Science.gov

Sample records for giving transparency concepts

  1. Association Analysis of Alumni Giving: A Formal Concept Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Ray R.; Le Blanc, Louis A.; Bahar, Mahmood; Traywick, Bryan

    A large sample (initially 33,000 cases representing a ten percent trial) of university alumni giving records for a large public university in the southwestern United States are analyzed by Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). This likely represents the initially attempt to perform analysis of such data by means of a machine learing technique. The variables employed include the gift amount to the university foundation (UF) as well as traditional demographic variables such as year of graduation, gender, ethnicity, marital status, etc. The UF serves as one of the institution's non-profit, fund-raising organizations. It pursues substantial gifts that are designated for the educational or leadership programs of the giver's choice. Although they process gifts of all sizes, the UF focus is on major gifts and endowments.

  2. Transparency through Structural Disorder: A New Concept for Innovative Transparent Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Al Saghir, Kholoud; Chenu, Sébastien; Veron, Emmanuel; Fayon, Franck; Suchomel, Matthew; Genevois, Cécile; Porcher, Florence; Matzen, Guy; Massiot, Dominique; Allix, Mathieu

    2015-01-27

    Transparent polycrystalline ceramics present signi fi cant eco- nomical and functional advantages over single crystal materials for optical, communication, and laser technologies. To date, transparency in these ceramics is ensured either by an optical isotropy (i.e., cubic symmetry) or a nanometric crystallite size, and the main challenge remains to eliminate porosity through complex high pressure - high temperature synthesis. Here we introduce a new concept to achieve ultimate transparency reaching the theoretical limit. We use a controlled degree of chemical disorder in the structure to obtain optical isotropy at the micrometer length scale. This approach can be applied in the case of anisotropic structures and micrometer scale crystal size ceramics. We thus report Sr 1+ x /2 Al 2+ x Si 2 - x O 8 (0 < x ≤ 0.4) readily scalable polycrystalline ceramics elaborated by full and congruent crystallization from glass. These materials reach 90% transmittance. This innovative method should drive the development of new highly transparent materials with technologically relevant applications.

  3. Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  4. Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Citizens now expect access to information, particularly from public institutions like local school districts. They demand input and accountability. Cultural and technological changes, such as the Internet, make it possible for districts to comply. Yet transparency--the easily seen and understood actions of a school district and the thinking behind…

  5. Coupled-resonator-induced-transparency concept for wavelength routing applications.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, M; Guider, R; Bettotti, P; Masi, M; Vanacharla, M R; Pavesi, L

    2011-06-20

    The presence of coupled resonators induced transparency (CRIT) effects in side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (SCISSOR) of different radii has been studied. By controlling the rings radii and their center to center distance, it is possible to form transmission channels within the SCISSOR stop-band. Two different methods to exploit the CRIT effect in add/drop filters are proposed. Their performances, e. g. linewidth, crosstalk and losses, are examined also for random variations in the structural parameters. Finally, few examples of high performances mux/demux structures and 2 × 2 routers based on these modified SCISSOR are presented. CRIT based SCISSOR optical devices are particularly promising for ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing applications.

  6. A concept for a transparent data acquisition and distribution system for spaceflight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the Modular Data System concept of the NASA End-to-End Data System program. Data from a single instrument along with the necessary ancillary data will be assembled into self-contained packets and subsequently transmitted over various communications links (space telemetry channel, ground communications circuits, etc.) to the experimenter's facility in real time; reliable error control coding will be included in each link transmission to protect the integrity of the data packets. A major objective is to make the entire data acquisition and distribution process transparent to the experimenter in the sense that the output terminal of the distribution system will be physically, logically and electrically identical to that of the experiment output channel.

  7. Concepts and Strategies for Transparency Monitoring of Nuclear Materials at the Back End of the Fuel/Weapons Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    COSTIN, LAURENCE; DAVIES, PETER; PREGENZER, ARIAN L.

    1999-10-01

    Representatives of the Department of Energy, the national laboratories, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and others gathered to initiate the development of broad-based concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle, including both geologic disposal and monitored retrievable storage. The workshop focused on two key questions: ''Why should we monitor?'' and ''What should we monitor?'' These questions were addressed by identifying the range of potential stakeholders, concerns that stakeholders may have, and the information needed to address those concerns. The group constructed a strategic framework for repository transparency implementation, organized around the issues of safety (both operational and environmental), diversion (assuring legitimate use and security), and viability (both political and economic). Potential concerns of the international community were recognized as the possibility of material diversion, the multinational impacts of potential radionuclide releases, and public and political perceptions of unsafe repositories. The workshop participants also identified potential roles that the WIPP may play as a monitoring technology development and demonstration test-bed facility. Concepts for WIPP'S potential test-bed role include serving as (1) an international monitoring technology and development testing facility, (2) an international demonstration facility, and (3) an education and technology exchange center on repository transparency technologies.

  8. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution before conception date and likelihood of giving birth to girls in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Zhijiang; Liu, Tao; Di, Qian; Qian, Zhengmin; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhao, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    A few studies have linked ambient air pollution with sex ratio at birth. Most of these studies examined the long-term effects using spatial or temporal comparison approaches. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exposure to air pollution before conception date could affect the likelihood of the offspring being male or female. We used the information collected in a major maternal hospital in Guangzhou, China. The parental exposure to air pollution was assessed using the air pollution concentration before the conception date. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between air pollution exposure and birth sex with adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, parental education levels, long-term trend, season, and weather condition (mean temperature and relative humidity). The analysis revealed that higher air pollution was associated with higher probability of female newborns, with the effective exposure around one week prior to conception date. In the one-pollutant models, PM10, SO2 and NO2 had significant effects. For example, the excess risk was 0.61% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36%, 0.86%) for a 10 ug/m3 increase in lag 2 day's PM10, 0.42% (95% CI: 0.21%, 0.64%) for lag 3 day's SO2 and 0.97% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.50%) for lag 3 day's NO2; and in two-pollutant models, PM10 remained statistically significant. These results suggest that parental exposure to ambient air pollution a few days prior to conception might be a contributing factor to higher probability of giving birth to female offspring in Guangzhou.

  9. Multidimensional Ranking: A New Transparency Tool for Higher Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vught, Frans; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyse the need for better "transparency tools" which inform university stakeholders about the quality of universities. First, we give an overview of what we understand by the concept of transparency tools and those that are currently available. We then critique current transparency tools' methodologies, looking in detail…

  10. Altruism, gift giving and reciprocity in organ donation: a review of cultural perspectives and challenges of the concepts.

    PubMed

    Sharp, C; Randhawa, G

    2014-10-01

    Living and deceased organ donation are couched in altruism and gift discourse and this article reviews explores cultural views towards these concepts. Altruism and egoism theories and gift and reciprocity theories are outlined from a social exchange theory perspective to highlight the key differences between altruism and the gift and the wider implications of reciprocation. The notion of altruism as a selfless act without expectation or want for repayment juxtaposed with the Maussian gift where there are the obligations to give, receive and reciprocate. Lay perspectives of altruism and the gift in organ donation are outlined and illustrate that there are differences in motivations to donate in different programmes of living donation and for families who decide to donate their relative's organs. These motivations reflect cultural views of altruism and the gift and perceptions of the body and death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Soils. Transparency Masters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This document is a collection of 43 overhead transparency masters to be used as teaching aids in a course of study involving soils such as geology, agronomy, hydrology, earth science, or land use study. Some transparencies are in color. Selected titles of transparencies may give the reader a better understanding of the graphic content. Titles are:…

  12. Soils. Transparency Masters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This document is a collection of 43 overhead transparency masters to be used as teaching aids in a course of study involving soils such as geology, agronomy, hydrology, earth science, or land use study. Some transparencies are in color. Selected titles of transparencies may give the reader a better understanding of the graphic content. Titles are:…

  13. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/12: ENTNEA: A Concept for Enhancing Nuclear Transparency for Confidence Building in Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Man-Kwon; Shin, Sung-Tack

    1999-06-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties.

  14. Educating Out and Giving Back: Adults' Conceptions of Successful Outcomes of African American High School Students from Impoverished Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Dadisman, Kimberly; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Thompson, Jana; Irvin, Matthew J.; Zhang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    This study examined community adults' conceptions of successful early adult outcomes for rural African American adolescents from 2 low-resource communities in the Deep South. Focus groups were conducted with parents, teachers, and community leaders. Parents also completed semistructured phone interviews. The focus groups identified 2 general types…

  15. Concepts of burden in giving care to older relatives: A study of female caregivers in a Mexico City neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Kennedy, David P.; Wallace, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study examined how women in a Mexico City suburb conceptualized the construct of burden within the context of giving care to older relatives. Methods Data were collected on forty-one women through semi-structured interviews regarding their caregiving experiences to elderly relatives. Phenomenological principles were used to analyze meanings and understandings of caregiving experiences. Results Burden was a multi-dimensional construct that referred to specific situations that made caregivers feel emotionally or physical “heavy.” Burden also referred to “being a burden” by being in the way, making things difficult, or being a ‘weight’ on caregivers' shoulders. However, women in this study also viewed burden as a positive sacrifice that involved love, initiative, and good will. Discussion This study is an important first step in defining the ways in which caregiving is positively and negatively meaningful for Mexican caregivers and their families. Our findings offer an additional dimension of caregiver burden to broaden our understanding and measurement of the construct. The development of culturally appropriate instruments to measure caregiving burden in Mexico is necessary to provide an empirical foundation for policy recommendations that address the growing need for institutional support of caregivers. Moreover, our findings suggest that researchers studying caregiving in Mexico should think about how burden is measured on existing instruments before adapting them for widespread use. PMID:18324460

  16. Concepts of burden in giving care to older relatives: a study of female caregivers in a Mexico City neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Kennedy, David P; Wallace, Steven P

    2008-09-01

    This study examined how women in a Mexico City suburb conceptualized the construct of burden within the context of giving care to older relatives. Data were collected on 41 women through semi-structured interviews regarding their caregiving experiences to elderly relatives. Phenomenological principles were used to analyze meanings and understandings of caregiving experiences. Burden was a multi-dimensional construct that referred to specific situations that made caregivers feel emotionally or physical "heavy." Burden also referred to "being a burden" by being in the way, making things difficult, or being a 'weight' on caregivers' shoulders. However, women in this study also viewed burden as a positive sacrifice that involved love, initiative, and good will. This study is an important first step in defining the ways in which caregiving is positively and negatively meaningful for Mexican caregivers and their families. Our findings offer an additional dimension of caregiver burden to broaden our understanding and measurement of the construct. The development of culturally appropriate instruments to measure caregiving burden in Mexico is necessary to provide an empirical foundation for policy recommendations that address the growing need for institutional support of caregivers. Moreover, our findings suggest that researchers studying caregiving in Mexico should think about how burden is measured on existing instruments before adapting them for widespread use.

  17. Ultrathin Nanotube/Nanowire Electrodes by Spin-Spray Layer-by-Layer Assembly: A Concept for Transparent Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Gittleson, Forrest S; Hwang, Daniel; Ryu, Won-Hee; Hashmi, Sara M; Hwang, Jonathan; Goh, Tenghooi; Taylor, André D

    2015-10-27

    Fully integrated transparent devices require versatile architectures for energy storage, yet typical battery electrodes are thick (20-100 μm) and composed of optically absorbent materials. Reducing the length scale of active materials, assembling them with a controllable method and minimizing electrode thickness should bring transparent batteries closer to reality. In this work, the rapid and controllable spin-spray layer-by-layer (SSLbL) method is used to generate high quality networks of 1D nanomaterials: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanowires for anode and cathode electrodes, respectively. These ultrathin films, deposited with ∼2 nm/bilayer precision are transparent when deposited on a transparent substrate (>87% transmittance) and electrochemically active in Li-ion cells. SSLbL-assembled ultrathin SWNT anodes and V2O5 cathodes exhibit reversible lithiation capacities of 23 and 7 μAh/cm(2), respectively at a current density of 5 μA/cm(2). When these electrodes are combined in a full cell, they retain ∼5 μAh/cm(2) capacity over 100 cycles, equivalent to the prelithiation capacity of the limiting V2O5 cathode. The SSLbL technique employed here to generate functional thin films is uniquely suited to the generation of transparent electrodes and offers a compelling path to realize the potential of fully integrated transparent devices.

  18. Transparencies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  19. Transparencies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  20. Giving effective poster presentations

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J A

    1998-08-27

    Giving an effective poster presentation can be easy and rewarding with attention to a few proven concepts. Define your audience. Keep the words and graphics clear, concise, and eye-catching. Remember, you have three seconds to attract attention and 30 seconds to get your message across.

  1. Transparency of Computational Intelligence Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owotoki, Peter; Mayer-Lindenberg, Friedrich

    This paper introduces the behaviour of transparency of computational intelligence (CI) models. Transparency reveals to end users the underlying reasoning process of the agent embodying CI models. This is of great benefit in applications (e.g. data mining, entertainment and personal robotics) with humans as end users because it increases their trust in the decisions of the agent and their acceptance of its results. Our integrated approach, wherein rules are just one of other transparency factors (TF), differs from previous related efforts which have focused mostly on generation of comprehensible rules as explanations. Other TF include degree of confidence measure and visualization of principal features. The transparency quotient is introduced as a measure of the transparency of models based on these factors. The transparency enabled generalized exemplar model has been developed to demonstrate the TF and transparency concepts introduced in this paper.

  2. Is the Concept of Conservation of Volume in Solids Really More Difficult than for Liquids, or Is the Way We Test Giving Us an Unfair Comparison?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twidle, John

    2006-01-01

    Background: Traditional studies of children's mastery of conservation of volume in liquids and solids have reported that conservation of volume in liquids is an easier concept to master than its solid counterpart. However, the two concepts have been assessed in different ways, with the assessment tool for solids employing a more complex process.…

  3. Is the Concept of Conservation of Volume in Solids Really More Difficult than for Liquids, or Is the Way We Test Giving Us an Unfair Comparison?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twidle, John

    2006-01-01

    Background: Traditional studies of children's mastery of conservation of volume in liquids and solids have reported that conservation of volume in liquids is an easier concept to master than its solid counterpart. However, the two concepts have been assessed in different ways, with the assessment tool for solids employing a more complex process.…

  4. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  5. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  6. Color transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed.

  7. Phenomenological Transparency.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Morgan; Mara, Michael

    2017-01-20

    Translucent objects such as fog, clouds, smoke, glass, ice, and liquids are pervasive in cinematic environments because they frame scenes in depth and create visually-compelling shots. Unfortunately, they are hard to render in real-time and have thus previously been rendered poorly compared to opaque surfaces. This paper introduces the first model for a real-time rasterization algorithm that can simultaneously approximate the following transparency phenomena: wavelength-varying ("colored") transmission, translucent colored shadows, caustics, volumetric light and shadowing, partial coverage, diffusion, and refraction. All render efficiently with order-independent draw calls and low bandwidth. We include source code.

  8. Could Transparency Bring Economic Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    The Spellings Commission report calls for greater access to higher education for low- and moderate-income students, greater transparency in the way higher education works and greater accountability for producing results. These recommendations are all significant in their own right, but the three concepts also converge to provide powerful support…

  9. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    José Andrés, Luis; Fe Menéndez, María; Gómez, David; Luisa Martínez, Ana; Bristow, Noel; Paul Kettle, Jeffrey; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-03

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 μm, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 Ω/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed.

  10. Rapid synthesis of ultra-long silver nanowires for tailor-made transparent conductive electrodes: proof of concept in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Andrés, Luis; Menéndez, María Fe; Gómez, David; Martínez, Ana Luisa; Bristow, Noel; Kettle, Jeffrey Paul; Menéndez, Armando; Ruiz, Bernardino

    2015-07-01

    Rapid synthesis of ultralong silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been obtained using a one-pot polyol-mediated synthetic procedure. The AgNWs have been prepared from the base materials in less than one hour with nanowire lengths reaching 195 μm, which represents the quickest synthesis and one of the highest reported aspect ratios to date. These results have been achieved through a joint analysis of all reaction parameters, which represents a clear progress beyond the state of the art. Dispersions of the AgNWs have been used to prepare thin, flexible, transparent and conducting films using spray coating. Due to the higher aspect ratio, an improved electrical percolation network is observed. This allows a low sheet resistance (RS = 20.2 Ω/sq), whilst maintaining high optical film transparency (T = 94.7%), driving to the highest reported figure-of-merit (FoM = 338). Owing to the light-scattering influence of the AgNWs, the density of the AgNW network can also be varied to enable controllability of the optical haze through the sample. Based on the identification of the optimal haze value, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been fabricated using the AgNWs as the transparent electrode and have been benchmarked against indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Overall, the performance of OPVs made using AgNWs sees a small decrease in power conversion efficiency (PCE), primarily due to a fall in open-circuit voltage (50 mV). This work indicates that AgNWs can provide a low cost, rapid and roll-to-roll compatible alternative to ITO in OPVs, with only a small compromise in PCE needed.

  11. Lines that induce phenomenal transparency.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Alba; Roncato, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Three neighbouring opaque surfaces may appear split into two layers, one transparent and one opaque beneath, if an outline contour is drawn that encompasses two of them. The phenomenon was originally observed by Kanizsa [1955 Rivista di Psicologia 69 3-19; 1979 Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Psychology (New York: Praeger)], for the case where an outline contour is drawn to encompass one of the two parts of a bicoloured figure and a portion of a background of lightest (or darkest) luminance. Preliminary observations revealed that the outline contour yields different effects: in addition to the stratification into layers described by Kanizsa, a second split, opposite in depth order, may occur when the outline contour is close in luminance to one of the three surfaces. An initial experiment was designed to investigate what conditions give rise to the two phenomenal transparencies: this led to the conclusion that an outline contour superimposed on an opaque surface causes this surface to emerge as a transparent layer when the luminances of the contour and the surface differ, in absolute value, by no more than 13.2 cd m(-2). We have named this phenomenon 'transparency of the intercepted surface', to distinguish it from the phenomenal transparency arising when the contour and surface are very different in luminance. When such a difference exists, the contour acts as a factor of surface definition and grouping: the portion of the homogeneous surface it bounds emerges as a fourth surface and groups with a nearby surface if there is one close in luminance. The transparency phenomena ('transparency of the contoured surface') perceived in this context conform to the constraints of Metelli's model, as demonstrated by a second experiment, designed to gather 'opacity' ratings of stimuli. The observer judgments conformed to the values predicted by Metelli's formula for perceived degree of transparency, alpha. The role of the outline contour in conveying figural and

  12. Transparent electronics and prospects for transparent displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wager, John F.; Valencia, Melinda M.; Bender, Jeffrey P.; Norris, Benjamin J.; Chiang, Hai Q.; Hong, David; Norris, Luke N.; Harman, Taran V.; Park, Sangmoon; Anderson, Jeremy T.; Park, Cheol-Hee; Keszler, Douglas A.; Tate, Janet; Yanagi, Hiroshi; Price, Matthew F.; Hoffman, R. L.

    2003-09-01

    Transparent electronics is a nascent technology whose objective is the realization of invisible electronic circuits. Part of the impetus for the development of transparent electronics is the recent availability of p-type transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). With the emergence of p-type TCOs, in addition to conventional n-type TCOs such as indium-tin oxide, tin oxide, and zinc oxide, fabrication of transparent bipolar electronic devices becomes feasible. The first part of this paper reviews TCOs and discusses our work in the development of p-TCOs and alternative TC materials (e.g. sulfides). We have recently invented a novel, n-channel, accumulation-mode transparent thin-film transistor (TTFT). This TTFT is highly transparent, has very little light sensitivity, and exhibits electrical characteristics that appear to be suitable for implementation as a transparent select-transistor in each pixel of an active-matrix liquid-crystal display (AMLCD). Moreover, the processing technology used to fabricate this device is relatively simple and appears to be compatible with inexpensive glass substrate technology. The second part of this paper focuses on TTFTs. If transparent electronics is employed to realize transparent back-plane electronic drivers on transparent substrates, fabrication of a transparent display becomes feasible. The third part of this paper offers an approach for realization of a transparent display.

  13. Transparent switchboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A tin oxide coating is formed on a plate of glass and the coating is then etched away from the glass in thin lines to form separate electrical conductors which extend to one end of the plate and connect to either a vertical (column) or horizontal (row) position sensing SCR circuit. A thin transparent insulating coating is formed over the oxide layer except at selected touch points which are positioned in a matrix pattern of vertical columns and horizontal rows. Touching one of these points with a finger bridges the thin line between adjacent conductors to activate trigger circuits in the particular row and column sensing circuits associated with the point touched. The row and column sensing circuits are similar and are powered with a low frequency, ac voltage source. The source for the row circuits is 180 out of phase with the source for the column circuits so that one circuit acts as ground for the other during half of the supply voltage cycle. The signals from the sensing circuits are input to a logic circuit which determines the presence of a valid touch, stores a binary matrix number associated with the touched point, signals a computer of the presence of a stored number and prevents storage of a new number before receiving an enable signal from the computer.

  14. Transparent screens.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, R J

    1988-01-01

    There is a kind of transitional phenomenon found among certain borderline patients which is quite distinct from Winnicott's transitional object. These are patients who are preoccupied with maintaining proper physical distance from their objects, in order to regulate anxieties about isolation on the one hand, and identity-annihilating closeness on the other. Since they believe the activity of looking to be intrusive and devouring, hence dangerous, transparent screens are interposed between self and other, and serve as protective barriers. These screens function intrapsychically as well, to split off or hide those aspects of the self felt to be unacceptable. The analyst may witness the failure of the screen in several ways: it may create too great a distance, isolating the individual and keeping him from life; it may become contaminated by projections and turn into a persecutor, or trap the individual, a state of intolerable claustrophobia; most dramatically, it may suddenly shatter. The latter is associated with psychosis and death, and its appearance may be a harbinger of suicide.

  15. Transparency in nursing leadership: a chosen ethic.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2009-01-01

    The concept of transparency has been viewed as an essential leadership attribute or element in healthcare organizational structures and processes. While viewed as something that is desired and valued, there is a lack of nursing disciplinary literature that defines the concept and its possible meanings. This column provides a beginning definition of transparency from the humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective and launches a discussion with potential ethical implications for leadership in nursing practice and education.

  16. Recognition and Transparency of Vocational Qualifications; The Way Forward. Discussion Paper = Anerkennung und Transparenz von beruflichen Befahigungsnachweisen; Neue Wege. Diskussionspapier = Reconnaissance et transparence des qualifications professionelles; La voie a suivre. Document de discussion. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Sellin, Burkart

    The European Union's most important challenge is to establish permanent, reliable methodologies and systems that support transparency and recognition of vocational qualifications. The concept of "transparency of qualifications" has replaced "recognition" and "comparability.""Transparency" points to the need…

  17. Recognition and Transparency of Vocational Qualifications; The Way Forward. Discussion Paper = Anerkennung und Transparenz von beruflichen Befahigungsnachweisen; Neue Wege. Diskussionspapier = Reconnaissance et transparence des qualifications professionelles; La voie a suivre. Document de discussion. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Sellin, Burkart

    The European Union's most important challenge is to establish permanent, reliable methodologies and systems that support transparency and recognition of vocational qualifications. The concept of "transparency of qualifications" has replaced "recognition" and "comparability.""Transparency" points to the need…

  18. Transparency in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Helen M

    2012-09-01

    Transparency in medical care is emerging as a new standard. In the United States, patients have always been able to access to their chart in accordance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), established in 1996. Such access, nevertheless, can be time consuming and burdensome. Among the many provisions afforded by HIPAA are the security and privacy of health data. Physicians are recently coming to realize the benefits enjoyed by patients and the healthcare system when the information in a patient's chart is made available in real-time. Psychiatrists often find the concept of revealing their progress notes, however, quite provocative and controversial. In these evolving times, it is important for psychiatrists to recognize the potential consequences and advantages of sharing their progress notes with patients. This review provides guidelines for psychiatrists to follow regarding proper documentation of progress notes and how to successfully share that information with patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Transparency on Pilot Trust and Agreement in the Autonomous Constrained Flight Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri; Ho, Nhut; Hoffmann, Lauren; Lyons, Joseph; Johnson, Walter; Shively, Robert; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    We performed a human-in-the-loop study to explore the role of transparency in engendering trust and reliance within highly automated systems. Specifically, we examined how transparency impacts trust in and reliance upon the Autonomous Constrained Flight Planner (ACFP), a critical automated system being developed as part of NASA's Reduced Crew Operations (RCO) Concept. The ACFP is designed to provide an enhanced ground operator, termed a super dispatcher, with recommended diversions for aircraft when their primary destinations are unavailable. In the current study, 12 commercial transport rated pilots who played the role of super dispatchers were given six time-pressured all land scenarios where they needed to use the ACFP to determine diversions for multiple aircraft. Two factors were manipulated. The primary factor was level of transparency. In low transparency scenarios the pilots were given a recommended airport and runway, plus basic information about the weather conditions, the aircraft types, and the airport and runway characteristics at that and other airports. In moderate transparency scenarios the pilots were also given a risk evaluation for the recommended airport, and for the other airports if they requested it. In the high transparency scenario additional information including the reasoning for the risk evaluations was made available to the pilots. The secondary factor was level of risk, either high or low. For high-risk aircraft, all potential diversions were rated as highly risky, with the ACFP giving the best option for a bad situation. For low-risk aircraft the ACFP found only low-risk options for the pilot. Both subjective and objective measures were collected, including rated trust, whether the pilots checked the validity of the automation recommendation, and whether the pilots eventually flew to the recommended diversion airport. Key results show that: 1) Pilots trust increased with higher levels of transparency, 2) Pilots were more likely to

  20. Giving Medicine to Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos ...

  1. Transparent arrays: Progress toward higher efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, G. J.

    Principles and design considerations of IR transparent solar arrays are discussed. Optimization of performance of flexible solar arrays was studied. Measured solar absorptance as low as alpha s = 0.59 was achieved which leads to a predicted BOL power density of 182.7 = W/square meters. Advanced array concepts, system level cascaded panels, and transparent rigid panels are proposed and expected benefits discussed.

  2. Transparent arrays: Progress toward higher efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    Principles and design considerations of IR transparent solar arrays are discussed. Optimization of performance of flexible solar arrays was studied. Measured solar absorptance as low as alpha s = 0.59 was achieved which leads to a predicted BOL power density of 182.7 = W/square meters. Advanced array concepts, system level cascaded panels, and transparent rigid panels are proposed and expected benefits discussed.

  3. Giving behavior of millionaires

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Paul; Bauer, Rob; Gneezy, Uri

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies conditions influencing the generosity of wealthy people. We conduct incentivized experiments with individuals who have at least €1 million in their bank account. The results show that millionaires are more generous toward low-income individuals in a giving situation when the other participant has no power, than in a strategic setting, where the other participant can punish unfair behavior. Moreover, the level of giving by millionaires is higher than in any other previous study. Our findings have important implications for charities and financial institutions that deal with wealthy individuals. PMID:26261327

  4. The art of transparency

    PubMed Central

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles. PMID:23145252

  5. The art of transparency.

    PubMed

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles.

  6. Scott Gives Salute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, commander, gives a military salute while standing beside the deployed U.S. flag during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The flag was deployed toward the end of EVA-2. The Lunar Module 'Falcon' is partially visible on the right. Hadley Delta in the background rises approximately 4,000 meters (about 13,124 feet) above the plain. The base of the mountain is approximately 5 kilometers (about 3 statute miles) away. This photograph was taken by Astronaut James B. Irwin, Lunar Module pilot.

  7. Fearing to give life.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1992-01-01

    Fear of HIV infection and AIDS has contributed to the development of a global shortage, especially in Africa, of available blood for transfusions. Potential donors may be suspicious of the blood-giving process, that volunteer blood is sold, that those in need do not benefit, and of whether confidentiality will be maintained over their HIV status. Uncourteous and disaffected clinic workers have also contributed to donor erosion. Blood supplies must, however, be maintained in quantities adequate to meet patient needs around the world. With an over 90% probability of contracting HIV from 1 transfusion of infected blood, the importance of screening out potentially unsafe donors, recruiting from low risk populations, and discouraging high risk persons from donating should not be underestimated. To increase the available pool of willing and safe donors, sensitive and creative recruitment campaigns are suggested. Incentives which acknowledge donors' public spirit of giving, encouraging blood donations from prominent officials, and fostering regular education sessions from frequent donors are examples of potential strategies. Further, alternatives to transfusions should be encouraged where appropriate. Recruiters now target school-age youths in Zimbabwe and rural villagers in Rwanda as highly probably safe sources of blood.

  8. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  9. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  10. Making Usable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Suzanne T.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to make opaque and transparent soap, using cold and semi boiled processes respectively, and surfactant tests that measure the pH of the prepared soap, is introduced. The experiment shows an easy method to make soap by giving a choice to select oils and scents for the soap, which can be used at home.

  11. Making Usable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Suzanne T.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to make opaque and transparent soap, using cold and semi boiled processes respectively, and surfactant tests that measure the pH of the prepared soap, is introduced. The experiment shows an easy method to make soap by giving a choice to select oils and scents for the soap, which can be used at home.

  12. Concept and Technology Exploration for Transparent Hearing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    http://www.northsafetY.com Silencio : Super Sound Baffler FUN-85 Flanged, see Figure 3 http://www.silencio.com/htfiles/earplucis.html Westone: Style No...control, speech tuned Radians Pro-AMP Electronic Muff Binaural mics http:!/www botachtactical.com/radproampele.htmI Peltmr SoundTrap Silencio : Frontline...Electronic HLE-03 Binaural mics, manual level control, bass/treble, http://www.silencio.com AGC, 50hrs Silencio : Nighthawk ELP-97 Binaural mics, manual

  13. Talking about Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In his inaugural address, U.S. President Barack Obama linked the need to demonstrate accountability and transparency to the earning of trust. His connection of these dots is not surprising, since taxpayers often expect accountability and transparency from their governments, just as governments, donors, alumni, and students expect accountability…

  14. Another model for giving.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Stanley M

    2008-12-01

    Most of the global healthcare issues facing us--from expanding access to care, to providing medical and dental care in the aftermath of disasters--are far too complex for any single sector to successfully solve. Industry, the healthcare profession, government, academia and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are all limited in their scope and their ability to effectively address the necessary challenges of these multifaceted issues. It is only though public-private partnerships, in which the participants contribute resources and skills for which they individually are best suited, that true progress can be made in affecting change. In addition, every effort should be made to expand the pool of participants for these partnerships, including small and mid-sized organizations that may be inclined to help, but lack the experience or the infrastructure to initiate programs on their own. As the largest distributor of healthcare products and services to office-based practitioners in the combined North American and European markets, Henry Schein, Inc., is uniquely positioned to use its association with thousands of healthcare product manufacturers and its day-to-day relationships with more than 550,000 healthcare practices around the world to catalyze awareness of and support for important healthcare issues. Through Henry Schein's model for giving, the Company has been successful in forging new partnerships among industry, the healthcare profession, government, academia and NGOs, and in expanding existing ones to help meet the healthcare challenges facing us all.

  15. Hazy Transparent Cellulose Nanopaper

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Koga, Hirotaka; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Nogi, Masaya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify light scattering mechanism of hazy transparent cellulose nanopaper. Clear optical transparent nanopaper consists of 3–15 nm wide cellulose nanofibers, which are obtained by the full nanofibrillation of pulp fibers. At the clear transparent nanopaper with 40 μm thickness, their total transmittance are 89.3–91.5% and haze values are 4.9–11.7%. When the pulp fibers are subjected to weak nanofibrillation, hazy transparent nanopapers are obtained. The hazy transparent nanopaper consists of cellulose nanofibers and some microsized cellulose fibers. At the hazy transparent nanopaper with 40 μm thickness, their total transmittance were constant at 88.6–92.1% but their haze value were 27.3–86.7%. Cellulose nanofibers are solid cylinders, whereas the pulp fibers are hollow cylinders. The hollow shape is retained in the microsized cellulose fibers, but they are compressed flat inside the nanopaper. This compressed cavity causes light scattering by the refractive index difference between air and cellulose. As a result, the nanopaper shows a hazy transparent appearance and exhibits a high thermal durability (295–305 °C), and low thermal expansion (8.5–10.6 ppm/K) because of their high density (1.29–1.55 g/cm3) and crystallinity (73–80%). PMID:28128326

  16. Hazy Transparent Cellulose Nanopaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Koga, Hirotaka; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Nogi, Masaya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify light scattering mechanism of hazy transparent cellulose nanopaper. Clear optical transparent nanopaper consists of 3-15 nm wide cellulose nanofibers, which are obtained by the full nanofibrillation of pulp fibers. At the clear transparent nanopaper with 40 μm thickness, their total transmittance are 89.3-91.5% and haze values are 4.9-11.7%. When the pulp fibers are subjected to weak nanofibrillation, hazy transparent nanopapers are obtained. The hazy transparent nanopaper consists of cellulose nanofibers and some microsized cellulose fibers. At the hazy transparent nanopaper with 40 μm thickness, their total transmittance were constant at 88.6-92.1% but their haze value were 27.3-86.7%. Cellulose nanofibers are solid cylinders, whereas the pulp fibers are hollow cylinders. The hollow shape is retained in the microsized cellulose fibers, but they are compressed flat inside the nanopaper. This compressed cavity causes light scattering by the refractive index difference between air and cellulose. As a result, the nanopaper shows a hazy transparent appearance and exhibits a high thermal durability (295-305 °C), and low thermal expansion (8.5-10.6 ppm/K) because of their high density (1.29-1.55 g/cm3) and crystallinity (73-80%).

  17. Development of transparent polycrystalline beta-silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam S.; Villalobos, Guillermo R.; Hunt, Michael P.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Sadowski, Bryan M.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Cinibulk, Michael; Carney, Carmen; Keller, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Transparent beta-SiC is of great interest because its high strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion, very high thermal conductivity, and cubic crystal structure give it a very high thermal shock resistance. A transparent, polycrystalline beta-SiC window will find applications in armor, hypersonic missiles, and thermal control for thin disc lasers. SiC is currently available as either small transparent vapor grown disks or larger opaque shapes. Neither of which are useful in window applications. We are developing sintering technology to enable transparent SiC ceramics. This involves developing procedures to make high purity powders and studying their densification behavior. We have been successful in demonstrating transparency in thin sections using Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST). This paper will discuss the reaction mechanisms in the formation of beta-SiC powder and its sintering behavior in producing transparent ceramics.

  18. Giving High School Students More Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, David

    2008-01-01

    A recent Web search returned more than 1.1 billion hits for the phrase "time management," a concept that school leaders hear in seminars, read about in books, and are trained in during professional development. But, like principals, students too need the advantage of a little more time. One high school in Indiana is giving students the…

  19. Toward transparent clinical policies.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Richard N; Marcuse, Edgar K; Moyer, Virginia A; Neuspiel, Daniel R; Hodgson, Elizabeth Susan; Glade, Gordon; Harbaugh, Norman; Miller, Marlene R; Sevilla, Xavier; Simpson, Lisa; Takata, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    Clinical policies of professional societies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics are valued highly, not only by clinicians who provide direct health care to children but also by many others who rely on the professional expertise of these organizations, including parents, employers, insurers, and legislators. The utility of a policy depends, in large part, on the degree to which its purpose and basis are clear to policy users, an attribute known as the policy's transparency. This statement describes the critical importance and special value of transparency in clinical policies, guidelines, and recommendations; helps identify obstacles to achieving transparency; and suggests several approaches to overcome these obstacles.

  20. Grayscale transparent metasurface holograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Kruk, Sergey; Tang, Hanzhi; Li, Tao; Kravchenko, Ivan; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-12-16

    In this paper, we demonstrate transparent metaholograms based on silicon metasurfaces that allow high-resolution grayscale images to be encoded. Finally, the holograms feature the highest diffraction and transmission efficiencies, and operate over a broad spectral range.

  1. Stretchable, transparent, ionic conductors.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Christoph; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Foo, Choon Chiang; Rothemund, Philipp; Whitesides, George M; Suo, Zhigang

    2013-08-30

    Existing stretchable, transparent conductors are mostly electronic conductors. They limit the performance of interconnects, sensors, and actuators as components of stretchable electronics and soft machines. We describe a class of devices enabled by ionic conductors that are highly stretchable, fully transparent to light of all colors, and capable of operation at frequencies beyond 10 kilohertz and voltages above 10 kilovolts. We demonstrate a transparent actuator that can generate large strains and a transparent loudspeaker that produces sound over the entire audible range. The electromechanical transduction is achieved without electrochemical reaction. The ionic conductors have higher resistivity than many electronic conductors; however, when large stretchability and high transmittance are required, the ionic conductors have lower sheet resistance than all existing electronic conductors.

  2. A Dictionary for Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2001-11-15

    There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

  3. Transparency Durability Test Criteria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    includes laboratory coupon durability testing and field service data acquisition. These areas were used to advance the development, measurement, and...comparison of coupon testing to in-service aircraft transparency durability, where durability is defined as the continued ability of the transparency to...meet specified performance requirements. Summaries of coupon tests and field service data acquisition and analysis are reported. New coupon tests

  4. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smart About Social Media How to Safely Give Ibuprofen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Ibuprofen ... without getting a doctor's approval first. What Is Ibuprofen Also Called? Ibuprofen is the generic name for ...

  5. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old How to Safely Give Ibuprofen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Ibuprofen ... without getting a doctor's approval first. What Is Ibuprofen Also Called? Ibuprofen is the generic name for ...

  6. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  7. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smart About Social Media How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  8. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  9. Gyromagnetically induced transparency of metasurfaces (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvets, Gennady B.; Mousavi, Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander; Allen, Jeffery W.; Allen, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The concept of symmetry pervades modern physics. Through the conservation laws derived from various symmetries, high-level restrictions and selection rules can be derived for a variety of physical systems without any need for detailed investigations of their specific properties. The spatial symmetries of electric charge distribution on the metamaterial's surface determine whether the EM resonance is "bright" (radiatively coupled to) or "dark" (radiatively de-coupled from) the EM continuum. As we demonstrate in this talk, other (non-spatial) symmetries and their breaking can also be crucial to determine the properties of EM resonances and enable their mutual coupling, which in turn can give rise to EM Fano interferences. I will consider a meta-surface formed by a two-dimensional array of double-antenna meta-molecules resting on a gyromagnetic ferrite substrate. In conclusion, I will use simple symmetry considerations to predict and numerically demonstrate two phenomena that occur in meta-surfaces when symmetry of the system is reduced by a gyromagnetic substrate: gyromagnetically induced transparency and nonreciprocal Fano interference. These phenomena hold significant promise for practical applications such as the dynamic control of resonant EM interactions using magnetic fields produced by the external currents, mitigation of co-site interference and improving isolation. Spectral positions, radiative lifetimes and quality factors of Fano resonances can be controlled by the magnitude of the external magnetic field. This class of effects may lead to a new generation of tunable and nonreciprocal Fano resonant systems for various applications where strong field enhancement, tunability and nonreciprocity are simultaneously required.

  10. Antireflective Coatings for Glass and Transparent Polymers.

    PubMed

    Buskens, Pascal; Burghoorn, Marieke; Mourad, Maurice Christian Danho; Vroon, Zeger

    2016-07-12

    Antireflective coatings (ARCs) are applied to reduce surface reflections. We review coatings that reduce the reflection of the surface of the transparent substrates float glass, polyethylene terephthalate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and polycarbonate. Three main coating concepts exist to lower the reflection at the interface of a transparent substrate and air: multilayer interference coatings, graded index coatings, and quarter-wave coatings. We introduce and discuss these three concepts, and zoom in on porous quarter-wave coatings comprising colloidal particles. We extensively discuss the four routes for introducing porosity in quarter-wave coatings through the use of colloidal particles, which have the highest potential for application: (1) packing of dense nanospheres, (2) integration of voids through hollow nanospheres, (3) integration of voids through sacrificial particle templates, and (4) packing of nonspherical nanoparticles. Finally, we address the remaining challenges in the field of ARCs, and elaborate on potential strategies for future research in this area.

  11. Transparent conductive coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashok, S.

    1983-01-01

    Thin film transparent conductors are discussed. Materials with electrical conductivity and optical transparency are highly desirable in many optoelectronic applications including photovoltaics. Certain binary oxide semiconductors such as tin oxide (SnO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) offer much better performance tradeoff in optoelectronics as well as better mechanical and chemical stability than thin semitransparent films. These thin-film transparent conductors (TC) are essentially wide-bandgap degenerate semiconductors - invariably n-type - and hence are transparent to sub-bandgap (visible) radiation while affording high electrical conductivity due to the large free electron concentration. The principal performance characteristics of TC's are, of course, electrical conductivity and optical transmission. The TC's have a refractive index of around 2.0 and hence act as very efficient antireflection coatings. For using TC's in surface barrier solar cells, the photovoltaic barrier is of utmost importance and so the work function or electron affinity of the TC is also a very important material parameter. Fabrication processes are discussed.

  12. Contrast enhancement of transparencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shulman, A. R.; Lee, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    System can enhance or reduce contrast of photographic transparency for printing or projection by using constructive and destructive interference of collimated laser beam. System is potentially less expensive than electronic CRT methods and is more accurate than trial-and-error manual techniques.

  13. Transparency for international trade

    Treesearch

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  14. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  15. Transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Liu, Zhe; Liang, Bo; Wang, Xianfu; Shen, Guozhen

    2012-05-01

    With the features of high mobility, a high electric on/off ratio and excellent transparency, metal oxide nanowires are excellent candidates for transparent thin-film transistors, which is one of the key technologies to realize transparent electronics. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors. It begins with the brief introduction to the synthetic methods for high quality metal oxide nanowires, and the typical nanowire transfer and printing techniques with emphasis on the simple contact printing methodology. High performance transparent transistors built on both single nanowires and nanowire thin films are then highlighted. The final section deals with the applications of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors in the field of transparent displays and concludes with an outlook on the current perspectives and future directions of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors.

  16. Transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Liu, Zhe; Liang, Bo; Wang, Xianfu; Shen, Guozhen

    2012-05-21

    With the features of high mobility, a high electric on/off ratio and excellent transparency, metal oxide nanowires are excellent candidates for transparent thin-film transistors, which is one of the key technologies to realize transparent electronics. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors. It begins with the brief introduction to the synthetic methods for high quality metal oxide nanowires, and the typical nanowire transfer and printing techniques with emphasis on the simple contact printing methodology. High performance transparent transistors built on both single nanowires and nanowire thin films are then highlighted. The final section deals with the applications of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors in the field of transparent displays and concludes with an outlook on the current perspectives and future directions of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors.

  17. Giving an IM (intramuscular) injection

    MedlinePlus

    To give an IM injection: Make sure you have the right amount of the right medicine in the syringe. Wash your hands well with soap and water. Dry them. Carefully find the spot where you will give the injection. Clean the skin at ...

  18. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10-3 Ω cm-1, 11 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 1.62 × 1020 cm-3, resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  19. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Next- Generation Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary; Sultana, Mahmooda; Hess, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite. It is optically transparent and has high electron mobility, and thus has great potential to make transparent conductive electrodes. This invention contributes towards the development of graphene transparent conductive electrodes for next-generation microshutter arrays. The original design for the electrodes of the next generation of microshutters uses indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode material. ITO is widely used in NASA flight missions. The optical transparency of ITO is limited, and the material is brittle. Also, ITO has been getting more expensive in recent years. The objective of the invention is to develop a graphene transparent conductive electrode that will replace ITO. An exfoliation procedure was developed to make graphene out of graphite crystals. In addition, large areas of single-layer graphene were produced using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with high optical transparency. A special graphene transport procedure was developed for transferring graphene from copper substrates to arbitrary substrates. The concept is to grow large-size graphene sheets using the LPCVD system through chemical reaction, transfer the graphene film to a substrate, dope graphene to reduce the sheet resistance, and pattern the film to the dimension of the electrodes in the microshutter array. Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are expected to have a transparency of 97.7%. This covers the electromagnetic spectrum from UV to IR. In comparison, ITO electrodes currently used in microshutter arrays have 85% transparency in mid-IR, and suffer from dramatic transparency drop at a wavelength of near-IR or shorter. Thus, graphene also has potential application as transparent conductive electrodes for Schottky photodiodes in the UV region.

  20. Plasmonic Graphene Transparent Conductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    www.MaterialsViews.com www.advopticalmat.de FU LL P A P ER Guowei Xu,* Jianwei Liu, Qian Wang , Rongqing Hui, Zhijun Chen, Victor A. Maroni, and Judy Wu Plasmonic...decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UU...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS surface plasmon, graphene, transparent conductors Guowei Xu, Jianwei Liu, Qian

  1. Transparent Spinel Ceramic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2009 NRL REVIEW 215 OPTICAL SCIENCES Transparent Spinel Ceramic J.S. Sanghera, G. Villalobos , W. Kim, S. Bayya, and I.D. Aggarwal Optical Sciences...Sponsored by NRL and ONR] Reference 1 G. Villalobos , J.S. Sanghera, S.B. Bayya, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Fluoride Salt Coated Magnesium Aluminate,” U.S. Patent 7,211,325, May 1, 2007.

  2. Transparency microplates under impact.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chun Yat; Roslan, Zulhanif; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Chua, Wei Seong; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2014-07-15

    Transparency microplates enable biochemical analysis in resource-limited laboratories. During the process of transfer, the analytes tittered into the wells may undergo spillage from one well to another due to lateral impact. Sidelong impact tests conducted found the absence of non-linear effects (e.g., viscoelastic behavior) but high energy loss. Finite element simulations conducted showed that the rectangular plate holding the transparencies could undergo z-axis deflections when a normal component of the force was present despite constraints being used. High speed camera sequences confirmed this and also showed the asymmetrical z-axis deflection to cause the contact line closer to impact to displace first when the advancing condition was exceeded. Capillary waves were found to travel toward the contact line at the opposite end, where if the advancing contact angle condition was exceeded, also resulted in spreading. The presence of surface scribing was found to limit contact line movement better. With water drops dispensed on scribed transparencies, immunity from momentum change of up to 9.07 kgm/s on impact was possible for volumes of 40 μL. In the case of glycerol drops immunity from momentum change of up to 9.07 kgm/s on impact extended to volumes of 90 μL. The improved immunity of glycerol was attributed to its heightened dampening characteristics and its higher attenuation of capillary waves. Overall, scribed transparency microplates were able to better withstand spillage from accidental impact. Accidental impact was also found not to cause any detrimental effects on the fluorescence properties of enhanced green fluorescent protein samples tested.

  3. The most transparent research.

    PubMed

    Wenner, Melinda

    2009-10-01

    Biomedicine would be a breeze if organisms were transparent. With the ability to see through tissues, scientists could spot the development of tumors more easily in study animals. And biologists could study exactly how an animal's organs develop by observing them as they grow. In effect, the secrets of the body would be out there for everyone to see.The thought of peering into our tissues may sound like science fiction, but one day it could be science. Using ideas from genetics, electrical engineering, chemistry and solid-state physics, a handful of researchers are working on ways to render biological tissues transparent.Some have already succeeded: in 2007, Richard White, a biologist at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, used careful breeding techniques to create a transparent adult zebrafish named casper, evoking a reference to the famous cartoon ghost by the same name. Now, more than 100 labs around the world are using these transparent fish to study cancer pathology and development in real time. "The field of in vivo imaging-looking at things that are happening inside an actual organism-is growing rapidly," White says.Researchers are even making strides toward turning human tissue transparent. The primary reason we can't see what's inside of us is that light scatters when it passes through tissue. The body is densely packed with many types of substances, such as bone and fat, and light travels through them at different speeds because they have what physicists refer to as different refractive indices. The result is that light can't pass through biological tissues in a straight line, much as car headlights don't pass through dense fog. To fix this problem, scientists are working on developing ways to stop tissues from scattering light. Indeed, "if you take away the scattering properties of human tissues, we would look more or less like jellyfish," explains Changhuei Yang, an electrical engineer and bioengineer at the California Institute of Technology

  4. Perceptual transparency from image deformation

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin’ya

    2015-01-01

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid’s surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of “invisible” transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation. PMID:26240313

  5. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  6. Grading of corneal transparency.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Clare; Wolffsohn, James S

    2004-12-01

    To examine the academic literature on the grading of corneal transparency and to assess the potential use of objective image analysis. Reference databases of academic literature were searched and relevant manuscripts reviewed. Annunziato, Efron (Millennium Edition) and Vistakon-Synoptik corneal oedema grading scale images were analysed objectively for relative intensity, edges detected, variation in intensity and maximum intensity. In addition, corneal oedema was induced in one subject using a low oxygen transmissibility (Dk/t) hydrogel contact lens worn for 3h under a light eye patch. Recovery from oedema was monitored over time using ultrasound pachymetry, high and low contrast visual acuity measures, bulbar hyperaemia grading and transparency image analysis of the test and control eyes. Several methods for assessing corneal transparency are described in the academic literature, but none have gained widespread use in clinical practice. The change in objective image analysis with printed scale grade was best described by quadratic parametric or sigmoid 3-parameter functions. 'Pupil image scales' (Annunziato and Vistakon-Synoptik) were best correlated to average intensity; however, the corneal section scale (Efron) was strongly correlated to variations in intensity. As expected, patching an eye wearing a low Dk/t hydrogel contact lens caused a significant (F = 119.2, p < 0.001) 14.3% increase in corneal thickness, which gradually recovered under open eye conditions. Corneal section image analysis was the most affected parameter and intensity variation across the slit width, in isolation, was the strongest correlate, accounting for 85.8% of the variance with time following patching, and 88.7% of the variance with corneal thickness. Corneal oedema is best determined objectively by the intensity variation across the width of a corneal section. This can be easily measured using a slit-lamp camera connected to a computer. Oedema due to soft contact lens wear is not

  7. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  8. The New Planned Giving Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerschbaecher, Lynda

    1987-01-01

    The best way to support charitable causes after tax reform is planned giving. Seven changes in the new tax laws that may affect donors are identified: charitable deduction, fewer deductions, fewer itemizers, increased capital gains tax, alternative minimum tax, generation-skipping tax, and retirement plan restrictions. (MLW)

  9. Present Action Spurs Deferred Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarc, Jerry A.

    1985-01-01

    Examines ways parishes or schools can promote deferred gifts, payable on death to the parish or institution. Suggests that financial planning seminars and will clinics, planned-giving promotion committees, and dissemination of free pamphlets on estate planning are good ways to promote these bequests. (DMM)

  10. The New Planned Giving Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Ronald R.; Quynn, Katelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    A planned giving officer is seen as an asset to college/university development for technical expertise, credibility, and connections. Attorneys, certified public accountants, bank trust officers, financial planners, investment advisers, life insurance agents, and real estate brokers may be qualified but probably also need training. (MSE)

  11. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  12. The transparency trap.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Ethan

    2014-10-01

    To promote accountability, productivity, and shared learning, many organizations create open work environments and gather reams of data on how individuals spend their time. A few years ago, HBS professor Ethan Bernstein set out to find empirical evidence that such approaches improve organizational performance. What he discovered is that this kind of transparency often has an unintended consequence: It can leave employees feeling vulnerable and exposed. When that happens, they conceal any conduct that deviates from the norm so that they won't have to explain it. Unrehearsed, experimental behaviors sometimes stop altogether. But Bernstein also discovered organizations that had established zones of privacy within open environments by setting four types of boundaries: around teams, between feedback and evaluation, between decision rights and improvement rights, and around periods of experimentation. Moreover, across several studies, the companies that had done all this were the ones that consistently got the most creative, efficient, and thoughtful work from their employees. Bernstein's conclusion? By balancing transparency and privacy, organizations can capture the benefits of both, and encourage just the right amount of "positive deviance" needed to increase innovation and productivity.

  13. Wetting transparency of graphene.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Javad; Mi, Xi; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Thomas, Abhay V; Yavari, Fazel; Shi, Yunfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Koratkar, Nikhil A

    2012-01-22

    We report that graphene coatings do not significantly disrupt the intrinsic wetting behaviour of surfaces for which surface-water interactions are dominated by van der Waals forces. Our contact angle measurements indicate that a graphene monolayer is wetting-transparent to copper, gold or silicon, but not glass, for which the wettability is dominated by short-range chemical bonding. With increasing number of graphene layers, the contact angle of water on copper gradually transitions towards the bulk graphite value, which is reached for ~6 graphene layers. Molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical predictions confirm our measurements and indicate that graphene's wetting transparency is related to its extreme thinness. We also show a 30-40% increase in condensation heat transfer on copper, as a result of the ability of the graphene coating to suppress copper oxidation without disrupting the intrinsic wettability of the surface. Such an ability to independently tune the properties of surfaces without disrupting their wetting response could have important implications in the design of conducting, conformal and impermeable surface coatings.

  14. Corneal structure and transparency

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Keith M.; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. PMID:26145225

  15. Lattice Transparency of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Chae, Sieun; Jang, Seunghun; Choi, Won Jin; Kim, Youn Sang; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Tae Il; Lee, Jeong-O

    2017-03-08

    Here, we demonstrated the transparency of graphene to the atomic arrangement of a substrate surface, i.e., the "lattice transparency" of graphene, by using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods as a model system. The growth behaviors of ZnO nanocrystals on graphene-coated and uncoated substrates with various crystal structures were investigated. The atomic arrangements of the nucleating ZnO nanocrystals exhibited a close match with those of the respective substrates despite the substrates being bound to the other side of the graphene. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we confirmed the energetic favorability of the nucleating phase following the atomic arrangement of the substrate even with the graphene layer present in between. In addition to transmitting information about the atomic lattice of the substrate, graphene also protected its surface. This dual role enabled the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on a Cu substrate, which otherwise dissolved in the reaction conditions when graphene was absent.

  16. Corneal structure and transparency.

    PubMed

    Meek, Keith M; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Monocular transparency generates quantitative depth.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ian P; Duke, Philip A

    2003-11-01

    Monocular zones adjacent to depth steps can create an impression of depth in the absence of binocular disparity. However, the magnitude of depth is not specified. We designed a stereogram that provides information about depth magnitude but which has no disparity. The effect depends on transparency rather than occlusion. For most subjects, depth magnitude produced by monocular transparency was similar to that created by a disparity-defined depth probe. Addition of disparity to monocular transparency did not improve the accuracy of depth settings. The magnitude of depth created by monocular occlusion fell short of that created by monocular transparency.

  18. Colorless, Transparent, Aromatic Polyimide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Ezzell, K. S.; Ely, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    New process yields aromatic condensation polyimide films essentially colorless. Films between 90- and 100-percent transparent at visible wavelength of 500 nm. Optically transparent polyimide films made from variety of aromatic condensation polyimides. Range from very pale in color to colorless, compared to bright yellow color of conventional/ commercial aromatic polyimide film. Increased transparency achieved at no sacrifice in thermal stability, flexibility, toughness, or mechanical properties. These features extremely attractive as films or coating materials for aerospace applications or for any other applications where high optical transparency or thermal stability is required.

  19. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  20. Development and applications of transparent conductive nanocellulose paper

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaohui; Lee, Pooi See

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Increasing attention has been paid to the next generation of ‘green’ electronic devices based on renewable nanocellulose, owing to its low roughness, good thermal stability and excellent optical properties. Various proof-of-concept transparent nanopaper-based electronic devices have been fabricated; these devices exhibit excellent flexibility, bendability and even foldability. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of transparent nanopaper that uses different types of nanocellulose, including pure nanocellulose paper and composite nanocellulose paper. The latest development of transparent and flexible nanopaper electronic devices are illustrated, such as electrochromic devices, touch sensors, solar cells and transistors. Finally, we discuss the advantages of transparent nanopaper compared to conventional flexible plastic substrate and the existing challenges to be tackled in order to realize this promising potential. PMID:28970870

  1. A germanate transparent conductive oxide

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Toshio; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Wide bandgap conductors such as In2O3 and ZnO are used as transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). To date, TCOs are realized using post transition metal cations with largely spread s-orbitals such as In3+, Sn4+, Zn2+ and Cd2+. On the other hand, no good electronic conductor has been realized in oxides of Al, Si and Ge. Here we report the conversion of an oxide of Ge into a good electronic conductor by employing the concept of superdegeneracy. We find that cubic SrGeO3, synthesized under high pressure, displays a direct bandgap of 3.5 eV, a carrier mobility of 12 cm2(Vs)−1, and conductivities of 3 Scm−1 (DC) and 400 Scm−1 (optical conductivity). This is the first Ge-based electronic conductive oxide, and expands the family of TCOs from ionic oxides to covalent oxides. PMID:21915112

  2. Creating financial transparency in public health: examining best practices of system partners.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Clarke, Richard L; Mead, Dean Michael; Menditto, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    Financial transparency is based on concepts for valid, standardized information that is readily accessible and routinely disseminated to stakeholders. While Congress and others continuously ask for an accounting of public health investments, transparency remains an ignored concept. The objective of this study was to examine financial transparency practices in other industries considered as part of the public health system. Key informants, regarded as financial experts on the operations of hospitals, school systems, and higher education, were a primary source of information. Principal findings were that system partners have espoused some concepts for financial transparency beginning in the early 20th century--signifying an 80-year implementation gap for public health. Critical features that promote accountability included standardized data collection methods and infrastructures, uniform practices for quantitative analysis of financial performance, and credentialing of the financial management workforce. Recommendations are offered on the basis of these findings to aid public health to close this gap by framing a movement toward transparency.

  3. Plasmonic graphene transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guowei; Liu, Jianwei; Wang, Qian; Hui, Rongqing; Chen, Zhijun; Maroni, Victor A; Wu, Judy

    2012-03-08

    Plasmonic graphene is fabricated using thermally assisted self-assembly of silver nanoparticles on graphene. The localized surface-plasmonic effect is demonstrated with the resonance frequency shifting from 446 to 495 nm when the lateral dimension of the Ag nanoparticles increases from about 50 to 150 nm. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to confirm the experimentally observed light-scattering enhancement in the solar spectrum in plasmonic graphene and the decrease of both the plasmonic resonance frequency and amplitude with increasing graphene thickness. In addition, plasmonic graphene shows much-improved electrical conductance by a factor of 2-4 as compared to the original graphene, making the plasmonic graphene a promising advanced transparent conductor with enhanced light scattering for thin-film optoelectronic devices.

  4. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Treesearch

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  5. Student Perceptions of Teaching Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alecia D.; Hunt, Andrea N.; Powell, Rachel E.; Dollar, Cindy Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss the relationship between teaching transparency and active learning through the perspectives of their students. Active learning directly engages students in the learning process while transparency involves the instructor's divulgence of logic regarding course organization and activity choices. After utilizing these teaching…

  6. Price Transparency in the Online Age.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonathan L; Mills, Parker H

    2016-05-01

    Plastic surgeons are sometimes hesitant to provide their pricing information online, due to several concerns. However, if implemented right, price transparency can be used as a lead generation tool that provides consumers with the pricing information they want and gives the physician the consumer's contact information for follow-up. This study took place during the author's first year in private practice in a new city. An interactive price transparency platform (ie, cost estimator) was integrated into his website, allowing consumers to submit a "wishlist" of procedures to check pricing on these procedures of interest. However, the consumer must submit their contact information to receive the desired breakdown of costs that are tailored based on the author's medical fees. During that first year, without any advertising expenditure, the author's website received 412 wishlists from 208 unique consumers. Consumers (17.8%) that submitted a wishlist came in for a consultation and 62% of those booked a procedure. The average value of a booked procedure was over US $4000 and cumulatively, all of the leads from this one lead source in that first year generated over US $92,000 in revenue. When compared with non-price-aware patients, price-aware patients were 41% more likely to book a procedure. Price transparency led to greater efficiency and reduced consultations that ended in "sticker shock." When prudently integrated into a medical practice, price transparency can be a great lead generation source for patients that are (1) paying out of pocket for medically necessary services due to a high-deductible health plan or (2) paying for services not typically covered by insurance, such as cosmetic services.

  7. Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Mochiji, Toshiro; Keeney, R.; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakhleh, C.; Puckett, J.; Stanbro, W.

    1999-01-01

    PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet No. 21, which was signed in February 1996, ``The Joint Research on Transparency in Nuclear Nonproliferation`` under the ``Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation``. The purpose of Action Sheet 21 is to provide a fundamental study on Transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability for the nuclear energy from the nuclear nonproliferation point of view. This project consists of independent research and then joint discussion at workshops that address a series of topics and issues in transparency. The activities covered in Action Sheet 21 took place over a period of 18 months. Three workshops were held; the first and the third hosted by PNC in Tokyo, Japan and the second hosted by LANL in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US. The following is a summary of the three workshops. The first workshop addressed the policy environment of transparency. Each side presented its perspective on the following issues: (1) a definition of transparency, (2) reasons for transparency, (3) detailed goals of transparency and (4) obstacles to transparency. The topic of the second workshop was ``Development of Transparency Options.`` The activities accomplished were (1) identify type of facilities where transparency might be applied, (2) define criteria for applying transparency, and (3) delineate applicable transparency options. The goal of the third workshop, ``Technical Options for Transparency,`` was to (1) identify conceptual options for transparency system design; (2) identify instrumentation, measurement, data collection and data processing options; (3) identify data display options; and (4) identify technical

  8. The Notion of Adminstrative Transparency among Academic Leaderships at Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Mohammed Hasan

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the notion of transparency among academic leaderships at Jordanian universities. To this effect, the interview-based approach was used in order to delineate the concept of transparency. Eighty individual academic leaderships were interviewed across various schools in Jordan. Upon collection of data and information,…

  9. The Notion of Adminstrative Transparency among Academic Leaderships at Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Mohammed Hasan

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the notion of transparency among academic leaderships at Jordanian universities. To this effect, the interview-based approach was used in order to delineate the concept of transparency. Eighty individual academic leaderships were interviewed across various schools in Jordan. Upon collection of data and information,…

  10. Semi-transparent inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.; Winkler, T.; Tilgner, M.; Flügge, H.; Schmale, S.; Bülow, T.; Meyer, J.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2009-08-01

    We will present efficient semi-transparent bulk-heterojunction [regioregular of poly(3-hexylthiophene): (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester] solar cells with an inverted device architecture. Highly transparent ZnO and TiO2 films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition are used as cathode interlayers on top of ITO. The topanode consists of a RF-sputtered ITO layer. To avoid damage due to the plasma deposition of this layer, a sputtering buffer layer of MoO3 is used as protection. This concept allows for devices with a transmissivity higher than 60 % for wavelengths 650 nm. The thickness of the MoO3 buffer has been varied in order to study its effect on the electrical properties of the solar cell and its ability to prevent possible damage to the organic active layers upon ITO deposition. Without this buffer or for thin buffers it has been found that device performance is very poor concerning the leakage current, the fill factor, the short circuit current and the power conversion efficiencies. As a reference inverted solar cells with a metal electrode (Al) instead of the ITO-top contact are used. The variation between the PCE of top versus conventional illumination of the semi-transparent cells was also examined and will be interpreted in view of the results of the optical simulation of the dielectric device stack with and without reflection top electrode. Power conversion efficiencies of 2-3 % for the opaque inverted solar cells and 1.5-2.5 % for the semi-transparent devices were obtained under an AM1.5G illumination.

  11. P-type transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H. L.; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G.; Egdell, Russell G.

    2016-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu+-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr3+-based oxides (3d 3) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p-n junctions will also be briefly discussed.

  12. P-type transparent conducting oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-09-28

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of 'chemical modulation of the valence band' to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d (10) orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu(+)-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd (6) spinel oxides, Cr(3+)-based oxides (3d (3)) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns (2)). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p-n junctions will also be briefly discussed.

  13. Moving from spatially segregated to transparent motion: a modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Szonya; Donoso-Barrera, Alejandra; Tan, Sovira; Johnston, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Motion transparency, in which patterns of moving elements group together to give the impression of lacy overlapping surfaces, provides an important challenge to models of motion perception. It has been suggested that we perceive transparent motion when the shape of the velocity histogram of the stimulus is bimodal. To investigate this further, random-dot kinematogram motion sequences were created to simulate segregated (perceptually spatially separated) and transparent (perceptually overlapping) motion. The motion sequences were analysed using the multi-channel gradient model (McGM) to obtain the speed and direction at every pixel of each frame of the motion sequences. The velocity histograms obtained were found to be quantitatively similar and all were bimodal. However, the spatial and temporal properties of the velocity field differed between segregated and transparent stimuli. Transparent stimuli produced patches of rightward and leftward motion that varied in location over time. This demonstrates that we can successfully differentiate between these two types of motion on the basis of the time varying local velocity field. However, the percept of motion transparency cannot be based simply on the presence of a bimodal velocity histogram. PMID:17148338

  14. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    BETSILL,J. DAVID; ELKINS,NED Z.; WU,CHUAN-FU; MEWHINNEY,JAMES D.; AAMODT,PAUL

    2000-01-27

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ``The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic

  15. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  16. Air transparent soundproof window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  17. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  18. Ethics of trial drug use: to give or not to give?

    PubMed Central

    Ebunoluwa, Oduwole O.; Kareem, Fayemi A.

    2017-01-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola viral disease in some West African countries, which later spread to the USA and Spain, has continued to be a subject of global public health debate. While there is no approved vaccine or drug for Ebola cure yet, moral questions of bioethical significance are emerging even as vaccine studies are at different clinical trial phases. This paper, through a normative and critical approach, focuses on the question of whether it is ethical to give any experimental drugs to Ebola victims in West Africa or not. Given the global panic and deadly contagious nature of Ebola, this paper argues on three major compassionate grounds that it is ethical to use experimental drugs on the dying African victims of Ebola. Besides respecting patients and family consent in the intervention process, this paper argues that the use of Ebola trial drugs on West African population will be ethical if it promotes the common good, and does not violate the fundamental principles of transparency and integrity in human research ethics. Using Kantian ethical framework of universality as a basis for moral defense of allowing access to yet approved drugs. This paper provides argument to strengthen the compassionate ground provisional recommendation of the WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) on Ebola vaccines and vaccination. PMID:28367458

  19. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, A. I. S.; Bointon, T. H.; Melo, L. V.; Russo, S.; de Schrijver, I.; Craciun, M. F.; Alves, H.

    2015-05-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn.

  20. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, Julius; Henesian, Mark A.

    1986-01-01

    A low pressure gas electrode utilizing ionized gas in a glow discharge regime forms a transparent electrode for electro-optical switches. The transparent electrode comprises a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the electrode is a transparent electrode. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. The plasma can be created either by the main high voltage pulser used to charge up the crystal or by auxiliary discharges or external sources of ionization. A typical configuration utilizes 10 torr argon in the discharge region adjacent to each crystal face.

  1. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers

    PubMed Central

    Neves, A. I. S.; Bointon, T. H.; Melo, L. V.; Russo, S.; de Schrijver, I.; Craciun, M. F.; Alves, H.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn. PMID:25952133

  2. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas.

  3. Infrared transparent conductive oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Linda F.; Moran, Mark B.

    2001-09-01

    A novel class of complex metal oxides that have potential as transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for the electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding on IR-seeker windows and missile domes has been identified. These complex metal oxides exhibit the rhombohedral (R3m) crystalline structure of naturally occurring delafossite, CuFeO2. The general chemical formula is ABO2 where A is a monovalent metal (Me+1 such as Cu, Ag, Au, Pt or Pd, and B is a trivalent metal (Me3+) such as Al,Ti,Cr,Co,Fe,Ni,Cs,Rh,Ga,Sn,In,Y,La,Pr,Nd,Sm or Eu. By adjusting the oxygen content, the conductivity can be varied over a wide range so that the delafossites behave as insulators, semiconductors or metals. This paper presents results for films of p-type CuxAlyOz and n-type CuxCryOz deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from high-purity-metal targets. Films have been deposited using conventional RF- and DC-power supplies, and a new asymmetric-bipolar-pulsed- DC-power supply. Similar to the high-temperature-copper- oxide superconductors, the presence of Cu-O bonds is critical for the unique properties. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) are used to understand the relationship between the optoelectornic properties and the molecular structure of the films. For example, FTIR absorption bands at 1470 and 1395cm-1 are present only in CuxAlyOz films that exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity. When these bands are absent, the CuxAlyOz films have high values of resistivity. In addition to the 1470 and 1395cm-1 bands observed in CuxAlyOz films, another pair of bands at 1040 and 970cm-1 is present in CuxCryOz films.

  4. Inspection of transparent polymers by photothermal detection of ultraviolet-laser generated thermal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmeier, Achim; Bahners, Thomas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    1991-11-01

    The concept of photothermal wave imaging has been adapted to the nondestructive inspection of transparent polymeric samples by specific generation of thermal waves. Utilization of light sources according to the absorption properties of the material secured pure surface heating which is necessary for sensible measurements. Thickness profiles of thin films made of poly(ethylene terephthalate), which are transparent in the visible spectrum, could be measured using a pulsed KrF laser. Examples for the nondestructive inspection of complex textile samples such as coated fabrics are presented.The photothermal analysis (PTA) of optically generated thermal waves is a powerful tool for nondestructive, contactless inspection and evaluation of intrinsic properties of a sample.1,2 The method has been used for the observation of dynamic processes in adhesives, for the inspection of coatings on metal and of carbon fiber composites. A modulated light source, e.g., a chopped HeNe- or Ar+ laser, is used for local, modulated heating at the sample's surface resulting in a time- and space-dependent temperature modulation which propagates through the material. In the case of a homogeneous layer heated only in a small volume at the surface the solution of the heat diffusion equation gives a heavily damped thermal wave T(x,y,z;t). In a one-dimensional model3 only the direction z perpendicular to the surface is considered and we obtain

  5. Universal Transparent Simulator (UNITRANS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Introduction .. ............. .......... . 2-1 2.2. General Concept ....... .................. .. 2-1 2.3. Linear Predictive Coding ( LPC ) -- Its Rudimentary...signal is then decoded back to physical voice by using t <. LPC synthesizing filter and then used as an input to the devices for testing. The result...predictive coding ( LPC ) technique (a full description on LPC will be introduced in the next section.) To simulate an individual successfully, the

  6. Directional performance in motion transparency.

    PubMed

    Braddick, Oliver J; Wishart, Keith A; Curran, William

    2002-05-01

    Motion transparency provides a challenging test case for our understanding of how visual motion, and other attributes, are computed and represented in the brain. However, previous studies of visual transparency have used subjective criteria which do not confirm the existence of independent representations of the superimposed motions. We have developed measures of performance in motion transparency that require observers to extract information about two motions jointly, and therefore test the information that is simultaneously represented for each motion. Observers judged whether two motions were at 90 degrees to one another; the base direction was randomized so that neither motion taken alone was informative. The precision of performance was determined by the standard deviations (S.D.s) of probit functions fitted to the data. Observers also made judgments of orthogonal directions between a single motion stream and a line, for one of two transparent motions against a line and for two spatially segregated motions. The data show that direction judgments with transparency can be made with comparable accuracy to segregated (non-transparent) conditions, supporting the idea that transparency involves the equivalent representation of two global motions in the same region. The precision of this joint direction judgment is, however, 2-3 times poorer than that for a single motion stream. The precision in directional judgment for a single stream is reduced only by a factor of about 1.5 by superimposing a second stream. The major effect in performance, therefore, appears to be associated with the need to compute and compare two global representations of motion, rather than with interference between the dot streams per se. Experiment 2 tested the transparency of motions separated by a range of angles from 5 degrees to 180 degrees by requiring subjects to set a line matching the perceived direction of each motion. The S.D.s of these settings demonstrated that directions of

  7. Transparency in Distributed File Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    and may be accessed and updated even if the primary is unavailable. I IBIS provides complete location transparency . Because of this, the IBIS...lack of actual location information in names allows his to be done transparently . Updates to replicated information are propagated using the mail system...isn’t possible to update the directory. In the case of migation by UID, a forwarding address with a reference count equal to i the link count of the

  8. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members.

  9. Semi-transparent solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  10. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK(-1) , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m(-3) (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Rapid microfabrication of transparent materials using filamented femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkus, S.; Gaižauskas, E.; Paipulas, D.; Viburys, Ž.; Kaškelyė, D.; Barkauskas, M.; Alesenkov, A.; Sirutkaitis, V.

    2014-01-01

    Microfabrication of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses has showed good potential towards industrial application. Maintaining pulse energies exceeding the critical self-focusing threshold by more than 100-fold produced filaments that were used for micromachining purposes. This article demonstrates two different micromachining techniques using femtosecond filaments generated in different transparent media (water and glass). The stated micromachining techniques are cutting and welding of transparent samples. In addition, cutting and drilling experiments were backed by theoretical modelling giving a deeper insight into the whole process. We demonstrate cut-out holes in soda-lime glass having thickness up to 1 mm and aspect ratios close to 20, moreover, the fabrication time is of the order of tens of seconds, in addition, grooves and holes were fabricated in hardened 1.1 mm thick glass (Corning Gorilla glass). Glass welding was made possible and welded samples were achieved after several seconds of laser fabrication.

  12. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures.

    PubMed

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-16

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10(-3) Ω cm(-1), 11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and 1.62 × 10(20) cm(-3), resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  13. 78 FR 14149 - 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Fiscal Transparency Report AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of State hereby presents the findings from the 2012 Fiscal Transparency review process in its first annual Fiscal Transparency Report. This report describes the minimum standards of fiscal transparency developed by the...

  14. Transparent solar antenna of 28 GHz using transparent conductive oxides (TCO) thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. I. Mohd; Misran, N.; Mansor, M. F.; Jamlos, M. F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the analysis of 28GHz solar patch antenna using the variations of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) thin film as the radiating patch. Solar antenna is basically combining the function of antenna and solar cell into one device and helps to maximize the usage of surface area. The main problem of the existing solar antenna is the radiating patch which made of nontransparent material, such as copper, shadowing the solar cell and degrades the total solar efficiency. Hence, by using the transparent conductive oxides (TCO) thin film as the radiating patch, this problem can be tackled. The TCO thin film used is varied to ITO, FTO, AgHT-4, and AgHT-8 along with glass as substrate. The simulation of the antenna executed by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio software demonstrated at 28 GHz operating frequency for 5G band applications. The performance of the transparent antennas is compared with each other and also with the nontransparent patch antenna that using Rogers RT5880 as substrate, operating at the same resonance frequency and then, the material that gives the best performance is identified.

  15. 'Transparent sexualities': sexual openness, HIV disclosure and the governmentality of sexuality in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Marian

    2013-01-01

    In South Africa, as elsewhere in the world, responses to HIV and AIDS have been accompanied by calls to 'break the silence' and to openly talk about aspects of intimate life, otherwise considered private. These calls have been followed by the production of new bodies of knowledge about sex, and projections of transparent sexualities. In this context, the concept of counselling has taken on particular significance in terms of re-conceptualising diverse institutional sites as places of education, advice giving and moral inculcation with a view toward behavioural change. In this paper, I trace a series of processes and practices of negotiation whereby in a big church in the city of Cape Town sexuality has been rendered an object of knowledgeability and inquiry. The same processes work as conditions of possibility for the emergence of counselling practices by facilitating the circulation of concepts such as 'responsible relationships', 'responsible choices' and so on through the sites of faith-based health activism. Adopted from public health discourse, but inflected by religious idioms, these concepts allowed for the dissemination of new vocabularies of sex in which counselling is construed as a key mechanism.

  16. Toward transparent and self-activated graphene harmonic transponder sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyu Harry; Sakhdari, Maryam; Hajizadegan, Mehdi; Shahini, Ali; Akinwande, Deji; Chen, Pai-Yen

    2016-04-01

    We propose the concept and design of a transparent, flexible, and self-powered wireless sensor comprising a graphene-based sensor/frequency-modulator circuitry and a graphene antenna. In this all-graphene device, the multilayered-graphene antenna receives the fundamental tone at C band and retransmits the frequency-modulated sensed signal (harmonic tone) at X band. The frequency orthogonality between the received/re-transmitted signals may enable high-performance sensing in severe interference/clutter background. Here, a fully passive, quad-ring frequency multiplier is proposed using graphene field-effect transistors, of which the unique ambipolar charge transports render a frequency doubling effect with conversion gain being chemically sensitive to exposed gas/molecular/chemical/infectious agents. This transparent, light-weight, and self-powered system may potentially benefit a number of wireless sensing and diagnosis applications, particularly for smart contact lenses/glasses and microscope slides that require high optical transparency.

  17. Trigger Laws: Does Signing a Petition Give Parents a Voice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    2011-01-01

    Parent trigger laws, according to their proponents, give parents power. Gregory McGinity, managing director of policy for the Broad Education Foundation, calls them "a way for parents' voices to be heard." Sounds good. But is the parent trigger concept a way to put parents in charge of their kids' education, or is it part of a political agenda…

  18. Trigger Laws: Does Signing a Petition Give Parents a Voice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    2011-01-01

    Parent trigger laws, according to their proponents, give parents power. Gregory McGinity, managing director of policy for the Broad Education Foundation, calls them "a way for parents' voices to be heard." Sounds good. But is the parent trigger concept a way to put parents in charge of their kids' education, or is it part of a political agenda…

  19. Optically transparent semiconducting polymer nanonetwork for flexible and transparent electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kilho; Park, Byoungwook; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Jehan; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Junghwan; Yoon, Myung-Han; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-12-01

    Simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and excellent charge mobility in semiconducting polymers has presented a challenge for the application of these materials in future “flexible” and “transparent” electronics (FTEs). Here, by blending only a small amount (˜15 wt %) of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer (DPP2T) into an inert polystyrene (PS) matrix, we introduce a polymer blend system that demonstrates both high field-effect transistor (FET) mobility and excellent optical transparency that approaches 100%. We discover that in a PS matrix, DPP2T forms a web-like, continuously connected nanonetwork that spreads throughout the thin film and provides highly efficient 2D charge pathways through extended intrachain conjugation. The remarkable physical properties achieved using our approach enable us to develop prototype high-performance FTE devices, including colorless all-polymer FET arrays and fully transparent FET-integrated polymer light-emitting diodes.

  20. Optically transparent semiconducting polymer nanonetwork for flexible and transparent electronics

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kilho; Park, Byoungwook; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Jehan; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Junghwan; Yoon, Myung-Han; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and excellent charge mobility in semiconducting polymers has presented a challenge for the application of these materials in future “flexible” and “transparent” electronics (FTEs). Here, by blending only a small amount (∼15 wt %) of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer (DPP2T) into an inert polystyrene (PS) matrix, we introduce a polymer blend system that demonstrates both high field-effect transistor (FET) mobility and excellent optical transparency that approaches 100%. We discover that in a PS matrix, DPP2T forms a web-like, continuously connected nanonetwork that spreads throughout the thin film and provides highly efficient 2D charge pathways through extended intrachain conjugation. The remarkable physical properties achieved using our approach enable us to develop prototype high-performance FTE devices, including colorless all-polymer FET arrays and fully transparent FET-integrated polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27911774

  1. Transparent polycrystalline cubic silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Norimasa; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Marquardt, Hauke; Kurnosov, Alexander; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kim, Byung-Nam; Yoshida, Hidehiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kulik, Eleonora; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Wakai, Fumihiro; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2017-03-01

    Glasses and single crystals have traditionally been used as optical windows. Recently, there has been a high demand for harder and tougher optical windows that are able to endure severe conditions. Transparent polycrystalline ceramics can fulfill this demand because of their superior mechanical properties. It is known that polycrystalline ceramics with a spinel structure in compositions of MgAl2O4 and aluminum oxynitride (γ-AlON) show high optical transparency. Here we report the synthesis of the hardest transparent spinel ceramic, i.e. polycrystalline cubic silicon nitride (c-Si3N4). This material shows an intrinsic optical transparency over a wide range of wavelengths below its band-gap energy (258 nm) and is categorized as one of the third hardest materials next to diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN). Since the high temperature metastability of c-Si3N4 in air is superior to those of diamond and cBN, the transparent c-Si3N4 ceramic can potentially be used as a window under extremely severe conditions.

  2. Transparent polycrystalline cubic silicon nitride.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Norimasa; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Marquardt, Hauke; Kurnosov, Alexander; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kim, Byung-Nam; Yoshida, Hidehiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kulik, Eleonora; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Wakai, Fumihiro; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2017-03-17

    Glasses and single crystals have traditionally been used as optical windows. Recently, there has been a high demand for harder and tougher optical windows that are able to endure severe conditions. Transparent polycrystalline ceramics can fulfill this demand because of their superior mechanical properties. It is known that polycrystalline ceramics with a spinel structure in compositions of MgAl2O4 and aluminum oxynitride (γ-AlON) show high optical transparency. Here we report the synthesis of the hardest transparent spinel ceramic, i.e. polycrystalline cubic silicon nitride (c-Si3N4). This material shows an intrinsic optical transparency over a wide range of wavelengths below its band-gap energy (258 nm) and is categorized as one of the third hardest materials next to diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN). Since the high temperature metastability of c-Si3N4 in air is superior to those of diamond and cBN, the transparent c-Si3N4 ceramic can potentially be used as a window under extremely severe conditions.

  3. Transparent polycrystalline cubic silicon nitride

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Norimasa; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Marquardt, Hauke; Kurnosov, Alexander; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kim, Byung-Nam; Yoshida, Hidehiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kulik, Eleonora; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Wakai, Fumihiro; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Glasses and single crystals have traditionally been used as optical windows. Recently, there has been a high demand for harder and tougher optical windows that are able to endure severe conditions. Transparent polycrystalline ceramics can fulfill this demand because of their superior mechanical properties. It is known that polycrystalline ceramics with a spinel structure in compositions of MgAl2O4 and aluminum oxynitride (γ-AlON) show high optical transparency. Here we report the synthesis of the hardest transparent spinel ceramic, i.e. polycrystalline cubic silicon nitride (c-Si3N4). This material shows an intrinsic optical transparency over a wide range of wavelengths below its band-gap energy (258 nm) and is categorized as one of the third hardest materials next to diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN). Since the high temperature metastability of c-Si3N4 in air is superior to those of diamond and cBN, the transparent c-Si3N4 ceramic can potentially be used as a window under extremely severe conditions. PMID:28303948

  4. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. H.; Retamal, J. R. Durán; Yang, P. K.; Lee, C. P.; Tsai, M. L.; Kang, C. F.; He-Hau, Jr.

    2017-03-01

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance of RRAM is material-dependent, and therefore the materials used must be chosen carefully in order to avoid instabilities and performance degradation caused by the detrimental effects arising from environmental gases and ionizing radiation. In this work, we demonstrate that AlN-based RRAM displays excellent performance and environmental stability, with no significant degradation to the resistance ratio over a 100-cycle endurance test. Moreover, transparent RRAM (TRRAM) based on AlN also performs reliably under four different harsh environmental conditions and 2 MeV proton irradiation fluences, ranging from 1011 to 1015 cm‑2. These findings not only provide a guideline for TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of AlN TRRAM for future transparent harsh electronics.

  5. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  6. Transparent Conveyor of Dielectric Liquids or Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mantovani, James G.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of a transparent conveyor of small loose dielectric parti cles or small amounts of dielectric liquids has emerged as an outgro wth of an effort to develop efficient, reliable means of automated re moval of dust from solar cells and from windows of optical instrumen ts. This concept is based on the previously reported concept of an e lectrodynamic screen, according to which a grid-like electric field is established on and near a surface and is moved along the surface p erpendicularly to the grid lines. The resulting electrodynamic force s on loose dielectric particles or dielectric liquid drops in the vic inity would move the particles or drops along the surface. In the or iginal dust-removal application, dust particles would thus be swept out of the affected window area. Other potential applications may occ ur in nanotechnology -- for example, involving mixing of two or more fluids and/or nanoscale particles under optical illumination and/or optical observation.

  7. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to

  8. Making Diamondlike Films More Transparent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, Michael J.; Kussmaul, Michael T.; Sovey, James S.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1994-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon films highly transparent to visible light made by dual-ion-beam deposition process. Hard, resistant to scratching, and hermetic. Used as protective coatings on eyeglasses, magnetic recording heads, computer hard disks, and windows in bar-code scanners. Amorphous diamondlike carbon films preferable to polycrystalline diamond films in these and other applications. Smooth and adherent and deposited at room temperature.

  9. Monocular transparency and unpaired stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Grove, Philip M; Brooks, Kevin R; Anderson, Barton L; Gillam, Barbara J

    2006-09-01

    Howard and Duke [Howard, I. P. & Duke, P. A. (2003). Monocular transparency generates quantitative depth. Vision Research, 43, 2615-2621] recently proposed a new source of binocular information they claim is used to recover depth in stereoscopic displays. They argued that these displays lack conventional disparity and that the metrical depth experienced results from transparency rather than occlusion relations. Using a variety of modified versions of their stimuli, we show here that the conditions for transparency are not required to elicit the depth experienced in their stereograms. We demonstrate that quantitative and precise depth depended not on the presence of transparency but horizontal contours of the same contrast polarity. Depth was attenuated, particularly at larger target offsets, when horizontal contours had opposite contrast polarity for at least a portion of their length. We also show that a demonstration they used to control for the role of horizontal contours can be understood with previously identified mechanisms involved in the computations associated with stereoscopic occlusion. These results imply that the findings reported by Howard and Duke can be understood with mechanisms responsible for the computation of binocular disparity and stereoscopic occlusion.

  10. Monocular transparency and unpaired stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Grove, Philip M; Brooks, Kevin R; Anderson, Barton L; Gillam, Barbara J

    2006-05-01

    Howard and Duke [Howard, I. P. & Duke, P. A. (2003). Monocular transparency generates quantitative depth. Vision Research, 43, 2615-2621] recently proposed a new source of binocular information they claim is used to recover depth in stereoscopic displays. They argued that these displays lack conventional disparity and that the metrical depth experienced results from transparency rather than occlusion relations. Using a variety of modified versions of their stimuli, we show here that the conditions for transparency are not required to elicit the depth experienced in their stereograms. We demonstrate that quantitative and precise depth depended not on the presence of transparency but horizontal contours of the same contrast polarity. Depth was attenuated, particularly at larger target offsets, when horizontal contours had opposite contrast polarity for at least a portion of their length. We also show that a demonstration they used to control for the role of horizontal contours can be understood with previously identified mechanisms involved in the computations associated with stereoscopic occlusion. These results imply that the findings reported by Howard and Duke can be understood with mechanisms responsible for the computation of binocular disparity and stereoscopic occlusion.

  11. Projection transparencies from printed material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunewald, L. S.; Nickerson, T. B.

    1968-01-01

    Method for preparing project transparencies, or view graphs, permits the use of almost any expendable printed material, pictures, charts, or text, in unlimited color or black and white. The method can be accomplished by either of two techniques, with a slight difference in materials.

  12. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that "transparency" is a unique feature of social networking services.…

  13. The Role of Effective Modeling in the Development of Self-Efficacy: The Case of the Transparent Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibe, Kevin P.; Mennecke, Brian E.; Luse, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Computing technology augments learning in education in a number of ways. One particular method uses interactive programs to demonstrate complex concepts. The purpose of this article is to examine one type of interactive learning technology, the transparent engine. The transparent engine allows instructors and students to view and directly interact…

  14. The Role of Effective Modeling in the Development of Self-Efficacy: The Case of the Transparent Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibe, Kevin P.; Mennecke, Brian E.; Luse, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Computing technology augments learning in education in a number of ways. One particular method uses interactive programs to demonstrate complex concepts. The purpose of this article is to examine one type of interactive learning technology, the transparent engine. The transparent engine allows instructors and students to view and directly interact…

  15. Income Tax Policy and Charitable Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Arthur C.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies over the past 20 years have looked at the response of charitable donations to tax incentives--the tax price elasticity of giving. Generally, authors have assumed this elasticity is constant across all types of giving. Using the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data on charitable giving, this paper estimates the tax price elasticity…

  16. Charitable giving expenditures and the faith factor.

    PubMed

    Showers, Vince E; Showers, Linda S; Beggs, Jeri M; Cox, James E

    2011-01-01

    Using a permanent income hypothesis approach and an income-giving status interaction effect, a double hurdle model provides evidence of significant differences from the impact of household income and various household characteristics on both a household's likelihood of giving and its level of giving to religion, charity, education, others outside the household, and politics. An analysis of resulting income elasticity estimates revealed that households consider religious giving a necessity good at all levels of income, while other categories of giving are generally found to be luxury goods. Further, those who gave to religion were found to give more to education and charity then those not giving to religion, and higher education households were more likely to give to religion than households with less education. This analysis suggests that there may be more to religious giving behavior than has been assumed in prior studies and underscores the need for further research into the motivation for religious giving. Specifically, these findings point to an enduring, internal motivation for giving rather than an external, “What do I get for what I give,” motive.

  17. Giving to Higher Education Breaks Another Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Kit

    2000-01-01

    Reports that American colleges and universities raised an estimated $20.4 billion in private gifts in the 1998-99 academic year, an increase of 10.9 percent over the previous year. Provides data on total gifts by type of institution and lists the top 20 institutions in total giving, in alumni giving, in giving from non-alumni individuals, and in…

  18. Black perception in a transparent OLED display.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyosun; Seo, Young-Jun; Yang, Byungchoon; Chu, Hye Yong

    2017-02-20

    Black perception (perceived blackness of gray 0) of transparent OLED displays was studied in this paper. In pre-test, maximum luminances of acceptable black level under various surround conditions were found in a non-transparent display. In the first experiment, the luminance of a transparent patch was compared with that of an opaque one in order to find the effect of transparency on black perception. As a result, participants perceived the transparent patch darker than the opaque one even when the two were in similar luminance levels, which we termed as the "Transparency Effect." In the second experiment, the perceived brightness of gray 0 with various background brightness conditions was investigated to observe the effect of induced black perception. Most participants perceived the luminance of gray 0 darker with brighter background luminance, but some did not. It might result from transparency of gray 0 which had a role as a window presenting the area overlapped with a transparent OLED display.

  19. Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X

    2017-04-01

    In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.

  20. Transparency and Oversight in Local Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger…

  1. Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yongmin; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-04-17

    Making metals transparent, which could lead to fascinating applications, has long been pursued. Here we demonstrate that with narrow slit arrays metallic plates become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths; the high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. This work provides a guideline to develop novel devices, including transparent conducting panels, broadband metamaterials, and antireflective solar cells.

  2. Making It with Media. Transparency Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Augie E.; Palmer, Carolyn G.

    This guide to the design and production of overhead transparencies begins with a matching test of related terminology and definitions. Introductory materials include an outline of advantages and disadvantages of using transparencies; a list of recommended uses of the overhead and transparencies; tips for overhead presentations; general…

  3. Transparency and Oversight in Local Wellness Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger…

  4. Transparent conductive coatings by printing coffee ring arrays obtained at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Layani, Michael; Gruchko, Michael; Milo, Oded; Balberg, Isaac; Azulay, Doron; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2009-11-24

    We report here a concept for utilization of the "coffee ring effect" and inkjet printing to obtain transparent conductive patterns, which can replace the widely used transparent conductive oxides, such as ITO. The transparent conductive coating is achieved by forming a 2-D array of interconnected metallic rings. The rim of the individual rings is less than 10 microm in width and less than 300 nm in height, surrounding a "hole" with a diameter of about 150 microm; therefore the whole array of the interconnected rings is almost invisible to the naked eye. The rims of the rings are composed of self-assembled, closely packed silver nanoparticles, which make the individual rings and the resulting array electrically conductive. The resulting arrays of rings have a transparency of 95%; resistivity of 0.5 cm(2) was 4 +/- 0.5 Omega/, which is better than conventional ITO transparent thin films. The silver rings and arrays are fabricated by a very simple, low cost process, based on inkjet printing of a dispersion of 0.5 wt % silver nanoparticles (approximately 20 nm diameter) on plastic substrates. The performance of this transparent conductive coating was demonstrated by using it as an electrode for a plastic electroluminescent device, demonstrating the applicability of this concept in plastics electronics. It is expected that such transparent conductive coatings can be used in a wide range of applications such as displays (LCD, plasma, touch screens, e-paper), lighting devices (electroluminescence, OLED), and solar cells.

  5. 76 FR 1180 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to Regulated Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving Transparency to... comments. SUMMARY: As part of the third phase of the Transparency Initiative, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a report entitled ``FDA Transparency Initiative: Improving...

  6. Dipole-induced electromagnetic transparency.

    PubMed

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Sukharev, Maxim; Atabek, Osman; Charron, Eric

    2014-10-17

    We determine the optical response of a thin and dense layer of interacting quantum emitters. We show that, in such a dense system, the Lorentz redshift and the associated interaction broadening can be used to control the transmission and reflection spectra. In the presence of overlapping resonances, a dipole-induced electromagnetic transparency (DIET) regime, similar to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), may be achieved. DIET relies on destructive interference between the electromagnetic waves emitted by quantum emitters. Carefully tuning material parameters allows us to achieve narrow transmission windows in, otherwise, completely opaque media. We analyze in detail this coherent and collective effect using a generalized Lorentz model and show how it can be controlled. Several potential applications of the phenomenon, such as slow light, are proposed.

  7. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  8. Highly Transparent Conducting Nanopaper for Solid State Foldable Electrochromic Devices.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wenbin; Lin, Meng-Fang; Chen, Jingwei; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-12-01

    It is of great challenge to develop a transparent solid state electrochromic device which is foldable at the device level. Such devices require delicate designs of every component to meet the stringent requirements for transparency, foldability, and deformation stability. Meanwhile, nanocellulose, a ubiquitous natural resource, is attracting escalating attention recently for foldable electronics due to its extreme flexibility, excellent mechanical strength, and outstanding transparency. In this article, transparent conductive nanopaper delivering the state-of-the-art electro-optical performance is achieved with a versatile nanopaper transfer method that facilitates junction fusing for high-quality electrodes. The highly compliant nanopaper electrode with excellent electrode quality, foldability, and mechanical robustness suits well for the solid state electrochromic device that maintains good performance through repeated folding, which is impossible for conventional flexible electrodes. A concept of camouflage wearables is demonstrated using gloves with embedded electrochromics. The discussed strategies here for foldable electrochromics serve as a platform technology for futuristic deformable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    PubMed

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2002-08-01

    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  10. Optically transparent/colorless polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, A. K.; Stclair, T. L.; Slemp, W.; Ezzell, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    Several series of linear aromatic polyimide films have been synthesized and characterized with the objective of obtaining maximum optical transparency. Two approaches have been used as part of this structure-property relationship study. The first approach is to vary the molecular structure so as to separate chromophoric centers and reduce electronic interactions between polymer chains to lower the intensity of color in the resulting polymer films. A second and concurrent approach is to perform polymerizations with highly purified monomers. Glass transition temperatures of thermally cured polyimide films are obtained by thermomechanical analysis and thermal decomposition temperatures are determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Transmittance UV-visible spectra of the polyimide films are compared to that of a commercial polyimide film. Fully imidized films are tested for solubility in common organic solvents. The more transparent films prepared in this study are evaluated for use on second-surface mirror thermal control coating systems. Lightly colored to colorless films are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy before and after exposure to 300 equivalent solar hours UV irradiation and varying doses of 1 MeV electron irradiation. The effects of monomer purity, casting solvent and cure atmosphere on polyimide film transparency are also investigated.

  11. A transparent nanostructured optical biosensor.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Li, Xiang; Que, Long

    2014-05-01

    Herein we report a new transparent nanostructured Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) device. The unique features of the nanostructured optical device can be summarized as the following: (i) optically transparent nanostructured optical device; (ii) simple and inexpensive for fabrication; (iii) easy to be fabricated and scaled up as an arrayed format. These features overcome the existing barriers for the current nanopore-based interferometric optical biosensors by measuring the transmitted optical signals rather than the reflected optical signals, thereby facilitating the optical testing significantly for the arrayed biosensors and thus paving the way for their potential for high throughput biodetection applications. The optically transparent nanostructures (i.e., anodic aluminum oxide nanopores) inside the FPI devices are fabricated from 2.2 microm thick lithographically patterned Al thin film on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate using a two-step anodization process. Utilizing the binding between Protein A and porcine immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model, the detection of the bioreaction between biomolecules has been demonstrated successfully. Experiments found that the lowest detection concentration of proteins is in the range of picomolar level using current devices, which can be easily tuned into the range of femtomolar level by optimizing the performance of devices.

  12. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed.

  13. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics.

    PubMed

    Ho, C H; Retamal, J R Durán; Yang, P K; Lee, C P; Tsai, M L; Kang, C F; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-03-14

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance of RRAM is material-dependent, and therefore the materials used must be chosen carefully in order to avoid instabilities and performance degradation caused by the detrimental effects arising from environmental gases and ionizing radiation. In this work, we demonstrate that AlN-based RRAM displays excellent performance and environmental stability, with no significant degradation to the resistance ratio over a 100-cycle endurance test. Moreover, transparent RRAM (TRRAM) based on AlN also performs reliably under four different harsh environmental conditions and 2 MeV proton irradiation fluences, ranging from 10(11) to 10(15) cm(-2). These findings not only provide a guideline for TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of AlN TRRAM for future transparent harsh electronics.

  14. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Ho, C. H.; Retamal, J. R. Durán; Yang, P. K.; Lee, C. P.; Tsai, M. L.; Kang, C. F.; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance of RRAM is material-dependent, and therefore the materials used must be chosen carefully in order to avoid instabilities and performance degradation caused by the detrimental effects arising from environmental gases and ionizing radiation. In this work, we demonstrate that AlN-based RRAM displays excellent performance and environmental stability, with no significant degradation to the resistance ratio over a 100-cycle endurance test. Moreover, transparent RRAM (TRRAM) based on AlN also performs reliably under four different harsh environmental conditions and 2 MeV proton irradiation fluences, ranging from 1011 to 1015 cm−2. These findings not only provide a guideline for TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of AlN TRRAM for future transparent harsh electronics. PMID:28290519

  15. Mission Analysis: Giving Commanders What They Need

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Commanders The mission analysis does not reflect the dynamic nature of command personalities and the various manners in which commanders give , receive ...and think about information. Getting to know how the commander gives information, receives information, and thinks about information is a key factor...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Mission Analysis: Giving Commanders What They Need A Monograph by MAJ James M. Loffert U.S

  16. Carbon nanotube based transparent conductive films: progress, challenges, and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Azumi, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Developments in the manufacturing technology of low-cost, high-quality carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are leading to increased industrial applications for this remarkable material. One of the most promising applications, CNT based transparent conductive films (TCFs), are an alternative technology in future electronics to replace traditional TCFs, which use indium tin oxide. Despite significant price competition among various TCFs, CNT-based TCFs have good potential for use in emerging flexible, stretchable and wearable optoelectronics. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the fabrication, properties, stability and applications of CNT-based TCFs. The challenges of current CNT-based TCFs for industrial use, in comparison with other TCFs, are considered. We also discuss the potential of CNT-based TCFs, and give some possible strategies to reduce the production cost and improve their conductivity and transparency. PMID:27877899

  17. Charitable Giving by Married Couples Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of gender differences and household bargaining on charitable giving. I replicate the study of Andreoni, Brown, and Rischall (2003) using a different data set--the recently available Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) supplement on charitable giving--and test the sensitivity of their results to inclusion of…

  18. p-Type Transparent Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-25

    23] 2.1.4 CuScO2 CuScO2 is a p-TCO of the delafossite crystal structure with a bandgap of 3.3 eV. [13] Stoichiometric CuScO2 is an insulator. It is...16 2.3.2 Non -Ideal Metal-Semiconductor Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3.3 Injecting Contacts...of 50 mS/cm. This decrease in optical transparency with increasing conductivity is seen in other de- lafossites. The band structure of delafossites is

  19. Is Every Transparent Liquid Water?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi

    2001-08-01

    The accepted description for water in schools worldwide is a transparent and colorless liquid. Since students in lower grades (ages 8-13) often see warning signs "Do not drink this liquid--it is not water", we believe that presenting experiments that demonstrate the inadequacy of the accepted description for water would be beneficial for teachers and their students to practice in their schools. These activities provide simple experiments that introduce students to important characteristics of different compounds that have similar external appearance. The characteristics presented here include polarity, electric conductivity, color change due to presence of an acid-base indicator, and electrolysis.

  20. Price transparency for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Mark V; Burns, Lawton R

    2008-01-01

    Hospital buyers of medical devices contract with manufacturers with market power that sell differentiated products. The medical staff strongly influences hospitals' choice of devices. Sellers have sought to limit disclosure of transaction prices. Policy-makers have proposed legislation mandating disclosure, in the interest of greater transparency. We discuss why a manufacturer might charge different prices to different hospitals, the role that secrecy plays, and the consequences of secrecy versus disclosure. We argue that hospital-physician relationships are key to understanding what manufacturers gain from price discrimination. Price disclosure can catalyze a restructuring of those relationships, which, in turn, can improve hospital bargaining.

  1. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  2. How to Give Your Child Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... each medicine. Sometimes people think, "If a little medicine is good, a lot is better (or will work quicker)." This is wrong. Giving too much medicine can be harmful.Use a special measuring device ...

  3. Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163625.html Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try Study participants were fitter, felt better -- ... Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- After menopause, moderate exercise can help women manage hot flashes, become more ...

  4. Colorless and transparent copolyimide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hye-Jin; Kim, Yong Seok; Chang, Jin-Hae

    2014-12-01

    Copolyimides (Co-PIs) were synthesized from 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl) benzidine (TFB) and different ratios of 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA). The Co-PI films were obtained from poly(amic acid) (PAA) by solution-casting through typical chemical and thermal imidizations. The thermal properties and optical transparency of the Co-PI films with various PMDA monomer contents were investigated. It was found that with increasing PMDA content, the thermal transition temperatures of the Co-PI films increased. Co-PI nanocomposites were prepared with various amounts of organically modified hectorite (STN) on a TFB:6FDA:PMDA = 1.0:0.9:0.1 mole ratio Co-PI hybrid film to examine the thermal properties, morphology, and optical transparency. The thermo-optical properties of the Co-PI hybrid films deteriorated with increasing clay content. However, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and oxygen barrier properties of the PI hybrid films improved with increasing clay content.

  5. Analysis of normal and transparent silver Teflon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, W. K.; Galuska, A. A.; Uht, J.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of Inconel/silver/Teflon exposed to solar radiation, and atomic oxygen on Solar Max were microcharacterized. Those samples exposed to atomic oxygen from the metallic side had become transparent while those exposed from the Teflon side remained reflective. The difference between the transparent and non-transparent material was determined. Microcharacterization of these Inconel/silver/Teflon samples was performed using scanning electron microscopy with windowless energy dispersive X ray analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  6. Measurements of optical loss in transparent solids using a novel spectrometer based on optical cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovich, F.P.; Hunt, J.T.; Roe, J.N.

    1988-12-14

    Recent advances in High Average Power (HAP) solid state lasers and the development of new concept lasers with the potential of ultra- high average power output have put increasing demands on the transparency of optical window materials. To gain a better understanding of the current status of window materials and to direct research toward more nearly transparent materials, we have constructed an optical characterization facility with the purpose of making quantitative optical loss measurements in the sensitivity range of 10/sup /minus/3/ to 10/sup /minus/6/ cm/sup /minus/1/. The cornerstone of this facility is a scanning optical lossmeter in which loss is determined by comparing the decay time of an optical cavity with and without a transparent solid present. The lossmeter has been successfully applied to measurements of the optical loss of witness samples of highly transparent fused silica. A description of the lossmeter and a compilation of preliminary loss measurements are presented here. 3 refs.

  7. On the Nature of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninnes, L. E.

    It is difficult to give a precise meaning to the term "concept" because to specify any sense to the term is already to be using concepts. It is impossible to talk about concepts without at the same time having made epistemological and metaphysical commitments. If the epistemological and metaphysical commitments are inadequate, then the…

  8. Can We Feel Physics Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…

  9. Can We Feel Physics Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…

  10. On the Nature of Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninnes, L. E.

    It is difficult to give a precise meaning to the term "concept" because to specify any sense to the term is already to be using concepts. It is impossible to talk about concepts without at the same time having made epistemological and metaphysical commitments. If the epistemological and metaphysical commitments are inadequate, then the…

  11. Optomechanically induced transparency associated with steady-state entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate a two-cavity optomechanical system in which a cavity (cavity a ) couples to a mechanical resonator via radiation pressure and to another cavity (cavity c ) via a common waveguide. In the excitation of a strong pump filed to cavity a , the steady-state entanglement between cavity a and c , as a quantum channel, can be generated, which provides an indirect optical pathway to excite cavity c by means of the pump filed. Quantum interference between the direct and indirect optical pathways gives rise to an optomechanically induced transparency appearing in the probe transmission of cavity c . Unlike in a typical optomechanically induced transparency effect, the electromagnetical control of the transmission is implemented by resorting to the quantum channel. Furthermore, the coupling strength of the two cavities is an important factor of the quantum channel, which can influence the width of the transparency window and the bistable behavior of the mean photon number in cavity a . We also illustrate that the electromagnetical control via quantum channel can be exploited to implement the optical switch and the slow light.

  12. The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2012-01-01

    Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

  13. Transparency of Vocational Qualifications: The Leonardo da Vinci Approach. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pettersson, Sten

    This report gives an overview of the situation of transparency of vocational qualifications by presenting measures introduced at the European Community level and by drawing attention to projects within the Leonardo da Vinci Program dealing with the issue. A 16-page executive summary appears first. Chapter 1 provides general background and aims.…

  14. Broadband Absorbing Exciton-Plasmon Metafluids with Narrow Transparency Windows.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jihua; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Wheeler, Lance M; Besteiro, Lucas V; Hogan, Christopher J; Govorov, Alexander O; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2016-02-10

    Optical metafluids that consist of colloidal solutions of plasmonic and/or excitonic nanomaterials may play important roles as functional working fluids or as means for producing solid metamaterial coatings. The concept of a metafluid employed here is based on the picture that a single ballistic photon, propagating through the metafluid, interacts with a large collection of specifically designed optically active nanocrystals. We demonstrate water-based metafluids that act as broadband electromagnetic absorbers in a spectral range of 200-3300 nm and feature a tunable narrow (∼100 nm) transparency window in the visible-to-near-infrared region. To define this transparency window, we employ plasmonic gold nanorods. We utilize excitonic boron-doped silicon nanocrystals as opaque optical absorbers ("optical wall") in the UV and blue-green range of the spectrum. Water itself acts as an opaque "wall" in the near-infrared to infrared. We explore the limits of the concept of a "simple" metafluid by computationally testing and validating the effective medium approach based on the Beer-Lambert law. According to our simulations and experiments, particle aggregation and the associated decay of the window effect are one example of the failure of the simple metafluid concept due to strong interparticle interactions.

  15. Thinkers and feelers: Emotion and giving.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Katie E

    2015-07-01

    Voluntary organizations, such as religious congregations, ask their members to contribute money as a part of membership and rely on these contributions for their survival. Yet often only a small cadre of members provides the majority of the contributions. Past research on congregational giving focuses on cognitive rational processes, generally neglecting the role of emotion. Extending Collins' (2004) interaction ritual theory, I predict that individuals who experience positive emotions during religious services will be more likely to give a higher proportion of their income to their congregation than those who do not. Moreover, I argue that this effect will be amplified in congregational contexts characterized by high aggregate levels of positive emotion, strictness, dense congregational networks, and expressive rituals. Using data from the 2001 U.S. Congregational Life Survey and multilevel modeling, I find support for several of these hypotheses. The findings suggest that both cognitive and emotional processes underlie congregational giving.

  16. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  17. A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredericks, John

    1998-10-01

    An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator. Beakers or flasks easily fit inside the bottle, and the bottle may be secured with a clamp and ring stand for added stability. This device has been used to collect the noxious NO2 gas generated from the reaction of copper metal with nitric acid. It also may be used in the collection of other gases. It should not be used to collect gases that are not water-soluble or in experiments that involve open flames.

  18. Coupled-Resonator-Induced Transparency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hong-Rok; Fuller, Kirk A.; Rosenberger, A. T.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that a cancellation of absorption occurs on resonance for two (or any even number of) coupled optical resonators, due to mode splitting and classical destructive interference, particularly when the resonator finesse is large and the loss in the resonator furthest from the excitation waveguide is small. The linewidth and group velocity of a collection of such coupled-resonator structures may be decreased by using larger resonators of equal size, using larger resonators of unequal size where the optical path length of the larger resonator is an integer multiple of that of the smaller one, or by using a larger number of resonators per structure. We explore the analogy between these effects and electromagnetically induced transparency in an atomic system.

  19. Solid state, transparent, cadmium sulfide-polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothurkar, Nikhil K.

    This dissertation deals with the preparation and characterization of solid state, transparent CdS-polymer nanocomposites for potential applications in optical limiting, lenses and photovoltaics. The focus of this research was controlling CdS aggregation to obtain 1 mm thick, films with a transmittance >85%. CdS-polysulfone nanocomposites gave transparent sols using thiol-capping agents however solid films obtained, were translucent to opaque. CdS-epoxy nanocomposites gave 1 mm thick films with >85% transmittance. Oligomeric polyoxypropylene diamine stabilizers were used to shield the inter particle forces and increase the viscosity of the medium to give air stable sols. Films were obtained by curing the CdS sols with an epoxy resin system. The band edge of the nanocomposites showed a shoulder corresponding to the absorption from the CdS particles. A majority of small amorphous and non-stoichiometric (richer in Cd) particles <5 nm were observed in TEM micrographs. Relatively fewer CdS aggregates in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers were also detected. Aggregates were generally more numerous in films as compared to sols. The two-photon absorption coefficient of the CdS particles in the films showed a 30-fold reduction compared to bulk CdS. This was attributed to the lack of crystallinity of particles. The films were stable up to 300°C. CdS aggregation in the CdS-epoxy system depends on a number of factors including temperature, stabilizer concentration, stabilizer molar mass and US concentration. Effective aggregation control yields transparent films. Factors affecting the band edge and transparency of the films were detected and regression models were fitted to the data. Temperature, stabilizer concentration and CdS concentration had significant effects on the band edge and transparency. Interactions between temperature-stabilizer concentration and temperature-CdS concentration had significant effects on the band edge. Band edge tunability with

  20. Physical impairment aware transparent optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antona, Jean-Christophe; Morea, Annalisa; Zami, Thierry; Leplingard, Florence

    2009-11-01

    As illustrated by optical fiber and optical amplification, optical telecommunications have appeared for the last ten years as one of the most promising candidates to increase the transmission capacities. More recently, the concept of optical transparency has been investigated and introduced: it consists of the optical routing of Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) channels without systematic optoelectronic processing at nodes, as long as propagation impairments remain acceptable [1]. This allows achieving less power-consuming, more scalable and flexible networks, and today partial optical transparency has become a reality in deployed systems. However, because of the evolution of traffic features, optical networks are facing new challenges such as demand for higher transmitted capacity, further upgradeability, and more automation. Making all these evolutions compliant on the same current network infrastructure with a minimum of upgrades is one of the main issues for equipment vendors and operators. Hence, an automatic and efficient management of the network needs a control plan aware of the expected Quality of Transmission (QoT) of the connections to set-up with respect to numerous parameters such as: the services demanded by the customers in terms of protection/restoration; the modulation rate and format of the connection under test and also of its adjacent WDM channels; the engineering rules of the network elements traversed with an accurate knowledge of the associated physical impairments. Whatever the method and/or the technology used to collect this information, the issue about its accuracy is one of the main concerns of the network system vendors, because an inaccurate knowledge could yield a sub-optimal dimensioning and so additional costs when installing the network in the field. Previous studies [1], [2] illustrated the impact of this knowledge accuracy on the ability to predict the connection feasibility. After describing usual methods to build

  1. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  2. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty.

  3. Giving a New Focus to Resource Management,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    systematic feedback loop--the key step necessary to evaluate the quality of our decisions and to improve the quality of our future decision making. It is...7 11D-i6l 846 GIVING A NEW FOCUS TO RESOURCE MRNRGEMENT(U) i/i COMPTROLLER O THE ARMY WASHINGTON DC D C PRETTOL i985 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/1 ULmh...FEhE N1. 11111_L.25 MIRCP EOUI TEST CHAR NAINL UEU fSANADL16- 1111 I I ’- I jw j~ 11111 %I Giving A New Focus To Resource Management by o LTC Donald C

  4. Low vowels and transparency in Kinande vowel harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gick, Bryan; Pulleyblank, Douglas; Mutaka, Ngessimo; Campbell, Fiona

    2005-04-01

    Transparency-in which a harmony effect passes over a segment without affecting it phonetically or phonologically-has been a controversial concept in previous literature on harmony systems. A typical case of so-called transparency involves cross-height vowel harmony in Kinande, a Bantu language (J.40). Previous accounts have analyzed low vowels in this system as being transparent to harmony [Schlindwein, NELS 17, 551-567 (1987)]. Further, some analysts have considered low vowels theoretically incapable of undergoing tongue root harmony. These claims were tested in a single-subject field study using ultrasound imaging to measure tongue root position in low vowels. Results indicate that (a) advanced versus retracted tongue root position (ATR) is a viable feature for describing the phonological distinction in the vowel system; (b) there is a phonetic difference between low vowels when adjacent to ATR triggering vowels; (c) this distinction in low vowels does not decrease with distance from trigger vowels, suggesting that these vowels are undergoing phonological harmony rather than phonetic assimilation; and finally, (d) the ATR distinction is phonetically categorical in high vowels, but shows crossover in mid and low vowels. Implications for phonological theory and phonetics-phonology interface will be discussed. [Work supported by NSERC and SSHRC.

  5. Transparency and Its Determinants at Colombian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez-Parra, Jesús Mauricio; López-Pérez, María Victoria; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, one of the demands upon public institutions, among which we find universities, has been for transparency and improvement of accountability. In this context, Colombian universities are introducing different methods of management and governance aimed at addressing the demands of society generally in relation to transparency and…

  6. Oboe Transparency Results - Oboes 1-9

    SciTech Connect

    Heinle, R A

    2002-10-15

    The motivation for the ''Transparency'' experiment is that DOE/DP would like to have data available to show to interested parties, such as the JASONs. The U1a subcritical experiments are consistent with U.S. policy on nuclear testing. This would be done in a spirit of ''Transparency'' if doubts should arise. Thus, the objective of the ''Transparency'' measurements on the Oboe series is to place an upper bound on the nuclear energy released in the subcritical experiments. Two separate experimental packages cover the transparency measurement issue thoroughly. These are: (1) Neutron Track-Etch Dosimetry. (2) Scintillator Fission Neutron/Gamma Rate Measurement. Because the containment barrier is only 1-inch steel, plus 6-inch shotcrete, it is quite transparent to fission neutrons and, thus, both experiments can be mounted outside the containment barrier and can be recovered post shot. An additional group of dosimeters was placed on the lid of the vessel for greater sensitivity.

  7. Tunable Broadband Printed Carbon Transparent Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Wan, Jiayu

    Transparent conductors have been widely applied in solar cells, transparent smart skins, and sensing/imaging antennas, etc. Carbon-based transparent conductor has attracted great attention for its low cost and broad range transparency. Ion intercalation has been known to highly dope graphitic materials, thereby tuning materials' optoelectronic properties. For the first time, we successfully tune the optical transmittance of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/CNT network from mid-IR range to visible range by means of Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. We also observed a simultaneous increase of the electrical conductivity with the Li-ion intercalation. This printed carbon hybrid thin film was prepared through all solution processes and was easily scalable. This study demonstrates the possibility of using ion intercalation for low cost, tunable broadband transparent conductors.

  8. Theoretical limits for visibly transparent photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, Richard R.

    2012-07-01

    Transparent photovoltaics (PVs) provide a potentially facile route to building-integrated PVs and seamless energy-harvesting within non-window surfaces such as electronic displays, autonomously powered electronic-glazings, and mobile-electronic accessories. Such devices have been enabled by manipulation of excitons in organic and molecular semiconductors that allow for selective ultraviolet and near-infrared solar conversion. Here, the theoretical efficiency limits of transparent photovoltaics are determined as a function of transparency. Power-production from ultraviolet and near-infrared photons alone leads to a theoretical single-junction efficiency of 21% in transparent structures, compared to 33% for opaque-junctions. Reducing thermal losses via transparent multi-junction stacking these limits increase to 37%.

  9. Community College Alumni: Predicting Who Gives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skari, Lisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Due to the decrease in public funding, community colleges are in a position where they need to generate private gifts. Alumni represent the largest untapped pool of prospective donors, and the success of alumni giving at 4-year institutions illustrates the potential that exists for community colleges. To develop effective fundraising strategies,…

  10. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  11. Giving and Receiving Constructive Criticism. Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leptak, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    These guidelines are adapted from Verderber and Verderber's "Inter-Act," a manual for interpersonal communication. The examples are from English composition classes, but the general principles are applicable in any situation involving criticism. Guidelines for giving constructive criticism include making the criticism relevant and…

  12. Hardwood Fence Posts Give Good Service

    Treesearch

    B. E. Carpenter; T. P. Bouler

    1962-01-01

    Very few tree species make naturally durable fence posts. Osage-orange, mulberry, black locust, cypress, and some species of cedar are known for the good service they give. But in no case are their names a guarantee. Only the heartwood of these species possesses adequate durability .

  13. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  14. How to give a heparin shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... the syringe with heparin: Wash your hands with soap and water, and dry them well. Check the ... Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Choose where to give the shot. Keep a chart of places you have used, so ...

  15. Corporation and Foundation Giving to Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, G. Jeremiah

    Designed to encourage and inform community college efforts to obtain financial support from corporations and foundations, this report assesses the current status of corporate and foundation giving to two-year colleges and identifies organizations that accept funding proposals from community colleges. After stressing the need to diversify financial…

  16. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  17. Community College Alumni: Predicting Who Gives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skari, Lisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Due to the decrease in public funding, community colleges are in a position where they need to generate private gifts. Alumni represent the largest untapped pool of prospective donors, and the success of alumni giving at 4-year institutions illustrates the potential that exists for community colleges. To develop effective fundraising strategies,…

  18. Mukai gives thumbs up on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-29

    STS095-E-5037 (10-29-98) --- Holding a notebook filled with Flight Day 1 activity, payload specialist Chiaki Mukai gives an "all okay" signal. The photograph was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 10:04:30 GMT, Oct. 29.

  19. Who gives pain relief to children?

    PubMed Central

    Spedding, R L; Harley, D; Dunn, F J; McKinney, L A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare pre-hospital parental administration of pain relief for children with that of the accident and emergency (A&E) department staff and to ascertain the reason why pre-hospital analgesia is not being given. DESIGN/METHODS: An anonymous prospective questionnaire was given to parents/guardians of children < 17 years. The children were all self referred with head injuries or limb problems including burns. The first part asked for details of pain relief before attendance in the A&E department. The second part of the questionnaire contained a section for the examining doctor and triage nurse to fill in. The duration of the survey was 28 days. RESULTS: Altogether 203 of 276 (74%) of children did not receive pain relief before attendance at the A&E department. Reasons for parents not giving pain relief included 57/203 (28%) who thought that giving painkillers would be harmful; 43/203 (21%) who did not give painkillers because the accident did not happen at home; and 15/203 (7%) who thought analgesia was the responsibility of the hospital. Eighty eight of the 276 (32%) did not have any painkillers, suitable for children, at home. A&E staff administered pain relief in 189/276 (68%). CONCLUSIONS: Parents often do not give their children pain relief before attending the A&E department. Parents think that giving painkillers may be harmful and often do not have simple analgesics at home. Some parents do not perceive that their child is in pain. Parents require education about appropriate pre-hospital pain relief for their children. PMID:10417932

  20. X-ray transparent Microfluidics for Protein Crystallization and Biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opathalage, Achini

    Protein crystallization demands the fundamental understanding of nucleation and applying techniques to find the optimal conditions to achieve the kinetic pathway for a large and defect free crystal. Classical nucleation theory predicts that the nucleation occurs at high supersaturation conditions. In this dissertation we sought out to develop techniques to attain optimal supersaturation profile to a large defect free crystal and subject it to in-situ X-ray diffraction using microfluidics. We have developed an emulsion-based serial crystallographic technology in nanolitre-sized droplets of protein solution encapsulated in to nucleate one crystal per drop. Diffraction data are measured, one crystal at a time, from a series of room temperature crystals stored on an X-ray semi-transparent microfluidic chip, and a 93% complete data set is obtained by merging single diffraction frames taken from different un-oriented crystals. As proof of concept, the structure of Glucose Isomerase was solved to 2.1 A. We have developed a suite of X-ray semi-transparent micrfluidic devices which enables; controlled evaporation as a method of increasing supersaturation and manipulating the phase space of proteins and small molecules. We exploited the inherently high water permeability of the thin X-ray semi-transparent devices as a mean of increasing the supersaturation by controlling the evaporation. We fabricated the X-ray semi-transparent version of the PhaseChip with a thin PDMS membrane by which the storage and the reservoir layers are separated, and studies the phase transition of amorphous CaCO3.

  1. A New Method for Determining the Optical Constants of Highly Transparent Solids.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingcan; Wang, Chengchao; Zhao, Junming; Liu, Linhua

    2017-01-01

    Highly transparent substrates are of interest for a variety of applications, but it is difficult to measure their optical constants precisely, especially the absorption index in the transparent spectral region. In this paper, a combination technique (DOPTM-EM) using both the double optical pathlength transmission method (DOPTM) and the ellipsometry method (EM) is presented to obtain the optical constants of highly transparent substrates, which overcomes the deficiencies of both the two methods. The EM cannot give accurate result of optical constants when the absorption index is very weak. The DOPTM is suitable to retrieve the weak absorption index; however, two sets of solutions exist for the retrieved refractive index and absorption index, and only one is the true value that needs to be identified. In the DOPTM-EM, the optical constants are measured first by using the EM and set as the initial value in the gradient-based inverse method used in the DOPTM, which ensures only the true optical constants are retrieved. The new method simultaneously obtains the refractive index and the absorption index of highly transparent substrate without relying on the Kramers-Kronig relation. The optical constants of three highly transparent substrates (polycrystalline BaF2, CaF2, and MgF2) were experimentally determined within wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared regions (0.2-14 µm). The presented method will facilitate the measurement of optical constants for highly transparent materials.

  2. Stereo transparency in ambiguous stereograms generated by overlapping two identical dot patterns.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2009-11-30

    In binocular vision, observers can perceive transparent surfaces by fusing a stereogram composed of two overlapping patterns with different disparities. When dot patterns of two surfaces are identical, the stereogram has potential matches leading to both transparency and non-transparency (or unitary surface) perceptions. However, these two matching candidates are exclusive if the uniqueness assumption holds. This stereogram can be regarded as a random-dot version of the double-nail illusion and a stereo version of the locally paired-dot stimulus that was used to investigate the neural mechanism for motion transparency. Which surface is perceived in this ambiguous stereogram would reflect the property of the transparency detection mechanism in human stereopsis. Here we perform a parametric study to examine the perceptual property in this ambiguous stereogram. The result showed that the ability in transparency detection from this stereogram is determined by the contrast reversal ratio between overlapping patterns within small regions the width of which was about 0.4 deg. The width was similar to the receptive field sizes of neurons in striate cortex. The result suggests that the contrast reversal between two identical patterns would modulate activities of binocular neurons, and this modification gives a crucial effect on the neural representation for overlapping disparities.

  3. Effect of Translucency on Transparency and Symbol Learning for Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept of iconicity, the iconicity hypothesis was emphasized for decades. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of translucency on transparency and symbol learning for children with and without cerebral palsy. Twenty children with cerebral palsy and forty typical peers participated in the study. Ten symbols with high…

  4. Effect of Translucency on Transparency and Symbol Learning for Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept of iconicity, the iconicity hypothesis was emphasized for decades. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of translucency on transparency and symbol learning for children with and without cerebral palsy. Twenty children with cerebral palsy and forty typical peers participated in the study. Ten symbols with high…

  5. Hovercraft Project Gives Learning a Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benini, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an activity for the author's Principles of Technology class in which students bring together the concepts of force, work, and rate, and show how they apply to mechanical, fluid, electrical, and thermal systems by building and flying a hovercraft. Building, testing, flying, and racing hovercrafts isn't something very many…

  6. Virtual Dreams Give Way to Digital Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGuardia, Cheryl

    1995-01-01

    Examines the shift from the vision of the virtual library to the digital library concept. Discusses attitudes toward electronic resources, CD-ROM technology, the appropriate use of electronic formats, differences in information needs, balance between print and electronic media in libraries, and collaborative resource development. A sidebar…

  7. Hovercraft Project Gives Learning a Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benini, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an activity for the author's Principles of Technology class in which students bring together the concepts of force, work, and rate, and show how they apply to mechanical, fluid, electrical, and thermal systems by building and flying a hovercraft. Building, testing, flying, and racing hovercrafts isn't something very many…

  8. Giving E-Commerce a Boost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A former Ames employee, Monte Zweben, founded a new company, Blue Martini Software, that provides software to companies seeking to personalize their products to individual customers. This customer targeting approach is accomplished through the use of artificial intelligence concepts Zweben worked on while at Ames. The Ames AI research has found applications in clickstream mining and purchasing behavior data collection.

  9. Giving feedback to learners in the practice.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, Robert; Maguire, Peter; Thoo, Siew Lee

    2004-09-01

    Many general practitioners accept vocational registrars and medical students into their practice. Giving feedback to students on their work performance is an essential component of teaching in general This article examines the central role of feedback in the teaching of medical students and registrars and provides practical guidelines on how to provide feedback in the setting of a busy general practice, describes some barriers and pitfalls, and provides a registrar's perspective on what learners see as important. For feedback to be effective, it must be given in a supportive environment. Feedback that is specific to the learner performance is highly valued by learners, whereas nonspecific evaluative feedback is less valued. The mentoring relationship between teacher and learner is crucial to giving effective feedback. Learners appreciate a teacher's help identifying any area for improvement, then being given the chance to work out the answers for themselves instead of being told exactly what to do by the more experienced teacher.

  10. Intelligent Agent Transparency in Human-Agent Teaming for Multi-UxV Management.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Joseph E; Rupp, Michael A; Chen, Jessie Y C; Barnes, Michael J; Barber, Daniel; Procci, Katelyn

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of level of agent transparency on operator performance, trust, and workload in a context of human-agent teaming for multirobot management. Participants played the role of a heterogeneous unmanned vehicle (UxV) operator and were instructed to complete various missions by giving orders to UxVs through a computer interface. An intelligent agent (IA) assisted the participant by recommending two plans-a top recommendation and a secondary recommendation-for every mission. A within-subjects design with three levels of agent transparency was employed in the present experiment. There were eight missions in each of three experimental blocks, grouped by level of transparency. During each experimental block, the IA was incorrect three out of eight times due to external information (e.g., commander's intent and intelligence). Operator performance, trust, workload, and usability data were collected. Results indicate that operator performance, trust, and perceived usability increased as a function of transparency level. Subjective and objective workload data indicate that participants' workload did not increase as a function of transparency. Furthermore, response time did not increase as a function of transparency. Unlike previous research, which showed that increased transparency resulted in increased performance and trust calibration at the cost of greater workload and longer response time, our results support the benefits of transparency for performance effectiveness without additional costs. The current results will facilitate the implementation of IAs in military settings and will provide useful data to the design of heterogeneous UxV teams. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  11. Giving ourselves: the ethics of anatomical donation.

    PubMed

    Gunderman, Richard B

    2008-01-01

    In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical appeals might anatomists, physicians, and other health professionals make to patients and family members for anatomical donation? Two models of giving, egoistic and liberal, merit close examination.

  12. In-vitro corneal transparency measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; da Costa Vieira, Marcelo A.; Isaac, Flavio; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    2001-06-01

    A system for measuring the average corneal transparency of preserved corneas has been developed in order to provide a more accurate and standard report of the corneal tissue. The donated cornea transparency is one of the features to be analyzed previously to its indication for the transplant. The small portable system consists of two main parts: the optical and the electronic parts. The optical system consists of a white light, lenses and pin-holes that collimate white light beams that illuminates the cornea in its preservative medium. The light that passes through the cornea is detected by a resistive detector and the average corneal transparency is shown in a display. In order to obtain just the tissue transparency, the electronic circuit was built in a way that there is a baseline input of the preservative medium, previous to the measurement of the corneal transparency. Manipulating the system consists of three steps: (1) Adjusting the zero percentage in the absence of light (at this time the detectors in the dark); (2) Placing the preservative medium in the system and adjusting the 100% value (this is the baseline input); (3) Preserving the cornea and placing it in the system. The system provides the tissue transparency. The system is connected to an endothelium evaluation system for Slit Lamp, that we have developed, and statistics about the relationship of the corneal transparency and density of the endothelial cells will be provided in the next years. The system is being used in a public Eye Bank in Brasil.

  13. Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Narendera

    This document, published in India by the Regional College of Education, deals with 13 subjects: the tough context (thinking), definitions of concept, functions of concept, the process of concept formation, discriminant learning, mediation process, second signalling system, factors affecting concept formation, studies in concept formation, the…

  14. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  15. Transparent insulation materials: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Platzer, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    After more than ten years of research and development on a new generation materials in the more restricted sense, namely honeycomb type and other geometric structures, granular and monolithic aerogel, a critical overview of existing materials is presented. During the last years considerable progress has been made, and still more is to be expected as well on the theoretical understanding of the physical properties as on the actual material development. On the other hand there still are problems when one looks at the application aspect, e.g. temperature stability, inflammability, optical appearance, irregularities of the structures, and production costs. The development objectives in the past have been either to physically optimize a material for an application, or to produce a lower-quality cheap material. An example of the first strategy is the recent development of glass capillary structures. The question here, of course, is, whether production, handling and transport can be made easy enough to meet the target of reasonable costs. It should be emphasized, that material costs are not the key issue, but system costs. A continuous and intensive collaboration between production engineer, system or design engineer, scientist and salesman is probably the only chance to meet the requirements of high quality products, adapted to the application, with reasonable costs. An engineer designing an application with transparent insulation materials without understanding the physics of the material type used may run the risk of deteriorating the performance severely.

  16. Demonstration of transparent solar array module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the design, development, fabrication and testing of IR transparent solar array modules. Three modules, consisting of a baseline design using back surface reflector cells, and two modules using gridded back contact, IR transparent cells, were subjected to vacuum thermal balance testing to verify analytical predictions of lower operating emperature and increased efficiency. As a result of this test program, LMSC has verified that a significant degree of IR transparency can be designed into a flexible solar array. Test data correlates with both steady state and transient thermal analysis.

  17. Metal nanowire-graphene composite transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankowski, Trent; Zhu, Zhaozhao; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Shikoh, Ali Sehpar; Touati, Farid; Benammar, Mohieddine; Mansuripur, Masud; Falco, Charlies M.

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanowires with 40 nm diameter and copper nanowires with 150 nm diameter were synthesized using low-temperature routes, and deposited in combination with ultrathin graphene sheets for use as transparent conductors. A systematic and detailed analysis involving nature of capping agent for the metal nanowires, annealing of deposited films, and pre-treatment of substrates revealed critical conditions necessary for preparing high performance transparent conducting electrodes. The best electrodes show ~90% optical transmissivity and sheet resistance of ~10 Ω/□, already comparable to the best available transparent electrodes. The metal nanowire-graphene composite electrodes are therefore well suited for fabrication of opto-electronic and electronic devices.

  18. Flexible and transparent graphene-based loudspeakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. C.; Man, B. Y.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chen, C. S.; Yang, C.; Liu, M.; Gao, X. G.; Sun, Z. C.; Zhang, C.

    2013-04-01

    Flexible and transparent graphene films have been fabricated via chemical vapor deposition method, and an extremely thin and lightweight loudspeaker was obtained by transferring the graphene films on both side of the polyvinylidene fluoride film. Once fed by sound frequency electric field, the graphene-based acoustic actuator could emit loud sounds in a wide frequency range. Such film loudspeakers are transparent, flexible, magnet-free and can be tailored into any shape and size, which have wide potential applications in fabricating new type of transparent and flexible devices.

  19. Transparent Analogs for Alloy Phase Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, James E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experiments to add information to data base supporting use of transparent, partially miscible liquids and solids as analogs in studies of alloy solidification. Behavior of these materials observed directly while they undergo liquid/liquid and liquid/solid phase transformations. Light-scattering techniques used to determine phase boundaries. Transparent analogs allow observation of both solidification patterns and processes leading to those patterns, whereas metal alloys require tedious post-solidification metallographic analyses because processes not generally observed. Experiments with transparent substances safer and cheaper since conducted at much lower temperatures.

  20. Transparent Analogs for Alloy Phase Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, James E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experiments to add information to data base supporting use of transparent, partially miscible liquids and solids as analogs in studies of alloy solidification. Behavior of these materials observed directly while they undergo liquid/liquid and liquid/solid phase transformations. Light-scattering techniques used to determine phase boundaries. Transparent analogs allow observation of both solidification patterns and processes leading to those patterns, whereas metal alloys require tedious post-solidification metallographic analyses because processes not generally observed. Experiments with transparent substances safer and cheaper since conducted at much lower temperatures.

  1. 3D-Printed Transparent Glass

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Du T.; Meyers, Cameron; Yee, Timothy D.; ...

    2017-04-28

    In this study, silica inks are developed, which may be 3D printed and thermally processed to produce optically transparent glass structures with sub-millimeter features in forms ranging from scaffolds to monoliths. The inks are composed of silica powder suspended in a liquid and are printed using direct ink writing. The printed structures are then dried and sintered at temperatures well below the silica melting point to form amorphous, solid, transparent glass structures. This technique enables the mold-free formation of transparent glass structures previously inaccessible using conventional glass fabrication processes.

  2. Role-modeling and conversations about giving in the socialization of adolescent charitable giving and volunteering.

    PubMed

    Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering.

  3. Dawn Blue Glow Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-02

    This artist concept shows NASA Dawn spacecraft arriving at the dwarf planet Ceres. Dawn travels through space using a technology called ion propulsion, with ions glowing with blue light are accelerated out of an engine, giving the spacecraft thrust.

  4. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  5. Concept of Operations: Essence

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, William J.

    2014-04-01

    This concept of operations is designed to give the reader a brief overview of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association’s Essence project and a description of the Essence device design. The data collected by the device, how the data are used, and how the data are protected are also discussed in this document.

  6. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  7. CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASER, ROBERT

    REVIEWED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS THEY RELATE TO CONCEPT TEACHING. AN ANALYSIS IS MADE OF THE NATURE OF CONCEPT LEARNING AS IT IS STUDIED IN THE PSYCHOLOGIST'S LABORATORY, INCLUDING THE NATURE OF CONCEPT TASKS AS THEY APPEAR IN SUBJECT MATTER LEARNING. THE PRIMARY KINDS OF CONCEPT LEARNING SITUATIONS, INCLUDING THE…

  8. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses.

  9. Transparency Film for Demonstration of Biaxial Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Explains why transparency film demonstrates biaxial optical properties. Provides detailed descriptions of the procedure and equipment needed for large-scale optics demonstrations of the polarization interference pattern produced by biaxial crystals. (DDR)

  10. Coloured Rings Produced on Transparent Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhr, Wilfried; Schlichting, H. Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful colored interference rings can be produced by using transparent plates such as window glass. A simple model explains this effect, which was described by Newton but has almost been forgotten. (Contains 11 figures.)

  11. Transparent Soil for Imaging the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Downie, Helen; Holden, Nicola; Otten, Wilfred; Spiers, Andrew J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of soil processes is essential for addressing the global issues of food security, disease transmission and climate change. However, techniques for observing soil biology are lacking. We present a heterogeneous, porous, transparent substrate for in situ 3D imaging of living plants and root-associated microorganisms using particles of the transparent polymer, Nafion, and a solution with matching optical properties. Minerals and fluorescent dyes were adsorbed onto the Nafion particles for nutrient supply and imaging of pore size and geometry. Plant growth in transparent soil was similar to that in soil. We imaged colonization of lettuce roots by the human bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 showing micro-colony development. Micro-colonies may contribute to bacterial survival in soil. Transparent soil has applications in root biology, crop genetics and soil microbiology. PMID:22984484

  12. Transparent graphene microstrip filters for wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinchen; Guan, Yifei; Yu, Hua; Li, Na; Wang, Shuopei; Shen, Cheng; Dai, Zhijiang; Gan, Decheng; Yang, Rong; He, Songbai; Zhang, Guangyu

    2017-08-01

    A microstrip is an indispensable component for wireless communication circuits. With the development of 5G technology, optically transparent microstrip filters urgently need to be developed. In this work, we have theoretically and experimentally demonstrated the immense potential of graphene microstrips for transparent wireless communication circuits in the 5G era. Both wideband and dual-band transparent graphene microstrip filters have shown more than 80% optical transmissivity in the region from 250 nm to 2000 nm with good frequency responses. S and C band microwave signals can transmit along the graphene microstrip lines effectively while coupling excitations produce relatively large insertion losses. Our results show that transparent microstrips designed with high-quality graphene will largely scale down the size of the wireless devices and thus play an irreplaceable role in the 5G era.

  13. Coloured Rings Produced on Transparent Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhr, Wilfried; Schlichting, H. Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful colored interference rings can be produced by using transparent plates such as window glass. A simple model explains this effect, which was described by Newton but has almost been forgotten. (Contains 11 figures.)

  14. Induced Transparency and Absorption in Coupled Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok

    2004-01-01

    We review the conditions for the occurrence of coherence phenomena in passive coupled optical microresonators. We derive the effective steady-state response and determine conditions for induced transparency and absorption in these systems.

  15. Induced Transparency and Absorption in Coupled Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok

    2004-01-01

    We review the conditions for the occurrence of coherence phenomena in passive coupled optical microresonators. We derive the effective steady-state response and determine conditions for induced transparency and absorption in these systems.

  16. Motion-Driven Transparency and Opacity

    PubMed Central

    Anstis, Stuart; Ho, Alan

    2016-01-01

    When two adjacent surfaces move in step, this can generate a sensation of transparency, even in the absence of intersections. Stopping the motion of one surface makes it look suddenly opaque. PMID:27698992

  17. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public Law 109-282, the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 as amended (FFATA), requires disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds through a single publicly accessible website.

  18. NDE of transparent protective panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Dan; Margetan, Frank J.; Chiou, C.-P.; Herman, Aaron; Pavel, Brittney; Chakrapani, Sunil K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss nondestructive testing of five varieties of transparent armor panels fabricated from layers of glass, polymer and adhesive. The emphasis is on characterizing fabrication anomalies, such as lack of uniform layer thickness, rather than on damage detection. We report measurements of sound speed and attenuation on single-layer specimens of the polymer and the two types of glass used in the panels. We then discuss the results of various nondestructive studies of the panels, beginning with 225 KHz air-coupled ultrasonic testing (ACUT) and 5-MHz ultrasonic immersion testing. For all panels ultrasonic through-transmission C-scans reveal interesting patterns of signal amplitude and time-of-flight variations. These are traced to lateral changes in adhesive thickness within the panels. For one panel, adhesive sound speed, attenuation and density are deduced by analyzing UT immersion pulse/echo and pitch/catch data. Adhesive thickness variations manifest themselves differently in the two types of ultrasonic inspections. At the immersion inspection frequency adhesive attenuation dominates, so regions with thicker adhesive always have the smallest through-transmitted response. At ACUT frequencies reverberation echoes within the adhesive layer superimpose with echoes from other sound paths, and an increase in adhesive thickness can result in either an increase or decrease in through-transmitted amplitude. A simple model to account for such signal superposition is developed and found to be in qualitative agreement with the results of the ACUT inspections. The adhesive thickness variations cause the surfaces within the panel to be non-planar, leading to stresses on the various layers. We demonstrate the use of Terahertz-ray (T-ray) electromagnetic inspection to map the surface undulations of the thin glass outer layer in one of the panels. Bending stresses are estimated from the undulations and, at some locations, found to be at or near the levels that

  19. Absorption Transparencies for Efficient Nonlinear Optical Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Kenneth Kang-Hee

    The work presented in this thesis describes methods by which nonlinear optical generation of radiation can be enhanced with the use of absorption transparencies. Two experiments are discussed: (i) the use of a naturally occurring absorption transparency in zinc vapor for efficient generation of 104.8 nm radiation, and (ii) the creation of an induced transparency on a collisionally broadened resonance transition of lead, with which large enhancements in nonlinear optical processes may be possible. In both cases, the linear susceptibility is cancelled by a quantum interference. Since the nonlinear susceptibility does not cancel, large enhancements in nonlinear generation efficiency are possible. There is a naturally existing transparency in zinc, where two broad autoionizing levels are separated within a decay width. Because they decay predominantly to the same final continuum state, there is a sharp cancellation in both the absorption and the refractive index from the ground state. A correct choice of intermediate levels for the sum-frequency mixing process prevents a similar cancellation in the nonlinear susceptibility. We were able to generate 0.25 muJ per pulse of 104.8 nm radiation at 10 Hz using UV pump lasers with energies of about a mJ and pulse lengths of 5 ns. Unfortunately, such naturally existing transparencies are rare. However, electromagnetically induced transparencies can be created in a general manner and present the possibility of doing enhanced nonlinear optics in many systems. Especially of interest is the creation of induced transparencies on a resonance line at high densities, as such a transparency would be most useful for nonlinear optical applications. The effects of collisions need to be carefully considered, since collisional broadening is larger than lifetime broadening in such transitions. We create an induced transparency in the presence of collisions by using a strong field to couple the resonantly broadened state of lead to another

  20. On the Quality of Collective Decisions in Sociotechnical Systems: Transparency, Fairness, and Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porello, Daniele

    The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for evaluating the quality of collective decisions in sociotechnical systems (STS). We propose using a foundational ontology for conceptualizing the complex hierarchy of information involved in decisions in STS (e.g., normative, conceptual, factual, perceptual). Moreover, we introduce the concept of transparency of decisions as a necessary condition in order to assess the quality of decision-making in STS. We further view transparency as an entitlement of the agent affected by the decision: i.e., the collective decision should be justified.

  1. Vector cavity optomechanics in the parameter configuration of optomechanically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hao; Huang, Ya-Min; Wan, Liang-Liang; Wu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    We propose the concept of vector cavity optomechanics in which the polarization behavior of light fields is introduced to achieve optomechanical control. The steady states and optomechanically induced transparency are studied in the vector regime, and we show that the polarization of optical fields may be a powerful tool to identify the underlying physical process and control the signal of optomechanically induced transparency. In particular, the conditions for obtaining a linearly polarized output probe field is given, which reveal some nontrivial polarizing effects. Despite its conceptual simplicity, vector cavity optomechanics may entail a wide range of intriguing phenomena and uncover a novel understanding for optomechanical interaction.

  2. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  3. Transparent antennas for solar cell integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Tursunjan

    Transparent patch antennas are microstrip patch antennas that have a certain level of optical transparency. Highly transparent patch antennas are potentially suitable for integration with solar panels of small satellites, which are becoming increasingly important in space exploration. Traditional patch antennas employed on small satellites compete with solar cells for surface area. However, a transparent patch antenna can be placed directly on top of solar cells and resolve the issue of competing for limited surface real estate. For such an integration, a high optical transparency of the patch antenna is required from the solar cells' point of view. On the other hand, the antenna should possess at least acceptable radiation properties at the same time. This dissertation focuses on some of the most important concerns from the perspective of small satellite applications. For example, an optimization method to simultaneously improve both optical transparency and radiation efficiency of the antenna is studied. Active integrated antenna design method is extended to meshed patch applications in an attempt to improve the overall power efficiency of the front end communication subsystem. As is well known, circular polarization is immune from Faraday rotation effect in the ionosphere and thus can avoid a 3-dB loss in geo-satellite communication. Therefore, this research also aims to present design methods for circularly polarized meshed patch antennas. Moreover, a meshed patch antenna capable of supporting a high communication data rate is investigated. Lastly, other types of transparent patch antennas are also analyzed and compared to meshed patches. In summary, many properties of transparent patch antennas are examined in order to meet different design requirements.

  4. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  5. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Duenow, Joel N.; Barnes, Teresa; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  6. Hybrid Laser Processing of Transparent Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Hiroyuki

    The following chapter is an overview of processing fused silica and other transparent materials by pulsed-laser irradiation: (1) Direct excitation of materials with multi-wavelength excitation processes, and (2) Media-assisted process with a conventional pulsed laser. A method to etch transparent materials by using laserinduced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA), or laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE), has been described in detail.

  7. Transparency and oversight in local wellness policies.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-02-01

    Advocates have called for increased wellness policy transparency and oversight through the use of health advisory councils. This study examines (1) wellness policy transparency, (2) advisory council requirements, (3) factors associated with each, and (4) whether transparency or advisory council requirements are indicative of a stronger policy addressing nutrition and physical activity. Policies for school year 2007-2008 were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 641 districts and analyzed for their applicability to elementary, middle, and high school levels. Main outcome measures included (1) policy transparency (online availability), (2) advisory council requirements, and (3) overall policy strength. T-tests assessed variability in policy strength by transparency and advisory council requirements. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses controlled for district size, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, region, and locale; models of advisory council/policy strength relationships also controlled for state advisory council requirements. More than 41% of districts posted wellness policies online and more than 43% required advisory councils. Transparency was less likely in small-/medium-sized and non-southern districts; and, for elementary school policies, most common in majority Hispanic districts. Advisory council requirements were less likely in small-/medium-sized districts for middle/high school policies and more likely in majority Hispanic districts for elementary school policies. After adjusting for all covariates, transparency was not associated with policy strength, but advisory council requirements significantly predicted policy strength. Transparency may facilitate awareness, but it does not mean that wellness policies will be stronger; however, advisory council requirements may be a marker for stronger policies. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  8. Helping Students to Give Good Talks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, Robert B.

    1998-03-01

    Some people give better talks than others do. Some are naturals at it, while others are not. Or, so it seems. But, one can learn to do better. For example, graduate students can be helped to improve their presentations. The experience of giving talks is an important part of a student's preparation since talks will likely be an essential part of each student's future career. This talk will mention some of the essential ingredients of a good talk, and focus on the techniques which can be used to help students to improve their presentations. The creation of a good talk has analogy to the creation of a clear paper; revision of drafts is very important. Rehearsal of the talk before a collection of colleagues is helpful. The role of a critical, but supportive, ``practice listener" is emphasized, a listener who will offer a detailed critique on each segment of the draft talk, viewgraph by viewgraph. An experienced senior colleague, e.g. the thesis advisor, can be that person, if the senior colleague clearly recognizes the ingredients of a good talk. Advice for the student and for the ``practice listener" will be offered.

  9. Transparency benchmarking on audio watermarks and steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana; Lang, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The evaluation of transparency plays an important role in the context of watermarking and steganography algorithms. This paper introduces a general definition of the term transparency in the context of steganography, digital watermarking and attack based evaluation of digital watermarking algorithms. For this purpose the term transparency is first considered individually for each of the three application fields (steganography, digital watermarking and watermarking algorithm evaluation). From the three results a general definition for the overall context is derived in a second step. The relevance and applicability of the definition given is evaluated in practise using existing audio watermarking and steganography algorithms (which work in time, frequency and wavelet domain) as well as an attack based evaluation suite for audio watermarking benchmarking - StirMark for Audio (SMBA). For this purpose selected attacks from the SMBA suite are modified by adding transparency enhancing measures using a psychoacoustic model. The transparency and robustness of the evaluated audio watermarking algorithms by using the original and modifid attacks are compared. The results of this paper show hat transparency benchmarking will lead to new information regarding the algorithms under observation and their usage. This information can result in concrete recommendations for modification, like the ones resulting from the tests performed here.

  10. Lutetium oxide-based transparent ceramic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Seeley, Zachary; Cherepy, Nerine; Kuntz, Joshua; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-19

    In one embodiment, a transparent ceramic of sintered nanoparticles includes gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with europium having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YEu.sub.YO.sub.3, where X is any value within a range from about 0.05 to about 0.45 and Y is any value within a range from about 0.01 to about 0.2, and where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm. In another embodiment, a transparent ceramic scintillator of sintered nanoparticles, includes a body of sintered nanoparticles including gadolinium lutetium oxide doped with a rare earth activator (RE) having a chemical composition (Lu.sub.1-xGd.sub.x).sub.2-YRE.sub.YO.sub.3, where RE is selected from the group consisting of: Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy, where the transparent ceramic exhibits a transparency characterized by a scatter coefficient of less than about 10%/cm.

  11. Broadband Tunable Transparency in rf SQUID Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Jung, Philipp; Butz, Susanne; Ustinov, Alexey; Anlage, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a metamaterial with broadband tunable transparency in microwave electromagnetic fields. This metamaterial is made of Radio Frequency Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (rf SQUIDs). We show both experimentally and theoretically that the resonance of this metamaterial totally disappears when illuminated with electromagnetic waves of certain power ranges, so that waves can propagate through the metamaterial with little dissipation in a wide frequency spectrum. Unlike traditional electromagnetically induced transparency, high transmission through this metamaterial is due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of the rf SQUID. Transparency occurs when the metamaterial enters its bistability regime. We can control the metamaterial to be transparent or opaque by switching between the two states depending on the initial conditions and signal scanning directions. We also show that the degree of transparency can be tuned by temperature, power of the incident wave, and dc magnetic field and discuss analytical and numerical models that reveal how to systematically control the transparency regime. The metamaterial has potential application in fast tunable digital filter, power limiter and auto-cloaking. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  12. Transparency in Canadian public drug advisory committees.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Transparency in health care resource allocation decisions is a criterion of a fair process. We used qualitative methods to explore transparency across 11 Canadian drug advisory committees. We developed seven criteria to assess transparency (disclosure of members' names, disclosure of membership selection criteria, disclosure of conflict of interest guidelines and members' conflicts, public posting of decisions not to fund drugs, public posting of rationales for decisions, stakeholder input, and presence of an appeals mechanism) and two sub-criteria for when rationales were posted (direct website link and readability). We interviewed a purposeful sample of key informants who were conversant in English and a current or past member of either a committee or a stakeholder group. We analyzed data using a thematic approach. Interviewing continued until saturation was reached. We examined documents from 10 committees and conducted 27 interviews. The median number of criteria addressed by committees was 2 (range 0-6). Major interview themes included addressing: (1) accessibility issues, including stakeholders' degree of access to the decision making process and appeal mechanisms; (2) communication issues, including improving internal and external communication and public access to information; and (3) confidentiality issues, including the use of proprietary evidence. Most committees have some mechanisms to address transparency but none had a fully transparent process. The most important ways to improve transparency include creating formal appeal mechanisms, improving communication, and establishing consistent rules about the use of, and public access to, proprietary evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Massachusetts law gives hospitals energy incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, L.

    1982-08-30

    A new law allowing hospitals to retain the difference between pre-paid insurer's rates over actual costs reverses a cost-cutting disincentive into a financial incentive for the Massachusetts General Hospital and the American Hospital Association. If hospital costs exceed the insurer's preset reimbursements, however, hospitals must make up the difference. The new law creates incentives for energy management and could serve as a model for other states if it proves effective. The federal government may apply the concept to the Medicare-Medicaid reimbursement formula. (DCK)

  14. Transparent, metallo-dielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M. J.; Pethel, A. S.; Dowling, J. P.; Bowden, C. M.; Manka, A. S.

    1998-03-01

    We investigate numerically the properties of metallo-dielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures. Our theory predicts that interference effects give rise to a new transparent metallic structure that permits the transmission of light over a tunable range of frequencies, for example, the ultraviolet, the visible, or the infrared wavelength range. The structure can be designed to block ultraviolet light, transmit in the visible range, and reflect all other electromagnetic waves of lower frequencies, from infrared to microwaves and beyond. The transparent metallic structure is composed of a stack of alternating layers of a metal and a dielectric material, such that the complex index of refraction alternates between a high and a low value. The structure remains transparent even if the total amount of metal is increased to hundreds of skin depths in net thickness.

  15. Oxide/ metal/oxide nanolaminate structures for application of transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikov, Hr; Ivanova, T.; Vitanov, P.

    2016-10-01

    Transparent and conductive oxide/ metal/ oxide nanolaminate structures were deposited on glass and polymer substrate by RF magnetron sputtering without substrate heating. The Ag nanoparticles with different size and distance between neighboring particles were located on the interface of two thin oxide layers. This sputtering configuration allows obtaining thin films with homogeneous thickness. The three targets give the opportunity to deposit successively three different layers without opening the chamber. The developed process for transparent conducting coating is a low temperature and it is suitable for application on organic materials as substrate and foils. The experiment with different substrates manifest that the optical transparency of the conducting coating depends on substrate material. The obtained results have demonstrated that the nanolaminate structures oxide/metal/oxide (OMO) as TCO coating are especially suitable for applications in flexible electronics and optoelectronics

  16. NFS gives Career Awards to Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Five geophysicists are among 38 women who received a total of $1.64 million in Career Advancement Awards in November from the National Science Foundation through its Research Opportunities for Women (ROW) initiative. Individual awards are as large as $60,000 and give recipients opportunities to work with other investigators and develop new lines of research.Patricia M. Costanzo of the State University of New York (SUNY), Buffalo, is studying dehydrated kaolinites. At the University of Alaska's Institute of Geophysics, Joan P. Gosink is applying remote sensing to snow, ice and permafrost research. Mary Kraus of the University of Colorado, Boulder, is combining field studies and remote sensing to work out the depositional history of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming. The research of Cecile Penland of the University of California, Los Angeles, is on variability in northern hemisphere geopotential heights. Judith B. Weinstein-Lloyd of SUNY College at Old Westbury is studying the chemistry of hydrogen peroxide in cloudwater.

  17. Do Market Incentives Crowd Out Charitable Giving?

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O.

    2013-01-01

    Donations and volunteerism can be conceived as market transactions with a zero explicit price. However, evidence suggests people may not view zero as just another price when it comes to pro-social behavior. Thus, while markets might be expected to increase the supply of assets available to those in need, some worry such financial incentives will crowd out altruistic giving. This paper reports laboratory experiments directly investigating the degree to which market incentives crowd out large, discrete charitable donations in a setting related to deceased organ donation. The results suggest markets increase the supply of assets available to those in need. However, as some critics fear, market incentives disproportionately influence the relatively poor. PMID:24348002

  18. Design Concepts. Teacher Edition. Marketing Education LAPs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Jana

    This learning activity packet is designed to help prepare students to acquire a competency: how to use design concepts in preparation for a career in the fashion industry. The unit consists of the competency, four objectives, suggested learning activities, transparency masters, and a pretest/posttest with answer keys. Activities include a…

  19. Environmental Education and Pupils' Conceptions of Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellden, Gustav

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a seven-year longitudinal study of pupils' (n=25) understanding of ecological processes with emphasis on how their conceptions of matter influence their understanding. Results indicate that initially students expected the plants cultivated in closed transparent boxes to die but later used a "cycle model" to explain how the…

  20. Stereo transparency and the disparity gradient limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKee, Suzanne P.; Verghese, Preeti

    2002-01-01

    Several studies (Vision Research 15 (1975) 583; Perception 9 (1980) 671) have shown that binocular fusion is limited by the disparity gradient (disparity/distance) separating image points, rather than by their absolute disparity values. Points separated by a gradient >1 appear diplopic. These results are sometimes interpreted as a constraint on human stereo matching, rather than a constraint on fusion. Here we have used psychophysical measurements on stereo transparency to show that human stereo matching is not constrained by a gradient of 1. We created transparent surfaces composed of many pairs of dots, in which each member of a pair was assigned a disparity equal and opposite to the disparity of the other member. For example, each pair could be composed of one dot with a crossed disparity of 6' and the other with uncrossed disparity of 6', vertically separated by a parametrically varied distance. When the vertical separation between the paired dots was small, the disparity gradient for each pair was very steep. Nevertheless, these opponent-disparity dot pairs produced a striking appearance of two transparent surfaces for disparity gradients ranging between 0.5 and 3. The apparent depth separating the two transparent planes was correctly matched to an equivalent disparity defined by two opaque surfaces. A test target presented between the two transparent planes was easily detected, indicating robust segregation of the disparities associated with the paired dots into two transparent surfaces with few mismatches in the target plane. Our simulations using the Tsai-Victor model show that the response profiles produced by scaled disparity-energy mechanisms can account for many of our results on the transparency generated by steep gradients.

  1. Stereo transparency and the disparity gradient limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKee, Suzanne P.; Verghese, Preeti

    2002-01-01

    Several studies (Vision Research 15 (1975) 583; Perception 9 (1980) 671) have shown that binocular fusion is limited by the disparity gradient (disparity/distance) separating image points, rather than by their absolute disparity values. Points separated by a gradient >1 appear diplopic. These results are sometimes interpreted as a constraint on human stereo matching, rather than a constraint on fusion. Here we have used psychophysical measurements on stereo transparency to show that human stereo matching is not constrained by a gradient of 1. We created transparent surfaces composed of many pairs of dots, in which each member of a pair was assigned a disparity equal and opposite to the disparity of the other member. For example, each pair could be composed of one dot with a crossed disparity of 6' and the other with uncrossed disparity of 6', vertically separated by a parametrically varied distance. When the vertical separation between the paired dots was small, the disparity gradient for each pair was very steep. Nevertheless, these opponent-disparity dot pairs produced a striking appearance of two transparent surfaces for disparity gradients ranging between 0.5 and 3. The apparent depth separating the two transparent planes was correctly matched to an equivalent disparity defined by two opaque surfaces. A test target presented between the two transparent planes was easily detected, indicating robust segregation of the disparities associated with the paired dots into two transparent surfaces with few mismatches in the target plane. Our simulations using the Tsai-Victor model show that the response profiles produced by scaled disparity-energy mechanisms can account for many of our results on the transparency generated by steep gradients.

  2. Visualisation Ability of Senior High School Students with Using GeoGebra and Transparent Mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thohirudin, M.; Maryati, TK; Dwirahayu, G.

    2017-04-01

    Visualisation ability is an ability to process, inform, and transform object which suitable for geometry topic in math. This research aims to describe the influence of using software GeoGebra and transparent mica for student’s visualisation ability. GeoGebra is shortness of geometry and algebra. GeoGebra is an open source program that is created for math. Transparent mica is a tool that is created by the author to transform a geometry object. This research is a quantitative experiment model. The subject of this research were students in grade XII of science program in Annajah Senior High School Rumpin with two classes which one as an experiment class (science one) and another one as a control class (science two). Experiment class use GeoGebra and transparent mica in the study, and control class use powerpoint in the study. Data of student’s visualisation ability is collected from posttest with visual questions which are gifted at the end of the research to both classes with topic “transformation geometry”. This research resulted that studying with GeoGebra and transparent mica had a better influence than studying with powerpoint to student’s visualisation ability. The time of study in class and the habit of the students to use software and tool affected the result of research. Although, GeoGebra and transparent mica can give help to students in transformation geometry topic.

  3. Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, R. A.; Zhu, H.; Preston, Colin; LeMieux, M.; Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Hu, L. Salamanca-Riba, L. G.; Mansour, A.; Zavalij, P. Y.; Rabin, O.

    2015-05-11

    Researchers seeking to enhance the properties of metals have long pursued incorporating carbon in the metallic host lattice in order to combine the strongly bonded electrons in the metal lattice that yield high ampacity and the free electrons available in carbon nanostructures that give rise to high conductivity. The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of carbon incorporated in concentrations up to 5 wt. % (∼22 at. %) into the crystal structure of copper. Carbon nanoparticles of 5 nm–200 nm in diameter in an interconnecting carbon matrix are formed within the bulk Cu samples. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the C-Cu binary phase diagram. This material, so-called, Cu covetic, makes deposition of Cu films containing carbon with similar microstructure to the metal possible. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors.

  4. Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, R. A.; Zhu, H.; Preston, Colin; Mansour, A.; LeMieux, M.; Zavalij, P. Y.; Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Rabin, O.; Hu, L.; Salamanca-Riba, L. G.

    2015-05-01

    Researchers seeking to enhance the properties of metals have long pursued incorporating carbon in the metallic host lattice in order to combine the strongly bonded electrons in the metal lattice that yield high ampacity and the free electrons available in carbon nanostructures that give rise to high conductivity. The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of carbon incorporated in concentrations up to 5 wt. % (˜22 at. %) into the crystal structure of copper. Carbon nanoparticles of 5 nm-200 nm in diameter in an interconnecting carbon matrix are formed within the bulk Cu samples. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the C-Cu binary phase diagram. This material, so-called, Cu covetic, makes deposition of Cu films containing carbon with similar microstructure to the metal possible. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors.

  5. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  6. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  7. Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilper, Dan; Jensen, Rich; Petermann, Klaus; Karasek, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    Guest Feature Editors

    Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors

    Submission deadline: 15 June 2007
    Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications. More than a decade of research and development on transparent network technologies together with the requisite traffic growth has culminated in the recent deployment of commercial optically transparent systems. Although many of the traditional research goals of optical transmission remain important, optical transparency introduces new challenges. Greater emphasis is placed on system efficiency and control. The goal of minimizing signal terminations, which has been pursued through increasing reach and channel capacity, also can be realized through wavelength routing techniques. Rather than bounding system operation by rigid engineering rules, the physical layer is controlled and managed by automation tools. Many static signal impairments become dynamic due to network reconfiguration and transient fault events. Recently new directions in transmission research have emerged to address transparent networking problems. This special issue of the Journal of Optical Networking will examine the technologies and theory underpinning transmission in optically transparent core networks, including both metropolitan and long haul systems.

    Scope of Submission

    The special issue editors are soliciting high-quality original research papers related to transmission in optically transparent core networks. Although this does not include edge networks such as access or enterprise networks, core networks that have access capabilities will be considered in scope as will topics

  8. A Columbine study: giving voice, hearing meaning.

    PubMed

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2008-01-01

    On a quiet spring morning, the 20th of April 1999, Columbine High School emerged from relative anonymity as a typical suburban high school and became internationally recognized as a symbol of school violence and tragic loss. As a parent whose child was in the school at the time of the attack, I struggled to make sense of the tragedy. I decided to conduct research into the experience as a way to learn lessons that might help others exposed to community-wide trauma in the future. Through modified oral history interviews of other Columbine parents in combination with other qualitative research strategies, I collected and studied stories of the events of that day and the years following. An unexpected by-product emerged from the study, for it seemed that I was not only learning about crisis response and trauma care but also offering a means for parents to gain comfort in reflecting on their own experience. This paper describes the distinct approach that I employed to create a gateway to understanding this experience. It does not explicate the findings of the Columbine study but instead explores the potential for positive outcomes for those who, by giving voice to their stories, can connect to a deeper appreciation for their own experience.

  9. Bangladesh: giving girls the "key of keys".

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.

  10. Cultivating gratitude and giving through experiential consumption.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jesse; Kumar, Amit; Gilovich, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Gratitude promotes well-being and prompts prosocial behavior. Here, we examine a novel way to cultivate this beneficial emotion. We demonstrate that 2 different types of consumption-material consumption (buying for the sake of having) and experiential consumption (buying for the sake of doing)-differentially foster gratitude and giving. In 6 studies we show that reflecting on experiential purchases (e.g., travel, meals out, tickets to events) inspires more gratitude than reflecting on material purchases (e.g., clothing, jewelry, furniture), and that thinking about experiences leads to more subsequent altruistic behavior than thinking about possessions. In Studies 1-2b, we use within-subject and between-subjects designs to test our main hypothesis: that people are more grateful for what they've done than what they have. Study 3 finds evidence for this effect in the real-world setting of online customer reviews: Consumers are more likely to spontaneously mention feeling grateful for experiences they have bought than for material goods they have bought. In our final 2 studies, we show that experiential consumption also makes people more likely to be generous to others. Participants who contemplated a significant experiential purchase behaved more generously toward anonymous others in an economic game than those who contemplated a significant material purchase. It thus appears that shifting spending toward experiential consumption can improve people's everyday lives as well as the lives of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Still Giving Thanks for Good Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Still Giving Thanks for Good Health (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this full-circle panorama of the region near 'Husband Hill' (the peak just to the left of center) over the Thanksgiving holiday, before ascending farther. Both the Spirit and Opportunity rovers are still going strong, more than a year after landing on Mars.

    This 360-degree view combines 243 images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera over several martian days, or sols, from sol 318 (Nov. 24, 2004) to sol 325 (Dec. 2, 2004). It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from images taken through the camera's 750-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. The view is presented here in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit is now driving up the slope of Husband Hill along a path about one-quarter of the way from the left side of this mosaic.

  12. Promoting Improved Ballistic Resistance of Transparent Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Patel, P; Templeton, D W

    2011-01-01

    Transparent armor is a material or system of materials designed to be optically transparent, yet protect from fragmentation or ballistic impacts. Although engineered to defeat specific threats, or a range of threats, there are general requirements common to all of these designs. The primary requirement for a transparent armor system is to not only defeat the designated threat but also provide a multi-hit capability with minimized distortion of surrounding areas. Ground platforms have several parameters that must be optimized, such as weight, space efficiency, and cost versus performance. Glass exhibits tensile failure stress that is very much dependent on the amount of material being stressed, the side being tensile-stressed (i.e., air-versus tin-side if a float glass), and where it is being tensile stressed (i.e., in the middle or near an edge). An axiom arising from those effects is a greater amount of allowable deflection (i.e., higher failure stress) of a ballistically impacted transparent armor will result in improved ballistic resistance. Therefore, the interpretation and management of those tensile-failure-stress dependencies shall ultimately improve ballistic resistance and its predictability of transparent armor. Each of those three dependencies (size, side, and location) in a soda-lime silicate glass is described.

  13. Electromagnetically induced transparency with quantum interferometry.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Anindita; Dastidar, Krishna Rai

    2012-02-28

    We have shown that electromagnetically induced transparency can be achieved by control-probe interferometry using two delayed phase-locked ultrashort pulses. Two vibrational wavepackets on the excited state, excited by two delayed phase-locked ultrashort pulses, interfere constructively or destructively leading to enhancement or suppression of absorption to a selective set of vibrational levels. Depending on the phase difference and the delay between the pulses with same carrier frequency, one can design different transparency windows between absorption peaks at consecutive even(odd) vibrational levels by eliminating absorption at odd(even) vibrational levels. We have shown that by switching the phase difference of two delayed femtosecond pulses, one can switch to complete elimination of absorption from enhanced absorption to a particular set of vibrational levels in the excited state. Thus, switching of transparency through window between odd vibrational levels to that between even vibrational levels is possible. By properly choosing the temporal width and the carrier frequency of the pulses, lossless transmission of complete or bands of frequencies of the pulses can be achieved through these transparency windows. Hence, designing of single- or multi-mode transparency windows in NaH molecule is feasible by control-probe quantum interferometry.

  14. Transparency in Europe: A Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    Bouder, Frederic; Way, Dominic; Löfstedt, Ragnar; Evensen, Darrick

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, European pharmaceutical regulators have increasingly committed to heightening access to raw safety-related data as part of a wave of transparency initiatives (e.g., providing public Internet-mediated access to clinical trials data). Yet, the regulators--who are under significant pressure--have not yet benefited from a systematic review of this new policy. In seeking to inject much needed evidence, this article explores the effects of new transparency policies designed to promote meaningful communication of risks and benefits to patients. Results of a cross-national European survey with respondents from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, France, Germany, and Sweden (N = 5,648) shed light on how patients and the public are likely to react to the regulators' new transparency policies. The findings demonstrate clear national variations in how European citizens are likely to react and emphasize the need to develop evidence-based, reasoned transparency policies that integrate benefit-risk communication. The authors conclude by providing six specific recommendations, informed by the study, that seek to improve the European transparency model both within the medical field and across health, safety, and environmental policy domains. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Transparent Metal-Salt-Filled Polymeric Radiation Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David; Lennhoff, John; Harris, George

    2003-01-01

    "COR-RA" (colorless atomic oxygen resistant -- radiation shield) is the name of a transparent polymeric material filled with x-ray-absorbing salts of lead, bismuth, cesium, and thorium. COR-RA is suitable for use in shielding personnel against bremsstrahlung radiation from electron-beam welding and industrial and medical x-ray equipment. In comparison with lead-foil and leaded-glass shields that give equivalent protection against x-rays (see table), COR-RA shields are mechanically more durable. COR-RA absorbs not only x-rays but also neutrons and rays without adverse effects on optical or mechanical performance. The formulation of COR-RA with the most favorable mechanical-durability and optical properties contains 22 weight percent of bismuth to absorb x-rays, plus 45 atomic percent hydrogen for shielding against neutrons.

  16. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Walsworth, R. L.; Phillips, D. F.

    2011-01-15

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend ''bright'' and ''dark'' time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Phillips, D. F.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend “bright” and “dark” time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  18. Giving what one should: explanations for the knowledge-behavior gap for altruistic giving.

    PubMed

    Blake, Peter R

    2017-08-07

    Several studies have shown that children struggle to give what they believe that they should: the so-called knowledge-behavior gap. Over a dozen recent Dictator Game studies find that, although young children believe that they should give half of a set of resources to a peer, they typically give less and often keep all of the resources for themselves. This article reviews recent evidence for five potential explanations for the gap and how children close it with age: self-regulation, social distance, theory of mind, moral knowledge and social learning. I conclude that self-regulation, social distance, and social learning show the most promising evidence for understanding the mechanisms that can close the gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Switchable invisibility cloak, anticloak, transparent cloak, superscatterer, and illusion for the Laplace equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong Feng; Mei, Zhong Lei; Yang, Xin Yu; Ma, Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-04-01

    For ideal invisibility cloaks, electromagnetic radiations cannot penetrate through the cloaking shell. However, researchers have suggested that the originally hidden object with a cloaking shell is visible to the outside world when it is covered by an "anticloak." In this paper, we give the first experimental verification of the "anticloak" for the Laplace equation, which requires negative conductivity profiles. The proposed device consists of two layers—the cloak and anticloak, which can work individually or collectively and give rise to different functions. Functionality switching among the invisibility cloak, anticloak, transparent cloak, superscatterer, and illusion is suggested and demonstrated. Based on the circuit theory, we fabricate a switching resistor network with both positive and negative resistors to emulate the cloaking and anticloaking interactions. The switchable cloaking, anticloaking, transparent, superscatterer, and illusion performances are confirmed by the experiments and/or numerical simulations.

  20. Phase-transparency model of an eye optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Molebny, S. V.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1997-12-01

    Measurement of refraction distribution in the human eye opens new opportunities to make photorefractive surgery more accurate due to accounting imperfections not only of the cornea, but of the eye as an optical system. To calculate the to-be-ablated cornea layers, mathematical relations must be found between measured coordinates of retina ray tracings and transfer function of an eye. A new concept for modeling eye optical system is proposed using four phase transparencies, each of them exercising its own function: accommodation (equivalent to varifocal system), image focusing on the retina (optical system with constant optical power), regular aberrations (spherical and chromatic, astigmatism), and irregular phase distribution. It is shown, how the parameters, necessary for phase transparencies description, can be derived from direct and indirect measurements. Results of modeling experiment with simplified set of test points showed good sight correction. Investigated methodology proved to be fruitful even with limited number of test points and restricted length of polynomial approximation. In our refraction mapping system, transfer function reconstruction will use initial information from 65 points.

  1. Security giving in surrogacy motherhood process as a caring model for commissioning mothers: A theory synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Bagheri-Lankarani, Narges

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing use of surrogacy, there are no caring theories/models that serve as the basis for nursing care to surrogacy commissioning mothers. This study has designed a model for caring of surrogacy commissioning mothers in 2013. The theory synthesis of Walker and Avant's strategies of theory construction (2011) was used to design a caring model/theory. The theory synthesis includes three stages: (i) selection of focal concept (the concept of "security giving in motherhood" was selected); (ii) review of studies in order to identify factors related to focal concept relevant studies (42 articles and 13 books) were reviewed, statements and concepts related to focal concept were then extracted and classified, and their relations were specified; and (iii) organization of concepts and statements within a relevant general and effective manifestation of the phenomenon under study which led to developing of a model. In this caring model/theory, entitled "security giving in surrogacy motherhood", nurses roles were conceptualized within the conceptual framework that includes three main roles: (i) coordination; (ii) participation; and (iii) security giving (physical, emotional, and legal support; empowerment; presence; relationship management between both parties and advocacy). Training surrogacy specialist nurses and establishment of surrogacy care centers are important factors for implementation of the model. This model could help to provided better caring for surrogacy clients, especially for commissioning mothers. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  2. Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

  3. Transparency and public involvement in animal research.

    PubMed

    Pound, Pandora; Blaug, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    To be legitimate, research needs to be ethical, methodologically sound, of sufficient value to justify public expenditure and be transparent. Animal research has always been contested on ethical grounds, but there is now mounting evidence of poor scientific method, and growing doubts about its clinical value. So what of transparency? Here we examine the increasing focus on openness within animal research in the UK, analysing recent developments within the Home Office and within the main group representing the interests of the sector, Understanding Animal Research. We argue that, while important steps are being taken toward greater transparency, the legitimacy of animal research continues to be undermined by selective openness. We propose that openness could be increased through public involvement, and that this would bring about much needed improvements in animal research, as it has done in clinical research. 2016 FRAME.

  4. Metamaterial with electromagnetic transparency under multiband absorptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Qi, Limei

    2017-02-01

    We propose a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) metamaterial that has an electromagnetic (EM) transparency spectrum under multiband absorptions in the C and the X bands. The ground continuous metal film used in the conventional metamaterial absorber (MA) is replaced by a structured ground plane (SGP) in our design. The band-pass properties of the front patterned metal film and the SGP determine the EM transparency spectrum, while the magnetic and the electric resonances in the MDM structure contribute to the multiband absorptions. Due to the symmetric structure of the unit cell, the absorption bands and the EM transparency spectrum of the metamaterial have the property of polarization independency. Despite the normal incidence, the metamaterial can also be used for non-normal incidence.

  5. Basic materials physics of transparent conducting oxides.

    PubMed

    Edwards, P P; Porch, A; Jones, M O; Morgan, D V; Perks, R M

    2004-10-07

    Materials displaying the remarkable combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency already from the basis of many important technological applications, including flat panel displays, solar energy capture and other opto-electronic devices. Here we present the basic materials physics of these important materials centred on the nature of the doping process to generate n-type conductivity in transparent conducting oxides, the associated transition to the metallic (conducting) state and the detailed properties of the degenerate itinerant electron gas. The aim is to fully understand the origins of the basic performance limits of known materials and to set the scene for new or improved materials which will breach those limits for new-generation transparent conducting materials, either oxides, or beyond oxides.

  6. Parallel Computing by Xeroxing on Transparencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Tom

    We illustrate a procedure for solving instances of the Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problem by xeroxing onto transparent plastic sheets. Suppose that m clauses are given in which n variables occur and that the longest clause contains k literals. The associated instance of the SAT problem can be solved by using a xerox machine to form only n+2k+m successive transparencies. The applicability of this linear time algorithm is limited, of course, by the increase in the information density on the transparencies when n is large. This same scheme of computation can be carried out by using photographic or other optical processes. This work has been developed as an alternate implementation of procedures previously developed in the context of aqueous (DNA) computing.

  7. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  8. Transparent Ceramic Scintillator Fabrication, Properties and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N J; Kuntz, J D; Roberts, J J; Hurst, T A; Drury, O B; Sanner, R D; Tillotson, T M; Payne, S A

    2008-08-24

    Transparent ceramics offer an alternative to single crystals for scintillator applications such as gamma ray spectroscopy and radiography. We have developed a versatile, scaleable fabrication method, using Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) to produce feedstock which is readily converted into phase-pure transparent ceramics. We measure integral light yields in excess of 80,000 Ph/MeV with Cerium-doped Garnets, and excellent optical quality. Avalanche photodiode readout of Garnets provides resolution near 6%. For radiography applications, Lutetium Oxide offers a high performance metric and is formable by ceramics processing. Scatter in transparent ceramics due to secondary phases is the principal limitation to optical quality, and afterglow issues that affect the scintillation performance are presently being addressed.

  9. Drug Pricing Transparency: The New Retail Revolution.

    PubMed

    Dana, Kaitlyn N; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    As spending on medications in the United States increases with each passing year, the need for drug pricing transparency by manufacturers also increases. Drug spending, excluding rebates and discounts, was $309.5 billion in 2015, up 8.5% from 2014. Drug pricing transparency has been a topic of debate across the health care system. This column reviews the issue of drug pricing and emphasizes the need for transparency in this area. We will discuss factors that influence drug pricing, policies and ways to reduce the rising costs of drugs, and the role of pharmacy leaders in managing this problem. A multitude of factors are driving the country to spend more and more on medications; pharmacy leaders can employ various strategies to counteract this escalation of drug prices. After reviewing this article, the pharmacy director will have an increased ability to address drug pricing issues with stakeholders as they develop patient-centered pharmacy services.

  10. [Transparency in public health decision-making].

    PubMed

    García-Altés, Anna; Argimon, Josep M

    2016-11-01

    Improving the quality and transparency of governmental healthcare decision-making has an impact on the health of the population through policies, organisational management and clinical practice. Moreover, the comparison between healthcare centres and the transparent feedback of results to professionals and to the wider public contribute directly to improved results. The "Results Centre" of the Catalan healthcare system measures and disseminates the results achieved by the different healthcare centres in order to facilitate a shared decision-making process, thereby enhancing the quality of healthcare provided to the population of Catalonia (Spain). This is a pioneering initiative in Spain and is aligned with the most advanced countries in terms of policies of transparency and accountability. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Concealed, Unobtrusive Ear-Centered EEG Acquisition: cEEGrids for Transparent EEG

    PubMed Central

    Bleichner, Martin G.; Debener, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important clinical tool and frequently used to study the brain-behavior relationship in humans noninvasively. Traditionally, EEG signals are recorded by positioning electrodes on the scalp and keeping them in place with glue, rubber bands, or elastic caps. This setup provides good coverage of the head, but is impractical for EEG acquisition in natural daily-life situations. Here, we propose the transparent EEG concept. Transparent EEG aims for motion tolerant, highly portable, unobtrusive, and near invisible data acquisition with minimum disturbance of a user's daily activities. In recent years several ear-centered EEG solutions that are compatible with the transparent EEG concept have been presented. We discuss work showing that miniature electrodes placed in and around the human ear are a feasible solution, as they are sensitive enough to pick up electrical signals stemming from various brain and non-brain sources. We also describe the cEEGrid flex-printed sensor array, which enables unobtrusive multi-channel EEG acquisition from around the ear. In a number of validation studies we found that the cEEGrid enables the recording of meaningful continuous EEG, event-related potentials and neural oscillations. Here, we explain the rationale underlying the cEEGrid ear-EEG solution, present possible use cases and identify open issues that need to be solved on the way toward transparent EEG. PMID:28439233

  12. [Concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The concept represents a fundamental element within a discipline. It is therefore essential to have specific, operational definitions of concepts for all areas of activity in nursing care. The concept analysis methodology is a rigorous way of ensuring this objective is achieved. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Nuclear transparencies from photoinduced pion production

    SciTech Connect

    W. Cosyn; M.C. Martinez; J. Ryckebusch; B. Van Overmeire

    2006-12-01

    We present a relativistic and cross-section factorized framework for computing nuclear transparencies extracted from A({gamma}, {pi} N) reactions at intermediate energies. The proposed quantum mechanical model adopts a relativistic extension to the multiple-scattering Glauber approximation to account for the final state interactions of the ejected nucleon and pion. The theoretical predictions are compared against the experimental {sup 4}He({gamma},p {pi}{sup -}) data from Jefferson Lab. For those data, our results show no conclusive evidence for the onset of mechanisms related to color transparency.

  14. Optical precursors with self-induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, Bruno; Segard, Bernard

    2010-01-15

    Optical Sommerfeld-Brillouin precursors significantly ahead of a main field of comparable amplitude have been recently observed in an opaque medium with an electromagnetically induced transparency window [Wei et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093602 (2009)]. We theoretically analyze in this article the somewhat similar results obtained when the transparency is induced by the propagating field itself and we establish an approximate analytic expression of the time delay of the main-field arrival, which fits fairly well the result obtained by numerically solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  15. Transparent conductive coatings in the far ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jongmin; Zukic, Muamer; Park, Jung HO; Wilson, Michele M.; Keffer, Charles E.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    In certain cases a space-borne optical instrument with a dielectric window requires a transparent conductive coating deposited on the window to remove the electrostatic charge collected due to the bombardment of ionized particles. Semiconductor and metal films are studied for use as transparent conductive coatings for the front window of far ultraviolet camera. Cr is found to be the best coating material. The theoretical search for the semiconductor and metal coating materials and experimental results for ITO and Cr films are reported.

  16. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  17. Transparent Proxy for Secure E-Mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalák, Juraj; Hudec, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    The paper deals with the security of e-mail messages and e-mail server implementation by means of a transparent SMTP proxy. The security features include encryption and signing of transported messages. The goal is to design and implement a software proxy for secure e-mail including its monitoring, administration, encryption and signing keys administration. In particular, we focus on automatic public key on-the-fly encryption and signing of e-mail messages according to S/MIME standard by means of an embedded computer system whose function can be briefly described as a brouter with transparent SMTP proxy.

  18. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  19. Induced transparency in optomechanically coupled resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhenglu; Fan, Bixuan; Stace, Thomas M.; Milburn, G. J.; Holmes, Catherine A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we theoretically investigate a hybrid system of two optomechanically coupled resonators, which exhibits induced transparency. This is realized by coupling an optical ring resonator to a toroid. In the semiclassical analyses, the system displays bistabilities, isolated branches (isolas), and self-sustained oscillation dynamics. Furthermore, we find that the induced transparency window sensitively relies on the mechanical motion. Based on this fact, we show that the described system can be used as a weak force detector and the optimal sensitivity can beat the standard quantum limit without using feedback control or squeezing under available experimental conditions.

  20. Theory of absorption-induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Sergio G.; Martín-Moreno, L.

    2014-09-01

    Absorption induced transparency consists in a transmission peak observed in holey metal films when a molecular dye is deposited on top of it [Hutchison et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 2085 (2011)]. This transmission feature appears unexpectedly close to one of the absorption energies of the molecules, hence its name. Tentative explanations pointed to strong-coupling interactions between plasmons and molecules. However, we recently demonstrated the actual mechanism behind, which takes place through a strong modification of the propagation constant of holes. We also found that absorption induced transparency occurs in single holes and it is not restricted to the optical range.

  1. One-Step Fabrication of Transparent and Flexible Nanotopographical-Triboelectric Nanogenerators via Thermal Nanoimprinting of Thermoplastic Fluoropolymers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dongwhi; Yoo, Donghyeon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-12-02

    Using thermal nanoimprinting, a novel transparent and flexible nanotopographical triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), with simultaneous nanoreplication and integration of the contact layer with the electrode layer, is first demonstrated. It is expected that the present rapid one-step fabrication methodology well give "disposability" to the TENG with extremely reduced manufacturing costs, which may allay commercialization concerns.

  2. Where Are the Facts? "Jason's Gold" Gives Meaning to the Yukon Gold Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasta, Stephanie; Lott, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how fictional works can give a purposeful context and an appropriate venue for developing essential social studies concepts in middle-school students. The author uses the example of a National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) notable book, "Jason's Gold" that blends history with story to become historical…

  3. Where Are the Facts? "Jason's Gold" Gives Meaning to the Yukon Gold Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasta, Stephanie; Lott, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how fictional works can give a purposeful context and an appropriate venue for developing essential social studies concepts in middle-school students. The author uses the example of a National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) notable book, "Jason's Gold" that blends history with story to become historical…

  4. The 12-Month Pregnancy: Giving Your Baby a Healthy Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Barry; Perry, Susan K.

    1993-01-01

    The weeks just prior to conception and the early weeks of pregnancy are extremely crucial. By adopting a healthy lifestyle, parents can give their babies a head start toward a healthy life. Both men and women play an important role in preconception planning and behavior. (SM)

  5. Transparent superstrate terrestrial solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, and testing of the transparent solar cell module were examined. Cell performance and material process characteristics were determined by extensive tests and design modifications were made prior to preproduction fabrication. These tests included three cell submodules and two full size engineering modules. Along with hardware and test activity, engineering documentation was prepared and submitted.

  6. Semantic transparency affects memory conjunction errors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mungchen; Rotello, Caren M.

    2009-01-01

    Memory conjunction errors occur when aspects of two different events are falsely recognized or recalled as having occurred as parts of the same event. One theoretical account of conjunction errors is rooted in traditional dual-process models of recognition judgments, in which responses are based on an item’s familiarity or the retrieval of recollected details associated with the encoding of that item. We manipulated the familiarity of test probes by varying their semantic overlap with studied items, taking advantage of the inherent semantic transparency of compound words. Transparent compounds are those whose component parts (lexemes) are semantically related to the meaning of the entire word. In contrast, opaque compounds’ lexemes do not contribute directly to the meaning of the compound. We showed that the familiarity of semantically transparent assembly lures created from their lexemes (study dog and house, test on doghouse) is greater than the familiarity of opaque assembly lures (study back and draw, test on drawback). A response-signal experiment revealed no evidence for the use of a recall-to-reject process for either semantically transparent or opaque lures. PMID:19966238

  7. Transparent electronic conductors in electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Misonou, M.; Kawahara, H.

    1990-12-31

    Materials with both high transparency and high electrical conductance have recently attracted growing technological interest. Applications of such materials include coatings for windows with ability of deicing and demisting, coatings, for electromagnetic shielding and antistatic coatings. Today, their application has been extended toward optoelectronic devices. They are being used for the fabrication of a variety of devices such as photovoltaic devices, display devices and light control devices which include electrochromic devices. Here, transparent electronic conductors are discussed with regard to their properties required by electrochromic devices at first. Since an electrochromic device is a so called current-driven device, it requires substantially low electrical resistance. In fact, the performance of transparent electrodes is one of the key factors to limit the performance of the electrochromic devices today. Next, materials having a potential to satisfy the device requirements are reviewed. Candidates are thin metals and heavily doped semiconductors with wide band gap. Among them wide gap semiconductors, especially metal oxides, are more relevant than metals with respect to chemical durability and electrical and optical performances. Coating technologies for large area transparent electrodes are presented for two special cases; one is chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology for tin oxide coating and the other is sputtering technology for indium tin oxide(ITO) coating. Both are widely recognized as materials showing superior performance, and in fact they are commonly used for the above mentioned applications.

  8. Lattice-induced transparency in planar metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-10-01

    Lattice modes are intrinsic to periodic structures and they can be easily tuned and controlled by changing the lattice constant of the structural array. Previous studies have revealed the excitation of sharp absorption resonances due to lattice mode coupling with the plasmonic resonances. Here, we report an experimental observation of a lattice-induced transparency (LIT) by coupling the first-order lattice mode (FOLM) to the structural resonance of a terahertz asymmetric split ring resonator. The observed sharp transparency is a result of the destructive interference between the bright mode and the FOLM assisted dark mode. As the FOLM is swept across the metamaterial resonance, the transparency band undergoes a large change in its bandwidth and resonance position. We propose a three-oscillator model to explain the underlying coupling mechanism in LIT system that shows good agreement with the observed results. Besides controlling the transparency behavior, LIT also shows a huge enhancement in its Q factor and exhibits a high group delay of 28 ps with an enhanced group index of 4.5 ×104 , which could be pivotal in ultrasensitive sensing and slow-light device applications.

  9. Transparency Master: Planaria in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Lauritz A.; Allen, A. Lester

    1983-01-01

    Background information on the morphology and physiology of planarians and uses of the organism in schools is provided. Also provided is a transparency master demonstrating a planarian with an everted proboscis, two-headed/two-tailed planarians, and a planarian demonstrating the digestive tract. (JN)

  10. Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huizhang; Lin, Na; Chen, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhenwei; Xie, Qingshui; Zheng, Tongchang; Gao, Na; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In pondering of new promising transparent conductors to replace the cost rising tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), metal nanowires have been widely concerned. Herein, we demonstrate an approach for successful synthesis of long and fine Cu nanowires (NWs) through a novel catalytic scheme involving nickel ions. Such Cu NWs in high aspect ratio (diameter of 16.2 ± 2 nm and length up to 40 μm) provide long distance for electron transport and, meanwhile, large space for light transmission. Transparent electrodes fabricated using the Cu NW ink achieve a low sheet resistance of 1.4 Ohm/sq at 14% transmittance and a high transparency of 93.1% at 51.5 Ohm/sq. The flexibility and stability were tested with 100-timebending by 180°and no resistance change occurred. Ohmic contact was achieved to the p- and n-GaN on blue light emitting diode chip and bright electroluminescence from the front face confirmed the excellent transparency. PMID:23900572

  11. Dipolar exchange induced transparency with Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, David

    2017-03-01

    A three-level atomic medium can be made transparent to a resonant probe field in the presence of a strong control field acting on an adjacent atomic transition to a long-lived state, which can be represented by a highly excited Rydberg state. The long-range interactions between the Rydberg state atoms then translate into strong, non-local, dispersive or absorptive interactions between the probe photons, which can be used to achieve deterministic quantum logic gates and single photon sources. Here we show that long-range dipole–dipole exchange interaction with one or more spins—two-level systems represented by atoms in suitable Rydberg states—can play the role of control field for the optically dense medium of atoms. This induces transparency of the medium for a number of probe photons n p not exceeding the number of spins n s , while all the excess photons are resonantly absorbed upon propagation. In the most practical case of a single spin atom prepared in the Rydberg state, the medium is thus transparent only to a single input probe photon. For larger number of spins n s , all n p ≤ n s photon components of the probe field would experience transparency but with an n p -dependent group velocity.

  12. 47 CFR 8.3 - Transparency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.3 Transparency. A person engaged in the provision of broadband Internet access service shall publicly disclose accurate information regarding the network management practices, performance, and commercial terms of its broadband...

  13. 47 CFR 8.3 - Transparency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.3 Transparency. A person engaged in the provision of broadband Internet access service shall publicly disclose accurate information regarding the network management practices, performance, and commercial terms of its broadband...

  14. 47 CFR 8.3 - Transparency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.3 Transparency. A person engaged in the provision of broadband Internet access service shall publicly disclose accurate information regarding the network management practices, performance, and commercial terms of its broadband...

  15. Color transparency experiments at higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Filippone, B.W.

    1994-04-01

    The phenomena of Color Transparency has recently attracted a significant amount of theoretical (and experimental) interest. With an increase in the CEBAF beam energy to 8 - 10 GeV, important new data on the process could become available. The present status of the experiments and future prospects at CEBAF are discussed.

  16. Transparency Master: The Annual Aphid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessions, Mary Lynne

    1983-01-01

    Aphids, often referred to as plant lice, can be found in great numbers on stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. In many cases these organisms are potentially harmful to their plant hosts. Provided is a description of the annual life cycle of the aphid and an accompanying transparency master. (Author/JN)

  17. Copper nanowires as fully transparent conductive electrodes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhang; Lin, Na; Chen, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhenwei; Xie, Qingshui; Zheng, Tongchang; Gao, Na; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In pondering of new promising transparent conductors to replace the cost rising tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), metal nanowires have been widely concerned. Herein, we demonstrate an approach for successful synthesis of long and fine Cu nanowires (NWs) through a novel catalytic scheme involving nickel ions. Such Cu NWs in high aspect ratio (diameter of 16.2 ± 2 nm and length up to 40 μm) provide long distance for electron transport and, meanwhile, large space for light transmission. Transparent electrodes fabricated using the Cu NW ink achieve a low sheet resistance of 1.4 Ohm/sq at 14% transmittance and a high transparency of 93.1% at 51.5 Ohm/sq. The flexibility and stability were tested with 100-timebending by 180°and no resistance change occurred. Ohmic contact was achieved to the p- and n-GaN on blue light emitting diode chip and bright electroluminescence from the front face confirmed the excellent transparency.

  18. 47 CFR 8.3 - Transparency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.3 Transparency. A person engaged in the provision of broadband Internet access service shall publicly disclose accurate information regarding the network management practices, performance, and commercial terms of its broadband...

  19. Transparency Master: The Annual Aphid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessions, Mary Lynne

    1983-01-01

    Aphids, often referred to as plant lice, can be found in great numbers on stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. In many cases these organisms are potentially harmful to their plant hosts. Provided is a description of the annual life cycle of the aphid and an accompanying transparency master. (Author/JN)

  20. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  1. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  2. Transparency Master: Planaria in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Lauritz A.; Allen, A. Lester

    1983-01-01

    Background information on the morphology and physiology of planarians and uses of the organism in schools is provided. Also provided is a transparency master demonstrating a planarian with an everted proboscis, two-headed/two-tailed planarians, and a planarian demonstrating the digestive tract. (JN)

  3. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-09-04

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

  4. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Param H.; Hunt, Arlon J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

  5. Transparent Watercolor. Art Education: 6673.07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, Jean E.

    An introductory course designed to develop skills and techniques in transparent watercolor offers an exploration of a variety of techniques emphasizing drawing and composition and allowing the student to create and matt his own paintings. Students in grades 7 through 12 develop competencies in flat and graded wash and dry and stipple brush…

  6. Gender activation in transparent and opaque words.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Mabel; Domínguez, Alberto; Alvarez, Carlos J

    2009-02-01

    Two reaction time experiments were carried out to examine the morphological gender processing of Spanish words that were either transparent -that is, ending in o/a (e.g., banco - bank)-or opaque-that is, without superficial gender marking (e.g., virtud - virtue). In Experiment 1, participants categorized the gender of a transparent gender target preceded by a derived word of the same gender (e.g., banquillo-dock, masculine) or of different gender (e.g., banqueta-stool, feminine). A negative priming gender effect indicates the use of strategic-attentional mechanisms to decide the gender of the target, but also automatic computation of the prime gender. Experiment 2 used a lexical decision task with the stimuli of Experiment 1 in addition to opaque gender words. The results show longer reaction times for transparent gender words with regard to opaque items. This effect was possibly due to the lexical requirements of the task: lexical decision, and also because transparent words are morphologically more complex than opaque words. Finally, in both experiments, there was negative priming: when prime and target were of the same gender, reaction times were longer. This effect indicates that participants cannot ignore the gender of the prime when they respond to the target.

  7. Compliment-Giving among Filipino College Students: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojica, Leonisa A.

    2002-01-01

    Studies syntactic patterns in compliment-giving among Filipino students at six universities in Manila. Finds differences between male and female student compliment-giving patterns, such as greater frequency of female compliment-giving. Also finds sex differences in the purpose of compliment-giving. (PKP)

  8. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Glatkowski, P. J.; Landis, D. A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  9. Giving Students New Eyes: The Benefits of Having Students Find Media Clips to Illustrate Management Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Catherine L.; Anderson, Marc H.; Tyler, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    An extensive literature in management education addresses the pedagogical technique of showing video clips from feature films, animated films, and television shows. The bulk of this literature either asserts the benefits of using video clips or identifies specific clips and discusses how those clips can be effectively used to teach various…

  10. Giving Students New Eyes: The Benefits of Having Students Find Media Clips to Illustrate Management Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Catherine L.; Anderson, Marc H.; Tyler, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    An extensive literature in management education addresses the pedagogical technique of showing video clips from feature films, animated films, and television shows. The bulk of this literature either asserts the benefits of using video clips or identifies specific clips and discusses how those clips can be effectively used to teach various…

  11. Exploring Women’s Personal Experiences of Giving Birth in Gonabad City: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Fariba; Atarodi, Alireza; Torabi, Shirin; Moshki, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Women’s health is an important task in society. The aim of this qualitative study that used a phenomenological approach was to explain women’s personal experiences of giving birth in Gonabad city that had positive experiences of giving birth in order to establish quality cares and the related factors of midwifery cares for this physiological phenomenon. Methods: The participants were 21 primiparae women who gave a normal and or uncomplicated giving birth in the hospital of Gonabad University of medical sciences. Based on a purposeful approach in-depth interviews were continued to reach data saturation. The data were collected through open and semi-structured interactional in-depth interviews with all the participants. All the interviews were taped, transcribed and then analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method to identify the concepts and themes. Findings: Some categories were emerged. A quiet and safe environment was the most urgent need of the most women giving birth. Unnecessary routine interventions that are performed on all women regardless of their needs and should be avoided were considered such as: “absolute rest, establishing vein, frequent vaginal examinations, fasting and early Amniotomy”. All the women wanted to take part actively in their giving birth, because they believed it could affect their giving birth. Conclusion: We hope that the women’s experiences of giving birth will be a pleasant and enjoyable experience for all the mothers giving birth. PMID:25168980

  12. Exploring women's personal experiences of giving birth in Gonabad city: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Askari, Fariba; Atarodi, Alireza; Torabi, Shirin; Moshki, Mahdi

    2014-05-08

    Women's health is an important task in society. The aim of this qualitative study that used a phenomenological approach was to explain women's personal experiences of giving birth in Gonabad city that had positive experiences of giving birth in order to establish quality cares and the related factors of midwifery cares for this physiological phenomenon. The participants were 21 primiparae women who gave a normal and or uncomplicated giving birth in the hospital of Gonabad University of medical sciences. Based on a purposeful approach in-depth interviews were continued to reach data saturation. The data were collected through open and semi-structured interactional in-depth interviews with all the participants. All the interviews were taped, transcribed and then analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method to identify the concepts and themes. Some categories were emerged. A quiet and safe environment was the most urgent need of the most women giving birth. Unnecessary routine interventions that are performed on all women regardless of their needs and should be avoided were considered such as: "absolute rest, establishing vein, frequent vaginal examinations, fasting and early Amniotomy". All the women wanted to take part actively in their giving birth, because they believed it could affect their giving birth. We hope that the women's experiences of giving birth will be a pleasant and enjoyable experience for all the mothers giving birth.

  13. Glare-Tunable Transparent Electrochemical Smart Window Coupled with Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Takayuki; Shibasaki, Masaaki; Matsuzaki, Tatsuya; Nagata, Yujiro

    2013-04-01

    We fabricated a novel device assembled by coupling a transparent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED) and a glare-tunable transparent electrochemical device. This device could be operated in six different states, namely, (1) transparent, (2) mirror, (3) black, (4) dual emission, (5) single-side emission with mirror, and (6) single-side emission with black. Switching between each of these states could be tuned by varying/selecting the applied DC bias voltage. The device showed 63.8% transmittance in the transparent state, and 42.1% reflectance in the mirror state at 700 nm. Transmittance in both the mirror and black states was less than 0.1% in the visible range.

  14. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2017-06-14

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  15. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  16. How to make a soft, rough surface transparent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helseth, L. E.

    2017-09-01

    A transparent elastomer is made opaque by making one of its surfaces rough. By squeezing the rough surface against a piece of glass, the roughness is smoothed out and the elastomer becomes transparent.

  17. Transparent conductive oxide-free perovskite solar cells with PEDOT:PSS as transparent electrode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kuan; Li, Pengcheng; Xia, Yijie; Chang, Jingjing; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2015-07-22

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been attracting considerable attention because of their low fabrication cost and impressive energy conversion efficiency. Most PSCs are built on transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) such as fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) or indium tin oxide (ITO), which are costly and rigid. Therefore, it is significant to explore alternative materials as the transparent electrode of PSCs. In this study, highly conductive and highly transparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate ( PSS) films were investigated as the transparent electrode of both rigid and flexible PSCs. The conductivity of PSS films on rigid glass or flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate is significantly enhanced through a treatment with methanesulfonic acid (MSA). The optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) is close to 11% for the rigid PSCs with an MSA-treated PSS film as the transparent electrode on glass, and it is more than 8% for the flexible PSCs with a MSA-treated PSS film as the transparent electrode on PET. The flexible PSCs exhibit excellent mechanical flexibility in the bending test.

  18. [Appraisal: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Chi; Lin, Chiu-Chu; Ma, Shu-Ching

    2007-04-01

    Appraisal is a cognitive response by an individual facing an event within a given environment. When the individual has passed through a thought process that gives the event meaning, the coping process is finally completed. Coping heightens an individual's well-being. Negative appraisal will induce an emotional coping response and affect one's quality of life, mental state and health. Several researchers applied the concept of appraisal to their disciplines. The concept of appraisal, however, is poorly defined. This article applies the methodology outlined by Walker and Avant (1995) to analyze the concept of appraisal. The definition of appraisal, examples, and empirical references provided in this paper will be useful in nursing practice in relation to the role of appraisal in coping.

  19. Transparent Laser Ceramics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, T

    2007-06-28

    LLNL has been using the largest transparent laser ceramics for the last two years in the solid-state heat capacity laser (SSHCL). The lab is very interested in extending the use of transparent ceramics to other laser applications. In this talk we will discuss work at the laboratory aimed at better understanding the sintering and the criteria needed for good ceramic transparency, the application of transparent ceramics in the SSHCL laser and possible new applications of tailored ceramics.

  20. [Chen Muhua gives radio talk on family planning].

    PubMed

    1981-02-02

    Planned parenthood is a major event concerning the vital interests of each family and individual and the prosperity and development of China. An excessive population growth rate has limited an improvement of the people's living standards and has adversely affected economic growth. Planned parenthood should be encouraged in accordance with China's Constitution and the provisions of the new marriage law. Late marriage and childbirth is a way of showing one's responsiblity toward the next generation. Eugenics is an important aspect of planned parenthood. Giving birth to physically unhealthy or mentally retarded children will place additional burdens on the family and society. In promoting planned parenthood it is necessary to do ideological and educational work in a patient and meticulous way. Planned parenthood must be widely propagated. Late marriage, late birth, and eugenics must be encouraged, and the advantages and significance of the 1 child family must be publicized. It is necessary to make early and realistic efforts to ensure the success of ideological work in planned parenthood, contraceptive measures, and birth programs. This will prevent unwanted conceptions and help achieve the goal of bringing the population under control. It is also necessary to strengthen work regarding maternity and child care and to popularize scientific knowledge concerning nursing babies.

  1. Competing Triggers: Transparency and Opacity in Vowel Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimper, Wendell A.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation takes up the issue of transparency and opacity in vowel harmony--that is, when a segment is unable to undergo a harmony process, will it be skipped over by harmony (transparent) or will it prevent harmony from propagating further (opaque)? I argue that the choice between transparency and opacity is best understood as a…

  2. Competing Triggers: Transparency and Opacity in Vowel Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimper, Wendell A.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation takes up the issue of transparency and opacity in vowel harmony--that is, when a segment is unable to undergo a harmony process, will it be skipped over by harmony (transparent) or will it prevent harmony from propagating further (opaque)? I argue that the choice between transparency and opacity is best understood as a…

  3. Transparent Information Systems through Gateways, Front Ends, Intermediaries, and Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E.

    1986-01-01

    Provides overview of design requirements for transparent information retrieval (implies that user sees through complexity of retrieval activities sequence). Highlights include need for transparent systems; history of transparent retrieval research; information retrieval functions (automated converters, routers, selectors, evaluators/analyzers);…

  4. Transparent Information Systems through Gateways, Front Ends, Intermediaries, and Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E.

    1986-01-01

    Provides overview of design requirements for transparent information retrieval (implies that user sees through complexity of retrieval activities sequence). Highlights include need for transparent systems; history of transparent retrieval research; information retrieval functions (automated converters, routers, selectors, evaluators/analyzers);…

  5. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  6. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  7. Physician employment: this time around, give finance a leading role.

    PubMed

    Risner, B Sue

    2006-11-01

    Finance managers can play a leading role in determining the success of physician employment by addressing physicians' financial concerns. Physicians can benefit from financial managers' help in clarifying how practice decisions affect financial outcomes, and making the entire process transparent. Communication should include validation of data integrity, development of targeted reports, education, and frequent opportunities for dialogue.

  8. Micromachined edge illuminated optically transparent automotive light guide panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronny, Rahima Afrose; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni; Tauhiduzzaman, Mohammed; Nikumb, Suwas

    2012-03-01

    Edge-lit backlighting has been used extensively for a variety of small and medium-sized liquid crystal displays (LCDs). The shape, density and spatial distribution pattern of the micro-optical elements imprinted on the surface of the flat light-guide panel (LGP) are often "optimized" to improve the overall brightness and luminance uniformity. A similar concept can be used to develop interior convenience lighting panels and exterior tail lamps for automotive applications. However, costly diffusive sheeting and brightness enhancement films are not be considered for these applications because absolute luminance uniformity and the minimization of Moiré fringe effects are not significant factors in assessing quality of automotive lighting. A new design concept that involves micromilling cylindrical micro-optical elements on optically transparent plastic substrates is described in this paper. The variable parameter that controls illumination over the active regions of the panel is the depth of the individual cylindrical micro-optical elements. LightTools™ is the optical simulation tool used to explore how changing the micro-optical element depth can alter the local and global luminance. Numerical simulation and microfabrication experiments are performed on several (100mmx100mmx6mm) polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) test samples in order to verify the illumination behavior.

  9. Transparent data service with multiple wireless access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Richard A.; Levesque, Allen H.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid introduction of digital wireless networks is an important part of the emerging digital communications scene. The introduction of Digital Cellular, LEO and GEO Satellites, and Personal Communications Services poses both a challenge and an opportunity for the data user. On the one hand wireless access will introduce significant new portable data services such as personal notebooks, paging, E-mail, and fax that will put the information age in the user's pocket. On the other hand the challenge of creating a seamless and transparent environment for the user in multiple access environments and across multiple network connections is formidable. A summary of the issues associated with developing techniques and standards that can support transparent and seamless data services is presented. The introduction of data services into the radio world represents a unique mix of RF channel problems, data protocol issues, and network issues. These problems require that experts from each of these disciplines fuse the individual technologies to support these services.

  10. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Joel P; Kuntz, Joshua D; Seeley, Zachary M; Soules, Thomas F

    2011-10-18

    According to one embodiment, a method for forming a transparent ceramic preform includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, adding the suspension to a mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the suspension in the mold for forming a preform. The suspension includes a dispersant but does not include a gelling agent. In another embodiment, a method includes creating a mixture without a gelling agent, the mixture including: inorganic particles, a solvent, and a dispersant. The inorganic particles have a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm. The method also includes agitating the mixture, adding the mixture to a mold, and curing the mixture in the mold at a temperature of less than about 80.degree. C. for forming a preform. Other methods for forming a transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several embodiments.

  11. Is the cosmic transparency spatially homogeneous?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jun; Yu, Hongwei; Li, Zhengxiang; Wu, Puxun E-mail: wpx0227@gmail.com E-mail: tozlb918@163.com

    2012-10-01

    We study the constraints on the cosmic opacity using the latest BAO and Union2 SNIa data in this paper and find that the best fit values seem to indicate that an opaque universe is preferred in redshift regions 0.20-0.35, 0.35-0.44 and 0.60-0.73, whereas, a transparent universe is favored in redshift regions 0.106-0.20, 0.44-0.57 and 0.57-0.60. However, our result is still consistent with a transparent universe at the 1σ confidence level, even though the best-fit cosmic opacity oscillates between zero and some nonzero values as the redshift varies.

  12. Environmentally benign processing of YAG transparent wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Yiquan

    2015-12-01

    Transparent yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) wafers were successfully produced via aqueous tape casting and vacuum sintering techniques using a new environmentally friendly binder, a copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride with the commercial name ISOBAM (noted as ISOBAM). Aqueous YAG slurries were mixed by ball-milling, which was followed by de-gassing and tape casting of wafers. The final YAG green tapes were homogenous and flexible, and could be bent freely without cracking. After the drying and sintering processes, transparent YAG wafers were achieved. The microstructures of both the green tape and vacuum-sintered YAG ceramic were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Phase compositions were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical transmittance was measured in UV-VIS regions with the result that the transmittance is 82.6% at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  13. Transparent Optical Protection Ring Architectures and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Jun; Soulliere, Mark J.; Tebben, Daniel J.; Nederlof, Leo; Vaughn, Mark D.; Wagner, Richard E.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in optical protection rings with the focus on transparent optical protection rings. Different optical protection ring architectures, such as dedicated and shared protection rings, in both the optical-channel (OCh) layer and the optical multiplex section (OMS) layer, are described. In particular, OCh shared protection rings (OChSPRINGs) are discussed in detail including node-architecture designs, ring protocols, triggers, and messaging channels. Feasibility studies and experimental results from Corning Inc. and other companies are reviewed. The paper also discusses how protection-switching times scale with number of nodes and number of wavelengths, and shows examples of applications using the scaling rules for practical optical networks such as metro, regional, and long-haul ring networks. The cost benefits of transparent optical protection rings are analyzed using a typical metro network. Finally, the paper discusses remaining issues and future developments in the optical protection ring area.

  14. Legislation for trial registration and data transparency.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang

    2010-05-26

    Public confidence in clinical trials has been eroded by data suppression, misrepresentation and manipulation. Although various attempts have been made to achieve universal trial registration- e.g., Declaration of Helsinki, WHO clinical Trial Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors requirement- they have not succeeded, probably because they lack the enough power of enforcement.Legislation appears to be the most efficient and effective means to ensure that all researchers register their trials and disseminate their data accurately and in a timely manner. We propose that a global network be established. This could be accomplished in two steps. The first step is to legislate about trial registration and data transparency, such as USA's FDAAA Act 2007; and the second step to establish a global network to ensure uniform, international consistency in policy and enforcement of trial registration and data transparency.

  15. Graphene-based optically transparent dipole antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, Shohei; Suga, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Osamu; Koh, Shinji

    2017-06-01

    We fabricated an optically transparent dipole antenna based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown monolayer graphene on an optically transparent quartz substrate and characterized its properties in microwave bands. The measurements of the reflection coefficients for the dipole antenna revealed that ˜90% of the microwave power transmitted to the CVD monolayer graphene of the antenna element. By measuring transmission coefficients, we demonstrated that the graphene dipole antenna radiated microwave power around the operational frequency (˜20.7 GHz). The operational frequency of the graphene dipole antenna (˜20.7 GHz) shifted to a higher frequency than that of the Au dipole antenna with the same structure (˜9.2 GHz), which suggests that monolayer graphene behaves not as a metal but as a dielectric material.

  16. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Xinning; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance. PMID:28809267

  17. Transparent conducting materials: overview and recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deelen, Joop; Illiberi, Andrea; Hovestad, Arjan; Barbu, Ionut; Klerk, Lennaert; Buskens, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    An overview of different transparent conductors is given. In addition, atmospheric pressure CVD of ZnO resulted in conductivities below 1 mΩ cm for a temperature of 480°C, whereas at a process temperature of 200°C a value of 2 mΩ cm was obtained. Also atmospheric pressure spatial ALD was used to make conductive ZnO. Furthermore, the properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) can be enhanced by application of metallic grids. This way, sheet resistances of below 0.1 Ω/sq and transmittances above 85 % can be achieved. Modeling indicates that the performance of thin film cells can be enhanced by18% using a grid/TCO combination. Light scattering is a vital element of thin film solar cells and both texturization and multimaterial approaches for advanced light management such as plasmonics are discussed.

  18. Transparent monolithic metal ion containing nanophase aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Risen, W. M., Jr.; Hu, X.; Ji, S.; Littrell, K.

    1999-12-01

    The formation of monolithic and transparent transition metal containing aerogels has been achieved through cooperative interactions of high molecular weight functionalized carbohydrates and silica precursors, which strongly influence the kinetics of gelation. After initial gelation, subsequent modification of the ligating character of the system, coordination of the group VIII metal ions, and supercritical extraction afford the aerogels. The structures at the nanophase level have been probed by photon and electron transmission and neutron scattering techniques to help elucidate the basis for structural integrity together with the small entity sizes that permit transparency in the visible range. They also help with understanding the chemical reactivities of the metal-containing sites in these very high surface area materials. These results are discussed in connection with new reaction studies.

  19. Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is usually very successful in segmenting complex natural scenes. During a trip to the Nepalese Himalayas, we observed an impossible example of Nature's beauty: “transparent” mountains. The scene is captured in a photograph in which a pair of mountain peaks viewed in the far distance appear to be transparent. This illusion results from a fortuitous combination of lighting and scene conditions, which induce an erroneous integration of multiple segmentation cues. The illusion unites three classic principles of visual perception: Metelli's constraints for perceptual transparency, the Gestalt principle of good continuation, and depth from contrast and atmospheric scattering. This real-world “failure” of scene segmentation reinforces how ingeniously the human visual system typically integrates complex sources of perceptual information using heuristics based on likelihood as shortcuts to veridical perception. PMID:28299170

  20. Theory of absorption-induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Sergio G.; García-Vidal, F. J.; Martín-Moreno, L.

    2013-10-01

    Recent experiments [Hutchison, O’Carroll, Schwartz, Genet, and Ebbesen, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.1433-785110.1002/anie.201006019 50, 2085 (2011)] have demonstrated that optical transmission through an array of subwavelength holes in a metal film can be enhanced by the intentional presence of dyes in the system. As the transmission maximum occurs spectrally close to the absorption resonances of the dyes, this phenomenon was christened “absorption induced transparency”. Here, a theoretical study on absorption induced transparency is presented. The results show that the appearance of transmission maxima requires that the absorbent fills the holes and that it occurs also for single holes. Furthermore, it is shown that the transmission process is nonresonant, being composed by a sequential passage of the electromagnetic field through the hole. Finally, the physical origin of the phenomenon is demonstrated to be nonplasmonic, which implies that absorption induced transparency should also occur at the infrared or terahertz frequency regimes.

  1. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  2. Quantum Heat Engine Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yueyang; Jiang, Yue; Mei, Yefeng; Guo, Xianxin; Du, Shengwang

    2017-08-01

    We report an experiment demonstrating the generation of directional thermal radiation with a spectral brightness that is about 9 times greater than that of the ambient pumping reservoir. The experiment is based on the recent proposal for a nontraditional quantum heat engine and uses cold Rb atoms, electromagnetically induced transparency, and photon correlation spectroscopy [Phys. Rev. A 94, 053859 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.053859].

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ({sup 31}P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the {sup 31}P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. {sup 1}H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2}, consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T{sub 1} relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine {gamma}-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T{sub 1} with increasing magnetic field.

  4. Transparent heat-spreader for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo

    2014-11-04

    An optoelectronic cooling system is equally applicable to an LED collimator or a photovoltaic solar concentrator. A transparent fluid conveys heat from the optoelectronic chip to a hollow cover over the system aperture. The cooling system can keep a solar concentrator chip at the same temperature as found for a one-sun flat-plate solar cell. Natural convection or forced circulation can operate to convey heat from the chip to the cover.

  5. Experiments On Transparent Conductive Films For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; De Groh, Kim K.; Hung, Ching-Cheh; Malave-Sanabria, Tania; Hambourger, Paul; Roig, David

    1995-01-01

    Report describes experiments on thin, transparent, electrically conductive films made, variously, of indium tin oxide covered by magnesium fluoride (ITO/MgF2), aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), or pure zinc oxide (ZnO). Films are candidates for application to such spacecraft components, including various optoelectronic devices and window surfaces that must be protected against buildup of static electric charge. On Earth, such films useful on heat mirrors, optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, and automotive and aircraft windows.

  6. Innovative transparent electrode for flexible displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a new transparent electrode (TE) for flexible displays and energy saving windows. The TE is a room temperature vacuum-deposited multi-layer thin-film system. Both highly transparent rigid materials including glass and ceramics as well as flexible polymeric materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene can serve as substrates for the TE. The TE is deposited as a flexible coating that can be rolled around a 0.5cm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TE exhibits high visible transmittance without color. The transmission spectrum of the TE, which matches the eye sensitivity curve, allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. The photopic transmittance of the TE is 88% and it is a UV inhibiter. The new transparent conductor has 3-5 Ohm/sq of sheet resistance. The environmental stability of the TE was evaluated in a wedeometer with the coating on a PET substrate withstanding 150 hours at 50 °C, 95% humidity, and ultraviolet (UV), without changing its original performance. The coating can be patterned using standard etching procedures.. In this paper, the properties of the TE are compared with those of common transparent conductive oxides (TCO) including ITO, ZnO: Al and SnO2:F. In addition to the technical description, the paper analyzes potential markets and applications of the TE with emphasis on the replacing current TCO coatings, specifically ITO for flexible display electrode and energy saving window applications.

  7. Flexible, transparent electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We prepare thin single-walled carbon nanotube networks on a transparent and flexible substrate with different densities, using a very simple spray method. We measure the electric impedance at different frequencies Z(f) in the frequency range of 40 Hz to 20 GHz using two different methods: a two-probe method in the range up to 110 MHz and a coaxial (Corbino) method in the range of 10 MHz to 20 GHz. We measure the optical absorption and electrical conductivity in order to optimize the conditions for obtaining optimum performance films with both high electrical conductivity and transparency. We observe a square resistance of 1 to 8.5 kΩ for samples showing 65% to 85% optical transmittance, respectively. For some applications, we need flexibility and not transparency: for this purpose, we deposit a thick film of single-walled carbon nanotubes on a flexible silicone substrate by spray method from an aqueous suspension of carbon nanotubes in a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate), thereby obtaining a flexible conducting electrode showing an electrical resistance as low as 200 Ω/sq. When stretching up to 10% and 20%, the electrical resistance increases slightly, recovering the initial value for small elongations up to 10%. We analyze the stretched and unstretched samples by Raman spectroscopy and observe that the breathing mode on the Raman spectra is highly sensitive to stretching. The high-energy Raman modes do not change, which indicates that no defects are introduced when stretching. Using this method, flexible conducting films that may be transparent are obtained just by employing a very simple spray method and can be deposited on any type or shape of surface. PMID:23074999

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency and quantum heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. E.

    2016-11-01

    We describe how electromagnetically induced transparency may be used to construct a nontraditional near-ideal quantum heat engine as constrained by the second law. The engine is pumped by a thermal reservoir that may be either hotter or colder than that of an exhaust reservoir, and also by a monochromatic laser. As output, it produces a bright narrow emission at line center of an otherwise absorbing transition.

  9. Rapid Dissolving-Debonding Strategy for Optically Transparent Paper Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinbo; Han, Xiaogang; Fang, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Fan; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Pengbo; Li, Jun; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Elspas, Raphael; Jiang, Yuhao; Liu, Detao; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-01-01

    Transparent paper is an alternative substrate for electronic devices due to its unique properties. However, energy-intensive and/or time-consuming procedures currently limit the scalable production of transparent paper. In this report, we demonstrate a rapid process to fabricate optically transparent paper with regenerative cellulose fibers (RCFs) by employing a dissolving-debonding strategy. The RCFs have an average width of 19.3 μm and length of several hundred microns and are prepared into transparent paper by vacuum filtration. This new dissolving-debonding approach enables high production efficiency while creating transparent paper with excellent optical and mechanical properties. PMID:26657809

  10. Transparent and conformal 'piezoionic' touch sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    us Sarwar, Mirza S.; Dobashi, Yuta; Scabeni Glitz, Ettore F.; Farajollahi, Meisam; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.

    2015-04-01

    A polyurethane hydrogel based touch sensor with high transparency and conformability is demonstrated. Polyurethane hydrogels swollen with various electrolytes were compressed at a pressure of 30 kPa, simulating a fingertap on a conventional touch screen device. Unlike ionic polymer metal composite and conducting polymer trilayer sensors, where electrodes render the sensors opaque and relatively rigid, the electrodes used in this work are metal wires or strips, separated from each other by regions of transparent film, enabling transparency and compliance. The voltages and currents observed when the perturbation is above one electrode are on the order of 10-2 V and 10-7 A, relative to a second electrode that is approximately 1 cm away. The sign of voltage and current signals detected from perturbations made between electrodes is determined by relative proximity to each electrode, and the magnitude appears to decrease with increasing distance from the electrodes. These observations suggest that it may be possible to discriminate the location of touch based on signals transmitted to the edges of an ionically conductive film. A model to describe the inhomogeneous ionic distribution and predict the resultant voltage and current is presented to qualitatively explain the sensing, based on the Donnan potential.

  11. Transparent conducting oxides: A -doped superlattice approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Valentino R; Seo, Sung Seok A.; Lee, Suyoun; Kim, Jun Sung; Choi, Woo Seok; Okamoto, Satoshi; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at the interface of oxide heterostructures have been the subject of recent experiment and theory, due to the intriguing phenomena that occur in confined electronic states. However, while much has been done to understand the origin of 2DEGs and related phenomena, very little has been explored with regards to the control of conduction pathways and the distribution of charge carriers. Using first principles simulations and experimental thin film synthesis methods, we examine the effect of dimensionality on carrier transport in La delta-doped SrTiO3 (STO) superlattices, as a function of the thickness of the insulating STO spacer. Our computed Fermi surfaces and layer-resolved carrier density proles demonstrate that there is a critical thickness of the STO spacer, below which carrier transport is dominated by three-dimensional conduction of interface charges arising from appreciable overlap of the quantum mechanical wavefunctions between neighboring delta-doped layers. We observe that, experimentally, these superlattices remain highly transparent to visible light. Band structure calculations indicate that this is a result of the appropriately large gap between the O 2p and Ti d states. The tunability of the quantum mechanical wavefunctions and the optical transparency highlight the potential for using oxide heterostructures in novel opto-electronic devices; thus providing a route to the creation of novel transparent conducting oxides.

  12. Omnidirectionally Stretchable and Transparent Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Yong; Kim, Wook; Choi, Dukhyun; Kong, Jing; Park, Ho Seok

    2016-10-04

    Stretchable and transparent electrodes have been developed for applications in flexible and wearable electronics. For customer-oriented practical applications, the electrical and optical properties of stretchable electrodes should be independent of the directions of the applied stress, and such electrodes are called omnidirectionally stretchable electrodes. Herein, we report a simple and cost-effective approach for the fabrication of omnidirectionally stretchable and transparent graphene electrodes with mechanical durability and performance reliability. The use of a Fresnel lens-patterned electrode allows multilayered graphene sheets to achieve a concentric circular wavy structure, which is capable of sustaining tensile strains in all directions. The as-prepared electrodes exhibit high optical transparency, low sheet resistance, and reliable electrical performances under various deformation (e.g., bending, stretching, folding, and buckling) conditions. Furthermore, computer simulations have also been carried out to investigate the response of a Fresnel lens-patterned structure on the application of mechanical stresses. This study can be significant in a large variety of potential applications, ranging from stretchable devices to electronic components in various wearable integrated systems.

  13. Electromagnetically induced transparency in optical microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Chun; Li, Bei-Bei; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-08-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a quantum interference effect arising from different transition pathways of optical fields. Within the transparency window, both absorption and dispersion properties strongly change, which results in extensive applications such as slow light and optical storage. Due to the ultrahigh quality factors, massive production on a chip and convenient all-optical control, optical microcavities provide an ideal platform for realizing EIT. Here we review the principle and recent development of EIT in optical microcavities. We focus on the following three situations. First, for a coupled-cavity system, all-optical EIT appears when the optical modes in different cavities couple to each other. Second, in a single microcavity, all-optical EIT is created when interference happens between two optical modes. Moreover, the mechanical oscillation of the microcavity leads to optomechanically induced transparency. Then the applications of EIT effect in microcavity systems are discussed, including light delay and storage, sensing, and field enhancement. A summary is then given in the final part of the paper.

  14. National transparency assessment of Kuwait's pharmaceutical sector.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Dalia A; Alkhamis, Yousif; Qaddoumi, Mohammad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2015-09-01

    Corruption is one of several factors that may hinder the access to pharmaceuticals. Since Kuwait has the highest per-capita spending on pharmaceuticals in the region, we wanted to evaluate the level of transparency in its pharmaceutical sector using an established assessment tool adapted by the World Health Organization. Standardized questionnaires were conducted via semi-structured interviews with key informants to measure the level of transparency in eight functions of the public pharmaceutical sector. The scores for the degree of vulnerability to corruption reflected marginal to moderate venerability to corruption for most pharmaceutical sectors. The perceived strengths included availability of appropriate laws, the presence of clear standard operating procedures, and the use of an efficient registration/distribution system. Weaknesses included lack of conflict of interest guidelines and written terms of reference, absence of pharmacoeconomic studies, and inconsistencies in law enforcement. Findings reveal that few functions of Kuwait pharmaceutical sector remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. However, the willingness of Kuwait Ministry of Health to adopt the assessment study and the acknowledgement of the weaknesses of current processes of the pharmaceutical sector may assist to achieve a transparent pharmaceutical system in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-14

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration.

  16. Transparent organic photodiodes stacked with electroluminescence devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takahiro; Sakanoue, Kei; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2005-10-01

    Stacked devices that consisted of transparent organic photodiodes (TOPDs) and organic electroluminescence devices (OELs) were demonstrated. TOPDs were prepared by poly-(2-methoxy-5- (2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend films as an active layer and transparent Au cathode (10 nm thick). These TOPDs showed about 45 % transmittance on average in visible light region (380-780 nm) and good correlation between incident light intensity and output photocurrent. Based on these results, the stacked devices were prepared by introducing OELs on TOPDs through a SiO insulating layer. The structure of OELs was ITO/Carbon/TPD/Alq3/LiF/Al. These stacked devices work as light emitting devices and also photo diodes. Since TOPDs have transparency, OELs can illuminate a paper put on the glass substrate through TOPDs and TOPDs can receive reflective light from the paper. Although the TOPDs also absorb light from OELs directly, the output signals from TOPDs changed according to the black and white pattern of the paper. These results show that the devices act as an image sensor having light emitting layer and light receiving layer in a same area.

  17. Impact of the 'Giving Cigarettes is Giving Harm' campaign on knowledge and attitudes of Chinese smokers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Ling; Thrasher, James F; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Fong, Geoffrey T; Chang, Yvette; Walsemann, Katrina M; Friedman, Daniela B

    2015-11-01

    To date there is limited published evidence on the efficacy of tobacco control mass media campaigns in China. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a mass media campaign 'Giving Cigarettes is Giving Harm' (GCGH) on Chinese smokers' knowledge of smoking-related harms and attitudes towards cigarette gifts. Population-based, representative data were analysed from a longitudinal cohort of 3709 adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey conducted in six Chinese cities before and after the campaign. Logistic regression models were estimated to examine associations between campaign exposure and attitudes towards cigarette gifts measured post-campaign. Poisson regression models were estimated to assess the effects of campaign exposure on post-campaign knowledge, adjusting for pre-campaign knowledge. Fourteen percent (n=335) of participants recalled the campaign within the cities where the GCGH campaign was implemented. Participants in the intervention cities who recalled the campaign were more likely to disagree that cigarettes are good gifts (71% vs 58%, p<0.01) and had greater levels of campaign-targeted knowledge than those who did not recall the campaign (mean=1.97 vs 1.62, p<0.01). Disagreeing that cigarettes are good gifts was higher in intervention cities than in control cities. Changes in campaign-targeted knowledge were similar in both cities, perhaps due to a secular trend, low campaign recall or contamination issues. These findings suggest that the GCGH campaign increased knowledge of smoking harms, which could promote downstream cessation. This study provides evidence to support future campaign development to effectively fight the tobacco epidemic in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20–74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19–89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  19. Method of forming macro-structured high surface area transparent conductive oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Arnold J.; Chen, Zhebo; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-05

    A method of forming a high surface area transparent conducting electrode is provided that includes depositing a transparent conducting thin film on a conductive substrate, where the transparent conducting thin film includes transparent conductive particles and a solution-based transparent conducting adhesive layer which serves to coat and bind together the transparent conducting particles, and heat treating the transparent conducting adhesion layer on the conductive substrate, where an increased surface area transparent conducting electrode is formed.

  20. Transparent Conductive Nanofiber Paper for Foldable Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Masaya; Karakawa, Makoto; Komoda, Natsuki; Yagyu, Hitomi; Nge, Thi Thi

    2015-11-26

    Optically transparent nanofiber paper containing silver nanowires showed high electrical conductivity and maintained the high transparency, and low weight of the original transparent nanofiber paper. We demonstrated some procedures of optically transparent and electrically conductive cellulose nanofiber paper for lightweight and portable electronic devices. The nanofiber paper enhanced high conductivity without any post treatments such as heating or mechanical pressing, when cellulose nanofiber dispersions were dropped on a silver nanowire thin layer. The transparent conductive nanofiber paper showed high electrical durability in repeated folding tests, due to dual advantages of the hydrophilic affinity between cellulose and silver nanowires, and the entanglement between cellulose nanofibers and silver nanowires. Their optical transparency and electrical conductivity were as high as those of ITO glass. Therefore, using this conductive transparent paper, organic solar cells were produced that achieved a power conversion of 3.2%, which was as high as that of ITO-based solar cells.

  1. Visibly transparent polymer solar cells produced by solution processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chao; Dou, Letian; Zhu, Rui; Chung, Choong-Heui; Song, Tze-Bin; Zheng, Yue Bing; Hawks, Steve; Li, Gang; Weiss, Paul S; Yang, Yang

    2012-08-28

    Visibly transparent photovoltaic devices can open photovoltaic applications in many areas, such as building-integrated photovoltaics or integrated photovoltaic chargers for portable electronics. We demonstrate high-performance, visibly transparent polymer solar cells fabricated via solution processing. The photoactive layer of these visibly transparent polymer solar cells harvests solar energy from the near-infrared region while being less sensitive to visible photons. The top transparent electrode employs a highly transparent silver nanowire-metal oxide composite conducting film, which is coated through mild solution processes. With this combination, we have achieved 4% power-conversion efficiency for solution-processed and visibly transparent polymer solar cells. The optimized devices have a maximum transparency of 66% at 550 nm.

  2. Transparent Conductive Nanofiber Paper for Foldable Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nogi, Masaya; Karakawa, Makoto; Komoda, Natsuki; Yagyu, Hitomi; Nge, Thi Thi

    2015-01-01

    Optically transparent nanofiber paper containing silver nanowires showed high electrical conductivity and maintained the high transparency, and low weight of the original transparent nanofiber paper. We demonstrated some procedures of optically transparent and electrically conductive cellulose nanofiber paper for lightweight and portable electronic devices. The nanofiber paper enhanced high conductivity without any post treatments such as heating or mechanical pressing, when cellulose nanofiber dispersions were dropped on a silver nanowire thin layer. The transparent conductive nanofiber paper showed high electrical durability in repeated folding tests, due to dual advantages of the hydrophilic affinity between cellulose and silver nanowires, and the entanglement between cellulose nanofibers and silver nanowires. Their optical transparency and electrical conductivity were as high as those of ITO glass. Therefore, using this conductive transparent paper, organic solar cells were produced that achieved a power conversion of 3.2%, which was as high as that of ITO-based solar cells. PMID:26607742

  3. Transparent Conductive Nanofiber Paper for Foldable Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogi, Masaya; Karakawa, Makoto; Komoda, Natsuki; Yagyu, Hitomi; Nge, Thi Thi

    2015-11-01

    Optically transparent nanofiber paper containing silver nanowires showed high electrical conductivity and maintained the high transparency, and low weight of the original transparent nanofiber paper. We demonstrated some procedures of optically transparent and electrically conductive cellulose nanofiber paper for lightweight and portable electronic devices. The nanofiber paper enhanced high conductivity without any post treatments such as heating or mechanical pressing, when cellulose nanofiber dispersions were dropped on a silver nanowire thin layer. The transparent conductive nanofiber paper showed high electrical durability in repeated folding tests, due to dual advantages of the hydrophilic affinity between cellulose and silver nanowires, and the entanglement between cellulose nanofibers and silver nanowires. Their optical transparency and electrical conductivity were as high as those of ITO glass. Therefore, using this conductive transparent paper, organic solar cells were produced that achieved a power conversion of 3.2%, which was as high as that of ITO-based solar cells.

  4. Interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, Roberto; Colonna, Daniele; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2013-02-11

    In this paper we analyze the interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells by varying fabrication parameters such as the thickness of the nano-crystalline TiO(2) layer, the dye loading and the dye type. Both transparency and efficiency show a saturation trend when plotted versus dye loading. By introducing the transparency-efficiency plot, we show that the relation between transparency and efficiency is linear and is almost independent on the TiO(2) thickness for a certain thickness range. On the contrary, the relation between transparency and efficiency depends strongly on the type of the dye. Moreover, we show that co-sensitization techniques can be effectively used to access regions of the transparency-efficiency space that are forbidden for single dye sensitization. The relation found between transparency and efficiency (T&E) can be the general guide for optimization of Dye Solar Cells in building integration applications.

  5. Direction-Giving Skills in the Classroom (A Teaching Tip).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Charlynn

    1992-01-01

    Offers a unit on direction giving to help students identify effective and ineffective direction giving; become familiar with the preparation and presentation components of sound direction giving; and determine whether the message intended was the massage received. Discusses barriers to listening, misunderstandings, and provides exercises and steps…

  6. Direction-Giving Skills in the Classroom (A Teaching Tip).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Charlynn

    1992-01-01

    Offers a unit on direction giving to help students identify effective and ineffective direction giving; become familiar with the preparation and presentation components of sound direction giving; and determine whether the message intended was the massage received. Discusses barriers to listening, misunderstandings, and provides exercises and steps…

  7. How Much Will Alumni Give in the Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol, Ralph, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Factors in alumni giving to colleges are discussed, some aspects of alumni giving to all higher education are forecast, and for illustration, probable giving to one college (Amherst College, Massachusetts) is predicted. Factors considered include alumni numbers, dollar amounts given, and the link between stock market activities and donations. (MSE)

  8. Capacity to give surgical consent does not imply capacity to give anesthesia consent: implications for anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Catherine; Seagull, F Jacob; Loreck, David; Bourke, Denis L; Sandson, Neil B

    2010-02-01

    There is precedent in medicine for recognizing and accepting intact decisional capacity and the subsequent ability to provide valid consent in one treatment domain, while simultaneously recognizing that the patient lacks decisional capacity in other domains. As such, obtaining consent for anesthesia for a surgical procedure is a separate entity from obtaining consent for the surgery itself. Anesthesia for surgery and the surgical procedure itself are separate treatment domains and as such require separate consents. Anesthesiologists should understand the independence of these functionally linked consent processes and be vigilant with respect to the informed consent process. The cases reported in this article show that capacity for surgical consent may be inadequate for consent to anesthesia because anesthesia involves more abstract concepts requiring a higher cognitive state than surgery, thus requiring a higher state of cognitive capacity for understanding.

  9. Electrochemical and Optical Evaluation of Noble Metal-and Carbon-ITO Hybrid Optically Transparent Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zudans, Imants; Paddock, Jean R.; Kuramitz, Hideki; Maghasi, Anne T.; Wansapura, Chamika M.; Conklin, Sean D.; Kaval, Necati; Shtoyko, Tanya; Monk, David J.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Richardson, John N.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2004-04-15

    Optically transparent hybrid electrodes were constructed by sputtering or thermally evaporating layers of varying thickness of Au, Pd, Pt, or C onto an existing conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) layer on glass. These electrodes were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry; redox probes examined were potassium ferricyanide, tris-(2, 2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride, hydroquinone, and para-aminophenol (PAP). Each type of hybrid was evaluated and compared with other hybrids, as well as with bare ITO electrodes and commercially available Au, Pt, and glassy carbon disk electrodes. Our results indicated that these hybrid electrodes are reasonably robust, easy to prepare, and extend the capabilities of bare ITO surfaces with respect to the electrochemical response (especially for organic redox probes), while giving up little in the way of optical transparency. Because of these characteristics, hybrid electrodes should be especially suited to many spectroelectrochemical applications.

  10. Tuning optical properties of transparent conducting barium stannate by dimensional reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We report calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of doped n-type perovskite BaSnO{sub 3} and layered perovskites. While doped BaSnO{sub 3} retains its transparency for energies below the valence to conduction band onset, the doped layered compounds exhibit below band edge optical conductivity due to transitions from the lowest conduction band. This gives absorption in the visible for Ba{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}. Thus, it is important to minimize this phase in transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Ba{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Ba{sub 4}Sn{sub 3}O{sub 10} have strong transitions only in the red and infrared, respectively. Thus, there may be opportunities for using these as wavelength filtering TCO.

  11. Three-pathway electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled-cavity optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fu-Chuan; Gao, Ming; Du, Chunguang; Jing, Qing-Li; Long, Gui-Lu

    2015-05-04

    Recently Qu and Agarwal [Phys. Rev. A 22, 031802 (2013)] found a three-pathway electromagnetically induced absorption (TEIA) phenomenon within a mechanically coupled two-cavity system, where there exist a sharp EIA dip in the broad electromagnetically induced transparency peak in the transmission spectrum. In this work, we study the response of a probe light in a pair of directly coupled microcavities with one mechanical mode. We find that in addition to the sharp TEIA dip within a broad EIT window as found by Qu and Agarwal, three-pathway electromagnetically induced transparency (TEIT) within the broad EIT window could also exist under certain conditions. We give explicit physical explanations and detailed calculations. Our results provide a method for controlling transition between TEIA and TEIT in coupled optomechanical systems, and reveal the multiple pathways interference is versatile for controlling light.

  12. Long-term stability improvement of light-emitting diode using highly transparent graphene oxide paste.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungae; Kim, Yun Ki; Jang, Jyongsik

    2016-10-14

    A highly transparent paste adhesive is successfully fabricated by introducing graphene oxide (GO) to silicone paste adhesive by using a solvent-exchange method. The GO incorporated in the paste adhesive has a significant role in improving thermal conductivity, transparency and adhesive strength. The GO-embedded silicone paste is applied as a die-attach paste to light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in order to enhance the optical quality of the LEDs. The presence of GO in the die-attach layer of the LEDs gives rise to the enhancement of luminous intensity, effective heat dissipation, improvement of moisture barrier property as well as high adhesive strength. Consequently, the LEDs with the GO-embedded die-attach paste exhibit enhanced long-term stability. This novel approach provides a feasible and effective strategy for improving LED performance.

  13. Tuning optical properties of transparent conducting barium stannate by dimensional reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-30

    We report calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of doped n-type perovskite BaSnO3 and layered perovskites. While doped BaSnO3 retains its transparency for energies below the valence to conduction band onset, the doped layered compounds exhibit below band edge optical conductivity due to transitions from the lowest conduction band. This gives absorption in the visible for Ba2SnO4. It is important to minimize this phase in transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Ba3Sn2O7 and Ba4Sn3O10 have strong transitions only in the red and infrared, respectively. Thus, there may be opportunities for using these as wavelength filtering TCO.

  14. Tuning optical properties of transparent conducting barium stannate by dimensional reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming; ...

    2015-01-30

    We report calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of doped n-type perovskite BaSnO3 and layered perovskites. While doped BaSnO3 retains its transparency for energies below the valence to conduction band onset, the doped layered compounds exhibit below band edge optical conductivity due to transitions from the lowest conduction band. This gives absorption in the visible for Ba2SnO4. It is important to minimize this phase in transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Ba3Sn2O7 and Ba4Sn3O10 have strong transitions only in the red and infrared, respectively. Thus, there may be opportunities for using these as wavelength filtering TCO.

  15. Transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors based on multilayer transparent source-drain electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yongsheng E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn; Lin, Jie; Li, Yantao; Liu, Xingyuan E-mail: liuxy@ciomp.ac.cn

    2016-08-08

    A fabrication method for transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors with transparent Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag/Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAS) source and drain electrodes has been developed. A pentacene/N,N′-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (PTCDI-C13) bilayer heterojunction is used as the active semiconductor. The electrodes are deposited by room temperature electron beam evaporation. The devices are fabricated without damaging the active layers. The SAS electrodes have high transmittance (82.5%) and low sheet resistance (8 Ω/sq). High performance devices with hole and electron mobilities of 0.3 cm{sup 2}/V s and 0.027 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively, and average visible range transmittance of 72% were obtained. These transistors have potential for transparent logic integrated circuit applications.

  16. Clinical trials transparency and the Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) act.

    PubMed

    Logvinov, Ilana

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trial research is the cornerstone for successful advancement of medicine that provides hope for millions of people in the future. Full transparency in clinical trials may allow independent investigators to evaluate study designs, perform additional analysis of data, and potentially eliminate duplicate studies. Current regulatory system and publishers rely on investigators and pharmaceutical industries for complete and accurate reporting of results from completed clinical trials. Legislation seems to be the only way to enforce mandatory disclosure of results. The Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) Act of 2012 was introduced to the legislators in the United States to promote greater transparency in research industry. Public safety and advancement of science are the driving forces for the proposed policy change. The TEST Act may benefit the society and researchers; however, there are major concerns with participants' privacy and intellectual property protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors based on multilayer transparent source-drain electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yongsheng; Lin, Jie; Li, Yantao; Liu, Xingyuan

    2016-08-01

    A fabrication method for transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors with transparent Sb2O3/Ag/Sb2O3 (SAS) source and drain electrodes has been developed. A pentacene/N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (PTCDI-C13) bilayer heterojunction is used as the active semiconductor. The electrodes are deposited by room temperature electron beam evaporation. The devices are fabricated without damaging the active layers. The SAS electrodes have high transmittance (82.5%) and low sheet resistance (8 Ω/sq). High performance devices with hole and electron mobilities of 0.3 cm2/V s and 0.027 cm2/V s, respectively, and average visible range transmittance of 72% were obtained. These transistors have potential for transparent logic integrated circuit applications.

  18. Workshop II: Nanotechnology and Advanced Cell Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Workshop focused on few emerging concepts(beyond tandem cells): 1. Engineering incident sun spectrum and transparency losses a) Nano emitters (dot concentrator); b) Surface plasmonics; c) Up converters; d) Down converter. 2. Intermediate band solar cells a) Efficiency projections (detail energy balance projections); b) Inserting 0,1 and 2D semiconductor structures in solar cells 3. Polymer and hybrid cells a) Nanotubes/dot polymers; b) Exciton dissociation.

  19. Who gives? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable giving, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. [Biometric bases: basic concepts of probability calculation].

    PubMed

    Dinya, E

    1998-04-26

    The author gives or outline of the basic concepts of probability theory. The bases of the event algebra, definition of the probability, the classical probability model and the random variable are presented.

  1. Advanced two-photon photolithography for patterning of transparent, electrically conductive ionic liquid-polymer nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtina, Natalia A.; MacKinnon, Neil; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in micro- and nanotechnology is the direct patterning of functional structures. For example, it is highly desirable to possess the ability to create three-dimensional (3D), conductive, and optically transparent structures. Efforts in this direction have, to date, yielded less than optimal results since the polymer composites had low optical transparency over the visible range, were only slightly conductive, or incompatible with high resolution structuring. We have previously presented the novel cross-linkable, conductive, highly transparent composite material based on a photoresist (IP-L 780, OrmoComp, or SU-8) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. Material patterning by conventional and two-photon photolithography has been demonstrated as proof-of-concept. Aiming to increase the resolution and to extend the spectrum of exciting applications we continued our research into identifying new ionic liquid - polymer composites. In this paper, we report the precise 3D single-step structuring of optically transparent and electrically conductive ionic liquid - polymer nanostructures with the highest spatial resolution (down to 150 nm) achieved to date. This was achieved via the development of novel cross-linkable composite based on the photoresist IP-G 780 and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. The successful combination of the developed material with the advanced direct laser writing technique enabled the time- and cost-saving direct manufacturing of transparent, electrically conductive components. We believe that the excellent characteristics of the structured material will open a wider range of exciting applications.

  2. Ultra-Thin Optically Transparent Carbon Electrodes Produced from Layers of Adsorbed Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Alharthi, Sarah A.; Benavidez, Tomas E.; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a simple, versatile, and inexpensive procedure to prepare optically transparent carbon electrodes, using proteins as precursors. Upon adsorption, the protein-coated substrates were pyrolyzed under reductive conditions (5% H2) to form ultra-thin, conductive electrodes. Because proteins spontaneously adsorb to interfaces forming uniform layers, the proposed method does not require a precise control of the preparation conditions, specialized instrumentation, or expensive precursors. The resulting electrodes were characterized by a combination of electrochemical, optical, and spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-concept, the optically-transparent electrodes were also used as substrate for the development of an electrochemical glucose biosensor. The proposed films represent a convenient alternative to more sophisticated, and less available, carbon-based nanomaterials. Furthermore, these films could be formed on a variety of substrates, without classical limitations of size or shape. PMID:23421732

  3. Nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Newly eco-friendly high light transparency film with plant-based materials was investigated to future development of liquid crystal displays and optical devices with water repellency as a chemical design concept of nanoimprint lithography. This procedure is proven to be suitable for material design and the process conditions of ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography for green water-repellent film derived from biomass with high-light transparency. The developed formulation of advanced nanoimprinted materials design derived from lactulose and psicose, and the development of suitable UV nanoimprint conditions produced high resolutions of the conical shaped moth-eye regularly-nanostructure less than approximately 200 nm diameter, and acceptable patterning dimensional accuracy by the replication of 100 times of UV nanoimprint lithography cycles. The newly plant-based materials and the process conditions are expected as one of the defect less nanoimprint lithographic technologies in next generation electronic devices.

  4. Transparent luminescent layers via ionic liquid-based approach to LaPO4:RE (RE = Ce, Tb, Eu) dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, G.; Feldmann, C.

    2007-06-01

    Transparent layers containing the highly luminescent nanophosphors LaPO4:Ce,Tb and LaPO4:Eu are realized by ink-jet printing on standard transparencies and black paper. The luminescent material is non-agglomerated, 15 nm in size, and applied as a dispersion in ethanol for printing. The structured layers exhibit intense green (LaPO4:Ce,Tb) or red (LaPO4:Eu) emission. While printing on overhead transparencies, an optical transmission of about 90% is realized. This value, in fact, is limited due to the performance of the underlying polymer material. A microwave-assisted synthesis in ionic liquids as a novel concept of synthesis is prerequisite to gain the nanoscale phosphor materials.

  5. Printed optically transparent graphene cellulose electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas; Andrushchenko, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    Optically transparent electrodes are a key component in variety of products including bioelectronics, touch screens, flexible displays, low emissivity windows, and photovoltaic cells. Although highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are often used in these electrode applications, the raw material is very expensive and the electrodes often fracture when mechanically stressed. An alternative low-cost material for inkjet printing transparent electrodes on glass and flexible polymer substrates is described in this paper. The water based ink is created by using a hydrophilic cellulose derivative, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), to help suspend the naturally hydrophobic graphene (G) sheets in a solvent composed of 70% DI water and 30% 2-butoxyethanol. The CMC chain has hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional sites which allow adsorption on G sheets and, therefore, permit the graphene to be stabilized in water by electrostatic and steric forces. Once deposited on the functionalized substrate the electrical conductivity of the printed films can be "tuned" by decomposing the cellulose stabilizer using thermal reduction. The entire electrode can be thermally reduced in an oven or portions of the electrode thermally modified using a laser annealing process. The thermal process can reduce the sheet resistance of G-CMC films to < 100 Ω/sq. Experimental studies show that the optical transmittance and sheet resistance of the G-CMC conductive electrode is a dependent on the film thickness (ie. superimposed printed layers). The printed electrodes have also been doped with AuCl3 to increase electrical conductivity without significantly increasing film thickness and, thereby, maintain high optical transparency.

  6. Nanostructured transparent conducting oxide electrochromic device

    DOEpatents

    Milliron, Delia; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2016-05-17

    The embodiments described herein provide an electrochromic device. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic device includes (1) a substrate and (2) a film supported by the substrate, where the film includes transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes (a) an electrolyte, where the nanostructures are embedded in the electrolyte, resulting in an electrolyte, nanostructure mixture positioned above the substrate and (b) a counter electrode positioned above the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a conductive coating deposited on the substrate between the substrate and the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a second substrate positioned above the mixture.

  7. Transparent Seismic Mitigation for Community Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, C. D.; Pekelnicky, R.

    2008-12-01

    Healthy communities continuously grow by leveraging their intellectual capital to drive economic development while protecting their cultural heritage. Success, in part, depends on the support of a healthy built environment that is rooted in contemporary urban planning, sustainability and disaster resilience. Planners and policy makers are deeply concerned with all aspects of their communities, including its seismic safety. Their reluctance to implement the latest plans for achieving seismic safety is rooted in a misunderstanding of the hazard they face and the risk it poses to their built environment. Probabilistic lingo and public debate about how big the "big one" will be drives them to resort to their own experience and intuition. There is a fundamental lack of transparency related to what is expected to happen, and it is partially blocking the policy changes that are needed. The solution: craft the message in broad based, usable terms that name the hazard, defines performance, and establishes a set of performance goals that represent the resiliency needed to drive a community's natural ability to rebound from a major seismic event. By using transparent goals and measures with an intuitive vocabulary for both performance and hazard, earthquake professionals, working with the San Francisco Urban Planning and Research Association (SPUR), have defined a level of resiliency that needs to be achieved by the City of San Francisco to assure their response to an event will be manageable and full recovery achievable within three years. Five performance measures for buildings and three for lifeline systems have been defined. Each declares whether people will be safe inside, whether the building will be able to be repaired and whether they will be usable during repairs. Lifeline systems are further defined in terms of the time intervals to restore 90%, 95%, and full service. These transparent categories are used in conjunction with the expected earthquake level to describe

  8. Space radiation resistant transparent polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.

    1977-01-01

    A literature search in the field of ultraviolet and charged particle irradiation of polymers was utilized in an experimental program aimed at the development of radiation stable materials for space applications. The rationale utilized for material selection and the synthesis, characterization and testing performed on several selected materials is described. Among the materials tested for ultraviolet stability in vacuum were: polyethyleneoxide, polyvinylnaphthalene, and the amino resin synthesized by the condensation of o-hydroxybenzoguanamine with formaldehyde. Particularly interesting was the radiation behavior of poly(ethyleneoxide), irradiation did not cause degradation of optical properties but rather an improvement in transparency as indicated by a decrease in solar absorptance with increasing exposure time.

  9. Triplet absorption spectroscopy and electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoor, F.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.

    2016-09-01

    Coherence phenomena in a four-level atomic system, cyclically driven by three coherent fields, are investigated thoroughly at zero and weak magnetic fields. Each strongly interacting atomic state is converted to a triplet due to a dynamical Stark effect. Two dark lines with a Fano-like profile arise in the triplet absorption spectrum with anomalous dispersions. We provide conditions to control the widths of the transparency windows by means of the relative phase of the driving fields and the intensity of the microwave field, which closes the optical system loop. The effect of Doppler broadening on the results of the triplet absorption spectroscopy is analysed in detail.

  10. Biophysical aspects of corneal and lenticular transparency.

    PubMed

    Lerman, S

    1984-01-01

    The chemical composition and morphology of the cornea and lens can provide significant information regarding what wavelengths of nonionizing radiation these two tissue should absorb and transmit. Such data, including a variety of parameters determined by biophysical techniques, can provide us with information regarding the molecular basis for corneal and lenticular transparency and the subtle changes occurring with aging and ambient radiation exposure during our lifetime. The biophysical approach (fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy) has already provided new clinical tools for studying and delineating the initial events responsible for eventual opacification in these two tissues, months to years before they become manifest by current conventional clinical methods of examination.

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency with noisy lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Yanhong; Wang Tun; Baryakhtar, Maria; Jiang Liang; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Van Camp, Mackenzie; Crescimanno, Michael; Hohensee, Michael; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Phillips, David F.; Yelin, Susanne F.

    2009-10-15

    We demonstrate and characterize two coherent phenomena that can mitigate the effects of laser phase noise for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT): a laser-power-broadening-resistant resonance in the transmitted intensity cross correlation between EIT optical fields, and a resonant suppression of the conversion of laser phase noise to intensity noise when one-photon noise dominates over two-photon-detuning noise. Our experimental observations are in good agreement with both an intuitive physical picture and numerical calculations. The results have wide-ranging applications to spectroscopy, atomic clocks, and magnetometers.

  12. Cosmic distance duality and cosmic transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay; Jain, Deepak E-mail: sanjay.jhingan@gmail.com

    2012-12-01

    We compare distance measurements obtained from two distance indicators, Supernovae observations (standard candles) and Baryon acoustic oscillation data (standard rulers). The Union2 sample of supernovae with BAO data from SDSS, 6dFGS and the latest BOSS and WiggleZ surveys is used in search for deviations from the distance duality relation. We find that the supernovae are brighter than expected from BAO measurements. The luminosity distances tend to be smaller then expected from angular diameter distance estimates as also found in earlier works on distance duality, but the trend is not statistically significant. This further constrains the cosmic transparency.

  13. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    DOEpatents

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  14. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdolmaleki, Mohammadreza; Yazdani, Shahram; Momeni, Sedigheh; Momtazmanesh, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. In this study, the modified version of McKenna's approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system.

  15. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    ABDOLMALEKI, MOHAMMADREZA; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; MOMENI, SEDIGHEH; MOMTAZMANESH, NADER

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. Methods: In this study, the modified version of McKenna’s approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. Results: By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. Conclusion: According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system. PMID:28761884

  16. Microfabrication of transparent materials using filamented femtosecond laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkus, S.; Paipulas, D.; Gaižauskas, Eugenijus; KaškelytÄ--, D.; Sirutkaitis, V.

    2014-05-01

    Glass drilling realized with the help of femtosecond lasers attract industrial attention, however, desired tasks may require systems employing high numerical aperture (NA) focusing conditions, low repetition rate lasers and complex fast motion translation stages. Due to the sensitivity of such systems, slight instabilities in parameter values can lead to crack formations, severe fabrication rate decrement and poor quality overall results. A microfabrication system lacking the stated disadvantages was constructed and demonstrated in this report. An f-theta lens was used in combination with a galvanometric scanner, in addition, a water pumping system that enables formation of water films of variable thickness in real time on the samples. Water acts as a medium for filament formation, which in turn decreases the focal spot diameter and increases fluence and axial focal length. This article demonstrates the application of a femtosecond (280fs) laser towards rapid cutting of different transparent materials. Filament formation in water gives rise to strong ablation at the surface of the sample, moreover, the water, surrounding the ablated area, adds increased cooling and protection from cracking. The constructed microfabrication system is capable of drilling holes in thick soda-lime, hardened glasses and sapphire. The fabrication time varies depending on the diameter of the hole and spans from a few to several hundred seconds. Moreover, complex-shape fabrication was demonstrated.

  17. An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing An innovative transparent cranial window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. H.; Luo, Q. M.; Zhu, D.

    2012-06-01

    Noninvasive optical methods for viewing the structural and functional organization of cortex have been playing important roles in brain research, which usually suffer from turbid skull. Various cranial window models based on surgical operation have been proposed, but have respective limitations. Here, an innovative transparent cranial window of mouse was established by topically treatment with a skull optical clearing solution (SOCS), rather than by craniotomy. Based on the experiment of optical clearing efficacy of skull in vitro, we found that the turbid skull became transparent within 25 min after application of SOCS. The USAF target is visible through the treated skull, and the calculated resolution can achieve 8.4 μm. After the in vivo skull was topically treated with SOCS, the cortical micro-vessels can be visible clearly. The quantitative analysis indicated that the minimum resolution diameter of micro-vessels in 14.4±0.8 μm through the transparent cranial window closed to that in 12.8±0.9 μm of the exposed cortical micro-vessels. Further, preliminary results from Laser Speckle Imaging demonstrated that there was no influence on cortical blood flow distribution of mouse after topically treatment with SOCS on skull. This transparent cranial window will provide a convenient model for cortex imaging in vivo, which is very significant for neuroscience research.

  18. Fabrication of graphene films with high transparent conducting characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiying; Zhang, Hao

    2013-10-23

    We present a study on the transparent conducting characteristics of graphene-based films prepared by means of rapid chemical vapor deposition. The graphene films were grown on quartz slides with a CH4/Ar mixed gas under a constant flow at 950°C and then annealed at 1,000°C. It was found that the graphene films present excellent electrical conductivity with high transparency. The conductivity is up to 1,240 S/cm, the sheet resistance is lower than 1 kΩ/sq, and the transparency is well over 85% in the visible wavelength range of 400 to 800 nm, showing that the graphene films have very low resistivity and superior transparency and completely satisfy the need for transparent conductors. These properties can be used in many applications, such as transparent conductor films for touch panels. PACS: 61.48.+c, 78.67.Pt, 68.37.Hk, 68.65.Ac.

  19. Fabrication of graphene films with high transparent conducting characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We present a study on the transparent conducting characteristics of graphene-based films prepared by means of rapid chemical vapor deposition. The graphene films were grown on quartz slides with a CH4/Ar mixed gas under a constant flow at 950°C and then annealed at 1,000°C. It was found that the graphene films present excellent electrical conductivity with high transparency. The conductivity is up to 1,240 S/cm, the sheet resistance is lower than 1 kΩ/sq, and the transparency is well over 85% in the visible wavelength range of 400 to 800 nm, showing that the graphene films have very low resistivity and superior transparency and completely satisfy the need for transparent conductors. These properties can be used in many applications, such as transparent conductor films for touch panels. PACS 61.48.+c, 78.67.Pt, 68.37.Hk, 68.65.Ac PMID:24153052

  20. Tunable Broadband Transparency of Macroscopic Quantum Superconducting Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Anlage, Steven M.

    2015-10-01

    Narrow-band invisibility in an otherwise opaque medium has been achieved by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic systems. The quantum EIT behavior can be classically mimicked by specially engineered metamaterials via carefully controlled interference with a "dark mode." However, the narrow transparency window limits the potential applications that require a tunable wideband transparent performance. Here, we present a macroscopic quantum superconducting metamaterial with manipulative self-induced broadband transparency due to a qualitatively novel nonlinear mechanism that is different from conventional EIT or its classical analogs. A near-complete disappearance of resonant absorption under a range of applied rf flux is observed experimentally and explained theoretically. The transparency comes from the intrinsic bistability of the meta-atoms and can be tuned on and off easily by altering rf and dc magnetic fields, temperature, and history. Hysteretic in situ 100% tunability of transparency paves the way for autocloaking metamaterials, intensity-dependent filters, and fast-tunable power limiters.

  1. Optically transparent multi-suction electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Nagarah, John M.; Stowasser, Annette; Parker, Rell L.; Asari, Hiroki; Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) allow for acquisition of multisite electrophysiological activity with submillisecond temporal resolution from neural preparations. The signal to noise ratio from such arrays has recently been improved by substrate perforations that allow negative pressure to be applied to the tissue; however, such arrays are not optically transparent, limiting their potential to be combined with optical-based technologies. We present here multi-suction electrode arrays (MSEAs) in quartz that yield a substantial increase in the detected number of units and in signal to noise ratio from mouse cortico-hippocampal slices and mouse retina explants. This enables the visualization of stronger cross correlations between the firing rates of the various sources. Additionally, the MSEA's transparency allows us to record voltage sensitive dye activity from a leech ganglion with single neuron resolution using widefield microscopy simultaneously with the electrode array recordings. The combination of enhanced electrical signals and compatibility with optical-based technologies should make the MSEA a valuable tool for investigating neuronal circuits. PMID:26539078

  2. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  3. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Malave-Sanabria, Tania; Hambourger, Paul; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Roig, David; Degroh, Kim K.; Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1994-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10(exp 7) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  4. Transparent, Weakly Conductive Films for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, John; Morgan, Ashraf; Hambourger, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    Electrically insulating spacecraft surfaces are vulnerable to nonuniform charge buildup due to particles emitted by the sun. On Mars, insulating surfaces of exploration vehicles and structures will be affected by dust coatings possibly held in place by triboelectric surface charge. Application of a conductive film may be a solution to the charging problem, but the coating must be highly transparent if used on solar panels, lenses, etc. Sheet resistivity requirements depend on the application and are in the range 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 8) ohms/square. Co-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and MgF2 is promising, with high transparency, tailorable electrical properties, and durability to atomic oxygen. Due to ITO's relatively narrow bandgap (approximately 3.5 eV), the film might absorb enough ultraviolet to protect polymeric substrates. Recent work on dual-magnetron-sputtered ITO-MgF2 showed that a variety of polymeric substrates can be coated at room temperature. However, the sheet resistivity is very sensitive to composition, suggestive of a percolation transition. This could be a serious problem for large-scale coating production. We will report on attempts to control film composition by plasma emission monitoring of the ITO and MgF2 guns.

  5. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Frank L.; Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separation refers to the simultaneous presentation of images on different depth planes of a single display. Image separation allows the user to recognize the source of the information that is displayed. This can be important because synthetic images are more liable to flaws. We have examined methods to optimize perceptual image separation. A true depth difference between enhanced and synthetic imagery works quite well. A standard stereoscopic display based on convergence is less suitable since the two images tend to interfere: the image behind is masked (occluded) by the image in front, which results in poor viewing comfort. This effect places 3D systems based on 3D glasses, as well as most autostereoscopic displays, at a serious disadvantage. A 3D display based on additive or subtractive transparency is acceptable: both the perceptual separation and the viewing comfort are good, but the color of objects depends on the color in the other depth layer(s). A combined additive and subtractive transparent display eliminates this disadvantage and is most suitable for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. We suggest that the development of such a display system is of a greater practical value than increasing the number of depth planes in autostereoscopic displays.

  6. Fabrication of transparent yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) spherical nano-crystallites was investigated by using the solvothermal method, and the optimum processing conditions for processing the transparent ceramic preparation was determined. Powder consisting of nanosized particles obtained by the solvothermal method displays significantly less crystallite agglomeration, indicating a high degree of sinterability. The phase structure and the morphology of the YAG crystallites were depended on the reaction conditions, the optimum temperature is 300 centigrade for 1h, at which the pure phase of spherically shaped YAG nanoparticles can be obtained. Microstructure evolution at different sintering stages demonstrated that fully transparent YAG ceramic can be fabricated by vacuum sintering at 1750 centigrade for 5h by using the as-synthesized powders. The ceramic has a relative density of about 99.98% of the theoretical value, and an average grain size of about 3-5μm. The transmittance of the ceramic is 55% in the visible range, and 70% in the infrared range.

  7. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Malave-Sanabria, T.; Hambourger, P.; Rutledge, S.K.; Roig, D.; Degroh, K.K.; Hung, C.

    1994-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10[sup 2] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  8. Diabatic flow boiling in circular transparent microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvério, V.; Moreira, A. L. N.

    2012-11-01

    The horizontally assembled circular microchannel (Dh= 543μm, LHT = 60mm) made of transparent borosilicate glass is kept under constant wall heat flux conditions by means of a transparent metallic thin film deposit at the channel external wall as in Silvério and Moreira [1]. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements are achieved by measuring the temperature and pressure at the channel inlet and outlet. Temperature is also measured along the channel outer wall. Experiments are carried with two different fluids, ethanol and methanol. Inlet liquid subcooling is of 297K, mass fluxes, G, up to 689kg.m-2.s-1 and imposed heat fluxes, q"s, up to 12.5W.cm-2 at ΔTsub from 0.8 to 50K. Synchronized high-speed visualization and microscope optics are used to determine dominant two-phase flow patterns and characterize hydrodynamic instabilities. Vapor qualities, χ, of -0.1 (indicating a subcooled liquid state) to 0.5 are under investigation. Semi-periodic variation of the flow patterns is noticeable for different flow conditions.

  9. Transparent, Weakly Conductive Films for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, John; Morgan, Ashraf; Hambourger, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Electrically insulating spacecraft surfaces are vulnerable to nonuniform charge buildup due to particles emitted by the sun. On Mars, insulating surfaces of exploration vehicles and structures will be affected by dust coatings possibly held in place by triboelectric surface charge. Application of a conductive film may be a solution to the charging problem, but the coating must be highly transparent if used on solar panels, lenses, etc. Sheet resistivity requirements depend on the application and are in the range 10^2-10^8 ohms/square. Co-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and MgF2 is promising, with high transparency, tailorable electrical properties, and durability to atomic oxygen.(Joyce A. Dever et al., NASA TM 1998-208499 (August 1998).) Due to ITO's relatively narrow bandgap ( ˜3.5 eV), the film might absorb enough ultraviolet to protect polymeric substrates. Recent work on dual-magnetron-sputtered ITO-MgF2 showed that a variety of polymeric substrates can be coated at room temperature.(Thomas Cashman et al., Vacuum Technology & Coating, September 2003, p. 38.) However, the sheet resistivity is very sensitive to composition, suggestive of a percolation transition. This could be a serious problem for large-scale coating production. We will report on attempts to control film composition by plasma emission monitoring of the ITO and MgF2 guns. Supported by NASA Glenn Research Center, Cooperative Agreements NCC3-1033 and NCC3-1065.

  10. Making metals transparent: a circuit model approach.

    PubMed

    Molero, Carlos; Medina, Francisco; Rodríguez-Berral, Rauĺ; Mesa, Francisco

    2016-05-16

    Solid metal films are well known to be opaque to electromagnetic waves over a wide frequency range, from low frequency to optics. High values of the conductivity at relatively low frequencies or negative values of the permittivity at the optical regime provide the macroscopic explanation for such opacity. In the microwave range, even extremely thin metal layers (much smaller than the skin depth at the operation frequency) reflect most of the impinging electromagnetic energy, thus precluding significant transmission. However, a drastic resonant narrow-band enhancement of the transparency has recently been reported. The quasi-transparent window is opened by placing the metal film between two symmetrically arranged and closely spaced copper strip gratings. This letter proposes an analytical circuit model that yields a simple explanation to this unexpected phenomenon. The proposed approach avoids the use of lengthy numerical calculations and suggests how the transmissivity can be controlled and enhanced by manipulating the values of the electrical parameters of the associated circuit model.

  11. Accelerating Biomedical Discoveries through Rigor and Transparency.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Judith A; Brown, Liliana L; Murphy, Stephanie J; Grieder, Franziska; Silberberg, Shai D

    2017-07-01

    Difficulties in reproducing published research findings have garnered a lot of press in recent years. As a funder of biomedical research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken measures to address underlying causes of low reproducibility. Extensive deliberations resulted in a policy, released in 2015, to enhance reproducibility through rigor and transparency. We briefly explain what led to the policy, describe its elements, provide examples and resources for the biomedical research community, and discuss the potential impact of the policy on translatability with a focus on research using animal models. Importantly, while increased attention to rigor and transparency may lead to an increase in the number of laboratory animals used in the near term, it will lead to more efficient and productive use of such resources in the long run. The translational value of animal studies will be improved through more rigorous assessment of experimental variables and data, leading to better assessments of the translational potential of animal models, for the benefit of the research community and society. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Transparent self-cleaning dust shield

    DOEpatents

    Mazumder, Malay K.; Sims, Robert A.; Wilson, James D.

    2005-06-28

    A transparent electromagnetic shield to protect solar panels and the like from dust deposition. The shield is a panel of clear non-conducting (dielectric) material with embedded parallel electrodes. The panel is coated with a semiconducting film. Desirably the electrodes are transparent. The electrodes are connected to a single-phase AC signal or to a multi-phase AC signal that produces a travelling electromagnetic wave. The electromagnetic field produced by the electrodes lifts dust particles away from the shield and repels charged particles. Deposited dust particles are removed when the electrodes are activated, regardless of the resistivity of the dust. Electrostatic charges on the panel are discharged by the semiconducting film. When used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells, the power for the device may be obtained from the cells themselves. For other surfaces, such as windshields, optical windows and the like, the power must be derived from an external source. One embodiment of the invention employs monitoring and detection devices to determine when the level of obscuration of the screen by dust has reached a threshold level requiring activation of the dust removal feature.

  13. Missile Defense: Actions Needed to Improve Transparency and Accountability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Improve Transparency and Accountability March 2011 GAO-11-372 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...AND SUBTITLE Missile Defense: Actions Needed to Improve Transparency and Accountability 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... Transparency and Accountability Why GAO Did This Study Since 2002, Congress has directed GAO to assess the Missile Defense Agency’s (MDA) annual fiscal

  14. Fabrication of Transparent Multilayer Circuits by Inkjet Printing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jieke; Bao, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Sun, Jiazhen; Zhang, Cong; Li, Yang; Li, Fengyu; Yao, Xi; Song, Yanlin

    2016-02-17

    Conductive microcables embedded in a transparent film are fabricated by inkjet printing silver-nanoparticle ink into a liquid poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) precursor substrate. By controlling the spreading of the ink droplet and the rheological properties of the liquid substrate, transparent multilayer circuits composed of high-resolution embedded cables are achieved using a commercial inkjet printer. This facile strategy provides a new avenue for inkjet printing of highly integrated and transparent electronics.

  15. Effects of Agent Transparency on Multi-Robot Management Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7466 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Effects of Agent Transparency on Multi- Robot Management Effectiveness by...SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Effects of Agent Transparency on Multi- Robot Management Effectiveness by Joseph E Mercado Oak...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2013–September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effects of Agent Transparency on Multi- Robot Management

  16. Concept Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    Four teaching techniques were used to enhance conceptual learning and to increase student performance in a course in physical-chemical principles at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Missouri-Kansas City. One of the techniques, "concept overview," is described. (MLW)

  17. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-02

    The Advanced Space Transportation Group takes the future of space travel far into the 21st Century. Pictured is an artist's concept of a third generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Projected for the year 2025, this third generation RLV will introduce an era of space travel not unlike air travel today.

  18. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-15

    Shown is a concept illustration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, left, and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Ares I will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to space. Ares V will serve as NASA's primary vehicle for delivery of large-scale hardware to space.

  19. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-15

    Shown is a concept illustration of Ares I which is an in-line, two-stage rocket that will transport the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to low earth orbit. Orion will accommodate as many as six astronauts. The first stage will consist of the five-segment solid rocket booster.

  20. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-03-15

    Shown is an illustration of the Ares I concept. The first stage will be a single, five-segment solid rocket booster derived from the space shuttle programs reusable solid rocket motor. The first stage is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama for NASA's Constellation program.

  1. Envelope, phase, and frequency of ultrabroadband signal in a transparent medium

    SciTech Connect

    Shpolyanskiy, Yu. A.

    2010-10-15

    Analytical signal formalism is used for derivation of expressions for a complex envelope of radiation with ultrabroadband spectrum and an arbitrary waveform, which occur rarely in modern texts on nonlinear optics. It is demonstrated that the envelope, phase, and instantaneous frequency of femtosecond radiation pulses with an ultrabroad spectrum in a transparent medium can exhibit oscillations with a characteristic time scale considerably shorter than one field cycle at the central frequency. The interference of pulses and the generation of multiple frequencies are among phenomena giving rise to such features. It is marked that the violation of conditions imposed by the theory of analytical signal leads to ambiguity of the complex envelope.

  2. Flexible transparent conductors based on metal nanowire networks

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-04-01

    Few conductors are transparent and flexible. Metals have the best electrical conductivity, but they are opaque and stiff in bulk form. However, metals can be transparent and flexible when they are very thin or properly arranged on the nanoscale. This review focuses on the flexible transparent conductors based on percolating networks of metal. Specifically, we discuss the fabrication, the means to improve the electrical conductivity, the large stretchability and its mechanism, and the applications of these metal networks. We also suggest some criteria for evaluating flexible transparent conductors and propose some new research directions in this emerging field.

  3. Flexible Transparent Supercapacitors Based on Hierarchical Nanocomposite Films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fanhong; Wan, Pengbo; Xu, Haijun; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-05-31

    Flexible transparent electronic devices have recently gained immense popularity in smart wearable electronics and touch screen devices, which accelerates the development of the portable power sources with reliable flexibility, robust transparency and integration to couple these electronic devices. For potentially coupled as energy storage modules in various flexible, transparent and portable electronics, the flexible transparent supercapacitors are developed and assembled from hierarchical nanocomposite films of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and aligned polyaniline (PANI) nanoarrays upon their synergistic advantages. The nanocomposite films are fabricated from in situ PANI nanoarrays preparation in a blended solution of aniline monomers and rGO onto the flexible, transparent, and stably conducting film (FTCF) substrate, which is obtained by coating silver nanowires (Ag NWs) layer with Meyer rod and then coating of rGO layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Optimization of the transparency, the specific capacitance, and the flexibility resulted in the obtained all-solid state nanocomposite supercapacitors exhibiting enhanced capacitance performance, good cycling stability, excellent flexibility, and superior transparency. It provides promising application prospects for exploiting flexible, low-cost, transparent, and high-performance energy storage devices to be coupled into various flexible, transparent, and wearable electronic devices.

  4. Flexible vanadium oxide film for broadband transparent photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong-Sik; Chauhan, Khushbu R.; Kim, Joondong; Choi, Eun Ha

    2017-03-01

    A High-performing transparent and flexible photodetector was achieved by reactive sputtering method. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) thin films were deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at room temperature. The transparent and flexible photodetectors with the configurations V2O5/ZnO/ITO/PET showed high-performing photoresponse with a quick response time (4.9 ms) and high detectivity of 1.45 × 1012 Jones, under a light intensity of 1 mW/m2. We demonstrated high-performing V2O5 film-based transparent and flexible broadband photodetectors which may provide a promising approach for transparent electronic applications.

  5. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  6. : A Scalable and Transparent System for Simulating MPI Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2010-01-01

    is a scalable, transparent system for experimenting with the execution of parallel programs on simulated computing platforms. The level of simulated detail can be varied for application behavior as well as for machine characteristics. Unique features of are repeatability of execution, scalability to millions of simulated (virtual) MPI ranks, scalability to hundreds of thousands of host (real) MPI ranks, portability of the system to a variety of host supercomputing platforms, and the ability to experiment with scientific applications whose source-code is available. The set of source-code interfaces supported by is being expanded to support a wider set of applications, and MPI-based scientific computing benchmarks are being ported. In proof-of-concept experiments, has been successfully exercised to spawn and sustain very large-scale executions of an MPI test program given in source code form. Low slowdowns are observed, due to its use of purely discrete event style of execution, and due to the scalability and efficiency of the underlying parallel discrete event simulation engine, sik. In the largest runs, has been executed on up to 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, successfully simulating over 27 million virtual MPI ranks, each virtual rank containing its own thread context, and all ranks fully synchronized by virtual time.

  7. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  8. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles.

    PubMed

    Falgout, Z; Linne, M

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  9. A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of Giving Spiritual Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to…

  10. CASE Planned Giving Ideas. The Best of CASE CURRENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Garigan, Catherine S., Ed.

    Collected are articles by planned giving (deferred giving) experts on institutional commitment, policies, and programs to encourage various types of gifts to higher education institutions: bequests, unitrusts, annuity trusts, charitable income trusts (lead trusts), pooled income funds, gifts of land and so on. A major article covers how to hire…

  11. Giving Tree Teachers: Women and the National Board Certification Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tara Star; Bruce, Mary; Graham, Peg; Oliver, Steve; Oppong, Nicholas; Park, Soonhye; Mansberger, Dorann

    2005-01-01

    Shel Silverstein's children's book "The Giving Tree" imparts a useful metaphor for thinking about the role of teachers--women teachers in particular. The book's namesake is the epitome of altruism, providing branches, fruit, and even her trunk so that her beloved boy might have what he desires. And so it goes for women; endless giving,…

  12. Donors to Higher Education. A Statistical Profile of Individual Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balz, Frank

    Patterns of individual giving to higher education in 1984 are reported, along with the characteristics of donors. The study sample consisted of 66 private and 33 public colleges and universities. Information is presented on: the size of the gift; the income level of donors, by household adjusted gross income; level of giving of donors by whether…

  13. Cognitive Skills in the Charitable Giving Decisions of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell N., III

    2011-01-01

    Charitable giving is a common, and easily measurable, form of prosocial behavior. It may also provide a unique cognitive challenge in that it often requires identifying with the needs of distant others. Using a sample of 331 cognitively normal seniors (mean age of 76), this study examined the relationship between charitable giving and scores on 18…

  14. CASE Planned Giving Ideas. The Best of CASE CURRENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Virginia L., Ed.; Garigan, Catherine S., Ed.

    Collected are articles by planned giving (deferred giving) experts on institutional commitment, policies, and programs to encourage various types of gifts to higher education institutions: bequests, unitrusts, annuity trusts, charitable income trusts (lead trusts), pooled income funds, gifts of land and so on. A major article covers how to hire…

  15. How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Giving students good feedback on all their schoolwork is one of the toughest challenges every teacher faces. But here at last is a guide that helps you always know how to give the right feedback for all kinds of assignments, in every grade level and subject area. Susan M. Brookhart covers every possible aspect of the topic, including: (1) What…

  16. Cognitive Skills in the Charitable Giving Decisions of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell N., III

    2011-01-01

    Charitable giving is a common, and easily measurable, form of prosocial behavior. It may also provide a unique cognitive challenge in that it often requires identifying with the needs of distant others. Using a sample of 331 cognitively normal seniors (mean age of 76), this study examined the relationship between charitable giving and scores on 18…

  17. Sources and Uses of Annual Giving at Private Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher L.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated why private research universities differ in the sources and uses of their annual giving using data from 74 private universities and a subset of 29 private universities. Findings identify some factors that determine giving, but models could explain only part of the differences in funding from different sources. (SLD)

  18. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  19. Thin transparent film characterization by photothermal reflectance (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Voti, R.; Wright, O. B.; Matsuda, O.; Larciprete, M. C.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.

    2003-01-01

    Photothermal reflectance methods have been intensively applied to the nondestructive testing of opaque thin films [D. P. Almond and P. M. Patel, Photothermal Science and Techniques (Chapman and Hall, London, 1996); C. Bento and D. P. Almond, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1022 (1995); J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, and D. Willenborg, Appl. Opt. 22, 3169 (1983)]. The basic principle is based on thermal wave interferometry: the opaque specimen is illuminated by a laser beam, periodically chopped at the frequency f, so as to generate a plane thermal wave in the surface region. This wave propagates in the film, approaches the rear interface (film-bulk), is partially reflected back, reaches the front surface, is again partially reflected back and so on, giving rise to thermal wave interference. A consequence of this interference is that the surface temperature may be enhanced (constructive interference) or reduced (destructive interference) by simply scanning the frequency f (that is, the thermal diffusion length μ=√D/πf ), so as to observe damped oscillations as a function of f; in practice only the first oscillation may be clearly resolved and used to measure either the film thickness d or the film thermal diffusivity D, and this situation occurs when μ≈d. In general, photothermal reflectance does not measure directly the surface temperature variation, but rather a directly related signal determined by the thermo-optic coefficients and the sample geometry; for detection it is common to monitor the optical reflectivity variation of a probe beam normally incident on the sample. If the thin film is partially transparent to the probe, the theory becomes more difficult [O. Matsuda and O. B. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (in press)] and one should consider the probe beam multiple reflections in the thin film. The probe modulation is optically inhomogeneous due to the temperature-induced changes in refractive index. Although in the past the complexity of the analysis has impeded

  20. Broadband plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials via constructive interference of electric and magnetic couplings.

    PubMed

    Wan, Mingli; Song, Yueli; Zhang, Liufang; Zhou, Fengqun

    2015-10-19

    Plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) is a result of destructive interference of different plasmonic resonators. Due to the extreme dispersion within the narrow transparency window, PIT metamaterials are utilized to realize slow light and nonlinear effect. However, other applications such as broadband filtering more desire a broad transmission frequency band at the PIT resonance. In this paper, a broadband PIT effect is demonstrated theoretically in a planar terahertz metamaterial, consisting of a U-shaped ring (USR) supporting electric and magnetic dipole modes as the bright resonator and a cut wire pair (CWP) possessing planar electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole modes as the dark resonator. The dark resonant modes of the CWP can be excited simultaneously via near-field by both the electric and magnetic dipole modes of the USR. When the electric as well as magnetic excitation pathways constructively interact with each other, the enhanced near-field coupling between bright and dark resonators gives rise to an ultra-broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.61 THz in the transmittance spectrum.

  1. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-15

    THIS CONCEPT IMAGE SHOWS THE ARES V CARGO LAUNCH VEHICLE. THE HEAVY LIFTING ARES V IS NASA'S PRIMARY VEHICLE FOR SAFE AND RELIABLE DELIVERY OF LARGE SCALE HARDWARE TO SPACE. THIS INCLUDES THE LUNAR LANDER, MATERIALS FOR ESTABLISHING A PERMANENT MOON BASE, AND THE VEHICLES AND HARDWARE NEEDED TO EXTEND A HUMAN PRESENCE BEYOND EARTH ORBIT. ARES V CAN CARRY APPROXIMATELY 290,000 POUNDS TO LOW EARTH ORBIT AND 144,000 POUNDS TO LUNAR ORBIT.

  2. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-15

    Shown is a concept illustration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle during launch and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle on the launch pad. Ares I will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle with an astronaut crew to Earth orbit. Ares V will deliver large-scale hardware to space. This includes the Altair Lunar Lander, materials for establishing an outpost on the moon, and the vehicles and hardware needed to extend a human presence beyond Earth orbit.

  3. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-03-15

    A CONCEPT IMAGE SHOWS THE ARES I CREW LAUNCH VEHICLE DURING ASCENT. ARES I IS AN IN-LINE, TWO-STAGE ROCKET CONFIGURATION TOPED BY THE ORION CREW EXPLORATION VEHICLE AND LAUNCH ABORT SYSTEM. THE ARES I FIRST STAGE IS A SINGLE, FIVE-SEGMENT REUSABLE SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER, DERIVED FROM THE SPACE SHUTTLE. ITS UPPER STAGE IS POWERED BY A J-2X ENGINE. ARES I WILL CARRY THE ORION WITH ITS CRW OF UP TO SIX ASTRONAUTS TO EARTH ORBIT.

  4. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-08-13

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the experimental Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the X-37 located in the cargo bay of a space shuttle with Earth in the background. The X-37 was designed to launch from the space shuttle's cargo bay as a secondary payload. Once deployed, the X-37 would remain on-orbit up to 21 days performing a variety of experiments before re-entering the Earth's atmosphere and landing. The X-37 program was discontinued in 2003.

  5. Concept mapping: a road to critical thinking.

    PubMed

    St Cyr, Sheila K; All, Anita C

    2009-01-01

    Graduate nurses entering the workforce today are, at times, lacking in the area of critical thinking. Giving graduate nurses a concept map would provide a tool to guide their critical thinking until it becomes inherent or second nature. The concept map, a graphic illustration of key points, guides the focus of patient problems using a body system approach. This article details the use of a concept map in the application of knowledge to practice.

  6. Deep understanding of electromagnetism using crosscutting concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Poorter, John; De Lange, Jan; Devoldere, Lies; Van Landeghem, Jouri; Strubbe, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Crosscutting concepts like patterns and models are fundamental parts in both the American framework of science education (from the AAAS) and our proposals for a new science education framework in Flanders. These concepts deepen the insight of both students and teachers. They help students to ask relevant questions during an inquiry and they give an understanding in how scientists built up their scientific theories. We illustrate the didactical possibilities of crosscutting concepts within the field of electromagnetism.

  7. Concept mapping: a road to critical thinking.

    PubMed

    St Cyr, Sheila K; All, Anita C

    2009-01-01

    Graduate nurses entering the workforce today are, at times, lacking in the area of critical thinking. Giving graduate nurses a concept map would provide a tool to guide their critical thinking until it becomes inherent or second nature. The concept map, a graphic illustration of key points, guides the focus of patient problems using a body system approach. This article details the use of a concept map in the application of knowledge to practice.

  8. Tunable lenses using transparent dielectric elastomer actuators.

    PubMed

    Shian, Samuel; Diebold, Roger M; Clarke, David R

    2013-04-08

    Focus tunable, adaptive lenses provide several advantages over traditional lens assemblies in terms of compactness, cost, efficiency, and flexibility. To further improve the simplicity and compact nature of adaptive lenses, we present an elastomer-liquid lens system which makes use of an inline, transparent electroactive polymer actuator. The lens requires only a minimal number of components: a frame, a passive membrane, a dielectric elastomer actuator membrane, and a clear liquid. The focal length variation was recorded to be greater than 100% with this system, responding in less than one second. Through the analysis of membrane deformation within geometrical constraints, it is shown that by selecting appropriate lens dimensions, even larger focusing dynamic ranges can be achieved.

  9. Large-Strain Transparent Magnetoactive Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses polymer nano - composite superparamagnetic actuators that were prepared by the addition of organically modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. The nanocomposite films exhibited large deformations under a magnetostatic field with a low loading level of 0.1 wt% in a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) matrix. The maximum actuation deformation of the nanocomposite films increased exponentially with increasing nanoparticle concentration. The cyclic deformation actuation of a high-loading magnetic nanocomposite film was examined in a low magnetic field, and it exhibited excellent reproducibility and controllability. Low-loading TPU nanocomposite films (0.1-2 wt%) were transparent to semitransparent in the visible wavelength range, owing to good dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetoactuation phenomena were also demonstrated in a high-modulus, high-temperature polyimide resin with less mechanical deformation.

  10. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Soules, Thomas F.

    2012-12-25

    A method for forming a transparent ceramic preform in one embodiment includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, wherein the suspension includes a dispersant, with the proviso that the suspension does not include a gelling agent; and uniformly curing the suspension for forming a preform of gelled suspension. A method according to another embodiment includes creating a mixture of inorganic particles, a solvent and a dispersant, the inorganic particles having a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm; agitating the mixture; adding the mixture to a mold; and curing the mixture in the mold for gelling the mixture, with the proviso that no gelling agent is added to the mixture.

  11. Classroom Activities to Make Aquifers Transparent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J. P.; Mays, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have shown that in-class hands-on activities help K-12 students gain a deeper conceptual understanding for the subject matter. With funding from the National Science Foundation, the University of Colorado Denver is working to increase the availability of groundwater-related hands-on activities in TeachEngineering, a peer-reviewed online database of searchable lesson plans for use by K-12 teachers and other educators. In this presentation, we would like to present and solicit feedback on groundwater-related hands-on demonstrations such as quicksand, infiltration into porous pavement, or using refractive index matching to render transparent porous media that allow lasers to measure flow within model groundwater aquifers.

  12. Assuring data transparency through design methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Allen

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of design methodologies and practices in the assurance of technology transparency. The development of several subsystems on large, long life cycle government programs was analyzed to glean those characteristics in the design, development, test, and evaluation that precluded or enabled the insertion of new technology. The programs examined were Minuteman, DSP, B1-B, and space shuttle. All these were long life cycle, technology-intensive programs. The design methodologies (or lack thereof) and design practices for each were analyzed in terms of the success or failure in incorporating evolving technology. Common elements contributing to the success or failure were extracted and compared to current methodologies being proposed by the Department of Defense and NASA. The relevance of these practices to the design and deployment of Space Station Freedom were evaluated. In particular, appropriate methodologies now being used on the core development contract were examined.

  13. Achieving transparency in implementing abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Erdman, J N; Dickens, B M

    2007-11-01

    National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny.

  14. Reporting transparency: making the ethical mandate explicit.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Stuart G; Langan, Sinéad M; Benchimol, Eric I; Moher, David

    2016-03-16

    Improving the transparency and quality of reporting in biomedical research is considered ethically important; yet, this is often based on practical reasons such as the facilitation of peer review. Surprisingly, there has been little explicit discussion regarding the ethical obligations that underpin reporting guidelines. In this commentary, we suggest a number of ethical drivers for the improved reporting of research. These ethical drivers relate to researcher integrity as well as to the benefits derived from improved reporting such as the fair use of resources, minimizing risk of harms, and maximizing benefits. Despite their undoubted benefit to reporting completeness, questions remain regarding the extent to which reporting guidelines can influence processes beyond publication, including researcher integrity or the uptake of scientific research findings into policy or practice. Thus, we consider investigation on the effects of reporting guidelines an important step in providing evidence of their benefits.

  15. Transparent lattices and their solitary waves.

    PubMed

    Sadurní, E

    2014-09-01

    We provide a family of transparent tight-binding models with nontrivial potentials and site-dependent hopping parameters. Their feasibility is discussed in electromagnetic resonators, dielectric slabs, and quantum-mechanical traps. In the second part of the paper, the arrays are obtained through a generalization of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in discrete variables. The formalism includes a finite-difference Darboux transformation applied to the scattering matrix of a periodic array. A procedure for constructing a hierarchy of discrete Hamiltonians is indicated and a particular biparametric family is given. The corresponding potentials and hopping functions are identified as solitary waves, pointing to a discrete spinorial generalization of the Korteweg-deVries family.

  16. Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xing Yi; Phang, In Yee; Vancso, G Julius; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N

    2009-03-03

    A superhydrophobic surface with a static water contact angle (theta(w)) > 150 degrees was created by a simple "dip-coating" method of 60-nm SiO2 nanoparticles onto an amine-terminated (NH2) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) glass/silicon oxide substrate, followed by chemical vapor deposition of a fluorinated adsorbate. For comparison, a close-packed nanoparticle film, formed by convective assembly, gave theta(w) approximately 120 degrees. The stability of the superhydrophobic coating was enhanced by sintering of the nanoparticles in an O2 environment at high temperature (1100 degress C). A sliding angle of < 5 degrees indicated the self-cleaning properties of the surface. The dip-coating method can be applied to glass substrates to prepare surfaces that are superhydrophobic and transparent.

  17. Femtosecond transparency in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarana, Michal; Greene, Chris H.

    2012-06-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency-like behavior in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) is studied theoretically, including the effect of intense 800nm laser dressing of He 2s2p(^1P^o) and 2p^2(^2S^e) autoionizing states. We present an ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in an LS-coupling configuration interaction basis set. The method enables a rigorous treatment of optical field ionization of these coupled autoionizing states into the N = 2 continuum in addition to N = 1. Our calculated transient absorption spectra show the formation of the Autler-Townes doublet in the presence of the dressing laser field. The presented results are in encouraging agreement with experiment [1]. [4pt] [1] Z.H. Loh, C.H. Greene, and S. R. Leone, Chem. Phys. 350, 7 (2008)

  18. Noise filtering via electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Taek; Bae, In-Ho; Moon, Han Seb

    2017-01-01

    We report on the intensity-noise reduction of pseudo-thermal light via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the Λ-type system of the 5S1/2-5P1/2 transition in 87Rb. Noise filtering of the pseudo-thermal probe light was achieved via an EIT filter and measured according to the degree of intensity noise of the pseudo-thermal probe light. Reductions in the intensity and spectral noise of the pseudo-thermal probe light with the EIT filter were observed using the direct intensity fluctuation and heterodyne detection technique, respectively. Comparison of the intensity noise of the pseudo-thermal probe light before and after passing through the EIT filter revealed a significant reduction in the intensity noise.

  19. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games.

  20. Assuring data transparency through design methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Allen

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of design methodologies and practices in the assurance of technology transparency. The development of several subsystems on large, long life cycle government programs was analyzed to glean those characteristics in the design, development, test, and evaluation that precluded or enabled the insertion of new technology. The programs examined were Minuteman, DSP, B1-B, and space shuttle. All these were long life cycle, technology-intensive programs. The design methodologies (or lack thereof) and design practices for each were analyzed in terms of the success or failure in incorporating evolving technology. Common elements contributing to the success or failure were extracted and compared to current methodologies being proposed by the Department of Defense and NASA. The relevance of these practices to the design and deployment of Space Station Freedom were evaluated. In particular, appropriate methodologies now being used on the core development contract were examined.