the development of suitable UV nanoimprint conditions produced high resolutions of the conical shaped moth-eye regularly-nanostructure less than approximately 200 nm diameter, and acceptable patterning dimensional accuracy by the replication of 100 times of UV nanoimprint lithography cycles. The newly plant-based materials and the process conditions are expected as one of the defect less nanoimprint lithographic technologies in next generation electronic devices.

  6. Ultra-Thin Optically Transparent Carbon Electrodes Produced from Layers of Adsorbed Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Alharthi, Sarah A.; Benavidez, Tomas E.; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a simple, versatile, and inexpensive procedure to prepare optically transparent carbon electrodes, using proteins as precursors. Upon adsorption, the protein-coated substrates were pyrolyzed under reductive conditions (5% H2) to form ultra-thin, conductive electrodes. Because proteins spontaneously adsorb to interfaces forming uniform layers, the proposed method does not require a precise control of the preparation conditions, specialized instrumentation, or expensive precursors. The resulting electrodes were characterized by a combination of electrochemical, optical, and spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-concept, the optically-transparent electrodes were also used as substrate for the development of an electrochemical glucose biosensor. The proposed films represent a convenient alternative to more sophisticated, and less available, carbon-based nanomaterials. Furthermore, these films could be formed on a variety of substrates, without classical limitations of size or shape. PMID:23421732

  7. An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing An innovative transparent cranial window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. H.; Luo, Q. M.; Zhu, D.

    2012-06-01

    Noninvasive optical methods for viewing the structural and functional organization of cortex have been playing important roles in brain research, which usually suffer from turbid skull. Various cranial window models based on surgical operation have been proposed, but have respective limitations. Here, an innovative transparent cranial window of mouse was established by topically treatment with a skull optical clearing solution (SOCS), rather than by craniotomy. Based on the experiment of optical clearing efficacy of skull in vitro, we found that the turbid skull became transparent within 25 min after application of SOCS. The USAF target is visible through the treated skull, and the calculated resolution can achieve 8.4 μm. After the in vivo skull was topically treated with SOCS, the cortical micro-vessels can be visible clearly. The quantitative analysis indicated that the minimum resolution diameter of micro-vessels in 14.4±0.8 μm through the transparent cranial window closed to that in 12.8±0.9 μm of the exposed cortical micro-vessels. Further, preliminary results from Laser Speckle Imaging demonstrated that there was no influence on cortical blood flow distribution of mouse after topically treatment with SOCS on skull. This transparent cranial window will provide a convenient model for cortex imaging in vivo, which is very significant for neuroscience research.

  8. Transparent nematic phase in a liquid-crystal-based microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, J; Tanaka, H

    2001-01-18

    Complex fluids are usually produced by mixing together several distinct components, the interactions between which can give rise to unusual optical and rheological properties of the system as a whole. For example, the properties of microemulsions (composed of water, oil and surfactants) are determined by the microscopic structural organization of the fluid that occurs owing to phase separation of the component elements. Here we investigate the effect of introducing an additional organizing factor into such a fluid system, by replacing the oil component of a conventional water-in-oil microemulsion with an intrinsically anisotropic fluid--a nematic liquid crystal. As with the conventional case, the fluid phase-separates into an emulsion of water microdroplets (stabilized by the surfactant as inverse micelles) dispersed in the 'oil' phase. But the properties are further influenced by a significant directional coupling between the liquid-crystal molecules and the surfactant tails that emerge (essentially radially) from the micelles. The result is a modified bulk-liquid crystal that is an ordered nematic at the mesoscopic level, but which does not exhibit the strong light scattering generally associated with bulk nematic order: the bulk material here is essentially isotropic and thus transparent.

  9. Microfabrication of transparent materials using filamented femtosecond laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkus, S.; Paipulas, D.; Gaižauskas, Eugenijus; KaškelytÄ--, D.; Sirutkaitis, V.

    2014-05-01

    Glass drilling realized with the help of femtosecond lasers attract industrial attention, however, desired tasks may require systems employing high numerical aperture (NA) focusing conditions, low repetition rate lasers and complex fast motion translation stages. Due to the sensitivity of such systems, slight instabilities in parameter values can lead to crack formations, severe fabrication rate decrement and poor quality overall results. A microfabrication system lacking the stated disadvantages was constructed and demonstrated in this report. An f-theta lens was used in combination with a galvanometric scanner, in addition, a water pumping system that enables formation of water films of variable thickness in real time on the samples. Water acts as a medium for filament formation, which in turn decreases the focal spot diameter and increases fluence and axial focal length. This article demonstrates the application of a femtosecond (280fs) laser towards rapid cutting of different transparent materials. Filament formation in water gives rise to strong ablation at the surface of the sample, moreover, the water, surrounding the ablated area, adds increased cooling and protection from cracking. The constructed microfabrication system is capable of drilling holes in thick soda-lime, hardened glasses and sapphire. The fabrication time varies depending on the diameter of the hole and spans from a few to several hundred seconds. Moreover, complex-shape fabrication was demonstrated.

  10. Fermat's least-time principle and the embedded transparent lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantowski, R.; Chen, B.; Dai, X.

    2013-10-01

    We present a simplified version of the lowest-order embedded point mass gravitational lens theory and then make the extension of this theory to any embedded transparent lens. Embedding a lens effectively reduces the gravitational potential’s range, i.e., partially shields the lensing potential because the lens mass is made a contributor to the mean mass density of the Universe and not simply superimposed upon it. We give the time-delay function for the embedded point mass lens from which we can derive the simplified lens equation by applying Fermat’s least-time principle. Even though rigorous derivations are only made for the point mass in a flat background, the generalization of the lens equation to lowest order for any distributed lens in any homogeneous background is obvious. We find from this simplified theory that embedding can introduce corrections above the few percent level in weak lensing shears caused by large clusters but only at large impacts. The potential part of the time delay is also affected in strong lensing at the few percent level. Additionally we again confirm that the presence of a cosmological constant alters the gravitational deflection of passing photons.

  11. Optically transparent multi-suction electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Nagarah, John M.; Stowasser, Annette; Parker, Rell L.; Asari, Hiroki; Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) allow for acquisition of multisite electrophysiological activity with submillisecond temporal resolution from neural preparations. The signal to noise ratio from such arrays has recently been improved by substrate perforations that allow negative pressure to be applied to the tissue; however, such arrays are not optically transparent, limiting their potential to be combined with optical-based technologies. We present here multi-suction electrode arrays (MSEAs) in quartz that yield a substantial increase in the detected number of units and in signal to noise ratio from mouse cortico-hippocampal slices and mouse retina explants. This enables the visualization of stronger cross correlations between the firing rates of the various sources. Additionally, the MSEA's transparency allows us to record voltage sensitive dye activity from a leech ganglion with single neuron resolution using widefield microscopy simultaneously with the electrode array recordings. The combination of enhanced electrical signals and compatibility with optical-based technologies should make the MSEA a valuable tool for investigating neuronal circuits. PMID:26539078

  12. Ethical Information Transparency and Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Shared decision making is intended to help protect patient autonomy while satisfying the demands of beneficence. In shared decision making, information is shared between health care professional and patient. The sharing of information presents new and practical problems about how much information to share and how transparent that information should be. Sharing information also allows for subtle paternalistic strategies to be employed to "nudge" the patient in a desired direction. These problems are illustrated in two experiments. Experiment 1 (N = 146) suggested that positively framed messages increased the strength of judgments about whether a patient with HIV should designate a surrogate compared to a negatively framed message. A simple decision aid did not reliably reduce this effect. Experiment 2 (N = 492) replicated these effects. In addition, Experiment 2 suggested that providing some additional information (e.g., about surrogate decision making accuracy) can reduce tendencies to think that one with AIDS should designate a surrogate. These results indicate that in some circumstances, nudges (e.g., framing) influence judgments in ways that non-nudging interventions (e.g., simple graphs) do not. While non-nudging interventions are generally preferable, careful thought is required for determining the relative benefits and costs associated with information transparency and persuasion. PMID:26149163

  13. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  14. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  15. A GPU accelerated PDF transparency engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recker, John; Lin, I.-Jong; Tastl, Ingeborg

    2011-01-01

    As commercial printing presses become faster, cheaper and more efficient, so too must the Raster Image Processors (RIP) that prepare data for them to print. Digital press RIPs, however, have been challenged to on the one hand meet the ever increasing print performance of the latest digital presses, and on the other hand process increasingly complex documents with transparent layers and embedded ICC profiles. This paper explores the challenges encountered when implementing a GPU accelerated driver for the open source Ghostscript Adobe PostScript and PDF language interpreter targeted at accelerating PDF transparency for high speed commercial presses. It further describes our solution, including an image memory manager for tiling input and output images and documents, a PDF compatible multiple image layer blending engine, and a GPU accelerated ICC v4 compatible color transformation engine. The result, we believe, is the foundation for a scalable, efficient, distributed RIP system that can meet current and future RIP requirements for a wide range of commercial digital presses.

  16. Ethical Information Transparency and Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Shared decision making is intended to help protect patient autonomy while satisfying the demands of beneficence. In shared decision making, information is shared between health care professional and patient. The sharing of information presents new and practical problems about how much information to share and how transparent that information should be. Sharing information also allows for subtle paternalistic strategies to be employed to "nudge" the patient in a desired direction. These problems are illustrated in two experiments. Experiment 1 (N = 146) suggested that positively framed messages increased the strength of judgments about whether a patient with HIV should designate a surrogate compared to a negatively framed message. A simple decision aid did not reliably reduce this effect. Experiment 2 (N = 492) replicated these effects. In addition, Experiment 2 suggested that providing some additional information (e.g., about surrogate decision making accuracy) can reduce tendencies to think that one with AIDS should designate a surrogate. These results indicate that in some circumstances, nudges (e.g., framing) influence judgments in ways that non-nudging interventions (e.g., simple graphs) do not. While non-nudging interventions are generally preferable, careful thought is required for determining the relative benefits and costs associated with information transparency and persuasion.

  17. Diabatic flow boiling in circular transparent microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvério, V.; Moreira, A. L. N.

    2012-11-01

    The horizontally assembled circular microchannel (Dh= 543μm, LHT = 60mm) made of transparent borosilicate glass is kept under constant wall heat flux conditions by means of a transparent metallic thin film deposit at the channel external wall as in Silvério and Moreira [1]. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements are achieved by measuring the temperature and pressure at the channel inlet and outlet. Temperature is also measured along the channel outer wall. Experiments are carried with two different fluids, ethanol and methanol. Inlet liquid subcooling is of 297K, mass fluxes, G, up to 689kg.m-2.s-1 and imposed heat fluxes, q"s, up to 12.5W.cm-2 at ΔTsub from 0.8 to 50K. Synchronized high-speed visualization and microscope optics are used to determine dominant two-phase flow patterns and characterize hydrodynamic instabilities. Vapor qualities, χ, of -0.1 (indicating a subcooled liquid state) to 0.5 are under investigation. Semi-periodic variation of the flow patterns is noticeable for different flow conditions.

  18. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Malave-Sanabria, Tania; Hambourger, Paul; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Roig, David; Degroh, Kim K.; Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1994-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10(exp 7) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  19. Fabrication of optically transparent chitin nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, M. Iftekhar; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Nogi, Masaya; Oku, Takeshi; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2011-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the preparation of chitin nanofibers from crab shells using a simple mechanical treatment. The nanofibers are small enough to retain the transparency of neat acrylic resin. Possessing hydroxyl and amine/ N-acetyl functionalities, water suspension of chitin nanofibers was vacuum-filtered 9 times faster than cellulose nanofibers to prepare a nanofiber sheet of 90 mm in diameter. This is a prominent advantage of chitin nanofibers over cellulose nanofibers in terms of commercial application. Interestingly, chitin acrylic resin films exhibited much higher transparency than cellulose acrylic resin films owing to the close affinity between less hydrophilic chitin and hydrophobic resin. Furthermore, the incorporation of chitin nanofibers contributes to the significant improvement of the thermal expansion and mechanical properties of the neat acrylic resin. The properties of high light transmittance and low thermal expansion make chitin nanocomposites promising candidates for the substrate in a continuous roll-to-roll process in the manufacturing of various optoelectronic devices such as flat panel displays, bendable displays, and solar cells.

  20. Transparent, Weakly Conductive Films for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, John; Morgan, Ashraf; Hambourger, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    Electrically insulating spacecraft surfaces are vulnerable to nonuniform charge buildup due to particles emitted by the sun. On Mars, insulating surfaces of exploration vehicles and structures will be affected by dust coatings possibly held in place by triboelectric surface charge. Application of a conductive film may be a solution to the charging problem, but the coating must be highly transparent if used on solar panels, lenses, etc. Sheet resistivity requirements depend on the application and are in the range 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 8) ohms/square. Co-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and MgF2 is promising, with high transparency, tailorable electrical properties, and durability to atomic oxygen. Due to ITO's relatively narrow bandgap (approximately 3.5 eV), the film might absorb enough ultraviolet to protect polymeric substrates. Recent work on dual-magnetron-sputtered ITO-MgF2 showed that a variety of polymeric substrates can be coated at room temperature. However, the sheet resistivity is very sensitive to composition, suggestive of a percolation transition. This could be a serious problem for large-scale coating production. We will report on attempts to control film composition by plasma emission monitoring of the ITO and MgF2 guns.

  1. Broadband Electromagnetic Transparency by Graded Metamaterial Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Yu, K. W.

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a radially inhomogeneous metamaterial sphere whose dielectric permittivity is described by the graded Drude model ɛs(r)=1-φp^2(r)/2̂. The radial position dependent plasma frequency depends on r as φp^2=1/2-c(r/r0)^n, where c and n are positive constants and r0 is the radius of the sphere. The electromagnetic field distribution has been calculated within the full-wave Mie scattering theory. When n=2, exact analytic solutions can be obtained in terms of confluent Heun function and confluent hypergeometric function of Kummer. This allows us to obtain the full-wave total scattering cross section analytically from the scattering field amplitudes. While the total scattering cross section Qs depends on both the graded plasma frequency profile and the frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave, it is found that Qs can achieve extremely small values over a broad frequency band and graded parameters. The analytic solutions allow us to assess the conditions for achieving broadband electromagnetic transparency in the metamaterial sphere and make tunable electromagnetic transparency feasible.

  2. Transparent self-cleaning dust shield

    DOEpatents

    Mazumder, Malay K.; Sims, Robert A.; Wilson, James D.

    2005-06-28

    A transparent electromagnetic shield to protect solar panels and the like from dust deposition. The shield is a panel of clear non-conducting (dielectric) material with embedded parallel electrodes. The panel is coated with a semiconducting film. Desirably the electrodes are transparent. The electrodes are connected to a single-phase AC signal or to a multi-phase AC signal that produces a travelling electromagnetic wave. The electromagnetic field produced by the electrodes lifts dust particles away from the shield and repels charged particles. Deposited dust particles are removed when the electrodes are activated, regardless of the resistivity of the dust. Electrostatic charges on the panel are discharged by the semiconducting film. When used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells, the power for the device may be obtained from the cells themselves. For other surfaces, such as windshields, optical windows and the like, the power must be derived from an external source. One embodiment of the invention employs monitoring and detection devices to determine when the level of obscuration of the screen by dust has reached a threshold level requiring activation of the dust removal feature.

  3. Tunable Broadband Transparency of Macroscopic Quantum Superconducting Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Anlage, Steven M.

    2015-10-01

    Narrow-band invisibility in an otherwise opaque medium has been achieved by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic systems. The quantum EIT behavior can be classically mimicked by specially engineered metamaterials via carefully controlled interference with a "dark mode." However, the narrow transparency window limits the potential applications that require a tunable wideband transparent performance. Here, we present a macroscopic quantum superconducting metamaterial with manipulative self-induced broadband transparency due to a qualitatively novel nonlinear mechanism that is different from conventional EIT or its classical analogs. A near-complete disappearance of resonant absorption under a range of applied rf flux is observed experimentally and explained theoretically. The transparency comes from the intrinsic bistability of the meta-atoms and can be tuned on and off easily by altering rf and dc magnetic fields, temperature, and history. Hysteretic in situ 100% tunability of transparency paves the way for autocloaking metamaterials, intensity-dependent filters, and fast-tunable power limiters.

  4. 20 CFR 404.705 - Failure to give requested evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to give requested evidence. 404.705 Section 404.705 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.705 Failure to give requested evidence. Generally,...

  5. 20 CFR 404.705 - Failure to give requested evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to give requested evidence. 404.705 Section 404.705 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.705 Failure to give requested evidence. Generally,...

  6. 20 CFR 404.706 - Where to give evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where to give evidence. 404.706 Section 404.706 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.706 Where to give evidence. Evidence should be given to the...

  7. 20 CFR 404.706 - Where to give evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where to give evidence. 404.706 Section 404.706 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.706 Where to give evidence. Evidence should be given to the...

  8. 20 CFR 404.704 - Your responsibility for giving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Your responsibility for giving evidence. 404.704 Section 404.704 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.704 Your responsibility for giving evidence....

  9. 14 CFR 221.140 - Method of giving concurrence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of giving concurrence. 221.140 Section 221.140 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Giving and Revoking Concurrences to Carriers § 221.140 Method...

  10. Cognitive Skills in the Charitable Giving Decisions of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell N., III

    2011-01-01

    Charitable giving is a common, and easily measurable, form of prosocial behavior. It may also provide a unique cognitive challenge in that it often requires identifying with the needs of distant others. Using a sample of 331 cognitively normal seniors (mean age of 76), this study examined the relationship between charitable giving and scores on 18…

  11. CASE Planned Giving Ideas. The Best of CASE CURRENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Garigan, Catherine S., Ed.

    Collected are articles by planned giving (deferred giving) experts on institutional commitment, policies, and programs to encourage various types of gifts to higher education institutions: bequests, unitrusts, annuity trusts, charitable income trusts (lead trusts), pooled income funds, gifts of land and so on. A major article covers how to hire…

  12. 20 CFR 639.4 - Who must give notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who must give notice? 639.4 Section 639.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WORKER ADJUSTMENT AND... or mass layoff is required to give notice to affected employees or their representative(s), the...

  13. 20 CFR 404.705 - Failure to give requested evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to give requested evidence. 404.705 Section 404.705 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.705 Failure to give requested evidence. Generally,...

  14. 20 CFR 404.706 - Where to give evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Where to give evidence. 404.706 Section 404.706 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.706 Where to give evidence. Evidence should be given to the...

  15. 20 CFR 404.704 - Your responsibility for giving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Your responsibility for giving evidence. 404.704 Section 404.704 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.704 Your responsibility for giving evidence....

  16. 20 CFR 404.705 - Failure to give requested evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Failure to give requested evidence. 404.705 Section 404.705 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.705 Failure to give requested evidence. Generally,...

  17. 20 CFR 404.706 - Where to give evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Where to give evidence. 404.706 Section 404.706 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.706 Where to give evidence. Evidence should be given to the...

  18. 20 CFR 404.704 - Your responsibility for giving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Your responsibility for giving evidence. 404.704 Section 404.704 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.704 Your responsibility for giving evidence....

  19. 20 CFR 404.706 - Where to give evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Where to give evidence. 404.706 Section 404.706 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.706 Where to give evidence. Evidence should be given to the...

  20. 20 CFR 404.705 - Failure to give requested evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Failure to give requested evidence. 404.705 Section 404.705 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.705 Failure to give requested evidence. Generally,...

  1. 20 CFR 404.704 - Your responsibility for giving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Your responsibility for giving evidence. 404.704 Section 404.704 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.704 Your responsibility for giving evidence....

  2. A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of Giving Spiritual Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to interview 4…

  3. 20 CFR 404.704 - Your responsibility for giving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Your responsibility for giving evidence. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.704 Your responsibility for giving evidence. When evidence is needed to prove your eligibility or your right to continue to receive benefit payments,...

  4. Fabrication of Transparent Multilayer Circuits by Inkjet Printing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jieke; Bao, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Sun, Jiazhen; Zhang, Cong; Li, Yang; Li, Fengyu; Yao, Xi; Song, Yanlin

    2016-02-17

    Conductive microcables embedded in a transparent film are fabricated by inkjet printing silver-nanoparticle ink into a liquid poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) precursor substrate. By controlling the spreading of the ink droplet and the rheological properties of the liquid substrate, transparent multilayer circuits composed of high-resolution embedded cables are achieved using a commercial inkjet printer. This facile strategy provides a new avenue for inkjet printing of highly integrated and transparent electronics.

  5. Characterization of UV-transparent capillaries for CEC and CE.

    PubMed

    Bandilla, Dirk; Cabral, Jean-Louis; Skinner, Cameron D

    2006-08-01

    This short communication describes features of UV-transparent capillaries employed for CEC and CE. A waveguide effect was observed when using UV-transparent capillaries. Through imaging with SEM, the UV-transparent coating was found to be highly porous unlike polyimide coating, which did not exhibit any porosity at all. Prolonged exposure to several commonly employed solvents with elevated pH caused abrasion of the coating at the capillary tip but no swelling of the UV-transparent coating was observed. Lastly, four different cutting techniques were compared to obtain smooth capillary tips.

  6. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  7. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles.

    PubMed

    Falgout, Z; Linne, M

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept. PMID:27587161

  8. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles.

    PubMed

    Falgout, Z; Linne, M

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  9. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  10. Quantum theory for pulse propagation in electromagnetically-induced-transparency media beyond the adiabatic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, You-Lin; Yu, Ite A.; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2015-06-01

    Beyond the adiabatic approximation, we develop a quantum theory for optical probe pulses propagating in electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) media by including Langevin noise operators and asking the field operator to satisfy bosonic commutation relation. Influences on the degradation of quantum noise squeezing from optical depth of atomic ensemble, strength of control field, and ground-state decoherence are studied in the slow light, as well as storage and retrieval, for a squeezed probe pulse. Moreover, to give guidelines for realization of quantum interfaces based on EIT media, we demonstrate that the quantum squeezing of output probe pulses could be preserved with a stronger classical control field.

  11. EDITORIAL: On display with transparent conducting films On display with transparent conducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Transparent conducting films were already featuring in scientific literature over one hundred years ago. In 1894 Aryton and Mather described a conducting varnish for coating the screens of electric apparatus so they would not charge when accidentally brushed by a coat sleeve or other material [1]. Their method began with a similar approach to that used to make savoury jellies; by dissolving gelatine in vinegar, after which less palatable ingredients were incorporated including sulphuric acid and an antisulphuric enamel. While the search for transparent conducting films continued to attract other researchers, the same problem remained: the transparency would be compromised if the film was too thick, and the conductivity would be compromised if the film was too thin. In the early 1950s Gillham and Preston reported that thin gold films sputtered on bismuth oxide and heated resulted in a material that successfully combined the previously mutually exclusive properties of transparency and conductivity [2]. Other oxide films were also found to favourably combine these properties, including tin oxide, as reported by Ishiguro and colleagues in Japan in 1958 [3]. Today tin oxide doped with indium (ITO) has become the industry standard for transparent conducting films in a range of applications including photovoltaic technology and displays. It is perhaps the mounting ubiquity of electronic displays as a result of the increasingly digitised and computerised environment of the modern day world that has begun to underline the main drawback of ITO: expense. In this issue, a collaboration of researchers in Korea present an overview of graphene as a transparent conducting material with the potential to replace ITO in a range of electronic and optoelectronic applications [4]. One of the first innovations in optical microscopy was the use of dyes. This principle first came into practice with the use of ultraviolet light to reveal previously indistinguishable features. As explained

  12. Thin transparent film characterization by photothermal reflectance (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Voti, R.; Wright, O. B.; Matsuda, O.; Larciprete, M. C.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.

    2003-01-01

    Photothermal reflectance methods have been intensively applied to the nondestructive testing of opaque thin films [D. P. Almond and P. M. Patel, Photothermal Science and Techniques (Chapman and Hall, London, 1996); C. Bento and D. P. Almond, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1022 (1995); J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, and D. Willenborg, Appl. Opt. 22, 3169 (1983)]. The basic principle is based on thermal wave interferometry: the opaque specimen is illuminated by a laser beam, periodically chopped at the frequency f, so as to generate a plane thermal wave in the surface region. This wave propagates in the film, approaches the rear interface (film-bulk), is partially reflected back, reaches the front surface, is again partially reflected back and so on, giving rise to thermal wave interference. A consequence of this interference is that the surface temperature may be enhanced (constructive interference) or reduced (destructive interference) by simply scanning the frequency f (that is, the thermal diffusion length μ=√D/πf ), so as to observe damped oscillations as a function of f; in practice only the first oscillation may be clearly resolved and used to measure either the film thickness d or the film thermal diffusivity D, and this situation occurs when μ≈d. In general, photothermal reflectance does not measure directly the surface temperature variation, but rather a directly related signal determined by the thermo-optic coefficients and the sample geometry; for detection it is common to monitor the optical reflectivity variation of a probe beam normally incident on the sample. If the thin film is partially transparent to the probe, the theory becomes more difficult [O. Matsuda and O. B. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (in press)] and one should consider the probe beam multiple reflections in the thin film. The probe modulation is optically inhomogeneous due to the temperature-induced changes in refractive index. Although in the past the complexity of the analysis has impeded

  13. Method for determination of the parameters of transparent ultrathin films deposited on transparent substrates under conditions of low optical contrast.

    PubMed

    Kostruba, Andriy; Stetsyshyn, Yuriy; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2015-07-10

    In the present work we suggest an original ellipsometric technique for independently determining strongly correlated refractive index and thickness of transparent ultrathin films. We demonstrate significant accuracy improvement for the single-wavelength null-ellipsometry measurements when using multiple incidence angles for the system "transparent film on a transparent substrate" studied in the thickness range of 1.0-20.0 nm and the low-contrast region for the film-substrate surface. A straightforward relationship is obtained between the refractive index n(1) of the transparent film and the incidence angle φ. It follows from invariability ensured for the amplitude ellipsometric parameter Ψ with respect to the film thickness changes.

  14. Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfa, Anthony J.; Akinoglu, Eser M.; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Giersig, Michael; Mulvaney, Paul

    2013-08-01

    We show that perforated metal electrode arrays, fabricated using nanosphere lithography, provide a viable alternative to conductive metal oxides as transparent electrode materials. The inter-aperture spacing is tuned by varying etching times in an oxygen plasma, and the effect of inter-aperture "wire" thickness on the optical and electronic properties of perforated silver films is shown. Optical transmission is limited by reflection and surface plasmons, and for these results do not exceed 73%. Electrical sheet resistance is shown to be as low as 3 Ω ◻-1 for thermally evaporated silver films. The performance of organic photovoltaic devices comprised of a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction deposited onto perforated metal arrays is shown to be limited by optical transmission, and a simple model is presented to overcome these limitations.

  15. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-12

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games. PMID:27516597

  16. Escalation of commitment with transparent future outcomes.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Niklas; Gärling, Tommy; Bonini, Nicolao

    2005-01-01

    A frequent case of irrational decision making is the tendency to escalate commitment to a chosen course of action after unsuccessful prior investments of money, effort, or time (sunk costs). In previous research it is argued that escalation does not occur when future outcomes and alternative investments are transparent. Inconsistent with this argument, in an experiment in which undergraduates were presented fictitious investment problems with sunk costs, escalation was demonstrated when full information was given about investment alternatives and estimates of future returns. Thus, it is indicated that people may escalate despite knowing that it will not make them economically better off. A more comprehensive understanding of escalation requires disentangling people's noneconomic reasons for escalation.

  17. Multifunctional transparent ZnO nanorod films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Geunjae; Jung, Sungmook; Yong, Kijung

    2011-03-01

    Transparent ZnO nanorod (NR) films that exhibit extreme wetting states (either superhydrophilicity or superhydrophobicity through surface chemical modification), high transmittance, UV protection and antireflection have been prepared via the facile ammonia hydrothermal method. The periodic 1D ZnO NR arrays showed extreme wetting states as well as antireflection properties due to their unique surface structure and prevented the UVA region from penetrating the substrate due to the unique material property of ZnO. Because of the simple, time-efficient and low temperature preparation process, ZnO NR films with useful functionalities are promising for fabrication of highly light transmissive, antireflective, UV protective, antifogging and self-cleaning optical materials to be used for optical devices and photovoltaic energy devices.

  18. Integrated broadband bowtie antenna on transparent substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Shiyi; Subbaraman, Harish; Zhan, Qiwen; Pan, Zeyu; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-03-01

    The bowtie antenna is a topic of growing interest in recent years. In this paper, we design, fabricate, and characterize a modified gold bowtie antenna integrated on a transparent glass substrate. We numerically investigate the antenna characteristics, specifically its resonant frequency and enhancement factor. We simulate the dependence of resonance frequency on bowtie geometry, and verify the simulation results through experimental investigation, by fabricating different sets of bowtie antennas on glass substrates utilizing CMOS compatible processes and measuring their resonance frequencies. Our designed bowtie antenna provides a strong broadband electric field enhancement in its feed gap. The far-field radiation pattern of the bowtie antenna is measured, and it shows dipole-like characteristics with large beam width. Such a broadband antenna will be useful for a myriad of applications, ranging from wireless communications to electromagnetic wave detection.

  19. Reporting transparency: making the ethical mandate explicit.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Stuart G; Langan, Sinéad M; Benchimol, Eric I; Moher, David

    2016-03-16

    Improving the transparency and quality of reporting in biomedical research is considered ethically important; yet, this is often based on practical reasons such as the facilitation of peer review. Surprisingly, there has been little explicit discussion regarding the ethical obligations that underpin reporting guidelines. In this commentary, we suggest a number of ethical drivers for the improved reporting of research. These ethical drivers relate to researcher integrity as well as to the benefits derived from improved reporting such as the fair use of resources, minimizing risk of harms, and maximizing benefits. Despite their undoubted benefit to reporting completeness, questions remain regarding the extent to which reporting guidelines can influence processes beyond publication, including researcher integrity or the uptake of scientific research findings into policy or practice. Thus, we consider investigation on the effects of reporting guidelines an important step in providing evidence of their benefits.

  20. Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xing Yi; Phang, In Yee; Vancso, G Julius; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N

    2009-03-01

    A superhydrophobic surface with a static water contact angle (theta(w)) > 150 degrees was created by a simple "dip-coating" method of 60-nm SiO2 nanoparticles onto an amine-terminated (NH2) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) glass/silicon oxide substrate, followed by chemical vapor deposition of a fluorinated adsorbate. For comparison, a close-packed nanoparticle film, formed by convective assembly, gave theta(w) approximately 120 degrees. The stability of the superhydrophobic coating was enhanced by sintering of the nanoparticles in an O2 environment at high temperature (1100 degress C). A sliding angle of < 5 degrees indicated the self-cleaning properties of the surface. The dip-coating method can be applied to glass substrates to prepare surfaces that are superhydrophobic and transparent.

  1. Tunable lenses using transparent dielectric elastomer actuators.

    PubMed

    Shian, Samuel; Diebold, Roger M; Clarke, David R

    2013-04-01

    Focus tunable, adaptive lenses provide several advantages over traditional lens assemblies in terms of compactness, cost, efficiency, and flexibility. To further improve the simplicity and compact nature of adaptive lenses, we present an elastomer-liquid lens system which makes use of an inline, transparent electroactive polymer actuator. The lens requires only a minimal number of components: a frame, a passive membrane, a dielectric elastomer actuator membrane, and a clear liquid. The focal length variation was recorded to be greater than 100% with this system, responding in less than one second. Through the analysis of membrane deformation within geometrical constraints, it is shown that by selecting appropriate lens dimensions, even larger focusing dynamic ranges can be achieved. PMID:23571956

  2. Transparent reporting of trials is essential.

    PubMed

    Altman, Douglas G

    2013-08-01

    Reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) inform the care of future patients and are especially important to clinicians and systematic reviewers. Readers should satisfy themselves that the study methods were sound. Clinicians should consider the relevance to their own patients, both benefits and harms, and absolute as well as relative effects. Trial reports should provide a clear, transparent, and complete report of what was done and what was found. Unfortunately, bad reporting of RCTs is common, which has serious consequences for clinical practice, research, policy making, and ultimately for patients. RCT reports should adhere to the CONSORT Statement, a minimum set of items that should be addressed. Authors, peer reviewers, and editors should all work to ensure that research reports maximize the value derived from the cost and effort of conducting a trial.

  3. Transparent lattices and their solitary waves.

    PubMed

    Sadurní, E

    2014-09-01

    We provide a family of transparent tight-binding models with nontrivial potentials and site-dependent hopping parameters. Their feasibility is discussed in electromagnetic resonators, dielectric slabs, and quantum-mechanical traps. In the second part of the paper, the arrays are obtained through a generalization of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in discrete variables. The formalism includes a finite-difference Darboux transformation applied to the scattering matrix of a periodic array. A procedure for constructing a hierarchy of discrete Hamiltonians is indicated and a particular biparametric family is given. The corresponding potentials and hopping functions are identified as solitary waves, pointing to a discrete spinorial generalization of the Korteweg-deVries family.

  4. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Soules, Thomas F.

    2012-12-25

    A method for forming a transparent ceramic preform in one embodiment includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, wherein the suspension includes a dispersant, with the proviso that the suspension does not include a gelling agent; and uniformly curing the suspension for forming a preform of gelled suspension. A method according to another embodiment includes creating a mixture of inorganic particles, a solvent and a dispersant, the inorganic particles having a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm; agitating the mixture; adding the mixture to a mold; and curing the mixture in the mold for gelling the mixture, with the proviso that no gelling agent is added to the mixture.

  5. A soft and transparent handleable protein model.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Masaru

    2012-08-01

    The field of structural biology currently relies on computer-generated graphical representations of three-dimensional (3D) structures to conceptualize biomolecules. As the size and complexity of the molecular structure increases, model generation and peer discussions become more difficult. It is even more problematic when discussing protein-protein interactions wherein large surface area contact is considered. This report demonstrates the viability of a new handleable protein molecular model with a soft and transparent silicone body similar to the molecule's surface. A full-color printed main chain structure embedded in the silicone body enables users to simultaneously feel the molecular surface, view through the main chain structure, and manually simulate molecular docking. The interactive, hands-on experience deepens the user's intuitive understanding of the complicated 3D protein structure and elucidates ligand binding and protein-protein interactions. This model would be an effective discussion tool for the classroom or laboratory that stimulates inspired learning in this study field.

  6. Reporting transparency: making the ethical mandate explicit.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Stuart G; Langan, Sinéad M; Benchimol, Eric I; Moher, David

    2016-01-01

    Improving the transparency and quality of reporting in biomedical research is considered ethically important; yet, this is often based on practical reasons such as the facilitation of peer review. Surprisingly, there has been little explicit discussion regarding the ethical obligations that underpin reporting guidelines. In this commentary, we suggest a number of ethical drivers for the improved reporting of research. These ethical drivers relate to researcher integrity as well as to the benefits derived from improved reporting such as the fair use of resources, minimizing risk of harms, and maximizing benefits. Despite their undoubted benefit to reporting completeness, questions remain regarding the extent to which reporting guidelines can influence processes beyond publication, including researcher integrity or the uptake of scientific research findings into policy or practice. Thus, we consider investigation on the effects of reporting guidelines an important step in providing evidence of their benefits. PMID:26979591

  7. Transparent lattices and their solitary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadurní, E.

    2014-09-01

    We provide a family of transparent tight-binding models with nontrivial potentials and site-dependent hopping parameters. Their feasibility is discussed in electromagnetic resonators, dielectric slabs, and quantum-mechanical traps. In the second part of the paper, the arrays are obtained through a generalization of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in discrete variables. The formalism includes a finite-difference Darboux transformation applied to the scattering matrix of a periodic array. A procedure for constructing a hierarchy of discrete Hamiltonians is indicated and a particular biparametric family is given. The corresponding potentials and hopping functions are identified as solitary waves, pointing to a discrete spinorial generalization of the Korteweg-deVries family.

  8. A soft and transparent handleable protein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Masaru

    2012-08-01

    The field of structural biology currently relies on computer-generated graphical representations of three-dimensional (3D) structures to conceptualize biomolecules. As the size and complexity of the molecular structure increases, model generation and peer discussions become more difficult. It is even more problematic when discussing protein-protein interactions wherein large surface area contact is considered. This report demonstrates the viability of a new handleable protein molecular model with a soft and transparent silicone body similar to the molecule's surface. A full-color printed main chain structure embedded in the silicone body enables users to simultaneously feel the molecular surface, view through the main chain structure, and manually simulate molecular docking. The interactive, hands-on experience deepens the user's intuitive understanding of the complicated 3D protein structure and elucidates ligand binding and protein-protein interactions. This model would be an effective discussion tool for the classroom or laboratory that stimulates inspired learning in this study field.

  9. Classical analogs of double electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-03-01

    Double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) in a four-level atomic system with tripod-type energy-level configuration is modeled by using two classical systems. The first is a set of three coupled harmonic oscillators subject to frictional forces and external drives and the second is a set of three coupled RLC circuits with electric resistors and alternating voltage sources. It is shown that both of the two classical systems have absorption spectra of DEIT similar to that of the four-level tripod-type atomic system. These classical analogies provide simple and intuitive physical description of quantum interference processes and can be used to illustrate experimental observations of the DEIT in quantum systems.

  10. Large-Strain Transparent Magnetoactive Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses polymer nano - composite superparamagnetic actuators that were prepared by the addition of organically modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. The nanocomposite films exhibited large deformations under a magnetostatic field with a low loading level of 0.1 wt% in a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) matrix. The maximum actuation deformation of the nanocomposite films increased exponentially with increasing nanoparticle concentration. The cyclic deformation actuation of a high-loading magnetic nanocomposite film was examined in a low magnetic field, and it exhibited excellent reproducibility and controllability. Low-loading TPU nanocomposite films (0.1-2 wt%) were transparent to semitransparent in the visible wavelength range, owing to good dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetoactuation phenomena were also demonstrated in a high-modulus, high-temperature polyimide resin with less mechanical deformation.

  11. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games.

  12. Dynamic Failure of a Transparent Polycrystalline Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Stephan; Manoj Simha, C. Hari; Hartnett, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    We have performed some bar impact experiments on the transparent polycrystalline ceramic aluminum oxynitride (AlON). The experiments use embedded manganin gauges that measure the peak stress that propagates down the bar, and also high speed single frame photography. The peak stress measured in the AlON bars is 4 GPA, about 10% higher than that measured in AD-99.5 bars. The results of our work suggest that the behavior of AlON is similar to that of opaque polycrystalline alumina AD-99.5. The high speed photography has revealed some interesting insights into the behavior of the opaque alumina AD-99.5 which we have been investigating.

  13. Assuring data transparency through design methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Allen

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of design methodologies and practices in the assurance of technology transparency. The development of several subsystems on large, long life cycle government programs was analyzed to glean those characteristics in the design, development, test, and evaluation that precluded or enabled the insertion of new technology. The programs examined were Minuteman, DSP, B1-B, and space shuttle. All these were long life cycle, technology-intensive programs. The design methodologies (or lack thereof) and design practices for each were analyzed in terms of the success or failure in incorporating evolving technology. Common elements contributing to the success or failure were extracted and compared to current methodologies being proposed by the Department of Defense and NASA. The relevance of these practices to the design and deployment of Space Station Freedom were evaluated. In particular, appropriate methodologies now being used on the core development contract were examined.

  14. Uncovering the ultimate performance of single-walled carbon nanotube films as transparent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustonen, K.; Laiho, P.; Kaskela, A.; Susi, T.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Kauppinen, E. I.

    2015-10-01

    The ultimate performance—ratio of electrical conductivity to optical absorbance—of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transparent conductive films (TCFs) is an issue of considerable application relevance. Here, we present direct experimental evidence that SWCNT bundling is detrimental for their performance. We combine floating catalyst synthesis of non-bundled, high-quality SWCNTs with an aggregation chamber, in which bundles with mean diameters ranging from 1.38 to 2.90 nm are formed from identical 3 μm long SWCNTs. The as-deposited TCFs from 1.38 nm bundles showed sheet resistances of 310 Ω/□ at 90% transparency, while those from larger bundles of 1.80 and 2.90 nm only reached values of 475 and 670 Ω/□, respectively. Based on these observations, we elucidate how networks formed by smaller bundles perform better due to their greater interconnectivity at a given optical density. Finally, we present a semi-empirical model for TCF performance as a function of SWCNT mean length and bundle diameter. This gives an estimate for the ultimate performance of non-doped, random network mixed-metallicity SWCNT TCFs at ˜80 Ω/□ and 90% transparency.

  15. Difficult Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosbury, R.

    2005-12-01

    Beautiful colour images of the sky are both a blessing and a curse for the communication of astronomy to the public. While undoubtedly attractive, they can obscure the fact that discoveries are often made in astrophysics using techniques and measurements that are much more difficult to grasp and certainly less appealing to view. Should we try to explain such concepts as spectroscopy, polarimetry and interferometry, or is it a lost cause? The most effective approach to this problem may be to lead the audience to ask the question themselves: "But how do you know that?"

  16. Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160906.html Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade International study finds courses ... HealthDay News) -- Teens around the world are getting sex education in schools that fail to address their ...

  17. Time Zone Changes Give Edge to Athletes from West

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159440.html Time Zone Changes Give Edge to Athletes From West Professional teams traveling from later to earlier time zones win more, study finds To use the ...

  18. Motivation and the Power of Not Giving Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... up. Let's say you want to run a marathon. If you try to run the entire distance ... bummed out that you'll give up your marathon dreams — and running — altogether. Part of staying motivated ...

  19. Rectilinear display gives acceleration load factor and velocity information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A. J.; Johnson, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    Spacecraft entry monitoring system /EMS/ gives a rectilinear display of acceleration load factor and velocity information. This allows an astronaut to respond with manual spacecraft attitude corrective maneuver commands.

  20. Who, Who, Who Gives a Hoot about Bones?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Describes a mouse skeleton reconstruction activity from owl pellets. Gives information about the materials, directions for students, and a five-day unit schedule. Provides some owl pellet sources. (YP)

  1. 253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives the mill an interesting texture, increasing its photogenic value. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. Self-Discovery of Structural Geology Concepts using Interactive 3D Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, M. I.; Saunders, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mastering structural geology concepts that depend on understanding three-dimensional (3D) geometries and imagining relationships among unseen subsurface structures are fundamental skills for geologists. Traditionally these skills are developed first, through use of 2D drawings of 3D structures that can be difficult to decipher or 3D physical block models that show only a limited set of relationships on the surfaces of the blocks, followed by application and testing of concepts in field settings. We hypothesize that this learning process can be improved by providing repeated opportunities to evaluate and explore synthetic 3D structures using interactive 3D visualization software. We present laboratory modules designed for undergraduate structural geology curriculum using a self-discovery approach to teach concepts such as: the Rule of V’s, structure separation versus fault slip, and the more general dependence of structural exposure on surface topography. The laboratory modules are structured to allow students to discover and articulate each concept from observations of synthetic data both on traditional maps and using the volume visualization software 3DVisualizer. Modules lead students through exploration of data (e.g., a dipping layered structure exposed in ridge-valley topography or obliquely offset across a fault) by allowing them to interactively view (rotate, pan, zoom) the exposure of structures on topographic surfaces and to toggle on/off the full 3D structure as a transparent colored volume. This tool allows student to easily visually understand the relationships between, for example a dipping structure and its exposure on valley walls, as well as how the structure extends beneath the surface. Using this method gives students more opportunities to build a mental library of previously-seen relationships from which to draw-on when applying concepts in the field setting. These laboratory modules, the data and software are freely available from KeckCAVES.

  3. Vector magneto-optical sensor based on transparent magnetic films with cubic crystallographic symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachev, A. E.; Vetoshko, P. M.; Gusev, N. A.; Kozhaev, M. A.; Prokopov, A. R.; Popov, V. V.; Dodonov, D. V.; Shumilov, A. G.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Berzhansky, V. N.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The concept of vector magneto-optical magnetometry is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The key element of the vector magnetometer is a transparent high Faraday activity magnetic film with a cubic crystal lattice. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the film leads to the three dimensional trajectory of the film magnetization when the magnetization is rotated by the control magnetic field. It makes the magnetization sensitive to all three components of the external magnetic field. This field can be found from the harmonic composition of the Faraday rotation dependence on the azimuth angle of the control magnetic field. The demonstrated vector magnetometer is promising for mapping and visualization of ultra small magnetic fields.

  4. Chitin Nanofiber Transparent Paper for Flexible Green Electronics.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jungho; Lee, Daewon; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Han, Yun Cheol; Jeong, Eun Gyo; Rolandi, Marco; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2016-07-01

    A transparent paper made of chitin nanofibers (ChNF) is introduced and its utilization as a substrate for flexible organic light-emitting diodes is demonstrated. Given its promising macroscopic properties, biofriendly characteristics, and availability of the raw material, the utilization of the ChNF transparent paper as a structural platform for flexible green electronics is envisaged.

  5. Transparency and Opacity: Levinasian Reflections on Accountability in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to consider, from an ethical perspective, the current transparency and accountability agenda in Australian schooling. It focuses on the case of the "My School" website and the argument that transparent publication of comparative performance data via the website provides a basis for…

  6. Transparency in the ePortfolio Creation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie A.; Downs, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study examining the effect of transparency on the ePortfolio creation process. The purpose of the study was to examine whether increased awareness of other students' ePortfolios through the implementation of transparency and peer review would positively affect the quality of performance of school library media…

  7. Variable-transparency wall regulates temperatures of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, W. J., Jr.

    1964-01-01

    An effective temperature regulating wall consists of one layer /e.g., one of the paraffins/ relatively opaque to thermal radiation in the solid state and transparent to it in the molten state and placed between two transparent layers. A mirror coating is applied to back layer.

  8. Enhancing Learning Capabilities by Providing Transparency in Business Simulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groessler, Andreas; Maier, Frank H.; Milling, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based simulations for business focuses on adding transparency through system dynamics techniques. Describes an experiment that evaluated the relevance and the effects of providing structural transparency to users of business simulators and suggests further research. (Contains 51 references.) (LRW)

  9. High carrier concentration p-type transparent conducting oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Yan, Yanfa; Zhang, Shengbai

    2005-06-21

    A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide.

  10. Conductivity and Transparency in Amorphous In-Zn-O Transparent Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J. D.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Taylor, M. P.; Ginley, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) is an increasingly important material both as a transparent conductor or semiconductor in transparent electronics and as an archetype amorphous electronic mixed metal oxide in itself. Here, a co-sputtering composition spread combinatorial approach was used to examine the conductivity and optical transparency in a-IZO thin films as a function of both In : Zn metals stoichiometry and the amount of oxygen added to the argon sputter gas. For optimising the conductivity, the percent oxygen in the sputter gas and the metals composition were found to have a strongly coupled effect. In particular, a-IZO films with conductivity {sigma} > 2000 S/cm can be grown for a broad range of metals compositions, In content from {approx}60 to {approx}85 cation%, as long as the corresponding optimal oxygen level is used in the deposition. The amount of oxygen required increases with increasing indium content. When too much oxygen is used, the conductivity is reduced due to a decreased carrier concentration whereas when too little oxygen is used, the conductivity is reduced due to decreased electron mobility. Concurrent with the decrease in electron mobility, there is increasing optical absorption from 400 nm to 1000 nm which renders the oxygen deficient a IZO samples grey.

  11. Influence of the "second gap" on the transparency of transparent conducting oxides: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Viet-Anh; Waroquiers, David; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Hautier, Geoffroy

    2016-05-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are essential to many technologies. These materials are doped (n- or p-type) oxides with a large enough band gap (ideally >3 eV) to ensure transparency. However, the high carrier concentration present in TCOs leads additionally to the possibility for optical transitions from the occupied conduction bands to higher states for n-type materials and from lower states to the unoccupied valence bands for p-type TCOs. The "second gap" formed by these transitions might limit transparency, and a large second gap has been sometimes proposed as a design criteria for high performance TCOs. Here, we study the influence of this second gap on optical absorption using ab initio computations for several well-known n- and p-type TCOs. Our work demonstrates that most known n-type TCOs do not suffer from second gap absorption in the visible even at very high carrier concentrations. On the contrary, p-type oxides show lowering of their optical transmission for high carrier concentrations due to second gap effects. We link this dissimilarity to the different chemistries involved in n- versus typical p-type TCOs. Quantitatively, we show that second gap effects lead to only moderate loss of transmission (even in p-type TCOs) and suggest that a wide second gap, while beneficial, should not be considered as a needed criteria for a working TCO.

  12. ALON optical ceramic transparencies for window, dome, and transparent armor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Twedt, Rich; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2011-06-01

    Surmet continues to invest in and expand its manufacturing capability for ALON® Optical Ceramic, as the market demand for this material increases. The biggest demand and opportunity continues to be in the area of transparent armor, however, the market for sensor domes and windows, made from ALON, continues to grow at an impressive rate as well. ALON® Transparent Armor's unsurpassed ballistic performance, combined with the robustness of ALON's manufacturing process and reproducibly high material quality make ALON the leading candidate for many future armor systems. Recent results for ALON armor windows will be presented. Advances being made in Surmet's production capability to support the very large quantities of material required by the transparent armor market also benefit the sensor market. Improvements in quality, quantity and manufacturability of ALON material, combined with improvements being made in optical quality, ensure a robust supply of high quality material for high volume window and dome applications. Recent advancement in ALON® window and dome blanks, as well as in optical fabrication will be presented.

  13. Transparent Stretchable Self-Powered Patchable Sensor Platform with Ultrasensitive Recognition of Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Trung, Tran Quang; Roh, Eun; Kim, Do-Il; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-09-22

    Monitoring of human activities can provide clinically relevant information pertaining to disease diagnostics, preventive medicine, care for patients with chronic diseases, rehabilitation, and prosthetics. The recognition of strains on human skin, induced by subtle movements of muscles in the internal organs, such as the esophagus and trachea, and the motion of joints, was demonstrated using a self-powered patchable strain sensor platform, composed on multifunctional nanocomposites of low-density silver nanowires with a conductive elastomer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate/polyurethane, with high sensitivity, stretchability, and optical transparency. The ultra-low-power consumption of the sensor, integrated with both a supercapacitor and a triboelectric nanogenerator into a single transparent stretchable platform based on the same nanocomposites, results in a self-powered monitoring system for skin strain. The capability of the sensor to recognize a wide range of strain on skin has the potential for use in new areas of invisible stretchable electronics for human monitoring. A new type of transparent, stretchable, and ultrasensitive strain sensor based on a AgNW/PEDOT:PSS/PU nanocomposite was developed. The concept of a self-powered patchable sensor system integrated with a supercapacitor and a triboelectric nanogenerator that can be used universally as an autonomous invisible sensor system was used to detect the wide range of strain on human skin. PMID:26277994

  14. Quality improvement of transmission images for transparent displays with micro-lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.-W.; Jeng, W.-D.; Ouyang, Y.; Tsai, Y.-H.; Lee, K.-C.; Ou-Yang, M.

    2014-09-01

    The technology of electrowetting display (EWD) is the most important method for the traditional displays that can work more efficiently. When the voltage drives, the aperture ratio of the ink will reach 75% and the transmittance can reach 60%. Furthermore, the EWD technology has the advantages such as high transmittance, high switching speed, color performance, low power consumption, and etc. They make the advances of technology development for the transparent displays. However, due to the diffraction phenomenon resulted from periodic pixel structures, when the users observe the background object through the transparent display, the transmitted image will be blurred. In this paper, we recognized the problems by the simulation and constructed the optical model first. In order to avoid the diffraction, we use micro lens array to prevent the rays interfere on the micro structure, so that it will not produce the destructive and constructive interference, so the diffraction effect can be reduced. The micro lens array avoid the light touches the outer frame of EWD pixels. The simulations are simulate at different distance, and the distance of diffraction width is condensed to 91% with respect to the origin. In the future, this concept can apply in other transmitted images of transparent displays.

  15. Selective Laser Direct Patterning of Silver Nanowire Percolation Network Transparent Conductor for Capacitive Touch Panel.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sukjoon; Yeo, Junyeob; Lee, Jinhwan; Lee, Habeom; Lee, Phillip; Lee, Seung S; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a facile method to enhance the functionality of a patterned metallic transparent conductor through selective laser ablation of metal nanowire percolation network. By scanning focused nanosecond pulsed laser on silver nanowire percolation network, silver nanowires are selectively ablated and patterned without using any conventional chemical etching or photolithography steps. Various arbitrary patterns of silver nanowire transparent conductors are readily created on the percolation network by changing various laser parameters such as repetition rate and power. The macroscopic optical and electrical properties of the percolation network transparent conductor can be easily tuned by changing the conductor pattern design via digital selective laser ablation. Further investigation on the silver nanowire based electrode line prepared by the ablation process substantiates that the general relation for a conducting thin film fails at a narrow width, which should be considered for the applications that requires a high resolution patterns. Finally, as a proof of concept, a capacitive touch sensor with diamond patterns has been demonstrated by selective laser ablation of metal nanowire percolation network.

  16. Nonperiodic metallic gratings transparent for broadband terahertz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Xu, Di-Hu; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonperiodic metallic gratings can become transparent for broadband terahertz waves. It is shown that broadband high transmission appears in aperiodic metallic gratings (including quasiperiodic and disordered ones), which originates from the nonresonant excitations in the grating system. Quasiperiodic and disordered metallic gratings effectively weaken and even eliminate Wood's anomalies, which are the diffraction-related characters of periodic gratings. Consequently, both the transparence bandwidth and transmission efficiency are significantly increased due to the structural aperiodicity. An optimal condition is also achieved for broadband high transparency in aperiodic metallic gratings. Experimental measurements at the terahertz regime reasonably agree with both analytical analysis and numerical simulations. Furthermore, we show that for a specific light source, for example, a line source, a corresponding nonperiodic transparent grating can be also designed. We expect that our findings can be applied for transparent conducting panels, perfect white-beam polarizers, antireflective conducting solar cells, and beyond.

  17. Semantic transparency and masked morphological priming: An ERP investigation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joanna; Frank, Tiffany; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    The role of semantics in the segmentation of morphologically complex words was examined using event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded to target words primed by semantically transparent (hunter–hunt,) opaque (corner–corn), and orthographically related (scandal–scan) masked primes. Behavioral data showed that only transparent items gave rise to priming. The ERP data showed both N250 and the N400 effects with transparent items generating greater priming than orthographic or opaque. Furthermore, priming effects across conditions revealed the existence of a significant linear trend, with transparent items showing the greatest effects and orthographic items the smallest, suggesting that these priming effects vary as a function of morphological structure and semantic transparency. The results are discussed in terms of a model of morphological processing. PMID:17498223

  18. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  19. Unraveling the physics of vertical organic field effect transistors through nanoscale engineering of a self-assembled transparent electrode.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sasson, Ariel J; Tessler, Nir

    2012-09-12

    While organic transistors' performances are continually pushed to achieve lower power consumption, higher working frequencies, and higher current densities, a new type of organic transistors characterized by a vertical architecture offers a radically different design approach to outperform its traditional counterparts. Naturally, the distinct vertical architecture gives way to different governing physical ground rules and structural key features such as the need for an embedded transparent electrode. In this paper, we make use of a zero-frequency electric field-transparent patterned electrode produced through block-copolymer self-assembly based lithography to control the performances of the vertical organic field effect transistor (VOFET) and to study its governing physical mechanisms. Unlike other VOFET structures, this design, involving well-defined electrode architecture, is fully tractable, allowing for detailed modeling, analysis, and optimization. We provide for the first time a complete account of the physics underpinning the VOFET operation, considering two complementary mechanisms: the virtual contact formation (Schottky barrier lowering) and the induced potential barrier (solid-state triode-like shielding). We demonstrate how each mechanism, separately, accounts for the link between controllable nanoscale structural modifications in the patterned electrode and the VOFET performances. For example, the ON/OFF current ratio increases by up to 2 orders of magnitude when the perforations aspect ratio (height/width) decreases from ∼0.2 to ∼0.1. The patterned electrode is demonstrated to be not only penetrable to zero-frequency electric fields but also transparent in the visible spectrum, featuring uniformity, spike-free structure, material diversity, amenability with flexible surfaces, low sheet resistance (20-2000 Ω sq(-1)) and high transparency (60-90%). The excellent layer transparency of the patterned electrode and the VOFET's exceptional electrical

  20. "On Cloud Nine" and "On All Fours": Which Is More Transparent? Elements in EFL Learners' Transparency Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Crystal Jia-yi

    2015-01-01

    Idiom transparency refers to how speakers think the meaning of the individual words contributes to the figurative meaning of an idiom as a whole (Gibbs, Nayak, & Cutting, 1989). However, it is not clear how speakers or language learners form their assumptions about an idiom's transparency level. This study set out to discover whether there are…

  1. Concepts in solid tumor evolution.

    PubMed

    Sidow, Arend; Spies, Noah

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary mechanisms in cancer progression give tumors their individuality. Cancer evolution is different from organismal evolution, however, and we discuss where concepts from evolutionary genetics are useful or limited in facilitating an understanding of cancer. Based on these concepts we construct and apply the simplest plausible model of tumor growth and progression. Simulations using this simple model illustrate the importance of stochastic events early in tumorigenesis, highlight the dominance of exponential growth over linear growth and differentiation, and explain the clonal substructure of tumors.

  2. Concepts in solid tumor evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sidow, Arend; Spies, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary mechanisms in cancer progression give tumors their individuality. Cancer evolution is different from organismal evolution, however, and here we discuss where concepts from evolutionary genetics are useful or limited in facilitating an understanding of cancer. Based on these concepts we construct and apply the simplest plausible model of tumor growth and progression. Simulations using this simple model illustrate the importance of stochastic events early in tumorigenesis, highlight the dominance of exponential growth over linear growth and differentiation, and explain the clonal substructure of tumors. PMID:25733351

  3. Testing for altruism and social pressure in charitable giving.

    PubMed

    DellaVigna, Stefano; List, John A; Malmendier, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Every year, 90% of Americans give money to charities. Is such generosity necessarily welfare enhancing for the giver? We present a theoretical framework that distinguishes two types of motivation: individuals like to give, for example, due to altruism or warm glow, and individuals would rather not give but dislike saying no, for example, due to social pressure. We design a door-to-door fund-raiser in which some households are informed about the exact time of solicitation with a flyer on their doorknobs. Thus, they can seek or avoid the fund-raiser. We find that the flyer reduces the share of households opening the door by 9% to 25% and, if the flyer allows checking a Do Not Disturb box, reduces giving by 28% to 42%. The latter decrease is concentrated among donations smaller than $10. These findings suggest that social pressure is an important determinant of door-to-door giving. Combining data from this and a complementary field experiment, we structurally estimate the model. The estimated social pressure cost of saying no to a solicitor is $3.80 for an in-state charity and $1.40 for an out-of-state charity. Our welfare calculations suggest that our door-to-door fund-raising campaigns on average lower the utility of the potential donors.

  4. Infants’ online perception of give-and-take interactions

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, Claudia; Bakker, Marta; Rohlfing, Katharina; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated infants’ online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants’ gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a give-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants’ goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants’ online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the give-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants’ online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of give-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective. PMID:24973626

  5. Occupational Functionality: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Combs, Bryan; Heaton, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Occupational health nursing has evolved since the late 19th century and, with the inclusion of advanced practice nursing, has become essential to the health and safety of workers. A key component of the knowledge required of advanced practice occupational health nurses is an understanding of what it means for workers to be fit for duty The definition or concept of being fit for duty varies depending on the point-of-view of the health care provider. Health care providers across all professions must have a consistent understanding of what it means to be fit for duty Literature shows that professions and specialties that often collaborate have varying ideas about what it means to be fit for duty These differences highlight the need for a consistent concept that can be used across professions, is holistic, and incorporates other concepts critical to all points of view. To better understand fit for duty, a concept analysis, using the Walker and Avant framework, focused on the concept of occupational functionality (OF). Occupational functionality is best defined as the qualities of being suited to serve an occupational purpose efficiently and effectively within the physical, occupational, environmental, and psychological demands of a unique work setting. This concept analysis offers an initial step in understanding fit for duty and gives health care providers a concept that can be used across disciplines. PMID:27462030

  6. [To Protect Corneal Transparency against Diseases].

    PubMed

    Usui, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    To protect corneal transparency, we tried to develop a new therapeutic strategy for corneal neovascularization, corneal scar, and TGFBI-related corneal dystrophy using nucleic acid drug. 1. The expression of angiopietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) markedly increased in the neovascularized corneas compared to the normal cornea, and Angtpl2 was(a potent inducer of inflammatory corneal neovascularization. We have produced a single-stranded proline-modified short hairpin anti-Angptl2 ribonucleric acid interference (RNAi) molecule that is carried in a lipid nanoparticle for topical application. We have found this agent can penetrate all layers of the cornea. Angptl2 mRNA expression and corneal neovascularization were inhibited in a mouse alkari injury model by topical application of this agent. Thus, this modified RNAi agent is a new topical formulation for use against corneal neovascularization and scar. 2. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with human corneal keratocytes under serum-free conditions. We performed microarray gene-expression analysis in the coculture system and selected angiopoietin-like protein 7 (Angptl7). In vivo, intrastromal injections of an anti-Angptl7 RNAi agent into the avascular corneal stroma of mice resulted in the growth of blood vessels. Further, we examined the effects of Angptl7 on corneal nerves using culture rat trigeminal cells and this molecule had neurotrophic property on the cornea. Thus, Angpt17 is a unique molecule, which contain its bilateral character (anti-angiogenic and neurotrophic) in the cornea; an agonistic nucleic acid drug for Angptl7 may be a new therapeutic tool for protecting corneal transparency. 3. We examined local gene editing for TGFBI-related corneal dystrophy using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated homology directed repair (HDR). Cultured corneal keratocytes were obtained from a patient of R124H granular dystrophy. The R124H gene arrangement was corrected by a tranfection of guide RNA and HDR repair

  7. Structure and Properties of Amorphous Transparent Conducting Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Julia

    Driven by technological appeal, the research area of amorphous oxide semiconductors has grown tremendously since the first demonstration of the unique properties of amorphous indium oxide more than a decade ago. Today, amorphous oxides, such as a-ITO, a-IZO, a-IGZO, or a-ZITO, exhibit the optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties that are comparable or even superior to those possessed by their crystalline counterparts, pushing the latter out of the market. Large-area uniformity, low-cost low-temperature deposition, high carrier mobility, optical transparency, and mechanical flexibility make these materials appealing for next-generation thin-film electronics. Yet, the structural variations associated with crystalline-to-amorphous transition as well as their role in carrier generation and transport properties of these oxides are far from being understood. Although amorphous oxides lack grain boundaries, factors like (i) size and distribution of nanocrystalline inclusions; (ii) spatial distribution and clustering of incorporated cations in multicomponent oxides; (iii) formation of trap defects; and (iv) piezoelectric effects associated with internal strains, will contribute to electron scattering. In this work, ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) and accurate density-functional approaches are employed to understand how the properties of amorphous ternary and quaternary oxides depend on quench rates, cation compositions, and oxygen stoichiometries. The MD results, combined with thorough experimental characterization, reveal that interplay between the local and long-range structural preferences of the constituent oxides gives rise to a complex composition-dependent structural behavior in the amorphous oxides. The proposed network models of metal-oxygen polyhedra help explain the observed intriguing electrical and optical properties in In-based oxides and suggest ways to broaden the phase space of amorphous oxide semiconductors with tunable properties. The

  8. Experimental Studies of Laser-Induced Breakdown in Transparent Dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C W

    2003-09-23

    The mechanisms by which transparent dielectrics damage when exposed to high power laser radiation has been of scientific and technological interest since the invention of the laser. In this work, a set of three experiments are presented which provide insight into the damage initiation mechanisms and the processes involved in laser-induced damage. Using an OPO (optical parametric oscillator) laser, we have measured the damage thresholds of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) from the near ultraviolet into the visible. Distinct steps, whose width is of order K{sub b}T, are observed in the damage threshold at photon energies associated with the number of photons (3{yields}2 or 4{yields}3) needed to promote a ground state electron across the energy gap. The wavelength dependence of the damage threshold suggests that a primary mechanism for damage initiation in DKDP is a multi-photon process in which the order is reduced through excited defect state absorption. In-situ fluorescence microscopy, in conjunction with theoretical calculations by Liu et al., has been used to establish that hydrogen displacement defects are potentially responsible for the reduction in the multi-photon cross-section. During the damage process, the material absorbs energy from the laser pulse and produces an ionized region that gives rise to broadband emission. By performing a time-resolved investigation of this emission, we demonstrate both that it is blackbody in nature, and we provide the first direct measurement of the localized temperature during and following laser damage initiation for various optical materials. For excitation using nanosecond laser pulses, the plasma, when confined in the bulk, is in thermal equilibrium with the lattice. These results allow for a detailed characterization of temperature, pressure, and electron densities occurring during laser-induced damage.

  9. Collective Philanthropy: Describing and Modeling the Ecology of Giving

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, William L.; Reagan, Andrew James; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2014-01-01

    Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, art, public support, and religion. We find that the detailed forms of gift-size distributions differ across but are relatively constant within charity categories. We construct a model for how a donor's income affects their giving preferences in different charity categories, offering a mechanistic explanation for variations in institutional gift-size distributions. We discuss how knowledge of gift-sized distributions may be used to assess an institution's gift-giving profile, to help set fundraising goals, and to design an institution-specific giving pyramid. PMID:24983864

  10. 78 FR 57409 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Public Outreach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Public Outreach AGENCY: Office of the Secretary.... Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI) candidacy application. By this notice, Interior is... announced the United States' commitment to participate in the Extractive Industries Transparency...

  11. EDITORIAL: On display with transparent conducting films On display with transparent conducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Transparent conducting films were already featuring in scientific literature over one hundred years ago. In 1894 Aryton and Mather described a conducting varnish for coating the screens of electric apparatus so they would not charge when accidentally brushed by a coat sleeve or other material [1]. Their method began with a similar approach to that used to make savoury jellies; by dissolving gelatine in vinegar, after which less palatable ingredients were incorporated including sulphuric acid and an antisulphuric enamel. While the search for transparent conducting films continued to attract other researchers, the same problem remained: the transparency would be compromised if the film was too thick, and the conductivity would be compromised if the film was too thin. In the early 1950s Gillham and Preston reported that thin gold films sputtered on bismuth oxide and heated resulted in a material that successfully combined the previously mutually exclusive properties of transparency and conductivity [2]. Other oxide films were also found to favourably combine these properties, including tin oxide, as reported by Ishiguro and colleagues in Japan in 1958 [3]. Today tin oxide doped with indium (ITO) has become the industry standard for transparent conducting films in a range of applications including photovoltaic technology and displays. It is perhaps the mounting ubiquity of electronic displays as a result of the increasingly digitised and computerised environment of the modern day world that has begun to underline the main drawback of ITO: expense. In this issue, a collaboration of researchers in Korea present an overview of graphene as a transparent conducting material with the potential to replace ITO in a range of electronic and optoelectronic applications [4]. One of the first innovations in optical microscopy was the use of dyes. This principle first came into practice with the use of ultraviolet light to reveal previously indistinguishable features. As explained

  12. Verification and transparency in future arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the technologies available for monitoring. Verification`s role may be declining in the post-Cold War period. The prospects for such a development will depend, first and foremost, on the high costs of traditional arms control, especially those associated with requirements for verification. Moreover, the growing interest in informal, or non-negotiated arms control does not allow for verification provisions by the very nature of these arrangements. Multilateral agreements are also becoming more prominent and argue against highly effective verification measures, in part because of fears of promoting proliferation by opening sensitive facilities to inspectors from potential proliferant states. As a result, it is likely that transparency and confidence-building measures will achieve greater prominence, both as supplements to and substitutes for traditional verification. Such measures are not panaceas and do not offer all that we came to expect from verification during the Cold war. But they may be the best possible means to deal with current problems of arms reductions and restraints at acceptable levels of expenditure.

  13. Cu mesh for flexible transparent conductive electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Kyung; Lee, Seunghun; Hee Lee, Duck; Hee Park, In; Seong Bae, Jong; Woo Lee, Tae; Kim, Ji-Young; Hun Park, Ji; Chan Cho, Yong; Ryong Cho, Chae; Jeong, Se-Young

    2015-06-03

    Copper electrodes with a micromesh/nanomesh structure were fabricated on a polyimide substrate using UV lithography and wet etching to produce flexible transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs). Well-defined mesh electrodes were realized through the use of high-quality Cu thin films. The films were fabricated using radio-frequency (RF) sputtering with a single-crystal Cu target--a simple but innovative approach that overcame the low oxidation resistance of ordinary Cu. Hybrid Cu mesh electrodes were fabricated by adding a capping layer of either ZnO or Al-doped ZnO. The sheet resistance and the transmittance of the electrode with an Al-doped ZnO capping layer were 6.197 ohm/sq and 90.657%, respectively, and the figure of merit was 60.502 × 10(-3)/ohm, which remained relatively unchanged after thermal annealing at 200 °C and 1,000 cycles of bending. This fabrication technique enables the mass production of large-area flexible TCEs, and the stability and high performance of Cu mesh hybrid electrodes in harsh environments suggests they have strong potential for application in smart displays and solar cells.

  14. Transparent conductor-Si pillars heterojunction photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Joondong; Park, Yun Chang

    2014-08-14

    We report a high-performing heterojunction photodetector by enhanced surface effects. Periodically, patterned Si substrates were used to enlarge the photo-reactive regions and yield proportionally improved photo-responses. An optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) was deposited on a Si substrate and spontaneously formed an ITO/Si heterojunction. Due to an electrical conductive ITO film, ITO/Si heterojunction device can be operated at zero-bias, which effectively suppresses the dark current, resulting in better performances than those by a positive or a negative bias operation. This zero-bias operating heterojunction device exhibits a short response time (∼ 22.5 ms) due to the physical reaction to the incident light. We revealed that the location of the space charge region (SCR) is crucial for a specific photon-wavelength response. The SCR space has the highest collection efficiency of the photo-generated carriers. The photo-response can be maximized when we design the photodetector by superposing the SCR space over a corresponding photon-absorption length. The surface enhanced Si pillar devices significantly improved the photo-responses ratios from that of a planar Si device. According to this design scheme, a high photo-response ratio of 5560% was achieved at a wavelength of 600 nm. This surfaced-enhanced heterojunction design scheme would be a promising approach for various photoelectric applications.

  15. Highly transparent light-harvesting window film.

    PubMed

    Cocilovo, Byron; Hashimura, Aki; Tweet, Douglas J; Voutsas, Tolis; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-10-20

    We have simulated unique textured window films that capture solar radiation without compromising the window's transparency by scattering infrared light toward photovoltaic strips located at the edges of the window. These films are ideal for powering electrochromic glass, which is difficult to install as each window requires its own power source. Our most promising design consists of an embedded array of 35° cones coated with a five-layer SiO2-Ag stack that was simulated to direct 1.4% of the incident light toward the edges and generate 1 W of power under a collimated 1000  W/m2 AM1.5G source at 60° and an average of 0.5 W over a full year when applied to a 1  m×1  m window. The internal visible transmittance of the window with the applied film is 95% at normal incidence, and remains above 85% for viewing angles up to 60°. The haze is 0.6% at normal incidence and 3.9% at 60°. PMID:26560389

  16. Transparent Electrode for Si Heterojunction Photoelectric Devices.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Melvin David; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Joondong

    2016-05-01

    The transparent conductive oxide layers are of great interest in recent researches because of their tunable properties which avail them to be used in varieties of applications. The important and most widely used TCO materials such as ITO and AZO films were prepared with three different layer thicknesses using DC sputtering system. The structural, optical and electrical characteristics of both ITO and AZO samples were analyzed and compared to reveal thickness dependent tunable properties of TCO materials. The maximum transmittance of 99.5% was obtained for AZO films at 600-700 nm wavelength range. The resistivity of ITO films was 200 times lesser than that of AZO films. The internal and external quantum efficiencies of ITO devices increased with increasing layer thickness whereas this situation was just opposite in case of AZO devices. The optical and electrical properties of ITO samples were found easily adjustable by changing layer thickness as compared to AZO samples. This study explores the strong association between the layer thickness and the properties of TCO films. This would be useful to extend the applications boundary of TCO materials. PMID:27483858

  17. Transparency-based microplates for fluorescence quantification.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Diep, Vu; Ng, Tuck Wah; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-03-01

    Microplates for use in resource-limited laboratories should ideally not require processes that involve substantial large-scale production in order to be viable. We describe and demonstrate here an approach of using a silicone sheet with holes, conveniently cut out precisely using an inexpensive cutting plotter to correspond with regions where liquid is to be dispensed, and attaching it to a transparency to create very thin well arrays. With this, the contact angle hysteresis behavior of liquid could be harnessed to produce taller drop shapes so that the fiber probe used could read in the emitted light more effectively. Experimentation conducted revealed fluorescence measurements that were significantly more sensitive than standard microplates, notwithstanding that smaller volumes of liquid were needed. This was achieved using both the fiber optic and imaging evaluation modes. The two methods investigated, one with a lid placed and one without, showed the latter to produce marginally more sensitive readings as opposed to improved immunity from the environment with the former. These favorable measurement characteristics were found to be achievable with an estimated production cost of AU $0.40 and fabrication times of 3.5 min (96 wells) and 6.5 min (384 wells) per plate. PMID:22266206

  18. Cu Mesh for Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Kyung; Lee, Seunghun; Hee Lee, Duck; Hee Park, In; Seong Bae, Jong; Woo Lee, Tae; Kim, Ji-Young; Hun Park, Ji; Chan Cho, Yong; Ryong Cho, Chae; Jeong, Se-Young

    2015-01-01

    Copper electrodes with a micromesh/nanomesh structure were fabricated on a polyimide substrate using UV lithography and wet etching to produce flexible transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs). Well-defined mesh electrodes were realized through the use of high-quality Cu thin films. The films were fabricated using radio-frequency (RF) sputtering with a single-crystal Cu target—a simple but innovative approach that overcame the low oxidation resistance of ordinary Cu. Hybrid Cu mesh electrodes were fabricated by adding a capping layer of either ZnO or Al-doped ZnO. The sheet resistance and the transmittance of the electrode with an Al-doped ZnO capping layer were 6.197 ohm/sq and 90.657%, respectively, and the figure of merit was 60.502 × 10–3/ohm, which remained relatively unchanged after thermal annealing at 200 °C and 1,000 cycles of bending. This fabrication technique enables the mass production of large-area flexible TCEs, and the stability and high performance of Cu mesh hybrid electrodes in harsh environments suggests they have strong potential for application in smart displays and solar cells. PMID:26039977

  19. Plasmon-mediated magneto-optical transparency

    PubMed Central

    Belotelov, V. I.; Kreilkamp, L. E.; Akimov, I. A.; Kalish, A. N.; Bykov, D. A.; Kasture, S.; Yallapragada, V. J.; Venu Gopal, Achanta; Grishin, A. M.; Khartsev, S. I.; Nur-E-Alam, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Doskolovich, L. L.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Alameh, K.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Bayer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic field control of light is among the most intriguing methods for modulation of light intensity and polarization on sub-nanosecond timescales. The implementation in nanostructured hybrid materials provides a remarkable increase of magneto-optical effects. However, so far only the enhancement of already known effects has been demonstrated in such materials. Here we postulate a novel magneto-optical phenomenon that originates solely from suitably designed nanostructured metal-dielectric material, the so-called magneto-plasmonic crystal. In this material, an incident light excites coupled plasmonic oscillations and a waveguide mode. An in-plane magnetic field allows excitation of an orthogonally polarized waveguide mode that modifies optical spectrum of the magneto-plasmonic crystal and increases its transparency. The experimentally achieved light intensity modulation reaches 24%. As the effect can potentially exceed 100%, it may have great importance for applied nanophotonics. Further, the effect allows manipulating and exciting waveguide modes by a magnetic field and light of proper polarization. PMID:23839481

  20. Transparency and Coherence in rf SQUID Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anlage, Steven; Trepanier, Melissa; Zhang, Daimeng

    We have developed active metamaterials capable of quickly tuning their electrical and magnetic responses over a wide frequency range. These metamaterials are based on superconducting elements to form low loss, physically and electrically small, highly tunable structures for fundamental studies of extraordinarily nonlinear media. The meta-atoms are rf superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that incorporate the Josephson effect. RF SQUIDs have an inductance which is strongly tunable with dc and rf magnetic fields and currents. The rf SQUID metamaterial is a richly nonlinear effective medium introducing qualitatively new macroscopic quantum phenomena into the metamaterials community, namely magnetic flux quantization and the Josephson effect. The coherent oscillation of the meta-atoms is strongly sensitive to the environment and measurement conditions, and we have developed several strategies to improve the coherence experimentally by exploiting ideas from nonlinear dynamics. The metamaterials also display a unique form of transparency whose development can be manipulated through multiple parametric dependences. We discuss these qualitatively new metamaterial phenomena. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE Programs through Grant No. ECCS-1158644 and the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials (CNAM).

  1. Relativistic Transparency Experiments at the Trident Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobble, J. A.; Palaniyappan, S.; Gautier, D. C.; Kim, Y. H.; Clark, D. D.; Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T.; Fernandez, J. C.; Herrmann, H. W.

    2013-10-01

    With near-diffraction-limited irradiance of 3 × 1020 W/cm2 on target and prelase contrast better than 10-9, we have accessed the regime of relativistic transparency (RT) at the Trident Laser. The goal was to assess electron debris emitted from the target rear surface with phase-contrast imaging (PCI) and current density measurements (hence, the total electron current). Companion diagnostics show whether the experiments are in the target-normal-sheath-acceleration mode or in the RT regime. The superb laser contrast allows us to shoot targets as thin as 50 nm. PCI at 527 nm is temporally resolved to 600 fs. It has shown the evolution of electron behavior over tens of ps, including thermal electrons accompanying the ion jet, accelerated to many tens of MeV earlier in time. Faraday-cup measurements indicate the transfer of many uC of charge during the laser drive. As a ride-along experiment using a gas Cherenkov detector (GCD), we have detected gamma rays of energy >5 MeV. This radiation has a prompt component and a lesser source, driven by accelerated ions, that is time resolved by the GCD. The ion time of flight is compared to Thomson parabola data. Electron energy spectra are also collected. This work has been performed under the auspices of the US DOE contract number DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. 2011 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2012-04-30

    During the 2008 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. They also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2008, there were 158 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 158 person-trips, 148 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 6 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 8 to UEIE itself. There were three monitoring visits (source changes) that were back-to-back with a total of 24 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2008, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency now has thirteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

  3. 2009 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2010-04-14

    During the 2009 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. LLNL also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2009, there were 159 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 159 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 4 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2009, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency Program now has over fifteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

  4. A bright neutron source driven by relativistic transparency of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, M.; Jung, D.; Falk, K.; Guler, N.; Deppert, O.; Devlin, M.; Favalli, A.; Fernandez, J.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Haight, R.; Hamilton, C. E.; Hegelich, B. M.; Johnson, R. P.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Merrill, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schoenberg, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Shimada, T.; Taddeucci, T.; Tybo, J. L.; Wagner, F.; Wender, S. A.; Wilde, C. H.; Wurden, G. A.

    2016-03-01

    Neutrons are a unique tool to alter and diagnose material properties and excite nuclear reactions with a large field of applications. It has been stated over the last years, that there is a growing need for intense, pulsed neutron sources, either fast or moderated neutrons for the scientific community. Accelerator based spallation sources provide unprecedented neutron fluxes, but could be complemented by novel sources with higher peak brightness that are more compact. Lasers offer the prospect of generating a very compact neutron source of high peak brightness that could be linked to other facilities more easily. We present experimental results on the first short pulse laser driven neutron source powerful enough for applications in radiography. For the first time an acceleration mechanism (BOA) based on the concept of relativistic transparency has been used to generate neutrons. This mechanism not only provides much higher particle energies, but also accelerated the entire target volume, thereby circumventing the need for complicated target treatment and no longer limited to protons as an intense ion source. As a consequence we have demonstrated a new record in laser-neutron production, not only in numbers, but also in energy and directionality based on an intense deuteron beam. The beam contained, for the first time, neutrons with energies in excess of 100 MeV and showed pronounced directionality, which makes then extremely useful for a variety of applications. The results also address a larger community as it paves the way to use short pulse lasers as a neutron source. They can open up neutron research to a broad academic community including material science, biology, medicine and high energy density physics as laser systems become more easily available to universities and therefore can complement large scale facilities like reactors or particle accelerators. We believe that this has the potential to increase the user community for neutron research largely.

  5. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed. PMID:26804335

  6. Optically Transparent Microwave Polarizer Based On Quasi-Metallic Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Marco; Bianco, Giuseppe Valerio; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; de Ceglia, Domenico; Capezzuto, Pio; Scalora, Michael; D’Orazio, Antonella; Bruno, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the engineering and the realization of optically transparent graphene-based microwave devices using Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) graphene whose sheet resistance may be tailored down to values below 30 Ω/sq. In particular, we show that the process was successfully used to realize and characterize a simple, optically transparent graphene-based wire-grid polarizer at microwave frequencies (X band). The availability of graphene operating in a quasi-metallic region may allow the integration of graphene layers in several microwave components, thus leading to the realization of fully transparent (and flexible) microwave devices. PMID:26603112

  7. Optically Transparent Microwave Polarizer Based On Quasi-Metallic Graphene.

    PubMed

    Grande, Marco; Bianco, Giuseppe Valerio; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; de Ceglia, Domenico; Capezzuto, Pio; Scalora, Michael; D'Orazio, Antonella; Bruno, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the engineering and the realization of optically transparent graphene-based microwave devices using Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) graphene whose sheet resistance may be tailored down to values below 30 Ω/sq. In particular, we show that the process was successfully used to realize and characterize a simple, optically transparent graphene-based wire-grid polarizer at microwave frequencies (X band). The availability of graphene operating in a quasi-metallic region may allow the integration of graphene layers in several microwave components, thus leading to the realization of fully transparent (and flexible) microwave devices. PMID:26603112

  8. Hybridization induced transparency in composites of metamaterials and atomic media.

    PubMed

    Weis, Peter; Garcia-Pomar, Juan Luis; Beigang, René; Rahm, Marco

    2011-11-01

    We report hybridization induced transparency (HIT) in a composite medium consisting of a metamaterial and a dielectric. We develop an analytic model that explains HIT by coherent coupling between the hybridized local fields of the metamaterial and the dielectric or an atomic system in general. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we evidence HIT in a split ring resonator metamaterial that is coupled to α-lactose monohydrate. Both, the analytic model and numerical calculations confirm and explain the experimental observations. HIT can be considered as a hybrid analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and plasmon-induced transparency (PIT). PMID:22109237

  9. Education Philanthropy Catching a Chill as Economy Cools Charitable Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that the recession tearing into the U.S. economy is not only straining the public coffers that support K-12 schooling, it's also taking a toll on education philanthropy. From family foundations to corporate philanthropies, charitable giving to K-12 education appears to be facing a downturn. Although no national figures are…

  10. Giving Feedback to Subordinates. An Ideas Into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buron, Raoul J.; McDonald-Mann, Dana

    This guidebook describes for managers how and when to give effective feedback. It emphasizes the need for frequent feedback so that employees may feel confident about what they are doing right and can work on areas in which they are less proficient. Feedback should also be used as a tool for development, which means that feedback, which should not…

  11. Giving Students a Fighting Chance: Pragmatics in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Terrence

    2004-01-01

    In order to give language learners a fighting chance outside the classroom, teachers must provide them with consciousness-raising opportunities for developing pragmatic awareness. By attending to pragmatic factors in second-language (L2) situations, student will be better able to make informed choices in negotiating effective communication. This…

  12. Using Classification Trees to Predict Alumni Giving for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

    2009-01-01

    As the relative level of public support for higher education declines, colleges and universities aim to maximize alumni-giving to keep their programs competitive. Anchored in a utility maximization framework, this study employs the classification and regression tree methodology to examine characteristics of alumni donors and non-donors at a…

  13. 32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO GIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO GIVE CURVATURE TO WHEEL RIMS ON ELI WINDMILLS) TO BINS ALONG NORTH INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY WITH NEW OLD STOCK UNASSEMBLED PARTS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  14. Better by the Year. The FRI Annual Giving Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, M. Jane

    Designed for a nonprofit organization executive, this book suggests how to start and run an increasingly profitable program for attracting the kind of gifts that will be repeated year after year. Preliminary preparations, the launch and administration of a campaign, four ways to reach higher goals, and annual giving ideas from education, health…

  15. Trends in Philanthropic Support: Foundation Giving in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Bowers, Alison W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite public support, environmental education (EE) is rarely a priority for funders, even those interested in the environment or education. We examined reasons behind the paucity of EE funding, focusing on U.S. foundations, which are one of the largest sources of support for environmental efforts. We analyzed historical giving data and…

  16. 33 CFR 54.03 - Persons authorized to give notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERSONNEL ALLOTMENTS FROM ACTIVE DUTY PAY FOR CERTAIN SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS § 54.03 Persons authorized to give... delinquent in meeting support obligations may be given by: (a) Any agent or attorney of any State having in effect a plan approved under Part D of Title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651-664), who...

  17. 33 CFR 54.03 - Persons authorized to give notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERSONNEL ALLOTMENTS FROM ACTIVE DUTY PAY FOR CERTAIN SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS § 54.03 Persons authorized to give... delinquent in meeting support obligations may be given by: (a) Any agent or attorney of any State having in effect a plan approved under Part D of Title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651-664), who...

  18. 33 CFR 54.03 - Persons authorized to give notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PERSONNEL ALLOTMENTS FROM ACTIVE DUTY PAY FOR CERTAIN SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS § 54.03 Persons authorized to give... delinquent in meeting support obligations may be given by: (a) Any agent or attorney of any State having in effect a plan approved under Part D of Title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651-664), who...

  19. Does Generosity Beget Generosity? Alumni Giving and Undergraduate Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. We analyze micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university, and focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. Consistent with the view of some professional fundraisers, we allow the receipt…

  20. Do Low Grades Cause College Students to Give up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Robert E.

    The thesis that low grades cause college students to give up receives some support from early psychological research and from current reinforcement theories. This study investigates the effects on subsequent grades of low, average, and high first-exam grades for 192 students in a traditional grading system and 52 students in a pass-fail grading…

  1. "What Advice Would You Give to Students Starting Your Course?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meedin, Aneeqa

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, the author, a Biomedical Sciences student at the University of Sheffield, presents an atypical way of addressing the question "What advice would you give to students starting your course?" by transcribing the much-evoked and revered Ten Commandments, the original guide to life, into advice for new and bewildered Biomedical…

  2. Giving Thanks: Observing Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Martha T.; Barta, James J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primary-grade curriculum unit organized around the theme of "giving thanks" and encompassing the holidays of Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead. Provides historical background and cultural context for each holiday, engagement activities, investigation activities, sharing activities, and a short list of related children's…

  3. Planned Giving Administration: The Business Officer's Guide [with DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Forrest C.

    2005-01-01

    Some people associate planned giving with fancy trusts and exotic tax plans. The truth is far simpler and more profound. This book provides a comprehensive review of the subject, from the relative simplicity of outright gifts and bequests to the more complex workings of pooled income funds and retained life estates. The author lends a common sense…

  4. This Program Gives Students a Firsthand Look at Health Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rebecca Brown

    1986-01-01

    The Salt Lake City schools' Health Careers Program gives junior and senior high school students who are considering medical profession careers an opportunity to have a two-semester internship experience in the medical field. Students earn credits while investigating various health careers. (MD)

  5. Does Deficit Irrigation Give More Crop Per Drop?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DOES DEFICIT IRRIGATION GIVE MORE CROP PER DROP? Deficit irrigation can be an effective way to maximize economic returns when water supply is the limiting resource. The ARS Water Management Research Unit is conducting field studies to determine the water production functions for 4 crops common in ...

  6. An Exploration of Giving among Gay Male College Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Alex; Gasman, Marybeth

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of sexual orientation and race on college alumni giving. The authors use qualitative methods, interviewing alumni at one university in the Northeast. They also provide recommendations for fundraising and alumni practitioners as well as recommendations for those scholars interested in student identity, fundraising,…

  7. "Planned Giving" Gains Favor Among Donors and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anne Lowrey

    1986-01-01

    Planned or deferred giving (through which a donor to a college or university contributes capital in the form of an annuity, life-income trust, insurance policy, pooled income fund, real estate, or other asset, to the institution but retains its financial benefit during his lifetime) is an increasingly popular form of donation to endowments. (MSE)

  8. 6 Universities Give Congress New Plan for Taxing Campus Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1988-01-01

    A new lobbying strategy by six universities, designed to show Congress that higher education may be willing to give up some tax advantages under current law, is also criticized as a tactical error when Congress is just beginning to consider changes in the tax law affecting nonprofit groups. (MSE)

  9. The Influence of Parental Advice Giving on Children's Friendship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flyr, Mary L.; And Others

    This study examined how parental advice-giving directly and indirectly influences children's quality of friendship with peers. Participating were 66 third graders, their classroom teachers, 66 mothers and 57 fathers, and 66 friends. All but one dyad of the target children and friend were the same gender. Teachers rated target children on peer…

  10. Nonverbal Responses of Primary School Students to "The Giving Tree."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlan, Dan

    In order to discover whether the nonverbal responses to literature of primary grade children--in the form of drawings--provide significant information about their feelings toward literature, this study measured primary children's responses to "The Giving Tree." Ninety children in four grade levels (kindergarten through third grade) listened to the…

  11. Carolina "Takes It or Leaves It" then "Gives It Up."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes the "Take It or Leave It" (now the "Give It Up") program at the University of South Carolina, in which the materials generated by students moving out of campus housing for the summer, rather than being disposed of as trash, are collected and recycled or donated to local charities. (EV)

  12. Technium concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Marc; Davies, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    Traditionally the economy of Wales has been based on the coal and steel industries. Recently, Wales has elected its own National Assembly and together with the Welsh Development Agency (WDA) and through a Regional Technology Plan, has prioritized the creation and development of a knowledge based economy. The culture of Wales has always placed emphasis on education and for a small nation, has a University sector with an excellent reputation for advanced research. The WDA and the University of Wales Swansea came together to establish Technium, which is an unique concept designed to bridge the gap between advanced University research and commercial exploitation. Technium was co-funded by the WDA and the European Regional Development Fund. The project is seen as the first phase of creating a network of sector specific Techniums across the country, all linked via state of the art telecomm-infrastructure to University centers of research excellence. This paper will describe two case studies, both in the Optics/Photonics field, of research centers being established in Technium by blue chip international companies. Those companies having located in Technium specifically because of the links to high quality university research. One company is Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) a global leader in Optoelectronic components. The second company, ICN Pharmaceuticals Inc, design and develop optical devices to be used in conjunction with pharmaceuticals for the treatment of a range of diseases. Working closely with the WDA and the University of Wales Swansea, these and other companies will pursue product development, sponsor postgraduate research and generate intellectual capital that will benefit the company, students and the region alike.

  13. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2009-01-01

    An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

  14. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  15. THE FISSILE MATERIAL TRANSPARENCY TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION (FMTTD)

    SciTech Connect

    L. R. AVENS; J. E. DOYLE; M. F. MULLEN

    2001-06-01

    The United States Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency Cooperative Threat Reduction program is supporting the construction of a fissile material storage facility at Mayak in the Russian Federation. Up to 34 tons of weapon-grade plutonium will be stored in the facility to await disposition. In order to meet arms control and nonproliferation objectives, the U.S. Congress has requested assurances that the nuclear material stored at the Mayak facility is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons. The usual approach to identify the origin or state of radioactive materials is to measure the intensity and energy of neutron and gamma radiation emitted. However, the Russian Federation considers such details as isotopic composition and mass to be classified. The solution arrived at by a DOE multilaboratory team is to place the radioactive specimen, the gamma and neutron counters, and all the computational equipment behind an information barrier. In the Fissile Materials Transparency Technology Demonstration (FMTD), this equipment was configured and programmed to measure the following six attributes: isotopic ratio, threshold mass, absence of oxide, presence of plutonium, age, and symmetry. On August 16, 2000, at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a delegation of Russian officials observed the successful demonstration of this new technology (called an Attribute Measurement System with Information Barrier, or AMS/IB). The scientists were able to demonstrate without releasing classified information that the nuclear material sample being tested (a nuclear weapon pit) had the declared weapon-grade plutonium characteristics. Once fully developed, AMS/IB technology will protect sensitive information while providing the United States increased confidence that the mandated Russian fissile materials have been stored. Attribute measurement systems can play a role in a number of U.S.-Russian nuclear security regimes such as the Trilateral Initiative, the Plutonium

  16. How transparent are migraine clinical trials?

    PubMed Central

    Dufka, Faustine L.; Dworkin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Transparency in research requires public access to unbiased information prior to trial initiation and openly available results upon study completion. The Repository of Registered Migraine Trials is a global snapshot of registered migraine clinical trials and scorecard of results availability via the peer-reviewed literature, registry databases, and gray literature. The 295 unique clinical trials identified employed 447 investigational agents, with 30% of 154 acute migraine trials and 11% of 141 migraine prophylaxis trials testing combinations of agents. The most frequently studied categories in acute migraine trials were triptans, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiemetics, calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists, and acetaminophen. Migraine prophylaxis trials frequently studied anticonvulsants, β-blockers, complementary/alternative therapies, antidepressants, and botulinum toxin. Overall, 237 trials were eligible for a results search. Of 163 trials completed at least 12 months earlier, 57% had peer-reviewed literature results, and registries/gray literature added another 13%. Using logistic regression analysis, studies with a sample size below the median of 141 subjects were significantly less likely to have results, but the dominant factor associated with availability of results was time since study completion. In unadjusted models, trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov and trials with industry primary sponsorship were significantly more likely to have results. Recently completed trials rarely have publicly available results; 2 years after completion, the peer-reviewed literature contains results for fewer than 60% of completed migraine trials. To avoid bias, evidence-based therapy algorithms should consider factors affecting results availability. As negative trials are less likely to be published, special caution should be exercised before recommending a therapy with a high proportion of missing trial results. PMID:25194013

  17. Thinking Connections: Concept Maps for Life Science. Book B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burggraf, Frederick

    The concept maps contained in this book (for grades 7-12) span 35 topics in life science. Topics were chosen using the National Science Education Standards as a guide. The practice exercise in concept mapping is included to give students an idea of what the tasks ahead will be in content rich maps. Two levels of concept maps are included for each…

  18. Freud's concept of working through.

    PubMed

    Sedler, M J

    1983-01-01

    Of all Freud's concepts, working through most completely characterizes the role of the patient in analysis. Conceived as the labor of the patient, rather than as an analytic technique, working through consists of two phases: recognizing resistances (insight) and overcoming resistances (change). In this paper these achievements are explicated in terms of the collaborative, yet conflicting, functions of remembering and repeating. A metapsychological consideration of the resistances in question leads to the system of concepts defined by id-resistance, the compulsion to repeat, and the death instinct. Finally, the concept of working through gives evidence for the idea of a will to recovery which, in the psychoanalytic situation, becomes a will to remember.

  19. Why Give to a College That Already Has Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Steve O.

    2007-01-01

    The law of diminishing returns, a simple but powerful concept that is widely known by everyone with a rudimentary understanding of economics, is often flagrantly disregarded by many -- including the richest among us. The law states that there comes a time when additional infusion of a factor of production no longer leads to an increase in…

  20. Electron beam irradiated silver nanowires for a highly transparent heater

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chan-Hwa; Oh, Seung Kyu; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cha, Yu-Jung; Kwak, Joon Seop; Shin, Jae-Heon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Transparent heaters have attracted increasing attention for their usefulness in vehicle windows, outdoor displays, and periscopes. We present high performance transparent heaters based on Ag nanowires with electron beam irradiation. We obtained an Ag-nanowire thin film with 48 ohm/sq of sheet resistance and 88.8% (substrate included) transmittance at 550 nm after electron beam irradiation for 120 sec. We demonstrate that the electron beam creates nano-soldering at the junctions of the Ag nanowires, which produces lower sheet resistance and improved adhesion of the Ag nanowires. We fabricated a transparent heater with Ag nanowires after electron beam irradiation, and obtained a temperature of 51 °C within 1 min at an applied voltage of 7 V. The presented technique will be useful in a wide range of applications for transparent heaters. PMID:26639760

  1. Designing transparent superamphiphobic coatings directed by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Ren, Guina; Men, Xuehu; Ge, Bo; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2014-05-01

    Creating surfaces with superamphiphobic property and optical transparency simultaneously would have fundamental and practical significance but has been proven extremely challenging. Herein, we develop a transparent superamphiphobic coating using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the template by a facile approach. CNTs enwrapped with SiO2 coating was produced by a sol-gel method and then sprayed onto the glass slides to form coatings. Subsequent thermal treatment and surface fluoration allowed the sprayed coating to exhibit enhanced transparency across a broad spectrum of ultraviolet and visible wavelengths and also display superrepellency toward water and a number of organic liquids, such as dodecane. The obtained transparent coating can sustain its superamphiphobicity even after thermal treatment at 400 °C. Separate experiment demonstrated that the CNTs-directed geometrical structure played a key role in establishing superamphiphobicity.

  2. Electron beam irradiated silver nanowires for a highly transparent heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chan-Hwa; Oh, Seung Kyu; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cha, Yu-Jung; Kwak, Joon Seop; Shin, Jae-Heon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Transparent heaters have attracted increasing attention for their usefulness in vehicle windows, outdoor displays, and periscopes. We present high performance transparent heaters based on Ag nanowires with electron beam irradiation. We obtained an Ag-nanowire thin film with 48 ohm/sq of sheet resistance and 88.8% (substrate included) transmittance at 550 nm after electron beam irradiation for 120 sec. We demonstrate that the electron beam creates nano-soldering at the junctions of the Ag nanowires, which produces lower sheet resistance and improved adhesion of the Ag nanowires. We fabricated a transparent heater with Ag nanowires after electron beam irradiation, and obtained a temperature of 51 °C within 1 min at an applied voltage of 7 V. The presented technique will be useful in a wide range of applications for transparent heaters.

  3. Tunable Transmission-Line Metamaterials Mimicking Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T. H.; Han, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Tunable transmission-line (TL) metamaterials mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been studied. Firstly, two types of tunable TL EIT-like metamaterial, based on the double split-ring resonator (DSRR) and single split-ring resonator (SSRR), were fabricated and their transmission properties carefully compared. The results showed that the transmittance maximum was almost invariable with shift of the transparency window for the tunable DSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, but for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, the transmittance maximum gradually diminished with shift of the transparency window toward the center of the absorption band. Moreover, the reason for these different transmission properties was explored, revealing that the reduction of the transmittance maximum of the transparency window for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial is mainly due to energy loss caused by the resistance of the loaded varactor diodes.

  4. An Electrochemical Experiment Using an Optically Transparent Thin Layer Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Thomas P.; Heineman, William R.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a unified experiment in which an optically transparent thin layer electrode is used to illustrate the techniques of thin layer electrochemistry, cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry, and spectroelectrochemistry. (MLH)

  5. Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, C.; Peltola, J.; Levitsky, I.; Glatkowski, P.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Barnes, T.; Coutts, T.

    2006-01-01

    Transparent and electrically conductive coatings and films have a variety of uses in the fast-growing field of optoelectronic applications. Transparent electrodes typically include semiconductive metal oxides such as indium tin oxide (ITO), and conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), doped and stabilized with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). In recent years, Eikos, Inc. has conceived and developed technologies to deliver novel alternatives using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). These technologies offer products having a broad range of conductivity, excellent transparency, neutral color tone, good adhesion, abrasion resistance as well as mechanical robustness. Additional benefits include ease of ambient processing and patterning capability. This paper reports our recent findings on achieving 2.6% and 1.4% efficiencies on nonoptimized organic photovoltaic cells employing SWNT as a transparent electrode.

  6. Tunable Transmission-Line Metamaterials Mimicking Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T. H.; Han, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Tunable transmission-line (TL) metamaterials mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been studied. Firstly, two types of tunable TL EIT-like metamaterial, based on the double split-ring resonator (DSRR) and single split-ring resonator (SSRR), were fabricated and their transmission properties carefully compared. The results showed that the transmittance maximum was almost invariable with shift of the transparency window for the tunable DSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, but for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, the transmittance maximum gradually diminished with shift of the transparency window toward the center of the absorption band. Moreover, the reason for these different transmission properties was explored, revealing that the reduction of the transmittance maximum of the transparency window for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial is mainly due to energy loss caused by the resistance of the loaded varactor diodes.

  7. Stretchable and transparent electrodes based on in-plane structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, Joohee; Hyun, Byung Gwan; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, So-Yun; Kim, Sungwon; An, Byeong Wan; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-09-21

    Stretchable electronics has attracted great interest with compelling potential applications that require reliable operation under mechanical deformation. Achieving stretchability in devices, however, requires a deeper understanding of nanoscale materials and mechanics beyond the success of flexible electronics. In this regard, tremendous research efforts have been dedicated toward developing stretchable electrodes, which are one of the most important building blocks for stretchable electronics. Stretchable transparent thin-film electrodes, which retain their electrical conductivity and optical transparency under mechanical deformation, are particularly important for the favourable application of stretchable devices. This minireview summarizes recent advances in stretchable transparent thin-film electrodes, especially employing strategies based on in-plane structures. Various approaches using metal nanomaterials, carbon nanomaterials, and their hybrids are described in terms of preparation processes and their optoelectronic/mechanical properties. Some challenges and perspectives for further advances in stretchable transparent electrodes are also discussed. PMID:26287668

  8. Design of transparent cloaks with arbitrarily inner and outer boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Zhong Lei; Niu, Tiao Ming; Bai, Jing; Cui, Tie Jun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, the efficient transformation optics method has been utilized to design and analyze two-dimensional (2D) transparent cloaks, structures that can physically protect the devices inside but do not affect their electrical performances at all. The general and explicit expressions for the material parameters of the transformed space are derived. 2D transparent cloaks with arbitrarily conformal and nonconformal inner and outer boundaries and those working in gradually changing background and layered media are designed. Full-wave simulations combined with the Huygens' principle are applied to validate the transparency of the cloaks. The simulation results under different circumstances demonstrate that the proposed method is correct and efficient. The work introduced here makes important progress in the theoretical design of the transparent cloak and expands the application of the transformation optics method.

  9. One-dimensional nanostructures for novel biosensor and transparent electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiao-Kang

    -walled carbon nanotubes. The printed nanosensors exhibit reliable sensing to pH variation. We have successfully achieved the detection of Estradial, a commonly used hormone biomarker, as a proof of concept for using printed nanobiosensors on disease diagnosis. High-performance fully transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs) on both rigid and flexible substrates with transfer printed aligned nanotubes as the active channel and indium-tin oxide as the source, drain and gate electrodes is reported in chapter 6. Such transistors are fabricated through low temperature processing, which allows device fabrication even on flexible substrates. Transparent transistors with high effective mobilities (˜1,300 cm2V -1s-1) were first demonstrated on glass substrates via engineering of the source and drain contacts, and high on/off ratio (3 x 104) was achieved using electrical breakdown. In addition, flexible TTFTs with good transparency were also fabricated and successfully operated under bending up to 120°. All of the devices showed good transparency (˜80% on average). The transparent transistors were further utilized to construct a fully transparent and flexible logic inverter on a plastic substrate, and also used to control commercial GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with light intensity modulation of 103. Our results suggest that aligned nanotubes have great potential to work as building blocks for future transparent electronics. In chapter 7, a summary of all topics in this dissertation is described. Future work regarding the nanobiosensor project is also proposed.

  10. Bichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency in hot atomic vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hui; Liao, Kai-Yu; Li, Jian-Feng; Du, Yan-Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2013-05-01

    In a three-level Λ atomic system coupled by a symmetrical bichromatic laser field, a weak probe laser field shows multiple absorption peaks in the case of cold atoms. As for hot atomic vapors, we experimentally observe double symmetrical electromagnetically induced transparency windows instead of multiple absorption peaks. This abnormal spectrum is due to the Doppler averaging. The electromagnetically induced transparency windows observed here are useful for obtaining slow photons at different frequencies.

  11. A Transparent and Flexible Graphene-Piezoelectric Fiber Generator.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Kuo, Chien Cheng; Huang, Zih Ming; Li, Shan Chien; Liu, En Rui

    2016-04-13

    Piezoelectric fiber-based generators are prepared by combining two distinctive materials - poly(vinlyidene fluoride) fibers and monolayer/bilayer graphene. Novelty lies in the replacement of opaque metal electrodes with transparent graphene electrodes which enable the graphene-piezoelectric fiber generator to exhibit high flexibility and transparency as well as a great performance with an achievable output of voltage/current about 2 V/200 nA.

  12. Property enhancement of optically transparent bionanofiber composites by acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogi, Masaya; Abe, Kentaro; Handa, Keishin; Nakatsubo, Fumiaki; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2006-12-01

    The authors studied acetylation of bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers to widen the applications of BC nanocomposites in optoelectronic devices. The slight acetylation of BC nanofibers significantly reduces the hygroscopicity of BC nanocomposites, while maintaining their high optical transparency and thermal stability. Furthermore, the degradation in optical transparency at elevated temperature (200°C) was significantly reduced by acetylation treatment. Therefore, the acetylation of bionanofibers has an extraordinary potential as treatment for property enhancement of bionanofiber composites.

  13. Transparent Cell for Protein Crystallization under Low Applied Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatsu, Takashi; Ohnishi, Yuuki

    2011-04-01

    A transparent cell with the ability to apply a uniform internal electric field has been designed for protein crystallization. The parallel configuration of two plate electrodes coated with transparent conductive films provides a cell where the growth of protein crystals can be observed. In addition, the electrodes allow the formation of parallel electric fields in the protein solution, which can be applied at a very low voltage so that the electrolysis of the solution does not occur.

  14. Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Md. Iftekhar; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites with low thermal expansion of 15 ppm/k are prepared by hot pressing vacuum-filtered Pickering emulsions of hydrophobic acrylic resin monomer, hydrophilic chitin nanofibers and water. The coalescence of acrylic monomer droplets in the emulsion is prevented by the chitin nanofibers network. This transparent composite has 3D shape moldability, making it attractive for optical precision parts. PMID:26552990

  15. A Transparent and Flexible Graphene-Piezoelectric Fiber Generator.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Kuo, Chien Cheng; Huang, Zih Ming; Li, Shan Chien; Liu, En Rui

    2016-04-13

    Piezoelectric fiber-based generators are prepared by combining two distinctive materials - poly(vinlyidene fluoride) fibers and monolayer/bilayer graphene. Novelty lies in the replacement of opaque metal electrodes with transparent graphene electrodes which enable the graphene-piezoelectric fiber generator to exhibit high flexibility and transparency as well as a great performance with an achievable output of voltage/current about 2 V/200 nA. PMID:26929015

  16. Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Md. Iftekhar; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites with low thermal expansion of 15 ppm/k are prepared by hot pressing vacuum-filtered Pickering emulsions of hydrophobic acrylic resin monomer, hydrophilic chitin nanofibers and water. The coalescence of acrylic monomer droplets in the emulsion is prevented by the chitin nanofibers network. This transparent composite has 3D shape moldability, making it attractive for optical precision parts.

  17. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard Lee; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  18. Feasibility Study of Optically Transparent Microstrip Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a feasibility study on optically transparent patch antennas with microstrip line and probe feeds. The two antennas operate at 2.3 GHz and 19.5 GHz respectively. They are constructed from a thin sheet of clear polyester with an AgHT-8 optically transparent conductive coating. The experimental results show good radiation patterns and input impedance match. The antennas have potential applications in mobile wireless communications.

  19. Wrinkles and splay conspire to give positive disclinations negative curvature

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Vega, Daniel A.; Pezzutti, Aldo D.; García, Nicolás A.; Chaikin, Paul M.; Register, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in the coupling between geometry and topological defects in crystalline and striped systems. Standard lore dictates that positive disclinations are associated with positive Gaussian curvature, whereas negative disclinations give rise to negative curvature. Here, we present a diblock copolymer system exhibiting a striped columnar phase that preferentially forms wrinkles perpendicular to the underlying stripes. In free-standing films this wrinkling behavior induces negative Gaussian curvature to form in the vicinity of positive disclinations. PMID:26420873

  20. 19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIERFREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIER-FREE ACCESS FROM THE DRIVEWAY TO THE ELEVATOR. Wrought iron railings, extended upper step of stoop (indicated by the darker concrete between the two vertical posts), and wooden ramp added by the National Trust to meet modern barrier-free access codes, circa 1980. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Giving a Newborn a Bath in her Parents' Presence.

    PubMed

    Didry, Pascale; Didry, Emmanuelle

    2015-11-01

    Today, Sophie is working on the maternity ward. She is going to give Manon, David and Laura's first born, a bath. Manon was born on the day before. She weighs 3.350kg and is 49cm long. She has already got a lot of fuzzy brown hair. Both parents are looking forward to watching and learning how to care for their new baby. PMID:26548395

  2. Critical dimension measurement of transparent film layers by multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soonyang; Kim, Namyoon; Jo, Taeyong; Pahk, Heui Jae

    2014-07-14

    An optical microscopy system as a non-destructive method for measuring critical dimension (CD) is widely used for its stability and fastness. In case of transparent thin film measurement, it is hard to recognize the pattern under white light illumination due to its transparency and reflectance characteristics. In this paper, the optical measurement system using multispectral imaging for CD measurement of transparent thin film is introduced. The measurement system utilizes an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) to illuminate the specimen with various monochromatic lights. The relationship between spectral reflectance and CD measurement are deduced from series of measurement experiments with two kinds of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) patterned samples. When the difference of spectral reflectance between substrate and thin film layers is large enough to yield a large image intensity difference, the thin film layer can be distinguished from substrate, and it is possible to measure the CD of transparent thin films. This paper analyzes CD measurement of transparent thin film with reflectance theory and shows that the CD measurement of transparent thin film can be performed successfully with the proposed system within a certain wavelength range filtered by AOTF. PMID:25090550

  3. A reinterpretation of transparency perception in terms of gamut relativity.

    PubMed

    Vladusich, Tony

    2013-03-01

    Classical approaches to transparency perception assume that transparency constitutes a perceptual dimension corresponding to the physical dimension of transmittance. Here I present an alternative theory, termed gamut relativity, that naturally explains key aspects of transparency perception. Rather than being computed as values along a perceptual dimension corresponding to transmittance, gamut relativity postulates that transparency is built directly into the fabric of the visual system's representation of surface color. The theory, originally developed to explain properties of brightness and lightness perception, proposes how the relativity of the achromatic color gamut in a perceptual blackness-whiteness space underlies the representation of foreground and background surface layers. Whereas brightness and lightness perception were previously reanalyzed in terms of the relativity of the achromatic color gamut with respect to illumination level, transparency perception is here reinterpreted in terms of relativity with respect to physical transmittance. The relativity of the achromatic color gamut thus emerges as a fundamental computational principle underlying surface perception. A duality theorem relates the definition of transparency provided in gamut relativity with the classical definition underlying the physical blending models of computer graphics.

  4. Projection type transparent 3D display using active screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoshita, Hiroki; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-05-01

    Equipment to enjoy a 3D image, such as a movie theater, television and so on have been developed many. So 3D video are widely known as a familiar image of technology now. The display representing the 3D image are there such as eyewear, naked-eye, the HMD-type, etc. They has been used for different applications and location. But have not been widely studied for the transparent 3D display. If transparent large 3D display is realized, it is useful to display 3D image overlaid on real scene in some applications such as road sign, shop window, screen in the conference room etc. As a previous study, to produce a transparent 3D display by using a special transparent screen and number of projectors is proposed. However, for smooth motion parallax, many projectors are required. In this paper, we propose a display that has transparency and large display area by time multiplexing projection image in time-division from one or small number of projectors to active screen. The active screen is composed of a number of vertically-long small rotate mirrors. It is possible to realize the stereoscopic viewing by changing the image of the projector in synchronism with the scanning of the beam.3D vision can be realized by light is scanned. Also, the display has transparency, because it is possible to see through the display when the mirror becomes perpendicular to the viewer. We confirmed the validity of the proposed method by using simulation.

  5. A reinterpretation of transparency perception in terms of gamut relativity.

    PubMed

    Vladusich, Tony

    2013-03-01

    Classical approaches to transparency perception assume that transparency constitutes a perceptual dimension corresponding to the physical dimension of transmittance. Here I present an alternative theory, termed gamut relativity, that naturally explains key aspects of transparency perception. Rather than being computed as values along a perceptual dimension corresponding to transmittance, gamut relativity postulates that transparency is built directly into the fabric of the visual system's representation of surface color. The theory, originally developed to explain properties of brightness and lightness perception, proposes how the relativity of the achromatic color gamut in a perceptual blackness-whiteness space underlies the representation of foreground and background surface layers. Whereas brightness and lightness perception were previously reanalyzed in terms of the relativity of the achromatic color gamut with respect to illumination level, transparency perception is here reinterpreted in terms of relativity with respect to physical transmittance. The relativity of the achromatic color gamut thus emerges as a fundamental computational principle underlying surface perception. A duality theorem relates the definition of transparency provided in gamut relativity with the classical definition underlying the physical blending models of computer graphics. PMID:23456117

  6. Optical and surface properties of optically transparent Li3 PO4 solid electrolyte layer for transparent solid batteries.

    PubMed

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, optical and surface properties of the optically transparent Li3 PO4 solid electrolyte layer for transparent solid battery have been investigated for the first time. To determine the optical properties, transmittance, absorbance, reflection, refractive index spectra, and optical band gap were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and optical interferometer. The surface property of the transparent Li3 PO4 solid electrolyte was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. One another important parameter is contact angle (CA) surface free energy (SFE). CA and SFE were determined by optical tensiometer. These values probably are a most important parameter for polymer and hybrid battery performance. For the best performance, value of CA should be low. As a result, solid electrolyte layer is a highly transparent and it has a high wettability. SCANNING 38:317-321, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Intense field electron excitation in transparent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modoran, Georgia C.

    The propagation of an intense laser through transparent materials can only be understood by considering a wide range of nonlinear effects and their simultaneous interaction. Electron plasma formation plays a crucial role and is the focus of this work. The mechanisms of the nonlinear ionization are not well understood. There are two proposed interactions that contribute to electron plasma formation: photoionization and avalanche ionization, but the individual contribution of each of these ionization processes is controversial. Keldysh theory has been proposed as a description of photoionization. Two models for avalanche ionization are used in the literature, but with different intensity dependence. We address and resolve these issues. In this thesis we present a spectrally resolved pump-probe experiment that directly measures the nonlinear ionization rates and plasma evolution in solid state media. Both pump and probe are derived from an 800 nm, 120 fs laser. The maximum ionization rates were obtained in sapphire (˜1.9x10 18 fs-1 ·cm-3), while in water (˜7.2x1017 fs-1 ·cm -3), fused silica (˜8.6x1017 fs -1 ·cm-3) and methanol (˜6.6x10 17 fs-1 ·cm-3) the ionization rates were slightly different. Our measured ionization rates are consistently larger that the theoretical rate given by Keldysh theory, suggesting that this theory does not correctly describe the photoionization process. We also present measurements that separate the two excitation processes and identify the role played by each in the ionization of media. The idea underneath these experiments is a very simple one: since the two ionization processes have different intensity dependence, the absorption of light in the medium should differ similarly. Therefore it should be possible to distinguish the two mechanisms by looking at the energy dependence of the absorption. From our result we find that avalanche and multiphoton ionization have varying relative contributions, depending on the band gap. For

  8. Theory of wave propagation in magnetized near-zero-epsilon metamaterials: evidence for one-way photonic states and magnetically switched transparency and opacity.

    PubMed

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Engheta, Nader

    2013-12-20

    We study propagation of transverse-magnetic electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of a magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge; we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to the possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation. PMID:24483756

  9. Feasibility of transparent flexible ultrasonic haptic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akther, Asma; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Hyun Chan; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic haptics actuator is a device that can create a haptic feedback to user's hand. The modulation of ultrasonic frequency can give different textures to the users. In this study, a feasibility of the ultrasonic haptic actuator made on a flexible piezoelectric substrate is investigated. As the piezoelectric substrate helps to propagate flexural waves, a pair of interdigital transducer (IDT) with reflectors can produce standing waves, which can increase the vibrational displacement of the actuator. A pair of IDT pattern was fabricated on a piezoelectric polymer substrate. A finite element analysis is at first performed to design the actuator. A sinusoidal excitation voltage is applied on IDT electrodes at ultrasonic frequencies and the displacement waveforms are found. The displacement waveforms clearly represent how ultrasonic waves propagate through the piezoelectric substrate.

  10. Pharmaceutical gift giving: analysis of an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Stokamer, Charlene L

    2003-01-01

    When pharmaceutical companies market their products to, and through, healthcare professionals in hospitals and private practice, healthcare professionals face ethical dilemmas in their practice and their organizations. Pharmaceutical companies target nurse practitioners with prescribing privileges. The author describes the ethical dilemma faced by healthcare professionals when friendly salespeople offer tempting gifts. The article outlines cultural responses to gift giving and ethical issues surrounding healthcare professionals' responses to pharmaceutical marketing strategies. Nurse administrators need to acknowledge a growing threat to nursing integrity. Nurse administrators have the power to make and enforce ethical policies that prevent proprietary influences from clouding nursing judgment and contributing to the escalating costs of prescription medications.

  11. The Navigation Guide Systematic Review Methodology: A Rigorous and Transparent Method for Translating Environmental Health Science into Better Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Synthesizing what is known about the environmental drivers of health is instrumental to taking prevention-oriented action. Methods of research synthesis commonly used in environmental health lag behind systematic review methods developed in the clinical sciences over the past 20 years. Objectives: We sought to develop a proof of concept of the “Navigation Guide,” a systematic and transparent method of research synthesis in environmental health. Discussion: The Navigation Guide methodology builds on best practices in research synthesis in evidence-based medicine and environmental health. Key points of departure from current methods of expert-based narrative review prevalent in environmental health include a prespecified protocol, standardized and transparent documentation including expert judgment, a comprehensive search strategy, assessment of “risk of bias,” and separation of the science from values and preferences. Key points of departure from evidence-based medicine include assigning a “moderate” quality rating to human observational studies and combining diverse evidence streams. Conclusions: The Navigation Guide methodology is a systematic and rigorous approach to research synthesis that has been developed to reduce bias and maximize transparency in the evaluation of environmental health information. Although novel aspects of the method will require further development and validation, our findings demonstrated that improved methods of research synthesis under development at the National Toxicology Program and under consideration by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are fully achievable. The institutionalization of robust methods of systematic and transparent review would provide a concrete mechanism for linking science to timely action to prevent harm. Citation: Woodruff TJ, Sutton P. 2014. The Navigation Guide systematic review methodology: a rigorous and transparent method for translating environmental health science into

  12. Application of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, M.; Barnes, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Coutts, T. J.; Weeks, C.; Glatkowski, P.; Levitsky, I.; Peltola, J.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new thin-film solar cell structure in which the traditional transparent conductive oxide electrode (ZnO) is replaced by a transparent conductive coating consisting of a network of bundled single-wall carbon nanotubes. Optical transmission properties of these coatings are presented in relation to their electrical properties (sheet resistance), along with preliminary solar cell results from devices made using CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin-film absorber materials. Achieving an energy conversion efficiency of >12% and a quantum efficiency of {approx}80% demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A discussion of the device structures will be presented considering the physical properties of the new electrodes comparing current-voltage results from the new solar cell structure and those from standard ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cells.

  13. Transparent Global Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Anselm; Schneider, John; Pinho, Rui; Crowley, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Vulnerability to earthquakes is increasing, yet advanced reliable risk assessment tools and data are inaccessible to most, despite being a critical basis for managing risk. Also, there are few, if any, global standards that allow us to compare risk between various locations. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) is a unique collaborative effort that aims to provide organizations and individuals with tools and resources for transparent assessment of earthquake risk anywhere in the world. By pooling data, knowledge and people, GEM acts as an international forum for collaboration and exchange, and leverages the knowledge of leading experts for the benefit of society. Sharing of data and risk information, best practices, and approaches across the globe is key to assessing risk more effectively. Through global projects, open-source IT development and collaborations with more than 10 regions, leading experts are collaboratively developing unique global datasets, best practice, open tools and models for seismic hazard and risk assessment. Guided by the needs and experiences of governments, companies and citizens at large, they work in continuous interaction with the wider community. A continuously expanding public-private partnership constitutes the GEM Foundation, which drives the collaborative GEM effort. An integrated and holistic approach to risk is key to GEM's risk assessment platform, OpenQuake, that integrates all above-mentioned contributions and will become available towards the end of 2014. Stakeholders worldwide will be able to calculate, visualise and investigate earthquake risk, capture new data and to share their findings for joint learning. Homogenized information on hazard can be combined with data on exposure (buildings, population) and data on their vulnerability, for loss assessment around the globe. Furthermore, for a true integrated view of seismic risk, users can add social vulnerability and resilience indices to maps and estimate the costs and benefits

  14. How Do Family Caregivers of Older People Give Up Caregiving?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Peyrovi, Hamid; Joolaee, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Population aging has social, economic and political consequences. Most family caregivers prefer to care for their family member older person with chronic disease at home. Despite traditional culture within Iranian families, in some cases, hospitalization of the elderly in nursing home is inevitable, and this affects the old person and his/her family. The aim of this study was to explain how Iranian family cargivers give up caring their older person with chronic condition at home. Methods A grounded theory approach was used to conduct the study. The study setting included four nursing homes under the auspices of Iran Welfare Organization. Fourteen participants were recruited through purposive sampling. Data were collected from December 2010 to March 2011 by Semi-structured interviews lasting about 17 to 95 minutes (average 52 minutes). Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Three main categories appeared at the end of the analysis: “going out of the road of usual life”, “challenge of meeting older person, family and caregivers care needs”, and “the appearance of inconstancy in the family”. They explained exclusively how family caregivers of old people give up caregiving. Conclusion Health care providers are recommended to become familiar with challenges of family caregivers in taking care of older person with chronic disease at home, and then organize their supportive and consulting actions according to family situations in order to improve the life quality of older person and family caregivers. PMID:26171407

  15. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms

    PubMed Central

    Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

  16. Do spinors give rise to a frame-dragging effect?

    SciTech Connect

    Randono, Andrew

    2010-01-15

    We investigate the effect of the intrinsic spin of a fundamental spinor field on the surrounding spacetime geometry. We show that despite the lack of a rotating stress-energy source (and despite claims to the contrary) the intrinsic spin of a spin-half fermion gives rise to a frame-dragging effect analogous to that of orbital angular momentum, even in Einstein-Hilbert gravity where torsion is constrained to be zero. This resolves a paradox regarding the counter-force needed to restore Newton's third law in the well-known spin-orbit interaction. In addition, the frame-dragging effect gives rise to a long-range gravitationally mediated spin-spin dipole interaction coupling the internal spins of two sources. We argue that despite the weakness of the interaction, the spin-spin interaction will dominate over the ordinary inverse square Newtonian interaction in any process of sufficiently high energy for quantum field theoretical effects to be non-negligible.

  17. Microwave tunneling in heterostructures with electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterials based on solid state plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiang-kun; Li, Hai-ming; Bian, Bo-rui; Xue, Feng; Ding, Guo-wen; Yu, Shao-jie; Liu, Si-yuan

    2016-06-01

    Interference induced electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)-like effect has demonstrated the ability to realize narrow transmission resonances within the single-resonator stop band. Due to the limited plasma density in actual devices, only few reports discuss the plasma metamaterials and truncated photonic crystals which support electromagnetically induced transparency. However, solid state plasma realized by some semiconductors have the advantages of higher order plasma density and the characteristics of the reconfiguration and tunability. Here, we conduct a numerical study of the perfect microwave tunneling in heterostructures composed of solid state plasma metamaterials and truncated photonic crystal. There is particular emphasis on the tunability of tunneling frequency by changing plasma frequency in solid state plasma, as well as the electric energy density distributions in heterostructures. It was found that, compared to conventional metal photonic crystal, the reflectance of tunneling mode can be reduced from -25.8 dB to -41.7 dB with an optimized Q-factor. Further study on electric energy density distribution confirms that EM wave in-plane localization originated from the EIT-like solid state plasma, which gives rise to the three-dimensional enhancement of sub-wavelength EM wave localization, is stronger than EM wave confinement along the propagation direction. Owing to the tunability of plasma, the tunneling frequency channel can be adjusted or reconfigured in a certain range without adjusting the geometry of the heterostructure. It suggests the fabrication for highly sensitive dielectric sensing, optical switches, and so on.

  18. Polarized linewidth-controllable double-trapping electromagnetically induced transparency spectra in a resonant plasmon nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luojia; Gu, Ying; Chen, Hongyi; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Cui, Yiping; Gerardot, Brian D.; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmons with ultrasmall optical mode volume and strong near field enhancement can be used to realize nanoscale light-matter interaction. Combining surface plasmons with the quantum system provides the possibility of nanoscale realization of important quantum optical phenomena, including the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), which has many applications in nonlinear quantum optics and quantum information processing. Here, using a custom-designed resonant plasmon nanocavity, we demonstrate polarized position-dependent linewidth-controllable EIT spectra at the nanoscale. We analytically obtain the double coherent population trapping conditions in a double-Λ quantum system with crossing damping, which give two transparent points in the EIT spectra. The linewidths of the three peaks are extremely sensitive to the level spacing of the excited states, the Rabi frequencies and detunings of pump fields, and the Purcell factors. In particular the linewidth of the central peak is exceptionally narrow. The hybrid system may have potential applications in ultra-compact plasmon-quantum devices. PMID:24096943

  19. Topics in nuclear chromodynamics: Color transparency and hadronization in the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    The nucleus plays two complimentary roles in quantum chromodynamics: (1) A nuclear target can be used as a control medium or background field to modify or probe quark and gluon subprocesses. Some novel examples are color transparency, the predicted transparency of the nucleus to hadrons participating in high momentum transfer exclusive reactions, and formation zone phenomena, the absence of hard, collinear, target-induced radiation by a quark or gluon interacting in a high momentum transfer inclusive reaction if its energy is large compared to a scale proportional to the length of the target. (Soft radiation and elastic initial state interactions in the nucleus still occur.) Coalescence with co-moving spectators is discussed as a mechanism which can lead to increased open charm hadroproduction, but which also suppresses forward charmonium production (relative to lepton pairs) in heavy ion collisions. Also discussed are some novel features of nuclear diffractive amplitudes--high energy hadronic or electromagnetic reactions which leave the entire nucleus intact and give nonadditive contributions to the nuclear structure function at low /kappa cur//sub Bj/. (2) Conversely, the nucleus can be studied as a QCD structure. At short distances, nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions necessarily involve hidden color, degrees of freedom orthogonal to the channels described by the usual nucleon or isobar degrees of freedom. At asymptotic momentum transfer, the deuteron form factor and distribution amplitude are rigorously calculable. One can also derive new types of testable scaling laws for exclusive nuclear amplitudes in terms of the reduced amplitude formalism.

  20. [To give birth: in the past and today].

    PubMed

    Thoumsin, H; Emonts, P

    2007-10-01

    Nowadays in industrialized regions, the majority of childbirths take place in a hospital under high medical and paramedical supervision; this renders the rate of perinatal events very low. This obstetrical safety progressively developped through a practice that, at times, was studded with strange recommendations as well as ingenious concepts. The progress of Medicine and the emancipation of Woman deeply modified the approach to child delivery and influence the importance of its different actors. The current tendency towards a "more natural delivery" may be stepping away from the security of childbirth in a hospital setting. PMID:18069573

  1. Conveying the 3D Shape of Transparent Surfaces Via Texture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Fuchs, Henry; Pizer, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Transparency can be a useful device for depicting multiple overlapping surfaces in a single image. The challenge is to render the transparent surfaces in such a way that their three-dimensional shape can be readily understood and their depth distance from underlying structures clearly perceived. This paper describes our investigations into the use of sparsely-distributed discrete, opaque texture as an 'artistic device' for more explicitly indicating the relative depth of a transparent surface and for communicating the essential features of its 3D shape in an intuitively meaningful and minimally occluding way. The driving application for this work is the visualization of layered surfaces in radiation therapy treatment planning data, and the technique is illustrated on transparent isointensity surfaces of radiation dose. We describe the perceptual motivation and artistic inspiration for defining a stroke texture that is locally oriented in the direction of greatest normal curvature (and in which individual strokes are of a length proportional to the magnitude of the curvature in the direction they indicate), and discuss several alternative methods for applying this texture to isointensity surfaces defined in a volume. We propose an experimental paradigm for objectively measuring observers' ability to judge the shape and depth of a layered transparent surface, in the course of a task relevant to the needs of radiotherapy treatment planning, and use this paradigm to evaluate the practical effectiveness of our approach through a controlled observer experiment based on images generated from actual clinical data.

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency in hybrid plasmonic-dielectric system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Dai, Lei; Jiang, Chun

    2011-01-17

    We present theoretical and numerical analysis of a plasmonic-dielectric hybrid system for symmetric and asymmetric coupling between silver cut-wire pairs and silicon grating waveguide with periodic grooves. The results show that both couplings can induce electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) analogous to the quantum optical phenomenon. The transmission spectrum shows a single transparency window for the symmetric coupling. The strong normal phase dispersion in the vicinity of this transparent window results in the slow light effect. However, the transmission spectrum appears an additional transparency window for asymmetry coupling due to the double EIT effect, which stems from an asymmetrically coupled resonance (ACR) between the dark and bright modes. More importantly, the excitation of ACR is further associated with remarkable improvement of the group index from less than 40 to more than 2500 corresponding to a high transparent efficiency by comparing with the symmetry coupling. This scheme provides an alternative way to develop the building block of systems for plasmonic sensing, all optical switching and slow light applications.

  3. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  4. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  5. On the problems of transparency of metal-dielectric composite media with dissipative and amplifying components

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseev, S G; Pashinina, E A; Sukhov, S V

    2007-05-31

    Two models of metal-dielectric composite media are used to study the optical properties of their active (amplifying) components under conditions of compensation for the absorption of external electromagnetic radiation appearing due to the presence of metal inclusions. It is shown that the electrostatic approximation for describing the concentrated composite media (a metal nanosphere in a dielectric shell) and bulk composite media (a system of metal nanocylinders in a dielectric matrix) can be applied only in a small range of geometrical and optical parameters. Precise electrodynamic calculations give much smaller gains in the active component required to compensate for absorption, which can be useful for developing 'transparent' composite materials with unique optical properties or 'invisible' composite particles. (optics of nanomedia)

  6. Optical control of light propagation in photonic crystal based on electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Wang; Jin-Ze, Wu; Jun-Xiang, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    A kind of photonic crystal structure with modulation of the refractive index is investigated both experimentally and theoretically for exploiting electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The combination of EIT with periodically modulated refractive index medium gives rise to high efficiency reflection as well as forbidden transmission in a three-level atomic system coupled by standing wave. We show an accurate theoretical simulation via transfer-matrix theory, automatically accounting for multilayer reflections, thus fully demonstrate the existence of photonic crystal structure in atomic vapor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574188) and the Project for Excellent Research Team of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61121064).

  7. Transparent and flexible haptic array actuator made with cellulose acetate for tactile sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, Md; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports an array type film haptic actuator based on cellulose acetate. Suggested actuator can vibrate with faster response time and various frequencies to give a range of haptic feedbacks to users which can be used in touch screen devices. Fabrication process, performance evaluation and electrostatic behavior of haptic actuator are reported for tactile sensation. Cellulose acetate film is suitable for haptic actuator for its transparency, flexibility and high dielectric constant. An element of haptic actuator is made by using cellulose acetate film with patterned adhesive tape spacer, then haptic actuator elements arrayed to 3 x 3 to embed in haptic devices. Experiment to measure vibration acceleration is carried out on wide range of actuation frequency and voltage for single actuator to evaluate 3x3 array actuator.

  8. Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Seungmuk; Song, Kyungjun; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Kim, Namsoo; Lim, Hyuneui

    2013-11-13

    Broadband antireflection (AR) is essential for improving the photocurrent generation of photovoltaic modules or the enhancement of visibility in optical devices. Beyond conventional AR coating methods, moth eye mimicking nanostructures give new directions to enhance broadband antireflection through the selection of geometrical parameters, such as height, periodic distance, shape, and arrangement. This study numerically and experimentally investigates the behavior of light on complex nanostructures designed to mimic the surface of the moth eye with mixed shapes and various arrangements. To obtain broadband AR, we rigorously study the design parameters, such as height, periodic distance, shape, and arrangement, on a transparent quartz substrate. Several kinds of nanopillar arrays are elaborately fabricated including mixed nanostructures comprising pointy and round shapes in ordered and random arrangements via colloidal lithography. The optimal morphology of moth eye nanostructure arrays for broadband antireflection is suggested in view of reflectance and average weight transmittance.

  9. FNAS modify matric and transparent experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Sue E.; Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Monotectic alloy materials are created by rapid melt/rapid solidification processing on the NASA KC-135. Separation of the uniform liquid into two liquids may occur by either of two processes; spinodal decomposition or nucleation followed by growth. In the first case, the liquid is unstable to composition waves, which form and grow, giving liquids of two different compositions. In the latter process discrete particles of the second liquid phase form via thermal fluctuations and then grow by diffusion. The two processes are very different, with the determining process being dictated by temperature, composition, and thermodynamic characteristics of the alloy. The first two quantities are process variables, while the third is determined by electronic interactions between the atoms in the alloy. In either case the initial alloy decomposition is followed by coarsening, resulting in growth of the particle size at nearly constant volume fraction. In particular, reduced gravity experiments on monotectic solutions have shown a number of interesting results in the KC-135. Monotectic solutions exhibit a miscibility gap in the liquid state, and consequently, gravity driven forces can dominate the solidification parameters at 1 g. In reduced gravity however, the distribution of the phases is different, resulting in new and interesting microstructures. The Rapid Melt/Rapid Quench Furnace allows one to melt a sample and resolidify it in one parabola of the KC-135's flight path, thus eliminating any accumulative influence of multiple parabolas to affect the microstructure of the material.

  10. When may doctors give nurses telephonic treatment instructions?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, David Jan

    2016-08-01

    Doctors are expected to examine their patients before issuing telephonic instructions to nurses. However, in emergencies or when they are aware of the health status of their patients, it may be justified for a doctor to issue telephonic instructions to nurses without examining the patient. Doctors on call owe a special duty to patients, who they may have to examine or arrange for another doctor to do so before issuing telephonic instructions. In deciding whether doctors acted reasonably in issuing telephonic instructions to nurses, the courts will decide whether they exercised the same degree of skill and care as reasonably competent practitioners in their branch of the profession. Suggestions are made concerning doctors giving telephonic instructions to nurses regarding patients they have not examined. PMID:27499403

  11. Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Peirce, Kate; Caeiro, Cátia C; Scheider, Linda; Burrows, Anne M; McCune, Sandra; Kaminski, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process.

  12. Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Peirce, Kate; Caeiro, Cátia C; Scheider, Linda; Burrows, Anne M; McCune, Sandra; Kaminski, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process. PMID:24386109

  13. Giving back: activist research with undocumented migrants in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Huschke, Susann

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I draw on my doctoral field work in Berlin (2008-2010), on the illness experiences of undocumented Latin American labor migrants, and on my work as an activist for the Berlin-based nongovernmental organization Medibüro, an anti-racist migrant health organization. I highlight how my attempts to 'give back,' and the various forms of engagements and commitments that resulted from it, shaped my relationships with actors in the field, the data I gathered, and the analytical framework I employed. I offer solutions on how to address these (unintended) effects of activism, and highlight the unique potential of activist research in regard to the forms of data available to the researcher and in gaining and retaining field access. By probing into some of its concrete methodological and analytical implications, I explore how to do activist research.

  14. Fine structure constant and quantized optical transparency of plasmonic nanoarrays.

    PubMed

    Kravets, V G; Schedin, F; Grigorenko, A N

    2012-01-01

    Optics is renowned for displaying quantum phenomena. Indeed, studies of emission and absorption lines, the photoelectric effect and blackbody radiation helped to build the foundations of quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, it came as a surprise that the visible transparency of suspended graphene is determined solely by the fine structure constant, as this kind of universality had been previously reserved only for quantized resistance and flux quanta in superconductors. Here we describe a plasmonic system in which relative optical transparency is determined solely by the fine structure constant. The system consists of a regular array of gold nanoparticles fabricated on a thin metallic sublayer. We show that its relative transparency can be quantized in the near-infrared, which we attribute to the quantized contact resistance between the nanoparticles and the metallic sublayer. Our results open new possibilities in the exploration of universal dynamic conductance in plasmonic nanooptics.

  15. Optical-magnetism-induced transparency in a metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ling; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Xiong, Xiang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate that electromagnetic transparency can be induced by optical magnetism in a metamaterial, which is composed of metamolecules. Each metamolecule consists of a metallic split-ring resonator, as one bright meta-atom (which is optically magnetic), and also a cut-wire pair, as one dark meta-atom (which is optically nonmagnetic). It is found that magnetic resonances occur at optical frequencies due to the local magnetic interaction between “bright” meta-atoms and “dark” meta-atoms; thereafter, a transparency window emerges upon the original absorption background. The phenomenon is similar to the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic three-level systems, and a microscopic picture is given to compare it with the EIT. Furthermore, low loss and slow light in this metamaterial have also been verified. The investigations may achieve potential applications on integrated optical circuits.

  16. TCO/Ag/TCO transparent electrodes for solar cells application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscarino, S.; Crupi, I.; Mirabella, S.; Simone, F.; Terrasi, A.

    2014-09-01

    Among transparent electrodes, transparent conductive oxides (TCO)/metal/TCO structures can achieve optical and electrical performances comparable to, or better than, single TCO layers and very thin metallic films. In this work, we report on thin multilayers based on aluminum zinc oxide (AZO), indium tin oxide (ITO) and Ag deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on soda lime glass at room temperature. The TCO/Ag/TCO structures with thicknesses of about 50/10/50 nm were deposited with all combinations of AZO and ITO as top and bottom layers. While the electrical conductivity is dominated by the Ag intralayer irrespective of the TCO nature, the optical transmissions show a dependence on the nature of the top and bottom TCOs, mainly due to the change in the reflectivity of the multilayers. Structural, electrical and optical properties are studied to optimize the structure for very thin transparent electrodes suitable for photovoltaic applications.

  17. Graphene-based tunable terahertz plasmon-induced transparency metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaolei; Yuan, Cai; Zhu, Lin; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-08-18

    A novel terahertz plasmon induced transparency (PIT) metamaterial structure consisting of single-layered graphene microstructures was proposed and numerically studied in this study. A pronounced transparency peak was obtained in the transmission spectrum, which resulted from the destructive interference between the graphene dipole and monopole antennas. Further investigations have shown that the spectral location and lineshape of the transparency peak can be dynamically controlled by tuning the Fermi level in graphene. Since the monopole antennas in our designed structure exist in a continuous form, a more convenient method for tunablity is available by applying a gate voltage compared to those structures with discrete graphene patterns. This work may open up new avenues for designing tunable terahertz functional devices and slow light devices. PMID:27500393

  18. 2007 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2008-04-09

    During the 2007 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2007, there were 172 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 172 person-trips, 160 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 12 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 14 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Division laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors.

  19. Synthesis of transparent nanocomposite monoliths for gamma scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor J.; Kishpaugh, David; Jin, Yunxia; Hu, Wei; Chen, Qi; Pei, Qibing

    2015-08-01

    During the past decade, inorganic nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposites have been intensively studied to provide a low cost, high performance alternative for gamma scintillation. However, the aggregation of nanoparticles often occurs even at low nanoparticle concentrations and thus deteriorates the transparency and performance of these nanocomposite scintillators. Here we report an efficient fabrication protocol of transparent nanocomposite monoliths based on surface modified hafnium oxide nanoparticles. Using hafnium oxide nanoparticles with surface-grafted methacrylate groups, highly transparent bulk-size nanocomposite monoliths (2 mm thick, transmittance at 550 nm >75%) are fabricated with nanoparticle loadings up to 40 wt% (net hafnium wt% up to 28.5%). These nanocomposite monoliths of 1 cm diameter and 2 mm thickness are capable of producing a full energy photopeak for 662 keV gamma rays, with the best deconvoluted photopeak energy resolution reaching 8%.

  20. Slow light with electromagnetically induced transparency in optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad Hatta, Agus; Kamli, Ali A.; Al-Hagan, Ola A.; Moiseev, Sergey A.

    2015-08-01

    Slow light with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the core of optical fibre containing three-level atoms is investigated. The guided modes are treated in the weakly guiding approximation which renders the analysis into a manageable form. The transparency window and permittivity profile of the core due to the strong pump field in the EIT scheme is calculated. For a specific permittivity profile of the core due to EIT, the propagation constant of the weak signal field and spatial shape of fundamental guided mode are calculated by solving the vector wave equation using the finite difference method. It is found that the transparency window and slow light field can be controlled via the optical fibre parameters. The reduced group velocity of slow light in this configuration is useful for many technological applications such as optical memories, effective control of single photon fields, optical buffers and delay lines.