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Sample records for glacial lake outburst

  1. Assessing glacial lake outburst flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougkoulos, Ioannis; Cook, Simon; Jomelli, Vincent; Clarke, Leon; Symeonakis, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Glaciers across the world are thinning and receding in response to atmospheric warming. Glaciers tend to erode subglacial basins and deposit eroded materials around their margins as lateral-frontal terminal moraines. Recession into these basins and behind impounding moraines causes meltwater to pond as proglacial and supraglacial lakes. Consequently, there has been a general trend of increasing number and size of these lakes associated with glacier melting in many mountainous regions around the globe, in the last 30 years. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) then may occur where the glacial lake dam (ice, rock, moraine, or combination thereof) is breached, or overtopped, and thousands of people have lost their lives to such events in the last few decades, especially in the Andes and in the Himalaya. Given the ongoing and arguably increasing risk posed to downstream communities, and infrastructure, there has been a proliferation of GLOF studies, with many seeking to estimate GLOF hazard or risk in specific regions, or to identify 'potentially dangerous glacial lakes'. Given the increased scientific interest in GLOFs, it is timely to evaluate critically the ways in which GLOF risk has been assessed previously, and whether there are improvements that can be made to the ways in which risk assessment is achieved. We argue that, whilst existing GLOF hazard and risk assessments have been extremely valuable they often suffer from a number of key shortcomings that can be addressed by using different techniques as multi-criteria decision analysis and hydraulic modelling borrowed from disciplines like engineering, remote sensing and operations research.

  2. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-03-16

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m(2). As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions.

  3. Simulations of cataclysmic outburst floods from Pleistocene Glacial Lake Missoula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denlinger, Roger P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a flow domain that we constructed from 30 m digital-elevation model data of western United States and Canada and a two-dimensional numerical model for shallow-water flow over rugged terrain, we simulated outburst floods from Pleistocene Glacial Lake Missoula. We modeled a large, but not the largest, flood, using initial lake elevation at 1250 m instead of 1285 m. Rupture of the ice dam, centered on modern Lake Pend Oreille, catastrophically floods eastern Washington and rapidly fills the broad Pasco, Yakima, and Umatilla Basins. Maximum flood stage is reached in Pasco and Yakima Basins 38 h after the dam break, whereas maximum flood stage in Umatilla Basin occurs 17 h later. Drainage of these basins through narrow Columbia gorge takes an additional 445 h. For this modeled flood, peak discharges in eastern Washington range from 10 to 20 × 106 m3/s. However, constrictions in Columbia gorge limit peak discharges to 6 m3/s and greatly extend the duration of flooding. We compare these model results with field observations of scabland distribution and high-water indicators. Our model predictions of the locations of maximum scour (product of bed shear stress and average flow velocity) match the distribution of existing scablands. We compare model peak stages to high-water indicators from the Rathdrum-Spokane valley, Walulla Gap, and along Columbia gorge. Though peak stages from this less-than-maximal flood model attain or exceed peak-stage indicators along Rathdrum-Spokane valley and along Columbia gorge, simulated peak stages near Walulla Gap are 10–40 m below observed peak-stage indicators. Despite this discrepancy, our match to field observations in most of the region indicates that additional sources of water other than Glacial Lake Missoula are not required to explain the Missoula floods.

  4. The 1988 glacial lake outburst flood in Guangxieco Lake, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-J.; Cheng, Z.-L.; Li, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The 1988 glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in Guangxieco Lake is studied based on geomorphological evidence, interviews with local residents, field surveys in 1990 and 2007, and satellite images from different years. The findings are as follows. (1) The outburst event was caused by two major factors, namely, intense pre-precipitation and persistent high temperatures before the outburst and the low self-stability of the terminal moraine dam as a result of perennial piping. (2) The GLOF, with the peak discharge rate of 1270 m3 s-1, evolved along Midui Valley in the following order: sediment-laden flow, viscous debris flow, non-viscous debris flow, and sediment-laden flood, which was eventually blocked by Palongzangbu River. (3) A comparison between the conditions during the outburst in 1988 and the present conditions suggests a small possibility of a future outburst unless drastic changes occur in landscape and climate. Reconstructing the outburst conditions and the GLOF processes is helpful in assessing a potential outburst in glacier lakes in Tibet.

  5. Early warning method of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods based on temperature and rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Su, Pengcheng; Cheng, Zunlan

    2017-04-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are serious disasters in glacial areas. At present, glaciers are retreating while glacial lake area and the outburst risk increases due to the global warming. Therefore, the research of early warning method of GLOFs is important to prevent and reduce the disasters. This paper provides an early warning method using the temperature and rainfall as indices. The daily growth rate of positive antecedent accumulative temperature and the antecedent thirty days accumulative precipitation are calculated for 21 events of GLOF before 2010, based on data from the 21 meteorological stations nearby. The result shows that all the events are above the curve, TV = -0.0193RDC + 3.0018, which can be taken as the early warning threshold curve. This has been verified by the GLOF events in the Ranzeaco glacial lake on 2013-07-05.

  6. Changing glacial lakes and associated outburst floods risks in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Indian Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal, S.; Singh, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Glacial lakes and associated outburst floods (GLOFs) have increased in the Himalayan region due to climate change during the last century that has led to huge losses to society. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to map glacial lakes, their increasing extent, and associated damage potential in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Indian Himalaya. The glacial lakes were mapped on Landsat TM (3 November, 2009 and 6 November 2010) and Landsat MSS satellite images (15 November 1976 and 26 October 1979) to assess their changing area. Potential GLOFs sites have been identified and studied for their damage potentials using site characteristics and past occurrence of GLOFs. A total of 35 lakes were mapped, of which 14 lakes are located at more than 4500 m. The size and damage potentials of lakes have increased. Some lakes grew so much that they merged to form a big lake. All of these are potential GLOFs and can cause severe damage to society.

  7. Local Communities and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Mitigation: Lessons from Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Discourse in recent years among scientists and non-scientists increasingly promotes the involvement of local people in hazard mitigation, including inhabitants of floodplains in valleys below moraine-dammed glacial lakes. Despite advances in understanding human vulnerability to glacial lake outburst floods, there has been much less research on how these vulnerable populations are involved (or ignored) in the actual outburst flood mitigation process. Which groups should be involved? Are they in fact participating? Is that involvement successful? Peru's Cordillera Blanca mountain range provides an ideal site to help answer these questions because its moraine-dammed glacial lakes have produced more than a dozen outburst floods since ~1860. After floods in 1941, 1945, and 1950 killed approximately 6,000, the national government created a state agency, which still exists today, to monitor glacial lakes and prevent future outburst floods. Using this region as a case study to answer the above questions, this paper has three components. First, it provides historical examples of local people's participation in disaster mitigation, but shows that the outcome of such local involvement frequently turned out differently than scientists, engineers, and planners anticipated. Second, it shows the challenges and difficulties of involving local groups. Recent efforts in workshops, aid projects, and government programs show only limited success in community participation in disaster mitigation agendas. Third, the paper suggests that in many cases local indigenous people, as icons of the Andean region but often not the most vulnerable group, are disproportionately victimized and tacitly invited into disaster mitigation discussions. Poor urban residents inhabiting floodplains are often neglected, even though they are the most vulnerable to outburst floods. As other world regions such as the Himalayas increasingly contend with potential glacial lake outburst floods, these lessons from

  8. Climate Change Adaptation Decision Making for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Palcacocha Lake in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar, A. D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Peru leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, avalanche into the lake or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Palcacocha Lake in the Peruvian Andes has experienced accelerated growth since it burst in 1941 and threatens the major city of Huaraz and surrounding communities. Since the 1941 flood stakeholders have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat posed by Palcacocha Lake. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Palcacocha have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects. This work presents the first step to rationally analyze the risks posed by Palcacocha Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed. In this work the authors use decision analysis to asses proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding. Flood characteristics are used in the HEC-FIA software to estimate fatalities and injuries from an outburst flood, which we convert to monetary units using the value of a statistical life. We combine the monetary consequences of a GLOF with the cost of the proposed projects and a diffuse probability distribution for the likelihood of an event to estimate the expected cost of the adaptation plans. From this analysis we found that lowering the lake level by 15 meters has the least expected cost of any proposal despite uncertainty in the effect of lake lowering on flooding downstream.

  9. Towards an improved inventory of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veh, Georg; Walz, Ariane; Korup, Oliver; Roessner, Sigrid

    2016-04-01

    The retreat of glaciers in the Himalayas and the associated release of meltwater have prompted the formation and growth of thousands of glacial lakes in the last decades. More than 2,200 of these lakes have developed in unconsolidated moraine material. These lakes can drain in a single event, producing potentially destructive glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Only 44 GLOFs in the Himalayas have been documented in more detail since the 1930s, and evidence for a change, let alone an increase, in the frequency of these flood events remains elusive. The rare occurrence of GLOFs is counterintuitive to our hypothesis that an increasing amount of glacial lakes has to be consistent with a rising amount of outburst floods. Censoring bias affects the GLOF record, such that mostly larger floods with commensurate impact have been registered. Existing glacial lake inventories are also of limited help for the identification of GLOFs, as they were created in irregular time steps using different methodological approach and covering different regional extents. We discuss the key requirements for generating a more continuous, close to yearly time series of glacial lake evolution for the Himalayan mountain range using remote sensing data. To this end, we use sudden changes in glacial lake areas as the key diagnostic of dam breaks and outburst floods, employing the full archive of cloud-free Landsat data (L5, L7 and L8) from 1988 to 2015. SRTM and ALOS World 3D topographic data further improve the automatic detection of glacial lakes in an alpine landscape that is often difficult to access otherwise. Our workflow comprises expert-based classification of water bodies using thresholds and masks from different spectral indices and band ratios. A first evaluation of our mapping approach suggests that GLOFs reported during the study period could be tracked independently by a significant reduction of lake size between two subsequent Landsat scenes. This finding supports the feasibility

  10. Modeling a glacial lake outburst flood process chain: the case of Lake Palcacocha and Huaraz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo A.; Chisolm, Rachel E.; Rivas, Denny S.; Portocarrero, Cesar; McKinney, Daene C.

    2016-07-01

    One of the consequences of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from lakes that have formed at the base of retreating glaciers. GLOFs are often triggered by avalanches falling into glacial lakes, initiating a chain of processes that may culminate in significant inundation and destruction downstream. This paper presents simulations of all of the processes involved in a potential GLOF originating from Lake Palcacocha, the source of a previously catastrophic GLOF on 13 December 1941, killing about 1800 people in the city of Huaraz, Peru. The chain of processes simulated here includes (1) avalanches above the lake; (2) lake dynamics resulting from the avalanche impact, including wave generation, propagation, and run-up across lakes; (3) terminal moraine overtopping and dynamic moraine erosion simulations to determine the possibility of breaching; (4) flood propagation along downstream valleys; and (5) inundation of populated areas. The results of each process feed into simulations of subsequent processes in the chain, finally resulting in estimates of inundation in the city of Huaraz. The results of the inundation simulations were converted into flood intensity and preliminary hazard maps (based on an intensity-likelihood matrix) that may be useful for city planning and regulation. Three avalanche events with volumes ranging from 0.5 to 3 × 106 m3 were simulated, and two scenarios of 15 and 30 m lake lowering were simulated to assess the potential of mitigating the hazard level in Huaraz. For all three avalanche events, three-dimensional hydrodynamic models show large waves generated in the lake from the impact resulting in overtopping of the damming moraine. Despite very high discharge rates (up to 63.4 × 103 m3 s-1), the erosion from the overtopping wave did not result in failure of the damming moraine when simulated with a hydro-morphodynamic model using excessively conservative soil

  11. Modeling a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Process Chain: The Case of Lake Palcacocha and Huaraz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo; Rivas Gomez, Denny; McKinney, Daene C.; Portocarrero Rodriguez, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    One of the consequences of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is the risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) from lakes that have formed at the base of retreating glaciers. GLOFs are often triggered by avalanches falling into glacial lakes, initiating a chain of processes that may culminate in significant inundation and destruction downstream. This paper presents simulations of all of the processes involved in a potential GLOF originating from Lake Palcacocha, the source of a previously catastrophic GLOF on December 13, 1941, 1800 people in the city of Huaraz, Peru. The chain of processes simulated here includes: (1) avalanches above the lake; (2) lake dynamics resulting from the avalanche impact, including wave generation, propagation, and run-up across lakes; (3) terminal moraine overtopping and dynamic moraine erosion simulations to determine the possibility of breaching; (4) flood propagation along downstream valleys; and (5) inundation of populated areas. The results of each process feed into simulations of subsequent processes in the chain, finally resulting in estimates of inundation in the city of Huaraz. The results of the inundation simulations were converted into flood intensity and hazard maps (based on an intensity-likelihood matrix) that may be useful for city planning and regulation. Three avalanche events with volumes ranging from 0.5-3 x 106 m3 were simulated, and two scenarios of 15 m and 30 m lake lowering were simulated to assess the potential of mitigating the hazard level in Huaraz. For all three avalanche events, three-dimensional hydrodynamic models show large waves generated in the lake from the impact resulting in overtopping of the damming-moraine. Despite very high discharge rates (up to 63.4 x 103 m3/s), the erosion from the overtopping wave did not result in failure of the damming-moraine when simulated with a hydro-morphodynamic model using excessively conservative soil characteristics that provide very

  12. Decision Making Methodology to Mitigate Damage From Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Imja Lake in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, D. C.; Cuellar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Nepal leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, moraine failure or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Imja Lake in the Himalaya of Nepal has experienced accelerated growth since it first appeared in the 1960s. Communities threatened by a flood from Imja Lake have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat of a GLOF. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Imja have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects in part because this information is unknown or uncertain. This work presents a demonstration of a decision making methodology developed to rationally analyze the risks posed by Imja Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed using available information. In this work the authors use decision analysis, data envelopement analysis (DEA), and sensitivity analysis to assess proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding and estimate fatalities using an empirical method developed for dam failures. The DEA methodology allows us to estimate the value of a statistical life implied by each project given the cost of the project and number of lives saved to determine which project is the most efficient. In contrast the decision analysis methodology requires fatalities to be assigned a cost but allows the inclusion of uncertainty in the decision making process. We compare the output of these two methodologies and determine the

  13. Monitoring of Bashkara glacial lakes (the Central Caucasus) and modelling of their potential outburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylenko, I.; Norin, S.; Petrakov, D.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.

    2009-04-01

    In recent decades due to glacier retreat the glacial lakes in the Central Caucasus, as well as in other high-mountainous areas of the world, have expanded intensively. As result the risk of lake outbursts and destructive floods is raising. In this paper we present one of the most potentially hazardous lakes of this region - a group of glacial lakes near the Bashkara glacier in the upper Adylsu river valley, to the southeast of Mt. Elbrus. Total area of these lakes is about 100,000m2, and a total volume exceeds 1,000,000 m3. The biggest of them - the Bashkara lake has formed in late 1930s - early 1940s and the small Lapa lake has appeared in the end of 1980s. The Bashkara lake outburst occurred twice in the end of 1950s and produced devastating debris flows of ca. 2 million m3. We have monitored these lakes since 1999. Our work includes detailed field research: constant measurements of water level during warm period, annually repeated bathymetric surveys, geodetic surveys, observations on dam condition and some special measurements (i.e. water temperature distribution, current velocity). Also we use aerial and satellite images to obtain data about dynamic of areas for the lakes. From 2001 to 2006 years volume of the Lapa lake has increased 5 times (from 30,000 m3 to 140,000 m3), the Bashkara lake in this period was quasi-stable. In 2006-2008 volume of the Lapa lake has decreased due to sedimentation, however, rapid growth of water level in Bashkara lake (more than 20 sm. per day) has suddenly begun. As a result, volume of the Bashkara lake exceeded 1,000000 m3 in July 2008 whereas in 2001 -2007 year it was about 800,000 m3. Previous maximum of water level was exceeded on 3,5 m, moraine dam with ice core was overtopped and overflow has started. Thus, Bashkara glacier lakes are unstable and risk of outburst is increasing. To assess parameters and zones of potential outburst flood in the Adylsu River valley we have carried out hydrodynamic simulation. Two computer

  14. Hazard Map in Huaraz-Peru due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood from Palcacocha Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Chisolm, R. E.; McKinney, D. C.; Rivas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Palcacocha lake is located in the Ancash Region in the Cordillera Blanca at an elevation of 4,567 m in the Quilcay sub-basin, province of Huaraz, Peru. The lake drains into the Quebrada Cojup, which subsequently drains into the Quilcay River. The Quilcay River passes through the City of Huaraz emptying its water into the Santa River, which is the primary river of the basin. This location has a special interest since the city of Huaraz, which is located at the bottom of the Quilcay sub-basin, was devastated by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) released from Lake Palcacocha on December 13, 1941. In that event, many lost their lives. In recent years Palcacocha has grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Ice/rock avalanches from the steep surrounding slopes can now directly reach the lake. A process chain of debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow from Lake Palcacocha could easily reach the city of Huaraz with the current lake volume. Local authorities and people living in Huaraz are concerned about the threat posed by Lake Palcacocha, and consequently they have requested technical support in order to investigate the impacts that a GLOF could have in the city of Huaraz. To assess the hazard for the city of Huaraz a holistic approach is used that considers a chain of processes that could interact in a GLOF event from Lake Palcacocha. We assume that an avalanche from Palcaraju glacier, located directly above the lake, could be a GLOF trigger, followed by the formation of waves in the lake that can overtop the damming moraine starting an erosive process. The wave and avalanche simulations are described in another work, and here we use those results to simulate the propagation of the inundation downstream using FLO-2D, a model that allows us to include debris flow. GLOF hydrographs are generated using a dam break module in Mike 11. Empirical equations are used to calculate the hydrograph peaks and calibrate the inundation model. In order to quantify

  15. Uncertainty in the Himalayan energy-water nexus: estimating regional exposure to glacial lake outburst floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Himalayan water resources attract a rapidly growing number of hydroelectric power projects (HPP) to satisfy Asia’s soaring energy demands. Yet HPP operating or planned in steep, glacier-fed mountain rivers face hazards of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that can damage hydropower infrastructure, alter water and sediment yields, and compromise livelihoods downstream. Detailed appraisals of such GLOF hazards are limited to case studies, however, and a more comprehensive, systematic analysis remains elusive. To this end we estimate the regional exposure of 257 Himalayan HPP to GLOFs, using a flood-wave propagation model fed by Monte Carlo-derived outburst volumes of >2300 glacial lakes. We interpret the spread of thus modeled peak discharges as a predictive uncertainty that arises mainly from outburst volumes and dam-breach rates that are difficult to assess before dams fail. With 66% of sampled HPP are on potential GLOF tracks, up to one third of these HPP could experience GLOF discharges well above local design floods, as hydropower development continues to seek higher sites closer to glacial lakes. We compute that this systematic push of HPP into headwaters effectively doubles the uncertainty about GLOF peak discharge in these locations. Peak discharges farther downstream, in contrast, are easier to predict because GLOF waves attenuate rapidly. Considering this systematic pattern of regional GLOF exposure might aid the site selection of future Himalayan HPP. Our method can augment, and help to regularly update, current hazard assessments, given that global warming is likely changing the number and size of Himalayan meltwater lakes.

  16. Glacier change and glacial lake outburst flood risk in the Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Simon J.; Kougkoulos, Ioannis; Edwards, Laura A.; Dortch, Jason; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Glaciers of the Bolivian Andes represent an important water resource for Andean cities and mountain communities, yet relatively little work has assessed changes in their extent over recent decades. In many mountain regions, glacier recession has been accompanied by the development of proglacial lakes, which can pose a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard. However, no studies have assessed the development of such lakes in Bolivia despite recent GLOF incidents here. Our mapping from satellite imagery reveals an overall areal shrinkage of 228.1 ± 22.8 km2 (43.1 %) across the Bolivian Cordillera Oriental between 1986 and 2014. Shrinkage was greatest in the Tres Cruces region (47.3 %), followed by the Cordillera Apolobamba (43.1 %) and Cordillera Real (41.9 %). A growing number of proglacial lakes have developed as glaciers have receded, in accordance with trends in most other deglaciating mountain ranges, although the number of ice-contact lakes has decreased. The reasons for this are unclear, but the pattern of lake change has varied significantly throughout the study period, suggesting that monitoring of future lake development is required as ice continues to recede. Ultimately, we use our 2014 database of proglacial lakes to assess GLOF risk across the Bolivian Andes. We identify 25 lakes that pose a potential GLOF threat to downstream communities and infrastructure. We suggest that further studies of potential GLOF impacts are urgently required.

  17. Glacier change and glacial lake outburst flood risk in the Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougkoulos, Ioannis; Cook, Simon J.; Edwards, Laura A.; Dortch, Jason; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Glaciers of the Bolivian Andes represent an important water resource for Andean cities and mountain communities, yet relatively little work has assessed changes in their extent over recent decades. In many mountain regions, glacier recession has been accompanied by the development of proglacial lakes, which can pose a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard. However, no studies have assessed the development of such lakes in Bolivia despite recent GLOF incidents here. Our mapping from satellite imagery reveals an overall areal shrinkage of 228.1 ± 22.8 km2 (43.1%) across the Bolivian Cordillera Oriental between 1986 and 2014. Shrinkage was greatest in the Tres Cruces region (47.3%), followed by the Cordillera Apolobamba (43.1%) and Cordillera Real (41.9%). A growing number of proglacial lakes have developed as glaciers have receded, in accordance with trends in most other deglaciating mountain ranges, although the number of ice-contact lakes has decreased. The reasons for this are unclear, but the pattern of lake change has varied significantly throughout the study period, suggesting that monitoring of future lake development is required as ice continues to recede. Ultimately, we use our 2014 database of proglacial lakes to assess GLOF risk across the Bolivian Andes. We identify 25 lakes that pose a potential GLOF threat to downstream communities and infrastructure. We suggest that further studies of potential GLOF impacts are urgently required.

  18. New method for assessing the susceptibility of glacial lakes to outburst floods in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, A.; Vilímek, V.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new and easily repeatable method for assessing the susceptibility of glacial lakes to outburst floods (GLOFs) within the Peruvian region of the Cordillera Blanca. The presented method was designed to: (a) be repeatable (from the point of view of the demands on input data), (b) be reproducible (to provide an instructive guide for different assessors), (c) provide multiple results for different GLOF scenarios and (d) be regionally focused on the lakes of the Cordillera Blanca. Based on the input data gained from remotely sensed images and digital terrain models/topographical maps, the susceptibility of glacial lakes to outburst floods is assessed using a combination of decision trees for clarity and numerical calculation for repeatability and reproducibility. A total of seventeen assessed characteristics are used, of which seven have not been used in this context before. Also, several ratios and calculations are defined for the first time. We assume that it is not relevant to represent the overall susceptibility of a particular lake to outburst floods by one result (number), thus it is described in the presented method by five separate results (representing five different GLOF scenarios). These are potentials for (a) dam overtopping resulting from a fast slope movement into the lake, (b) dam overtopping following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream, (c) dam failure resulting from a fast slope movement into the lake, (d) dam failure following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream and (e) dam failure following a strong earthquake. All of these potentials include two or three components and theoretically range from 0 to 1. The presented method was verified on the basis of assessing the pre-flood conditions of seven lakes which have produced ten glacial lake outburst floods in the past and ten lakes which have not. A comparison of these results showed that the presented method successfully identified lakes

  19. Outburst floods of glacial lakes in Patagonia: is there an increasing trend?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casassa, Gino; Wendt, Jens; Wendt, Anja; López, Paulina; Schuler, Thomas; Maas, Hans-Gerd; Carrasco, Jorge; Rivera, Andrés.

    2010-05-01

    Glaciers in Patagonia are temperate and many of them are receding at an accelerated rate, with a consequent enlargement of glacial lakes. We will review the occurrence of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) recorded during the last century in Patagonia (Northern and Southern Patagonia icefields), and analyse them in view of the general warming of 0.5°C affecting the region during the last 40 years. Special attention will be devoted to Lake Cachet 2 (47°12' S, 73°15' W, 422 m a.s.l.) which has experienced 6 GLOF events during the last 2 years: April 6-7 2008, October 7-8 2008, 21-22 December 2008, 5 March 2009, 16 September 2009 and 5-6 January 2010. Lake Cachet 2 has an area of 4 km2, located on the eastern margin of the Northern Patagonia Icefield, being dammed on its southern margin by Colonia Glacier. Prior to the April 2008 event there had been no historical record of catastrophic flooding of this lake. Each event resulted in a flood wave of which travelled down Colonia River to the confluence with Baker River in a period of less than 48 hours, where it reached peak flows of approximately 2,000 m3/s. Here we present airborne and ground explorations carried out in the period 2008-2009 which confirm that the Lake Cachet 2 floods drain through an englacial tunnel under Colonia Glacier for a distance of 8 km, emerging at the front of the glacier. We propose that the lake started draining in 2008 as a result of the weakening of the ice dam produced by long-term thinning of Colonia Glacier. Measurements of the empty lake bed were performed with the CECS airborne laser scanner onboard a helicopter, which show that the maximum water volume of the lake is 200 x 106 m3. Modelling of the flood events has been carried out based on the subglacial flood model of Clarke (2003), showing that a semi-circular subglacial tunnel attaining a maximum dimension of 15 m can evacuate Lake Cachet 2 in approximately 48 hours, with peak flows on the order of 4000 m3/s. Preliminary

  20. Climate change and diverse dimensions of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs): Lake Palcacocha case study, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Walker-Crawford, Noah; Carey, Mark; Huggel, Christian; Verheyen, Roda; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo

    2017-04-01

    Post-Little Ice Age (LIA) climate change has led to worldwide glacier retreat, formation and evolution of glacial lakes, occasionally followed by glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Hundreds of GLOFs are documented throughout the 20th and 21st century, of which a certain number that caused massive downstream destruction and up to thousands of lives lost. Management of GLOF hazards and risks has typically been a local concern, focusing on the implementation of specific technical and engineering measures. Recently, however, researchers have realized that the complexity of both the risks and the socio-environmental context requires a broader understanding and response beyond the more typical local perception and management. The growing cumulative greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, for instance, increase the anthropogenic contribution to glacier retreat, lake formation and growth and eventually to GLOF. GLOF hazard and risk management is inherently linked to the global scale from this perspective. It implies that additional important dimensions enter the debate, including ethical and legal questions about the responsibility for damage and loss due to GLOFs. Here we analyze the conditions at an emblematic case in Peru's Cordillera Blanca, which has made international headlines repeatedly since it first generated one of the world's most deadly GLOFs in 1941 to its present-day growth and instability. Situated upstream from the regional center of Huaráz (population ˜120,000), Lake Palcacocha has attracted significant attention in recent years within Peru and at an international level. Perspectives on Palcacocha lack truly cross-disciplinary research, missing more comprehensive insight. This contribution is unique for its analysis of diverse dimensions, which also provide a framework for other GLOF hazard, risk, and climate-related studies. The main aim of this constribution is to understand the links between them, their drivers and inhibitors. Four dimensions were studied

  1. Hydrologic and geomorphic changes resulting from episodic glacial lake outburst floods: Rio Colonia, Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, J.; McCoy, S. W.; McGrath, D.; Nimick, D. A.; Fahey, M.; O'kuinghttons, J.; Friesen, B. A.; Leidich, J.

    2017-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are a prominent but poorly understood cryospheric hazard in a warming climate. We quantify the hydrologic and geomorphic response to 21 episodic GLOFs that began in April 2008 using multitemporal satellite imagery and field observations. Peak discharge exiting the source lake became progressively muted downstream. At 40-60 km downstream, where the floods entered and traveled down the main stem Rio Baker, peak discharges were generally < 2000 m3 s-1, although these flows were still >1-2 times the peak annual discharge of this system, Chile's largest river by volume. As such, caution must be applied to empirical relationships relating lake volume to peak discharge, as the latter is dependent on where this observation is made along the flood path. The GLOFs and subsequent periods of free drainage resulted in > 40 m of incision, the net removal of 25 × 106 m3 of sediment from the source lake basin, and a nonsteady channel configuration downstream. These results demonstrate that GLOFs sourced from low-order tributaries can produce significant floods on major main stem rivers, in addition to significantly altering sediment dynamics.

  2. Modelling Glacial Lake Outburst Floods: Key Considerations and Challenges Posed By Climatic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westoby, M.

    2014-12-01

    The number and size of moraine-dammed supraglacial and proglacial lakes is increasing as a result of contemporary climatic change. Moraine-dammed lakes are capable of impounding volumes of water in excess of 107 m3, and often represent a very real threat to downstream communities and infrastructure, should the bounding moraine fail and produce a catastrophic Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF). Modelling the individual components of a GLOF, including a triggering event, the complex dam-breaching process and downstream propagation of the flood is incredibly challenging, not least because direct observation and instrumentation of such high-magnitude flows is virtually impossible. We briefly review the current state-of-the-art in numerical GLOF modelling, with a focus on the theoretical and computational challenges associated with reconstructing or predicting GLOF dynamics in the face of rates of cryospheric change that have no historical precedent, as well as various implications for researchers and professionals tasked with the production of hazard maps and disaster mitigation strategies.

  3. Numerical modelling of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods using physically based dam-breach models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westoby, M. J.; Brasington, J.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M. J.; Reynolds, J. M.; Hassan, M. A. A. M.

    2014-06-01

    The rapid development and instability of moraine-dammed proglacial lakes is increasing the potential for the occurrence of catastrophic Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in high-mountain regions. Advanced, physically-based numerical dam-breach models represent an improvement over existing methods for the derivation of breach outflow hydrographs. However, significant uncertainty surrounds the initial parameterisation of such models, and remains largely unexplored. We use a unique combination of numerical dam-breach and two-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling, employed with a Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework to quantify the degree of equifinality in dam-breach model output for the reconstruction of the failure of Dig Tsho, Nepal. Monte Carlo analysis was used to sample the model parameter space, and morphological descriptors of the moraine breach were used to evaluate model performance. Equifinal breach morphologies were produced by parameter ensembles associated with differing breach initiation mechanisms, including overtopping waves and mechanical failure of the dam face. The material roughness coefficient was discovered to exert a dominant influence over model performance. Percentile breach hydrographs derived from cumulative distribution function hydrograph data under- or overestimated total hydrograph volume and were deemed to be inappropriate for input to hydrodynamic modelling. Our results support the use of a Total Variation Diminishing solver for outburst flood modelling, which was found to be largely free of numerical instability and flow oscillation. Routing of scenario-specific optimal breach hydrographs revealed prominent differences in the timing and extent of inundation. A GLUE-based method for constructing likelihood-weighted maps of GLOF inundation extent, flow depth, and hazard is presented, and represents an effective tool for communicating uncertainty and equifinality in GLOF hazard assessment. However, future

  4. Automatically detecting Himalayan Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in LANDSAT time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veh, Georg; Korup, Oliver; Roessner, Sigrid; Walz, Ariane

    2017-04-01

    More than 5,000 meltwater lakes currently exist in the Himalayas, and some of them have grown rapidly in past decades due to glacial retreat. This trend might raise the risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs), which have caused catastrophic damage and several hundred fatalities in historic time. Yet the growing number and size of Himalayan glacial lakes have no detectable counterpart in increasing GLOF frequency. Only 35 events are documented in detail since the 1950s, mostly in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal and Bhutan. Observations are sparse in the far eastern and totally missing in the northwestern parts of the mountain belt. The GLOF record is prone to a censoring bias, such that mainly larger floods or flood impacts have been registered. Thus, establishing a more complete record and learning from past GLOFs is essential for hazard assessment and regional planning. To detect previously unreported GLOFs in the Himalayas, we developed an automated processing chain for generating GLOF related surface-cover time series from LANDSAT data. We downloaded more than 5,000 available LANDSAT TM, ETM+ and OLI images from 1987 to present. We trained a supervised machine-learning classifier with >4,000 randomly selected image pixels and topographic variables derived from digital topographic data (SRTM and ALOS DEMs), defining water, sediment, shadow, clouds, and ice as the five main classes. We hypothesize that GLOFs significantly decrease glacial lake area while increasing the amount of sediment cover in the channel network downstream simultaneously. Thus we excluded shadows, clouds, and lake ice from the analysis. We derived surface cover maps from the fitted model for each satellite image and compiled a pixelwise time-series stack. Customized rule sets were applied to systematically remove misclassifications and to check for a sediment fan in the flow path downstream of the former lake pixels. We verified our mapping approach on thirteen GLOFs documented in the

  5. Debris flows resulting from glacial-lake outburst floods in tibet, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Cheng, Z.; Scott, K.

    2010-01-01

    During the last 70 years of general climatic amelioration, 18 glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows have occurred from 15 moraine-dammed lakes in Tibet, China. Catastrophic loss of life and property has occurred because of the following factors: the large volumes of water discharged, the steep gradients of the U-shaped channels, and the amount and texture of the downstream channel bed and bank material. The peak discharge of each GLOF exceeded 1000 m3/s. These flood discharges transformed to non-cohesive debris flows if the channels contained sufficient loose sediment for entrainment (bulking) and if their gradients were >1%. We focus on this key element, transformation, and suggest that it be included in evaluating future GLOF-related risk, the probability of transformation to debris flow and hyperconcentrated flow. The general, sequential evolution of the flows can be described as from proximal GLOFs, to sedimentladen streamflow, to hyperconcentrated flow, to non-cohesive debris flow (viscous or cohesive debris flow only if sufficient fine sediment is present), and then, distally, back to hyperconcentrated flow and sediment-laden streamflow as sediment is progressively deposited. Most of the Tibet examples transformed only to non-cohesive debris flows. The important lesson for future hazard assessment and mitigation planning is that, as a GLOF entrains (bulks) enough sediment to become a debris flow, the flow volume must increase by at least three times (the "bulking factor"). In fact, the transforming flow waves overrun and mix with downstream streamflow, in addition to adding the entrained sediment (and thus enabling addition of yet more sediment and a bulking factor in excess of three times). To effectively reduce the risk of GLOF debris flows, reducing the level of a potentially dangerous lake with a siphon or excavated spillway or installing gabions in combination with a downstream debris dam are the primary approaches.

  6. 21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Primary energy demand in China and India has increased fivefold since 1980. To avoid power shortages and blackouts, the hydropower infrastructure in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region is seeing massive development, a strategy supported by the policy of the World Bank and in harmony with the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The targeted investments in clean energy from water resources, however, may trigger far-reaching impacts to downstream communities given that hydropower projects are planned and constructed in close vicinity to glaciated areas. We hypothesize that the location of these new schemes may be subject to higher exposure to a broad portfolio of natural hazards that proliferate in the steep, dissected, and tectonically active topography of the Himalayas. Here we focus on the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF), and offer an unprecedented regional analysis for the Hindu Kush-Himalaya orogen. We compiled a database of nearly 4,000 proglacial lakes that we mapped from satellite imagery; and focus on those as potential GLOF sources that are situated above several dozen planned and existing hydropower plants. We implemented a scenario-based flood-wave propagation model of hypothetic GLOFs, and compared thus simulated peak discharges with those of the local design floods at the power plants. Multiple model runs confirm earlier notions that GLOF discharge may exceed meteorological, i.e. monsoon-fed, flood peaks by at least an order of magnitude throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. We further show that the current trend in hydropower development near glaciated areas may lead to a >15% increase of projects that may be impacted by future GLOFs. At the same time, the majority of the projects are to be sited where outburst flood modelling produces its maximum uncertainty, highlighting the problem of locating minimum risk sites for hydropower. Exposure to GLOFs is not uniformly distributed in the Himalayas, and is particularly high in rivers draining the Mt

  7. Vulnerability assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods using Remote Sensing and GIS in North Sikkim (India), Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Suruchi; Probha Devi, Juna; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Rai, Suresh Chand

    2016-04-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) occur when glacier melt water dammed by a moraine is released in short time. Such floods may lead to disastrous events posing, therefore, a huge threat to human lives and infrastructure. A devastating GLOF in Uttarakhand, India, on 17 July 2013 has led to the loss of all villages in a stretch of 18 km downstream the lake and the loss of more than 5000 lives. The present study evaluates all 16 glacial lakes (with an area >0.1 km²) in the Thangu valley, northern Sikkim (India), eastern Himalaya, with respect to potential threats for the downstream areas. The hazard criteria for the study include slope, aspect and distance of the respective parent glacier, change in the lake area, dam characteristics and lake depth. For the most hazardous lakes, the socio-economic conditions in the downstream areas (settlements and infrastructure) are analysed regarding the impact of potential GLOFs. For the vulnerability analysis, we used various satellite products including LANDSAT, RESOUCESAT-1 and 2, RISAT-1 imageries and ASTER GDEM covering the period from 1977 to 2014. For lake mapping, we applied the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). A Land Use Land Cover (LULC) map of the study area showing in-situ observations is serving as driving factor for the vulnerability analysis. The results of the study show that almost all evaluated glacial lakes were expanding during the study period (1977-2014). Combining the hazard criteria for the lakes, 5 of the 16 studied glacial lakes are identified as highly hazardous. In the downstream area, there are two villages with 200 inhabitants and an army camp within the zone of highest vulnerability. The identified vulnerability zones may be used by the local authorities to take caution of the threatened villages and infrastructure and for risk analysis for planned future hydropower plants.

  8. Surface exposure dating of glacial lake shorelines: implications for constraining ice margin positions and meltwater outbursts during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube-Loubert, Hugo; Roy, Martin; Schaefer, Joerg

    2016-04-01

    The Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) played an important role in the climate variability of the last deglaciation, notably through large discharges of meltwater to the North Atlantic that disturbed the ocean's circulation and heat transport. Deglaciation of the northeastern sector of the LIS was complex and included the development of large ice-dammed lakes that were confined within the main river valleys draining northward into Ungava Bay. The history of these lakes is closely related to the temporal evolution of the Labrador ice dome, but large uncertainties regarding the position and dynamic of the ice margin through time currently limit our understanding of these glacial lakes. In the Ungava lowlands, glacial lake Naskaupi invaded the George River valley, leaving a series of well-developed shorelines and deltas. These spectacular raised shorelines are 10 to 20 meters wide and can be followed for several kilometers. Our field investigations and remote sensing analysis indicate that Lake Naskaupi experienced a complex history, as shown by the succession of shorelines that likely reflect the opening of new topographic outlets during ice retreat. Constraining the timing of the different phases of the lake and its drainage has traditionally been challenging, as organic material suitable for radiocarbon dating is scarce or lacking. Recent progress in Surface Exposure Dating (SED) by cosmogenic nuclides now inspires novel approaches to glacial and deglacial geomorphology. Here we apply 10Be SED to boulders that form part of these shorelines and mark the main (high-level) stage of Lake Naskaupi. We sampled 4-6 multi-meter size boulders at 4 different sites. Preliminary results show high internal consistency and, indicate that the main lake phase developed very late in the regional deglaciation, which extends from about 8500 to 6800 cal. yr BP (Dyke and Prest, 1987). We also present SED results from boulders deposited by a substantial outburst flood presumably associated with

  9. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, D. R.; Pradhananga, D.

    2014-12-01

    Alarming rate of retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in higher elevation of Nepal Himalaya has been reported to be related with the pronounced atmospheric temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya increasing the vulnerability of community living in the mountain valley, and the fragile ecosystem. This study tried to come up with the potential impacts from glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in highland of eastern region of Nepal and potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in coping. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Government of Nepal, and also prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS application in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 masl, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questioner survey and key informants interviews in the community living below the lake in the highland of the study area in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. Analysis shows the increasing trend of atmospheric temperature in the region. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community is seen as the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts

  10. An improved method to represent DEM uncertainty in glacial lake outburst flood propagation using stochastic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Cameron S.; Carrivick, Jonathan; Quincey, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    Modelling glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) or 'jökulhlaups', necessarily involves the propagation of large and often stochastic uncertainties throughout the source to impact process chain. Since flood routing is primarily a function of underlying topography, communication of digital elevation model (DEM) uncertainty should accompany such modelling efforts. Here, a new stochastic first-pass assessment technique was evaluated against an existing GIS-based model and an existing 1D hydrodynamic model, using three DEMs with different spatial resolution. The analysis revealed the effect of DEM uncertainty and model choice on several flood parameters and on the prediction of socio-economic impacts. Our new model, which we call MC-LCP (Monte Carlo Least Cost Path) and which is distributed in the supplementary information, demonstrated enhanced 'stability' when compared to the two existing methods, and this 'stability' was independent of DEM choice. The MC-LCP model outputs an uncertainty continuum within its extent, from which relative socio-economic risk can be evaluated. In a comparison of all DEM and model combinations, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM exhibited fewer artefacts compared to those with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM), and were comparable to those with a finer resolution Advanced Land Observing Satellite Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (ALOS PRISM) derived DEM. Overall, we contend that the variability we find between flood routing model results suggests that consideration of DEM uncertainty and pre-processing methods is important when assessing flow routing and when evaluating potential socio-economic implications of a GLOF event. Incorporation of a stochastic variable provides an illustration of uncertainty that is important when modelling and communicating assessments of an inherently complex process.

  11. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in Nepal Himalaya have been reported to be related with the temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya. GLOF has increased the vulnerability of community and fragile ecosystem in the mountain valleys. This study has analyzed the potential impacts from GLOF in the highland of eastern Nepal and the potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to cope with such impacts. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, and prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS applications in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 m, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questionnaire survey and key informants' interviews in the community in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community are the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts. Modern ICTs has high potential to reduce the risk of climate related hazards in the remote area by information dissemination and awareness.

  12. Rainfall and snow-melt triggered glacial lake outbursts: a systematic analysis of the Kedarnath (Uttarakhand, India), June 2013 disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Simon; Rastner, Philipp; Arora, Manohar; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Heavy rainfall in early June 2013 triggered flash flooding and landslides throughout the Indian Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, killing more than 6000 people. The destruction of roads and trekking routes left around 100,000 pilgrims and tourists stranded. Most fatalities and damages resulted directly from a lake outburst and debris flow disaster originating from above the village of Kedarnath on June 16 and 17. Here we provide a first systematic analysis of the contributing factors leading to the Kedarnath disaster, both in terms of hydro-meteorological triggering (rainfall, snowmelt, and temperature) and topographic predisposition. Specifically, the topographic characteristics of the Charobari lake watershed above Kedarnath are compared with other glacial lakes across the northwestern Indian Himalayan states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and implications for glacier lake outburst hazard assessment in a changing climate are discussed. Our analysis suggests that the early onset of heavy monsoon rainfall (390 mm, June 10 - 17) immediately following a prolonged four week period of unusually rapid snow cover depletion and elevated streamflow is the crucial hydro-meteorological factor, resulting in slope saturation and significant runoff into the small seasonal glacial lake. Over a four week period the MODIS-derived snow covered area above Kedarnath decreased nearly 50%, from above average coverage in mid-May to well below average coverage by the second week of June. Such a rapid decrease has not been observed in the previous 13-year record, where the average decrease in snow covered area over the same four week window is only 15%. The unusual situation of the lake being dammed in a steep, unstable paraglacial environment, but fed entirely from snow-melt and rainfall within a fluvial dominated watershed is important in the context of this disaster. A simple scheme enabling large-scale recognition of such an unfavorable topographic setting is presented, and on the

  13. Modelling cascading and erosional processes for glacial lake outburst floods in the Quillcay catchment, Huaraz, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Patrick; Huggel, Christian; Frey, Holger; Chisolm, Rachel; McKinney, Daene; McArdell, Brian; Portocarrero, Cesar; Cochachin, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    Huaraz as the largest city in Cordillera Blanca has faced a major disaster in 1941, when an outburst flood from Lake Palcacocha killed several thousand people and caused widespread destruction. Recent studies on glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) modelling and early warning systems focussed on Lake Palcacocha which has regrown after the 1941 event, from a volume of half a million m3 in 1974 to a total volume of more than 17 million m3 today. However, little research has been conducted so far concerning the situation of other lakes in the Quillcay catchment, namely Lake Tullparaju (12 mill. m3) and Cuchillacocha (2.5 mill. m3), which both also pose a threat to the city of Huaraz. In this study, we modelled the cascading processes at Lake Tullparaju and Lake Cuchillacocha including rock/ice avalanches, flood wave propagation in the lake and the resulting outburst flood and debris flows. We used the 2D model RAMMS to simulate ice avalanches. Model output was used as input for analytical 2D and 3D calculations of impact waves in the lakes that allowed us to estimate dam overtopping wave height. Since the dimension of the hanging glaciers above all three lakes is comparable, the scenarios in this study have been defined similar to the previous study at Lake Palcacocha. The flow propagation model included sediment entrainment in the steeper parts of the catchment, adding up to 50% to the initial flow volume. The results for total travel time as well as for inundated areas and flow depth and velocity in the city of Huaraz are comparable to the previous studies at Lake Palcacocha. This underlines the importance of considering also these lakes within an integral hazard analysis for the city of Huaraz. A main challenge for modelling GLOFs in the Quillcay catchment using RAMMS is the long runout distance of over 22 km combined with the very low slope gradient of the river. Further studies could improve the process understanding and could focus on more detailed investigations

  14. Evaluation of an early warning system for glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) events in Huaraz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, D. C.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    People in Cordillera Blanca range in Peru have a long history dealing with natural disasters associated to high mountains; particularly Glacier Lakes Outburst Flood (GLOF). Examples in the Cordillera Blanca vary from a GLOF that occurred in 1941 that killed more than 5000 people in the city of Huaraz to recent events from Lake Artison Baja in 2012 and Lake 513 on 2010, which were not devastating thanks to safety systems previously installed in those lakes. However, glaciers continue melting leaving new lakes or changing the characteristics of lakes that were previously controlled making safety systems obsolete that worked successfully in the past protecting communities downstream. Lake Palcacocha has evolved from being safe after the installation of a safety system in 1970 to an imminent source of GLOF risk due to the expansion that has occurred during the last 40 years increasing from a volume of 500,000 to 17 million m3. In response to this risk the community in Huaraz is planning an Early Warning System (EWS) that will allow the population to mobilize to a safe area in case a GLOF occurs. In this work we present an adaptation of the LifeSIM model to calculate the benefits from such an EWS using 2007 census data and a FLO-2D flood simulation model. The outputs are the number of people in Huaraz that could lose their life due to a GLOF. Our results indicate that without an EWS around 19,773 people could lose their life; whereas, if an EWS is installed the number of victims reduces to 7344. Finally, if mobilization of the affected population is improved the value reduces to 2865. The results show the importance of the EWS as well as informing and training the population to how to react if a GLOF occurs.

  15. Reconstruction of glacial lake outburst floods in northern Tien Shan: Implications for hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaginaev, V.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A.; Erokhin, S.; Matov, E.; Petrakov, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows are among the most significant natural threats in the Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and have even caused the loss of life and damage to infrastructure in its capital Bishkek. An improved understanding of the occurrence of this process is essential so as to be able to design reliable disaster risk reduction strategies, even more so in view of ongoing climate change and scenarios of future evolutions. Here, we apply a dendrogeomorphic approach to reconstruct past debris-flow activity on the Aksay cone (Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz range), where outbursting glacier lakes and intense rainfalls have triggered huge debris flows over the past decades. A total of 96 Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing on the cone and along the main channel have been selected based on the evidence of past debris-flow damage in their trunks; these trees were then sampled using increment borers. The dating of past events was based on the assessment of growth disturbances (GD) in the tree-ring records and included the detection of injuries, tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts, reaction wood, and abrupt growth changes. In total, 320 GD were identified in the tree-ring samples. In combination with aerial imagery and geomorphic recognition in the field, reactions in trees and their position on the cone have allowed reconstruction of the main spatial patterns of past events on the Aksay cone. Our findings suggest that at least 27 debris flows have occurred on the site between 1877 and 2015 and point to the occurrence of at least 17 events that were not documented prior to this study. We also observe high process activity during the 1950s and 1960s, with major events on the cone in 1950, 1966, and 1968, coinciding with phases of slight glacier advance. The spatial analyses of events also point to two different spatial patterns, suggesting that quite dissimilar magnitudes probably occurred during glacier lake outburst floods and

  16. A procedure for objective preliminary assessments of outburst flood hazard from glacial lakes in Aosta Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Germain; Godio, Alberto; Theodule, Alex

    2010-05-01

    GLOFs represent a major natural hazards in glaciated mountain regions, because of their fair-reaching capacity and of the difficulty in detecting source areas (especially in case of internal water pockets) and in forecasting the breakdown moment. GLOFs hazard is probably increasing because of the current glaciers retreat, and its prevention and management requires a multi-disciplinary approach, in order to (i) detect dangerous sites, (ii) assess danger, (iii) define and measure triggering factors and parameters and (iv) assess potential reaching areas so to define risk. Such a study was carried out in Aosta Valley, a mountainous territory with more than 200 glaciers covering an area of about 130 km2 (about 5% of the whole territory). The aim was double: to inventory and analyse all existing glacial lakes focusing on the newborn lakes and on potentially dangerous sites; to test surveying and modeling methods to be applied for hazard mapping and prevention. First, an inventory was compiled by means of GIS analysis of ortophotos (taken in 2005). The images were compared with previous ones to detect morphological evolution. Ground-based and helicopter surveys were also carried out. Historical data have been analyzed in order to recognize most dangerous sites and situations and to classify most recurrent phenomena. In case of recognized dangerous situations, some parameters are needed in order to evaluate the potential water volume and runout distance. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technique was tested to detect the presence of glacial internal cavities and water pockets on a well known situation (a glacier with well known collapse cavities). The same technique was also used to measure the bathymetry of a glacial lake. The technique was carried out successfully, allowing to estimate with a good resolution the lake depth and bottom morphology; encouraging results were also obtained in detecting glacial cavities and drainage channels. To perform the downstream runoff

  17. Multi-sensor detection of glacial lake outburst floods in Greenland from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citterio, M.

    2015-12-01

    GLOFs cause substantial erosion, transport and delivery of sediment along the river system from the glaciated parts of the hydrologic catchment to the sea, and have been found to control the riverine export dynamics of some pollutants like mercury in NE Greenland. GLOFs also pose a risk to human presence and infrastracture. Ice-dammed lakes at the margin of the ice sheet and of local glaciers and ice caps are common features of Greenland's landscape. The occasional or periodic emptying of some of these lakes have been described as early as the 18thcentury. Thinning glaciers in a warming climate are already changing the behaviour of some of these lakes. However, little is known of the frequency and seasonality of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOF) outside of the relatively more densely populated parts of West and South Greenland. This contribution demonstrates automatic multi-sensor detection of ice-dammed lake emptying events from space for three test regions in West, South and Northeast Greenland, using visible imagery from Landsat, ASTER, PROBA-V and MODIS. The current detection algorithm relies on prior knowledge of lakes location and approximate shape from a topographic map at the scale of 1:250.000, and it is meant as a prototype for a future operational product. For the well documented case of the glacier-dammed lake of A.P. Olsen Ice Cap (NE Greenland), where GLOF's observations at Zackenberg Research Station started in 1996, the remote sensing and in situ records are compared, showing good agreement. ICESat altimetry, MODIS and AVHRR thermal imagery, and the ENVISAR ASAR signature of two detected GLOFs that took place late autumn and winter are also discussed to demonstrate the potential for successful retrievals during the polar night. The upcoming Sentinel-3 missions will alleviate what is currently the major drawback of implementing this prototype into an operational service, namely the limited availability of high resolution imagery. This is of special

  18. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in Himachal Pradesh, India: An Integrative and Anticipatory Approach to Inform Adaptation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Simon; Linsbauer, Andreas; Huggel, Christian; Singh Randhawa, Surjeet

    2016-04-01

    Most research concerning the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) has focused on the threat from lakes that have formed over the past century, and which continue to expand rapidly in response to recent warming of the climate system. However, attention is shifting towards the anticipation of future hazard and risk associated with new lakes that will develop as glaciers continue to retreat and dramatically different landscapes are uncovered. Nowhere will this threat be more pronounced than in the Himalaya, where the majority of the world's glaciers are found, and where the dynamics of nature interact closely with livelihoods and anthropogenic resources. Using the Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (HP) as a case study, we combine a suite of GIS-based approaches to: 1)Implement a large-scale automated GLOF risk assessment within an integrative climate risk framework that recognizes both physical and socio-economic determining factors. 2)Expand the assessment beyond the current situation, to provide early anticipation of emerging GLOF hazard as new lakes form in response to further retreat of the Himalayan glaciers. Results clearly demonstrate a significant future increase in relative GLOF hazard levels across most Thesils of HP (administrative units), as the overall potential for GLOFs being triggered from mass movement of ice and rock avalanches increases, and as new GLOF paths affect additional land areas. Across most Thesils, the simulated increase in GLOF frequency is an order of magnitude larger than the simulated increase in GLOF affected area, as paths from newly formed glacial lakes generally tend to converge downstream within existing flood channels. In the Thesil of Kullu for example, we demonstrate a 7-fold increase in the probability of GLOF occurrence, and a 3-fold increase in the area affected by potential GLOF paths. In those situations where potential GLOFs from new lakes will flow primarily along existing flood paths, any

  19. Extensive deposits on the Pacific plate from Late Pleistocene North American glacial lake outbursts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Reid, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major unresolved issues of the Late Pleistocene catastrophic-flood events in the northwestern United States (e.g., from glacial Lake Missoula) has been what happened when the flood discharge reached the ocean. This study compiles available 3.5-kHz high-resolution and airgun seismic reflection data, long-range sidescan sonar images, and sediment core data to define the distribution of flood sediment in deepwater areas of the Pacific Ocean. Upon reaching the ocean at the mouth of the Columbia River near the present-day upper continental slope, sediment from the catastrophic floods continued flowing downslope as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents. The turbidity currents resulting from the Lake Missoula and other latest Pleistocene floods followed the Cascadia Channel into and through the Blanco Fracture Zone and then flowed west to the Tufts Abyssal Plain. A small part of the flood sediment, which was stripped off the main flow at a bend in the Cascadia Channel at its exit point from the Blanco Fracture Zone, continued flowing more than 400 km to the south and reached the Escanaba Trough, a rift valley of the southern Gorda Ridge. Understanding the development of the pathway for the Late Pleistocene flood sediment reaching Escanaba Trough provides insight for understanding the extent of catastrophic flood deposits on the Pacific plate.

  20. Identifying and Evaluating Possible Trigger Mechanisms for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Hindu Kush Himalayas Using Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, T. G.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2014-12-01

    Glacierized basins in high-altitude and mountainous areas, such as the Himalayas, have seen an increase in the number of glacial lakes over the years as a result of a changing climate. As the meltwater becomes more prevalent, the runoff can accumulate in a depression left behind by the receding glacier and can be bound by the walls of frontal and lateral moraines. These moraines, however, often are comprised of loose, unconsolidated sediment and can prove to be unstable dam structures for proglacial lakes. The factor of instability associated with the moraines poses a serious threat for failure and severe flooding. If the moraines were to be breached by the lake water, a phenomenon known as a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) can occur, potentially putting lives and infrastructure in harm's way. Consequently, this study examines the likelihood of a GLOF occurrence by analyzing potential trigger mechanisms associated with three proglacial lakes in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Using ASTER satellite imagery, one lake from Nepal, India, and Bhutan have each been assessed for possible trigger mechanisms. Our results suggest that steep-sided moraines, rugged topography, unstable masses on the upper reaches of steep slopes, and smaller lakes perched high above can all be classified as possible trigger mechanisms for the areas of study. It is imperative to be able to successfully identify potential trigger mechanisms using satellite data so that further ground observations can be made and mitigation efforts can be incorporated where needed. As lakes continue to grow, so does the cause for concern for possible GLOFs. Glacial lake outburst floods are being studied more extensively now due to the greater number of glacial lakes in high-mountainous areas. It is vitally important to understand the dynamics of a GLOF, especially the potential trigger mechanisms associated with it.

  1. Mega deposits and erosive features related to the glacial lake Nedre Glomsjø outburst flood, southeastern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høgaas, Fredrik; Longva, Oddvar

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a suite of erosional remnants, mega deposits and subtle bar morphology that we relate to the outburst flood from the glacial lake Nedre Glomsjø at the end of the last Ice Age. By using large datasets of airborne LiDAR data implemented in a geographic information system (GIS), we have mapped flood related features along the Glomma and Vrangselva rivers in southeastern Norway. The unprecedented overview of the valley reaches obtained by the vegetation-free LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEM) has revealed a set of hitherto undocumented landforms. Persisting erosive lines - indicators of the uppermost flooded level - are carved into surficial deposits in the hillsides and are found as high as 80-90 m above the modern valley floor. By using the indicators as an upper flood boundary, we have computed cross-sectional profiles showing that the flood in some reaches inundated more than 120 000 m2 of the valley. Large, streamlined bed forms, which we interpret as flood bars, drape sections of the valley floor, some several kilometers long. The most morphologically striking - pendant bars - are developed behind flood flow projections, such as bedrock knolls or in lee of a valley bend. Flood bars occur in the entire study area, but are more widespread in the north and generally decrease in size moving in a downstream direction. Kettle holes and ice-block obstacle marks from icebergs arrested during the flood are common. These features support the theory of a catastrophic drainage event, but also indicate a pattern of differential erosion and deposition that allowed us to interpret palaeoflow on individual bars. Vast aeolian dune fields in the region are interpreted as a secondary product of the flood, as deposits related to the event were mobilised by northerly winds momentarily after the flood waned. The dune fields cover an excess of 50 km2 and reveal that the region was a highly active periglacial desert after the flood. Our mapping

  2. Hydrologic and Geomorphic Changes Resulting from the Onset of Episodic Glacial Lake Outburst Floods: Colonia River, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, J.; McCoy, S. W.; McGrath, D.; Nimick, D.; Friesen, B.; Fahey, M. J.; Leidich, J.; Okuinghttons, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Colonia river system, draining the eastern edge of the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile, has experienced a dramatic shift in flow regime from one characterized by seasonal discharge variability to one dominated by episodic glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). We use multi-temporal visible satellite images, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from stereo image pairs, and in situ observations to quantify sediment and water fluxes out of the dammed glacial lake, Lago Cachet Dos (LC2), as well as the concomitant downstream environmental change. GLOFs initiated in April 2008 and have since occurred, on average, two to three times a year. Differencing concurrent gage measurements made on the Baker River upstream and downstream of the confluence with the Colonia river finds peak GLOF discharges of ~ 3,000 m3s-1, which is ~ 4 times the median discharge of the Baker River and over 20 times the median discharge of the Colonia river. During each GLOF, ~ 200,000,000 m3 of water evacuates from the LC2, resulting in erosion of valley-fill sediments and the delta on the upstream end of LC2. Differencing DEMs between April 2008 and February 2014 revealed that ~ 2.5 x 107 m3 of sediment was eroded. Multi-temporal DEM differencing shows that erosion rates were highest initially, with > 20 vertical m of sediment removed between 2008 and 2012, and generally less than 5 m between 2012 and 2014. The downstream Colonia River Sandur also experienced geomorphic changes due to GLOFs. Using Landsat imagery to calculate the normalized difference water index (NDWI), we demonstrate that the Colonia River was in a stable configuration between 1984 and 2008. At the onset of GLOFs in April 2008, a change in channel location began and continued with each subsequent GLOF. Quantification of sediment and water fluxes due to GLOFs in the Colonia river valley provides insight on the geomorphic and environmental changes in river systems experiencing dramatic shifts in flow

  3. Record of glacial Lake Missoula floods in glacial Lake Columbia, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Michelle A.; Clague, John J.

    2016-02-01

    During the last glaciation (marine oxygen isotope stage 2), outburst floods from glacial Lake Missoula deposited diagnostic sediments within glacial Lake Columbia. Two dominant outburst flood lithofacies are present within glacial Lake Columbia deposits: a flood expansion bar facies and a finer-grained hyperpycnite facies. We conclude that the flood sediments have a glacial Lake Missoula source because: (1) current indicators indicate westward flow through the lake, and upvalley flow followed by downvalley flow in tributary valleys; (2) no flood sediments are found north of a certain point; (3) there is a dominance of Belt-Purcell Supergroup clasts in a flood expansion bar; and (4) some of the finer-grained beds have a pink colour, reflective of glacial Lake Missoula lake-bottom sediments. A new radiocarbon age of 13,400 ± 100 14C BP on plant detritus found below 37 flood beds helps constrain the timing of outburst flooding from glacial Lake Missoula.

  4. Using satellite images to monitor glacial-lake outburst floods: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Cole, Christopher J.; Nimick, David A.; Wilson, Earl M.; Fahey, Mark J.; McGrath, Daniel J.; Leidich, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    During 2008–2013, 14 GLOFs were released from Lago Cachet Dos and created environmental and safety concerns for downstream residents and to infrastructure. If GLOFs and the consequent headward erosion continue, the moraine that creates Lago Cachet Uno could be destabilized and breached, and the two lakes could merge. If the two lakes become connected, the volume of future GLOFs likely would be greater and thus cause longer and (or) more extensive flooding downstream. Additional GLOFs from Lago Cachet Dos are expected in the future, and continued environmental monitoring could provide an early warning system as well as scientific information that could increase our understanding of GLOFs and their consequences. GLOFs occur in glaciated areas around the world and remote sensing technologies can allow researchers to better understand—and potentially predict—future GLOF events.

  5. From cyclic steps to humpback dunes: bedforms created by glacial lake-outburst floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemann, Jutta; Lang, Jörg; (Janrik) Van den Berg, Jan H.

    2015-04-01

    The largest known terrestrial floods, with immense geomorphological impacts, are linked to flood events from sub- and proglacial lakes. Flows are commonly unstable, turbulent and may be pulsed. The most commonly reported flood-related sedimentary landforms are large bars and (anti)dune fields deposited at sites of spatial flow deceleration. However, the facies architecture of these flood-related deposits has not yet been described in much detail. Reported field examples include sandy and gravelly bedforms that comprise laterally and vertically stacked deposits of cyclic steps, chutes-and-pools, breaking antidunes, stationary antidunes, plane beds and humpback dunes. The dimension and stacking pattern of described bedforms are often very similar and indicate deposition under highly aggradational flow conditions. Deposits of cyclic steps are characterised by shallow, lenticular scours infilled by gently dipping backsets, indicating erosion and re-deposition on the downstream side of the step, which is Froude-supercritical.The cyclic-step deposits are laterally and vertically truncated and unconformably overlain by deposits of chutes-and-pools and (breaking) antidunes. Deposits of chutes-and-pools and breaking antidunes comprise lenticular scours infilled by steeply dipping backsets, gently dipping sigmoidal foresets and concentric trough-fills. Bedforms of the relatively slow moving subcritical zone on the upstream side of cyclic steps are commonly not preserved. In contrast to the gravelly cross-stratification of cyclic steps, chutes-and-pools and breaking antidunes, the (sub)horizontal lamination of transcritical bedforms (plane beds, stationary waves and antidunes) generally consist almost completely of sand, due to gravel overpassing. Under waning flow conditions deposits of chutes-and-pools and antidunes form laterally more extensive bedsets that are interbedded with deposits of humpback dunes and 3D dunes. The gradual lateral and vertical facies changes between

  6. Outbursts From Glacial Lake Agassiz and Their Possible Impact on Thermohaline Circulation at the Start of the Younger Dryas, Preboreal Oscillation, and 8.2 ka Cold Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teller, J. T.; Leverington, D.; Mann, J.

    2001-12-01

    During the last deglaciation of North America, the Laurentide Ice Sheet retreated downslope, impounding lakes along its margin. The area and volume of these proglacial lakes varied substantially through time as a result of the changing location of the ice margin, topography of the newly deglaciated surface, elevation of the overflow outlet from the lake, and differential isostatic rebound. Glacial Lake Agassiz was the largest of these lakes from about 11.7 to 7.7 ka 14C yrs BP, although it varied dramatically in size and volume throughout most of its life. This lake reached a maximum of 841,000 km2 and 163,000 km3 about 8.4 ka cal yrs BP, after it merged with glacial Lake Ojibway; this is about 7 times the total volume of the modern Great Lakes and 2 times that of the Caspian Sea, the world's largest lake. On many occasions Lake Agassiz abruptly released large volumes of water through newly opened outlets, drawing down the level of the lake. We reconstructed the bathymetry of the lake for 13 lake stages by subtracting interpolated isobase data from a database of modern elevations; these bathymetric models were then used to quantify changes in lake volume through time, and to estimate the volumes catastrophically released from the lake. During the life of Lake Agassiz, 4 of the 5 largest catastrophic outbursts occurred at 12.9, 11.7, 11.2, and 8.4 ka cal yrs BP, which released 9500, 9300, 5900, and 163,000 km3 of freshwater, respectively (0.30, 0.29, 0.19, and 5.2 Sv if released in one year). Because these freshwater additions to the oceans occurred near the start of the three largest cooling events during this period of deglaciation--the Younger Dryas, Preboreal Oscillation, and the "8.2 ka cal yr cold event"--they may have been the trigger for changes in thermohaline circulation. The concurrent re-routing of baseline overflow from Lake Agassiz, which added another 0.034-0.17 Sv to the overflow, may have been integral in these changes and have helped sustain them.

  7. Palaeoglacial lake and outburst flood reconstructions along the southern late-glacial Cordilleran Ice Sheet margin: implications for ice sheet reconstruction and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cripps, Jonathan; Brennand, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Proglacial lakes are crucial in controlling the meltwater and sediment flux from decaying ice margins, affect local ice dynamics, and can influence local and regional weather and climate. They are also potential sources of outburst floods, which can have major impacts on regional geomorphology and drainage networks. As such, proglacial lakes are important components of deglacial environments, and reconstructing proglacial lakes during decay of past ice sheets will improve understanding of their potential influence in the future. The presence of palaeo-ice-dammed lakes in valleys dissecting the southern Interior Plateau of British Columbia (BC), is evident in abundant lake-bottom sediments, deltaic deposits and shorelines. To date, the palaeogeography of these lakes have not been well constrained, and the damming ice margins have been proposed under a paradigm of Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) stagnation - lakes dammed by dead-ice lobes in valleys where ice was thickest; this paradigm has been challenged by recent studies elsewhere on the Interior Plateau that support generally active, systematic retreat of the ice margin to the north and west. This project reinvestigated glacial Lake Nicola (gLN) on the northern Thompson Plateau, the key site for development of the stagnation paradigm, to improve palaeogeographic and palaeohydrological reconstructions of this basin. Five lake stages for gLN have been identified on the basis of shoreline and delta elevations and the extent of lake-bottom sediments. Glacioisostatic tilts were reconstructed for the four most extensive stages of between 1.6 and 1.9 m/km up to the north-northwest. Areal extent and lake volume for each lake were extracted by plotting lake planes onto DEMs adjusted to these reconstructed tilts; maximum volumes for each stage are in the order of 10 km3, with the largest reconstructed at 260km3. These lakes expanded and lowered to the northwest, as progressively lower outlets were opened by ice recession in

  8. Reconstruction of a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the Engaño Valley, Chilean Patagonia: Lessons for GLOF risk management.

    PubMed

    Anacona, Pablo Iribarren; Mackintosh, Andrew; Norton, Kevin

    2015-09-15

    Floods from moraine-dammed lake failures can have long standing effects not only on riverine landscapes but also on mountain communities due to the high intensity (i.e. great depth and high velocities) and damaging capacity of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). GLOFs may increase in frequency as glaciers retreat and new lakes develop and there is an urgent need to better understand GLOF dynamics and the measures required to reduce their negative outcomes. In Patagonia at least 16 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time, however, data about GLOF dynamics and impacts in this region are limited. We reconstruct a GLOF that affected a small village in Chilean Patagonia in March 1977, by semi structured interviews, interpretation of satellite images and 2D hydraulic modelling. This provides insight into the GLOF dynamics and the planning issues that led to socioeconomic consequences, which included village relocation. Modelling shows that the water released by the GLOF was in the order of 12-13 × 10(6)m(3) and the flood lasted for about 10h, reaching a maximum depth of ~1.5m in Bahía Murta Viejo, ~ 26 km from the failed lake. The lake had characteristics in common with failed lakes worldwide (e.g. the lake was in contact with a retreating glacier and was dammed by a narrow-steep moraine). The absence of land-use planning and the unawareness of the GLOF hazard contributed to the village flooding. The Río Engaño GLOF illustrates how small-scale and short-distance migration is a reasonable coping strategy in response to a natural hazard that may increase in frequency as atmospheric temperature rises and glaciers retreat.

  9. Reconstruction and modelling of the 1977 Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) of the Engaño Lake, Chilean Patagonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, Pablo; Norton, Kevin; Mackintosh, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Floods from moraine-dammed lake failures can result in severe damage to mountain communities. GLOFs can also cause long-standing effects in riverine landscapes, due to the high intensity (i.e. great depth and high velocities) and long reach capacity of these events. GLOFs may increase in frequency as glaciers retreat and new lakes develop, highlighting the need for a better understanding of GLOF dynamics and the measures to reduce their negative outcomes. In Patagonia at least 16 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time, however, data about GLOF dynamics and impacts are limited since GLOFs have mainly affected uninhabited areas and ungauged rivers. In March 1977, however, a GLOF flooded a small village (~130 inhabitants) in Chilean Patagonia. We reconstruct the dynamics of this event by semi-structured interviews, interpretation of satellite images (Landsat MSS) and two dimensional (2D) hydraulic modelling (using HEC-RAS 5.0 BETA and the SRTM v4 DEM). This reconstruction provides insights into GLOF behaviour, as well as the planning issues that led to socioeconomic consequences, which included relocation of the village. We mapped the flood extent and compiled data of flood depth and timing to constrain the 2D GLOF simulations. Modelling shows that the water released by the GLOF was in the order of 12-13 million cubic metres and that the flood reached Bahía Murta Viejo, located ~26 km from the failed lake, 2-3 hours after the moraine dam was breached. The flood lasted for about ten hours (at the village), although the peak discharge occurred after only one hour at this site. The maximum water depth at Bahía Murta Viejo was 1.5 m, however, water depths of up to 20 metres were simulated in upstream constricted reaches. The overall flood dynamics suggested by interviews and geomorphic mapping, including hydraulic ponding upstream of bedrock gorges, was well represented in the 2D simulations in spite of the coarse resolution (~80 m) of the DEM used. The

  10. Mercury exports from a High-Arctic river basin in Northeast Greenland (74°N) largely controlled by glacial lake outburst floods.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Jens; Tamstorf, Mikkel; Elberling, Bo; Larsen, Martin M; Mylius, Maria Rask; Lund, Magnus; Abermann, Jakob; Rigét, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Riverine mercury (Hg) export dynamics from the Zackenberg River Basin (ZRB) in Northeast Greenland were studied for the period 2009-2013. Dissolved and sediment-bound Hg was measured regularly in the Zackenberg River throughout the periods with running water (June-October) and coupled to water discharge measurements. Also, a few samples of snow, soil, and permafrost were analysed for Hg. Mean concentrations of dissolved and sediment-bound Hg in the river water (±SD) were 0.39 ± 0.13 and 5.5 ± 1.4 ngL(-1), respectively, and mean concentrations of Hg in the river sediment were 0.033 ± 0.025 mg kg(-1). Temporal variations in river Hg were mainly associated with snowmelt, sudden erosion events, and outburst floods from a glacier-dammed lake in the upper part of the ZRB. Annual Hg exports from the 514 km(2) ZRB varied from 0.71 to >1.57 kg and the majority (86-96%) was associated with sediment-bound Hg. Hg yields from the ZRB varied from 1.4-3.1 gH gk m(-2)yr(-1) and were among the highest yields reported from Arctic river basins. River exports of Hg from ZRB were found to be largely controlled by the frequency, magnitude and timing of the glacial lake outburst floods, which occurred in four of the five years in July-August. Floods accounted for 5 to >10% of the annual water discharge, and up to >31% of the annual Hg export. Also, the winter snowfall and the summer temperatures were found to be important indirect controls on the annual Hg export. The occurrence and timing of glacial lake outburst floods in the ZRB in late summer at the time of maximum soil thaw depth, the location of the glacier in the upper ZRB, and increased thawing of the permafrost in Zackenberg in recent years leading to destabilisation of river banks are considered central factors explaining the high fraction of flood-controlled Hg export in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glacialmorphological reconstruction of glacier advances and glacial lake outburst floods at the Cachapoal glacier in the Dry Central Andes of Chile (34°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam; Charrier, Reynaldo

    2013-04-01

    Throughout the Andes Mountain range of South America a general trend of glacier shrinkage has taken place in the last century. Only a few glaciers have shown a rather non-continuous trend of glacier retreat and temporally advanced or even surged during the mid-19th to 20th century. One of the earliest assumed glacier surges has occurred in the upper Cachapoal catchment area at the homonymous glacier. In climatic respect the Cachapoal glacier is located in the transition zone from the most southern part of the Dry Central Andes of Chile to the more humid zone of the Wet Andes. The region is affected mainly by winter precipitation deriving from the Westerlies. The debris-covered, 12 km-long Cachapoal glacier represents one of the largest valley glaciers in the Central Andes. It is an avalanche-fed glacier with an almost 1500 m-high head wall in its upper catchment area flowing down from Picos del Barroso (5180 m) and terminates at an elevation of 2630 m a.s.l. with a bifurcated glacier tongue. A large moraine complex, almost 2 km in length and 500 m in width, separates the two glacier lobes. During times of advanced glacier tongue positions the Ríos Molina and Cachapoal may be have blocked independently at two distinct localities which are situated about 2300 m apart from each other. A blockage with temporal lake formation has occurred at least in the years 1848, 1955 and 1981 (cf. Plagemann 1887, Peña 1981), from which the rupture of the earliest glacier barrier has been the most devastating. This event is locally reminded as "la gran avenida en seco" in the historical record. Geomorphological evidence of the past historical and modern glacier expansions is given in the proglacial area by a fresh dead-ice hummocky topography and glacial trimlines at the valley flanks. More down valley broad outwash plains and boulder clusters indicate past high energy floods produced by glacier lake outbursts. Regarding the small size of the catchment area of the Río Molina

  12. Glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas--from an area-wide glacial lake inventory to on-site and modeling based risk assessment of critical glacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Glacial lake hazards and glacial lake distributions are investigated in many glaciated regions of the world, but comparably little attention has been given to these topics in the Indian Himalayas. In this study we present a first area-wide glacial lake inventory, including a qualitative classification at 251 glacial lakes >0.01 km(2). Lakes were detected in the five states spanning the Indian Himalayas, and lake distribution pattern and lake characteristics were found to differ significantly between regions. Three glacial lakes, from different geographic and climatic regions within the Indian Himalayas were then selected for a detailed risk assessment. Lake outburst probability, potential outburst magnitudes and associated damage were evaluated on the basis of high-resolution satellite imagery, field assessments and through the use of a dynamic model. The glacial lakes analyzed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh were found to present moderate risks to downstream villages, whereas the lake in Sikkim severely threatens downstream locations. At the study site in Sikkim, a dam breach could trigger drainage of ca. 16×10(6)m(3) water and generate maximum lake discharge of nearly 7000 m(3) s(-). The identification of critical glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas and the detailed risk assessments at three specific sites allow prioritizing further investigations and help in the definition of risk reduction actions.

  13. GLOF, Glacial Lake Mapping an ESA DUE Innovator 2 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Strozzi, Tazio; Kaab, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    Glacier lake outbursts have repeatedly been the cause of major fatal events and damage in, for instance, the Himalayas, Central Asia, Andes, Caucasus, and the European Alps. The related hazards may even currently increase due to climate change as glaciers worldwide retreat and leave under certain circumstances glacier lakes behind. As a particularly far-reaching glacier- related hazard, glacier lake outburst floods may have devastating impact on populated areas that are located far downstream of the source area. Glacial lakes are often located in inaccessible areas, or can only be accessed with a substantial effort and cost to investigate their condition. While e.g. in Switzerland a network is setup to monitor glacier changes and help prevent glacial hazards, large and inaccessible areas e.g. in the Pamir and Himalayan mountains cannot be easily monitored from ground and air. Spaceborne remote sensing data are therefore a valuable and important information source to collect information on glacial lakes in these areas.

  14. Glacier lake outburst floods of the Guangxieco Lake in 1988 in Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. J.; Cheng, Z. L.; Li, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have become more frequent and attracted more and more attention under conditions of global warming. However, there are few observations of the reasons for outbursts and their processes because of their unexpected occurrence and their inaccessible location in high-elevation areas. The GLOF of the Guangxieco Lake, which is the only outburst lake below an elevation of 4000 m in Tibet, provides a case study for discussing the reasons for outbursts. This paper reconstructs the process in detail using geomorphological evidence, interviews of the local inhabitants, archive material and satellite images. It was found that: (1) There were three main reasons for the GLOF in 1988: intense pre-precipitation and persistent high temperatures before the outburst, ice avalanche by rapid movement of the Gongzo Glacier and low self-stability of the end-moraine dam by perennial piping. (2) The GLOF with the peak discharge of 1270 m3 s-1 was evolved along the Midui Valley following sediment-laden flow-non-viscous debris flow-viscous debris flow-non-viscous debris flow-sediment-laden flood. Eventually the sediment-laden floods blocked the Palongzangbu River. (3) Comparing the conditions for the outburst in 1988 and at present, the possibility of a future outburst is thought to be small unless the glacier moves rapidly again.

  15. Inventory and recently increasing GLOF susceptibility of glacial lakes in Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Suruchi; Rai, S. C.; Thakur, P. K.; Emmer, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Climatic changes alter the climate system, leading to a decrease of glacier mass volumes and swelling glacial lakes. This study provides a new inventory of glacial and high-altitude lakes for Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya, and evaluates the susceptibility of lakes to Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF). By using satellite data of high spatial resolution (5 m), we obtain 1104 glacial and high-altitude lakes with total area 30.498 km2, of which 472 have an area > 0.01 km2. Applying pre-defined GLOF susceptibility criteria on these 472 lakes yields 21 lakes susceptible to GLOF, which all increased in area from 1972-2015. Using Analytic Hierarchy Processes (AHP), the pairwise comparison matrix further reveals that 5 of these glacial lakes have low, 14 have medium and 2 have high GLOF susceptibility. Especially these 16 glacial lakes with high and medium GLOF susceptibility may threaten downstream communities and infrastructure and need further attention.

  16. Rapid Expansion of Glacial Lakes Caused by Climate and Glacier Retreat in the Central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.

    2016-12-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods are among the most serious natural hazards in the Himalayas. Such floods are of high scientific and political importance because they exert trans-boundary impacts on bordering countries. The preparation of an updated inventory of glacial lakes and the analysis of their evolution are an important first step in assessment of hazards from glacial lake outbursts. Here, we report the spatiotemporal developments of the glacial lakes in the Poiqu River basin, a trans-boundary basin in the Central Himalayas, from 1976 to 2010 based on multi-temporal Landsat images. Studied glacial lakes are classified as glacierfed lakes and non-glacier-fed lakes according to their hydrologic connection to glacial watersheds. A total of 119 glacial lakes larger than 0.01 km2 with an overall surface area of 20.22 km2 (±10.8%) were mapped in 2010, with glacier-fed lakes being predominant in both number (69, 58.0%) and area (16.22 km2, 80.2%). We found that lakes connected to glacial watersheds (glacier-fed lakes) significantly expanded (122.1%) from 1976 to 2010, whereas lakes not connected to glacial watersheds (non-glacier-fed lakes) remained stable (+2.8%) during the same period. This contrast can be attributed to the impact of glaciers. Retreating glaciers not only supply meltwater to lakes but also leave space for them to expand. Compared with other regions of the Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH), the lake area per glacier area in the Poiqu River basin was the highest. This observation might be attributed to the different climate regimes and glacier status along the HKH. The results presented in this study confirm the significant role of glacier retreat on the evolution of glacial lakes.

  17. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (≥ 106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (≤ 50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine-dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least seven moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (> 8°) to steep (> 15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  18. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-07-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (≥106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (≤50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least 7 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (>8°) to steep (>15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  19. Massive Freshwater discharges: an example from Glacial Lake Missoula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, C.; Mix, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Massive inputs of freshwater into the ocean are known to disrupt climate. This has been fairly studied in the North Atlantic with freshwater inputs from the Laurentide ice sheet and glacial Lake Agassiz. The association of these discharges with global warming has lead us to look for such prints in marine sediments. Here we show the records of Glacial Lake Missoula outbursts during the warming singe the Last Glacial Maximum in two marine cores off Oregon and California that show the presence of freshwater diatoms that are linked to massive discharges of freshwater from the glacial lake Missoula. The dynamics and timing of these north Pacific mega-flood events are fairly constrained by terrestrial records, however, the consequences of such discharges of freshwater in the northeast Pacific regional circulation remains unknown. Nevertheless we were able to estimate a salinity decrease of almost 6.0 PSU more than 400 km to the south (off northern California) during the last glacial interval (from 16-31 calendar (cal) k.y. B.P.). Anomalously high abundances of freshwater diatoms in marine sediments from the region precede generally accepted dates for the existence of glacial Lake Missoula, implying that large flooding events were also common during the advance of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet.

  20. Development stages of hazardous mountain lakes and simulation of their outbursts (Central Caucasus, Russia; Sichuan mountain region, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidyaeva, Vera; Krylenko, Inna; Chernomorets, Sergey; Petrakov, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    The importance of mountain lakes studies is related to the increasing threat of natural disasters, associated with lake outbursts and debris flows formation, because of population growth on exposed areas. The outburst hazard has not been sufficiently researched, there is a lack of data because of the lakes inaccessibility and remote sensing data is usually not detailed enough. The main scientific topics include assessment of outburst possibility and further simulation of possible outbursts scenarios. There are two types of mountain lakes: glacial (cirque, cirque-moraine, barrier-moraine, glacial-barrier, etc.) lakes and barrier (landslide, rockfall, debris flow, etc.) lakes. The first type was studied in the Central Caucasus (Russia), and the second type - in the Sichuan mountain region (China). The group of scientists, including authors, has been monitoring glacial lakes in the Mnt. Elbrus area for more than ten years. The unique data were collected, including detailed hydrological characteristics of more than ten lakes (water level dynamics, temperature, morphometrical characteristics, water balance components, etc.). Outbursts of at least three glacial lakes were observed. Hydrological characteristics of landslide Tangjiashan Lake were collected with Chinese colleagues during field studies in 2010 and 2011 years. Analysis of the collected data was used to understand the outburst mechanisms, formation factors, dam breaking factors, development stages of mountain lakes. Statistical methods of analysis in this case can be applied with some limitations because of the lack of sufficient monitoring objects, and therefore the results has been verified by experts. All types of possible outbursts mechanisms were divided by the authors into five groups: geomorphologic (caused by changes in lake dams), seismic, or geodynamic (caused by seiches, waves from rockfalls, landslides), glacial (caused by breaks in impounding glaciers, ice floating and melting), water

  1. Glacier lake outburst floods - modelling process chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian; Haeberli, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    New lakes are forming in high-mountain areas all over the world due to glacier recession. Often they will be located below steep, destabilized flanks and are therefore exposed to impacts from rock-/ice-avalanches. Several events worldwide are known, where an outburst flood has been triggered by such an impact. In regions such as in the European Alps or in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru, where valley bottoms are densely populated, these far-travelling, high-magnitude events can result in major disasters. For appropriate integral risk management it is crucial to gain knowledge on how the processes (rock-/ice-avalanches - impact waves in lake - impact on dam - outburst flood) interact and how the hazard potential related to corresponding process chains can be assessed. Research in natural hazards so far has mainly concentrated on describing, understanding, modeling or assessing single hazardous processes. Some of the above mentioned individual processes are quite well understood in their physical behavior and some of the process interfaces have also been investigated in detail. Multi-hazard assessments of the entire process chain, however, have only recently become subjects of investigations. Our study aims at closing this gap and providing suggestions on how to assess the hazard potential of the entire process chain in order to generate hazard maps and support risk assessments. We analyzed different types of models (empirical, analytical, physically based) for each process regarding their suitability for application in hazard assessments of the entire process chain based on literature. Results show that for rock-/ice-avalanches, dam breach and outburst floods, only numerical, physically based models are able to provide the required information, whereas the impact wave can be estimated by means of physically based or empirical assessments. We demonstrate how the findings could be applied with the help of a case study of a recent glacier lake outburst event at Laguna

  2. Science-Based, Community-Driven Approach to Reducing Glacier Lake Outburst Flood Risks in the Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounce, D.; McKinney, D. C.; Byers, A. C.; Shrestha, M. K.; Cuellar, A. D.; Sherpa, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past several decades, hundreds of lower altitude Himalayan glaciers have been melting, leaving behind new glacier lakes, holding millions of cubic meters of water. Usually contained by dams of loose boulders and soil, these lakes present a risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). These glacial-dominated areas pose unique challenges to downstream communities in adapting to global climate change, particularly in terms of increasing threats of GLOFs. This interdisciplinary research captures unique knowledge of the Himalayan region and contributes to the development of a new generation of scientists in the area of coupled natural and human systems of glacier-dominated mountain systems. The goals of the research are to: (1) Understand natural system dynamics through an analysis of the impacts of climate change on glacial lakes, (2) Understand the human system dynamics through the strengthening of community resiliency to glacial lake hazards by developing community-driven glacial lake risk reduction systems, (3) Understand how the natural system affects the human system through the assessment of local ecological knowledge and understanding of hydrological resources and the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to GLOF hazard, and (4) Understand how the human system affects the natural system through the design and modeling of community-driven solutions to analyze the reduction of flood risk and the evolution of glacial lakes. The project integrates in situ physical and societal observations with geospatial analyses, intensive glacial hydrology and outburst flood modeling, key respondents' interviews, and community level mappings and focus groups. The Imja glacial lake in the Khumbu region of Nepal is the field research site. The project is assessing outburst flood-related processes that include glacier hydrology, river flow, hydraulics, and sediment/debris transport models. These natural system impacts are being integrated with the human science

  3. The state and their implication of Himalayan glacial lake changes from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Y.; Sheng, Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, L.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Y.; Song, C.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs)generally result in catastrophic damages and fatalities. The Himalayas, the world's highest mountains hosting large number of glaciers, have frequently suffered from GLOFs events in the past decades. Climatic warming-induced melting and retreating glaciers make glacial lakes expand obviously and urge the potential risk of GLOFs in Himalayas. However, our knowledge on the state of glacial lakes in the entire Himalayas is still limited. This study conducts a systematically satellite-based inventory to firstly reveal the evolution complex, regional difference and causes of Himalayan glacial lake changes in the whole Himalayas. Hundreds of Landsat images and Google Earth high resolution imagery were employed to extract the extents of glacial lakes at four epochs (circa1990, circa 2000, circa 2005 and circa 2010). Object-oriented mapping method was used to automatically map the lakes. In association with published glacier data (e.g., China Glacier Inventory, Randolph and GLIMS Glacier data), visual inspections and iterative checks for individual lake guarantee the accuracy of our results. This study demonstrates the spatial and topographic distributions, differences, heterogeneity of glacial lake changes and their causes. Our results show that Himalayan glacial lakes present a rapidly expanding state in general. Both disappeared lakes and new-formed lakes were observed, however, pre-existing glacial lakes contributed most to the total areal expansion. Himalayan glacial lakes appeared a clear altitudinal difference between north side and south side of main range. Evolutions of glacial lakes between eastern, western and central Himalaya were different, and the most rapidly expanding areas need to be more concerned. Climatic and geomorphic controls result in the heterogeneity of glacial lake changes. This study will help assess the potential risk of GLOFs and promote the public awareness of glacial disasters in high mountain areas.

  4. Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

    2010-05-01

    Lake Outburst Floods can evolve from complex process chains like avalanches of rock or ice that produce flood waves in a lake which may overtop and eventually breach glacial, morainic, landslide, or artificial dams. Rising lake levels can lead to progressive incision and destabilization of a dam, to enhanced ground water flow (piping), or even to hydrostatic failure of ice dams which can cause sudden outflow of accumulated water. These events often have a highly destructive potential because a large amount of water is released in a short time, with a high capacity to erode loose debris, leading to a powerful debris flow with a long travel distance. The best-known example of a lake outburst flood is the Vajont event (Northern Italy, 1963), where a landslide rushed into an artificial lake which spilled over and caused a flood leading to almost 2000 fatalities. Hazards from the failure of landslide dams are often (not always) fairly manageable: most breaches occur in the first few days or weeks after the landslide event and the rapid construction of a spillway - though problematic - has solved some hazardous situations (e.g. in the case of Hattian landslide in 2005 in Pakistan). Older dams, like Usoi dam (Lake Sarez) in Tajikistan, are usually fairly stable, though landsildes into the lakes may create floodwaves overtopping and eventually weakening the dams. The analysis and the mitigation of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard remains a challenge. A number of GLOFs resulting in fatalities and severe damage have occurred during the previous decades, particularly in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Central Asia (Pamir, Tien Shan). The source area is usually far away from the area of impact and events occur at very long intervals or as singularities, so that the population at risk is usually not prepared. Even though potentially hazardous lakes can be identified relatively easily with remote sensing and field work, modeling and predicting of GLOFs (and also

  5. Glacial lake expansion in the central Himalayas by Landsat images, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed.

  6. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas by Landsat Images, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed. PMID:24376778

  7. Freshwater outburst from Lake Superior as a trigger for the cold event 9300 years ago.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Yong; Colman, Steven M; Lowell, Thomas V; Milne, Glenn A; Fisher, Timothy G; Breckenridge, Andy; Boyd, Matthew; Teller, James T

    2010-06-04

    Paleoclimate proxy records reveal a pervasive cooling event with a Northern Hemispheric extent approximately 9300 years ago. Coeval changes in the oceanic circulation of the North Atlantic imply freshwater forcing. However, the source, magnitude, and routing of meltwater have remained unknown. Located in central North America, Lake Superior is a key site for regulating the outflow of glacial meltwater to the oceans. Here, we show evidence for an approximately 45-meter rapid lake-level fall in this basin, centered on 9300 calibrated years before the present, due to the failure of a glacial drift dam on the southeast corner of the lake. We ascribe the widespread climate anomaly approximately 9300 years ago to this freshwater outburst delivered to the North Atlantic Ocean through the Lake Huron-North Bay-Ottawa River-St. Lawrence River valleys.

  8. Heterogeneous glacial lake changes and links of lake expansions to the rapid thinning of adjacent glacier termini in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunqiao; Sheng, Yongwei; Wang, Jida; Ke, Linghong; Madson, Austin; Nie, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Glacier mass loss in the Himalayas has far-reaching implications for the alteration of regional hydrologic regimes, an increased risk of glacial lake outburst, downstream water resource abundance, and contributions to sea level rise. However, the mass losses of Himalayan glaciers are not well understood towing to the scarcity of observations and the heterogeneous responses of Himalayan glaciers to climate change and local factors (e.g., glacier surge, interacting with proglacial lakes). In particular, there is a lack of understanding on the unique interactions between moraine-dammed glacial lakes and their effects on debris cover on valley glacier termini. In this study, we examined the temporal evolution of 151 large glacial lakes across the Himalayas and then classified these glacial lakes into three categories: proglacial lakes in contact with full or partial debris-covered glaciers (debris-contact lakes), ice cliff-contact lakes, and non-glacier-contact lakes. The results show that debris-contact lakes experienced a dramatic areal increase of 36.5% over the years 2000 to 2014, while the latter two categories of lakes remained generally stable. The majority of lake expansions occurred at the glacier front without marked lake level rises. This suggests that the rapid expansion of these debris-contact lakes can be largely attributed to the thinning of debris-covered ice as caused by the melting of glacial fronts and the subsequent glacial retreat. We reconstructed the height variations of glacier fronts in contact with 57 different proglacial lakes during the years 2000 to 2014. These reconstructed surface elevation changes of debris-covered, lake-contact glacier fronts reveal significant thinning trends with considerable lowering rates that range from 1.0 to 9.7 m/y. Our study reveals that a substantial average ice thinning of 3.9 m/y occurred at the glacier fronts that are in contact with glacial lakes.

  9. Glacial Retreat and Associated Glacial Lake Hazards in the High Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. T.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies have identified glacial retreat throughout the greater Himalayan region over the past few decades, but the Karakorum region remains an anomaly with large stagnating or advancing glaciers. The glacial behavior in the Tien Shan is still unclear, as few studies have investigated mass balances in the region. This study focuses on the highest peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range, in the region of Jengish Chokusu along the Kyrgyzstan-China-Kazakhstan border. In a first step, a 30-year time series of Landsat imagery (n=27) and ASTER imagery (n=10) was developed to track glacial growth and retreat in the region. Using a combination of spectral and topographic information, glacial outlines are automatically delineated. As several important glaciers in the study region contain medium to high levels of debris cover, our algorithm also improves upon current methods of detecting debris-covered glaciers by using topography, distance weighting methods, river networks, and additional spectral data. Linked to glacial retreat are glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that have become increasingly common in High Mountain Asia over the last few decades. As glaciers retreat, their melt water is often trapped by weakly bonded moraines. These moraines have been known to fail due to overtopping caused by surge waves created by avalanches, rockslides, or glacial calving. A suite of studies throughout High Mountain Asia have used remotely-sensed data to monitor the formation and growth of glacial lakes. In a second step of the work, lake-area changes over the past 15 years were tracked monthly and seasonally using dense Landsat/ASTER coverage (n=30) with an automatic procedure based on spectral and topographic information. Previous work has identified GLOFs as a significant process for infrastructural damage in the southern Tien Shan/northern Pamir, as well as in the better studied Himalaya region. Lake identification and quantification of lake-growth rates is a valuable

  10. Surge dynamics and lake outbursts of Kyagar Glacier, Karakoram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Round, Vanessa; Leinss, Silvan; Huss, Matthias; Haemmig, Christoph; Hajnsek, Irena

    2017-03-01

    The recent surge cycle of Kyagar Glacier, in the Chinese Karakoram, caused formation of an ice-dammed lake and subsequent glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) exceeding 40 million m3 in 2015 and 2016. GLOFs from Kyagar Glacier reached double this size in 2002 and earlier, but the role of glacier surging in GLOF formation was previously unrecognised. We present an integrative analysis of the glacier surge dynamics from 2011 to 2016, assessing surge mechanisms and evaluating the surge cycle impact on GLOFs. Over 80 glacier surface velocity fields were created from TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement), Sentinel-1A, and Landsat satellite data. Changes in ice thickness distribution were revealed by a time series of TanDEM-X elevation models. The analysis shows that, during a quiescence phase lasting at least 14 years, ice mass built up in a reservoir area at the top of the glacier tongue, and the terminus thinned by up to 100 m, but in the 2 years preceding the surge onset this pattern reversed. The surge initiated with the onset of the 2014 melt season, and in the following 15 months velocity evolved in a manner consistent with a hydrologically controlled surge mechanism. Dramatic accelerations coincided with melt seasons, winter deceleration was accompanied by subglacial drainage, and rapid surge termination occurred following the 2015 GLOF. Rapid basal motion during the surge is seemingly controlled by high water pressure, caused by input of surface water into either an inefficient subglacial drainage system or unstable subglacial till. The potential lake volume increased to more than 70 million m3 by late 2016, as a result of over 60 m of thickening at the terminus. Lake formation and the evolution of the ice dam height should be carefully monitored through remote sensing to anticipate large GLOFs in the near future.

  11. Glacial Lake Lind, Wisconsin and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.D.; Addis, K.L.; Ferber, L.R.; Hemstad, C.B.; Meyer, G.N.; Komai, L.T.

    1999-01-01

    Glacial Lake Lind developed in the pre-late Wisconsinan St. Croix River valley, Minnesota and Wisconsin, and lasted more than 1000 yr during the retreat of the Superior lobe at the end of the Wisconsinan glaciation. Lake Lind sediment consists primarily of red varved silt and clay, but also includes mud-flow deposits, nearshore silt (penecontemporaneously deformed in places), nearshore rippled sand, and deltaic sand. Lake Lind varved red clay is not part of glacial Lake Grantsburg, as suggested by earlier authors, because the red varves are separated from overlying glacial Lake Grantsburg silt and clay by a unit of deltaic and fluvial sand. Furthermore, varve correlations indicate that the base of the red varves is younger to the north, showing that the basin expanded as the Superior lobe retreated and was not a lake basin dammed to the southwest by the advancing Grantsburg sublobe. Varve correlations indicate that the Superior lobe retreated at a rate of about 200 m/yr. Uniform winter-clay thickness throughout most of the varve couplets suggests thermal stratification in the lake with clay trapped in the epilimnion; some clay would exit the lake at the outlet prior to winter freeze. Zones of thicker winter-clay layers, in places associated with mud-flow layers, indicate outlet incision, lake-level fall, and shoreline erosion and resuspension of lake clay. The most likely outlet for glacial Lake Lind was in the southwest part of the lake near the present site of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Nearshore sediment indicates that the lake level of glacial Lake Lind was around 280 m. The elevation of the base of the Lake Lind sediments indicates water depth was 20 to 55 m. Evidence in the southern part of the lake basin suggests that the Superior lobe readvanced at least once during the early stages of glacial Lake Lind. Lake Lind ended not by drainage but by being filled in by prograding deltas and outwash plains composed of sand derived from the retreating Superior lobe. It

  12. Temporal patterns of glacial lake evolution in high-mountain environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, Martin; Emmer, Adam; Viani, Cristina; Huggel, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Lakes forming at the front of retreating glaciers are characteristic features of high-mountain areas in a warming climate. Typically, lakes shift from the proglacial phase (lake is in direct contact with glacier) to a glacier-detached (no direct contact) and finally to a non-glacial phase (lake catchment is completely deglaciated) of lake evolution. Apart from changing glacier-lake interactions, each stage is characterized by particular features of lake growth, and by the lake's susceptibility to sudden drainage (lake outburst flood). While this concept appears to be valid globally, some mountain areas are rich in dynamically evolving proglacial lakes, while in others most lakes have already shifted to the glacier-detached or even non-glacial phase. In the present contribution we (i) explore and quantify the history of glacial lake formation and evolution over the past up to 70 years; (ii) assess the current situation of selected contrasting mountain areas (eastern and western European Alps, southern and northern Pamir, Cordillera Blanca); and (iii) link the patterns of lake evolution to the prevailing topographic and glaciological characteristics in order to improve the understanding of high-mountain geoenvironmental change. In the eastern Alps we identify only very few lakes in the proglacial stage. While many lakes appeared and dynamically evolved until the 1980s between 2550 m and 2800 m asl, most of them have lost glacier contact until the 2000s, whereas very few new proglacial lakes appeared at the same time. Even though a similar trend is observed in the higher western Alps, a more dynamic glacial lake evolution is observed there. The arid southern Pamir is characterized by a high number of proglacial lakes, mainly around 4500 m asl. There is strong evidence that glacial lake evolution is, after a highly dynamic phase between the 1970s and approx. 2000, decelerating. Few proglacial lakes exist in the higher and more humid, heavily glacierized northern Pamir

  13. Mapping Glacial Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau with Landsat TM/ETM+ Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Sheng, Y.

    2009-12-01

    With a pronounced temperature rise of 0.16oC per decade, the Tibetan plateau is one of the world’s most vulnerable areas responding to global change. Glaciers and glacial lakes serve as sensitive indicators to these regional climate and water cycle variations. Recent study shows that glaciers on the plateau have retreated dramatically, leading to the expansion of the existing glacial lakes and the emergence ofnew glacial lakes. The existence of these lakes increases the possibility of outburst floods to the downstream areas during the ice melting season. Mapping and monitoring these glacial lakes will facilitate our understanding of the glacier-related hazards and regional climate changes. However, rigorous field surveys of glacial lake dynamics are prohibitive in high-mountainous areas on the plateau due to their low accessibility. Satellite remote sensing provides an efficient and objective tool to analyze the status and variations of glacial lakes. Theoretically, lakes and other surface open water bodies are readily identified in satellite images owing to their very low reflectance in near-infrared (NIR) channels of Landsat sensors. In the mountain regions where glacial lakes are located, cloud shadows, mountain shadows, melting glaciers or even lakes under different conditions (e.g., ice lakes, salt lakes, turbid lakes) could become disturbing factors and create problems to glacial lake delineation. We use normalized difference water index (NDWI), the normalized ratio index between the green and near infrared spectral bands, to differentiate water bodies from other land features. As lake features are on the relatively flat areas, topographic features such as terrain slope and hill shades derived from digital elevation model (DEM) are also used to remove the shadows from lakes. Based on NDWI and topographic characteristics, We have developed an automated hierarchical method to monitor glacial lakes using Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery. Firstly, lakes are roughly

  14. A new remote hazard and risk assessment framework for glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounce, David R.; McKinney, Daene C.; Lala, Jonathan M.; Byers, Alton C.; Watson, C. Scott

    2016-08-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) pose a significant threat to downstream communities and infrastructure due to their potential to rapidly unleash stored lake water. The most common triggers of these GLOFs are mass movement entering the lake and/or the self-destruction of the terminal moraine due to hydrostatic pressures or a buried ice core. This study initially uses previous qualitative and quantitative assessments to understand the hazards associated with eight glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya that are widely considered to be highly dangerous. The previous assessments yield conflicting classifications with respect to each glacial lake, which spurred the development of a new holistic, reproducible, and objective approach based solely on remotely sensed data. This remote hazard assessment analyzes mass movement entering the lake, the stability of the moraine, and lake growth in conjunction with a geometric GLOF to determine the downstream impacts such that the present and future risk associated with each glacial lake may be quantified. The new approach is developed within a hazard, risk, and management action framework with the aim that this remote assessment may guide future field campaigns, modeling efforts, and ultimately risk-mitigation strategies. The remote assessment was found to provide valuable information regarding the hazards faced by each glacial lake and results were discussed within the context of the current state of knowledge to help guide future efforts.

  15. Evidence for former Glacial Lakes in the High Peaks and Rossendale Plateau areas, NW England.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Cathy; Crofts, Richard; Rhodes, Ed; Jones, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The identification of former ice-dammed lakes associated with Quaternary ice sheets is important for two reasons. Firstly, these lakes can contain varved sediments which can be used to establish a chronology related to ice margin position, and also provide a high-resolution (sub-annual) record of meltwater discharge from the ice sheet, which in turn can be related to climate. Secondly such lakes are commonly associated with sporadic outburst floods, which are an important geomorphic agent and can affect ice dynamics. This paper examines the evidence for the occurrence of ice-dammed lakes, ponded between the uplands of the South Pennines and the lowland, late Devensian, British Ice Sheet around Manchester, and explores the possibility of establishing a varve chronology for this area. The position of lakes has been reconstructed from a combination of borehole records of laminated silts and clays and associated sands, and morphological evidence, including shorelines and meltwater channels. Both lateral and pro-glacial ice-dammed lakes existed at Glacial Maximum in this area. Two former lakes, the High Peaks Lake, a pro-glacial ice-dammed lake, and Lake Rawtenstall, a lateral ice-dammed lake, are examined in more detail. Borehole records and one new borehole from the High Peaks Lake indicate varved sediments deposited in an ice-advance lake are preserved underneath glacial tills, but that post-glacial lake sediments are absent, indicating an ice-retreat lake of relatively short duration, and probable rapid reworking of exposed lakes sediments. Former Lake Rawtenstall contains much longer sequences of rhythmically laminated sediments, and may have existed for a considerable period of time (>1,000 years) across the Glacial Maximum. A number of shorelines were identified, indicating that lake level dropped as the ice margin receded and the lake surface area expanded. In its latter stages the lake is likely to have partly or fully drained periodically, causing outburst

  16. Glacial lakes in South Tyrol: distribution, evolution and potential for GLOFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schug, Marie-Claire; Mergili, Martin

    2017-04-01

    All over the world glaciers are currently retreating, leading to the formation or growth of glacial lakes. Some of these lakes are susceptible to sudden drainage. In order to assess the danger of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in South Tyrol in the Italian Alps, we present (i) an inventory of lakes, (ii) an analysis of the development of selected glacial lakes since 1945, and (iii) the susceptibility to and the possible impact areas of GLOFs. The inventory includes 1010 lakes that are larger than 250 m2 at an elevation above 2000 m asl, most of them of glacial origin. These lakes are mapped manually from orthophotos. Apart from collecting information on the spatial distribution of these lakes, the inventory lists dam material, glacier contact, and further parameters. 89% of the lakes in the investigation area are impounded by bedrock, whereas 93% of the lakes are detached from the associated glacier. The majority of lakes is small to medium sized (<5000 m2). Between 1999 and 2011 60% of all lakes remained stable in size. Only 16% of the lakes grew in this period of time. This is particularly true for lakes in proximity to a glacier. Ten selected lakes are analyzed in detail in the field and from multi-temporal orthophotos, including the development of lake size and surroundings in the period since 1945. The majority of the selected lakes, however, was first recorded on orthophotos from the early 1980s. Eight of ten lakes grew significantly in that period. But when the lakes detached from the glacier until the early 2000s, the growth slowed down or ceased. Based on the current development of the selected lakes we conclude that the close surroundings of these lakes have stabilised and the lakes' susceptibility to an outburst has thus decreased. We further conduct broad-scale analyses of the susceptibility of the mapped lakes to GLOFs, and of the potential reach of possible GLOFs. The tool r.glachaz is used to determine the potentially dangerous lakes. Even

  17. Glacial lake evolution in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and the cause of rapid expansion of proglacial lakes linked to glacial-hydrogeomorphic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunqiao; Sheng, Yongwei; Ke, Linghong; Nie, Yong; Wang, Jida

    2016-09-01

    Glacial lakes, as an important component of the cryosphere in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (SETP) in response to climate change, pose significant threats to the downstream lives and properties of people, engineering construction, and ecological environment via outburst floods, yet we currently have limited knowledge of their distribution, evolution, and the driving mechanism of rapid expansions due to the low accessibility and harsh natural conditions. By integrating optical imagery, satellite altimetry and digital elevation model (DEM), this study presents a regional-scale investigation of glacial lake dynamics across two river basins of the SETP during 1988-2013 and further explores the glacial-hydrogeomorphic process of rapidly expanding lakes. In total 1278 and 1396 glacial lakes were inventoried in 1988 and 2013, respectively. Approximately 92.4% of the lakes in 2013 are not in contact with modern glaciers, and the remaining 7.6% includes 27 (1.9%) debris-contact lakes (in contact with debris-covered ice) and 80 (5.7%) cirque lakes. In categorizing lake variations, we found that debris-contact proglacial lakes experienced much more rapid expansions (∼75%) than cirque lakes (∼7%) and non-glacier-contact lakes (∼3%). To explore the cause of rapid expansion for these debris-contact lakes, we further investigated the mass balance of parent glaciers and elevation changes in lake surfaces and debris-covered glacier tongues using time-series Landsat images, ICESat altimetry, and DEM. Results reveal that the upstream expansion of debris-contact proglacial lakes was not directly associated with rising water levels but with a geomorphological alternation of upstream lake basins caused by melting-induced debris subsidence at glacier termini. This suggests that the hydrogeomorphic process of glacier thinning and retreat, in comparison with direct glacial meltwater alone, may have played a dominant role in the recent glacial lake expansion observed across the

  18. New method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, A.; Vilímek, V.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a new and easily repeatable objective method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes within the Peruvian region of Cordillera Blanca (excluding ice-dammed lakes, which do not reach significant volumes in this region). The presented method was designed to meet four basic principles, which we considered as being crucial. These are: (a) principle of regional focus; (b) principle of objectivity; (c) principle of repeatability; and (d) principle of multiple results. Potential hazardousness is assessed based on a combination of decision trees for clarity and numerical calculation for objectivity. A total of seventeen assessed characteristics are used, of which seven have yet to be used in this context before. Also, several ratios and calculations are defined for the first time. We assume that it is not relevant to represent the overall potential hazardousness of a particular lake by one result (number), thus the potential hazardousness is described in the presented method by five separate results (representing five different glacial lake outburst flood scenarios). These are potentials for: (a) dam overtopping resulting from a dynamic slope movement into the lake; (b) dam overtopping following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream; (c) dam failure resulting from a dynamic slope movement into the lake; (d) dam failure following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream; and (e) dam failure following a heavy earthquake. All of these potentials theoretically range from 0 to 1. The presented method was verified on the basis of assessing the pre-flood conditions of seven lakes which have produced ten glacial lake outburst floods in the past and ten lakes which have not. A comparison of these results showed that the presented method successfully identifies the potentially hazardous lakes.

  19. Altitudinal dynamics of glacial lakes under changing climate in the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalaya ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Arshad; Naz, Rozina; Iqbal, Muhammad Bilal

    2017-04-01

    The environmental challenges posed by global warming in the Himalayan region include early and rapid melting of snow and glaciers, creation of new lakes, and expansion of old ones posing a high risk of glacial lakes outburst flood (GLOF) hazard for downstream communities. According to various elevation ranges, 3044 lakes were analyzed basinwide in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) ranges of Pakistan using multisensor remote sensing data of the 2001-2013 period. An overall increase in glacial lakes was observed at various altitudinal ranges between 2500 and 5500, m out of which noticeable change by number was within the 4000-4500 m range. The analysis carried out by glacial-fed lakes and nonglacial-fed lakes in different river basins indicated variable patterns depending on the geographic location in the HKH region. The correlation analysis of parameters like lake area, expansion rate, and elevation was performed with 617 glacial lakes distributed in various river basins of the three HKH ranges. Lake area (2013) and elevation showed a negative relationship for all basins except Hunza, Shigar, and Shyok. The correlation between the expansion rate of lakes and elevation was on the positive side for Swat, Gilgit, Shigar, and Shingo basins-a situation that may be attributed to the variable altitudinal pattern of temperature and precipitation. In order to explore such diverse patterns of lake behavior and relationship with influential factors in the HKH, detailed studies based on using high resolution image data coupled with in situ information are a prerequisite. Although an increase in lake area observed below 3500 m would be favorable for water resource management, but could be alarming in context of glacial flood hazards that need to be monitored critically on a long-term basis.

  20. Dynamic Change in Glacial Dammed Lake Behavior of Suicide Basin, Mendenhall Glacier, Juneau Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, A. B.; Moran, T.; Hood, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    Suicide Basin Jökulhlaups, since 2011, have resulted in moderate flooding on the Mendenhall Lake and River in Juneau, AK. At this time, the USGS recorded peak streamflow of 20,000 cfs in 2014, the highest flows officially reported by the USGS which was attributed to a Suicide Basin glacial-dammed lake release. However, the USGS estimated a peak flow of 27,000 cfs in 1961 and we suspect this event is partially the result of a glacial dammed lake release. From 2011 to 2015, data indicates that yearly outburst from Suicide Basin were the norm; however, in 2015 and 2016, multiple outbursts during the summer were observed suggesting a dynamic change in glacial behavior. For public safety and awareness, the University of Alaska Southeast and U.S. Geologic Survey began monitoring real-time Suicide Basin lake levels. A real-time model was developed by the National Weather Service Alaska-Pacific River Forecast Center capable of forecasting potential timing and magnitude of the flood-wave crest from this Suicide Basin release. However, the model now is being modified because data not previously available has become available and adapted to the change in state of glacial behavior. The importance of forecasting time and level of crest on the Mendenhall River system owing to these outbursts floods is an essential aid to emergency managers and the general public to provide impact decision support services (IDSS). The National Weather Service has been able to provide 36 to 24 hour forecasts for these large events, but with the change in glacial state on the Mendenhall Glacier, the success of forecasting these events is getting more challenging. We will show the success of the hydrologic model but at the same time show the challenges we have seen with the changing glacier dynamics.

  1. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Third Pole region and their changes in response to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y.; Zhang, G.; Yao, T.; Xie, H.

    2015-12-01

    No glacial lake census exists for the Third Pole region, which includes the Pamir-Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, comprehensive information is lacking about the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes caused by current global warming conditions. In this study, the first glacial lake inventories for the Third Pole were conducted for ~1990, 2000, and 2010 using Landsat TM/ETM+ data. Glacial lake spatial distributions, corresponding areas and temporal changes were examined. The significant results are as follows. (1) There were 4602, 4981, and 5701 glacial lakes (> 0.003 km2) covering areas of 553.9 ± 90, 581.2 ± 97, and 682.4 ± 110 km2 in ~1990, 2000, and 2010, respectively; these lakes are primarily located in the Brahmaputra (39%), Indus (28%), and Amu Darya (10%) basins. (2) Small lakes (< 0.2 km2) are more sensitive to climate changes. (3) Lakes closer to glaciers and at higher altitudes, particularly those connected to glacier termini, have undergone larger area changes. (4) Glacier-fed lakes are dominant in both quantity and area (> 70%) and exhibit faster expansion trends overall compared to non-glacier-fed lakes. We conclude that glacier meltwater may play a dominant role in the areal expansion of most glacial lakes in the Third Pole. In addition, the patterns of the glacier-fed lakes correspond well with warming temperature trends and negative glacier mass balance patterns. This paper presents an important database of glacial lakes and provides a basis for long-term monitoring and evaluation of outburst flood disasters primarily caused by glacial lakes in the Third Pole.

  2. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Third Pole region and their changes in response to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Yao, Tandong; Xie, Hongjie; Wang, Weicai; Yang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    No glacial lake census exists for the Third Pole region, which includes the Pamir-Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, comprehensive information is lacking about the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes caused by current global warming conditions. In this study, the first glacial lake inventories for the Third Pole were conducted for ~ 1990, 2000, and 2010 using Landsat TM/ETM + data. Glacial lake spatial distributions, corresponding areas and temporal changes were examined. The significant results are as follows. (1) There were 4602, 4981, and 5701 glacial lakes (> 0.003 km2) covering areas of 553.9 ± 90, 581.2 ± 97, and 682.4 ± 110 km2 in ~ 1990, 2000, and 2010, respectively; these lakes are primarily located in the Brahmaputra (39%), Indus (28%), and Amu Darya (10%) basins. (2) Small lakes (< 0.2 km2) are more sensitive to climate changes. (3) Lakes closer to glaciers and at higher altitudes, particularly those connected to glacier termini, have undergone larger area changes. (4) Glacier-fed lakes are dominant in both quantity and area (> 70%) and exhibit faster expansion trends overall compared to non-glacier-fed lakes. We conclude that glacier meltwater may play a dominant role in the areal expansion of most glacial lakes in the Third Pole. In addition, the patterns of the glacier-fed lakes correspond well with warming temperature trends and negative glacier mass balance patterns. This paper presents an important database of glacial lakes and provides a basis for long-term monitoring and evaluation of outburst flood disasters primarily caused by glacial lakes in the Third Pole.

  3. Status of glacial Lake Columbia during the last floods from glacial Lake Missoula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Brian F.

    1987-03-01

    The last floods from glacial Lake Missoula, Montana, probably ran into glacial Lake Columbia, in northeastern Washington. In or near Lake Columbia's Sanpoil arm, Lake Missoula floods dating from late in the Fraser glaciation produced normally graded silt beds that become thinner upsection and which alternate with intervals of progressively fewer varves. The highest three interflood intervals each contain only one or two varves, and about 200-400 successive varves conformably overlie the highest flood bed. This sequence suggests that jökulhlaup frequency progressively increased until Lake Missoula ended, and that Lake Columbia outlasted Lake Missoula. The upper Grand Coulee, Lake Columbia's late Fraser-age outlet, contains a section of 13 graded beds, most of them sandy and separated by varves, that may correlate with the highest Missoula-flood beds of the Sanpoil River valley. The upper Grand Coulee also contains probable correlatives of many of the approximately 200-400 succeeding varves, as do nearby parts of the Columbia River valley. This collective evidence casts doubt on a prevailing hypothesis according to which one or more late Fraser-age floods from Lake Missoula descended the Columbia River valley with little or no interference from Lake Columbia's Okanogan-lobe dam.

  4. Status of glacial Lake Columbia during the last floods from glacial Lake Missoula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    The last floods from glacial Lake Missoula, Montana, probably ran into glacial Lake Columbia, in northeastern Washington. In or near Lake Columbia's Sanpoil arm, Lake Missoula floods dating from late in the Fraser glaciation produced normally graded silt beds that become thinner upsection and which alternate with intervals of progressively fewer varves. The highest three interflood intervals each contain only one or two varves, and about 200-400 successive varves conformably overlie the highest flood bed. This sequence suggests that jo??kulhlaup frequency progressively increased until Lake Missoula ended, and that Lake Columbia outlasted Lake Missoula. The upper Grand Coulee, Lake Columbia's late Fraser-age outlet, contains a section of 13 graded beds, most of them sandy and separated by varves, that may correlate with the highest Missoula-flood beds of the Sanpoil River valley. The upper Grand Coulee also contains probable correlatives of many of the approximately 200-400 succeeding varves, as do nearby parts of the Columbia River valley. This collective evidence casts doubt on a prevailing hypothesis according to which one or more late Fraser-age floods from Lake Missoula descended the Columbia River valley with little or no interference from Lake Columbia's Okanogan-lobe dam. ?? 1987.

  5. Potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan - Research overview of 2004-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansky, Bohumir; Yerokhin, Sergey; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Cerny, Michal; Falatkova, Kristyna; Kocum, Jan; Benes, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Global warming causes intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in most of high mountains all over the world. This process is also evident in the mountain regions of central Tien Shan. Glacier melt water affects changes in hydrological regime of water streams and causes overfilling of high mountain lake basins. The dams of many lakes are very unstable and can burst open. To determine the degree of such risk, it is necessary to analyse the genesis of lakes, to characterize the morphology of the lake basins and to know the particularities of their hydrological regime. According to the latest inventory within territory of Kyrgyzstan, a total of 1328 lakes have been identified as potentially dangerous, 12 lakes are considered as currently dangerous, other 25 feature high potential hazard. Since 1952 more than 70 disastrous cases of lake outburst have been registered. The hazardous alpine lakes are studied in Kyrgyzstan systematically since 1966. Since 2004, Czech-Kyrgyz research team has been operating in Kyrgyzstan in the field of dangerous glacial lakes. Projects were focused primarily on high-mountain glacial lakes risk assessment, propositions of risk mitigation measures, establishment of permanent research station near one of the studied glacier complexes, preparation of risk analysis for selected endangered valleys, evaluation of climatic and hydrological data and glacier development within observed regions. The most significant portion of data and information has been gathered during field work, complemented by satellite image analysis and surveillance flights over the monitored sites.

  6. A subtropical fate awaited freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz

    SciTech Connect

    Condron, Alan; Winsor, Peter

    2011-02-10

    The 8.2 kyr event is the largest abrupt climatic change recorded in the last 10,000 years, and is widely hypothesized to have been triggered by the release of thousands of kilometers cubed of freshwater into the North Atlantic Ocean. Using a high-resolution (1/6°) global, ocean-ice circulation model we present an alternative view that freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz would have remained on the continental shelf as a narrow, buoyant, coastal current, and would have been transported south into the subtropical North Atlantic. The pathway we describe is in contrast to the conceptual idea that freshwater from this lake outburst spread over most of the sub-polar North Atlantic, and covered the deep, open-ocean, convection regions. This coastally confined freshwater pathway is consistent with the present-day routing of freshwater from Hudson Bay, as well as paleoceanographic evidence of this event. In this study, using a coarse-resolution (2.6°) version of the same model, we demonstrate that the previously reported spreading of freshwater across the sub-polar North Atlantic results from the inability of numerical models of this resolution to accurately resolve narrow coastal flows, producing instead a diffuse circulation that advects freshwater away from the boundaries. To understand the climatic impact of freshwater released in the past or future (e.g. Greenland and Antarctica), the ocean needs to be modeled at a resolution sufficient to resolve the dynamics of narrow, coastal buoyant flows.

  7. GIS-based models for glacier lake outburst hazards: evaluation and application for recent events in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.; Kaeaeb, A.; Haeberli, W.; Krummenacher, B.

    2003-04-01

    Debris flows triggered by glacier-lake outbursts have repeatedly caused disasters in various high-mountain regions of the world. Accelerated change of glacial and periglacial environments due to atmospheric warming and increased anthropogenic development in most of these areas raise the need for an adequate hazard assessment and corresponding modelling. This contribution presents a modelling approach which attempts to satisfy the requirements of a continuously updated information basis and a robust first-order assessment of hazards from glacier lake outbursts. Two topography-based GIS-models simulating debris flows related to outbursts from gla cier lakes are presented and applied for two outburst events in the southern Swiss Alps, the more recent one being a debris flow in 2001 with severe damages in the village of Täsch. The models are based on information about glacier lakes derived from remote sensing data, and on digital elevation models (DEM). Hydrological flow routing is used to simulate the debris flow resulting from the lake outburst. Thereby, a multiple-flow and a single-flow approach are applied. Debris-flow propagation is given in probability (-related) values indicating the hazard potential of a certain location. The debris-flow runout distance is calculated on the base of empirical data on overall trajectory slope. The results show that the multiple-flow approach generally yields a more detailed propagation. The single-flow approach, however, is more robust against DEM artefacts and, hence, more suited for process automation. Influence of DEM scale and quality is investigated using three differently generated DEMs (conventional map-based, and photogrammetry- and satellite data-derived). The results show that a 25m-gridded high-quality DEM is reasonable for first-order assessments in the densly developed Alps. ASTER satellite-derived DEMs yield a minor quality but have a promising potential for applications of the models in remote high

  8. Evolution of supra-glacial ponds on a debris-covered Chamlang South Glacier, Nepal Himalaya to a potentially dangerous glacial lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, D.; Sawagaki, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sakai, A.

    2013-12-01

    A number of moraine dammed glacial lakes have been developed in the Himalayan region since 1950s as a result of melting and retreat of debris-covered glaciers. Such glacial lakes sometimes produce devastating glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) which are often several times bigger than normal climatic floods. In Nepal Himalaya, about a score glacial lakes have been identified as ';potentially dangerous' largely relying on remote sensing image analyses. Chamlang South Glacier Lake in the Eastern Nepal Himalaya, which evolved from few tiny supra-glacial ponds in 1960s on debris-covered Chamlang South Glacier into a large glacial lake is one among them. Moreover, the lake has been repeatedly cited as a potentially dangerous lake for a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and also regarded as one of the most highly prioritized critical lakes in Nepal Himalaya. However, detailed investigation of the lake either by field survey or remote sensing has not been carried out on Chamlang South Glacier/Glacier Lake hitherto. We carried out surface area and bathymetric mappings of the lake, detailed topographic mappings of moraine dam complex and surrounding of the glacial lake, and field assessment to examine the development of Chamlang South Glacier Lake, and to assess its prospect of GLOF and potential volume of water to be released from the lake in the event of dam breach. High-resolution Corona KH-4A and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) PRISM stereo-data taken in 1964 and 2006 respectively were processed to generate digital terrain models (DTMs). Surface area of supra-glacial ponds in 1964 was 0.040 km2 which grew to 0.636 km2 by 1992 and reached 0.864 km2 by 2000 and virtually stopped expanding thereafter. Produced bathymetric map revealed the lake to be 87 m deep (maximum) and volume of water contained in the lake was calculated to be ~35.6 × 106 m3. Extensive surface lowering as high as 156.9 m, and average surface lowering by 2.2 m/year is found. All topographic

  9. Glacier, Glacial Lake, and Ecological Response Dynamics of the Imja Glacier-Lake-Moraine System, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Shugar, D. H.; Leonard, G. J.; Haritashya, U. K.; Harrison, S.; Shrestha, A. B.; Mool, P. K.; Karki, A.; Regmi, D.

    2016-12-01

    Glacier response dynamics—involving a host of processes—produce a sequence of short- to long-term delayed responses to any step-wise, oscillating, or continuous trending climatic perturbation. We present analysis of Imja Lake, Nepal and examine its thinning and retreat and a sequence of the detachment of tributaries; the inception and growth of Imja Lake and concomitant glacier retreat, thinning, and stagnation, and relationships to lake dynamics; the response dynamics of the ice-cored moraine; the development of the local ecosystem; prediction of short-term dynamical responses to lake lowering (glacier lake outburst flood—GLOF—mitigation); and prospects for coming decades. The evolution of this glacier system provides a case study by which the global record of GLOFs can be assessed in terms of climate change attribution. We define three response times: glacier dynamical response time (for glacier retreat, thinning, and slowing of ice flow), limnological response time (lake growth), and GLOF trigger time (for a variety of hazardous trigger events). Lake lowering (to be completed in August 2016; see AGU abstract by D. Regmi et al.) will reduce hazards, but we expect that the elongation of the lake and retreat of the glacier will continue for decades after a pause in 2016-2017. The narrowing of the moraine dam due to thaw degradation of the ice-cored end moraine means that the hazard due to Imja Lake will soon again increase. We examine both long-term response dynamics, and two aspects of Himalayan glaciers that have very rapid responses: the area of Imja Lake fluctuates seasonally and even with subseasonal weather variations in response to changes in lake temperature and glacier meltback; and as known from other studies, glacier flow speed can vary between years and even on shorter timescales. The long-term development and stabilization of glacial moraines and small lacustrine plains in drained lake basins impacts the development of local ecosystems

  10. Using seismic arrays to quantify the physics of a glacial outburst flood and its legacy on upland river dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbert, Florent; Cook, Kristen; Andermann, Christoff; Hovius, Niels; Turowski, Jens

    2017-04-01

    In the Himalayas fluvial erosion is thought to be controlled by the intense annual Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation. However, this region is also exposed to catastrophic floods generated by the sudden failure of landslides or moraine dams. These floods are rare and particularly devastating. Thus they have a strong impact on rivers and adjacent hillslopes, and they represent a hazard for local populations. Due to the difficulties to observe these floods and quantify their physics using traditional methods, their importance for the long-term evolution of Himalayan Rivers remains largely unknown, and no consistent early warning system exists to anticipate these events, especially in trans-boundary regions. Here we show that seismic arrays can be used to (i) reliably anticipate outburst floods and to (ii) quantify multiple and key fluvial processes associated with their propagation and their lasting impacts on upland river dynamics. We report unique seismic observations of a glacial lake outburst flood event that occurred the 5th of July 2016 in the Bhote Koshi River (Central Nepal). Precursory seismic signals are identified from the onset of the lake drainage event such that an early warning alarm may be turned on about an hour before the outburst flood wave reaches areas with an exposed population. Using our network of stations we observe for the first time that the outburst flood wave is in fact made of two distinct waves, namely a water flow wave and a bedload sediment wave. As expected these two waves travel at different speeds. We find that the ratio between the two wave speeds matches with that previously found at much smaller scales in flume laboratory experiments. Based on the physical modelling of both water-flow- and bedload- induced seismic noise we provide estimates of flow depth and bedload transport characteristics (flux, moving grains sizes) prior, during and after the flood. In particular we show that bedload sediment flux is enhanced by up to a

  11. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    The Cordillera Blanca mountain range is the highest in Peru and contains many of the world's tropical glaciers. This region is severely impacted by climate change causing accelerated glacier retreat. Secondary impacts of climate change on glacier retreat include stress on water resources and the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from the many lakes that are forming and growing at the base of glaciers. A number of GLOFs originating from lakes in the Cordillera Blanca have occurred over the last century, several of which have had catastrophic impacts on cities and communities downstream. Glaciologists and engineers in Peru have been studying the lakes of the Cordillera Blanca for many years and have identified several lakes that are considered dangerous. However, a systematic analysis of all the lakes in the Cordillera Blanca has never before been attempted. Some methodologies for this type of systematic analysis have been proposed (eg. Emmer and Vilimek 2014; Wang, et al. 2011), but as yet they have only been applied to a few select lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. This study uses remotely sensed data to study all of the lakes of the Glacial Lake Inventory published by the Glaciology and Water Resources Unit of Peru's National Water Authority (UGRH 2011). The objective of this study is to assign a level of potential hazard to each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca and to ascertain if any of the lakes beyond those that have already been studied might pose a danger to nearby populations. A number of parameters of analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, have been selected to assess the hazard level of each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca using digital elevation models, satellite imagery, and glacier outlines. These parameters are then combined to come up with a preliminary assessment of the hazard level of each lake; the equation weighting each parameter draws on previously published methodologies but is tailored to the regional characteristics

  12. Origin and Distribution Of Glacial Lakes: A Case Study In Tista Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Himalayan glaciers are experiencing retreat due to changes in the temperature and precipitation pattern. Retreating glaciers depending upon the underlying bed topography can cause lake formation near terminus. Therefore formation and draining of lakes in the glaciated terrain of Himalaya is commonly observed. However, few lakes became stable under suitable geomorphologic conditions and grow sufficiently large to threaten population and infrastructure in downstream. In this investigation changes in glacial lakes in Tista basin were studied using satellite images for a period between 1989 and 2010. The Tista basin in Sikkim covers approximately 7096 sq km area and the total glaciated area is 501± 29 sq km. During the period of investigation the lake area is increased from 6.6 ± 0.8 km2 to 9.6 ± 1.1 km2 due to formation of new lakes and also due to expansion of existing lake. Out of 23 lakes, 16 showed variable increase in area. We have also observed formation of stable proglacial lake due to coalescence of small supra glacial lakes on Changsang and South Lhonak Glacier. The size of lake near South Lhonak Glacier was increased from 18 to 126 ha from 1978 to 2014 (Figure). Therefore detail field investigations were carried out to understand volume and extent of ice in end moraine. The water volume was estimated as 53 million m3 using bathymetric survey and ice at the core of terminal moraines was mapped using resistivity survey. These investigations suggests a possibility of catastrophic outburst flood, if moraine dam breached under extreme weather conditions. Therefore, mitigation strategy is needed to improve safety of people living in the region. In addition, numerous remote sensing based investigations have mapped more than 300 lakes in the glaciated terrain in India, therefore, a national program to monitor glacier lakes and strategy to mitigate possible disaster is needed. Figure: Expansion of the lake near South Lhonak glacier from year 1990 to 2014.

  13. A rapidly growing moraine-dammed glacial lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Benn, Douglas I.; Dennis, Kathryn; Luckman, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Moraine-dammed glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common in the Himalaya as a result of glacier mass loss, causing concern about glacier lake outburst flood risk. In addition to extant lakes, the potential exists for many more to form, as more glaciers ablate down to the level of potential moraine dams. In this paper, we document the recent rapid growth of, a moraine-dammed lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. Using a combination of ground-based mapping and sonar surveys, aerial photographs (< 1 m resolution), and ASTER imagery (15 m resolution), processes and rates of lake expansion have been determined. The lake first formed between 1984 and 1992 when collapse of an englacial conduit allowed water to accumulate at the level of a gap in the lateral moraine, ~km from the glacier terminus. Lake growth was initially slow, but since 2001 it has undergone exponential growth at an average rate of 10% y-1. In 2009, the lake area was 300,000 m2, and its volume was at least 2.2 million m3. Calving, subaqueous melting, and melting of subaerial ice faces all contribute to the expansion of the lake; but large-scale, full-height slab calving is now the dominant contributor to growth. Comparison with other lakes in the region indicate that lake growth will likely continue unchecked whilst the spillway remains at its current level and may attain a volume of hundreds of millions of cubic metres within the next few decades.

  14. Geometric dependency of Tibetan lakes on glacial runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, V. H.; Lindenbergh, R. C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an essential source of water for Southeast Asia. The runoff from its ~34 000 glaciers, which occupy an area of ~50 000 km2, feeds Tibetan lakes and major Asian rivers like the Indus and Brahmaputra. Reported glacial shrinkage likely has an impact on the runoff. Unfortunately, accurate quantification of glacial changes is difficult over the high-relief Tibetan Plateau. However, it has recently been shown that it is possible to directly assess water level changes of a significant number of the ~900 Tibetan lakes with an area over 1 km2. This paper exploits different remote sensing products to create drainage links between Tibetan glaciers, lakes and rivers. The results allow us to differentiate between lakes with and without outlet. In addition, we introduce the notion of geometric dependency of a lake on glacial runoff, defined as the ratio between the total area of glaciers draining into a lake and the total area of the lake catchment. We determined these dependencies for all ~900 sufficiently large Tibetan lakes. To do so, we combined three remote sensing products: the CAREERI glacier mask product, a lake mask product based on the MODIS MOD44W water product and the HydroSHEDS river network product derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Using a drainage network analysis, we determined all drainage links between glaciers and lakes. The results show that 25.3% of the total glacier area directly drains into one of 244 Tibetan lakes. The results also give the geometric dependency of each lake on glacial runoff. For example, there are ten lakes with direct glacial runoff from at least 240 km2 of glacier. Three case studies, including one of the well-studied Nam Tso Lake, demonstrate how the geometric dependency of a lake on glacial runoff can be directly linked to hydrological processes.

  15. Glacial Lake Growth and Associated Glacier Dynamics: Case Study from the Himalayas, Andes, Alaska and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binger, D. J.; Haritashya, U. K.; Kargel, J. S.; Shugar, D. H.

    2016-12-01

    Glacial lake growth and associated glacier dynamics: Case study from the Himalayas, Andes, Alaska and New Zealand David J. Binger1, Umesh K. Haritashya1 and Jeffrey S. Kargel21University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 2University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ As a result of climate change most of the world's alpine glaciers are undergoing measurable retreat and dynamic changes. The result of accelerated melting has led to the formation and growth of potentially dangerous glacial lakes. In this study, alpine glaciers and associated lakes from the Himalayas, Andes, Alaska and New Zealand, showing similar geomorphological settings were analyzed to compare differences in regional proglacial lake growth and its relationship with glacier dynamics. Specifically, we analyzed the surface area growth of the lakes, retreat of glacier terminus, changes in glacier velocity, surface temperature and potential glacial lake outburst flood triggers. Using Landsat and ASTER satellite images, Cosi - Corr software, and in house thermal mapping, 10 glaciers were analyzed and compared. Results show a substantial increase in proglacial lake surface area, accelerated velocity and significant calving of the glaciers. Glacier surface temperatures varied by location, with some remaining constant and others 2°C - 4°C increases; although increased surface temperature did not always show a direct correlation with increasing retreat rate. Lakes with high rates of surface area growth paired with glaciers with increased velocity and calving could prove to be unsustainable and lead to an increased risk for glacial lake outburst floods. Overall, result show the changing dynamics of the alpine glaciers in different mountain regions and the growth of their proglacial lakes.

  16. Geometric dependency of Tibetan lakes on glacial runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, V. H.; Lindenbergh, R. C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tibetan plateau is an essential source of water for South-East Asia. The run-off from its ~ 34 000 glaciers, which occupy an area of ~ 50 000 km2, feed Tibetan lakes and major Asian rivers like Indus and Brahmaputra. Reported glacial shrinkage likely has its impact on the run-off. Unfortunately, accurate quantification of glacial changes is difficult over the high relief Tibetan plateau. However, it has been recently shown that it is possible to directly assess water level changes of a significant part of the ~ 900 Tibetan lakes greater than one square kilometer. This paper exploits different remote sensing products to explicitly create links between Tibetan glaciers, lakes and rivers. The results allow us first to differentiate between lakes with and without outlet. In addition, we introduce the notion of geometric dependency of a lake on glacial runoff, defined as the ratio between the total area of glaciers draining into a lake and the area of the catchment of the lake. These dependencies are determined for all ~ 900 Tibetan lakes. To obtain these results, we combine the so-called CAREERI glacier mask, a lake mask based on the MODIS MOD44W water product and the HydroSHEDS river network product derived from SRTM elevation data. Based on a drainage network analysis, all drainage links between glaciers and lakes are determined. The results show that 25.3% of the total glacier area directly drains into one of 244 Tibetan lakes. The results also give the geometric dependency of each lake on glacial runoff. For example, there are 10~lakes with direct glacial runoff from at least 240 km2 of glacier. Three case studies, including one over the well-studied Nam Tso, demonstrate how the geometric dependency of a lake on glacial runoff can be directly linked to hydrological processes.

  17. Emerging Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: A Case Study at Arteson Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, R. E.; Mckinney, D. C.; Gomez, J.; Voss, K.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resources systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glacier mass balance. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2012 at the Arteson glacier in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. A new lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Arteson glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create landslides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. This new lake is part of a series of three lakes that have formed below the Arteson glacier. The two lower lakes, Artesonraju and Paron, are much larger so that if there were an avalanche or landslide into the new lake below Arteson glacier, the impact could potentially be more catastrophic than a GLOF from one single lake. Estimates of how the lake mass balance is likely to evolve due to the retreating glacier are key to assessing the flood risk from this dynamic three-lake system. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, the ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Arteson glacier and underlying bedrock give us a clue to how the lake is likely to evolve. GPR measurements of

  18. Regional-scale GIS-models for assessment of hazards from glacier lake outbursts: evaluation and application in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.; Kääb, A.; Haeberli, W.; Krummenacher, B.

    Debris flows triggered by glacier lake outbursts have repeatedly caused disasters in various high-mountain regions of the world. Accelerated change of glacial and periglacial environments due to atmospheric warming and increased anthropogenic development in most of these areas raise the need for an adequate hazard assessment and corresponding modelling. The purpose of this paper is to pro-vide a modelling approach which takes into account the current evolution of the glacial environment and satisfies a robust first-order assessment of hazards from glacier-lake outbursts. Two topography-based GIS-models simulating debris flows related to outbursts from glacier lakes are presented and applied for two lake outburst events in the southern Swiss Alps. The models are based on information about glacier lakes derived from remote sensing data, and on digital elevation models (DEM). Hydrological flow routing is used to simulate the debris flow resulting from the lake outburst. Thereby, a multiple- and a single-flow-direction approach are applied. Debris-flow propagation is given in probability-related values indicating the hazard potential of a certain location. The debris flow runout distance is calculated on the basis of empirical data on average slope trajectory. The results show that the multiple-flow-direction approach generally yields a more detailed propagation. The single-flow-direction approach, however, is more robust against DEM artifacts and, hence, more suited for process automation. The model is tested with three differently generated DEMs (including aero-photogrammetry- and satellite image-derived). Potential application of the respective DEMs is discussed with a special focus on satellite-derived DEMs for use in remote high-mountain areas.

  19. Numerical simulation of the paleohydrology of glacial Lake Oshkosh, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.A.; Befus, K.M.; Hooyer, T.S.; Stewart, P.W.; Shipman, T.D.; Gregory, C.T.; Zylstra, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Proglacial lakes, formed during retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet, evolved quickly as outlets became ice-free and the earth deformed through glacial isostatic adjustment. With high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and GIS methods, it is possible to reconstruct the evolution of surface hydrology. When a DEM deforms through time as predicted by our model of viscoelastic earth relaxation, the entire surface hydrologic system with its lakes, outlets, shorelines and rivers also evolves without requiring assumptions of outlet position. The method is applied to proglacial Lake Oshkosh in Wisconsin (13,600 to 12,900??cal yr BP). Comparison of predicted to observed shoreline tilt indicates the ice sheet was about 400??m thick over the Great Lakes region. During ice sheet recession, each of the five outlets are predicted to uplift more than 100??m and then subside approximately 30??m. At its maximum extent, Lake Oshkosh covered 6600??km2 with a volume of 111??km3. Using the Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System model, flow velocities during glacial outburst floods up to 9??m/s and peak discharge of 140,000??m3/s are predicted, which could drain 33.5??km3 of lake water in 10??days and transport boulders up to 3??m in diameter. ?? 2007 University of Washington.

  20. Why did the Nepal Gorkha Earthquake Have so few Effects on Glacial Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Collins, B. D.; Fielding, E. J.; Fujita, K.; Haritashya, U. K.; Hudnut, K. W.; Leonard, G. J.; Shugar, D. H.; Sakai, A.; Jibson, R.

    2015-12-01

    On 25 April 2015, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal. Subsequently many large aftershocks shook the region, including one of magnitude 7.3. Much damage occurred and over 4000 landslides were triggered, but fortunately few earthquake effects on glacier lakes have been identified and no large glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have been clearly attributed to the quakes. Why were the lakes largely unscathed? We will (1) review some cases around the world where earthquakes have apparently triggered responses among glaciers and glacier- or moraine-dammed lakes, and how these responses took place, (2) consider why earthquakes in general might not commonly have such large impacts on glacial lakes as widely expected; (3) show some case examples of glacial moraine-dammed lakes in Nepal and Tibet where few visible effects of the Gorkha earthquake (and aftershocks) were documented; and (4) consider why specifically the Gorkha earthquake (+ aftershocks) caused very few and mild effects. Earthquake shaking and steep slopes result in thousands of landslides when big earthquakes occur in mountains; furthermore, large mass movements into glacial lakes are a known trigger of many GLOFs. Worldwide there is little evidence, contrary to speculation, and now reinforced by the Gorkha quake, that earthquakes—even big ones happening near glacier lakes—are normally a major trigger of GLOFs. There may be several explanations. The Gorkha earthquake might have caused less shaking than its total released energy suggests, thus further sparing the Himalayan lakes from catastrophe. A possible further protective aspect is that glacial lakes mainly occur far up alpine valleys. It is known from other quakes that when there is shallow slip and rugged relief, surface wave modes tend to be absorbed and scattered as these waves propagate across mountain ranges, and body waves are focused into ridges, thus reducing the ground accelerations on valley floors (where lakes occur) and commonly

  1. Sedimentary record of sub-glacial outburst floods at Laurentian Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Wei; von Dobeneck, Tilo

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale glacial meltwater discharge could be widely recognized off the eastern Canadian continental margin. At Laurentian Fan, sub-glacial outburst floods eroded Permian-Carboniferous redbeds at Gulf of St. Lawrence and then delivered the reddish sediments by Laurentian Channel. Sedimentary record from four gravity cores (GeoB18514-2, 18515-1, 18516-2 and 18517-1) at the SW slope of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland revealed the major depositional processes since Heinrich event 2 (ca. 22 ka). In the cores, the upper thick Holocene olive-grey silty mud units overly IRD-rich Heinrich 1 layer, five reddish units are distinguished in the lower part. Reddish units get proportionally thinner along the SW slope at higher and more distal positions; instead, separating olive-grey layers get thicker with height and distance. Reddish and olive grey units have sharp boundaries and no signs of erosion. Mean grain size changes abruptly from coarse in grey layers to fine in reddish layers, terrigenous elements (as Al, K, Ti, Fe) and clays (Al/Si) are highly elevated in reddish layers and low in Heinrich layers, which are instead enriched in detrital continental carbonates. Both Heinrich layers and reddish layers have enhanced magnetic susceptibility, but Heinrich layer have higher ferromagnetic (SIRM) content (mafic rocks), while reddish layers have more hematite (HIRM). These five reddish layers differ from event to event, which seems to reflect different mixing ratios of event-related and background sedimentation. This mixing will allow estimating event-specific sedimentation rates. Using mixing ratio combined with 14C dating data could contribute to estimate the sedimentation rate and duration of outburst floods, which could help to build ice sheet retreat history and find the connection with paleoclimate changes.

  2. Periodic outburst floods from an ice-dammed lake in East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Hvidberg, Christine; Campos, Nestor; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2017-04-01

    We report evidence of four cycles of outburst floods from Catalina Lake, an ice-dammed lake in East Greenland, identified in satellite imagery between 1966-2016. The lake is 20-25 km2, and lake level drops 100-120 m in each event, corresponding to a water volume of 2.5 Gt and a release of potential energy of 1016 J, among the largest outburst floods reported in historical time. The drainage cycle has shortened systematically over each cycle, suggesting that the drainage pattern is changing due to climate warming with possible implications for environmental conditions in Scoresbysund fjord.

  3. Oxygen-isotope variations in post-glacial Lake Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hladyniuk, Ryan; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2016-02-01

    The role of glacial meltwater input to the Atlantic Ocean in triggering the Younger Dryas (YD) cooling event has been the subject of controversy in recent literature. Lake Ontario is ideally situated to test for possible meltwater passage from upstream glacial lakes and the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) to the Atlantic Ocean via the lower Great Lakes. Here, we use the oxygen-isotope compositions of ostracode valves and clam shells from three Lake Ontario sediment cores to identify glacial meltwater contributions to ancient Lake Ontario since the retreat of the LIS (∼16,500 cal [13,300 14C] BP). Differences in mineralogy and sediment grain size are also used to identify changes in the hydrologic regime. The average lakewater δ18O of -17.5‰ (determined from ostracode compositions) indicates a significant contribution from glacial meltwater. Upon LIS retreat from the St. Lawrence lowlands, ancient Lake Ontario (glacial Lake Iroquois) lakewater δ18O increased to -12‰ largely because of the loss of low-18O glacial meltwater input. A subsequent decrease in lakewater δ18O (from -12 to -14‰), accompanied by a median sediment grain size increase to 9 μm, indicates that post-glacial Lake Ontario received a final pulse of meltwater (∼13,000-12,500 cal [11,100-10,500 14C] BP) before the onset of hydrologic closure. This meltwater pulse, which is also recorded in a previously reported brief freshening of the neighbouring Champlain Valley (Cronin et al., 2012), may have contributed to a weakening of thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. After 12,900 cal [11,020 14C] BP, the meltwater presence in the Ontario basin continued to inhibit entry of Champlain seawater into early Lake Ontario. Opening of the North Bay outlet diverted upper Great Lakes water from the lower Great Lakes causing a period (12,300-8300 cal [10,400-7500 14C] BP) of hydrologic closure in Lake Ontario (Anderson and Lewis, 2012). This change is demarcated by a shift to higher δ18Olakewater

  4. Predicting outflow induced by moraine failure in glacial lakes: the Lake Palcacocha case from an uncertainty perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, D. S.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Hodges, B. R.; McKinney, D. C.

    2015-06-01

    Moraine dam collapse is one of the causes of glacial lake outburst floods. Available models seek to predict both moraine breach formation and lake outflow. The models depend on hydraulic, erosion, and geotechnical parameters that are mostly unknown or uncertain. This paper estimates the outflow hydrograph caused by a potential erosive collapse of the moraine dam of Lake Palcacocha in Peru and quantifies the uncertainty of the results. The overall aim is to provide a simple yet hydraulically robust approach for calculating the expected outflow hydrographs that is useful for risk assessment studies. To estimate the peak outflow and failure time of the hydrograph, we assessed several available empirical equations based on lake and moraine geometries; each equation has defined confidence intervals for peak flow predictions. Complete outflow hydrographs for each peak flow condition were modeled using a hydraulic simulation model calibrated to match the peak flows estimated with the empirical equations. Failure time and peak flow differences between the simulations, and the corresponding empirical equations were used as error parameters. Along with an expected hydrograph, lower and upper bound hydrographs were calculated for Lake Palcacocha, representing the confidence interval of the results. The approach has several advantages: first, it is simple and robust. Second, it evaluates the capability of empirical equations to reproduce the conditions of the lake and moraine dam. Third, this approach accounts for uncertainty in the hydrographs estimations, which makes it appropriate for risk management studies.

  5. Hydrogeophysical characterisation of ice-marginal moraines, with reference to moraine dam stability, Miage Glacial Lake, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. S.; Kulessa, B.

    2010-12-01

    In mountain regions, potentially hazardous glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common as a consequence of climatically driven glacier recession. Lakes can expand rapidly in the space between downwasting or receding glacier fronts and terminal or lateral moraines, and are prone to catastrophic drainage if the moraine dam is breached. Lake drainage can have severe impacts on both fragile mountain ecosystems and local economies. In addition to the moraine-dammed lakes currently in existence, it is likely that many more will form in the coming decades as more glaciers cross the threshold required for rapid lake expansion. A key factor in assessing the stability and future evolution of such systems is a better understanding of the subsurface structure and hydrology of the moraine dams. Here results are presented from electrical geophysical work carried out across the breach moraine complex at the Miage Glacial Lake, Italy. A combination of induced polarisation, normalised induced polarisation and self potentials have been used to characterise the local water table and to identify the subsurface connections between two moraines dammed glacial lakes. The results not only show the depth and distribution of subsurface flow but also the preferential flow pathways, indicating areas of maximum discharge. The results highlight the areas of the moraines where hydrological processes are causing internal degradation and impacting upon the longer term stability of the system. This model therefore, can be employed on much larger systems where the risk of outburst has far greater consequences.

  6. Bathymetry and temperature of some glacial lakes in Wyoming

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Luna B.

    1980-01-01

    On the west flank of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming, are several large lakes occupying glacially scoured depressions dammed by terminal moraines. Fremont, Willow, and New Fork Lakes, having maximal depths of 185, 85, and 62 m, respectively, are not only deep, but in 1970-1978 they had no measurable coliform. They have exceptionally low values of total dissolved solids; Fremont Lake has only 12.8 mg/liter, probably the second most dilute large lake in coterminus United States. Summer mixing is restricted to the uppermost 10 m, below which the lakes are essentially isothermal at the maximum density temperature, about 3.9°C. PMID:16592797

  7. Bathymetry and temperature of some glacial lakes in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Leopold, L B

    1980-04-01

    On the west flank of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming, are several large lakes occupying glacially scoured depressions dammed by terminal moraines. Fremont, Willow, and New Fork Lakes, having maximal depths of 185, 85, and 62 m, respectively, are not only deep, but in 1970-1978 they had no measurable coliform. They have exceptionally low values of total dissolved solids; Fremont Lake has only 12.8 mg/liter, probably the second most dilute large lake in coterminus United States. Summer mixing is restricted to the uppermost 10 m, below which the lakes are essentially isothermal at the maximum density temperature, about 3.9 degrees C.

  8. Glacial-marine and glacial-lacustrine sedimentation in Sebago Lake, Maine: Locating the marine limit

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.A.; Kelley, J.T. ); Belknap, D. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    The marine limit in Maine marks a sea-level highstand at approximately 13 ka. It was inferred to cross Sebago Lake near Frye Island by Thompson and Borns (1985) on the Surficial Geological Map of Maine, dividing the lake into a northern glacial-lacustrine basin and a southern glacial-marine basin. This study examined the accuracy of the mapped marine limit in the lake and the nature of glacial-lacustrine and glacial-marine facies in Maine. Recognition of the marine limit is usually based on mapped shorelines, glacial-marine deltas, and contacts with glacial-marine sediments. This study, in Maine's second largest lake, collected 100 kilometers of side-scan sonar images, 100 kilometers of seismic reflection profiles, and one core. Side-scan sonar records show coarse sand and gravel and extensive boulder fields at an inferred grounding-line position near Frye Island, where the marine limit was drawn. ORE Geopulse seismic reflection profiles reveal a basal draping unit similar to glacial-marine units identified offshore. Later channels cut more than 30 m into the basal stratified unit. In addition, till and a possible glacial-tectonic grounding-line feature were identified. Slumps and possible spring disruptions are found in several locations. The top unit is an onlapping ponded Holocene lacustrine unit. Total sediment is much thicker in the southern basin; the northern basin, >97 m deep, north of the marine limit appears to have been occupied by an ice block. Retrieved sediments include 12 meters of rhythmites. Microfossil identifications and dating will resolve the environments and time of deposition in this core.

  9. Coupling glacial lake impact, dam breach, and flood processes: A modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Clague, John J.; Schaub, Yvonne; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are highly mobile mixtures of water and sediment that occur suddenly and are capable of traveling tens to hundreds of kilometers with peak discharges and volumes several orders of magnitude larger than those of normal floods. They travel along existing river channels, in some instances into populated downstream regions, and thus pose a risk to people and infrastructure. Many recent events involve process chains, such as mass movements impacting glacial lakes and triggering dam breaches with subsequent outburst floods. A concern is that effects of climate change and associated increased instability of high mountain slopes may exacerbate such process chains and associated extreme flows. Modeling tools can be used to assess the hazard of potential future GLOFs, and process modeling can provide insights into complex processes that are difficult to observe in nature. A number of numerical models have been developed and applied to simulate different types of extreme flows, but such modeling faces challenges stemming from a lack of process understanding and difficulties in measuring extreme flows for calibration purposes. Here we review the state of knowledge of key aspects of modeling GLOFs, with a focus on process cascades. Analysis and simulation of the onset, propagation, and potential impact of GLOFs are based on illustrative case studies. Numerical models are presently available for simulating impact waves in lakes, dam failures, and flow propagation but have been used only to a limited extent for integrated simulations of process cascades. We present a spectrum of case studies from Patagonia, the European Alps, central Asia, and the Himalayas in which we simulate single processes and process chains of past and potential future events. We conclude that process understanding and process chain modeling need to be strengthened and that research efforts should focus on a more integrative treatment of processes in numerical models.

  10. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  11. Predicting future glacial lakes in Austria using different modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Jan-Christoph; Helfricht, Kay; Prasicek, Günther; Buckel, Johannes; Keuschnig, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Glacier retreat is one of the most apparent consequences of temperature rise in the 20th and 21th centuries in the European Alps. In Austria, more than 240 new lakes have formed in glacier forefields since the Little Ice Age. A similar signal is reported from many mountain areas worldwide. Glacial lakes can constitute important environmental and socio-economic impacts on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. Their development significantly modifies the landscape configuration and visual appearance of high mountain areas. Knowledge on the location, number and extent of these future lakes can be used to assess potential impacts on high mountain geo-ecosystems and upland-lowland interactions. Information on new lakes is critical to appraise emerging threads and potentials for society. The recent development of regional ice thickness models and their combination with high resolution glacier surface data allows predicting the topography below current glaciers by subtracting ice thickness from glacier surface. Analyzing these modelled glacier bed surfaces reveals overdeepenings that represent potential locations for future lakes. In order to predict the location of future glacial lakes below recent glaciers in the Austrian Alps we apply different ice thickness models using high resolution terrain data and glacier outlines. The results are compared and validated with ice thickness data from geophysical surveys. Additionally, we run the models on three different glacier extents provided by the Austrian Glacier Inventories from 1969, 1998 and 2006. Results of this historical glacier extent modelling are compared to existing glacier lakes and discussed focusing on geomorphological impacts on lake evolution. We discuss model performance and observed differences in the results in order to assess the approach for a realistic prediction of future lake locations. The presentation delivers

  12. Identification of Younger Dryas outburst flood path from Lake Agassiz to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Murton, Julian B; Bateman, Mark D; Dallimore, Scott R; Teller, James T; Yang, Zhirong

    2010-04-01

    The melting Laurentide Ice Sheet discharged thousands of cubic kilometres of fresh water each year into surrounding oceans, at times suppressing the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and triggering abrupt climate change. Understanding the physical mechanisms leading to events such as the Younger Dryas cold interval requires identification of the paths and timing of the freshwater discharges. Although Broecker et al. hypothesized in 1989 that an outburst from glacial Lake Agassiz triggered the Younger Dryas, specific evidence has so far proved elusive, leading Broecker to conclude in 2006 that "our inability to identify the path taken by the flood is disconcerting". Here we identify the missing flood path-evident from gravels and a regional erosion surface-running through the Mackenzie River system in the Canadian Arctic Coastal Plain. Our modelling of the isostatically adjusted surface in the upstream Fort McMurray region, and a slight revision of the ice margin at this time, allows Lake Agassiz to spill into the Mackenzie drainage basin. From optically stimulated luminescence dating we have determined the approximate age of this Mackenzie River flood into the Arctic Ocean to be shortly after 13,000 years ago, near the start of the Younger Dryas. We attribute to this flood a boulder terrace near Fort McMurray with calibrated radiocarbon dates of over 11,500 years ago. A large flood into the Arctic Ocean at the start of the Younger Dryas leads us to reject the widespread view that Agassiz overflow at this time was solely eastward into the North Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Periodic outburst floods from an ice-dammed lake in East Greenland.

    PubMed

    Grinsted, Aslak; Hvidberg, Christine S; Campos, Néstor; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2017-08-30

    We report evidence of four cycles of outburst floods from Catalina Lake, an ice-dammed lake in East Greenland, identified in satellite imagery between 1966-2016. The lake measures 20-25 km(2), and lake level drops 130-150 m in each event, corresponding to a water volume of 2.6-3.4 Gt, and a release of potential energy of 10(16) J, among the largest outburst floods reported in historical times. The drainage cycle has shortened systematically, and the lake filling rate has increased over each cycle, suggesting that the drainage pattern is changing due to climate warming with possible implications for environmental conditions in Scoresbysund fjord.

  14. Hydrology and Glacier-Lake-Outburst Floods (1987-2004) and Water Quality (1998-2003) of the Taku River near Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Edward G.

    2007-01-01

    The Taku River Basin originates in British Columbia, Canada, and drains an area of 6,600 square miles at the U.S. Geological Survey's Taku River gaging station. Several mines operated within the basin prior to 1957, and mineral exploration has resumed signaling potential for future mining developments. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Douglas Indian Association, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a water-quality and flood-hydrology study of the Taku River. Water-quality sampling of the Taku River from 1998 through 2003 established a baseline for assessing potential effects of future mining operations on water quality. The annual mean discharge of the Taku River is 13,700 cubic feet per second. The monthly mean discharge ranges from a minimum of 1,940 cubic feet per second in February to a maximum of 34,400 cubic feet per second in June. Nearly 90 percent of the annual discharge is from May through November. The highest spring discharges are sourced primarily from snowmelt and moderate discharges are sustained throughout the summer by glacial meltwaters. An ice cover usually forms over the Taku River in December persisting through the winter into March and occasionally into April. Glacier-lake-outburst floods originating from two glacier-dammed lakes along the margin of the Tulsequah Glacier in British Columbia, Canada, are the source of the greatest peak discharges on the Taku River. The largest flood during the period of record was 128,000 cubic feet per second on June 25, 2004, resulting from an outburst of Lake No Lake. Lake No Lake is the larger of the two lakes. The outburst-flood contribution to peak discharge was 80,000 cubic feet per second. The volume discharged from Lake No Lake is relatively consistent indicating drainage may be triggered when the lake reaches a critical stage. This suggests prediction of the timing of these outburst floods might be possible if lake

  15. Glacial lake monitoring in the Karakoram Range using historical Landsat Thematic Mapper archive (1982 - 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. Y. H.; Kelly, R. E. J.; Evans, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Glacierized regions are one of the most dynamic land surface environments on the planet (Evans and Delaney, In Press). They are susceptible to various types of natural hazards such as landslides, glacier avalanches, and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF). GLOF events are increasingly common and present catastrophic flood hazards, the causes of which are sensitive to climate change in complex high mountain topography (IPCC, 2013). Inundation and debris flows from GLOF events have repeatedly caused significant infrastructure damages and loss of human lives in the high mountain regions of the world (Huggel et al, 2002). The research is designed to develop methods for the consistent detection of glacier lakes formation during the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) era (1982 - present), to quantify the frequency of glacier lake development and estimate lake volume using Landsat imagery and digital elevation model (DEM) data. Landsat TM scenes are used to identify glacier lakes in the Shimshal and Shaksgam valley, particularly the development of Lake Virjeab in year 2000 and Kyagar Lake in 1998. A simple thresholding technique using Landsat TM infrared bands, along with object-based segmentation approaches are used to isolate lake extent. Lake volume is extracted by intersecting the lake extent with the DEM surface. Based on previous studies and DEM characterization in the region, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM is preferred over Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) GDEM due to higher accuracy. Calculated errors in SRTM height estimates are 5.81 m compared with 8.34 m for ASTER. SRTM data are preferred because the DEM measurements were made over short duration making the DEM internally consistent. Lake volume derived from the Landsat TM imagery and DEM are incorporated into a simple GLOF model identified by Clague and Matthews (1973) to estimate the potential peak discharge (Qmax) of a GLOF event. We compare the simple Qmax estimates with

  16. Periodic jökulhlaups from Pleistocene glacial Lake Missoula-New evidence from varved sediment in northern Idaho and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitt, Richard B.

    1984-01-01

    Newly examined exposures in northern Idaho and Washington show that catastrophic floods from glacial Lake Missoula during late Wisconsin time were repeated, brief jökulhlaups separated by decades of quiet glaciolacustrine and subaerial conditions. Glacial Priest Lake, dammed in the Priest River valley by a tongue of the Purcell trench lobe of the Cordilleran ice sheet, generally accumulated varved mud; the varved mud is sharply interrupted by 14 sand beds deposited by upvalley-running currents. The sand beds are texturally and structurally similar to slackwater sediment in valleys in southern Washington that were backflooded by outbursts from glacial Lake Missoula. Beds of varved mud also accumulated in glacial Lake Spokane (or Columbia?) in Latah Creek valley and elsewhere in northeastern Washington; the mud beds were disrupted, in places violently, during emplacement of each of 16 or more thick flood-gravel beds. This history corroborates evidence from southern Washington that only one graded bed is deposited per flood, refuting a conventional idea that many beds accumulated per flood. The total number of such floodlaid beds in stratigraphic succession near Spokane is at least 28. The mud beds between most of the floodlaid beds in these valleys each consist of between 20 and 55 silt-to-clay varves. Lacustrine environments in northern Idaho and Washington therefore persisted for two to six decades between regularly recurring, colossal floods from glacial Lake Missoula.

  17. Hydrogeologic setting of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands, northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, Donald I.

    1981-01-01

    Seven test holes drilled in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands indicate that the thickness of surficial materials along a north-south traverse parallel to Minnesota Highway 72 ranges from 163 feet near Blackduck, Minnesota to 57 feet about 3 miles south of Upper Red Lake. Lenses of sand and gravel occur immediately above bedrock on the Itasca moraine and are interbedded with lake clay and till under the peatlands. Vertical head gradients measured in a piezometer nest near Blackduck on the moraine are downward, indicative of recharge to the regional ground-water-flow system. Vertical head gradients are upward in a piezometer nest on a sand beach ridge in the peatlands 12 miles north of Upper Red Lake. Numerical sectional models indicate that this discharge probably comes from local flow systems recharged from ground-water mounds located under large raised bogs.

  18. Mapping hazards from glacier lake outburst floods based on modelling of process cascades at Lake 513, Carhuaz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D.; Huggel, C.; Cochachin, A.; Guillén, S.; García, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent warming has had enormous impacts on glaciers and high-mountain environments. Hazards have changed or new ones have emerged, including those from glacier lakes that form as glaciers retreat. The Andes of Peru have repeatedly been severely impacted by glacier lake outburst floods in the past. An important recent event occurred in the Cordillera Blanca in 2010 when an ice avalanche impacted a glacier lake and triggered an outburst flood that affected the downstream communities and city of Carhuaz. In this study we evaluate how such complex cascades of mass movement processes can be simulated coupling different physically-based numerical models. We furthermore develop an approach that allows us to elaborate corresponding hazard maps according to existing guidelines for debris flows and based on modelling results and field work.

  19. Water quality of two glacial alpine Italian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zelano, Vincenzo; Zambrotta, Maria; Defilippi, Albino; Torazzo, Annamaria

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize, in a period of one year, two glacial lakes, Alice and Meugliano, located in an alpine reservoir on the basis of physical and chemical features. The two lakes show two periods of mixing: one in the spring and one in the autumn, so can be classified as dimictic lakes. They are characterized by pH, alkalinity, low conductivity and and quite dilute ionic concentrations. With regard to nutrients, most nitrogen occurred in the nitric form in the superficial layers. During the period of thermal stratification, in the anoxic layer NO3- decreases and NH4+ increases, confirming the activity of the anaerobic denitrificant bacteria. Total and soluble phosphorus levels show homogeneity during the cold period at different depths, while with stratification concentrations increase in the hypolimnium and metalimnium. In both lakes there is an inverse correlation between transparency and chlorophyll a. To evaluate the trophic state the conventional criteria of Nurnberg 2 and four lake trophic indices (TSIs) are used. Both evaluations suggest that the two lakes are eutrophic, with worse conditions in Alice. Deviations of the trophic states, based on the relation between TSIs, indicate that factors other than phosphorous limit the algal biomass, and that non-algal particles influence light attenuation

  20. Evidence of Nipigon Phase Overflow From Glacial Lake Agassiz in Northwestern Lake Superior.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattrus, N. J.; Colman, S. M.; Gary, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Younger Dryas cold reversal is one of the most prominent known abrupt changes in the Earth's recent climate history. This event has been ascribed to a rapid decrease in the production of North Atlantic Deep Water, which resulted when freshwater outflow from Glacial Lake Agassiz was suddenly diverted through the Great Lakes into the North Atlantic about 11,000 14C BP. This inference grew in strength through years of research on Lake Agassiz, the Gulf of Mexico and the North Atlantic. Recently, however, the existence of eastward drainage of Lake Agassiz during this time period has been challenged on a number of fronts, and we interpret the existing evidence as equivocal. Lake Superior is a crucial site for addressing the existence of eastward drainage of Lake Agassiz at the beginning of the Younger Dryas. There is well documented terrestrial evidence of later post-Younger Dryas drainage from easterly outlets through Lake Superior and the Great Lakes to the North Atlantic. We believe that these events (corresponding to the Nipigon Phase of Lake Agassiz) left diagnostic stratigraphic and geomorphic signatures beneath Lake Superior. If so, earlier eastward drainage during the Younger Dryas should have left analogous features. The purported Younger Dryas episode of eastward Lake Agassiz drainage (Morehead phase) was separated from the incontrovertible younger one (Nipigon phase) by the rapid and shortlived Marquette glacial advance (Emerson phase in Lake Agassiz). The thin, fine-grained till of this advance serves as a stratigraphic marker that would separate the younger drainage features from possible older ones. By sequentially examining the seismic stratigraphy of specific discharge locations beneath Lake Superior, and using the Marquette till as a stratigraphic marker, we believe we can perform a rigorous test of whether or not Lake Agassiz drained eastward during the Younger Dryas, and if so, where. We present here results from the recently concluded first field

  1. Outburst floods from glacier-dammed lakes: The effect of mode of lake drainage on flood magnitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; Costa, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Published accounts of outburst floods from glacier-dammed lakes show that a significant number of such floods are associated not with drainage through a tunnel incised into the basal ice - the process generally assumed - but rather with ice-marginal drainage, mechanical failure of part of the ice dam, or both. Non-tunnel floods are strongly correlated with formation of an ice dam by a glacier advancing from a tributary drainage into either a main river valley or a pre-existing body of water (lake or fiord). For a given lake volume, non-tunnel floods tend to have significantly higher peak discharges than tunnel-drainage floods. Statistical analysis of data for floods associated with subglacial tunnels yields the following empirical relation between lake volume V and peak discharge script Q signp : script Q signp = 46V0.66 (r2 = 0.70), when script Q signp is expressed in metres per second and V in millions of cubic metres. This updates the so-called Clague-Mathews relation. For non-tunnel floods, the analogous relation is script Q signp = 1100V0.44 (r2 = 0.58). The latter relation is close to one found by Costa (1988) for failure of constructed earthen dams. This closeness is probably not coincidental but rather reflects similarities in modes of dam failure and lake drainage. We develop a simple physical model of the breach-widening process for non-tunnel floods, assuming that (1) the rate of breach widening is controlled by melting of the ice, (2) outflow from the lake is regulated by the hydraulic condition of critical flow where water enters the breach, and (3) the effect of lake temperature may be dealt with as done by Clarke (1982). Calculations based on the model simulate quite well outbursts from Lake George, Alaska. Dimensional analysis leads to two approximations of the form script Q signp ??? Vqf(hi, ??0), where q = 0.5 to 0.6, hi is initial lake depth, ??0 is lake temperature, and the form of f(hi, ??0) depends on the relative importance of viscous

  2. Glacier Dynamics and Outburst Flood Potential from the Imja and Thulagi Glacier-Lake Systems (Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Leonard, Gregory; Regmi, Dhananjay; Haritashya, Umesh; Chand, Mohan; Pradhan, Suresh; Sapkota, Nawaraj; Byers, Alton; Joshi, Sharad; McKinney, Daene; Mool, Pradeep; Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo; Huggel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Thulagi and Imja lakes are, according to ICIMOD, among Nepal's most dangerous glacier lakes, i.e., most likely to cause death and destruction in case of a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF). Imja Lake and the associated Imja and Lhoste-Shar glaciers have been intensively studied; Thulagi Glacier and its lake are much less studied. Collectively, we have undertaken a series of increasingly thorough bathymetric and land surveys and satellite remote sensing analyses of Imja Lake and its glacier setting. We are analyzing several expeditions' data to build a detailed assessment of the glacier and lake to better establish the dynamical evolution of the system and its future GLOF potential. Our most recent, most complete bathymetric survey of Imja Lake has revealed a much greater volume (75,200,000 cubic meters) and maximum depth (149.8 m) than found before. Our analysis suggests that not all possible Imja GLOF scenarios would result in devastation. Some moraine melt-through or down-cutting mechanisms -- perhaps induced by extreme monsoon precipitation or an earthquake -- could generate outbursts lasting from 10,000-100,000 seconds ("slow GLOFs"), thus limiting peak flows and downstream damage. The potential damage from a slow GLOF from Imja Lake -- even if there is a large total volume -- is lessened by the relatively low peak discharge and because the major villages downstream from Imja Lake are situated just outside of and above a deep, broad outwash and debris-flow channel system. Imja and other glaciers in the area have built a large fan, now deeply trenched, which is able to accommodate the peak discharges of potential slow GLOFs, such that Dingboche and other villages would be spared. However, local geomorphology also bears evidence of "fast GLOFs," such as may be issued by a tsunami, which could be initiated by a large mass movement into Imja Lake and which might override and damage the end moraine in <100 seconds. Dingboche and other villages are vulnerable to

  3. Glacial Lake Outflow via the St. Lawrence Pathway Prior to the Champlain Sea Invasion and During the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhietti, S.; Anderson, T. W.; Karrow, P. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Mott, R. J.; Parent, M.; Richard, P. J.; Rodrigues, C. G.; Stea, R.

    2005-12-01

    by about 50 to 40 m to the highest strandline of the Champlain Sea. The timing and volume of this fresh-water discharge are quantified to allow assessment of its potential impact on the thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, and whether it could have triggered the cold Younger Dryas episode. The overflow occurred within a one-year span between 11.2 and 10.9 14C ka BP or 13.2 and 12.85 cal ka BP, close to the onset of the Younger Dryas cold interval. The total freshwater outflow through the St. Lawrence pathway comprised the one-year overflow phase (about 1500 km3), an early mixing phase of fresh and marine waters in the Champlain Sea domain (about 400 km3 for several years), a rapid collapse of the ice margin in the lowlands during about 250 yr and, during the Younger Dryas, several outburst floods from glacial Lake Algonquin into the Champlain Sea through the middle Ottawa Valley.

  4. Analysis and dynamic modeling of a moraine failure and glacier lake outburst flood at Ventisquero Negro, Patagonian Andes (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worni, Raphael; Stoffel, Markus; Huggel, Christian; Volz, Christian; Casteller, Alejandro; Luckman, Brian

    2012-06-01

    SummaryAlthough moraine dams are inherently prone to failure because of their often weak structure, loose internal composition and lack of an engineered spillway, the understanding of dam breaching processes remains largely incomplete and appropriate modeling approaches are scarce. This paper analyzes a recent glacier lake outburst, caused by the failure of the terminal moraine of Ventisquero Negro (Patagonian Andes, Argentina) in May 2009. The dam breach trigger, breaching and lake emptying processes, plus the dynamics of the outburst flood were reconstructed based on field evidence and the application of a dynamic dam break model. Results indicate that the moraine failure was caused most probably by a rising lake level due to heavy precipitation, resulting in high lake outflow which led to dam erosion and finally to dam failure. The lake volume of ca. 10 × 106 m3 was released in ca. 3 h, producing high-discharge (ca. 4100 m3 s-1) debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows as the escaping water entrained large volumes of clastic material. The methodology presented in this paper provides valuable insights into complex dam breach and GLOF processes, and closes a critical gap in dynamic dam break modeling aimed at providing the lake outburst hydrograph. An accurate determination of outburst hydrographs constitutes one of the most crucial aspects for hazard assessment of unstable lakes and will gain further importance with ongoing glacier retreat and glacier lake formation.

  5. Compounding Hazards Facing Nepalese Villages due to Glacial Lake Thulagi, Extreme Monsoons, and Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Gregory; Kargel, Jeffrey; Regmi, Dhananjay

    2014-05-01

    Thulagi Tsho is listed by ICIMOD as among the most hazardous glacial lakes in Nepal. The listing is warranted by the physiography and downstream vulnerabilities. Tal Village—along a major trekking route—and a hydroelectric dam and reservoir are notably at risk due to the potential for a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF), an extreme summer monsoon, extreme spring snowmelt, landslides, and rockfalls. Tal is downstream from Thulagi Lake just a couple meters above river level, and ordinary monsoons already cause an approach toward flood conditions, according to residents. A high flood stage due to an extreme monsoon or unusually rapid springtime melting of a thick winter snowpack could be catastrophic. Two significant mass movements occurred recently in Tal, one having buried some structures in the village in June 2012. In a favorable note, satellite image analysis shows that Thulagi Lake has slowed its elongation in the last couple years. Furthermore, any tsunami or other flood surge would have to traverse and erode a wide end moraine in order to generate a GLOF. On the other hand, remote sensing and field observations show that wasting of Thulagi Glacier has debuttressed the northern lateral moraine, which is slipping toward the growing lake and the thinning/retreating glacier. The landslip itself is not necessarily a bad thing: it is causing a loss of gravitational potential energy of the lateral moraine, and if that process continues gradually, it will result in diminished instability. However, the debuttressing and moraine slip signifies that the moraines are unstable. Will a rapid mass movement dump into the lake? Triggers could include seismicity, extreme rainfall, or a small landslip. The risk of a serious GLOF exceeds that of Imja Lake due to Thulagi Lake's large hydrographic head and the shape of its downstream end, which could funnel and amplify a potential tsunami generated by a large mass movement into the lake. A moraine collapse into the lake would

  6. Insights from analyzing and modelling cascading multi-lake outburst flood events in the Santa Cruz Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Perú)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Mergili, Martin; Juřicová, Anna; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of Little Ice Age, the Cordillera Blanca of Perú has experienced tens of lake outburst floods (LOFs), resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and significant material damages. Most commonly involving glacial lakes, such events are often directly or indirectly related to glacier retreat. Here we analyze an event on 8th February 2012 involving four lakes and affecting two valleys (Santa Cruz and Artizón) in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca. Using the combination of field data, satellite images, digital elevation model (DEM) and GIS-based modelling approaches, the main objectives are: (i) to better understand complex multi-lake outburst flood and related foregoing and induced geomorphological processes; and (ii) to evaluate and discuss the suitability, potentials and limitations of the r.avaflow model for modelling such complex process chains. Analyzing field geomorphological evidence and remotely-sensed images, we reconstruct the event as follows: a landslide from the recently deglaciated left lateral moraine of Lake Artizón Alto (4 639 m a.s.l.), characterized by steep slopes and a height of more than 200 m produced a displacement wave which overtopped the bedrock dam of the lake. The resulting flood wave breached the dam of the downstream moraine-/landslide-dammed Lake Artizón Bajo (4 477 m a.s.l.), decreasing the lake level by 10 m and releasing 3 x 105 m3 of water. Significant amounts of material were eroded from the steeper parts of the Artizón Valley (mean slope >15°) and deposited further downstream in the flatter part of the Santa Cruz Valley (mean slope <2°; confluence of the two valleys at 3 985 m a.s.l.). The flood affected two debris cone-dammed lakes (Jatuncocha and Ichiccocha) in the Santa Cruz Valley. Some minor damages to the dam of Lake Jatuncocha were documented. Geomprohological evidence of the event was observed more than 20 km downstream from Lake Artizón Alto. The described multi-LOF event was employed as a

  7. Integrated satellite InSAR and slope stability modeling to support hazard assessment at the Safuna Alta glacial lake, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Strozzi, Tazio; Büechi, Emanuel; Cui, Fanpeng; Flores, Andrés; Saito, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    The Safuna glacial lakes (77˚ 37' W, 08˚ 50' S) are located in the headwater of the Tayapampa catchment, in the northernmost part of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. The upper lake, Laguna Safuna Alta at 4354 m asl has formed in the 1960s behind a terminal moraine of the retreating Pucajirca Glacier, named after the peak south of the lakes. Safuna Alta currently has a volume of 15 x 106 m3. In 2002 a rock fall of several million m3 from the proximal left lateral moraine hit the Safuna Alta lake and triggered an impact wave which overtopped the moraine dam and passed into the lower lake, Laguna Safuna Baja, which absorbed most of the outburst flood from the upper lake, but nevertheless causing loss in cattle, degradation of agricultural land downstream and damages to a hydroelectric power station in Quitaracsa gorge. Event reconstructions showed that the impact wave in the Safuna Alta lake had a runup height of 100 m or more, and weakened the moraine dam of Safuna Alta. This fact, in combination with the large lake volumes and the continued possibility for landslides from the left proximal moraine pose a considerable risk for the downstream settlements as well as the recently completed Quitaracsa hydroelectric power plant. In the framework of a project funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), the hazard situation at the Safuna Alta lake is assessed by a combination of satellite radar data analysis, field investigations, and slope stability modeling. Interferometric analyses of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) of ALOS-1 Palsar-1, ALOS-2 Palsar-2 and Sentinel-1 data from 2016 reveal terrain displacements of 2 cm y-1 in the detachment zone of the 2002 rock avalanche. More detailed insights into the characteristics of these terrain deformations are gained by repeat surveys with differential GPS (DGPS) and tachymetric measurements. A drone flight provides the information for the generation of a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), which is used for the

  8. Processes under Outbursts of Mountain Lakes and Model for Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyaev, A. N.; Erochin, S. A.; Tusova, T. V.

    The mountain water objects such as large lakes and huge artificial water reservoirs play a very important role for human existence and life in many of the earth's regions. They are very dangerous and complex objects, where natural and man-made catastrophes may result to their outbursts with huge negative irreversible damages on environment and population. Also their large hydro constructions and dams are very attractive for directed terrorist attacks and realization of wide scale global ecologic and water terrorism. Also we present the model for their risk and damage assessments and some of its applications. Results will be presented for the classification of these lakes on their danger degree, management of their risks, development of counter measures for prediction/prevention of the lakes catastrophes and reducing possible negative damages.

  9. Isotopically-depleted late Pleistocene groundwater in Columbia River Basalt aquifers: Evidence for recharge of glacial Lake Missoula floodwaters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kyle B.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Baker, Victor R.; Gosch, Damian

    2010-11-01

    Late Pleistocene outburst flooding of ice-dammed glacial Lake Missoula, and possible discharge from the Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS), catastrophically altered the northwestern United States landscape, yet little is known about potential infiltration of flood waters into the subsurface. This study provides compelling evidence for the presence of late Pleistocene CIS-related recharge waters in the Columbia River Basalt Aquifers (CRBAs) in central Washington. CRBA groundwaters with corrected 14C ages from 15.7 and 33.3 k yrs BP (during periods of flood events) have anomalously low δ18O values (-18.9 to -17.6‰), compared to late Pleistocene soil waters (-16.1 to -13.4‰) and modern precipitation in the region (average -15.9‰), consistent with CIS-related meltwater recharge. These results have implications for our understanding of megaflood phenomena on earth and Mars.

  10. Turbidite megabeds in an Oceanic Rift Valley recording jokulhlaups of late Pleistocene glacial lakes of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuffa, G.G.; Normark, W.R.; Serra, F.; Brunner, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Escanaba Trough is the southernmost segment of the Gorda Ridge and is filled by sandy turbidites locally exceeding 500 m in thickness. New results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1037 and 1038 that include accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates and revised petrographic evaluation of the sediment provenance, combined with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, provide a lithostratigraphic framework for the turbidite deposits. Three fining-upward units of sandy turbidites from the upper 365 m at ODP Site 1037 can be correlated with sediment recovered at ODP Site 1038 and Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) Site 35. Six AMS 14C ages in the upper 317 m of the sequence at Site 1037 indicate that average deposition rates exceeded 10 m/k.yr. between 32 and 11 ka, with nearly instantaneous deposition of one ~60-m interval of sand. Petrography of the sand beds is consistent with a Columbia River source for the entire sedimentary sequence in Escanaba Trough. High-resolution acoustic stratigraphy shows that the turbidites in the upper 60 m at Site 1037 provide a characteristic sequence of key reflectors that occurs across the floor of the entire Escanaba Trough. Recent mapping of turbidite systems in the northeast Pacific Ocean suggests that the turbidity currents reached the Escanaba Trough along an 1100-km-long pathway from the Columbia River to the west flank of the Gorda Ridge. The age of the upper fining-upward unit of sandy turbidites appears to correspond to the latest Wisconsinan outburst of glacial Lake Missoula. Many of the outbursts, or jokulhlaups, from the glacial lakes probably continued flowing as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents on entering the sea at the mouth of the Columbia River.

  11. Contrasted evolution of glacial lakes along the Hindu Kush Himalaya mountain range between 1990 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardelle, Julie; Arnaud, Yves; Berthier, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present a first regional assessment of glacial lake distribution and evolution in the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH). Seven sites have been selected between Bhutan and Afghanistan, to capture the climatic variability along the 2000-km long mountain range. For each site, glacial lakes have been mapped with LANDSAT satellite imagery acquired in 1990, 2000 and 2009, using an automatic classification. In the East (India, Nepal and Bhutan), glacial lakes are bigger and more numerous than in the West (Pakistan, Afghanistan), and have grown continuously between 1990 and 2009 by 20% to 65%. On the other hand, during the same period, the glacial lake coverage has shrunk in the Hindu Kush (-50%) and the Karakorum (-30%). This east/west pattern of lake changes seems in agreement with sparse glaciological measurements that suggest less (or even no) ice loss in the western part of the HKH.

  12. Recent drainage events of glacial Lake Cachet 2, Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casassa, G.; Wendt, J.; Wendt, A.; Escobar, F.; Lopez, P.; Carrasco, J.; Rivera, A.; Leidich, J.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Cachet 2 (47°12' S, 73°15' W, 422 m a.s.l.) is a proglacial lake of 4 km2 located on the eastern margin of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (3,953 km2, Rivera et al., 2007), which is dammed on its southern margin by Colonia Glacier. Until April 2008 there was no historical evidence of catastrophic flooding of this lake. In 2008 three sudden drainage events occurred at Lake Cachet 2 (April 6-7; October 7-8 and 21-22 December). During each event the flood wave traveled down Colonia River to the confluence with Baker River, then affected Baker River to a distance of up to 25 km upstream from the confluence and downstream all the way to its mouth on the Pacific Ocean fjords at Caleta Tortel (100 km to the southwest), transporting abundant sediments. In April the runoff of Baker River close to the confluence with Colonia River increased from a base level of 1,200 m3/s on April 7 to a peak runoff of 3,570 m3/s within a period of less than 48 hours, resulting in a river level increase of 4.5 m and an associated water temperature drop from 8°C to 4°C. In October the base level was 573 m3/s, with a peak runoff of 3,007 m3/s, a river level increase of 4.7 m and a water temperature drop from 7.3°C to 4.8°C, while in December the corresponding values were 1,145 m3/s, 3,052 m3/s, 11°C and 8°C. The flood affected roads, bridges, farms and cattle, fortunately not resulting in any human damage. Similar floods had been reported on Colonia River several decades ago, the last having occurred in the 1970s, all of which originated at that time at glacial Lake Arco, located south of Colonia Glacier. Airborne and ground explorations carried out after each event in 2008 confirmed that the floods originated at Lake Cachet 2, draining under Colonia Glacier for a distance of 8 km and emerging at the front of the glacier. As a result parts of the glacier front collapsed after each event, where large ice fractures could be observed. During the October event a complete drainage of

  13. Development of Adygine glacier complex (glacier and proglacial lakes) and its link to outburst hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falatkova, Kristyna; Schöner, Wolfgang; Häusler, Hermann; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Neureiter, Anton; Sobr, Miroslav; Jansky, Bohumir

    2017-04-01

    Mountain glacier retreat has a well-known impact on life of local population - besides anxiety over water supply for agriculture, industry, or households, it has proved to have a direct influence on glacier hazard occurrence. The paper focuses on lake outburst hazard specifically, and aims to describe the previous and future development of Adygine glacier complex and identify its relationship to the hazard. The observed glacier is situated in the Northern Tien Shan, with an area of 4 km2 in northern exposition at an elevation range of 3,500-4,200 m a.s.l. The study glacier ranks in the group of small-sized glaciers, therefore we expect it to respond faster to changes of the climate compared to larger ones. Below the glacier there is a three-level cascade of proglacial lakes at different stages of development. The site has been observed sporadically since 1960s, however, closer study has been carried out since 2007. Past development of the glacier-lake complex is analyzed by combination of satellite imagery interpretations and on-site measurements (geodetic and bathymetric survey). A glacier mass balance model is used to simulate future development of the glacier resulting from climate scenarios. We used the simulated future glacier extent and the glacier base topography provided by GPR survey to assess potential for future lake formation. This enables us to assess the outburst hazard for the three selected lakes with an outlook for possible/probable hazard changes linked to further complex succession/progression (originating from climate change scenarios). Considering the proximity of the capital Bishkek, spreading settlements, and increased demand for tourism-related infrastructure within the main valley, it is of high importance to identify the present and possible future hazards that have a potential to affect this region.

  14. Glacial lakes amplify glacier recession in the central Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Owen; Quincey, Duncan; Carrivick, Jonathan; Rowan, Ann

    2016-04-01

    The high altitude and high latitude regions of the world are amongst those which react most intensely to climatic change. Across the Himalaya glacier mass balance is predominantly negative. The spatial and temporal complexity associated with this ice loss across different glacier clusters is poorly documented however, and our understanding of the processes driving change is limited. Here, we look at the spatial variability of glacier hypsometry and glacial mass loss from three catchments in the central Himalaya; the Dudh Koshi basin, Tama Koshi basin and an adjoining section of the Tibetan Plateau. ASTER and SETSM digital elevation models (2014/15), corrected for elevation dependant biases, co-registration errors and along or cross track tilts, are differenced from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data (2000) to yield surface lowering estimates. Landsat data and a hypsometric index (HI), a classification scheme used to group glaciers of similar hypsometry, are used to examine the distribution of glacier area with altitude in each catchment. Surface lowering rates of >3 m/yr can be detected on some glaciers, generally around the clean-ice/debris-cover boundary, where dark but thin surface deposits are likely to enhance ablation. More generally, surface lowering rates of around 1 m/yr are more pervasive, except around the terminus areas of most glaciers, emphasising the influence of a thick debris cover on ice melt. Surface lowering is only concentrated at glacier termini where glacial lakes have developed, where surface lowering rates are commonly greater than 2.5 m/yr. The three catchments show contrasting hypsometric distributions, which is likely to impact their future response to climatic changes. Glaciers of the Dudh Koshi basin store large volumes of ice at low elevation (HI > 1.5) in long, debris covered tongues, although their altitudinal range is greatest given the height of mountain peaks in the catchment. In contrast, glaciers of the Tama Koshi

  15. Influence of glacial meltwater on equilibrium process of two Tibetan lakes indicated by δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.

    2009-12-01

    δ18O measurements based on systematic sampling and isotopic model have been adopted to study the affects of glacial meltwater in two lake basins (Lakes Yamdrok-tso and Puma Yum-tso) at two different elevations on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Temporally, δ18O values in precipitation and lake water display a seasonal fluctuation in both lakes. Spatially, δ18O values in the two lake basins increase by 10‰ from the termini of glaciers to the lake shores, by about 1‰ from the lakeshores to the lake center, by 0.4‰ from the water surface to depth in these lakes. The obvious annual δ18O variations indicate that lake water mixes sufficient in a short time. Model results show that glacial meltwater is an important factor on lake water equilibrium process. Equilibrium δ18O values decrease 0.8‰ for Yamdrok-tso Lake and 0.6‰ for Puma Yum-tso Lake when contributions of glacial meltwater to these lakes shrink by 60%. δ18O increases rapidly during the initial stages and then it takes a long time to approach the equilibrium value. The modeled results also show that the surface lake water temperature has only a little impact on this process.

  16. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  17. The formation of glacial lakes in Austria since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Prasicek, Günther

    2017-04-01

    The global temperature rise in the 20th and 21st centuries led to massive deglaciation and the formation of numerous glacial lakes. Glacier lake development and lifetime are controlled by the complex interplay of climate and geological boundary conditions, geomorphological process activity and glacier dynamics. New lakes in formerly glaciated alpine areas significantly contribute to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at high altitudes. Here we present an inventory of lakes in the Austrian Alps. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at understanding and modelling the development of glacier lakes in Austria. We intersect glacier lake locations with glacier inventory data to understand how deglaciation controls lake evolution. The timing of lake formation is reconstructed by comparing emerged lake area with vanished glacier area at five points in time from Little Ice Age (LIA) to 2014 - the longest time period covered by a glacier lake inventory. We discuss lake formation with respect to temperature records at high-alpine climate stations in the study area. The lake inventory contains 1389 mapped lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m2 covering an area of more than 17 km2. Lakes are classified by the damming mechanisms: (a) glacial debris dammed (49.5%), (b) bedrock dammed (49%), (c) glacier ice dammed (0.4%), and (d) debris dammed (1.1%). In Austria, 243 lakes above 1700 m have formed since LIA. Both the total number of glacial lakes and total lake area increased exponentially from LIA to 2014, while glacier area shrunk correspondingly. The number of new lakes per year grew from 0.6 (±0.1, LIA-1920) to 5.8 (2006-2014) and new lake area per year increased from 6,877 ± 513 m2 (LIA-1920) to 74,129 m2 (2006-2014). This development can be linked to rising air temperatures in the Austrian Alps which show an accelerated increase since the 1980s.

  18. Holocene and Late Glacial varved sediments from Czechowskie Lake (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Słowiński, Michał; Dulski, Peter; Plessen, Birgit; Blaszkiewicz, Miroslaw

    2013-04-01

    Annual laminated (varved) sediment records are essential for detailed paleoclimate and environmental reconstructions as they function as a natural memory beyond instrumental datasets. In order to determine Holocene inter-annual and decadal-scale variability we investigated varved Lake Czechowskie (53°52' N/ 18°14' E, 108 m asl.), northern Poland. During two coring campaigns in 2009 and 2012 we recovered several long and short cores with the longest core reaching 14.5 m. Based on correlation with a biostratigraphically and tephrochronologically dated neighboring paleolake sediment record (Trzechowskie mire) the record extends back in to the Late Glacial. Lake Czechowskie is well suited for climate reconstruction as varves are almost entirely well (88 %) or poorly (5%) preserved. Only 7 % of the sediment profile are non-varved. Detailed investigations have been carried out for the last 2000 years of the sediment profile applying micro-facies analyses combined with X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) at 200 µm resolution and carbon and nitrogen analyses (TOC, TC, TN) at five-varveresolution. The chronology has been established by a multiple dating approach with 137Cs (for the last ca. 50 years), AMS 14C on plant macro remains (back to 2800 cal BP) and varve counting. Varve formation and preservation ceases at the beginning of the 20th century whereas the younger sediments are again faintly varved. Micro-facies analyses reveal that the sediment consists of biogenic calcite varves with intercalated diatom rich layers. Three distinct 100 to 200 years long periods of up to threefold thicker varves (approx. 1.4 to 5.0 mm/year) are predominantly caused by an increase in the diatom sub-layers and indicate distinct short-term climatic and environmental fluctuations. Possible reasons for these changes that occurred abruptly with only few years are either changes in lake water circulation or in nutrient supply to the lake. This study is a contribution to the Virtual

  19. Glacial geology, glacial recession, proglacial lakes, and postglacial environments, Fishers Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sirkin, L. ); Funk, R.E. . Anthropological Survey)

    1993-03-01

    The Fishers Island Moraine, a complex of three parallel ice margin depositional trends, forms the west-central segment of a major recessional moraine of the Connecticut-Rhode Island Lobe of the late Wisconsinan glacier. As such, the moraine links the Orient Point Moraine of eastern Long Island and the Charlestown Moraine of western Rhode Island and marks a prominent recessional ice margin. The moraine is correlative with the Roanoke Point Moraine of the Connecticut Lobe of northeastern Long Island. Pollen stratigraphy of >13,180 ka bog sediments begins early in the spruce (A) pollen zone with evidence of a cold, late-glacial climate. The pine (B) pollen zone, beginning prior to 11,145 ka, and the oak (C) pollen zone, dating from about 9,000 ka with hickory and hemlock subzones, are well represented. However, after about 2,000 ka, the stratigraphic record in the bog sections is missing in most cases due to peat harvesting. Pollen spectra from several archeological sites fall within the late oak pollen zone, well within the land clearing interval with evidence of hardwood forests and locally holly and cedar. Evidence of cultigens in the pollen record is sparse. Marine deposits over fresh water bog and proglacial lake sediments show that some coastal bogs were drowned by sea level rise.

  20. New insights on the late-stage history of glacial Lake Ojibway: implications for meltwater discharges of the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Martin; Veillette, Jean J.; Godbout, Pierre-Marc

    2016-04-01

    The decay of the Laurentide ice sheet is believed to be responsible for abrupt climate variations during the last deglaciation and early Holocene, notably through massive discharges of meltwater that had accumulated in large ice-dammed lakes such as Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway. Indeed, high-resolution North Atlantic marine records indicate that the ocean's circulation was affected by several outbursts of meltwater during the late deglacial interval. Yet, field evidence and geological data supporting multi-step drawdowns of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway are relatively limited, underlying important uncertainties in the late-stage history of these glacial lakes. Furthermore, physical evidence for the drainage of glacial lakes remains relatively rare in depositional records, giving rise to much debate on the location of outlets and discharge pathways, as well as on the climate impact of the attendant meltwater forcing. Recent investigations of geomorphological and sedimentary records in northern Ontario and Quebec (Canada) have revealed new insights on the late-stage evolution of Lake Ojibway. The number of Ojibway lake phases have so far remained poorly documented mainly because of the dominance of fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments in the lake basin that prevented the formation of extensive sandy/bouldery strandlines. We thus developed an alternative approach based on the study of a complex sequence of relict terraces carved in the Ojibway clay plain. The elevation measurement of 154 raised wave-cut scarps provided evidence for four distinct shorelines, three of which projecting well below the main outlet that controlled the elevation of the lake during the deglaciation. The elevation, uplift gradients, and areal extent of these shorelines indicate that these low-elevation lake levels formed during the late stages of the deglaciation, following abrupt drawdowns of the lake's surface. Insights on the origin of these late-stage phases are provided from sediment sequences

  1. A subtropical fate awaited freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz

    DOE PAGES

    Condron, Alan; Winsor, Peter

    2011-02-10

    The 8.2 kyr event is the largest abrupt climatic change recorded in the last 10,000 years, and is widely hypothesized to have been triggered by the release of thousands of kilometers cubed of freshwater into the North Atlantic Ocean. Using a high-resolution (1/6°) global, ocean-ice circulation model we present an alternative view that freshwater discharged from glacial Lake Agassiz would have remained on the continental shelf as a narrow, buoyant, coastal current, and would have been transported south into the subtropical North Atlantic. The pathway we describe is in contrast to the conceptual idea that freshwater from this lake outburstmore » spread over most of the sub-polar North Atlantic, and covered the deep, open-ocean, convection regions. This coastally confined freshwater pathway is consistent with the present-day routing of freshwater from Hudson Bay, as well as paleoceanographic evidence of this event. In this study, using a coarse-resolution (2.6°) version of the same model, we demonstrate that the previously reported spreading of freshwater across the sub-polar North Atlantic results from the inability of numerical models of this resolution to accurately resolve narrow coastal flows, producing instead a diffuse circulation that advects freshwater away from the boundaries. To understand the climatic impact of freshwater released in the past or future (e.g. Greenland and Antarctica), the ocean needs to be modeled at a resolution sufficient to resolve the dynamics of narrow, coastal buoyant flows.« less

  2. Tracking Organic Carbon Transport From the Stordalen Mire to Glacial Lake Tornetrask, Abisko, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, M. A.; Hamilton, B. T.; Spry, E.; Johnson, J. E.; Palace, M. W.; McCalley, C. K.; Varner, R. K.; Bothner, W. A.

    2016-12-01

    In subarctic regions, labile organic carbon from thawing permafrost and productivity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation are sources of carbon to lake sediments. Methane is produced in lake sediments from the decomposition of organic carbon at rates affected by vegetation presence and type as well as sediment temperature. Recent research in the Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden has suggested that labile organic carbon sources in young, shallow lake sediments yield the highest in situ sediment methane concentrations. Ebullition (or bubbling) of this methane is predominantly controlled by seasonal warming. In this project we sampled stream, glacial and post-glacial lake sediments along a drainage transect through the Stordalen Mire into the large glacial Lake Torneträsk. Our results indicate that the highest methane and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were observed in lake and stream sediments in the upper 25 centimeters, consistent with previous studies. C/N ratios range from 8 to 32, and suggest that a mix of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation sources dominate the sedimentary record. Although water transport occurs throughout the mire, major depositional centers for sediments and organic carbon occur within the lakes and prohibit young, labile TOC from entering the larger glacial Lake Torneträsk. The lack of an observed sediment fan at the outlet of the Mire to the lake is consistent with this observation. Our results suggest that carbon produced in the mire stays in the mire, allowing methane production to be greater in the mire bound lakes and streams than in the larger adjacent glacial lake.

  3. Pilot Studies with a Photogrammetric Glacier Lake Outburst Flood Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, H. G.; Mulsow, C.; Wendt, A.; Casassa, G.

    2012-07-01

    Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) depict an environmental risk with an increasing damage potential in many regions of the world. GLOFs are often caused by glacier margin lakes, which suddenly find a drainage path underneath the bottom of a glacier, which is destabilized and retreating as a consequence of local or global climate changes. In a typical GLOF event, a glacier margin lake may drain completely in 24 hours, causing a large flood wave in the area downstream the glacier. The paper documents some recent GLOF events in the Northern Patagonian Icefield (Chile) and presents a terrestrial photogrammetric glacier margin lake monitoring system. The system is based on a camera taking images at regular time intervals. In these images, variations of the water level can be detected by tracking the water-land interface at pre-defined image spots. Due to the drainage mechanism, which is characterized by progressive erosion and melting at the bottom of the glacier, GLOFs are indicated by a progressive water level drop in the lake. Water level changes may be detected with subpixel accuracy by image sequence processing methods. If a 3D model of the lake bottom topography (or at least one height profile through the lake) exists, water level changes in monoscopic image sequences may be transformed into volume loss. The basic idea herein is the intersection of a terrain profile with a water level detected in the image and projected into object space. The camera orientation is determined through a GPS-supported photogrammetric network. Camera orientation changes, which may for instance be induced by wind, can be compensated by tracking some fiducial marks in the image. The system has been used in a pilot study at two glacier margin lakes in the Northern Patagonian Icefield. These lakes have a depth of about 80 - 100 meters. The larger one has a length of 5 km and a maximum volume of about 200,000,000 cubic meters. During the pilot study, several GLOF events could be recorded

  4. A Potentially Non-Steady State Pinedale Glacial Maximum, as Indicated by Half Moon Lake Glacial Valley, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacco, D.; Alley, R. B.; Pollard, D.

    2008-12-01

    The greatest extent of glacial ice during MIS2 (Wisconsinan) in the western US may record a short-lived (sub- millennial) cold event rather than an extended Last Glacial Maximum, based on modeling experiments simulating the Pinedale moraines of Half Moon Lake and adjacent valleys near Pinedale, Wyoming. In some locations including the Half Moon Lake valley, Bull Lake (MIS6) moraines lie well down-valley (2 km) of Pinedale moraines, whereas nearby the moraines are much more closely nested (e.g., Fremont Lake valley, 0.5 km). In a simple flow-line glacier model of Half Moon Lake valley, the subglacial topography (steep upper reaches feeding a nearly flat and locally overdeepened region down-glacier) introduces strong hysteresis behavior with abrupt transitions. We have been unable to find any steady conditions that would grow a steady-state glacier ending at the Pinedale moraines. Instead, the ice preferentially terminates either well up-valley, inside modern Half Moon Lake, or advances to the Bull Lake terminal moraines. In the model, advance of the glacier terminus past Half Moon Lake thickens the ice up-valley of the lake, raising more of the glacier into the accumulation zone and causing further advance. If we specify a warming event as the ice reaches the Pinedale moraines, a steady state Pinedale terminus is possible for a narrow range of parameters; smaller warming allows continuing advance, and larger warming triggers retreat. The modeled time-scale for advance from Half Moon Lake to the Pinedale moraines is typically some centuries for climatic perturbations tested, suggesting the hypothesis that the Pinedale maximum at this site records a short-lived event perhaps linked to the Dansgaard-Oeschger or Heinrich oscillations of the North Atlantic. Simulations for the adjacent Fremont Lake valley, in which the Bull Lake terminated up-valley of any prominent flattening of the valley floor, show more-nearly linear dependence of terminus position on snowline

  5. Glacial and post-glacial history of Lake Windermere, The Lake District, UK: integrating high resolution multibeam bathymetry, airborne LiDAR, and sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H.; Bull, J. M.; Cotterill, C.; Vardy, M. E.; Dix, J. K.; Henstock, T.

    2013-12-01

    High resolution multibeam bathymetry and airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data, supplemented by geomorphological and geological field mapping have been used to investigate the glacial and post-glacial history of Windermere, the largest natural lake in England. In addition, recently acquired piston cores, supplemented with 2D and 3D seismic reflection data from previous surveys have been used to examine the well preserved sequence stratigraphy. The data is used to generate a present-day landscape map, revealing a complex landform record, characterised by nine sub-basins separated by steps, ridges and isolated topographic highs related to the retreat of the British and Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS). Debris flows and anthropogenic features are superimposed on the general bathymetric framework formed since the Last Glacial Maximum. There is also evidence of glacial features preserved onshore, which identify a series of depositional environments that accompanied ice advance, ice retreat and post-glacial deposition within the Lake District. Core analysis has identified a sequence of sand with finely laminated sand, silt and clay, fining upwards into varved clays, overlain by organic rich lacustrine gyttja. The stratigraphic units correlate with existing seismic stratigraphic facies, suggesting the sequence extends through an overlying drape of Holocene gyttja into glaciolacustrine and lacustrine sediment fill relating to Interstadial/BIIS retreat, and further penetrates to the till surface. Analysis of geophysical core properties reveals coarser layers in the varved clay are correlated with peaks in magnetic susceptibility and iron, suggesting retreat was punctuated by surges in ice movement leading to the deposition of coarser layers rich in iron bearing minerals. This study indicates that an integrated approach, using high resolution geophysical datasets combined with sediment coring is capable of deriving an in-depth understanding of glacial and post-glacial

  6. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Neil F.; Jansson, Krister N.; Duller, Geoffrey A. T.; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface “hosing” to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate. PMID:26869235

  7. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Neil F; Jansson, Krister N; Duller, Geoffrey A T; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-02-12

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface "hosing" to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate.

  8. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Neil F.; Jansson, Krister N.; Duller, Geoffrey A. T.; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface “hosing” to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate.

  9. Role of the Lakes in Groundwater Recharge and Discharge in the Young Glacial Area, Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Jaworska-Szulc, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to delineate characteristic hydrogeological lake types in the Young Glacial Area (YGA). The YGA is in the central and east part of the Kashubian Lake District (KLD) in Northern Poland, an area covered by deposits of Quaternary glaciation. All the bigger lakes were investigated in the area of about 1500 km(2) (39 lakes). The role of lakes in groundwater recharge and discharge was determined from total dissolved solids (TDS) in lake waters and also from groundwater flow simulation. The general trend was that gaining lakes, as determined by flow modeling, had higher values of TDS than losing lakes. In addition to typical gaining lakes (with TDS > 250 mg/l), there were losing lakes perched on glacial till deposits with very low TDS (<100 mg/l). Two groups of losing lakes were delineated: ones with very low TDS and another group with slightly higher TDS (due to local contact with groundwater). Flow-through lakes with TDS of 170-200 mg/l were also delineated.

  10. Recognition of Drainage Tunnels during Glacier Lake Outburst Events from Terrestrial Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalbe, E.; Koschitzki, R.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, many glaciers all over the world have been distinctly retreating and thinning. One of the consequences of this is the increase of so called glacier lake outburst flood events (GLOFs). The mechanisms ruling such GLOF events are still not yet fully understood by glaciologists. Thus, there is a demand for data and measurements that can help to understand and model the phenomena. Thereby, a main issue is to obtain information about the location and formation of subglacial channels through which some lakes, dammed by a glacier, start to drain. The paper will show how photogrammetric image sequence analysis can be used to collect such data. For the purpose of detecting a subglacial tunnel, a camera has been installed in a pilot study to observe the area of the Colonia Glacier (Northern Patagonian Ice Field) where it dams the Lake Cachet II. To verify the hypothesis, that the course of the subglacial tunnel is indicated by irregular surface motion patterns during its collapse, the camera acquired image sequences of the glacier surface during several GLOF events. Applying tracking techniques to these image sequences, surface feature motion trajectories could be obtained for a dense raster of glacier points. Since only a single camera has been used for image sequence acquisition, depth information is required to scale the trajectories. Thus, for scaling and georeferencing of the measurements a GPS-supported photogrammetric network has been measured. The obtained motion fields of the Colonia Glacier deliver information about the glacier's behaviour before during and after a GLOF event. If the daily vertical glacier motion of the glacier is integrated over a period of several days and projected into a satellite image, the location and shape of the drainage channel underneath the glacier becomes visible. The high temporal resolution of the motion fields may also allows for an analysis of the tunnels dynamic in comparison to the changing water level of the lake.

  11. Seasonal Evolution of Supra-glacial Lakes Across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundal, A.; Shepherd, A.; Nienow, P.; Palmer, S.; Hanna, E.

    2008-12-01

    We used 268 MODIS satellite images spanning the melt seasons 2003 and 2005-2007 to investigate the seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes in three different regions of the Greenland ice sheet. Lake area estimates were obtained by developing an automated classification method for their identification based on 250 m resolution MODIS surface reflectance images. Our dataset reveal widespread supra-glacial lake formation and drainage across the Greenland ice sheet, with a 2-3 weeks delay in the evolution of total supra-glacial lake area in the northern study areas compared to the south-western study area. The onset of lake growth varies by up to one month inter-annually, and lakes form and drain at progressively higher altitudes during the melt season. The annual peak in total lake area is positively correlated with modelled annual runoff across all study areas. Our results indicate that, in a warmer climate, supra-glacial lakes on the surface of the Greenland ice sheet can be expected to form earlier in the melt season and at higher altitudes than is presently the case. In consequence, the area and time period over which connections between the ice sheet surface and base may be established (Das et al 2008) will increase, potentially increasing the rate of ice sheet discharge and its sea level contribution (Zwally et al 2002). Das, S., Joughin, M., Behn, M., Howat, I., King, M., Lizarralde, D., Bhatia, M., 2008. Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supra-glacial lake drainage, Science, 5877, p.778-781. Zwally, H.J., Abdalati, W., Herring, T., Larson, K., Saba, J., Steffen, K., 2002. Surface Melt-Induced Acceleration of Greenland Ice-Sheet Flow, Science, 297, p.218-221.

  12. Photogrammetric recognition of subglacial drainage channels during glacier lake outburst events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalbe, Ellen; Koschitzki, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, many glaciers all over the world have been distinctly retreating and thinning. One of the consequences of this is the increase of so called glacier lake outburst flood events (GLOFs): Lakes that have been dammed by a glacier spontaneously start to drain through a subglacial channel underneath the glacier due to their outweighing hydrostatic pressure. In a short period of time, the lake water drains under the glacier and causes floods in downstream valleys. In many cases the latter become hazardous for people and their property. Due to glacier movement, the tunnel will soon collapse, and the glacier lake refills, thus starting a new GLOF cycle. The mechanisms ruling GLOF events are yet still not fully understood by glaciologists. Thus, there is a demand for data and measurement values that can help to understand and model the phenomena. In view of the above, we will show how photogrammetric image sequence analysis can be used to collect data which allows for drawing conclusions about the location and development of a subglacial channel. The work is a follow-up on earlier work on a photogrammetric GLOF early warning system (Mulsow et. al., 2013). For the purpose of detecting the subglacial tunnel, a camera has been installed in a pilot study to observe the area of the Colonia glacier (Northern Patagonian ice field) where it dams the lake Lago Cachet II. To verify the hypothesis, that the course of the subglacial tunnel is indicated by irregular surface motion patterns during its collapse, the camera acquired image sequences of the glacier surface during several GLOF events. Applying LSM-based tracking techniques to these image sequences, surface feature motion trajectories could be obtained for a dense raster of glacier points. Since only a single camera has been used for image sequence acquisition, depth information is required to scale the trajectories. Thus, for scaling and georeferencing of the measurements a GPS-supported photogrammetric network

  13. Chronology and stratigraphy for the MIS 2 damming of glacial Lake Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, E. C.; Attig, J. W.; Rawling, J. E., III

    2015-12-01

    Glacial Lake Wisconsin formed during the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 glaciation when the Green Bay Lobe (GBL) of the Laurentide Ice Sheet dammed the Wisconsin River at the Baraboo Hills in south-central Wisconsin. Despite nearly a century of research, the precise chronology for the Green Bay Lobe's advance to and retreat from its maximum position, and the resulting damming and subsequent drainage of glacial Lake Wisconsin, remains unsettled (e.g., Colgan, 1992; Attig et al., 2011; Ullman et al., 2014). Age estimates from core collected in ice-proximal lacustrine sediment beyond the glacial margin provide chronologic constraint for ice margin fluctuations that controlled glacial Lake Wisconsin's formation and drainage. Additional cores collected in glacial sediment at and behind the MIS 2 ice margin provide stratigraphic evidence for the dynamics of the GBL during the end of advance to, and the start of retreat from, the MIS 2 maximum. The combined data from these cores suggest that glacial Lake Wisconsin may have filled only once to its highest stage during the MIS 2 maximum, after ice blocked both the east end of the Baraboo Hills and the south end of the Devils Lake gorge. When the ice reached its maximum position and blocked the north end of the gorge, Devils Lake was isolated from glacial Lake Wisconsin and rose to a higher level. Radiocarbon and OSL ages from the Devils Lake gorge indicate that the GBL advanced to the MIS 2 maximum position by 24.6 ka, and remained at or near that location through 19.2 ± 3.2 ka. Radiocarbon ages from lacustrine sediment in a sub-basin of glacial Lake Wisconsin indicate that ice continued to block the Wisconsin River between 21.6 ka and 17.4 ka. The stratigraphy evident in cores at the Devils Lake gorge and south of the Baraboo Hills indicates that ice thinned and advanced immediately prior to retreat, likely in response to reduced basal shear stress as the bed of the glacier thawed.

  14. Glacial landforms of the southern Ungava Bay region (Canada): implications for the late-glacial dynamics and the damming of glacial Lake Naskaupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube-Loubert, Hugo; Roy, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Laurentide ice sheet played an important role in the late Pleistocene climate, notably through discharges of icebergs and meltwater. In this context, the Ungava Bay region in northern Quebec-Labrador appears particularly important, especially during the last deglaciation when the retreating ice margin dammed major river valleys, creating large proglacial lakes (e.g., McLean, aux Feuilles). The history of these lakes is closely related to the temporal evolution of the Labrador-Quebec ice dome. There are, however, large uncertainties regarding the position of its ice divide system through time, thereby limiting our understanding of the history of these glacial lakes. Here we focus on glacial and deglacial landforms present in the George River valley, south of Ungava Bay, in order to bring additional constraints on the late-glacial ice dynamics of this region, which also comprised glacial Lake Naskaupi. This work is based on surficial mapping using aerial photos and satellite imagery, combined with extensive fieldwork and sediment sampling. Our investigation showed significant differences in the distribution of glacial landforms across the region. The area east of the George River is characterized by well-developed Naskaupi shorelines while the elevated terrains show a succession of geomorphological features indicative of cold-based ice or ice with low basal velocities. In the easternmost part of this sector, ice flow directional data indicate that the ice was flowing towards ENE, against the regional slope. Eskers show paleocurrent directions indicating a general ice retreat from east to west. In the western part of this sector, near the George River valley, eskers are absent and the region is covered by felsenmeer and ground moraine that likely reflect the presence of a residual ice mass that was no longer dynamic. The presence of a stagnant ice represents the best mechanism to explain the formation of glacial lakes in the George River valley and its main

  15. 10Be ages of glacial and meltwater features northwest of Lake Superior: a chronology of Laurentide Ice sheet deglaciation and eastward flooding from Glacial Lake Agassiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. A.; Fisher, T. G.; Lowell, T.; Barnett, P.; Schaefer, J. M.; Schwartz, R.

    2009-12-01

    Significant controversy exists as to the role of Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater in causing the Younger Dryas cold event. Recently, Lowell et al. (2009) presented a radiocarbon chronology of Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation along a north-south transect located northwest of Lake Superior. These authors concluded that the presence of the Laurentide Ice Sheet precluded an eastward drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz until mid-Younger Dryas time. Here, we use 10Be surface exposure dating to examine the timing of the eastward drainage of Lake Agassiz. We present 10Be ages of moraines and erratic boulders in meltwater pathways along the same transect as Lowell et al. (2009), northwest of Lake Superior. In general, 10Be ages of glacial features are similar to, or slightly older than, basal radiocarbon ages of nearby lakes. Based on the 10Be chronology, deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in this region occurred between ~13,000 and 10,000 yr BP. We also present the first direct ages of flood deposits in bedrock channels presumably associated with the eastern drainage of Lake Agassiz. Evidence for flooding includes extensive channels incised into bedrock and enormous bedforms located north of Lake Superior. 10Be ages of two flood deposits near the Roaring River and Mundell Lake yield mean 10Be ages of ~11,700 and 11,000 yr BP, respectively. These ages indicate that occupation of the channels postdates initiation of the Younger Dryas by more than 1,000 years and are in general agreement with a basal radiocarbon age from nearby Lower Vail Lake (Teller et al., 2005). Preliminary paleohydrological estimates based on bedform clast sizes and channel geometries are velocities and discharges of 2.8-19.8 ms-1 and 4,200-30,000 m3s-1 at the Roaring River location and 2.5-17.5 ms-1 and 49,000-349,000 m3s-1 at the Mundell Lake location.

  16. An Assessment of Glacial Contributions to Lake Dynamics across the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the world's most vulnerable areas to global warming, and is home of the world's largest group of mountain glaciers and high-altitude lakes. These lakes in general have shrunk significantly since the late Pleistocene, and are currently continuing to experience changes in their distribution and inundation area. In the meantime, Tibetan glaciers have also gone through dramatic changes as evidenced by paleo glacial relics and recent accelerated melting. The paper provides a regional-scale systematic assessment of both paleo and contemporary lake changes across the plateau using geo-spatial information and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technologies. Using high-resolution satellite imagery of the plateau together with topographic data, this research recovered paleo lake extents for hundreds of contemporary lakes with visible paleo shore relics and estimated the amount of paleo lake shrinkage at regional scales. Both the basin-based water mass balance analysis using glacier/lake sizes and OSL dating of paleo shores suggest that paleo glaciers played a crucial role in the observed paleo lake shrinkage. Recent ~40 year lake dynamics was monitored by tracking thousands of Tibetan lakes using hundreds of satellite images. The results reveal that the overall total lake area has increased by ~26% between 1976 and 2009. The detected lake dynamics exhibit a strong spatial pattern generally but with local variations. The climate change and its regional glacier variations explain the general trend and the regional patterns of lake dynamics, respectively. The glacier mass monitored by GRACE satellites suggests a thinning trend over the past 12 years in the south while a gaining along the northern rim of the plateau. Basin-based analysis identifies glacial impacts on lake dynamics and explains many local variations. It can be concluded that glaciers play an important role in detected paleo as well as recent lake changes, and will

  17. Late Pleistocene outburst flooding from pluvial Lake Alvord into the Owyhee River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Deron T.; Ely, Lisa L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.

    2006-05-01

    At least one large, late Pleistocene flood traveled into the Owyhee River as a result of a rise and subsequent outburst from pluvial Lake Alvord in southeastern Oregon. Lake Alvord breached Big Sand Gap in its eastern rim after reaching an elevation of 1292 m, releasing 11.3 km 3 of water into the adjacent Coyote Basin as it eroded the Big Sand Gap outlet channel to an elevation of about 1280 m. The outflow filled and then spilled out of Coyote Basin through two outlets at 1278 m and into Crooked Creek drainage, ultimately flowing into the Owyhee and Snake Rivers. Along Crooked Creek, the resulting flood eroded canyons, stripped bedrock surfaces, and deposited numerous boulder bars containing imbricated clasts up to 4.1 m in diameter, some of which are located over 30 m above the present-day channel. Critical depth calculations at Big Sand Gap show that maximum outflow from a 1292- to 1280-m drop in Lake Alvord was ˜ 10,000 m 3 s - 1 . Flooding became confined to a single channel approximately 40 km downstream of Big Sand Gap, where step-backwater calculations show that a much larger peak discharge of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 is required to match the highest geologic evidence of the flood in this channel. This inconsistency can be explained by (1) a single 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood that caused at least 13 m of vertical incision in the channel (hence enlarging the channel cross-section); (2) multiple floods of 10,000 m 3 s - 1 or less, each producing some incision of the channel; or (3) an earlier flood of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 creating the highest flood deposits and crossed drainage divides observed along Crooked Creek drainage, followed by a later 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood associated with the most recent shorelines in Alvord and Coyote Basins. Well-developed shorelines of Lake Alvord at 1280 m and in Coyote Basin at 1278 m suggest that after the initial flood, postflood overflow persisted for an extended period, connecting Alvord and Coyote Basins with the Owyhee River of the

  18. Late Pleistocene outburst flooding from pluvial Lake Alvord into the Owyhee River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, D.T.; Ely, L.L.; O'Connor, J. E.; Fenton, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    At least one large, late Pleistocene flood traveled into the Owyhee River as a result of a rise and subsequent outburst from pluvial Lake Alvord in southeastern Oregon. Lake Alvord breached Big Sand Gap in its eastern rim after reaching an elevation of 1292 m, releasing 11.3 km3 of water into the adjacent Coyote Basin as it eroded the Big Sand Gap outlet channel to an elevation of about 1280 m. The outflow filled and then spilled out of Coyote Basin through two outlets at 1278 m and into Crooked Creek drainage, ultimately flowing into the Owyhee and Snake Rivers. Along Crooked Creek, the resulting flood eroded canyons, stripped bedrock surfaces, and deposited numerous boulder bars containing imbricated clasts up to 4.1 m in diameter, some of which are located over 30 m above the present-day channel. Critical depth calculations at Big Sand Gap show that maximum outflow from a 1292- to 1280-m drop in Lake Alvord was ??? 10,000 m3 s- 1. Flooding became confined to a single channel approximately 40 km downstream of Big Sand Gap, where step-backwater calculations show that a much larger peak discharge of 40,000 m3 s- 1 is required to match the highest geologic evidence of the flood in this channel. This inconsistency can be explained by (1) a single 10,000 m3 s- 1 flood that caused at least 13 m of vertical incision in the channel (hence enlarging the channel cross-section); (2) multiple floods of 10,000 m3 s- 1 or less, each producing some incision of the channel; or (3) an earlier flood of 40,000 m3 s- 1 creating the highest flood deposits and crossed drainage divides observed along Crooked Creek drainage, followed by a later 10,000 m3 s- 1 flood associated with the most recent shorelines in Alvord and Coyote Basins. Well-developed shorelines of Lake Alvord at 1280 m and in Coyote Basin at 1278 m suggest that after the initial flood, postflood overflow persisted for an extended period, connecting Alvord and Coyote Basins with the Owyhee River of the Columbia River

  19. Glacial Lake Musselshell: Late Wisconsin slackwater on the Laurentide ice margin in central Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, N.K.; Locke, W. W.; Pierce, K.L.; Finkel, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmogenic surface exposure ages of glacial boulders deposited in ice-marginal Lake Musselshell suggest that the lake existed between 20 and 11.5 ka during the Late Wisconsin glacial stage (MIS 2), rather than during the Late Illinoian stage (MIS 6) as traditionally thought. The altitude of the highest ice-rafted boulders and the lowest passes on the modern divide indicate that glacial lake water in the Musselshell River basin reached at least 920-930 m above sea level and generally remained below 940 m. Exposures of rhythmically bedded silt and fine sand indicate that Lake Musselshell is best described as a slackwater system, in which the ice-dammed Missouri and Musselshell Rivers rose and fell progressively throughout the existence of the lake rather than establishing a lake surface with a stable elevation. The absence of varves, deltas and shorelines also implies an unstable lake. The changing volume of the lake implies that the Laurentide ice sheet was not stable at its southernmost position in central Montana. A continuous sequence of alternating slackwater lake sediment and lacustrine sheetflood deposits indicates that at least three advances of the Laurentide ice sheet occurred in central Montana between 20 and 11.5 ka. Between each advance, it appears that Lake Musselshell drained to the north and formed two outlet channels that are now occupied by extremely underfit streams. A third outlet formed when the water in Lake Musselshell fully breached the Larb Hills, resulting in the final drainage of the lake. The channel through the Larb Hills is now occupied by the Missouri River, implying that the present Missouri River channel east of the Musselshell River confluence was not created until the Late Wisconsin, possibly as late as 11.5 ka. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fieldtrip stop #2-6 Twin Lakes glacial geology and mining history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, C.A.; Shorba, R.R.; Edited by Simmons, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The area of Twin Lakes has been of interest to geologists going back to the days of the Hayden Survey (1874) and continues to be studied for its spectacular glacial geology. Twin Lakes (2747 m; 9015 ft) was settled in 1879 (Scott, 2003) as the Leadville silver rush began, when prospectors found the first traces and outcrops of the Gordon, Tiger, Little Joe, and other rich lodes west of Twin Lakes. Between 1860 and 1950, the Twin Lakes area produced at least 2.5 million dollars in placer gold, much of which was produced when the official U.S. Government price of gold was $20.67 per troy once.

  1. New insights on Illinoian deglaciation from deposits of Glacial Lake Quincy, central Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. R.; Forman, S. L.; Pierson, J.; Gomez, J.

    2010-03-01

    The deposits of Glacial Lake Quincy overlie a diamicton associated with the classically defined Illinoian limit in central Indiana. This lake covered at least 180 km 2 with a depth of > 20 m and developed when the Illinoian ice sheet retreated 15 km from the maximum limit, causing lake impoundment against Devore Ridge. Overflow from Glacial Lake Quincy eroded across the ridge forming a number of steeped-walled outlets. A section along Mill Creek exposes a sedimentologic sequence associated with Glacial Lake Quincy from a subglacial diamicton to ice-proximal to ice-distal glacial lacustrine sediments. We report new optical ages by multiple aliquot regenerative dose procedure for the fine-grained rhythmically bedded sediments presumed to represent the lowest energy depositional facies, dominated by suspension settling, which maximized sunlight exposure. In turn, optical ages were determined on the fine-grained (4-11 μm) polymineral and quartz fractions under infrared and blue excitation, which yielded statistically similar ages. Optical ages span from ca. 170 to 108 ka, with the average of 16 optical ages indicating deglaciation at ca. 135 ka, generally coincident with Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 6-to-5 transition and rise in global sea level.

  2. 20th-century glacial-marine sedimentation in Vitus Lake, Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, B.F.; Post, A.; Carlson, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Vitus Lake, the ice-marginal basin at the southeastern edge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., is a site of modern, rapid, glacial-marine sedimentation. Rather than being a fresh-water lake, Vitus Lake is a tidally influenced, marine to brackish embayment connected to the Pacific Ocean by an inlet, the Seal River. Vitus Lake consists of five deep bedrock basins, separated by interbasinal highs. Glacial erosion has cut these basins as much as 250 m below sea level. High-resolution seismic reflection surveys conducted in 1991 and 1993 of four of Vitus Lake's basins reveal a complex, variable three-component acoustic stratigraphy. Although not fully sampled, the stratigraphy is inferred to be primarily glacial-marine units of (1) basal contorted and deformed glacial-marine and glacial sediments deposited by basal ice-contact processes and submarine mass-wasting; (2) acoustically well-stratified glacial-marine sediment, which unconformably overlies the basal unit and which grades upward into (3) acoustically transparent or nearly transparent glacial-marine sediment. Maximum thicknesses of conformable glacial-marine sediment exceed 100 m. All of the acoustically transparent and stratified deposits in Vitus Lake are modern in age, having accumulated between 1967 and 1993. The basins where these three-part sequences of "present-day" glacial-marine sediment are accumulating are themselves cut into older sequences of stratified glacial and glacial-marine deposits. These older units outcrop on the islands in Vitus Lake. In 1967, as the result of a major surge, glacier ice completely filled all five basins. Subsequent terminus retreat, which continued through August 1993, exposed these basins, providing new locations for glacial-marine sediment accumulation. A correlation of sediment thicknesses measured from seismic profiles at specific locations within the basins, with the year that each location became ice-free, shows that the sediment accumulation at some locations

  3. Impact on the Columbia River of an outburst of Spirit Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sikonia, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    A one-dimensional sediment-transport computer model was used to study the effects of an outburst of Spirit Lake on the Columbia River. According to the model, flood sediment discharge to the Columbia from the Cowlitz would form a blockage to a height of 44 feet above the current streambed of the Columbia River, corresponding to a new streambed elevation of -3 feet, that would impound the waters of the Columbia River. For an average flow of 233,000 cubic feet in that river, water surface elevations would continue to increase for 16 days after the blockage had been formed. The river elevation at the Trojan nuclear power plant, 5 miles upstream of the Cowlitz River, would rise to 32 feet, compared to a critical elevation of 45 feet, above which the plant would be flooded. For comparison, the Columbia River at average flow without the blockage has an elevation at this location of 6 feet. Correspondingly high water surface elevations would occur along the river to Bonneville Dam , with that at Portland, Oregon, for example, rising also to 32 feet, compared to 10 feet without the blockage. (USGS)

  4. Gorkha earthquake-induced landslides and dammed lakes: Evolution and outburst modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugar, D. H.; Immerzeel, W.; Wanders, N.; Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Haritashya, U. K.; Collins, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    On 25 April 2015, the Gorkha Earthquake (Mw 7.8) struck Nepal, generating thousands of landslides in Nepal, Tibet (China), and India. While the majority of these hazards were triggered co-seismically, many are considered secondary effects occurring during the weeks following the main shock, based on high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery. Here we report on a series of shallow, post-seismic landslides into the upper Marsyangdi River in the Annapurna region of the central Nepal Himalayas. These landslides constricted and blocked the river, causing impoundments that presented acute flood risks to communities downstream. On April 27, two days following the main shock, ~4.7 x 104 m3 of water was impounded behind a series of small constrictions. By May 28, the total volume of impounded water had increased to ~6.4 x 105 m3. The downstream flood risk was especially significant in the event of a domino-like cascade of dam breaches. We examine the timing, distribution and evolution of the landslide-dammed lakes and quantify the risk of inundation-scenarios to downstream communities with a hydrological model. The model uses a fully kinematic wave simulation at a 30 m-spatial and 2 sec-temporal resolution to resolve the height, timing and volume of a possible outburst flood wave. Our modeling shows that a rapid dam burst involving only the lowest, largest lake would increase water levels at the nearest village of Lower Pisang ~2 km downstream by >7m in a matter of minutes. Approximately 70 km downstream, the flood wave would be mostly attenuated, raising water levels only tens of centimeters. Fortunately, at the time of writing, no flood had occurred.

  5. Linking glacial deposits and lake sediments for paleoclimate studies in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamosteanu, Andrei; Mindrescu, Marcel; Anselmetti, Flavio; Akçar, Naki; Lowick, Sally E.; Vogel, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Timing and extent of glaciations in the Carpathian mountains are still controversely discussed, mostly due to the lack of well dated geomorphological and geochronological studies. We present the preliminary results of geomorphological and sedimentological analyses of glacial and lacustrine deposits in Bistricioara Valley located in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians). Most of the glacial deposits in the Romanian Carpathians, such as moraines, typically occur above 1600 m a.s.l. marking the maximum lowering of past glaciations. Most of the glacial lakes occur between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l. Field surveys included mapping of moraines and erratic boulders using detailed topographical maps and aerial photos. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was derived using GIS (ArcMap 10.1) from 1:25000 topographic maps, which was further completed by field survey data. The resulting geomorphological map shows a series of moraines, which indicate the occurrence of several glacial phases in the study area. Sediment samples were collected from a peat bog (1630 m a.s.l.) dammed by a large lateral moraine within Bistricioara Mare, one of the largest glacial cirques in the Romanian Carpathians. A Russian corer was used to extract the sediment profile from the peat bog (approx. 5 m long sediment core). A X-ray computed tomography (CT) system was employed for the study of sedimentary and deformation structures and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for multi-element analysis at high resolution. Glacial deposits from the lateral moraine in front of the peat bog were also sampled, as well as from the frontal moraines, upstream and downstream of the peat bog. This set of samples from multiple archives allows to link and merge the chronologies and the paleoenvironmental records of glacial deposits and lake sediments. Moreover, we employed cosmogenic nuclide dating for the reconstruction of glacial stages and their paleoclimatic implications during deglaciation in this area of

  6. Geomorphology of the Chippewa River delta of Glacial Lake Saginaw, central Lower Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connallon, Christopher B.; Schaetzl, Randall J.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce, characterize, and interpret the geomorphic history of a relict, Pleistocene-aged delta of the Chippewa River in central Lower Michigan. The broad, sandy Chippewa delta developed into various stages of Glacial Lake Saginaw, between ca. ≈ 17 and 15 ka·BP (calibrated ages). Although the delta was first identified in 1955 on a statewide glacial geology map, neither its extent nor its Pleistocene history had been previously determined. The delta is typically forested, owing to its wet, sandy soils, which stand out against the agricultural fields of the surrounding, loamy lake plain sediments. The delta heads near the city of Mt Pleasant and extends eastward onto the Saginaw Lowlands, i.e., the plain of Glacial Lake Saginaw. Data from 3285 water well logs, 180 hand augered sites, and 185 points randomly located in a GIS on two-storied (sand over loam) soils were used to determine the extent, textural properties, and thickness of the delta. The delta is ≈ 18 km wide and ≈ 38 km long and is sandy throughout. Deltaic sediments from neighboring rivers that also drained into Glacial Lake Saginaw merge with the lower Chippewa delta, obscuring its boundary there. The delta is thickest near the delta's head and in the center, but thins to 1-2 m or less on its eastern margins. Mean thicknesses are 2.3-2.9 m, suggestive of a thin sediment body, frequently impacted by the waves and fluctuating waters of the lakes. Although beach ridges are only weakly expressed across the delta because of the sandy sediment, the coarsest parts of the delta are generally coincident with some of these inferred former shorezones and have a broad, incised channel that formed while lake levels were low. The thick upper delta generally lies above the relict shorelines of Glacial Lakes Saginaw and Arkona (≈ 17.1 to ≈ 16 ka·BP), whereas most of the thin, distal delta is associated with Glacial Lake Warren (≈ 15 ka·BP). Together, these data suggest that the Chippewa delta formed

  7. Using geophysics on a terminal moraine damming a glacial lake: the Flatbre debris flow case, Western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, I.; Thollet, I.; Juliussen, H.; Hamran, S.-E.

    2008-04-01

    A debris flow occurred on 8 May 2004, in Fjørland, Western Norway, due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and a natural terminal moraine failure. The site was investigated in 2004 and 2005, using pre- and post-flow aerial photos, airborne laser scanning, and extensive field work investigations, resulting in a good understanding of the mechanics of the debris flow, with quantification of the entrainment and determination of the final volume involved. However, though the moraine had a clear weak point, with lower elevation and erosion due to overflowing in the melting season, the sudden rupture of the moraine still needs to be explained. As moraines often contain an ice core, a possible cause could be the melting of the ice, inducing a progressive weakening of the structure. Geophysical investigations were therefore carried out in September 2006, including seismic refraction, GPR and resistivity. All methods worked well, but none revealed the presence of ice, though the depth to bedrock was determined. On the contrary, the moraine appeared to be highly saturated in water, especially in one area, away from the actual breach and corresponding to observed water seepage at the foot of the moraine. To estimate future hazard, water circulation through the moraine should be monitored over time.

  8. Hydroclimatic changes recorded in Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) during the last glacial/interglacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecien, O.; Tomonaga, Y.; Stockhecke, M.; Randlett, M.; Bucher, S.; Pickarski, N.; Brennwald, M.; Schubert, C. J.; Kipfer, R.; Anselmetti, F.; Sturm, M.; Haug, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    Lake-level fluctuations of terminal lakes are a sensitive indicator of local/regional moisture balance. Here we reconstruct changes in level of Lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey. We combine several approaches (pore water and sediment geochemistry, lithological analysis, modeling, and mapping of lake terraces) and focus on the last ca. 130 ka of Lake Van's history. For the multi-millennial time scales, we use salinity measured in the pore water to calculate the water volume (and the respective lake level) necessary to dilute or concentrate the dissolved salt content of Lake Van. Our results agree with a previous study on lake terraces in the region of Lake Van (Kuzucuoglu et al., 2010) suggesting that during MIS 5 (130-70 ka BP) the lake level was ca. 100 m higher than today. During the last glacial, the water level dropped significantly, but the lake did not dry out completely (compare Landmann et al., 1996). Pollen data support wet interglacial and dry glacial conditions. In order to resolve centennial-to millennial lake level changes we investigated the terrigenous components of the sediment. The accumulation of terrigenous material in Lake Van is a function of a depocenter distance from a river mouth (fluvial input) and exposition of the shelf (eolian input), both of which are dependent on the lake level. Accordingly, high-resolution XRF Al- and K-data, reflecting terrigenous input, reinforced by lithological analysis provide insight into short-term lake-level fluctuations superimposed on the long-term trend. These data show excellent and detailed correlation with the Greenland ice-core isotope signal. We conclude that in eastern Anatolia, the last interglacial was probably more humid than the recent one. Additionally, during the last glacial, the region experienced not only dry and windy spells in concert with Greenland stadials but also abrupt climate melioration as Greenland warmed into interstadials. Lake Van sediments are thus, to our knowledge, the most

  9. Pattern of shoreline spawning by sockeye salmon in a glacially turbid lake: evidence for subpopulation differentiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Finn, J.E.; Holland-Bartels, L.

    1995-01-01

    Alaskan sockeye salmon typically spawn in lake tributaries during summer (early run) and along clear-water lake shorelines and outlet rivers during fall (late run). Production at the glacially turbid Tustumena Lake and its outlet, the Kasilof River (south-central Alaska), was thought to be limited to a single run of sockeye salmon that spawned in the lake's clear-water tributaries. However, up to 40% of the returning sockeye salmon enumerated by sonar as they entered the lake could not be accounted for during lake tributary surveys, which suggested either substantial counting errors or that a large number of fish spawned in the lake itself. Lake shoreline spawning had not been documented in a glacially turbid system. We determined the distribution and pattern of sockeye salmon spawning in the Tustumena Lake system from 1989 to 1991 based on fish collected and radiotagged in the Kasilof River. Spawning areas and time were determined for 324 of 413 sockeye salmon tracked upstream into the lake after release. Of these, 224 fish spawned in tributaries by mid-August and 100 spawned along shoreline areas of the lake during late August. In an additional effort, a distinct late run was discovered that spawned in the Kasilof River at the end of September. Between tributary and shoreline spawners, run and spawning time distributions were significantly different. The number of shoreline spawners was relatively stable and independent of annual escapement levels during the study, which suggests that the shoreline spawning component is distinct and not surplus production from an undifferentiated run. Since Tustumena Lake has been fully deglaciated for only about 2,000 years and is still significantly influenced by glacier meltwater, this diversification of spawning populations is probably a relatively recent and ongoing event.

  10. Influence of glacial meltwater and humidity on evaporation of two Tibetan lakes indicated by delta 18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.

    2009-04-01

    delta 18O and model results are adopted to study the affects of glacial meltwater and relative humidity in two lake basins (Lakes Yamdrok-tso and Puma Yum-tso) at two different elevations on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Temporally, the lake water delta 18O of Yamdrok-tso Lake displays a seasonal fluctuation, whereas the lake water delta 18O is stable in Puma Yum-tso Lake in whole year. Spatially, the delta 18O value in Yamdrok-tso Lake is 2‰ higher than that in Puma Yum-tso Lake. delta 18O values in the two lake basins increase by 10‰ from the termini of glaciers to the lake shores, by about 1‰ from the lakeshores to the lake center, by 0.4‰ from the water surface to depth in these lakes. The largest difference, from the terminus of the Qiangyong Glacier to the depth of 35 m, is 14.1‰ and demonstrates the importance of glacial meltwater. Evaporation alters the changes of delta 18O in the two lake basins. Model results show that relative humidity is a major controlling factor of evaporation. delta 18O values of both Yamdrok-tso and Puma Yum-tso Lakes are at their steady condition, but Puma Yum-tso Lake has taken a longer time to approach the current condition, which might be attributed to higher humidity and more glacial meltwater at the lake.

  11. Glacial lake McConnell: Paleogeography, age, duration, and associated river deltas, mackenzie river basin, western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derald G.

    Glacial Lake McConnell lasted from 11.8 to 8.3 ka BP while occupying parts of the Great Bear, Great Slave and Athabasca Lake basin. The retreating Laurentide ice-front formed the eastern margin, whereas low rolling hills formed the north, west and south shorelines. Three major deltas were deposited at the mouths of the Laird, Peace and Athabasca rivers. The total extent of all phases of the lake was 240,000 km2, while the largest extent was 210,000 km2 at 10.5 ka BP. Downwarping of the basin by glacial ice was the main cause of the lake, whereas sediment blockage between Jean Marie River and Fort Simpson was secondary. Initially, glacial Lake McConnell occupied the northwestern corner (Smith Arm) of the Great Bear Lake basin and discharged through the Hare Indian River outlet. By 11.5 ka BP the enlarged water body flowed out the Great Bear River, but only for a short period of time. The Mackenzie River formed the third outlet near Jean Marie River at 11 ka BP and flow in the Great Bear River ceased until 9 ka BP. At 9.9 ka BP glacial Lake McConnell was impacted by a major flood from glacial Lake Agassiz with a peak discharge of 2-7 × 106 m3/sec. Flood water discharged from glacial Lake McConnell, peaking at 0.35-0.57 × 106 m3/sec and receding flow continued for 30 months. The massive influx of floodwater into glacial Lake McConnell caused an abrupt increase of discharge, which enlarged the outlet channel to between 6 and 13 km wide between Fort Simpson and Jean Marie River. At 8.3 ka BP, isostatic rebound ended the 3500-year-old extensive lake by dividing it into the Great Slave Lake and Lake Athabasca.

  12. Interpreting the Holocene fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru: using a combination of glacial and non-glacial lake records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Smith, C.; Beal, S. A., Jr.; Tapia, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    The past fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC) are an indicator of tropical paleoclimate. At QIC, ice core and glacial geological records provide late Holocene climate constraints. However, early and middle Holocene QIC fluctuations are less well-known. To interpret past QIC fluctuations, we present Holocene-long lake sediment records from Challpacocha, a lake fed by QIC meltwater, and Yanacocha, a lake that has not received meltwater during the Holocene. To assess the clastic sediment delivered to Challpacocha by QIC meltwater, we compare visual stratigraphy, X-ray fluorescence chemistry, grainsize, loss on ignition and clastic flux records from both lakes (additional Yanacocha proxies are presented by Axford et al. (this meeting, abstract 157985)). We compare the meltwater derived clastic sediment record from Challpacocha with moraine and stratigraphic records of past ice extents during the late Holocene. This comparison indicates that clastic sediment flux in Challpacocha increased during QIC recession and decreased during QIC advance, or significantly reduced QIC extent. We then use the Challpacocha clastic sediment record to interpret early and middle Holocene QIC fluctuations. Based on the Challpacocha sediment record, combined with prior work, we suggest that from 11 to 6.5 ka QIC was similar to or smaller than its late Holocene extent. From 6.9 to 6.5 ka QIC may have been absent from the landscape. At 3-2.4 and 0.62-0.31 ka QIC experienced the most extensive Holocene fluctuations. We compare the clastic sediment fluxes from Challpacocha and Pacococha (a nearby lake fed by QIC; Rodbell et al., 2008) to infer QIC expansion between 6.5-5 ka. This is supported by 14C ages of in-situ subfossil plants which indicate ice advance at 6.3-4.7 ka (Thompson et al., 2006, 2013; Buffen et al., 2009). Our study highlights the value of using multiple datasets to improve lake sediment record interpretations.

  13. Turbidite Megabeds in an Oceanic Rift Valley Recording Jökulhlaups of Late Pleistocene Glacial Lakes of the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Zuffa; Normark; Serra; Brunner

    2000-05-01

    Escanaba Trough is the southernmost segment of the Gorda Ridge and is filled by sandy turbidites locally exceeding 500 m in thickness. New results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1037 and 1038 that include accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates and revised petrographic evaluation of the sediment provenance, combined with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, provide a lithostratigraphic framework for the turbidite deposits. Three fining-upward units of sandy turbidites from the upper 365 m at ODP Site 1037 can be correlated with sediment recovered at ODP Site 1038 and Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) Site 35. Six AMS 14C ages in the upper 317 m of the sequence at Site 1037 indicate that average deposition rates exceeded 10 m/k.yr. between 32 and 11 ka, with nearly instantaneous deposition of one approximately 60-m interval of sand. Petrography of the sand beds is consistent with a Columbia River source for the entire sedimentary sequence in Escanaba Trough. High-resolution acoustic stratigraphy shows that the turbidites in the upper 60 m at Site 1037 provide a characteristic sequence of key reflectors that occurs across the floor of the entire Escanaba Trough. Recent mapping of turbidite systems in the northeast Pacific Ocean suggests that the turbidity currents reached the Escanaba Trough along an 1100-km-long pathway from the Columbia River to the west flank of the Gorda Ridge. The age of the upper fining-upward unit of sandy turbidites appears to correspond to the latest Wisconsinan outburst of glacial Lake Missoula. Many of the outbursts, or jökulhlaups, from the glacial lakes probably continued flowing as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents on entering the sea at the mouth of the Columbia River.

  14. Contrasted evolution of glacial lakes along the Hindu-Kush Himalaya mountain range between 1990 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardelle, J.; Yves, A.; Berthier, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we present the first assessment of glacial lake distribution and evolution in the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH). Seven sites have been selected between Bhutan and Afghanistan, to capture the climatic variability along the 2000-km long mountain range. For each site, glacial lakes have been mapped with LANDSAT satellite imagery acquired in 1990, 2000 and 2009, using an automatic classification. In the East (India, Nepal and Bhutan) glacial lakes are bigger and more numerous than in the West (Pakistan, Afghanistan), and have grown continuously between 1990 and 2009 by 20% to 65%. Conversely, during the same period, the glacial lake coverage has shrunk in the Hindu Kush (-50%) and the Karakorum (-30%). This east/west pattern of lake changes seems in agreement with sparse glaciological measurements that suggest less (or even no) ice loss in the western part of the HKH.

  15. A sedimentary facies model for glacial-age sediments in Baldwin Lake, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazevic, Michael A.; Kirby, Matthew E.; Woods, Adam D.; Browne, Brandon L.; Bowman, David D.

    2009-07-01

    A combined sedimentological and high-resolution petrographic analysis was conducted on a glacial-age (20,000-65,000 cal yr BP) sediment core from Baldwin Lake, Southern California. The results of this research represent the most complete glacial-age, terrestrial climate record from Southern California to date. These results are used to characterize the different sediment types and to investigate the difference in depositional processes and environments between the core's three predominant sediment types: massive, semi-laminated, and laminated sediments. Massive sediments are commonly associated with a blocky texture and/or desiccation cracks, are organic-poor, have high magnetic susceptibility values, and are coarser-grained. Thin-sections from massive sediments reveal a homogenous sediment fabric. Sub-centimeter-scale laminated and centimeter-scale semi-laminated sediments are generally organic-rich, have low magnetic susceptibility values, and are finer grained. Thin-sections from laminated and semi-laminated sediments reveal diffuse sub-millimeter- to millimeter-scale laminae. This combination of sedimentological and high-resolution petrographic data enabled us to characterize four sediment facies, each related to specific depositional processes and environments: (1) a playa lake; (2) a perennial shallow lake; (3) an intermediate lake with variable lake level; and, (4) a perennial deep lake. At centennial-to millennial-timescales, lower lake levels are represented by deposition of massive to semi-laminated sediments in a playa to a perennial shallow lake environment. At similar timescales, higher lake levels are recorded by semi-laminated to laminated sediments deposited in an intermediate lake to a perennial deep lake environment. These results provide an additional sedimentological study for comparison to similar arid environment basins, and for comparison to existing regional paleoclimatic reconstructions.

  16. A reinterpretation of geomorphological evidence for Glacial Lake Victoria, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Hamish A.; Neil, David T.; Speirs, Johanna C.

    2014-03-01

    The largely snow and ice free McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are one of the coldest and driest locations on Earth. It has been proposed that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the early Holocene large lakes up to 200 m deep and 100 km2 in area occupied these valleys. We present the first topographic survey of features reported to be shorelines from one such lake, Glacial Lake Victoria, in Victoria Valley. In combination with the analysis of laser altimetry data obtained from the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper system and cosmogenic dating of granite boulders we show that the features previously thought to be shorelines are not horizontally or linearly continuous. Rather, we conclude that they are scars from ancient slope mass movement deposits. 10Be cosmogenic dating indicates that their formation is on timescales of at least 160 ka before present and not 20 ka as the LGM mega-lake hypothesis suggests. We conclude that the geomorphic features believed to be shorelines and which underpin the LGM mega-lake hypothesis in Victoria Valley are mass movement deposits and not lake shorelines. Our results support an emerging body of literature unable to find evidence to verify the McMurdo Dry Valleys LGM mega-lake hypothesis. Accordingly we suggest caution in invoking such significant landscape features in discussions of the environmental past of this unique region until such time as further research provides an unequivocal history of the region's geomorphic past.

  17. Evolution of supra-glacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundal, A. V.; Shepherd, A.; Nienow, P.; Hanna, E.; Palmer, S.; Huybrechts, P.

    2009-04-01

    We have used 268 cloud-free Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images spanning the 2003 and 2005-2007 melt seasons to study the seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes in three different regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Lake area estimates were obtained by developing an automated classification method for their identification based on 250 m resolution MODIS surface reflectance observations. Widespread supra-glacial lake formation and drainage is observed across the ice sheet, with a 2-3 weeks delay in the evolution of total supra-glacial lake area in the northern areas compared to the south-west. The onset of lake growth varies by up to one month inter-annually, and lakes form and drain at progressively higher altitudes during the melt season. A correlation was found between the annual peak in total lake area and modelled annual runoff across all study areas. Our results indicate that, in a future warmer climate (Meehl et al., 2007), Greenland supra-glacial lakes can be expected to form at higher altitudes and over a longer time period than is presently the case, expanding the area and time period over which connections between the ice sheet surface and base may be established (Das et al., 2008) with potential consequences for ice sheet discharge (Zwally et al., 2002). Das, S., Joughin, M., Behn, M., Howat, I., King, M., Lizarralde, D., & Bhatia, M. (2008). Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supra-glacial lake drainage. Science, 5877, 778-781. Meehl, G.A., Stocker, T.F., Collins W.D., Friedlingstein, P., Gaye, A.T., Gregory, J.M., Kitoh, A., Knutti, R., Murphy, J.M., Noda, A., Raper, S.C.B., Watterson, I.G., Weaver, A.J. & Zhao, Z.C. (2007). Global Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor

  18. Reconstruction of Hydrologic Variability at Lake Elsinore, California, During the Late-Glacial to Holocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantozzi, J. M.; Bonuso, N.; Kirby, M. E.; Zimmerman, S. R.; Hiner, C.

    2011-12-01

    A multi-proxy sedimentological study was completed on a section of a sediment core from Lake Elsinore, California, that spans the late-Glacial to Holocene transition (17,619-9,587 calendar years before present [cy BP]). The results of the study provide the first high resolution terrestrial climate record from Southern California that spans this interesting interval in Earth's climate history. The sedimentological observations and proxy results indicate that the depositional and climatic environments of Lake Elsinore changed significantly across the late-Glacial to Holocene transition. Interpretation of the results suggests that the lake was relatively deep during the last glacial period, but then became relatively shallow and less stable near the beginning of the Holocene interglacial. Interpretation of the results also suggests that the Lake Elsinore deglaciation sequence was characterized by two step-wise decreases in precipitation. Here, this two step drying trend is explained by changes in the extent of the North American ice sheet and variations in the intensity of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Together, the latter two forcings acted to modulate the average position of the circumpolar jet stream, the mean latitude of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and their combined impacts on the Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks, which determine the annual hydrologic budget of Southern California. A comparison of the Lake Elsinore deglaciation sequence with other regional paleoclimate records shows strong evidence for synchronous hydrologic change between study sites throughout southwestern North America. Additionally, a comparison of the Lake Elsinore record with the Greenland ice core record provides evidence for a coupling between changes in climate over the North Atlantic and Southern California during the late-Glacial to Holocene transition.

  19. Deeply Frozen Lakes in a Terrestrial Peri-Glacial Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, P. T.; Fritsen, C. H.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the largest lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, have largely been ignored during past limnological studies because they were thought to be frozen solid. However, recent investigations have revealed the presence of saline water bodies beneath up to 19 m of permanent ice in two of these so-called "ice block" lakes (Lake Vida and Lake House). Lakes throughout the dry valleys that have been studied in detail more typically have ice covers ranging between 3 and 5 m. The existence of saline lakes with extremely thick ice covers is atypical, even among lakes in this region, which are themselves unique aquatic systems. These "deeply ice-covered" lakes are aquatic systems on the edge of cold-termination, and they warrant study as analogs of lakes purported to have existed on the surface of Mars in the past. Several lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys were presumed in the past to be frozen solid based largely on attempts at drilling the lake ice covers. Lake Vida has been the most intriguing because it is one of the two largest (in terms of surface area) lakes in the dry valleys, and yet it apparently contained no year-round liquid water at depth. Recently a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out on Lake Vida and another purported ice block lake, Lake House. In a large central portion of Lake Vida, the survey showed attenuation of the radar signal at approximately 19 m, suggesting saline water at this depth. Because GPR radar signals are absorbed by saline water, the depth of the water body (i.e., distance from the ice bottom to sediments) could not be determined. In Lake House, a similar water body was inferred at about 12 m depth. Ice Coring and Physical Properties: Ice cores (to 14 and 15.8 in depth) extracted in 1996 from Lake Vida contained ice bubbles with unique morphologies that were atypical when compared to other vapor inclusions in 3-5 in ice covers. Most of the vapor inclusions at depths greater than about 6 m contained hoar frost

  20. Predicting outflow induced by moraine failure in glacial lakes: the Lake Palcacocha case from an uncertainty perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, D. S.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; McKinney, D. C.; Hodges, B. R.

    2014-09-01

    Moraine dam collapse is one of the causes of Glacier Lake Outburst Floods. Available models seek to predict both moraine breach formation and lake outflow. The models depend on hydraulic, erosion, and geotechnical parameters that are mostly unknown or uncertain. This paper estimates the outflow hydrograph caused by a potential collapse of the moraine dam of Lake Palcacocha in Peru and quantifies the uncertainty of the results. The overall aim is to provide a simple and robust method of calculation of the expected outflow hydrographs that is useful for risk assessment studies. To estimate the peak outflow and failure time of the hydrograph, we assessed several available empirical equations based on lake and moraine geometries; each equation has defined confidence intervals for peak flow predictions. Complete outflow hydrographs for each peak flow condition were modeled using a~hydraulic simulation model calibrated to meet the peak flows estimated with the empirical equations. Failure time and peak flow differences between the simulations and the corresponding empirical equations were used as error parameters. Along with an expected hydrograph, lower and upper bound hydrographs were calculated for Lake Palcacocha, representing the confidence interval of the results. The method has several advantages: first, it is simple and robust. Second, it evaluates the capability of empirical equations to reproduce the conditions of the lake and moraine dam. Third, this method accounts for uncertainty in the hydrographs estimations, which makes it appropriate for risk management studies.

  1. Heat transport in the Red Lake Bog, Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, J.M.; Siegel, D.I.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Glaser, P.H.; Voss, C.I.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation on the processes controlling heat transport in peat under a large bog in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. For 2 years, starting in July 1998, we recorded temperature at 12 depth intervals from 0 to 400 cm within a vertical peat profile at the crest of the bog at sub-daily intervals. We also recorded air temperature 1 m above the peat surface. We calculate a peat thermal conductivity of 0.5 W m-1 ??C-1 and model vertical heat transport through the peat using the SUTRA model. The model was calibrated to the first year of data, and then evaluated against the second year of collected heat data. The model results suggest that advective pore-water flow is not necessary to transport heat within the peat profile and most of the heat is transferred by thermal conduction alone in these waterlogged soils. In the spring season, a zero-curtain effect controls the transport of heat through shallow depths of the peat. Changes in local climate and the resulting changes in thermal transport still may cause non-linear feedbacks in methane emissions related to the generation of methane deeper within the peat profile as regional temperatures increase. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Rapid geomorphic change caused by glacial outburst floods and debris flows along Tahoma Creek, Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; Driedger, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a hazards-assessment study, we examined the nature and rate of geomorphic change caused by outburst floods and debris flows along Tahoma Creek. Mount Rainier, since 1967. Archival aerial photographs of the area proved to be a rich source of qualitative geomorphic information. On the basis of limited direct evidence and considerations of stream hydrology, we conclude that nearly all of these debris flows began as outburst floods from South Tahoma Glacier. The water floods transformed to debris flows by incorporating large masses of sediment in a 2-km-long channel reach where the stream has incised proglacial sediments and debris-rich, stagnant glacier ice. Comparison of topographic maps for 1970 and 1991 shows that the average sediment flux out of the incised reach has been about 2 to 4 × 105 m3 a-1 corresponding to an average denudation rate in the upper part of the Tahoma Creek drainage basin of about 20 to 40 mm a-1, a value exceeded only rarely in basins affected by debris flows. However, little of this sediment has yet passed out of the Tahoma Creek basin. Comparison of geomorphic change at Tahoma Creek to that in two other alpine basins affected by outburst floods suggests that debris-rich stagnant ice can be an important source of sediment for debris flows as long as floods are frequent or channel slope is great.

  3. Influence of glacial meltwater on water balance processes of two Tibetan lakes indicated by δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Itpcas

    2011-12-01

    δ18O measurements based on systematic sampling and isotopic modeling have been adopted to study the affects of glacial meltwater in two lake basins (Lakes Yamdrok-tso and Puma Yum-tso) at two different elevations on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Temporally, δ18O values in precipitation and lake water display a seasonal fluctuation in both lakes. Spatially, δ18O values in the two lake basins increase by 10% from the termini of glaciers to the lake shores, by about 1% from the lakeshores to the lake center, by 0.4% from the water surface to depth in these lakes. The obvious annual δ18O variations indicate that lake water mixes sufficiently in a short time. Model results show that glacial meltwater is an important factor on lake water balance process. Equilibrium δ18O values decrease 0.8% for Yamdrok-tso Lake and 0.6% for Puma Yum-tso Lake when contributions of glacial meltwater to these lakes shrink by 60%. δ18O ratios increase rapidly during the initial stages and take a relatively longer time to approach the equilibrium value. The modeled results also show that the surface lake water temperature has a minimal impact on this process.
    Dr. Jing Gao

  4. The Tintah-Campbell gap and implications for glacial Lake Agassiz drainage during the Younger Dryas cold interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckenridge, Andy

    2015-06-01

    Reconstructions of glacial Lake Agassiz paleogeography and drainage have been an important contribution to formulating a hypothesis in which glacial Lake Agassiz drainage to the Atlantic Ocean initiated the Younger Dryas cold interval. This study evaluates the lake level and outlet history of Lake Agassiz as recorded by strandlines visible on lidar digital elevation models from North Dakota and Minnesota. The former lake levels are warped due to glacial isostatic adjustment. Older levels have experienced more uplift and therefore have more curvature. The strandline data establish that the Moorhead lowstand of Lake Agassiz was bracketed by the strongly diverging Campbell and Tintah lake levels, which creates a vertical gap between the former lake levels. This gap exists due to a lake level drop of ˜90 m when the Laurentide Ice Sheet retreat opened a lower outlet, which must have been a northwest outlet to the Arctic Ocean. By applying an exponential decay rebound model, this event dates to 12,180 ± 480 cal yr BP, post-dating the beginning of the Younger Dryas at 12,900 cal yr BP. Eastern drainage outlets to the Atlantic Ocean through the Laurentian Great Lakes that were contemporaneous with the onset of the Younger Dryas cannot be ruled out, but if these outlets existed, their duration of occupation was short-lived and not characterized by significant drawdown events within glacial Lake Agassiz.

  5. Glacial lake deltas in New England record continuous, not delayed, postglacial rebound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, Roger LeBaron; Ridge, John Charles

    2016-05-01

    Deltas formed in Lake Hitchcock, a glacial lake that developed in the Connecticut River Valley, New England, between ∼18.3 and 12.5 ka. The heights of topset/foreset contacts of these deltas presently increase northward, linearly, at rate of ∼0.9 m/km. Others have interpreted this as indicating that isostatic rebound did not begin until after the lake drained, several kiloyears after glacial retreat began. However, (non-elastic) adjustment of Earth's lithosphere to changing loads is known to occur on time scales of years. Late-glacial shoreline features elsewhere in New England also increase in elevation with distance from the LGM margin at ∼0.9 m/km, suggesting that this is a result of fundamental properties of the crust and mantle, and independent of the history of glacier retreat. On the basis of a numerical model of flexure of the lithosphere beneath a circular load, we suggest that deflection of the lithosphere is remarkably linear in a zone 50-200 km wide between the retreating ice margin and a forebulge, and that initial rebound of this zone is spatially quite uniform for some kiloyears before differential rebound starts. Thus, lake shorelines, formed over a period of some centuries during deglaciation would, today, rise linearly northward.

  6. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic

  7. Seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Nienow, Peter; Shepherd, Andrew; Benham, Toby; Sole, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    A survey of supra-glacial lakes on the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet reveals a seasonally-driven hydrological system, culminating in widespread lake drainage in late summer. We used satellite imagery to study the evolution of 292 lakes across two sites totalling 22 000 km 2 in area. During 2001, the lakes combined area increased to 75 ± 5 km 2 by the beginning of July. Over the following 25 days, an area totalling 36 ± 3.5 km 2 drained from 216 lakes. At one study site, we used meteorological data and a positive degree day model to calculate the volume of water generated by melting in the lake catchments. Based on this estimate, the mean depth of filling lakes surveyed rose from 1.5 ± 0.7 m on 7th July to 3.9 ± 1.1 m on 1st August, in agreement with a value for one lake of 4.4 ± 0.9 m we have derived from airborne altimetry. During this 25 day period, we estimate that 38 ± 18 × 10 7 m 3 of water drained from the surface at this site, and that there was an average water flux of 1.3 ± 0.3 m 3 s - 1 passing through each lake that drained completely.

  8. The glacial/deglacial history of sedimentation in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Heil, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake, in northeastern Utah and southern Idaho, lies in a large valley formed by an active half-graben. Bear River, the largest river in the Great Basin, enters Bear Lake Valley ???15 km north of the lake. Two 4-m-long cores provide a lake sediment record extending back ???26 cal k.y. The penetrated section can be divided into a lower unit composed of quartz-rich clastic sediments and an upper unit composed largely of endogenic carbonate. Data from modern fluvial sediments provide the basis for interpreting changes in provenance of detrital material in the lake cores. Sediments from small streams draining elevated topography on the east and west sides of the lake are characterized by abundant dolomite, high magnetic susceptibility (MS) related to eolian magnetite, and low values of hard isothermal remanent magnetization (HIRM, indicative of hematite content). In contrast, sediments from the headwaters of the Bear River in the Uinta Mountains lack carbonate and have high HIRM and low MS. Sediments from lower reaches of the Bear River contain calcite but little dolomite and have low values of MS and HIRM. These contrasts in catchment properties allow interpretation of the following sequence from variations in properties of the lake sediment: (1) ca. 26 cal ka-onset of glaciation; (2) ca. 26-20 cal ka-quasicyclical, millennial-scale variations in the concentrations of hematite-rich glacial fl our derived from the Uinta Mountains, and dolomite- and magnetite-rich material derived from the local Bear Lake catchment (reflecting variations in glacial extent); (3) ca. 20-19 cal ka-maximum content of glacial fl our; (4) ca. 19-17 cal ka-constant content of Bear River sediment but declining content of glacial fl our from the Uinta Mountains; (5) ca. 17-15.5 cal ka-decline in Bear River sediment and increase in content of sediment from the local catchment; and (6) ca. 15.5-14.5 cal ka-increase in content of endogenic calcite at the expense of detrital material. The onset

  9. Regional-scale analysis of lake outburst hazards in the southwestern Pamir, Tajikistan, based on remote sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, M.; Schneider, J. F.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the hazards emanating from the sudden drainage of alpine lakes in South-Western Tajik Pamir. In the last 40 yr, several new lakes have formed in the front of retreating glacier tongues, and existing lakes have grown. Other lakes are dammed by landslide deposits or older moraines. In 2002, sudden drainage of a glacial lake in the area triggered a catastrophic debris flow. Building on existing approaches, a rating scheme was devised allowing quick, regional-scale identification of potentially hazardous lakes and possible impact areas. This approach relies on GIS, remote sensing and empirical modelling, largely based on medium-resolution international datasets. Out of the 428 lakes mapped in the area, 6 were rated very hazardous and 34 hazardous. This classification was used for the selection of lakes requiring in-depth investigation. Selected cases are presented and discussed in order to understand the potentials and limitations of the approach used. Such an understanding is essential for the appropriate application of the methodology for risk mitigation purposes.

  10. Repeated sedimentation and exposure of glacial Lake Missoula sediments: A lake-level history at Garden Gulch, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Larry N.

    2017-01-01

    Glaciolacustrine sediments record lake transgression, regression, and subaerial modification of the silty lake-bottom of glacial Lake Missoula in the Clark Fork River valley. The sequence preserved at Garden Gulch, MT documents lake-level fluctuations at >65% of its full-pool volume. Twelve sedimentary cycles fine upwards from (1) very fine-grained sandy silt to (2) silt with climbing ripples to (3) rhythmically laminated silt and some clay. The cycles are fine-grained turbidites capped locally by thin layers of angular gravel derived from local bedrock outcrops. The gravels appear to be the toes of mass wasting lobes carried onto the exposed lakebed surface during repeated lake-level lowerings. Periglacial wedges, small rotational faults, involutions, and clastic dikes deform the tops of eleven cycles. The wedges are 10-30 cm wide, penetrate 30-70 cm deep, are spaced <1 m apart, and contain vertically oriented gravel and massive to laminated sediment. Wedges split and taper in plan view. A few thin silt-filled dikes, which branch and taper downwards from wedges, are interpreted as filled frost cracks. One 10-20 cm-wide sand-filled dike protrudes upward from a sand bed; it is interpreted as a liquefaction feature consistent with a filling and draining lake. The deformed cycle tops preserve evidence of periglacial cold, subaerial exposure, seasonal frost heave, and the incipient formation of sorted polygons. The lowest five cycles are thicker and display more periglacial modification at their tops than the upper seven cycles. The Garden Gulch section may represent as few as seven and as many as twelve substantial fillings and partial to complete drainings of glacial Lake Missoula.

  11. Lake-level increasing under the climate cryoaridization conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amosov, Mikhail; Strelkov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    A lake genesis and lake-level increasing during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are the paramount issues in paleoclimatology. Investigating these problems reveals the regularities of lake development and figures out an arid territory conditions at the LGM stage. Pluvial theory is the most prevalent conception of lake formation during the LGM. This theory is based on a fact that the water bodies emerged and their level increased due to torrential rainfalls. In this study, it is paid attention to an alternative assumption of lake genesis at the LGM stage, which is called climate cryoaridization. In accordance with this hypothesis, the endorheic water basins had their level enlarged because of a simultaneous climate aridity and temperature decrease. In this research, a lake-level increasing in endorheic regions of Central Asia and South American Altiplano of the Andes is described. The lake investigation is related to its conditions during the LGM. The study also includes a lake catalogue clearly presenting the basin conditions at the LGM stage and nowadays. The data compilation partly consists of information from an earlier work of Mikhail Amosov, Lake-levels, Vegetation And Climate In Central Asia During The Last Glacial Maximum (EGU2014-3015). According to the investigation, a lake catalogue on 27 lakes showed that most of the water bodies had higher level. This feature could be mentioned for the biggest lakes of the Aral Sea, Lake Balkhash, Issyk-Kul etc. and for the small ones located in the mountains, such as Pamir, Tian-Shan and Tibet. Yet some lakes that are situated in Central Asian periphery (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) used to be lower than nowadays. Also, the lake-level increasing of Altiplano turned to be a significant feature during the LGM in accordance with the data of 5 lakes, such as Titicaca, Coipasa-Uyuni, Lejia, Miscanti and Santa-Maria. Most of the current endorheic basins at the LGM stage were filled with water due to abundant

  12. Early and late Holocene glacial fluctuations and tephrostratigraphy, Cabin Lake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zander, Paul D.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kuehn, Stephen C.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Marked changes in sediment types deposited in Cabin Lake, near Cordova, Alaska, represent environmental shifts during the early and late Holocene, including fluctuations in the terminal position of Sheridan Glacier. Cabin Lake is situated to receive meltwater during periods when the outwash plain of the advancing Sheridan Glacier had aggraded. A brief early Holocene advance from 11.2 to 11.0 cal ka is represented by glacial rock flour near the base of the sediment core. Non-glacial lake conditions were restored for about 1000 years before the water level in Cabin Lake lowered and the core site became a fen. The fen indicates drier-than-present conditions leading up to the Holocene thermal maximum. An unconformity spanning 5400 years during the mid-Holocene is overlain by peat until 1110 CE when meltwater from Sheridan Glacier returned to the basin. Three intervals of an advanced Sheridan Glacier are recorded in the Cabin Lake sediments during the late Holocene: 1110–1180, 1260–1540 and 1610–1780 CE. The sedimentary sequence also contains the first five reported tephra deposits from the Copper River delta region, and their geochemical signatures suggest that the sources are the Cook Inlet volcanoes Redoubt, Augustine and Crater Peak, and possibly Mt Churchill in the Wrangell Volcanic field.

  13. Early Holocene dune activity linked with final destruction of Glacial Lake Minong, eastern Upper Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loope, Henry M.; Loope, Walter L.; Goble, Ronald J.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Jol, Harry M.; Seong, J. C.

    2010-07-01

    The early Holocene final drainage of glacial Lake Minong is documented by 21 OSL ages on quartz sand from parabolic dunes and littoral terraces and one radiocarbon age from a lake sediment core adjacent to mapped paleoshorelines in interior eastern Upper Michigan. We employ a simple model wherein lake-level decline exposes unvegetated littoral sediment to deflation, resulting in dune building. Dunes formed subsequent to lake-level decline prior to stabilization by vegetation and provide minimum ages for lake-level decline. Optical ages range from 10.3 to 7.7 ka; 15 ages on dunes adjacent to the lowest Lake Minong shoreline suggest final water-level decline ˜ 9.1 ka. The clustering of optical ages from vertically separated dunes on both sides of the Nadoway-Gros Cap Barrier around 8.8 ka and a basal radiocarbon date behind the barrier (8120 ± 40 14C yr BP [9.1 cal ka BP]) support the hypothesis that the barrier was breached and the final lake-level drop to the Houghton Low occurred coincident with (1) high meltwater flux into the Superior basin and (2) an abrupt, negative shift in oxygen isotope values in Lake Huron.

  14. Using numerical models to place constraints on fluvial input into glacial lakes, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, P.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Stumpner, P.; Levy, R. H.; Roop, H. A.; Fitzsimons, S.; Howarth, J. D.; Gorman, A. R.; Dunbar, G.; Kettner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Located east of the main divide in the central Southern Alps, the Mackenzie Lakes; Ohau, Pukaki and Tekapo, occupy fault controlled glacial valleys and contain a high resolution sedimentary record of the last ~17 ka. These sediments potentially contain a record of climatic events and transitions, earthquakes along the Alpine Fault to the northwest, landscape response during and following deglaciation and recent human-influenced land use changes. Our study focuses on Lake Ohau, the smallest and deepest of the three lakes. We use HydroTrend, a climate-driven hydrological model, to calculate water and sediment discharge into Lake Ohau using daily timesteps over the last 60 years. The model is constrained by measured climate parameters and compared to observations from Ohau and the nearby Ahuriri catchment. Using a simple conceptual model of lake dynamics, we produced a series of simulations to examine sediment accumulation at different positions across the lake basin. We then compared these modelled accumulation records to a 5 m core collected from the distal end of the lake with compelling results. Having calibrated the models against modern fluvial and climatological data and recent sedimentary record, we ran a transient simulation from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). High precision 10Be surface exposure dating (Putnam et al. 2012) indicates that the Ohau glacier had retreated to a position ~11 km upstream of the present day head of the lake by ~17.4 ka. Basin geometry is constrained by 35 km of single channel seismic lines. Climatological boundary conditions were derived from nearby climate records including Boundary Stream and Okarito Lagoon. We explore the rate of filling the lake basin from ~17.4 ka to present. Results suggest sedimentation rates must have been higher than present day during the post-glacial retreat, pointing to higher erosion rates in the catchment prior to the Holocene. We aim to further test model results against a long core that we hope to

  15. Glacial-interglacial variations of microbial communities in permafrost and lake deposits in the Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangelsdorf, Kai; Bischoff, Juliane; Gattinger, Andreas; Wagner, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    The Artic regions are expected to be very sensitive to the currently observed climate change. When permafrost is thawing, the stored carbon becomes available again for microbial degradation, forming a potential source for the generation of carbon dioxide and methane with their positive feedback effect on the climate warming. For the prediction of future climate evolution it is, therefore, important to improve our knowledge about the microbial-driven greenhouse gas dynamics in the Siberian Arctic and their response to glacial-interglacial changes in the past. Sample material was drilled on Kurungnahk Island (Russian-German LENA expedition) located in the southern part of the Lena delta and in lake El'gygytgyn (ICDP-project) in the eastern part of Siberia. The Kurungnahk samples comprise Late Pleistocene to Holocene deposits, whereas the lake El'gygytgyn samples cover Middle to Late Pleistocene sediments. Samples were investigated applying a combined biogeochemical and microbiological approach. The methane profile of the Kurungnahk core reveals highest methane contents in the warm and wet Holocene and Late Pleistocene (LP) deposits and correlates largly to the organic carbon (TOC) contents. Archaeol concentrations, being a biomarker for past methanogenic archaea, are also high during the warm and wet Holocene and LP intervals and low during the cold and dry LP periods. This indicates that part of the methane might be produced and trapped in the past. However, biomarkers for living microorganisms (bacteria and archaea) and microbial activity measurements of methanogens point, especially, for the Holocene to a viable archaeal community, indicating a possible in-situ methane production. Furthermore, warm/wet-cold/dry climate cycles are recorded in the archaeal diversity as revealed by genetic fingerprint analysis. Although the overlying lake water buffers the temperature effect on the lake sediments, which never became permafrost, the bacterial and archaeal biomarker

  16. Regional ground-water flow modeling of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, A. S.; Warzocha, J.; Glaser, P. H.; Siegel, D. I.

    2001-03-01

    Three-dimensional ground-water modeling experiments were done to test the hypothesis that regional ground-water flow is an important component of the water budget in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands of northern Minnesota. Previous data collected from the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands suggest that regional ground-water flow discharges to these peatlands, maintaining saturation, controlling the peat pore-water chemistry, and driving ecological change. To test this hypothesis, steady-state MODFLOW models were constructed that encompassed an area of 10,160 km 2. Data used in this modeling project included surface-water and water-table elevations measured across the study area, digital elevation data, and well logs from scientific test wells and domestic water wells drilled in the study area. Numerical simulations indicate that the Itasca Moraine, located to the south of the peatland, acts as a recharge area for regional ground-water flow. Ground water recharged at the Itasca Moraine did not discharge to the Red Lake Peatlands, but rather was intercepted by the Red Lakes or adjacent rivers. Simulations suggest that ground-water flow within the peatlands consists of local-flow systems with streamlines that are less than 10 km long and that ground water from distant recharge areas does not play a prominent role in the hydrology of these peatlands. Ground-water flow reversals previously observed in the Red Lake Peatlands are either the result of interactions between local and intermediate-scale flow systems or the transient release of water stored in glacial sediments when the water-table is lowered.

  17. Glacier Melting Increases the Solute Concentrations of Himalayan Glacial Lakes.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Franco; Rogora, Michela; Balestrini, Raffaella; Lami, Andrea; Tartari, Gabriele A; Thakuri, Sudeep; Godone, Danilo; Freppaz, Michele; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-09-06

    Over the past two decades, we observed a substantial rise in ionic content that was mainly determined by the sulfate concentration at 20 remote high elevation lakes located in central southern Himalaya. At LCN9, which was monitored on an annual basis for the last 20 years, the sulfate concentrations increased over 4-fold. Among the main causes, we exclude a change in the composition of wet atmospheric deposition, as well as a possible influence of decrease in seasonal snow cover duration, which could have exposed larger basin surfaces to alteration processes. Glacier retreat likely was the main factor responsible for the observed increase of sulfate concentrations. We attribute this chemical changes mainly to the sulfide oxidation processes that occur in subglacial environments. Moreover, we observe that the weakened monsoon of the past two decades has only partially contributed to the lakes enrichment through runoff waters that are more concentrated in solutes or lowering the water table, resulting in more rock exposed to air and enhanced mineral oxidation.

  18. Detection of Supra-Glacial Lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet Using MODIS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verin, Gauthier; Picard, Ghislain; Libois, Quentin; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Roux, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    During melt season, supra-glacial lakes form on the margins of the Greenland ice sheet. Because of their size exceeding several kilometers, and their concentration, they affect surface albedo leading to an amplification of the regional melt. Furthermore, they foster hydro-fracturing that propagate liquid water to the bedrock and therefore enhance the basal lubrication which may affect the ice motion. It is known that Greenland ice sheet has strongly responded to recent global warming. As air temperature increases, melt duration and melt intensity increase and surface melt area extends further inland. These recent changes may play an important role in the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. In this context, it is essential to better monitor and understand supra-glacial spatio-temporal dynamics in order to better assess future sea level rise. In this study MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images have been used to detect supra-glacial lakes. The observation site is located on the West margin of the ice sheet, between 65°N and 70°N where the concentration of lake is maximum. The detection is performed by a fully automatic algorithm using images processing techniques introduced by Liang et al. (2012) which can be summarized in three steps: the selection of usable MODIS images, mainly we exclude images with too many clouds. The detection of lake and the automatic correction of false detections. This algorithm is capable to tag each individual lake allowing a survey of all lake geometrical properties over the entire melt season. We observed a large population of supra-glacial lakes over 14 melt seasons, from 2000 to 2013 on an extended area of 70.000 km2. In average, lakes are observed from June 9 ± 8.7 days to September 13 ± 13.9 days, and reach a maximum total area of 699 km2 ± 146 km2. As the melt season progresses, lakes form higher in altitude up to 1800 m above sea level. Results show a very strong inter-annual variability in term of

  19. Glacial geomorphology of the Pleistocene Lake Fagnano ice lobe, Tierra del Fuego, southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronato, A.; Seppälä, M.; Ponce, J. F.; Rabassa, J.

    2009-11-01

    A regional geomorphological study is presented of the southern and eastern coast of Lake Fagnano, one of the most extensive glacial areas of Tierra del Fuego Island, at the southernmost tip of South America. A palaeoglacial reconstruction is made, based on the location of erosional and depositional glacial landforms. The outlet glacier flowing eastwards from the Darwin Cordillera (Fuegian Andes, Chile) had more than 50 tributary glaciers. An alpine-type landscape, including arêtes, cirques, truncated spurs and hanging valleys developed in the western region of the present lake, whereas a piedmont-type landscape including lateral moraines, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine terraces and an ice-disintegration landscape developed in the eastern region. The glacier spread over the low ranges and lowlands through three different lobes, and was drained by four main outwash basins, directly into the Atlantic Ocean. The ice-covered area is estimated at 4000 km 2; the maximum length of the main lobe at 132 km, and the general slope at 8°. Four terminal positions of the glacier were recognized and related to the Inútil Bay and Beagle Channel glacial areas, located to the north and south, respectively. 14C dates from basal peats show that most of the area, especially the easternmost part and the southern coast, were free of ice by 12,300 years B.P. Fossil peat contained in the lower basal till deposits yield 14C dates of 31,000-48,200 years B.P., indicating that a glacial advance occurred in the area prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (ca. 25,000-23,000 cal. years B.P.).

  20. Groundwater and lake storage contributions to global mean sea level at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, K. L.; Wickert, A. D.; Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Austermann, J.; Ng, G. H. C.; He, F.

    2016-12-01

    At the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), global mean sea level was 130-135 m lower than today. Balancing this sea-level lowstand with excess land-based ice volumes has been contentious, with most ice sheet reconstructions falling short by 10 m of sea level equivalent ice volume. Models that attempt to add significant excess ice to North America or Antarctica often contradict glaciological modelling and/or glacial geological evidence. Here we investigate groundwater and lakes as an alternative water reservoir at the LGM. High pluvial lake levels and the presence of proglacial lakes at ice margins indicate the potential for enhanced LGM groundwater storage, but this may be balanced or overcome by groundwater drainage to the coast following global mean sea-level fall. We assess past groundwater levels using a global model that provides water table depth estimates at 30 arcsecond resolution. The model has already been applied to the present day and has proven successful in estimating modern groundwater depths worldwide. We use this model in combination with modelled past topography and climate to compare groundwater and lake storage between the LGM and present day. If these additional mechanisms of continental water storage can account for 10 m sea-level fall, they may help to close the LGM continental water storage budget while also satisfying geological observations and ice-physics-based models of continental ice sheets.

  1. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Rongbuk Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  2. Early Pleistocene Glacial Lake Lesley, West Branch Susquehanna River valley, central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, Joan M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Sasowsky, Ira D.

    1998-02-01

    Laurentide glaciers extended into north central Pennsylvania repeatedly during at least the last 2 million years. Early Pleistocene glaciation extended farther south into central Pennsylvania than any subsequent glaciation, reaching the West Branch Susquehanna River (WBSR) valley. Early Pleistocene ice dammed the northeast-flowing West Branch Susquehanna River at Williamsport, forming Glacial Lake Lesley, a 100-km-long proglacial lake. In this paper, we present compelling evidence for the lake and its age. Maximum lake volume (˜ 100 km 3) was controlled by the elevation of the lowest drainage divide, ˜ 340 m above sea level at Dix, Pennsylvania. Stratified deposits at McElhattan and Linden are used to reconstruct depositional environments in Glacial Lake Lesley. A sedimentary section 40 m thick at McElhattan fines upward from crossbedded sand to fine, wavy to horizontally laminated clay, consistent with lake deepening and increasing distance from the sediment source with time. At Linden, isolated cobbles, interpreted as dropstones, locally deform glacio-lacustrine sediment. We use paleomagnetism as an age correlation tool in the WBSR valley to correlate contemporaneous glaciofluvial and proglacial lacustrine sediments. Reversed remanent polarity in finely-laminated lacustrine clay and silt at McElhattan ( I = 20.4°, D = 146.7°, α95 = 17.7°) and in interbedded silt and sand at Linden ( I = 55.3°, D = 175.2°, α95 = 74.6°) probably corresponds to the latter part of the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Chron, indicating an age between ˜ 770 and ˜ 970 ka. At McElhattan, a diamicton deformed the finely laminated silt and clay by loading and partial fluidization during or soon after lake drainage. As a result, the deformed clay at McElhattan lacks discrete bedding and records a different characteristic remanent magnetism from underlying, undeformed beds. This difference indicates that the characteristic remanent magnetism is detrital. An electrical resistivity

  3. Biomarkers and Metabolic Patterns in the Sediments of Evolving Glacial Lakes as a Proxy for Planetary Lake Exploration.

    PubMed

    Parro, Víctor; Blanco, Yolanda; Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Rivas, Luis A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Echeverría, Alex; Chong-Díaz, Guillermo; Demergasso, Cecilia; Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2016-11-28

    Oligotrophic glacial lakes in the Andes Mountains serve as models to study the effects of climate change on natural biological systems. The persistent high UV regime and evolution of the lake biota due to deglaciation make Andean lake ecosystems potential analogues in the search for life on other planetary bodies. Our objective was to identify microbial biomarkers and metabolic patterns that represent time points in the evolutionary history of Andean glacial lakes, as these may be used in long-term studies as microscale indicators of climate change processes. We investigated a variety of microbial markers in shallow sediments from Laguna Negra and Lo Encañado lakes (Región Metropolitana, Chile). An on-site immunoassay-based Life Detector Chip (LDChip) revealed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria, methanogenic archaea, and exopolymeric substances from Gammaproteobacteria. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from field samples confirmed the results from the immunoassays and also revealed the presence of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Deltaproteobacteria, as well as cyanobacteria and methanogenic archaea. The complementary immunoassay and phylogenetic results indicate a rich microbial diversity with active sulfate reduction and methanogenic activities along the shoreline and in shallow sediments. Sulfate inputs from the surrounding volcanic terrains during deglaciation may explain the observed microbial biomarker and metabolic patterns, which differ with depth and between the two lakes. A switch from aerobic and heterotrophic metabolisms to anaerobic ones such as sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the shallow shores likely reflects the natural evolution of the lake sediments due to deglaciation. Hydrodynamic deposition of sediments creates compartmentalization (e.g., sediments with different structure and composition surrounded by oligotrophic water) that favors metabolic transitions. Similar phenomena would be expected to occur on other

  4. Glacial erosion of bedrock and preliminary Quaternary stratigraphy in the western Lake Erie coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Shideler, G.I. ); Stone, B.D. )

    1994-04-01

    An analysis of 120 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and onshore well records in the southwestern Lake Erie coastal zone shows a highly dissected bedrock surface. Regional subsurface data confirm extensive glacial modification of the preglacial landscape and the differential erosion of bedrock units. Areas of deep glacial scour coincide with shale and dolostone subcrop belts, in which bedrock strike direction was subparallel to glacial flow directions during early and late phases of glaciation. Locally, deep scouring also occurred over zones of fractured bedrock. In southeastern Michigan, large bedrock valleys, widened and deepened by glacial erosion, are preserved on the north side of the area of the Erie ice lobe. To the south in areas of axial flow of the Erie lobe and southerly ice flow during glacial maxima, traces of preglacial valleys have been more severely modified by glacial erosion in diverging directions. Striations in the region record three such diverging ice-flow directions of the last ice sheet. In one quarry, the position and cross-cutting erosional relationships of the three striation sets indicate their relative ages, from oldest to youngest: SSW, SW, and W. The SSW-trending set is overlain by a compact, loamy till containing abundant Canadian-shield crystalline gravel clasts. The till and the striations record the initial Late Wisconsinan ice advance into the region. The younger striation sets are overlain by the clayey, shale-rich till of the Erie lobe. Onshore, glaciolacustrine massive silty clay overlies the clayey till and fills broad troughs between areas of till at the surface. Offshore, seismic profiles reveal stratification in the clay, which is overlain by late Holocene mud. A nearby test hole through the beach west of Turtle Creek suggests a valley-fill sequence consisting of Late Wisconsinan till overlain by 5 m of organic mud deposited during the late Holocene transgression of Late Erie.

  5. Kame deltas provide evidence for a new glacial lake and suggest early glacial retreat from central Lower Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzl, Randall J.; Lepper, Kenneth; Thomas, Sarah E.; Grove, Leslie; Treiber, Emma; Farmer, Alison; Fillmore, Austin; Lee, Jordan; Dickerson, Bethany; Alme, Kayleigh

    2017-03-01

    In association with an undergraduate Honors Seminar at Michigan State University, we studied two small kame deltas in north-central Lower Michigan. These recently identified deltas provide clear evidence for a previously unknown proglacial lake (Glacial Lake Roscommon) in this large basin located in an interlobate upland. Our first goal was to document and characterize the geomorphology of these deltas. Because both deltas are tied to ice-contact ridges that mark the former position of the retreating ice margin within the lake, our second goal was to establish the age of one of the deltas, thereby constraining the timing of ice retreat in this part of Michigan, for which little information currently exists. Both deltas are composed of well-sorted fine and medium sands with little gravel, and have broad, nearly flat surfaces and comparatively steep fronts. Samples taken from the upper 1.5 m of the deltas show little spatial variation in texture, aside from a general fining toward their outer margins. Gullies on the outer margins of both deltas probably postdate the formation of the deltas proper; we suggest that they formed by runoff during a permafrost period, subsequent to lake drawdown. We named the ice lobe that once covered this area the Mackinac Lobe, because it had likely advanced into the region across the Mackinac Straits area. Five of six optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from one of the deltas had minimal scatter and were within ± 1000 years of one another, with a mean age of 23.1 ± 0.4 ka. These ages suggest that the Mackinac Lobe had started to retreat from the region considerably earlier than previously thought, even while ice was near its maximum extent in Illinois and Indiana, and the remainder of Michigan was ice-covered. This early retreat, which appears to coincide with a short-lived warm period indicated from the Greenland ice core, formed an "opening" that was at least occasionally flooded. Thick and deep, fine-textured deposits

  6. A chronology for glacial Lake Agassiz shorelines along Upham's namesake transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepper, Kenneth; Buell, Alex W.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lowell, Thomas V.

    2013-07-01

    Four traditionally recognized strandline complexes in the southern basin of glacial Lake Agassiz are the Herman, Norcross, Tintah and Campbell, whose names correspond to towns in west-central Minnesota that lie on a linear transect defined by the Great Northern railroad grade; the active corridor for commerce at the time when Warren Upham was mapping and naming the shorelines of Lake Agassiz (ca.1880-1895). Because shorelines represent static water planes, their extension around the lake margin establishes time-synchronous lake levels. Transitions between shoreline positions represent significant water-level fluctuations. However, geologic ages have never been obtained from sites near the namesake towns in the vicinity of the southern outlet. Here we report the first geologic ages for Lake Agassiz shorelines obtained at field sites along the namesake transect, and evaluate the emerging chronology in light of other paleoclimate records. Our current work from 11 sampling sites has yielded 16 independent ages. These results combined with a growing OSL age data set for Lake Agassiz's southern basin provide robust age constraints for the Herman, Norcross and Campbell strandlines with averages and standard deviations of 14.1 ± 0.3 ka, 13.6 ± 0.2 ka, and 10.5 ± 0.3 ka, respectively.

  7. Influence of glacial landform hydrology on phosphorus budgets of shallow lakes on the Boreal Plain, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, Janina M.; Ferone, Jenny-Marie; Gibbons, Zabrina; Smerdon, Brian D.; Mertens, Alexander; Mendoza, Carl A.; Petrone, Richard M.; Devito, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study of three shallow lake catchments in contrasting glacial landscapes (coarse-textured outwash, fine-textured-till hummocky moraines and glacio-lacustrine clay-till plains) demonstrated a distinct landform control on the proportion and type of surface and groundwater sources influencing total phosphorus ([P]) and total dissolved phosphorus ([DP]) concentrations, and P budgets of lakes on the Boreal Plain of the Western Boreal Forest, Alberta, Canada. Lakes located on fine-textured landforms had high [P] and [DP] (median 148 and 148 μg L-1 glacio-lacustrine plains; 99 and 63 μg L-1 moraine, respectively) linked to shallow groundwater loadings from near-surface peat with high [P] from adjacent wetlands. In contrast, the lowest lake [P] and [DP] (median 50 and 11 μg L-1, respectively) occurred on the coarse-textured landform, reflecting greater inputs of deep mineral-groundwater with low [P] from quartz-rich substrates. Annual lake P budgets reflected lake connectivity to the surrounding landform and relative contributions of P by surface versus groundwater. They also reflected distinct scales of groundwater (larger-scale versus short, shallow-flow paths) with differing [P] between landform types and occurrence of internal biogeochemical P cycling within landforms. A regional lake survey reflected trends from the catchment-scale, linking landform type to potential P sources as well as topographic position to potential trophic status across the Boreal Plain. Together, the results provide a conceptual framework for the scale of interactions between lakes and surrounding source waters influencing P loadings in differing hydrogeological landscapes, important to management strategies and predicting impacts of land-use disturbances on productivity of Boreal Plain lakes.

  8. Ages for the Big Stone Moraine and the oldest beaches of glacial Lake Agassiz: Implications for deglaciation chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepper, Kenneth; Fisher, Timothy G.; Hajdas, Irka; Lowell, Thomas V.

    2007-07-01

    Glacial Lake Agassiz has been implicated as the trigger for numerous episodes of abrupt climate change at the close of the last ice age, yet the beginning age of the lake has never been determined. Here we report the first numerical age data on the Big Stone Moraine and the oldest beaches of glacial Lake Agassiz. Organic remains from lakes, bogs, and channels distal to, and inset to, the Big Stone Moraine require that glacial activity at this moraine ceased prior to 12,000 14C yr B.P. (13,950 cal [calendar] yr). A site near New Effington, South Dakota (United States), implies full glacial recession north of the topographic divide prior to 11,810 14C yr B.P. (13,670 cal yr), synchronous with the beginning of glacial Lake Agassiz. Lake Agassiz shorelines inset to the moraine yield optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from 14,200-12,600 yr cal. Lower strandlines are younger, but the similarity of ages suggests that initial lake lowering was faster than OSL ages can currently resolve. Nevertheless, the OSL ages represent the first numerical age assignments for the Herman, Norcross, and Upham beach ridges, setting the stage for future numerical age assignments within the Lake Agassiz basin. These two dating methods yield strongly consistent results within stated uncertainties. The age of the Big Stone Moraine implies an interval of rapid retreat for the Des Moines lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the Bölling-Alleröd warm interval. The overlapping ages for the uppermost beach levels and abandonment of the highest Lake Agassiz spillway indicate a rapidly evolving lake until at least 13,500 yr cal.

  9. A novel phylogenetic clade of picocyanobacteria from the Mazurian lakes (Poland) reflects the early ontogeny of glacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Jasser, Iwona; Królicka, Adriana; Karnkowska-Ishikawa, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The community of picocyanobacteria inhabiting the Great Mazurian Lakes system (comprising lakes ranging from mesotrophic to hypertrophic) is dominated by phycoerythrin-rich cells, which outnumber phycocyanin-rich cells, even in hypertrophic lakes. The genetic diversity and phylogeny of 43 strains of picocyanobacteria isolated from four Mazurian lakes were studied by analyzing the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and cpcBA-IGS operon. Phylogenetic analyses assigned some of the strains to several previously described clusters (Groups A, B, C, E and I) and revealed the existence of a novel clade, Group M (Mazurian), which exhibited a low level of similarity to the other clusters. Both phycocyanin and phycoerythrin picocyanobacteria were assigned to this clade based on an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The cpcBA sequence analysis assigned only phycocyanin strains to Group M, whereas the phycoerythrin strains from the M ribogroup were assigned to Groups B and E. We hypothesize that Group M originally contained only phycocyanin picocyanobacteria. The phycoerythrin found in strains belonging to ribogroup M seems to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer as an adaptation to the changing environment early in the ontogeny of these glacial lakes.

  10. Cold-active hydrolases producing bacteria from two different sub-glacial Himalayan lakes.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Harmesh; Babu, Bandamaravuri Kishore; Singh, Surendra; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

    2013-08-01

    Microorganisms, native to the cold environments have successfully acclimatized their physiological, metabolic, and biological features, exhibiting uniqueness in their enzymes, proteins, and membrane structures. These cold-active enzymes have immense biotechnological potential. The diversity of culturable bacteria in two different water lakes (the sub-glacial freshwater and the brackish) of Himalayas was analyzed using SYBR green staining and cultural methods. A total of 140 bacteria were isolated and were grouped as psychrophiles, psychrotrophs, and psychrotolerant organisms, based on their optimal temperature for growth. The amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes facilitated the grouping of these isolates into 96 genotypes at ≥85% polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the bacterial strains from both lakes belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (α, β, and γ) or Actinobacteria. Screening of the germplasm for the activity of different cold-active hydrolases such as protease, amylase, xylanase, and cellulase, revealed that about 16 isolates were positive, and exhibiting a wide range of stability at various temperature and pH. Our results suggest that the distinctly different ecosystems of sub-glacial freshwater and brackish water lakes have diverse groups of bacteria, which can be an excellent source of extracellular hydrolases with a wide range of thermal stability. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Microbial community structure in moraine lakes and glacial meltwaters, Mount Everest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqin; Yao, Tandong; Jiao, Nianzhi; Kang, Shichang; Zeng, Yonghui; Huang, Sijun

    2006-12-01

    The bacterial diversity and abundance in two moraine lakes and two glacial meltwaters (5140, 5152, 5800 and 6350 m above sea level, respectively) in the remote Mount Everest region were examined through 16S rRNA gene clone library and flow cytometry approaches. In total, 247 clones were screened by RFLP and 60 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, belonging to the following groups: Proteobacteria (8% alpha subdivision, 21% beta subdivision, and 1% gamma subdivision), Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (CFB) (54%), Actinobacteria (4%), Planctomycetes (2%), Verrucomicrobia (2%), Fibrobacteres (1%) and Eukaryotic chroloplast (3%), respectively. The high dominance of CFB distinguished the Mount Everest waters from other mountain lakes. The highest bacterial abundance and diversity occurred in the open moraine lake at 5152 m, and the lowest in the glacial meltwater at 6350 m. Low temperature at high altitude is considered to be critical for component dominancy. At the same altitude, nutrient availability plays a role in regulating population structure. Our results also show that the bacteria in Mount Everest may be derived from different sources.

  12. Basal ice flow regime influenced by glacial lake formation in Rhonegletscher, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, D.; Tsutaki, S.; Sugiyama, S.

    2010-12-01

    After the retreat of glacier terminus over a bedrock bump, a glacial lake has formed in front of Rhonegletscher, Switzerland. It is suspected that ice flow regime is now significantly influenced by the lake water. To investigate the impact of lake formation on glacier dynamics, we carried out surface and borehole observations in the terminus region of Rhonegletscher. In 2008 and 2009 summer seasons, we drilled more than 20 boreholes to measure borehole deformation by repeated inclinometry. Ice surface speed was measured by surveying stakes installed nearby the boreholes. We used a borehole televiewer to measure basal sliding speed by tracking stones and markers at the bottom of the boreholes. We also measured basal sediment layer thickness by hammering a penetrometer at the bottom of the boreholes. Our measurements showed clear decrease in the ice deformation rate near the lake (Fig. 1). Ice deformation accounted for 60-80% in the upper part of our study site (e.g. boreholes 1 and 5), whereas it is less than 10% near the lake (e.g. boreholes 7, 10 and 11). This result suggests that the basal ice flow near the lake is enhanced by the lake water. According to the basal sliding speed measurement in borehole 2, sliding accounted for less than 10% of basal flow speed from 2 to 31 August 2009. Deformation of a subglacial sediment layer is thus important in this region. The penetrometer measurement confirmed that the study site is underlain by a subglacial sediment layer whose thickness was in a range of 0-70 m. Fig.1 Terminus of Rhonegletscher and proglacial lakes indicated by the shaded areas. The columns show ice surface and deformation speeds measured at each borehole site from 9 July to 5 September in 2009. Ice deformation speed was negligibly small at boreholes 7, 10, and 11. Surface contour spacing is 20 m.

  13. Asynchronous ice lobe retreat and glacial Lake Bascom: Deglaciation of the Hoosic and Vermont valleys, southwestern Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Small, E.; Desimone, D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Deglaciation of the Hoosic River drainage basin in southwestern Vermont was more complex than previously described. Detailed surficial mapping, stratigraphic relationships, and terrace levels/delta elevations reveal new details in the chronology of glacial Lake Bascom: (1) a pre-Wisconsinan proglacial lake was present in a similar position to Lake Bascom as ice advanced: (2) the northern margin of 275m (900 ft) glacial Lake Bascom extended 10 km up the Vermont Valley; (3) the 215m (705 ft) Bascom level was stable and long lived; (4) intermediate water planes existed between 215m and 190m (625 ft) levels; and (5) a separate ice tongue existed in Shaftsbury Hollow damming a small glacial lake, here named glacial Lake Emmons. This information is used to correlate ice margins to different lake levels. Distance of ice margin retreat during a lake level can be measured. Lake levels are then used as control points on a Lake Bascom relative time line to compare rate of retreat of different ice tongues. Correlation of ice margins to Bascom levels indicates ice retreat was asynchronous between nearby tongues in southwestern Vermont. The Vermont Valley ice tongue retreated between two and four times faster than the Hoosic Valley tongue during the Bascom 275m level. Rate of retreat of the Vermont Valley tongue slowed to one-half of the Hoosic tongue during the 215m--190m lake levels. Factors responsible for varying rates of retreat are subglacial bedrock gradient, proximity to the Hudson-Champlain lobe, and the presence of absence of a calving margins. Asynchronous retreat produced splayed ice margins in southwestern Vermont. Findings from this study do not support the model of parallel, synchronous retreat proposed by many workers for this region.

  14. Lake-levels, vegetation and climate in Central Asia during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amosov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Central Asian region is bounded in the east corner of the Greater Khingan Range and the Loess Plateau, and to the west - the Caspian Sea. This representation of region boundaries is based on classical works of A.Humboldt and V.Obruchev. Three typical features of Central Asia nature are: climate aridity, extensive inland drainage basins with numerous lakes and mountain systems with developed glaciation. Nowadays the extensive data is accumulated about lake-levels during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Central Asia. Data compilation on 20 depressions, where lakes exist now or where they existed during LGM, shows that most of them had usually higher lake-level than at present time. This regularity could be mentioned for the biggest lakes (the Aral Sea, the Balkhash, the Ysyk-Kol etc.) and for small ones that located in the mountains (Tien Shan, Pamir and Tibet). All of these lake basins get the precipitation due to westerlies. On the other hand lakes, which are located in region's east rimland (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) and get the precipitation due to summer East Asian monsoons, do not comply with the proposed regularity. During LGM these lake-levels were lower than nowadays. Another exception is Lake Manas, its lake-level was also lowered. Lake Manas is situated at the bottom of Junggar Basin. There are many small rivers, which come from the ranges and suffer the violent fluctuation in the position of its lower channel. It is possible to assume that some of its runoff did not get to Lake Manas during LGM. Mentioned facts suggest that levels of the most Central Asian lakes were higher during LGM comparing to their current situation. However, at that period vegetation was more xerophytic than now. Pollen data confirm this information for Tibet, Pamir and Tien Shan. Climate aridization of Central Asia can be proved by data about the intensity of loess accumulation during LGM. This evidence received for the east part of region (the Loess Plateau) and

  15. New exposure ages for the Last Glacial Cycle in the Sanabria Lake region (northwestern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María Jose; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2013-04-01

    The Sanabria Lake region is located in the Trevinca Massif, a mid-latitude mountain area up to 2128 m asl in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (42oN 6oW). An ice cap glaciation took place during the Last Glacial Cycle in this massif, with an equilibrium line altitude of 1687 m for the Tera glacial outlet at its local maximum (Cowton et al., 2009). A well preserved glacial sequence occurs on an area of 45 km2 around the present Sanabria Lake (1000 m asl) and is composed by lateral and end moraines in close relationship with glaciolacustrine deposits. This sequence shows the ice snout oscillations of the former Tera glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle and offers a good opportunity to compare radiocarbon and OSL- based chronological models with new cosmogenic isotope dates. The new dataset of 10Be exposure ages presented here for the Sanabria Lake moraines is based on measurements conducted on 23 boulders and is compared with previous radiocarbon and OSL data conducted on ice related deposits (Pérez-Alberti et al., 2011; Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2011). Our results are coherent with the available deglaciation radiocarbon chronology, and support a last deglaciation origin for the whole set of end moraines that are downstream the Sanabria Lake (19.2 - 15.7 10Be ka). Discrepancies between results of the different dating methods concern the timing of the local glacial maximum, with the cosmogenic exposure method always yielding the youngest minimum ages. As proposed to explain similar observations made elsewhere (Palacios et al., 2012), reconciling the ages from different dating methods would imply the occurrence of two glacial advances close enough in extent to generate an overlapping polygenic moraine. Cowton, T., Hughes, P.D., Gibbard, P.L., 2009. Palaeoglaciation of Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, northwest Spain. Geomorphology 108, 282-291. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Rico, M.T., Valero-Garcés, B

  16. Two episodes of meltwater influx from glacial Lake Agassiz into the Lake Michigan basin and their climatic contrasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Keigwin, L.D.; Forester, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Two episodes of meltwater influx from glacial Lake Agassiz are recorded as prominent sedimentologic, isotopic, magnetic, and faunal signatures in southern Lake Michigan profundal sediments. As a tributary to the main path of eastward Lake Agassiz flow, southern Lake Michigan recorded only the largest, catastrophic discharges. The distinctive Wilmette Bed, a massive gray mud that interrrupts laminated red glaciolacustrine clays, marks the first episode, which occurred near the beginning of the Younger Dryas cooling events. The associated discharge may have played a role in the inception or severity of the Younger Dryas event. An oxygen isotope excursion in biogenic carbonate and changes in ostracode assemblages mark the second episode, which appears to have had at least two pulses, dated by accelerator mass spectrometer 14C ages on biogenic carbonate at about 8.9 and 8.6 ka. The second episode occurred during the early Holocene peak in global meltwater discharge and apparently had little widespread climatic or oceanographic effect. The contrast between the effects associated with these two episodes of meltwater discharge emphasizes the complexity of the ice sheet-ocean-climate system. -Authors

  17. Reconstructing the lake-level history of former glacial lakes through the study of relict wave-cut terraces: the case of Lake Ojibway (eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Martin; Veillette, Jean; Daubois, Virginie

    2014-05-01

    The reconstruction of the history of former glacial lakes is commonly based on the study of strandlines that generally consist of boulder ridges, sandy beaches and other near-shore deposits. This approach, however, is limited in some regions where the surficial geology consists of thick accumulation of fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments that mask most deglacial landforms. This situation is particularly relevant to the study of Lake Ojibway, a large proglacial lake that developed in northern Ontario and Quebec following the retreat of the southern Laurentide ice sheet margin during the last deglaciation. The history of Ojibway lake levels remains poorly known, mainly due to the fact that this lake occupied a deep and featureless basin that favored the sedimentation of thick sequences of rhythmites and prevented the formation of well-developed strandlines. Nonetheless, detailed mapping revealed a complex sequence of discontinuous small-scale cliffs that are scattered over the flat-lying Ojibway clay plain. These terrace-like features range in size from 4 to 7 m in height and can be followed for 10 to 100's of meters. These small-scale geomorphic features are interpreted to represent raised shorelines that were cut into glaciolacustrine sediments by lakeshore erosional processes (i.e., wave action). These so-called wave-cut scarps (WCS) occur at elevations ranging from 3 to 30 m above the present level of Lake Abitibi (267 m), one of the lowest landmarks in the area. Here we evaluate the feasibility of using this type of relict shorelines to constrain the evolution of Ojibway lake levels. For this purpose, a series of WCS were measured along four transects of about 40 km in length in the Lake Abitibi region. The absolute elevation of 154 WCS was determined with a Digital Video Plotter software package using 1:15K air-photos, coupled with precise measurements of control points, which were measured with a high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System tied up to

  18. The calcium isotope evolution of Lake Lisan, the Dead Sea glacial precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, H. J.; Turchyn, A. V.; Wong, K.; Torfstein, A.

    2016-12-01

    Calcium is a stoichiometric component of carbonate minerals whose calcium isotopic composition reflects changes in the calcium isotope composition of the water from which it precipitates as well as the calcium isotope fractionation factor during precipitation. The lacustrine deposits of the last glacial Dead Sea (Lisan Formation) are dominated by carbonate minerals (aragonite) that record the geochemical history of the lake. The sediment sequence comprises alternating laminae of aragonite and clay-rich marls, interspersed with primary gypsum beds and disseminated secondary gypsum crystals. The aragonite precipitated annually during high lake stands associated with wet periods, while the primary gypsum precipitated during low lake conditions (arid periods). We report the calcium isotopic composition (δ44Ca in ‰ relative to bulk silicate earth) of primary aragonite laminae, primary gypsum and secondary gypsum at 1-5kyr resolution throughout the Lisan Formation sampled at the Masada section (70 - 14.5 ka). The δ44Ca of the primary gypsum averages +0.29‰, and displays smaller temporal variations than the aragonite, which averages -0.35‰ but ranges between +0.18‰ and -0.68‰. The aragonite δ44Ca changes temporally in sync with the previously reconstructed lake level suggesting the aragonite δ44Ca reflects changes in the lake calcium balance during lake level changes. The secondary gypsum composition (-0.3‰) corresponds to coeval aragonite samples. For the secondary gypsum to have a similar δ44Ca to the aragonite it is likely that the calcium derived from the aragonite in a near quantitative fashion through recrystallization of the aragonite to gypsum. A numerical box model is used to explore the effect of changing lake water levels on the calcium isotope composition of the aragonite and gypsum over the time interval studied.

  19. Lake Qinghai sediment geochemistry linked to hydroclimate variability since the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhangdong; An, Zhisheng; Yu, Jimin; Li, Fuchun; Zhang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Geochemistry of basin sediments from semi-arid regions is valuable to understand past hydroclimatic changes. Here, we investigate the links of sedimentary geochemistry (Rb, Sr, Ca/Zr, TOC, and %CaCO3), carbonate mineralogy and ostracod shell δ18O of Lake Qinghai, a basin proximal to major dust production centers at mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, to changes in depositional conditions and hydroclimate during the past 32 ka. Surface lacustrine sediments are characterized by low-Rb, high-Sr, low-Rb/Sr, high-%CaCO3 and high-Ca/Zr values, in contrast to the chemical compositions of eolian loess (high-Rb, low-Sr, high-Rb/Sr, low-%CaCO3, and low-Ca/Zr). A direct comparison of soluble Ca and Sr in two short cores with instrumental water discharge data suggests that lacustrine precipitates in Lake Qinghai are dominated by authigenic aragonite formed under Ca2+-limited water conditions, and that the accumulation rate of aragonite dominantly depends on solute fluxes into the lake during the rainy seasons (late May to September). Our high-resolution down-core records show that sediments during the last glacial (∼32-19.8 ka) had high-Rb, low-Sr, low-%CaCO3, and low-Ca/Zr, indicating eolian dust (loess) accumulation in a desiccated basin under dry glacial conditions, further supported by grain size and pollen results. This type of sedimentation was maintained during the last deglacial (∼19.8-11.5 ka), but interrupted by episodic lacustrine precipitates with high-Sr, high-%CaCO3, high-Ca/Zr, and low-Rb. At ∼11.5 ka, sedimentary Rb/Sr, Ca/Zr, %CaCO3 and TOC show dramatic and permanent changes, implying an abrupt shift in the atmospheric circulation at the onset of the Holocene in the Lake Qinghai region. Lacustrine precipitates have persisted throughout the Holocene with a maximum during the early to mid-Holocene (∼10.5-8.0 ka). Since ∼8.0 ka, the gradual and significant decreases in aragonite and Sr accumulations in tandem with increasing dust deposit and

  20. Impacts of post-glacial lake drainage events and revised chronology of the Champlain Sea episode 13-9 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P.L.; Brachfeld, S.; Manley, T.O.; Willard, D.A.; Guilbault, J.-P.; Rayburn, J.A.; Thunell, R.; Berke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Lithologic, CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) sonar, paleomagnetic, stable isotopic and micropaleontological analyses of sediment cores from Lake Champlain (New York, Vermont) were used to determine the age of the post-glacial Champlain Sea marine episode, the timing of salinity changes and their relationship to freshwater discharge from mid-continent glacial lakes. Calibrated radiocarbon ages on plant material provide an improved post-glacial chronology overcoming problems from shell ages caused by carbon reservoir effects up to 1500 yr. The final drainage of glacial Lake Vermont and the inception of marine conditions occurred ∼ 13.1–12.8 ka (kiloannum, calendar years) and a sharp decrease in Champlain Sea salinity from ∼ 25 to 7–8 psu (practical salinity units) occurred approximately 11.4–11.2 ka. Reduced salinity was most likely caused by rapid freshwater inflow eastward from glacial Lake Algonquin into the Champlain Basin. The timing of inferred freshwater event coincides with the widespread climatic cooling called the Preboreal Oscillation.

  1. A review of various factors influencing the stable carbon isotope ratio of organic lake sediments by the change from glacial to post-glacial environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Håkansson, Sören

    A survey is made of various factors influencing the {13C}/{12C} ratio of the organic component in lake sediments, focusing on the behaviour at the change from glacial to post-glacial environmental conditions. Increase in the 13C content of the organic sediment is caused by increase in temperature and the corresponding decrease of the supply of molecular CO 2 in the water of the lakes. An increase in the rate of organic production in the lakes may also, perhaps, cause a corresponding 13C increase. An increase of the fermentation of organic mud in the lakes may also have an effect in the same direction. Decrease in the 13C content of the organic sediment is caused by the change of the relative amounts of production of plankton and submersed macrophytes in the lakes from mainly submersed macrophytes to mainly plankton. A decrease towards almost complete absence of bicarbonate and CO 2 originating from carbonate rocks will also lead to a 13C decrease in the organic sediments. The same effect has the change of the terrestrial vegetation cover from almost complete absence to complete cover. A possible decrease of the 13C content in the atmospheric CO 2 has an effect in the same direction.

  2. Last glacial maximum and Holocene lake levels of Owens Lake, eastern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, S.N.; Burke, R.M.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Jayko, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Stratigraphic investigations of fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine sediments exposed in stream cuts, quarry walls, and deep trenches east of the Sierra Nevada in Owens Valley near Lone Pine, California have enabled the reconstruction of pluvial Owens Lake level oscillations. Age control for these sediments is from 22 radiocarbon (14C) dates and the identification and stratigraphic correlation of a tephra, which when plotted as a function of age versus altitude, define numerous oscillations in the level of pluvial Owens Lake during the latest Pleistocene and early Holocene. We have constructed a lake-level altitude curve for the time interval ???27,000 cal yr BP to present that is based on the integration of this new stratigraphic analysis with published surface stratigraphic data and subsurface core data. Pluvial Owens Lake regressed from its latest Pleistocene highstands from ???27,000 to ???15,300 cal yr BP, as recorded by ???15 m of down cutting of the sill from the altitudes of ???1160 to 1145 m. By ???11,600 cal yr BP, the lake had dropped ???45 m from the 1145 m sill. This lowstand was followed by an early Holocene transgression that attained a highstand near 1135 m before dropping to 1120 m at 7860-7650 cal yr BP that had not been recognized in earlier studies. The lake then lowered another ???30 m to shallow and near desiccation levels between ???6850 and 4300 cal yr BP. Fluvial cut-and-fill relations north of Lone Pine and well-preserved shoreline features at ???1108 m indicate a minor lake-level rise after 4300 cal yr BP, followed by alkaline and shallow conditions during the latest Holocene. The new latest Quaternary lake-level record of pluvial Owens Lake offers insight to the hydrologic balance along the east side of the southern Sierra Nevada and will assist regional paleoclimatic models for the western Basin and Range. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipid biomarkers in Holocene and glacial sediments from ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtvoeth, J.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.; Wolff, G. A.

    2010-06-01

    Organic matter preserved in Lake Ohrid sediments originates from aquatic and terrestrial sources. Its variable composition reflects climate-controlled changes in the lake basin's hydrology and related organic matter export, i.e. changes in primary productivity, terrestrial plant matter input and soil erosion. Here, we present first results from lipid biomarker investigations of Lake Ohrid sediments from two near-shore settings: Site Lz1120 near the southern shore, with flat lands nearby and probably influenced by river discharge, and site Co1202 which is close to the steep eastern slopes. Variable proportions of terrestrial n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols as well as compositional changes of ω-hydroxy acids document differences in soil organic matter supply between the sites and during different climate stages (glacial, Holocene, 8.2 ka cooling event). Changes in the vegetation cover are suggested by changes in the dominant chain length of terrestrial n-alkanols. Effective microbial degradation of labile organic matter and in situ contribution of organic matter derived from the microbes themselves are both evident in the sediments. We found evidence for anoxic conditions within the photic zone by detecting epicholestanol from sulphur-oxidising phototrophic bacteria and for the influence of an early human community from the occurrence of coprostanol, a biomarker for human and cattle faeces, in an early Holocene sample. This study illustrates the potential of lipid biomarkers for future environmental reconstructions using one of Europe's oldest continental climate archives, Lake Ohrid.

  4. Effects of catastrophic draining of Wisconsinian glacial lakes on the continental shelf; an example from Block Island Sound, RI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotsko, S.; Driscoll, N. W.

    2013-12-01

    After the last glacial maximum (~21 kya) runoff from the Laurentide ice sheet was trapped behind terminal moraines, creating large glacial lakes along the New York-southern New England coast. These lakes drained catastrophically from east to west, with Lake Block Island Sound (occupying current Block Island Sound, RI; BIS) draining ~ 16 kya. Glacial Lake Connecticut, located in current Long Island Sound just south of BIS, drained through Block Island Sound approximately 500 years later. This catastrophic draining created large, 100-meter deep depressions on the shelf as waters flowed through a low in the moraine called ';The Race'. These depressions have remained open through the transgression, with exposure to swift modern tidal currents in the region. In 1999, the two easternmost, more circular features were mapped using high-resolution seismic CHIRP data. These data show several geologic units, including bedrock, glacial lake varved deposits, and modern sediment. The modern sediment can be seen prograding towards the eastern depression, but is hindered by a local topographic high, preventing the depression from being filled. We postulate that the depressions were not filled in with sediment during the transgression because they were filled with ice and are now drowned kettle holes. Another possibility is the transgression across the shelf was too rapid for sediment to fill in such large depressions.

  5. Eastward routing of glacial Lake Agassiz runoff caused the Younger Dryas cold event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydet, D.; Carlson, A. E.; Teller, J. T.; Breckenridge, A. J.; Barth, A. M.; Ullman, D. J.; Sinclair, G.; Milne, G. A.; Caffee, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD, 12.9-11.7 ka) was a return to cold conditions in parts of the North Hemisphere during the last deglaciation. The YD was originally hypothesized to be caused by routing of glacial Lake Agassiz basin runoff from the Gulf of Mexico to the North Atlantic due to the opening of the Eastern Outlets of Lake Agassiz from Laurentide ice-sheet (LIS) retreat out of Lake Superior. This runoff routing would have caused a reduction in Atlantic Meriodional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) strength and the YD. Recent arguments for the cause of the YD favor northward routing of Lake Agassiz runoff to the Arctic Ocean (Northern Outlet) based on minimum-limiting radiocarbon dates from the Eastern Outlets that could indicate that these Outlets were not ice-free at the start of YD. Here we present new cosmogenic surface exposure ages, utilizing beryllium-10 isotopes, from the Eastern Outlets that show the area was ice-free at the YD onset. We date opening of the main Eastern Outlet at 13.0±0.3 ka, concurrent withincreased salinity in the Gulf of Mexico, and decreased salinity in the lower Great Lakes, St. Lawrence lowlands and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Salinity records from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and isostatic rebound modeling suggest Eastern Outlet abandonment 12.2 ka with northward routing of runoff until the end of the YD. Our results confirm that eastward routing of Lake Agassiz runoff to the North Atlantic caused the YD while later northward routing sustained the cold event.

  6. Ice-walled-lake plains: Implications for the origin of hummocky glacial topography in middle North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, L.; Attig, J.W.; Ham, N.R.; Johnson, M.D.; Jennings, C.E.; Syverson, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    Ice-walled-lake plains are prominent in many areas of hummocky-till topography left behind as the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted from middle North America. The formation of the hummocky-till topography has been explained by: (1) erosion by subglacial floods; (2) squeezing of subglacial till up into holes in stagnant glacial ice; or (3) slumping of supraglacial till. The geomorphology and stratigraphy of ice-walled-lake plains provide evidence that neither the lake plains nor the adjacent hummocks are of subglacial origin. These flat lake plains, up to a few kilometers in diameter, are perched as much as a few tens of meters above surrounding depressions. They typically are underlain by laminated, fine-grained suspended-load lake sediment. Many ice-walled-lake plains are surrounded by a low rim ridge of coarser-grained shore sediment or by a steeper rim ridge of debris that slumped off the surrounding ice slopes. The ice-walled lakes persisted for hundreds to thousands of years following glacial stagnation. Shells of aquatic molluscs from several deposits of ice-walled-lake sediment in south-central North Dakota have been dated from about 13 500 to 10 500??B.P. (calibrated radiocarbon ages), indicating a climate only slightly cooler than present. This is confirmed by recent palaeoecological studies in nearby non-glacial sites. To survive so long, the stagnant glacial ice had to be well-insulated by a thick cover of supraglacial sediment, and the associated till hummocks must be composed primarily of collapsed supraglacial till. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of geophysical modeling of glacio-isostasy in paleohydrological reconstructions of the glacial Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.A.; Ehlers, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The volume and chronology of late-glacial and postglacial lakes of the Great Lakes region were controlled by the elevation of their outlets which moved vertically relative to the geoid because of glacial isostasy. The shorelines of these lakes and their drainages are now tilted and deformed so that correlation of these discontinuous features usually requires an estimate of the amount of vertical movement throughout the region. The authors approach is to use a computer model of a spherical viscoelastic and self-gravitating earth to simulate earth deformation as the Laurentide ice sheet advanced into its glacial maximum and subsequently retreated. Because neither the earth's viscosity structure nor the ice sheet thickness are well known, they have used a range of likely ice/earth models each resulting in predicted shoreline deformation that can be compared directly to observations. Results indicate that many of the shorelines as well as present rates of tilt determined from lake-level gauges can be understood through the modeling. The chronology of the various lakes is also explained through predictions of the time-dependent changes in the elevation of the various outlets relative to each other. In contrast to common interpretations none of their results indicate that the southern part of the Great Lakes region is now or ever has been geodynamically stable''.

  8. Fingerprinting of glacial silt in lake sediments yields continuous records of alpine glaciation (35–15 ka), western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Colman, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprinting glacial silt in last glacial-age sediments from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) and Bear Lake (BL) provides continuous radiocarbon-dated records of glaciation for the southeastern Cascade Range and northwestern Uinta Mountains, respectively. Comparing of these records to cosmogenic exposure ages from moraines suggests that variations in glacial flour largely reflect glacial extent. The two areas are at similar latitudes and yield similar records of glacial growth and recession, even though UKL lies less than 200 km from the ocean and BL is in the continental interior. As sea level began to fall prior to the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), existing glaciers in the UKL area expanded. Near the beginning of the global LGM (26.5 ka), the BL record indicates onset of glaciation and UKL-area glaciers underwent further expansion. Both records indicate that local glaciers reached their maximum extents near the end of the global LGM, remained near their maxima for ~1000 yr, and underwent two stages of retreat separated by a short period of expansion.

  9. Late glacial and Holocene sedimentary environments of Quesnel Lake, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Robert; Desloges, Joseph R.

    2012-12-01

    At 512 m Quesnel Lake is the third deepest in North America and at 100 km long its drainage basin spans from the arid interior plateau to the high mountains of the eastern Cordillera where small glaciers are a significant source of sediment. In most of the lake sediment is 0 to 40 m thick, reaching a maximum of just over 100 m thick near the junction of the three arms. Cores from three locations in the lake provide evidence that the entire Holocene record is contained in the upper 4 to 6 m of the sedimentary record where rates of accumulation have been constant or have decreased slowly. The highest rates (0.35 to 0.72 mm/a) occur near points of inflow, while the lowest rate (0.22 mm/a) occurs in a sheltered environment with limited inflow, and significant hypolimnic circulation which may flush water and suspended sediment from the water column. Late Pleistocene sediment beneath has a similar acoustic signature to the cored Holocene record above, suggesting that the sedimentary processes governing its deposition were not greatly different than in the present lake but that extensive glacial and paraglacial sources contributed to a significantly higher rate of accumulation. Mazama ash analyzed from two locations near points of inflow has an age of 7576 ± 60 cal. BP according to our chronology. Vivianite, which is uncommon in lakes of the Cordillera, occurs in the middle of the cores mainly associated with macroscopic wood fragments and indicates reducing conditions within the sediment.

  10. Late-Post-Glacial Tilt of the Lake Ladoga - Gulf of Finland Region and Rheology Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Amantova, Marina; Fjeldskaar, Willy

    2017-04-01

    Numerous Earth rheology models attempt to explain features of late- and post-glacial isostatic adjustment of Fennoscandia. An area of specific interest is the peripheral areas to the former ice sheet. We used geological-geomorphological observations of relevant elements of the Lake Ladoga - Eastern Gulf of Finland for verification of our modeling studies. New revised glaciation- deglaciation were tested together with thin ice model scenario, with only 10-11 000 years total last ice-age duration on largest highs. On this basis we expect an uplift pattern which differ from what is generally usually assumed, with more distinct northern trend eastward from the Ladoga basin, and subsidence in the Lake Onega region. Hydro-isostasy (HI) was a very noticeable factor in the post-glacial adjustment, both in local and regional scale. The local one is connected with water load changes of the Baltic-Ladoga system. Its details are extremely important for the verification of Earth rheology parameters. Gulf of Finland and Ladoga regions have probably experienced several dramatic water level changes, and expected HI pattern was sophisticated. In the modeling we have incorporated drops of large local ice lakes. Another one due to ice sheet retreat in Sweden probably happened 13000 cal. BP, with smaller influence due to posterior readvance and Baltic Ice Lake water rise untill the final drop at 11600 cal. BP. The minimum water level in the region from the model culminated 10800 cal. BP, with expected extensive dry land areas in south-eastern parts of the basin. Ancyllus Lake transgression could have two peaks, with another deep level fall in both separated basins at culmination of Baltic Ancyllus Lake regression 8700-8900 cal. BP. This could be synchronous with the known most pronounced largest sea level fall in Great Lakes of North America, being also caused by global climatic changes. Final dramatic changes influenced south-eastern Ladoga, with transgression and final drop took

  11. Modeling potential scenarios of the Tangjiashan Lake outburst and risk assessment in the downstream valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidyaeva, Vera; Chernomorets, Sergey; Krylenko, Inna; Wei, Fangqiang; Petrakov, Dmitry; Su, Pengcheng; Yang, Hongjuan; Xiong, Junnan

    2017-09-01

    This research is devoted to Tangjiashan Lake, a quake landslide-dammed lake, situated in Sichuan Province, China, which was formed by a landslide triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake on 12 May 2008. A STREAM_2D two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Russia was applied to simulate the process of two flood scenarios: 1, lake dam outbreak, and 2, dam overtopping. An artificial dam outbreak was made after the earthquake to lower the water level of the lake in 2008, which led to a great flood with a maximum water discharge of more than 6400 m3/s. The negative impact of the flood was reduced by a timely evacuation of the population. Flood hazards still remain in the event of new landslides into the lake and lake dam overtopping (Scenario 2), in which case a maximum water discharge at the dam crest would reach 5000 m3/s, placing the population of Shabacun and Shilingzi villages in the zone of flood impact.

  12. Northern hemisphere climate control on the environmental dynamics in the glacial Black Sea "Lake"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegwerth, Antje; Kaiser, Jérôme; Dellwig, Olaf; Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila S.; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Arz, Helge W.

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 stands out due to its abrupt changes from cold and dry stadials to warm and humid interstadials, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles that also affected temperature and rainfall in the Black Sea region. This study is based on a gravity core from the southeastern (SE) Black Sea that covers the last glacial lake stage from 64 to 20 ka BP. By using the composition of major and trace elements in the sediments, terrestrial plant-derived n-alkane flux, and Sr/Ca from benthic ostracods, we reconstruct the variability of riverine and aeolian input, salinity, and productivity in the SE Black Sea region in response to the Northern Hemisphere climate oscillations. During colder and drier stadials, the aeolian input increased relative to the riverine discharge, potentially due to southward shifted and/or stronger westerly winds and due to changes in the vegetation cover. An evaporation exceeding freshwater supply by rainfall and rivers possibly caused higher salinity and a lower lake level. The environmental status during MIS 4 and 2 is very much comparable with the stadial conditions during MIS 3. During warmer and more humid interstadials, lower salinity and presumably positive lake level changes most likely resulted from increased precipitation and river discharge. This likely increased primary productivity through an augmented nutrient supply. Lowest average salinities are suggested for the middle part of MIS 3 in response to enhanced meltwater from the disintegrating Fennoscandian Ice Sheet and/or by generally more humid conditions.

  13. Sedimentary Record of syn- and Post-Glacial Climate Change Along the Former LGM ice Terminus, Flathead Lake, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, M. S.; Hofmann, M.; Moore, J. N.; Sperazza, M.

    2006-12-01

    Located west of the continental divide at the former LGM terminal position of the Flathead Lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, Flathead Lake (Montana) contains a well preserved record of syn- and post-glacial Quaternary sedimentation. We have studied this record through a combination of geologic mapping around the lake margins, 3.5 kHz and lower frequency seismic reflection profiling of lake sediments, and coring of the lake floor. The oldest part of the Quaternary sedimentary record comprises ice-contact till exposed along the lake basin margins and imaged in deep seismic reflection profiles. Sedimentary facies and geomorphology of the terminal moraine suggest that the Flathead Lobe flowed into a major proglacial lake, probably glacial Lake Missoula. The oldest core sediments recovered from the lake basin consist of a series of clay-rich glacial varves that thin- and fine-upward. These are overlain by a series of anomalously coarse silt beds, each containing a sharp base, upward fining grain size, and lakewide distribution. Depositional age of these beds is constrained as between 14,150±150 cal. Yr BP (14C date on a pine needle below the beds) and 13,180±120 cal. Yr BP (Glacier Peak tephra above the beds). We interpret the silt beds to reflect pulses of sediment delivered to the Flathead Lake basin by high discharge flood events associated with rapid retreat of the Flathead Lobe and possible rapid release of proglacial melt water from upstream tributary valleys dammed by the Flathead Lobe. The transition of Flathead Lake from a proglacial lake to the modern oligotrophic lake system took place shortly after deposition of the Glacier Peak tephra. Interestingly, none of our 8 deep piston cores display an obvious Younger Dryas sedimentologic signal. Holocene core records, combined with information from 3.5 kHz seismic data, indicate periods of significant lake level fluctuation that are likely climate-driven. Of these, the most significant lake drawdown immediately

  14. Late glacial and Holocene development of Lake Donggi Cona on the NE Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, S.; Wünnemann, B.; Dietze, E.; Hartmann, K.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Stauch, G.; Ijmker, J.; Diekmann, B.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Donggi Cona is located in the north-eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau at the boundary between monsoon and westerly climate influence on an elevation of 4090m. Donggi Cona is an oligotrophic freshwater lake with a recent open-basin system. The 30 km long, 8 km wide, and up to 98 m deep lake basin is a tectonic pull-apart structure as part of Kunlun fault. Sub-bottom profiling of the lake basin revealed the presence of graben structures, conjugate faults, subaquatic terraces, and ancient fan systems, draped by 4 to 5 m thick postglacial lacustrine sediments. The aim of our investigations is the reconstruction of palaeo-environmental changes of the lake catchment. After analysis of the seismic pre-survey, five sediment cores have been retrieved at 35-40 m and at 2 m water depth. The cores are partly laminated and composed of calcareous muds with changing amounts of carbonate micrite, organic matter and detrital silt and clay. Furthermore, the cores contains remarkable amounts of ostracods and plant remains. Dating results from the top of three sediment cores obtain a hardwater effect of about 2000 years. Nineteen AMS dates from the entire cores suggest a sedimentary history throughout the Holocene. Despite possible reservoir errors the sandy bottom sediments were deposited during or after the last glacial maximum (LGM). With a multi-proxy approach using grain size, XRF, XRD, CNS, TOC and multivariate statistical endmember-modelling (EMMA) we hereby represent an interpretation concerning changes in hydrological conditions and sedimentation processes during the last about 20 kyears: Prior to 18 kyears, terrestrial loess and sand suggest a very low lake level. From 18 to 13 kyrs. BP the lake level rise during a period of climate-driven glacier melt. For the same time period the detrital supply is at its maximum and seems to control the high sedimentation rate. Grain-size coarsening and hiatuses in four sediment cores, document a repeated lake-level fall after 13

  15. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narama, C.; Duishonakunov, M.; Kääb, A.; Daiyrov, M.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2010-04-01

    On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred at the western (w-) Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2) reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999-2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

  16. New Geomorphic map of SW Fraser Lowland, NW Washington, Shows Multiple Post-LGM Moraines, Fossil Shorelines, Outburst Flood and Glacial Outwash Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterbrook, D. J.; Kovanen, D. J.; Haugerud, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    We have interpreted a ~1 pulse/m2 lidar survey (acquired in 2006 in leaf-on conditions under contract to the USGS) to construct a geomorphic map of western Whatcom County. The new lidar data reveal the existence of previously unrecognized landforms. Within this landscape, we see these features that reflect a rich post-LGM history: Glacial: Ice contact deposits interpreted as moraines reveal at least 8 successive moraines associated with the late Pleistocene Fraser Glaciation. At least two of the moraine crests were formed during ice re- advance; others may mark stillstands during ice retreat. All are older than about 10,250 14C yrs BP, based on basal peat from a kettle in outwash associated with the youngest moraine. Marine: Extensive and successive fossil shorelines, wave-cut notches, wave-washed surfaces, down- slope truncation of gullies, and deltas along the fringe of uplands surrounding the SW Fraser Lowland document former relative sea level and probable glacioisostatic tilting. The highest shorelines are at nearly 150 m above sea level. Some shorelines are cut into moraines, while others are truncated by them. Uplifted back-beach surfaces of likely mid-Holocene age at Birch Bay and Neptune Beach (elevations ~1 m and ~3 m higher than modern back-beach surfaces) suggest Holocene uplift. Glaciofluvial: Large, stepped, sediment wave bed-forms, with wavelengths of 430 to 850 m and heights from 1 to 3.5 m, record deposition associated with high discharge and rapid water release. Sub-parallel, narrow scour troughs are up to 4 km in length and 8 m in depth. These high energy geomorphic features record at least three large discharge events. Their apparent associations with former ice margins indicate that they are the result of outburst floods. Multiple outwash surfaces in the lowland are also related to former ice margins. Fluvial: At present the Nooksack River flows west from the town of Everson and reaches Bellingham Bay just south of Ferndale. Relatively low

  17. Effects of seismic surge waves and implications for moraine-dammed lake outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Cui; Yao, Lingkan; Huang, Yidan; Yan, Jiahong; Shakya, Subhashsagar

    2016-09-01

    Moraine dams usually collapse due to overtopping by the surge wave in the dammed lake, and the surge wave is most likely caused by an earthquake. The seismic water wave (SWW) is a major factor causing the dam to break in the earthquake zone. This paper focused on the SWW by model experiments with a shaking water tank under conditions of various water depths, seismic waves, and peak ground accelerations. Two empirical equations were obtained for estimating maximal wave height for the low and high frequency, respectively. Finally, we present the application of the empirical equations on Midui Glacier Lake in Tibet plateau.

  18. Lipid biomarkers in Holocene and glacial sediments from ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtvoeth, J.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.; Wolff, G. A.

    2010-11-01

    Organic matter preserved in Lake Ohrid sediments originates from aquatic and terrestrial sources. Its variable composition reflects climate-controlled changes in the lake basin's hydrology and related organic matter export, i.e. changes in primary productivity, terrestrial plant matter input and soil erosion. Here, we present first results from lipid biomarker investigations of Lake Ohrid sediments from two near-shore settings: site Lz1120 near the southern shore, with low-lying lands nearby and probably influenced by river discharge, and site Co1202 which is close to the steep eastern slopes. Variable proportions of terrestrial n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols as well as compositional changes of ω-hydroxy acids document differences in soil organic matter supply between the sites and during different climate stages (glacial, Holocene, 8.2 ka cooling event). Changes in the vegetation cover are suggested by changes in the dominant chain length of terrestrial n-alkanols. Effective microbial degradation of labile organic matter and in situ contribution of organic matter derived from the microbes themselves are both evident in the sediments. We found evidence for anoxic conditions within the photic zone by detecting epicholestanol and tetrahymanol from sulphur-oxidising phototrophic bacteria and bacterivorous ciliates and for the influence of a settled human community from the occurrence of coprostanol, a biomarker for human and animal faeces (pigs, sheep, goats), in an early Holocene sample. This study illustrates the potential of lipid biomarkers for future environmental reconstructions using one of Europe's oldest continental climate archives, Lake Ohrid.

  19. A new varved late Glacial and Holocene sediment record from Lake Jelonek (North Poland) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, Mateusz; Filbrandt-Czaja, Anna; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Tjallingii, Rik; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Anually laminated (varved) lake deposits are suitable natural archives for reconstructing past climatic and environmental changes at seasonal resolution. A major advantage of such records is that varve counting allows constructing robust and independent chronologies, a key challenge for paleoclimate research. Recently, a new annually laminated sediment record has been obtained from Lake Jelonek, located in the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland in northern Poland (Tuchola Pinewoods). The lake is surrounded by forest and covers an area of 19,9 ha and has a maximum depth of 13,8 m. Three overlapping series of 14,3 m - long sediment records have been cored with an UWITEC 90 mm diameter piston corer from the deepest part of the lake. A continuous master composite profile has been established comprising the entire postglacial lacustrine sediment infill. Preliminary analyses including micro-facies analyses on thin sections from selected intervals as well as X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) reveal that the sediments are to a large part annually laminated. Here we present detailed varve models for different sediment intervals and discuss high-resolution geochemical variation in the entire sediment record. A preliminary age model based on radiocarbon dating and major biostratigraphical boundaries based on pollen data will be presented as well. These data will form the fundament for the planned multi-proxy study for detailed reconstructions of climatic and environmental variability during the late glacial and Holocene in the southern Baltic. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre Poland NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367.

  20. A scuba diving direct sediment sampling methodology on benthic transects in glacial lakes: procedure description, safety measures, and tests results.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    This work presents an in situ sediment sampling method on benthic transects, specifically intended for scientific scuba diver teams. It was originally designed and developed to sample benthic surface and subsurface sediments and subaqueous soils in glacial lakes up to a maximum depth of 25 m. Tests were conducted on the Sabocos and Baños tarns (i.e., cirque glacial lakes) in the Spanish Pyrenees. Two 100 m transects, ranging from 24.5 to 0 m of depth in Sabocos and 14 m to 0 m deep in Baños, were conducted. In each test, 10 sediment samples of 1 kg each were successfully collected and transported to the surface. This sampling method proved operative even in low visibility conditions (<2 m). Additional ice diving sampling tests were conducted in Sabocos and Truchas tarns. This sampling methodology can be easily adapted to accomplish underwater sampling campaigns in nonglacial lakes and other continental water or marine environments.

  1. Impact of nanoparticles and colloids on glacial meltwater: A comparative study of rare earth elements in glacial meltwater rivers and terminal lakes in Iceland and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Global warming accelerates the retreat of glaciers in both polar and temperate climatic regions and enhances the input of glacial meltwater and its load of particulates, colloids and nanoparticles into the ocean. In addition to the worldwide trend imposed by global warming, enhanced glacial melting in Iceland is occasionally caused by high geothermal heat flux and/or sub-glacial eruptions related to volcanic activity. This might even cause catastrophic melting events. We here report results of geochemical studies of meltwater rivers from southern Iceland sampled between 2010 and 2013 and of glacial terminal lakes and one meltwater river from the Southern Alps in New Zealand's South Island from 2013. In addition to the dissolved concentrations of Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) in 200 nm-filtered waters, we also studied the respective filter residues (particles >200 nm). The REY are highly particle-reactive and show low solubilties, and therefore only a small fraction of the total REY concentration determined in 200 nm-filtered freshwaters is truly dissolved, whereas the majority is associated with colloids and nanoparticles. Nevertheless, in 200 nm-filtered water samples the REY are often below the lower limit of quantification even by sensitive analytical techniques such as ICPMS. The chemical composition of glacial meltwater rivers in Iceland is affected by volcanic eruptions due to the input of (colloid- and nano-) particles from volcanic ashes, whereas the chemical composition of glacial terminal lakes and meltwater rivers in New Zealand is affected by particles derived by erosion of rocks in the respective catchment. In marked contrast to Iceland, single events do play a minor role in New Zealand. In Iceland, all studied meltwater rivers display the same shale-normalized REY patterns with pronounced depletion of light and heavy REY relative to the middle REY (LaSN/GdSN: 0.41-0.45; GdSN/YbSN: 1.70-2.44). They show positive Eu anomalies, but no La, Ce or Y

  2. Age and extent of a giant glacial-dammed lake at Yarlung Tsangpo gorge in the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiming; Lai, Zhongping; Hu, Kaiheng; Ge, Yonggang; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Xiaogang; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Many glacier dams on major rivers at the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau had been previously determined through remote sensing and glacier terminal position calculation. It was hypothesized that such damming substantially impeded river incision into the plateau interior. Investigation on the large glacial-dammed lake at the entrance of Tsangpo gorge is critical for understanding this hypothesis. So far, the issues, such as age, lake surface elevation, and stages of this dammed lake, are still in debate. Our field survey of lacustrine deposits and loess distribution along the middle Yarlung Tsangpo River and its tributary, Nyang River, suggested that the lake surface elevation was at about 3180 m asl. The 23 quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 4 organic AMS 14C ages all fall into the Last Glacial period ( 41-13 ka). The OSL and 14C ages are in general agreement with each other where applicable. There might be only one long damming event because the ages of lacustrine deposits from 2970 to 3100 m asl are similar, and every lacustrine section is sustained for a long time. The estimated lake surface area was 1089 km2, and the volume was 170 km3, which differ from previous estimations which suggested two-stage (about early Holocene and 1.5 ka) lakes, and the largest lake surface elevation reached 3500 m.

  3. Glacial dispersal and flow history, East Arm area of Great Slave Lake, NWT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, D. R.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Knight, R. D.; Russell, H. A. J.; Kerr, D. E.

    2017-06-01

    Little work has been completed on paleo-ice-sheet flow indicators of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, west of the Keewatin Ice Divide. Field mapping, sampling and analysis of glaciogenic sediment (∼500 sample sites) in a ∼33,000 km2 region near the East Arm of Great Slave Lake in northwestern Canada, provided a rare opportunity to improve understanding of sediment erosion and transport patterns. Glacially-eroded bedrock and sedimentary landforms record east to west flow with NW and SW divergence, mapped within a portion of the Great Slave Lake flow tract. Transported till reflects a similar divergent flow pattern based on dispersal geometries for multiple indicators (e.g., heavy minerals and lithic fragments), which are aligned with the dominant and latest ice flow direction. Glaciofluvial erosion (e.g., s-forms and till removal), transport, and deposition (mainly as esker sediment) are set within 0.3-3 km wide meltwater erosional corridors, spaced regularly at 10-15 km intervals. Transport paths and distances are comparable in till and esker sediment, however, distances appear to be greater (∼5-25 km) in some esker constituents and indicator minerals are typically more concentrated in esker sediment than in till. Corridors form a divergent array identical to the pattern of ice-flow features. The congruence of ice and meltwater flow features is interpreted to be a response to a similar ice sheet gradient, and close timing of events (late dominant glacial ice flow and meltwater flow). The similarity in glacial and glaciofluvial flow patterns has important ramifications for event reconstruction and for exploration geologists utilizing mineral and geochemical tracing methods in this region, and possibly other parts of northern Canada. The correspondence between East Arm dispersal patterns, landforms and flow indicators supports interpretation of a simple and predictable single flow divergence model. This is in contrast to previous, multi-flow models, in which fan

  4. Glacially conditioned specific stream powers in low-relief river catchments of the southern Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. T. J.; Desloges, J. R.

    2014-02-01

    Fluvial systems of the southern Laurentian Great Lakes region are carved into a complex glacial landscape shaped by continental ice and meltwater of the late Pleistocene. These glacially conditioned river catchments are typically small with drainage areas < 104 km2. A 10-m digital elevation model (DEM) is used to map the spatial distribution of stream gradient for 22 major river catchments of peninsular southern Ontario, which drain to base levels in the lower Great Lakes (Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Raw data from the DEM show stream gradients that exhibit multiscale variance from real and from artifact sources. Based on a vertical slice and multiple-pass moving-window averaging approach, slope data are generalised to the river reach scale (1-2 km) as a representative spatial scale for fluvial processes operating over Holocene timescales. Models of specific stream power are then compared with glacial landform and surface geology mapping. Inherited glacial signatures in river slope appear as deviations in a stream length-gradient index (SL/K index), where river reaches are frequently oversteepened or understeepened. Based on a slope-area analysis, and complementary to theories of channel pattern discrimination, constant stream power curves (with power-law exponent of - 0.4) provide a first-order approach to stratify river reaches in terms of glacial conditioning and expected planform morphologies. However, multiple-channel planform types are rare and localised in southern Ontario, indicating that oversteepened reaches with high stream powers may often be moderated by (1) sediment calibre, with cobble-beds from inherited glacial sediments; and/or (2) relative bank strength, with limited channel widening particularly in gravel and sand-bed channels. Further discrimination of glacially conditioned fluvial process domains will ultimately require consideration of alluvial floodplain characteristics in addition to general observations of river morphology and

  5. Last glacial megafaunal death assemblage and early human occupation at Lake Menindee, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupper, Matthew L.; Duncan, Jacqui

    2006-09-01

    The Tedford subfossil locality at Lake Menindee preserves a diverse assemblage of marsupials, monotremes and placental rodents. Of the 38 mammal taxa recorded at the site, almost a third are of extinct megafauna. Some of the bones are articulated or semi-articulated and include almost complete skeletons, indicating that aeolian sediments rapidly buried the animals following death. New optical ages show the site dates to the early part of the last glacial (55,700 ± 1300 yr weighted mean age). This is close to the 51,200-39,800 yr Australia-wide extinction age for megafauna suggested by Roberts et al. [2001, Science 292:1888-1892], but like all previous researchers, we cannot conclusively determine whether humans were implicated in the deaths of the animals. Although an intrusive hearth at the site dating to 45,100 ± 1400 yr ago is the oldest evidence of human occupation of the Darling River, no artifacts were identified in situ within the sub-fossil-bearing unit. Non-anthropogenic causes, such as natural senescence or ecosystem stress due to climatic aridity, probably explain the mortality of the faunal assemblage at Lake Menindee.

  6. Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of an ice-contact glacial lake succession: an example from the late Devensian of southwest Wales, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, James L.; Jansson, Krister N.; Glasser, Neil F.; Hambrey, Michael J.; Davies, Jeremy R.; Waters, Richard A.; Maltman, Alex J.; Wilby, Philip R.

    2006-04-01

    During the late Devensian (late Weichselian) glaciation, a number of large proglacial lakes developed in dammed river valleys along the southwest coast of Wales, U.K. This paper presents sedimentological data, together with a Digital Terrain Model, to establish the sedimentation history, dynamics and evolution of the largest lake, glacial Llyn (Lake) Teifi. Buried valley-fill sequences within the margins of the former lake basin reveal a thick succession of glaciolacustrine muds which coarsen upward into, or are locally abruptly overlain by, proximal deltaic, subglacial and glaciofluvial deposits. Sediment delivery pathways represented in the lacustrine succession include gravity flows, suspension settling, deltaic aggradation and iceberg rafting, the latter indicating ice-contact conditions. The lacustrine muds are variably deformed, with a range of syn- and post-depositional structures, some of which indicate subglacial deformation associated with overriding of the lacustrine succession. Syn-depositional structures indicate high sedimentation rates, which may explain an absence of bioturbation structures. The overall coarsening-upward succession and cap of subglacial and/or glaciofluvial deposits support recent theories suggesting that glacial Llyn Teifi formed during glacial advance. There is no evidence to support glaciomarine conditions of sedimentation in this area of the Irish Sea basin.

  7. Dynamic interactions between glacier and glacial lake in the Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutaki, S.; Fujita, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Komori, J.; Takenaka, S.; Tshering, P.

    2012-04-01

    A number of supraglacial lakes formed on the termini of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya as a result of glacier retreat due to climate change. The terminal part of the lake-terminating glaciers flow faster than that of the land-terminating glaciers because the basal ice motion is enhanced by high subglacial water pressure generated by lake water. Increased ice flux caused by the accelerated glacier flow could be dissipated through the calving process which reduced the glacier thickness. It is important to understand the interaction between lake formation and glacier dynamics. Although glacier flow velocity has been measured by remote-sensing analysis in several regions of the Himalayas, glacier thinning rates have not been observed by neither in-situ nor remote-sensing approaches. The lack of field data raises limitation to interpretations for glacier dynamics. We investigate the influence of the presence/absence of glacial lakes on glacier dynamics and changes in surface elevation. We study two debris-covered glaciers in the Lunana region, the Bhutan Himalaya. Thorthormi Glacier is a land-terminating glacier with some supraglacial lakes while Lugge Glacier is a lake-terminating glaciers. We surveyed the surface elevation of debris-covered areas of the two glaciers in 2004 and 2011 by a differential GPS. Change in surface elevation of the lake-terminating Lugge Glacier (-5.4--2.4 m yr-1) was much more negative than that of the land-terminating Thorthormi Glacier (-3.3-0.6 m yr-1). Surface flow speed of the Thorthormi Glacier measured during 2002-2004 was faster in the upper reaches (~90 m yr-1) and reduced toward the downstream (40 m yr-1). In contrast, the surface flow speed at the Lugge Glacier measured in the same periods was 40-55 m yr-1 and the greatest at the lower most part. Observed spatial distribution of surface flow velocity at both glaciers were evaluated by a two-dimensional numerical flow model. Calculated emergence velocities are 1

  8. Experimental modelling of outburst flood - bed interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, J. L.; Xie, Z.; Sleigh, A.; Hubbard, M.

    2009-04-01

    Outburst floods are a sudden release and advancing wave of water and sediment, with a peak discharge that is often several orders of magnitude greater than perennial flows. Common outburst floods from natural sources include those from glacial and moraine-impounded lakes, freshwater dyke and levee bursts, volcanic debris dams, landslides, avalanches, coastal bay-bars, and those from tree or vegetation dams. Outburst flood hazards are regularly incorporated into risk assessments for urban, coastal and mountainous areas, for example. Outburst flood hazards are primarily due to direct impacts, caused by a frontal surge wave, from debris within a flow body, and from the mass and consistency of the flows. A number of secondary impacts also pose hazards, including widespread deposition of sediment and blocked tributary streams. It is rapid landscape change, which is achieved the mobilization and redistribution of sediment that causes one of the greatest hazards due to outburst floods. The aim of this project is therefore to parameterise hydrodynamic - sedimentary interactions in experimental outburst floods. Specifically, this project applies laboratory flume modelling, which offers a hitherto untapped opportunity for examining complex interactions between water and sediment within outburst floods. The experimental set-up is of a tradition lock-gate design with a straight 4 m long tank. Hydraulics are scaled at 1:20 froude scale and the following controls on frontal wave flow-bed interactions and hence on rapid landscape change are being investigated: 1. Pre-existing mobile sediment effects, fixed bed roughness effects, sediment concentration effects, mobile bed effects. An emphasis is being maintained on examining the downstream temporal and spatial change in physical character of the water / sediment frontal wave. Facilities are state-of-the-art with a fully-automated laser bed-profiler to measure bed elevation after a run, Seatek arrays to measure transient flow

  9. A Latest Glacial and Holocene Record From Medicine Lake, Siskiyou County, California: Preliminary Diatom, Pollen, and Sediment Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starratt, S. W.; Barron, J. A.; Kneeshaw, T.; Phillips, L.; Lowenstern, J.; Wanket, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Medicine Lake is a small (165 ha), relatively shallow (average 7.3 m), medium- altitude (2,036 m) lake located within the summit caldera of Medicine Lake volcano, a dormant Quaternary shield volcano located in the southern Cascade Range. During September 1999 and 2000, high-resolution bathymetry, seismic-reflection profiles, and sediment cores were collected from the lake. Twenty six samples from core B100NC-1 (water depth 12.6 m; length 226 cm) were analyzed for physical properties, sediment grain size, diatoms, pollen, and total organic carbon (TOC). Using both 14C (AMS) dating and tephrochronology, the sediments at the bottom of the core are estimated to be 11,000 cal yr B.P., thus yielding an estimated average sedimentation rate of about 21 cm/1,000 yr. The lowermost part of the core (226 cm - ~200 cm) records the transition from glacial to interglacial conditions. During the period from about 11,000-7,200 cal yr B.P., lake level fluctuated between deeper oligotrophic conditions with a diatom flora dominated by Cyclotella spp. and shallower intervals with a diverse benthic flora. The relative low abundance (10-15%) of Abies (fir) pollen and relative high abundance (30-40%) of Artemesia (sagebrush) pollen in this interval suggest drier than present-day conditions. The lowest part of this interval (226 cm - 210 cm) is almost devoid of Cyclotella and may represent an ice-covered lake in which only a small benthic flora could exist around the margins of the lake where light penetration was the greatest. The sediments in this interval are relatively low in TOC and are dominated by glacial flour. From about 7,200 cal yr B.P. to the present, conditions have fluctuated between higher lake levels (three intervals) that are dominated by Cyclotella with a reduced number and diversity of benthic taxa, and lower lake levels (two intervals) during which the abundances of Cyclotella decrease to less than 10%. Relative values of Abies and Pinus (pine) pollen are higher during

  10. Tropically mediated global responses to cataclysmic flooding in the eastern North Pacific by Glacial Lake Missoula (and variations in response based on initial onset)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambs, M. F.; Thompson, L.; Hautala, S. L.; Bitz, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Missoula Floods (18.6 to 14.5 ka) were a series of jökulhlaups (freshwater glacial-outburst floods) from proglacial Lake Missoula, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). These episodic floods carved the Quaternary landscape of Eastern Washington and northern Oregon, flowing rapidly into the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River. This study investigates the short-term global ocean and climate response to the freshwater discharge from the Missoula Floods into the eastern North Pacific Ocean. We simulate the floods by adding freshwater north of 42°N and east of 140°W, from the surface, tapering to 920 m and restarting a run of the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) configured for Last Glacial Maximum conditions. The method is similar to that used in freshwater hosing experiments in the North Atlantic. Fourteen runs were completed, seven initialize during El Niño conditions, and seven during La Niña conditions as defined by the Niño 3.4 index (5°S to 5°N and 170°W to 120°W). Ensemble means are made and compared against control ensembles without the freshwater input. We find a global response within one year of freshwater input, with warming to the west of the hosing region and cooling to the south. The response is larger for La Niña conditions, with warming in the tropical Pacific of more than 0.5°C and an even larger warming throughout Antarctica with warming of more than 1.5°C, in the first year following freshening. The Southern Ocean also warms, particularly in the Atlantic sector. During El Niño conditions, Greenland warms by more than 1°C and there is warming confined to the Pacific Sector over Greenland and the Southern Ocean. The changes in surface temperatures are accompanied by changes in sea-ice extent in both hemispheres. Changes in the Tropical Pacific are initiated by sea surface temperature gradients associated with the freshwater input that then modify the winds in the subtropics.

  11. Patterns and Potential Drivers of a Seasonal Glacial Sediment Plume derived from Landsat CDR Data, Lake Clark, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, C. A.; Jones, B. M.; Bartz, K. K.; Young, D. B.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Clark is large freshwater lake in Southcentral Alaska. Central to Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Lake Clark is an important nursery lake for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the headwaters of Bristol Bay, Alaska, the most productive wild salmon fishery in the world. Lake Clark water clarity is seasonally influenced by a dynamic glacier fed sediment plume. We reconstructed lake-wide water clarity for Lake Clark using the Landsat TM and ETM+ Climate Data Record archive. Our study period consisted of May - October for 1985-2015. We found 151 (98 partial- and 53 whole-lake) Landsat scenes that captured the lake and/or sediment plume. Water clarity fluctuated on an annual basis with specific conditions common to certain months. Plume development and peak turbidity dates could be estimated for a number of years and mid-season gyres appear to represent wind-induced mixing of lake water. Our results showed short term (sub-decadal) trends in water clarity but little to no long term trend between 1991 and 2014. We did, however, detect interannual variation that exhibited a non-significant (r2 = 0.20) but positive correlation (r = 0.20) with regional mean summer air temperature and found the month of May exhibited a significant positive trend (r2 = 0.68, p-value = 0.02) in turbidity between 2000 and 2014. These results are important because reductions in water clarity within Alaska lake systems as a result of increased glacial runoff have been shown to reduce salmon production via reduced abundance of preferred prey items of juvenile salmon, such as zooplankton and macroinvertebrates.

  12. Mediterranean fire histories since the Last Glacial Maximum from lake sedimentary micro- charcoals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C.; Turner, R.

    2006-12-01

    Microscopic charcoal analysis has been used to reconstruct past fire activity over a range of spatial and temporal scales in Europe, the Americas and Australasia. By contrast, and despite the importance of fire in its modern landscape ecology, few systematic attempts have been made in the circum-Mediterranean region to reconstruct long-term fire histories using micro-charcoals or other methods of analysis. This study has used non-destructive methods of charcoal extraction based on sieving plus heavy-liquid separation (Turner et al in press In: Charcoal from the past: cultural and palaeoenvironmental implications. BAR International Series, Archaeopress, Oxford) along with contiguous core sampling of sedimentary core sequences from a number of East Mediterranean lakes that span the last glacial-interglacial climatic transition. At Eski Acýgöl, central Turkey (Roberts et al. Holocene, 2001, 11, 719-734), then a deepwater crater lake, overall micro-charcoal concentrations in sediments are low and were dominated by influx from regional-landscape rather than local- scale fire events. This record therefore provides a good proxy for overall fire frequency/intensity across the central Anatolia plateau, whose (hypothetical) modern "natural" vegetation is predominantly open oak-grass- Artemisia parkland. Shallow water sites such as Akgöl typically record much higher overall micro-charcoal abundance as a result of local-scale burning of the marsh surface at times of lowered water table, and thus received episodic local charcoal influx superimposed on background regional airborne sources. These results indicate that site type / catchment area and sampling / analytic methodology can critically influence reconstructed fire histories. We have correlated our charcoal records with existing multi-proxy data from the same cores (stable isotopes and pollen). This shows that climatic variations and biomass availability were the main factors controlling the timing of regional fire

  13. Late Glacial and Holocene Geomagnetic secular variation in Western Lake Geneva (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baster, I.; Heller, F.; Egli, R.; Rachoud-Schneider, A. M.; Wildi, W.

    2003-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments can provide excellent records of paleomagnetic secular variation which can be used as a powerful dating tool. We present the first paleosecular variation record from Lake Geneva (Switzerland) that extends back beyond 16 cal. kyr BP. Several cores up to 10 m long were collected in the delta area of the Promentouse and Asse rivers, close to the city of Nyon. Whole-core declination and horizontal intensity component of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) were first measured in two cores retrieved from an area without slumps about 1050 and 1400 m from the coast, respectively. In addition, individual samples were extracted from the longest core for further detailed analysis. These samples are characterized by one single NRM component which is stable up to 20 mT. No secondary components (low-stability) have been recognized. As demonstrated by component analysis of IRM acquisition curves, fine-grained magnetite of biogenic origin is the dominant magnetic carrier with additional small amounts of detrital hematite. The declination values obtained from these subsamples display well-defined oscillations within a range of ± 44°. Thirteen major paleosecular declination swings can be distinguished. The inclination curve varies between 30° and 70° and is characterized by a more complex structure. However, nine pronounced features can be recognized. NRM intensity and initial susceptibility correlate well with the stratigraphy showing different trends for the Holocene and the Late Glacial periods. The inclination and declination variations are in excellent agreement with the records from Lac du Joux (Creer et al., 1980) and Lake Windermere (Turner &Thompson, 1981). The paleosecular variation curve of Lake Geneva, combined with lithostratigraphic features, pollen counting analyses and C14 dating, provides a well dated high quality reference curve for central Europe. References Creer, K.M., Hogg, T.E., Readman, P.W. &Reynaud, C. (1980) Palaeomagnetic

  14. Glacial megasequences as a basis for ground-water sensitivity mapping at the head of Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bleuer, N.K.; Woodfield, M.C. )

    1994-04-01

    The Valparaiso and Calumet megasequences mapped at the head of Lake Michigan in northwestern Indiana are large-scale, three-dimensional, glacial-lacustrine, and lacustrine packages successively inset into basins left by the collapse of earlier ice masses. These map units are the basis for assessing groundwater sensitivity in Porter County, an area representative of the rural to heavily industrialized southern Lake Michigan rim. Facies within these megasequences record repeated southward and upward progression of more ice-proximal facies, representative of repeated southward and upward progression of more ice-proximal facies, representative of repeated ice advance out of the basin. The Valparaiso megasequence is a single lake-bottom to subaerial head-of-fan progression. The inset Calumet megasequence (Lake Border/Wheeler sequences; Lake Michigan sequence) is a multiple lake, subaqueous fan, to push-moraine progression followed by further inset of multiple lake bottom, delta, and beach progressions related to early phases of Lake Michigan. The variability within the megasequences make traditional surficial mapping or DRASTIC''-style ground-water sensitivity analysis difficult to justify. Instead, the nature of variability itself is of absolute importance. For this reason, an extensively illustrated atlas serves as a map explanation, type'' gamma-ray-log profiles illustrate variation in vertical sequence, and cross sections illustrate variation in overall geometry. Accompanying discussions outline elements of ground-water sensitivity related to various between and within-sequence geometries.

  15. Stable isotope evidence for glacial lake drainage through the St. Lawrence Estuary, eastern Canada, ~13.1-12.9 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Rayburn, J.A.; Guilbault, J.-P.; Thunell, R.; Franzi, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Postglacial varved and rhythmically-laminated clays deposited during the transition from glacial Lake Vermont (LV) to the Champlain Sea (CS) record hydrological changes in the Champlain-St. Lawrence Valley (CSLV) at the onset of the Younger Dryas ∼13.1–12.9 ka linked to glacial lake drainage events. Oxygen isotope (δ18O) records of three species of benthic foraminifera (Cassidulina reniforme, Haynesina orbiculare, Islandiella helenae) from six sediment cores and the freshwater ostracode Candona from one core were studied. Results show six large isotope excursions (∼0.5 to >2‰) in C. reniforme δ18O values, five excursions in H. orbiculare (<0.5 to ∼1.8‰), and five smaller changes in I. helenae (<0.5‰). δ18O values in Candona show a 1.5–2‰ increase in the same interval. These isotopic excursions in co-occurring marine and freshwater species in varve-like sediments indicate complex hydrological changes in the earliest Champlain Sea, including brief (sub-annual) periods of complete freshening. One hypothesis to explain these results is that multiple abrupt freshwater influx events caused surface-to-bottom freshening of the Champlain Sea over days to weeks. The most likely source of freshwater would have been drainage of the Morehead Phase of glacial Lake Agassiz, perhaps in a series of floods, ultimately draining out the St. Lawrence Estuary.

  16. Understanding past climatic and hydrological variability in the Mediterranean from Lake Prespa sediment isotope and geochemical record over the Last Glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Melanie J.; Wagner, Bernd; Boehm, Anne; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Vane, Christopher H.; Snelling, Andrea; Haidon, Cheryl; Woodley, Ewan; Vogel, Hendrik; Zanchetta, Gianni; Baneschi, Ilaria

    2013-04-01

    Here we present stable isotope and geochemical data from Lake Prespa (Macedonia/Albania border) over the Last Glacial cycle (Marine Isotope Stages 5-1) and discuss past lake hydrology and climate (TIC, oxygen and carbon isotopes), as well as responses to climate of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation (TOC, Rock Eval pyrolysis, carbon isotopes, pollen). The Lake Prespa sediments broadly fall into 5 zones based on their sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology and the existing chronology. The Glacial sediments suggest low supply of carbon to the lake, but high summer productivity; intermittent siderite layers suggest that although the lake was likely to have mixed regularly leading to enhanced oxidation of organic matter, there must have been within sediment reducing conditions and methanogenesis. MIS 5 and 1 sediments suggest much more productivity, higher rates of organic material preservation possibly due to more limited mixing with longer periods of oxygen-depleted bottom waters. We also calculated lakewater δ18O from siderite (authigenic/Glacial) and calcite (endogenic/Holocene) and show much lower lakewater δ18O values in the Glacial when compared to the Holocene, suggesting the lake was less evaporative in the Glacial, probably as a consequence of cooler summers and longer winter ice cover. In the Holocene the oxygen isotope data suggests general humidity, with just 2 marked arid phases, features observed in other Eastern and Central Mediterranean lakes.

  17. Deep lakes in the Polar Urals - unique archives for reconstructing the Quaternary climate and glacial history in the Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, J.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Henriksen, M.; Lohne, O. S.; Mangerud, J.; Nazarov, D.

    2009-12-01

    A lake coring campaign in the Polar Urals is carried out within the framework of the Norwegian-Russian IPY-project “The Ice Age Development and Human Settlement in Northern Eurasia” (ICEHUS). The overall aim of the project is to improve the description and understanding of the Late Quaternary environmental and climate changes in the Russian Arctic and how these changes may have affected the early human occupation. In order to obtain a continuous record of climate variability back in time seismic records and sediment cores have been collected from selected mountain lakes. The summer of 2009 we cored two lakes situated near the water shed in the interior northernmost Urals. Seismic profiles show that both these glacially eroded basins contain thick sequences of Quaternary sediments. The thickest strata were found in Bolshoye Shuchye, the largest and deepest lake in the Ural Mountains. This lake is 13 km long and 140 m deep and contains more than 130 m of acoustically laminated sediments. These strata probably accumulated over a rather long time span, possibly covering several interglacial-glacial cycles. Up to 24 m long cores were obtained from the lake floors. We anticipate that they will provide unique high resolution records of the climate and glacial history during the last Ice Age. The seismic records and the sediment cores will form a well-founded basis for assessing the potential and possibilities to core also the deeper strata that could not be reached with the applied coring equipment. In view of the obtained results from the investigated basins, as well as other geological and geochronological data from the surrounding areas, we find it highly unlikely that any glaciers extended into these lakes during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), supporting our current hypothesis that the local glaciers in the Polar Urals remained small during the LGM. Our observations indicate that the mountain valleys have been essentially ice free since Marine Isotope Stage 4, at

  18. Glacial to Holocene climate changes in the SE Pacific. The Raraku Lake sedimentary record (Easter Island, 27°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago; Moreno, Ana; Bao, Roberto; Pueyo, Juan J.; Hernández, Armand; Casas, David

    2009-12-01

    Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27°S) provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct past climate changes in the South Pacific region based on terrestrial archives. Although the general climate evolution of the south Pacific since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is coherent with terrestrial records in southern South America and Polynesia, the details of the dynamics of the shifting Westerlies, the South Pacific Convergence Zone and the South Pacific Anticyclone during the glacial-interglacial transition and the Holocene, and the large scale controls on precipitation in tropical and extratropical regions remain elusive. Here we present a high-resolution reconstruction of lake dynamics, watershed processes and paleohydrology for the last 34 000 cal yrs BP based on a sedimentological and geochemical multiproxy study of 8 cores from the Raraku Lake sediments constrained by 22 AMS radiocarbon dates. This multicore strategy has reconstructed the sedimentary architecture of the lake infilling and provided a stratigraphic framework to integrate and correlate previous core and vegetation studies conducted in the lake. High lake levels and clastic input dominated sedimentation in Raraku Lake between 34 and 28 cal kyr BP. Sedimentological and geochemical evidences support previously reported pollen data showing a relatively open forest and a cold and relatively humid climate during the Glacial period. Between 28 and 17.3 cal kyr BP, including the LGM period, colder conditions contributed to a reduction of the tree coverage in the island. The coherent climate patterns in subtropical and mid latitudes of Chile and Eastern Island for the LGM (more humid conditions) suggest stronger influence of the Antarctic circumpolar current and an enhancement of the Westerlies. The end of Glacial Period occurred at 17.3 cal kyr BP and was characterized by a sharp decrease in lake level conducive to the development of major flood events and erosion of littoral sediments. Deglaciation (Termination

  19. Historical telecommunication in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas: An ancient early warning system for glacier lake outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    Mountain societies are in a crucial transition phase in terms of the management of natural hazards. Advances in geographic technologies, such as a variety of remote-sensing tools and mobile communication systems, have drastically changed the way of early warning methods in difficult accessible high mountain environments compared to those of ancient times. In order to implement new natural hazard policies, it is essential to unravel the traditional ways of disaster management which is presented here by a case study from the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas. In the rugged relief of the Himalaya Region, the exchange of information was a labor-intensive and time-consuming task for remote high mountain villages before the infrastructural development and the introduction of modern communication systems. Therefore, early warning of natural hazards with long run-out distances seems to have been rather impossible. However, in the present study a historical optical long-distance and fast operating communication system over horizontal distances of several hundred kilometers was discovered during field investigations in the Hindukush-Karakoram and the transmission paths reconstructed in the following years. The so called Puberanch-system relied on a chain of fire signals as used by ancient societies in other mountain and coastal environments in the world. It was originally in use for the alert against war attacks from hostile neighboring communities. Later on, it served as an early warning system for glacier lake outbursts, which have been in the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century one of the most devastating natural hazards in the region. Remarkable is the fact that fire posts were located in extremely harsh environments at altitudes above 4000 m requiring a highly sophisticated supply system of fire wood and food. Interviews with local inhabitants, the evaluation of historical travel records and international newspapers proved, that the system has been

  20. Paleomonsoonal Precipitation and Hydroclimate Variability from Glacial to Interglacial Climates in the Southwest: The Stoneman Lake, Arizona Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, D.; Fawcett, P. J.; Anderson, R. S.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen isotope values from diatom silica have been used to determine past hydrological conditions in a variety of settings including differentiating summer monsoonal paleoprecipitation from winter frontal paleoprecipitation in the American southwest. Lacustrine cores from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, show a distinct change in silica oxygen isotope values from glacial to interglacial as a switch from a purely winter frontal precipitation during the glacial to a mix of winter frontal and summer monsoonal precipitation during the interglacial. A relatively large (ca. 20‰) and rapid increase in δ18O following the glacial termination implies an abrupt onset of the North American monsoon. We plan to elaborate on this research to see if this is true elsewhere in the southwest. Two lacustrine sediment cores (70 m deep and 30 m deep respectively) were recovered from Stoneman Lake, northern Arizona in October of 2014. With these cores we plan to determine regional hydroclimate variability between the Pleistocene-Holocene glacial transition ca. 14 ka. Oxygen isotope analysis from diatom silica will allow us to determine past sources of precipitation to the basin (Gulf of Mexico vs North Pacific), and paleoprecipitation variability. In conjunction with other proxies, we can determine if the onset of paleomonsoonal precipitation in central Arizona occurs immediately after the glacial termination as in NM, or if there is some component of monsoonal precipitation during the late glacial period. Diatom sampling was performed at approximately every 50 cm. To purify the diatoms, the samples are chemically and physically separated. The step wise fluorination and laser ablation technique are then applied to remove water & hydroxyl groups and to extract O2 & SiF4 respectively.If results from the Stoneman Lake core are similar to that of the Valles Caldera core, we should expect to see a nearly 20‰ increase in δ18Olake water. This would suggest a: 1) collapse of the summer

  1. Abrupt lake-level changes in the Rocky Mountains and surrounding regions since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, B. N.; Serravezza, M.

    2016-12-01

    The paleohydrologic record of western North America since the last glacial maximum reveals a wide range of hydroclimatic variability and distinctive patterns associated with abrupt climate changes. To evaluate the sequence of abrupt hydroclimatic shifts and centennial-to-millennial hydrologic variability in western North America over the past 17 ka, we reconstruct lake-level histories from two high-elevation lakes in the Beartooth and Bighorn Mountains. The lakes represent the headwaters of the Missouri River drainage in northern Wyoming, but also have the potential to capture regional hydroclimate variability that links the northern Rocky Mountains to the mid-continent, Pacific Northwest, and the Great Basin. We first discuss the stratigraphic record of lake-level changes in small mid-latitude lakes and then use ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and sediment cores to track the elevations of shoreline sediments within the lakes through time. We compare the stratigraphies to the records from four other lakes in Wyoming and Colorado, and find widespread evidence for a Terminal Pleistocene Drought from 15-11 ka, an early Holocene humid period from 11-8 ka, and a period of severe mid-Holocene aridity from 8-5.7 ka. The northern Wyoming lakes also provide evidence of high levels before ca. 15 ka, including rapid hydroclimatic changes at ca. 16.8 ka during Heinrich Event 1. We place the changes in a broad context by summarizing and mapping water-level changes from 107 additional, previously studied lakes. Important patterns include 1) extensive drying across the western U.S. after 15 ka; 2) coherent sub-regional differences during the Younger Dryas and Pleistocene-Holocene transition; 3) a north-south contrast from 9-6 ka consistent with a northward shift in storm tracks as the influence of the Laurentide Ice Sheet diminished; and 4) rapid increases in effective moisture across much of western North America from 6-4 ka.

  2. Orbital- versus glacial-mode forcing of tropical African climate: Results of scientific drilling in Lake Malawi, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, C. A.; Cohen, A. S.; Johnson, T. C.; King, J. W.; Brown, E. T.; Lyons, R. P.; Stone, J. R.; Beuning, K. R.

    2007-12-01

    Lake Malawi extends from 9-14 degrees S within the East African Rift Valley, and at 700 m deep, contains more than 20 percent of the surface water on the African continent. In 2005 the Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project drilled 7 holes at two sites in the lake, recovering a continuous sediment record that samples much of the Quaternary. Detailed studies completed to date on sediments deposited during the past 145 ka indicate periods of severe aridity at precessional frequency between 135 and 75 ka, when the lake's water volume was periodically reduced by at least 95 percent. These dramatic drops in lake level (more than 550 m), signifying markedly arid conditions in the catchment, are documented in sediment lithology (decreased organic carbon content and increased authigenic carbonate content during severe lowstands), aquatic microfossils (appearance of a littoral ostracode fauna, and saline/alkaline lake diatom flora during extreme low lake stages), as well as in dramatic reductions in catchment pollen production. These intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum, and are consistent with sediment records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa). In all three lakes a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions is observed after ~70 ka. The transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with the relaxation of orbital eccentricity and a reduction in the amplitude of precession. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but these new drill cores provide evidence for dramatically drier conditions prior to 70 ka that have not as yet been detected in marine sediment records. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations.

  3. Using discontinuous wave-cut terraces to reconstruct the history of former glacial lake levels: the example of Lake Ojibway in NW Quebec (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubois, V.; Roy, M.; Veillette, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The decay of the southern Laurentide ice sheet maring during the last deglaciation led to the development of Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway that covered large areas in the western prairies and in NE Ontario-NW Quebec, respectively. The history of glacial lakes is commonly based on the study of strandlines that generally consist of sandy beaches (and near-shore facies) or boulder ridges. However, the use of this approach is limited in the main Ojibway basin where the surficial geology consists predominantly of thick accumulation of fine-grained glaciolacustrine deposits that mask most deglacial landforms and the underlying bedrock. Nonetheless, earlier mapping programs in this flat-lying clay plain revealed a complex sequence of discontinuous small-scale cliffs that are made of Ojibway rhythmites. These terrace-like features range in size from 4 to 7 m in height and can generally be followed for 10 to 100's of meters, and sometimes for several kms. These small-scale features are interpreted to represent raised shorelines that were cut into glaciolacustrine sediments by lakeshore erosional processes (i.e., wave action). These so-called wave-cut benches (WCBs) occur at elevations ranging mostly from 3 to 30 m above the present level of Lake Abitibi (267 m), one of the lowest landmarks in the area. Here we evaluate the feasibility of using this type of shorelines to constrain the evolution of Ojibway lake levels in NW Quebec. For this purpose, a series of wave-cut terraces (WCBs) were measured along two north-south transects of about 40 km in length in the Lake Abitibi region. The absolute elevation of more than 70 WCBs was determined with a Digital Video Plotter software package using 1:15K air-photos, coupled with precise measurements (x,y,z coordinates) of control points, which were measured with a high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System tied up to known geodesic survey markers. Preliminary results suggest that Lake Ojibway experienced at least three

  4. Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: growing and advancing in spite of global climate change and the 1986 and 2002 Russell Lake outburst floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, Dennis C.; March, Rod S.; Thomas, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    Hubbard Glacier, the largest calving glacier on the North American Continent (25 percent larger than Rhode Island), advanced across the entrance to 35-mile-long Russell Fiord during June 2002, temporarily turning it into a lake. Hubbard Glacier has been advancing for more than 100 years and has twice closed the entrance to Russell Fiord during the last 16 years by squeezing and pushing submarine glacial sediments across the mouth of the fiord. Water flowing into the cutoff fiord from mountain streams and glacier melt causes the level of Russell Lake to rise. However, both the 1986 and 2002 dams failed before the lake altitude rose enough for water to spill over a low pass at the far end of the fiord and enter the Situk River drainage, a world-class sport and commercial fishery near Yakutat, Alaska.

  5. The Occurrence and Climatic Implications of a Rapid Regression of Lake Elsinore, CA, During the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markle, B. R.; Kirby, M.; Carrasco, J.

    2008-12-01

    Southern California is a densely populated region, highly sensitive to climate change and prone to potentially devastating hydrologic variability (e.g. droughts, floods, etc). In the interest of characterizing past climatic and hydrologic variability, this study analyzes a sediment core from Lake Elsinore, California with a particular focus on a possible rapid regression event at the height of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (between 19,330 and 21,070 calendar yr BP). Sediment analyses (grain size, magnetic susceptibility, and total organic matter) and geochemical analyses (δ13C and molar C/N) are used to characterize and identify this event (hereafter referred to as the Last Glacial Maximum Regression Event or LGMRE). The combination of sediment characteristics of the LGMRE is not observed elsewhere in sediment core LESS02-09 suggesting that the event is unique over the period of observation. This rapid drying event is superimposed on a longer, orbital scale transgressive/regressive cycle. Given the generally wet climate of the LGM, the presence of the LGMRE is unexpected and indicates that Southern California is susceptible to rapid climate change. Evidence suggests synchrony at both orbital and centennial time scales between the Lake Elsinore climate record of the LGM and other terrestrial and marine climate records from southern California as well as the Great Basin region. Furthermore, evidence is presented for synchrony between the Lake Elsinore sediment core and the GISP 2 ice core record from Greenland, at both orbital the centennial time scales, suggesting climatic teleconnections between Southern California and the North Atlantic. It is possible that these two geographically distant areas are linked via dynamics of the altered Last Glacial Maximum jet stream.

  6. Factors affecting population fluctuations of the glacial relict amphipod Monoporeia affinis (Lindström) in Sweden's largest lakes.

    PubMed

    Goedkoop, W; Johnson, R K

    2001-12-01

    Factors affecting long-term (1982-2000) population densities of the glacial relict amphipod Monoporeia affinis were studied in Sweden's three largest lakes. Monoporeia showed large population fluctuations in all three lakes, with conspicuous peaks in density occurring in Lakes Vänern and Mälaren. In Lake Vänern, amphipod densities showed highly significant relationships with spring maximum diatom biovolume at a 1-yr lag. The lack of relationship between diatom biovolumes and Monoporeia densities in L. Vättern is likely due to the larger depth and the lower nutrient content of this lake. In eutrophic L. Mälaren, summer hypoxia (< 4 mg O2 L-1) is likely an important regulating factor. Hypolimnetic temperature showed a clear periodicity with relatively warm deep water occurring between 1989 and 1994. Hypolimnetic temperatures in Vänern and Vättern were correlated with total solar irradiance. However, neither hypolimnetic water temperature nor diatom biovolumes correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation winter index. We speculate that variations in temperature and near-bottom oxygen concentrations negatively affect population densities by acting on recruitment success (reproduction) and juvenile (young-of-the-year) survival.

  7. Tracking Holocene glacial and high-altitude alpine environments fluctuations from minerogenic and organic markers in proglacial lake sediments (Lake Blanc Huez, Western French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonneau, Anaëlle; Chapron, Emmanuel; Garçon, Marion; Winiarski, Thierry; Graz, Yann; Chauvel, Catherine; Debret, Maxime; Motelica-Heino, Mickaël; Desmet, Marc; Di Giovanni, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Holocene palaeoenvironmental evolution and glacial fluctuations at high-altitude in the western French Alps are reconstructed based on a multiproxy approach within Lake Blanc Huez (2550 m a.s.l.) drainage basin. The combination of seismic profiling (3.5 kHz), piston coring and radiocarbon dating in proglacial lacustrine sediments together with a detailed organic analysis of autochthonous and allochthonous supply allows documenting the evolution of glacier activity during the Holocene. Over the last 9700 years, the Holocene lake record has a bimodal pattern whose transition is progressive and occurring between 5400 and 4700 cal BP. During the Early Holocene, the organic lacustrine facies reflects reduced glacial activity in the catchment. This major glacial retreat seems to result from solar forcing and high summer insolation. After 5400 cal BP, lacustrine sedimentation is marked by the gradual increase both of minerogenic supply and soil erosion, suggesting a progressive transition to wetter climatic conditions. This climate change is synchronous both from the gradual decrease of summer insolation and the gradual reorganization of oceanic and atmospheric circulations, characterizing the beginning of the Neoglacial period. Both colder temperature and humid climate induced significant glacier advance, since 4700 cal BP. Over this global trend, three periods are particularly associated with higher runoff processes and higher soil erosion interpreted as wetter time intervals resulting from enhanced northern Westerlies regimes across the North Atlantic and Western Europe. They are dated from 8700 to 7000, 4700 to 2500 and 1200 to 200 cal BP. These wetter phases drastically contrast with periods of reduced glacial activities dated from the Early Bronze Age (ca 3870-3770 cal BP), the Iron Age (ca 2220-2150 cal BP), the Roman period (ca AD115-330) and the Medieval Warm Period (ca AD760-1160). In addition, these dryer periods are associated with mining activities at high-altitude.

  8. Remote sensing and GIS investigation of glacial features in the region of Devil's Lake State Park, South-Central Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytwyn, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    This study utilizes Landsat TM, ASTER and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived DEMs in conjunction with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in order to reevaluate previously-published interpretations of glacial landforms in and around Devil's Lake State Park, south-central Wisconsin, USA. Devil's Lake sits in a gorge carved into the southern flank of a doubly-plunging syncline known as the Baraboo Hills through which the Wisconsin or some other river flowed prior to the last ice age. During the last glacial maximum about 18,000 B.P., an outlet glacier of the Laurentide Ice Sheet called the Green Bay Lobe extended southward into south-central Wisconsin and left behind extensive glacial landforms such as moraines, drumlins and eskers. During advance of the Green Bay Lobe into the region, Devil's Lake Gorge was plugged at both ends by glacial deposits and resulted in formation of Devil's Lake. The Wisconsin River, if it originally flowed through Devil's Lake Gorge, found a new course to the east of the Baraboo Hills Syncline. This study utilizes the aforementioned remote sensing data to spatially image the following features: (1) Original extent of the Green Bay Lobe, (2) Moraines and streamlined glacial landforms as indicators of ice-flow directions, and (3) Former path of the old Wisconsin or some other river prior to being rerouted by the Green Bay Lobe. GIS analysis is also performed in order to test published interpretations of the regional glacial history. This study confirms that glacial features observed today are consistent with the former advance of the Green Bay Lobe into the area, formation of glacial Lake Wisconsin, plugging of Devil's Lake Gorge by a moraine to form Devil's Lake, and subsequent glacial retreat leading to the breaching of an ice dam and catastrophic flooding by ~ 14,000 years ago. The large aerial coverage of satellite imagery with resolutions up to 15 m are valuable for reevaluating regional interpretations previously based on local

  9. Climatic Oscillations 10,000-155,000 yr B.P. at Owens Lake, California Reflected in Glacial Rock Flour Abundance and Lake Salinity in Core OL-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Menking, K.M.; Fitts, J.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the acid-soluble and clay-size fractions of sediment samples (1500-yr resolution) reveal oscillations of lake salinity and of glacial advances in core OL-92 back to 155,000 yr B.P. Relatively saline conditions are indicated by the abundance of carbonate and smectite (both pedogenic and authigenic), reflected by Ca, Sr, and Mg in the acid-soluble suite, and by Cs2O, excess MgO, and LOI (loss on ignition) in the clay-size fraction. Rock flour produced during glacial advances is represented by the abundance of detrital plagioclase and biotite in the clay-size fraction, the ratio of which remains essentially constant over the entire time span. These phases are quantitatively represented by Na2O, TiO2, Ba, and Mn in the clay fraction. The rock-flour record indicates two major ice-advances during the penultimate glacial cycle corresponding to marine isotope stage (MIS) 6, no major advances during the last interglaciation (entire MIS 5), and three major advances during the last glacial cycle (MIS 2, 3, and 4). The ages of the latter three correspond rather well to 36Cl dates reported for Sierra Nevada moraines. The onset of the last interglaciation is shown by abrupt increases in authigenic CaCO3 and an abrupt decrease in rock flour, at about 118,000 yr B.P. according to our time scale. In contrast, the boundary appears to be gradual in the ??18O record in which the change from light to heavy values begins at about 140,000 yrs B.P. The exact position of the termination, therefore, may be proxy-dependent. Conditions of high carbonate and low rock flour prevailed during the entire period from 118,000 yr B.P. until the glacial advance at 53,000 yr B.P. signaled the end of this long interglaciation. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  10. Determining the Influence of Dust on Post-Glacial Lacustrine Sedimentation in Bald Lake, Uinta Mountains, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, S. S.; McElroy, R.; Munroe, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Dust is increasingly recognized as an important component of biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in mountain environments. Previous work has shown that delivery of dust to the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah has influenced pedogenesis, soil nutrient status, and surface water chemistry. An array of passive and active samplers in the alpine zone of the Uintas provides detailed information about contemporary dust fluxes, along with physical and geochemical properties of modern dust. Reconstruction of changes in the dust system over time, however, requires continuous sedimentary archives sensitive to dust inputs. A radiocarbon-dated 3.5-m core (spanning 12.7 kyr) collected from subalpine Bald Lake may provide such a record. Passive dust collectors in the vicinity of the lake constrain the geochemical properties of modern dust, whereas samples of regolith constrain properties of the local surficial material within the watershed. Together, these represent two end member sources of clastic sediment to Bald Lake basin: allochthonous dust and autochthonous regolith. Ba and Eu are found in higher abundances in the dust than in the watershed regolith. Zr and Th are found to be lower in the dust than in the watershed. Geochemical analysis of the sediment core allows the relative contribution of exotic and local material to the lake to be considered as a time series covering the post-glacial interval when indicator elements are plotted. Findings suggest Bald Lake's dust record tracks regional aridity and corresponds to low-stands of large lakes in the southwestern United States. Spatial variability of elemental abundances in the watershed suggests there are more than two input sources contributing to the lake over time.

  11. Glacial areas, lakes areas, and snowlines from 1975-2012: Status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, Maiana Natania

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far), yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975-2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: First, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 +/- 1.70 km2/yr (22-year average, 1988-2010, with 95 % confidence interval). The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 +/- 0.18 km2/yr since 1980 (31-year average, 1980-2011, also with 95 % confidence interval); Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000-2011) as compared to the preceding decade (1990-2000); Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61 % of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84 % of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 years provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate variability in this area. These data can be integrated into further

  12. Glacial areas, lake areas, and snowlines from 1975 to 2012: status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, M. N.; Bookhagen, B.

    2013-02-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far), yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975-2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: first, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 ± 1.70 km2 yr-1 (22-yr average, 1988-2010, with 95% confidence interval). The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 ± 0.18 km2 yr-1 since 1980 (31-yr average, 1980-2011, also with 95% confidence interval); Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000-2011) as compared to the preceding decade (1990-2000); Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61% of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84% of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 yr provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate variability in this area. These data can be integrated into further studies

  13. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  14. Late Glacial to Holocene abrupt temperature changes recorded by Crenarchaeota in Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstättersee, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaga, Cornelia I.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Lotter, André F.; Anselmetti, Flavio; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2010-05-01

    In this study we applied the TEX86 (TetraEther Index of 86 carbon atoms) temperature proxy to a sediment core from Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstättersee) to reconstruct, in almost decadal resolution, temperature changes during the Younger Dryas and the Early Holocene (ca. 14600 to 10600 cal. BP). The TEX86 proxy suggests a sequence of shifts during the late glacial period that strongly resemble the shifts in δ18O values from the Greenland ice core record. The TEX86-reconstructed lake temperature record indicates a step-wise pattern of climate changes across the studied interval with a shift from colder to warmer temperatures at the onset of the late-glacial interstadial, followed by an abrupt cooling at the onset of Younger Dryas and a rapid warming from 5.5 to 9°C at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition in less than 200 years. The temperature change associated with the Interstadial-Younger Dryas alternation is ca. 4 °C and is in line with previous temperature reconstructions based on different proxies. The rapid changes in temperature associated with the last deglaciation are reflected in the highest possible detail in the TEX86 record. It is thus clear that our proxy, based on the isoprenoidal GDGTs (Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers), is capable to reflect high resolution records of rapid (decadal to century scale oscillations) environmental fluctuations comparable with those obtained from ice cores.

  15. Reconstructing Climate Change Since The Late Glacial At Amsterdamøya, NW Svalbard (80°N), Based On Lake Sediments From Lake Hakluytvatnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerde, Marthe; Bakke, Jostein; D'Andrea, William J.; Balascio, Nicholas L.; Hormes, Anne; Bradley, Raymond S.

    2015-04-01

    Records of past climatic changes are sparse and poorly resolved in the Arctic due to obvious reasons such as lack of dateable organic material and logistical challenges. Here, we present a new time series from the island of Amsterdamøya, NW Svalbard (80°N), based on lake sediments from Lake Hakluytvatnet. Located at the northernmost branch of the North Atlantic Current, this high-Arctic site is ideally placed to infer changes in past atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns recorded as changes in precipitation and temperature. Our novel data set provides a climatic reconstruction based on multi-proxy analyses on lake sediments from a non-glacial lake. We have combined one long piston core with a shorter gravity core to capture the entire sediment infill from the bottom of the basin to the most recently accumulated sediments on top. A robust chronology has been established for the cores through 28 AMS radiocarbon (14C) ages in combination with one lead (210Pb) profile of the most recent sediments, and this gives an unprecedented age control for a lake at this latitude as well as a precise sediment accumulation rate. The Hakluytvatnet cores are analysed for physical sediment properties as well as newer scanning instruments (e.g. XRF scanning, Scanning Electron Microscope, SEM, analyses) in order to produce a high-resolution reconstruction of the climate development for the study site. A separate alkenone study will produce a high-resolution temperature curve for the area. Soil samples from the surrounding catchment have also been subject to geochemical analyses in order to distinguish between the relative influences of different sediment sources on sediment accumulation in the lake. Geomorphological mapping has been carried out to combine interpretation of the catchment development with the lake sediment record interpretation. Numerical analyses (e.g. Principal Component Analysis, PCA) are applied on the results from the lake sediment and catchment samples in

  16. Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of culturable, cold-active enzymes producing Bacilli was investigated from three sub-glacial lakes of north western Indian Himalayas. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I, and Hae III led to the clustering of 136 Bacilli into 26, 23, and 22 clusters at 75% similarity index from Chandratal Lake, Dashair Lake, and Pangong Lake, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 35 Bacilli that could be grouped in seven families viz.: Bacillaceae (48%), Staphylococcaceae (14%), Bacillales incertae sedis (13%), Planococcaceae (12%), Paenibacillaceae (9%), Sporolactobacillaceae (3%), and Carnobacteriaceae (1%), which included twelve different genera Bacillus, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, and Virgibacillus. Based on their optimal temperature for growth, 35 Bacilli were grouped as psychrophilic (11 strains), psychrotrophic (17 strains), or psychrotolerant (7 strains), respectively. The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for cold-active enzyme activities. Amylase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and protease activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 80% of the strains while approximately 40, 31, 23, 14, 11, and 9% of strains possessed cellulase, xylanase, β-galactosidase, laccase, chitinase, and lipase activity, respectively. Among 35 Bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus marisflavi, Exiguobacterium indicum, Paenibacillus terrae, Pontibacillus sp., Sporosarcina globispora, and Sporosarcina psychrophila were efficient producers of different cold-active enzymes. These cold-adapted Bacilli could play an important role in industrial and agricultural processes.

  17. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  18. High-Resolution Geochemical and Paleoecological Records of Climate Change Since the Late Glacial at Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alin, S. R.; Cohen, A. S.

    2002-12-01

    We used high-resolution geochemical and paleoecological records from shallow-water sediment cores to refine previous descriptions of climatic conditions at Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, for the period from the Late Glacial to the present. Radiocarbon and 210Pb dating were used to establish chronologies for the cores. Sedimentological changes indicate that lake level has risen approximately 50-70 m since the Late Glacial. A depositional hiatus occurred between 6.4 and 11.4 ka BP (all dates in calendar years) in several of the shallow-water cores. Elemental abundance (%C, %N) and stable isotopic (δ15N, δ13C) data for one core suggest that substantial changes in primary productivity and nutrient recycling regimes have occurred since 6.4 ka BP. Carbonate and ostracode crustacean preservation were low and nil, respectively, prior to 2.4 ka BP. Generally, these data support previous interpretations of regional paleoclimate and lake conditions, with wet and warm conditions during the interval from 6.4 to 4.0 ka, and increasingly arid conditions since 2.4 ka. However, for the interval from 4.0 to 2.4 ka, paleoenvironmental indicators (δ15N, reduced carbonate and ostracode preservation) suggest that the central part of Lake Tanganyika was stably stratified at a shallower depth than present as a result of diminished southerly trade winds. After 2.4 ka BP, sedimentary carbonate concentrations increase, and δ13C values become enriched, suggesting that lacustrine productivity increased with the resumption of deeper wind-driven mixing, lasting until 1 ka BP. For post-2.4 ka samples, species abundance data for ostracodes were used to generate an ostracode water depth index (OWDI). OWDI indicated that severe drought conditions were persistent or recurred at Lake Tanganyika between 1550 and 1850 A.D. Droughts resulted in marked lowstands at Lake Tanganyika at 1580+/-15 A.D., 1730+/-35 A.D., and 1800+/-30 A.D. These data contribute new information on the timing of Little Ice Age

  19. Preliminary Vertical Slip Rate for the West Tahoe Fault from six new Cosmogenic 10Be Exposure Ages of Late Pleistocene Glacial Moraines at Cascade Lake, Lake Tahoe, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, I. K. D.; Wesnousky, S. G.; Kent, G. M.; Owen, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The West Tahoe Fault is the primary range bounding fault of the Sierra Nevada at the latitude of Lake Tahoe. It is a N-NW striking, east dipping normal fault that has a pronounced onshore quaternary scarp extending from highway 50 southwest of Meyers, CA to Emerald Bay. At Cascade Lake, the fault cuts and progressively offsets late Pleistocene right lateral moraines. The fault vertically offsets the previously mapped Tahoe moraine ~83 m and the Tioga moraine ~23 m, measured from lidar data. Seventeen samples were collected for 10Be cosmogenic age analysis from boulders on both the hanging and footwalls of the fault along the crests of these moraines.We report here the initial analysis of 6 of these boulders and currently await processing of the remainder. The 10Be exposure ages of 3 boulders each on the younger Tioga and older Tahoe moraines range from 12.7 +/- 1.6 to 20.7 +/- 3.3 ka and 13.3 +/- 2.1 to 72.5 +/- 8.8 ka, respectively. Using the oldest ages as minima, these preliminary results suggest that the slip rate has averaged ~1 mm/yr since the penultimate glaciation, in accord with estimates of previous workers, and place additional bounds on the age of glaciation in the Lake Tahoe basin. The Last Glacial Maxima and penultimate glaciation near Lake Tahoe thus appear to coincide with the Tioga and Tahoe II glaciations of the Eastern Sierra.

  20. Late Glacial and Holocene environmental history of Wielkopolska region (western Poland) recorded in sediments of Strzeszyńskie Lake and Kierskie Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleskot, Krzysztof; Szczuciński, Witold; Tjallingii, Rik; Makohonienko, Mirosław; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The growing amount of publications concerning reconstructions of Late Glacial and Holocene environment based on analysis of lake sediments gives us robust insight into general patterns of that record. However, it is still challenging to decipher processes and events that occurred on local scale, as they record may be strongly affected by the type, catchment, size and depth of a lake. Therefore in the present study we focus on application of sedimentological and geochemical methods in order to reveal environmental history from two neighbouring lakes located within city of Poznań, Wielkopolska (western Poland). The lake sediments analysis cover Late Glacial and Holocene in case of smaller Strzeszyńskie Lake (SL) and the last 8 ka in deeper Kierskie Lake (KL). The study is based on two 8.5 (SL) and 14 (KL) m long sediment cores, which were described and analyzed in thin sections and on smear slides. The relative chemical composition variations within the cores were measured using an X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Moreover, the cores were measured for magnetic susceptibility and sampled for pollen analysis. The chronology has been established by a AMS 14C dating of bulk samples of lake sediments. To assess the reservoir effect, selected samples were analyzed for soluble and residual carbon fractions. Our results suggest the onset of authigenic sedimentation in SL in Allerød. The sediments from this period are characterized by high organic matter and low carbonate content. This trend changed into opposite at the beginning of the Younger Dryas, while at its termination sediments again became more organic. The transition to Holocene is marked by spread of Betula forest, gradual increase in magnetic susceptibility and Ca content together with decreasing organic matter and clastic input. During Preboreal and Boreal period the relatively stable conditions was noted. Then, ca. 8.5 ka BP, sharp decrease in magnetic susceptibility occurred coincided with deciduous forest

  1. Beryllium isotopes as tracers of Lake Lisan (last Glacial Dead Sea) hydrology and the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmaker, Reuven; Stein, Mordechai; Beer, Jürg; Christl, Marcus; Fink, David; Lazar, Boaz

    2014-08-01

    The content of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be (t1/2=1.39 Ma) in lacustrine sediments that deposit in lakes with a large watershed is susceptible to both climate and cosmogenic production rate variations. In order to distinguish between these two controls, we measured 10Be and major elements in several sections of the annually laminated sediments of the Lake Lisan (the last Glacial precursor of the Dead Sea) that are composed of detrital sediments and primary (evaporitic) aragonites. The sections were selected to represent regional hydrology and climate as reflected by different lake configurations (level rise, drop and high-stands) and rapid change in the 10Be production rate during the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion. Since the short-lived cosmogenic “sister” of 10Be, 7Be (t1/2=53.3 d) has virtually no recycled component, the recycled 10Be in Lake Lisan detrital sediments was evaluated by measuring 7Be in their modern equivalents: modern flood suspended matter, dust and mud cracks. Our results demonstrate that although the recycled 10Be component is significant, secular variations in the 10Be concentration in Lake Lisan sediments correlate with hydrological variations and geomagnetic excursions. During periods of moderate variations in 10Be production rate, the 10Be concentration in the Lisan detrital sediments positively correlates with lake level, Al + Fe content and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. These correlations suggest that the 10Be is adsorbed on the fine silicate component (probably clays) of the detrital laminae. The fine silicates together with carbonates were transported to Dead Sea drainage basin mainly as airborne dust that after a short residence time was washed into Lake Lisan as flood suspended matter. We suggest that preferential dissolution of carbonates in the flood suspended matter concentrated the residual fine component leading to the positive correlation between 10Be and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. During periods of increased water

  2. Endogenic carbonate sedimentation in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho, over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    that is at least 50 yr old, and probably older. Apparently, the microbialite mound also stopped forming aragonite cement sometime after Bear River diversion. Because of reworking of old aragonite, the bulk mineralogy of carbonate in bottom sediments has not changed very much since the diversion. However, the diversion is marked by very distinct changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the bulk carbonate. After the last glacial interval (LGI), a large amount of endogenic carbonate began to precipitate in Bear Lake when the Pacific moisture that filled the large pluvial lakes of the Great Basin during the LGI diminished, and Bear River apparently abandoned Bear Lake. At first, the carbonate that formed was low-Mg calcite, but ???11,000 years ago, salinity and Mg2+:Ca2+ thresholds must have been crossed because the amount of aragonite gradually increased. Aragonite is the dominant carbonate mineral that has accumulated in the lake for the past 7000 years, with the addition of high-Mg calcite after the diversion of Bear River into the lake at the beginning of the twentieth century. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  3. Climatic changes at the Lake Lautrey (Jura, France) during the Last Glacial-Holocene transition as inferred from pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyron, O.; Begeot, C.; Ruffaldi, P.; Magny, M.; Millet, L.

    2003-04-01

    This study is a part of a multi-proxy project dealing with the reconstruction of environmental changes at Lake Lautrey (Jura Mountains, eastern France), in relation to large-scale rapid climatic oscillations during the Last Glacial-Holocene transition. Our aim is to present a high-resolution climatic reconstruction of the Last Glacial-Holocene transition based on two pollen sequences from Lake Lautrey. In order to obtain a robust quantitative reconstruction, 3 different methods have been used. The classical best analogues method, the transfer function called “plant functional type method”, and the recent inverse modelling method (which use the vegetation model BIOME4 in an inverse mode to reconstruct the most probable climate) are applied to the Lake Lautrey pollen records. A new modern pollen dataset including 834 modern pollen samples from Europe, Eurasia, Tibetan plateau, and Mediterranean area are used to calibrate the methods. The climatic and bioclimatic parameters reconstructed are the annual precipitation Pann (mm/yr), the mean temperature of the warmest Tw (°C) and the coldest months Tc (°C), in addition to the ratio of real to potential evapotranspiration E/PE (%).In our reconstruction, the transition from the Oldest Dryas to Bølling corresponds to a rapid warming. The beginning of the Younger Dryas and the transition between the Younger Dryas and Preboreal are also well reconstructed. The reconstructed climatic values obtained from the different methods are roughly in agreement. However, significant differences are highlighted. Furthermore, to validate the reconstruction, our pollen-inferred temperatures estimates are compared to the paleotemperatures of the warmest month obtained by applying a transfer function based on chironomids assemblages. The Lateglacial is marked by large-scale rapid changes in vegetation and appears as a key period to validate the climatic reconstruction methods.

  4. Hydrogeology of glacial-terrain lakes, with management and planning applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Born, S.M.; Smith, S.A.; Stephenson, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of the relationship between groundwater and lakes is characterized by sparse information and, in general, has received limited attention by hydrologists. Nevertheless, the hydrogeologic regime of lakes must be adequately assessed in order to intelligently manage lakes and their related shorelands. This paper is a compilation of hydrogeologic data for numerous lakes in North America and presents a preliminary classification framework for lakes based on hydrogeologic considerations. The classification leads to systematic categorization of lake types for planning and management purposes. The main hydrogeologic factors for assessing lake environments are: (1) regime dominance, the relative magnitude of groundwater in the total water budget of a lake; (2) system efficiency, a description of the rate aspects of surface and groundwater movement through a lake system; and (3) position within a groundwater flow system. We indicate the significance and difficulty of measuring these descriptive characteristics and provide examples of each category. Additionally, a variety of lake-related activities that illustrate the value of hydrogeologic information for planning and management purposes are presented. ?? 1979.

  5. Seasonal Daphnia biomass in winterkill and nonwinterkill glacial lakes of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isermann, D.A.; Chipps, S.R.; Brown, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the seasonal biomass (??g dry weight/L) and body size of Daphnia pulex populations between South Dakota lakes that experienced nearly complete winterkill (n = 2) and those that did not experience fish winterkill the previous winter (n = 2). In spring (March-May), D. pulex biomass was substantially lower in winterkill lakes (0.4-1.9 ??g/L) than in nonwinterkill lakes (13.8-129.4 ??g/L). In summer months (June-July), D. pulex biomass increased in all lakes but was generally higher in winterkill lakes (332.1-469. 3 ??g/L) than in nonwinterkill lakes (88.6-204.2 ??g/L). By September, D. pulex biomass was substantially higher in winterkill lakes (243.8 ??g/L) than in nonwinterkill lakes (1.0 ??g/L). The mean size of D. pulex increased significantly from March to August in winterkill lakes but not in nonwinterkill lakes. The seasonal differences in D. pulex biomass and size may have been related to size-selective predation by planktivorous fishes because the ratio of spine length to body length in D. pulex was significantly lower in winterkill lakes (mean, 0.34) than in nonwinterkill lakes (mean, 0.43). Moreover, seasonal patterns in chlorophyll-a biomass were inversely related to D. pulex biomass. The production and subsequent hatching of resting eggs may be important for recolonization of Daphnia populations after severe winter conditions. The survival and growth of zooplanktivorous fish that are stocked to repopulate winterkill lakes may be increased by delaying stocking until Daphnia populations recover from severe winterkill.

  6. Impacts of climate and humans on the vegetation in northwestern Turkey: palynological insights from Lake Iznik since the Last Glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miebach, Andrea; Niestrath, Phoebe; Roeser, Patricia; Litt, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The Marmara region in northwestern Turkey provides a unique opportunity for studying the vegetation history in response to climate changes and anthropogenic impacts because of its location between different climate and vegetation zones and its long settlement history. Geochemical and mineralogical investigations of the largest lake in the region, Lake Iznik, already registered climate-related changes of the lake level and the lake mixing. However, a palynological investigation encompassing the Late Pleistocene to Middle Holocene was still missing. Here, we present the first pollen record of the last ca. 31 ka cal BP (calibrated kilo years before 1950) inferred from Lake Iznik sediments as an independent proxy for paleoecological reconstructions. Our study reveals that the vegetation in the Iznik area changed generally between (a) steppe during glacials and stadials indicating dry and cold climatic conditions, (b) forest-steppe during interstadials indicating milder and moister climatic conditions, and (c) oak-dominated mesic forest during interglacials indicating warm and moist climatic conditions. Moreover, a pronounced succession of pioneer trees, cold temperate, warm temperate, and Mediterranean trees appeared since the Lateglacial. Rapid climate changes, which are reflected by vegetation changes, can be correlated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events such as DO-4, DO-3, and DO-1, the Younger Dryas, and probably also the 8.2 event. Since the mid-Holocene, the vegetation was influenced by anthropogenic activities. During early settlement phases, the distinction between climate-induced and human-induced changes of the vegetation is challenging. Still, evidence for human activities consolidates since the Early Bronze Age (ca. 4.8 ka cal BP): cultivated trees, crops, and secondary human indicator taxa appeared, and forests were cleared. Subsequent fluctuations between extensive agricultural uses and regenerations of the natural vegetation become apparent.

  7. Early recognition of glacial lake hazards in the Himalaya using remote sensing datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, D. J.; Richardson, S. D.; Luckman, A.; Lucas, R. M.; Reynolds, J. M.; Hambrey, M. J.; Glasser, N. F.

    2007-03-01

    Glacier recession in high-Himalayan catchments leads to the formation of moraine-dammed lakes on many debris-covered glacier tongues. Such lakes are hazardous to communities and infrastructure downstream because of their potential to breach catastrophically, and their early recognition is required if remedial efforts are to be timely and cost-effective. Whilst the development of supraglacial lakes is known to begin as a series of ponds that subsequently coalesce into a larger lake, the relationship between glacier dynamics and lake formation is not well understood. Using ERS-1 and ERS-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, SPOT-5 optical imagery and historical aerial photography, information is presented on the dynamics and structure of glaciers in Tibet (China) and Nepal that drain the southern side of the Himalaya. Glacier velocity data derived from interferometry show that where lakes are developing on debris-covered tongues the ice is virtually stagnant (displacements < 5 m a - 1 ). Furthermore, elevation data from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) derived from aerial photography and SPOT-5 HRS data reveal that supraglacial lake formation is prevalent where glacier surface gradients are less than 2° from the glacier terminus, supporting empirical observations from previous work. The resolution offered by the DEMs and SAR data allows variations in transverse glacier elevations and velocities to be detected, such that the pattern of lake development on an individual glacier can be identified. Whilst the glacier surface gradient provides the boundary conditions favourable for lake formation, local variations in glacier velocity and surface morphology between flow units control the precise location of lake growth. Integrating the surface gradient and velocity information into a single analysis highlights those glaciers that are particularly vulnerable to lake development over an expected decadal timescale. The wider application of these techniques, based on remote

  8. Ecosystem responses during Late Glacial period recorded in the sediments of Lake Łukie (East Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Słowiński, Michał; Correa-Metrio, Alex; Obremska, Milena; Luoto, Tomi; Nevalainen, Liisa; Woszczyk, Michał; Milecka, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    The main objectives of this study was to reconstruct climate impact on the functioning of Lake Łukie and its catchment (Łęczna Włodawa Lake District, East European Plain) during Late Glacial period. In order to reconstruct climatic fluctuations and corresponding ecosystem responses, we analysed lake sediments for pollen, subfossil Cladocera, plant macrofossils and chemical composition of the sediment. Of these, plant macrofossils and Cladocera were used to infer minimum and mean July temperatures and ordination analysis was used to examine biotic community shifts. Multiproxy analyses of late-glacial sediments of Lake Łukie clearly show that the main driver of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as geomorphological processes in the catchment was climate variation. The history of the lake initiated during the Older Dryas. In that period, Łęczna Włodawa Lake District was covered by open habitats dominated by grasses (Poaceae), humid sites were occupied by tundra plant communities with less clubmoss (Selaginella selaginoides), dry sites by dominated by steppe-like vegetation with light-demanding species such as Helianthemum, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and juniper bushes (Juniperus). Cold climate limited the growth and development of organisms in the lake, Cladocera community species composition was poor, with only few species present there all the time. During this time period, permafrost was still present in the ground limiting infiltration of rainwater and causing high erosion in the catchment area. Surface runoff is confirmed by the presence of sclerotia of Cenococcum geophilum and high terrigenous silica content. The warming of the early Allerød caused a remarkable change in the natural environment of this area. This is in accordance with the temperature rise reconstructed with the use of plant macrofossils though the Cladocera reconstruction did not recorded the rise than. This temperature increase resulted in turnover of vegetation in the

  9. Lidar Mapping Documents Post-glacial Faulting West of the High Cascades Axis at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, C. R.; Robinson, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Cascades magmatic arc lies mainly within the High Cascades graben system in the state of Oregon. Normal faults of the Klamath graben trend north into Mount Mazama, the volcano whose catastrophic eruption ~7700 cal y BP resulted in collapse of 8x10 km Crater Lake caldera. Geologic mapping of Mount Mazama (Bacon, USGS SIM 2832, 2008) delineated faults of the West Klamath Lake fault zone (WKLFZ) and their northern extensions through Crater Lake National Park west of the caldera. Outcrop patterns implied presence of normal faults farther west but dense conifer forest made discovery of subtle scarps impractical. Closer to the Cascades axis, successively decreasing offsets of mapped Mazama lava flows with decreasing age yielded a long-term vertical slip rate of ~0.3 mm/y on the principal fault segments of the WKLFZ near Crater Lake, where the youngest offset lavas are 35 ka in age. Other workers have found offset lateral moraine crests where Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) valley glaciers crossed the WKLFZ south of Crater Lake. A lidar survey of Crater Lake National Park in 2010 supported by the Oregon Lidar Consortium (Robinson, USGS Data Series 716, 2012) revealed meter-scale, dominantly N-S trending fault scarps with down-to-the-east displacement west of most previously mapped faults at the latitude of Crater Lake, increasing the known width of the fault zone there to as much as 11 km. Fault segments as long as 7-16 km form a semi-continuous system for virtually the entire 32 km N-S extent of lidar coverage. Along the western part of the fault zone, scarp height is as great as ~20 m. Scarp length and height imply that several M>6-7 earthquakes have occurred in late Pleistocene-Holocene time. Field observations show that the ignimbrite of the Mazama climactic eruption banks against or covers scarps. One fault vertically displaces a lateral moraine ~3 m. The moraine contains clasts of ~50 ka andesite and therefore likely dates from the LGM so that the most recent

  10. Using a paleo perspective to demonstrate climate controls on glacial-interglacial weathering: insights from Little Lake, OR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachtman, N. S.; Roering, J. J.; Marshall, J. A.; Gavin, D. G.; Granger, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    While global chemical weathering of silicate minerals has long been postulated to modulate climate over long time scales, the connection between chemical weathering, climate, tectonics and lithology is complex. Thus, the functional relationships between climate and weathering fluxes remain unclear due to difficulty isolating or quantifying pertinent variables. Investigating chemical weathering at the catchment scale provides us with an opportunity to work in a closed system, where many of the relevant parameters, such as source rock, paleoclimate and even erosion history can be well constrained. We used an 50 kyr lake sediment archive to investigate climate controls on ­­chemical weathering at Little Lake, OR in the Oregon Coastal Range. A uniform sandstone lithology in our approximately 6 km2 catchment allows us to use geochemical-mass balance techniques, such as the chemical depletion fraction (CDF) and the chemical index of alteration (CIA) to evaluate weathering intensity and rate. Previous work has shown increased rates of erosion during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 26-23 ka) due to pervasive frost cracking, while soil creep and tree throw are the dominant controls on erosion during the late Holocene ( 2.5 ka to present). We analyzed sections of the core for major and trace elements as well as grainsize. Preliminary results show CDF values in late Holocene and present-day soils coincide (supporting our methodology) and average 0.18, while CDFs are indistinguishable from zero during the LGM. CIA values show a similar trend, ranging from 66 in the sandstone bedrock to >75 in the modern soils and late Holocene lake sediments. Relative concentrations of Zr, Nb, and Ti in bedrock, soil and lake sediment show strong, positive correlation with the CIA. These data imply a weak weathering regime (and low silicate fluxes) during the last glacial interval, possibly due to cool dry conditions, and short residence time of minerals in soils as rates of erosion were high

  11. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow through glacial deposits and crystalline bedrock in the Mirror Lake area, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Goode, D.J.; Hsieh, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    This report documents the development of a computer model to simulate steady-state (long-term average) flow of ground water in the vicinity of Mirror Lake, which lies at the eastern end of the Hubbard Brook valley in central New Hampshire. The 10-km{sup 2} study area includes Mirror Lake, the three streams that flow into Mirror Lake, Leeman`s Brook, Paradise Brook, and parts of Hubbard Brook and the Pemigewasset River. The topography of the area is characterized by steep hillsides and relatively flat valleys. Major hydrogeologic units include glacial deposits, composed of till containing pockets of sand and gravel, and fractured crystal-line bedrock, composed of schist intruded by granite, pegmatite, and lamprophyre. Ground water occurs in both the glacial deposits and bedrock. Precipitation and snowmelt infiltrate to the water table on the hillsides, flow downslope through the saturated glacial deposits and fractured bedrock, and discharge to streams and to Mirror Lake. The model domain includes the glacial deposits, the uppermost 150 m of bedrock, Mirror Lake, the layer of organic sediments on the lake bottom, and streams and rivers within the study area. A streamflow routing package was included in the model to simulate baseflow in streams and interaction between streams and ground water. Recharge from precipitation is assumed to be areally uniform, and riparian evapotranspiration along stream banks is assumed negligible. The spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity is represented by dividing the model domain into several zones, each having uniform hydraulic properties. Local variations in recharge and hydraulic conductivities are ignored; therefore, the simulation results characterize the general ground-water system, not local details of groundwater movement. 47 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Late-Glacial to Holocene Hydroclimatic Change in the Mojave Desert: Silver Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, M. E.; Knell, E. J.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.; Lachniet, M. S.; Eeg, H.; Lucero, R.; Murrieta, R.; Arevalo, A.; Silveira, E.; Hiner, C.; Palermo, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Silver Lake is the modern terminal playa of the Mojave River. As a result, it is well located to record both influences from the winter precipitation dominated San Bernardino Mountains - the source of the Mojave River - as well as the late-summer to early-fall North American monsoon. Here, we present various physical and geochemical data from a new 8.2 m sediment core taken from Silver Lake, CA that spans modern through 14.8 kcal yrs BP. Age control is based on six bulk organic C radiocarbon dates processed with Bacon v2.2 to generate an age model. Texturally, the core varies between a silty clay and a silty sand, often with abrupt sedimentological transitions. Our working hypothesis states that high percent clay values indicate persistent standing water wherein the deposition, accumulation, and preservation of fine grain sediment exceeds some undefined thickness that inhibits deflation during succeeding desiccation events or ephemeral lake environments. Based on this clay - lake status hypothesis, the sediment core is divided into five lake status intervals. Clay values are highest between 14.4 - 13.5 kcal yrs BP, coeval to Lake Mojave II. Clay values decrease abruptly at 13.5 kcal yrs BP (encapsulating the Younger Dryas) indicating a return to an ephemeral lake. At 11.3 kcal yrs BP, clay values rise abruptly indicating a return to a perennial lake; this early Holocene pluvial ended abruptly at 7.8 kcal yrs BP. From 7.8 - 4.2 kcal yrs BP, clay is low, but variable and mudcracks are common. At 4.2 kcal yrs BP, clay values increase but only moderately indicating a return to more frequent sustained perennial lakes. The early Holocene pluvial is likely a result of higher summer insolation, which generated a more intense and spatially expansive North American monsoon. Coupled with lower winter insolation and thus more winter storms across the region, Silver Lake flourished. A comparison to stable carbon isotope data from Leviathan Cave (NV), support our interpretation

  13. A multiagency and multijurisdictional approach to mapping the glacial deposits of the Great Lakes region in three dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berg, Richard C.; Brown, Steven E.; Thomason, Jason F.; Hasenmueller, Nancy R.; Letsinger, Sally L.; Kincare, Kevin A.; Esch, John M.; Kehew, Alan E.; Thorleifson, L. Harvey; Kozlowski, Andrew L.; Bird, Brian C.; Pavey, Richard R.; Bajc, Andy F.; Burt, Abigail K.; Fleeger, Gary M.; Carson, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The Great Lakes Geologic Mapping Coalition (GLGMC), consisting of state geological surveys from all eight Great Lakes states, the Ontario Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey, was conceived out of a societal need for unbiased and scientifically defensible geologic information on the shallow subsurface, particularly the delineation, interpretation, and viability of groundwater resources. Only a small percentage (<10%) of the region had been mapped in the subsurface, and there was recognition that no single agency had the financial, intellectual, or physical resources to conduct such a massive geologic mapping effort at a detailed scale over a wide jurisdiction. The GLGMC provides a strategy for generating financial and stakeholder support for three-dimensional (3-D) geologic mapping, pooling of physical and personnel resources, and sharing of mapping and technological expertise to characterize the thick cover of glacial sediments. Since its inception in 1997, the GLGMC partners have conducted detailed surficial and 3-D geologic mapping within all jurisdictions, and concurrent significant scientific advancements have been made to increase understanding of the history and framework of geologic processes. More importantly, scientific information has been provided to public policymakers in understandable formats, emphasis has been placed on training early-career scientists in new mapping techniques and emerging technologies, and a successful model has been developed of state/provincial and federal collaboration focused on geologic mapping, as evidenced by this program's unprecedented and long-term successful experiment of 10 geological surveys working together to address common issues.

  14. Regional environment and hydrology changes documented by lake sediments from Lake Dalianhai, northeastern Tibetan Plateau since the last glacial maximum and their relationship with Asian summer monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D.; Chen, F.; Zhou, A.; Abbott, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Variability of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) significantly affects environment and hydrology conditions within its area of influence, as well as economic and social development. Thus it is important to investigate the variability of the ASM on various time-scales and to explore its underlying forcing mechanisms, in order to improve our ability to predict the long-term trends of regional and global climate. Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, a margin area of modern ASM, is sensitive to summer monsoon changes. Existing paleoclimate records from this region contain conflicting evidence for the timing of summer monsoon advance into this region: an early arrival pre-Younger Dryas or a late arrival at the beginning of the Holocene. In addition, it is also debated that whether the Holocene ASM maximum in this region occurred during the early Holocene or the middle Holocene. Here we present a high-resolution record of a 52-m drilling core from Lake Dalianhai in this region. Multiply geochemistry indexes were obtained from the sediment core. 22 AMS 14C data from plant remains and bulk organic matters illustrate that the upper 52 m core covered the whole period since the last glacial maximum (LGM). The results generally indicate that the Lake Dalianhai was occupied by very shallow water body with eolian sand surrounding the lake from 20 to 15 ka BP (1ka=1000 cal yr). With the beginning of the B/A warm period, the sedimentary sequence changed to grey lacustrine clay abruptly. The sedimentary environment was relatively stable under a high lake level state during the B/A period which was marked with fine mean grain size, and high exogenous detrital element content (such as Al, K, Ti and Rb), but with low organic matter content. This perhaps was caused by the increasing of ASM precipitation. Increased contents of element Ca, Sr, and Br, as well as TOC and TN, highlight the increase of ASM during the Holocene. However, reddish lacustrine clay with lower magnetic susceptibility and

  15. The glacial sedimentology and geomorphological evolution of an outwash head/moraine-dammed lake, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Rother, Henrik; Hyatt, Olivia M.; Shulmeister, James

    2013-02-01

    Extensive exposures through the glacial landforms around southern Lake Pukaki, New Zealand, comprise seven lithofacies (LFs 1-7). LFs 1-3 are grouped together as LFA 1 (Pukaki Member) and record pulsed subaqueous grounding line fan progradation, cohesionless debris flows, underflow activity and rhythmite deposition by suspension settling, iceberg rafting of dropstones, and pulsed traction current activity. Localized disturbance of these deposits by glacitectonic deformation and multi-generational hydrofracture fills records minor readvances by the glacier snout and the emplacement of a glacitectonite (LF 4) derived from cannibalization of glacilacustrine sediments. LFs 4-6 are grouped together as LFA 2 (Twizel Member) and record direct glacigenic deposition of glacitectonite (LF 4), subglacial traction till (LF 5) and supraglacially dumped boulder rubble (LF 6). Stratigraphic relationships between LFA 1 with LFA 2 record the oscillatory behaviour of the former Tasman Glacier snout when it formed a calving margin in a proglacial and locally supraglacial lake dammed by a glacitectonically disturbed outwash head and lateral moraine ridges. This is entirely consistent with the landform-sediment record of its coeval terrestrial margins, where flutings and push moraines are diagnostic of active temperate glacier recession from a glacially overridden outwash head, the latter being recorded by the vertically stacked sub-horizontally bedded and coarse-grained gravels of LF 7 (Waitaki Member). Previous proposals that late Pleistocene lake damming was initiated by an ice-cored moraine arc appear unfounded, because the glacilacustrine deposits only lie above the altitude of the outwash head/lateral moraine arc in locations where they have been glacitectonically compressed. Alternatively, it is proposed that the overdeepened subglacial topography was produced by the construction of an outwash head, leading to a glacilacustrine sediment sink which operates at times when the

  16. Recent increases in the large glacial-relict calanoid Limnocalanus macrurus in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbiero, R.P.; Bunnell, D.B.; Rockwell, D.C.; Tuchman, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, population density of the large hypolimnetic calanoid Limnocalanus macrurus Sars. has increased dramatically in Lake Michigan. The average summer biomass of this species between 2004 and 2006 was roughly three times that of the period 1984–2003, and at levels unprecedented in our 22-year dataset, making L. macrurus the dominant zooplankter in the lake in terms of biomass. These increases have been accentuated by coincident population declines of the main daphnid, Daphnia mendotae, in the lake with the result that in 2006, L. macrurus accounted for 75% and 50% of the large (> 0.9 mm) crustacean biomass in the northern and southern basins of Lake Michigan, respectively. The increases in L. macrurus populations have closely coincided with equally dramatic increases in summer water clarity. Recent extinction coefficients are among the lowest recorded for the lake, and deepening light penetration has permitted increases in the size of the deep chlorophyll layer. In addition, planktivorous fish populations have declined coincidently with the increases in L. macrurus. It seems likely that an increase in sub-epilimnetic production has resulted in increased food resources for the deep-living L. macrurus, while low planktivore abundances have reduced predation loss, permitting L. macrurus to respond to these increases in sub-epilimnetic production.

  17. Quantifying Groundwater Nutrient Discharge to a Large Glacial Lake using a Watershed Loading Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater discharge to a lake is an important, if often neglected, component to water and nutrient budgets. Point measurements of groundwater discharge into a lake are prone to error, so in this study of 15.57 km2 West Lake Okoboji, Iowa, a watershed-based groundwater loading model was developed. Located in northwest Iowa, West Lake Okoboji is considered one of Iowa's premier tourist destinations but is threatened by eutrophication. A network of 21 observation wells was installed in the watershed to evaluate groundwater recharge and quality under representative land cover types in a range of landscape positions. Our objective was to develop typical groundwater responses from various land cover-landscape associations for scaling up to unmonitored areas in the watershed. Results indicated substantial variation in groundwater recharge and quality in the 3847 ha watershed. Recharge was similar among land covers under vegetation but was much lower under urban pavement. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were highest under cropped fields and lowest under perennial grassland and golf courses, whereas dissolved phosphorus was highest under residential and urban areas, including an engineered bioswale. A groundwater load allocation model indicated 91% of the nitrate load was from cropped areas and 7% from residential areas. In contrast, P loads were more equally divided among cropped fields (43%), perennial grass (36%) and residential (19%) areas. Based on the mass of nitrate and P in the lake, groundwater accounts for 71% and 18% of the nutrient inputs, respectively.

  18. Assessing the variability of glacier lake bathymetries and potential peak discharge based on large-scale measurements in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian; Salazar, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Frey, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Over timescales of hundreds to thousands of years ice masses in mountains produced erosion in bedrock and subglacial sediment, including the formation of overdeepenings and large moraine dams that now serve as basins for glacial lakes. Satellite based studies found a total of 8355 glacial lakes in Peru, whereof 830 lakes were observed in the Cordillera Blanca. Some of them have caused major disasters due to glacial lake outburst floods in the past decades. On the other hand, in view of shrinking glaciers, changing water resources, and formation of new lakes, glacial lakes could have a function as water reservoirs in the future. Here we present unprecedented bathymetric studies of 124 glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Huallanca, Huayhuash and Raura in the regions of Ancash, Huanuco and Lima. Measurements were carried out using a boat equipped with GPS, a total station and an echo sounder to measure the depth of the lakes. Autocad Civil 3D Land and ArcGIS were used to process the data and generate digital topographies of the lake bathymetries, and analyze parameters such as lake area, length and width, and depth and volume. Based on that, we calculated empirical equations for mean depth as related to (1) area, (2) maximum length, and (3) maximum width. We then applied these three equations to all 830 glacial lakes of the Cordillera Blanca to estimate their volumes. Eventually we used three relations from the literature to assess the peak discharge of potential lake outburst floods, based on lake volumes, resulting in 3 x 3 peak discharge estimates. In terms of lake topography and geomorphology results indicate that the maximum depth is located in the center part for bedrock lakes, and in the back part for lakes in moraine material. Best correlations are found for mean depth and maximum width, however, all three empirical relations show a large spread, reflecting the wide range of natural lake bathymetries. Volumes of the 124 lakes with bathymetries amount to 0

  19. A high resolution Late Glacial to Holocene record of climatic and environmental change in the Mediterranean from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Jack; Francke, Alexander; Leng, Melanie; Vane, Chris; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is one of the world's oldest lakes and is renowned for its high degree of biological diversity. It is the target site for the ICDP SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) project, an international research initiative to study the links between geology, environment and the evolution of endemic taxa. In 2011 a 10-meter core was recovered from the western shore of Lake Ohrid adjacent to the Lini Peninsula. Here we present high-resolution stable isotope and geochemical data from this core through the Late Glacial to Holocene to reconstruct past climate and hydrology (TIC, δ18Ocalcite, δ13Ccalcite) as well as the terrestrial and aquatic vegetation response to climate (TOC, TOC/N, δ13Corganic, Rock-Eval pyrolysis). The data identify 3 main zones: (1) the Late Glacial-Holocene transition represented by low TIC, TOC and higher isotope values, (2) the early to mid-Holocene characterised by higher TOC, TOC/N and lower δ18Ocalcite, and (3) the late Holocene which shows a marked decrease in TIC and TOC. In general there is an overall trend of increasing δ18Ocalcite from 9 ka to present, suggesting progressive aridification through the Holocene, which is consistent with previous records from Lake Ohrid and the wider Mediterranean region. Several proxies show commensurate excursions that imply the impact of short-term climate oscillations, such as the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. This is the best-dated and highest resolution archive of Late Glacial and Holocene climate from Lake Ohrid and confirms the overriding influence of the North Atlantic in the north-eastern Mediterranean. The data presented set the context for the SCOPSCO project cores recovered in spring-summer 2013 dating back into the Lower Pleistocene, and will act as a recent calibration to reconstruct climate and hydrology over the entire lake history.

  20. A high-resolution Late Glacial to Holocene record of environmental change in the Mediterranean from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Jack H.; Francke, Alexander; Leng, Melanie J.; Vane, Christopher H.; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is the oldest extant lake in Europe and exhibits an outstanding degree of endemic biodiversity. Here, we provide new high-resolution stable isotope and geochemical data from a 10 m core (Co1262) through the Late Glacial to Holocene and discuss past climate and lake hydrology (TIC, δ13Ccalcite, δ18Ocalcite) as well as the terrestrial and aquatic vegetation response to climate (TOC, TOC/N, δ13Corganic, Rock Eval pyrolysis). The data identifies 3 main zones: (1) the Late Glacial-Holocene transition represented by low TIC and TOC contents, (2) the early to mid-Holocene characterised by high TOC and increasing TOC/N and (3) the Late Holocene-Present which shows a marked decrease in TIC and TOC. In general, an overall trend of increasing δ18Ocalcite from 9 ka to present suggests progressive aridification through the Holocene, consistent with previous records from Lake Ohrid and the wider Mediterranean region. Several proxies show commensurate excursions that imply the impact of short-term climate oscillations, such as the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. This is the best-dated and highest resolution archive of past Late Glacial and Holocene climate from Lake Ohrid and confirms the overriding influence of the North Atlantic in the north-eastern Mediterranean. The data presented set the context for the International Continental scientific Drilling Program Scientific Collaboration On Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid project cores recovered in spring-summer 2013, potentially dating back into the Lower Pleistocene, and will act as a recent calibration to reconstruct climate and hydrology over the entire lake history.

  1. Stretching the envelope of past surface environments: Neoproterozoic glacial lakes from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huiming; Fairchild, Ian J; Wynn, Peter M; Spötl, Christoph

    2009-01-02

    The oxygen isotope composition of terrestrial sulfate is affected measurably by many Earth-surface processes. During the Neoproterozoic, severe "snowball" glaciations would have had an extreme impact on the biosphere and the atmosphere. Here, we report that sulfate extracted from carbonate lenses within a Neoproterozoic glacial diamictite suite from Svalbard, with an age of approximately 635 million years ago, falls well outside the currently known natural range of triple oxygen isotope compositions and indicates that the atmosphere had either an exceptionally high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration or an utterly unfamiliar oxygen cycle during deposition of the diamictites.

  2. Influence of Smallmouth Bass predation on recruitment of age-0 Yellow Perch in South Dakota glacial lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Willis, D.W.; Blackwell, B. G.; Chipps, Steven R.; Bacula, T. D.; Wuellner, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the influence of predation by Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu on recruitment of age-0 Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in two northeastern South Dakota glacial lakes. We estimated a likely range in consumption of age-0 Yellow Perch using Smallmouth Bass diet information from two time periods when age-0 Yellow Perch constituted high (2008) and low (2012 and 2013) proportions of Smallmouth Bass diets, and bass population size estimates as inputs in a bioenergetics model. The proportion of age-0 Yellow Perch consumed by the Smallmouth Bass populations was determined by comparing estimates of consumption with estimates of age-0 perch production. During 2008, age-0 Yellow Perch constituted between 0% and 42% of Smallmouth Bass diets by weight, whereas during 2012 and 2013, age-0 perch constituted between 0% and 20% of bass diets by weight. Across both lakes and time periods, production of age-0 Yellow Perch ranged from 0.32 to 1.78 kg·ha−1·week−1. Estimates of Smallmouth Bass consumption measured during the same intervals ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 kg·ha−1·week−1, equating to consumption of between 1% and 34% of the available Yellow Perch biomass. Given current conditions relative to Smallmouth Bass abundance and consumption dynamics and production of age-0 Yellow Perch, it does not appear that Smallmouth Bass predation acts as a singular factor limiting recruitment of age-0 Yellow Perch in our study lakes. However, future research and management initiatives should recognize that the long-term impact of Smallmouth Bass predation is not static and will likely fluctuate depending on environmental (e.g., temperature) and biotic (e.g., trends in macrophyte abundance, predator and prey population structure and abundance, and predatory fish assemblage dynamics) characteristics.

  3. Late-glacial and Holocene record of vegetation and climate from Cynthia Bay, Lake St Clair, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, F. V. L.; Colhoun, E. A.; Barton, C. E.

    2000-10-01

    A Late-glacial-Holocene pollen record was obtained from a 3.96 m sediment core taken from Lake St Clair, central Tasmania. Modern vegetation and pollen analyses formed the basis for interpretation of the vegetation and climate history. Following deglaciation and before ca. 18450 yr BP Podocarpus lawrencei coniferous heath and Astelia-Plantago wet alpine herbfield became established at Lake St Clair. A distinct Poaceae-Plantago peak occurs between 18450 and 11210 yr BP and a mean annual temperature depression from ca. 6.2°C to 3°C below present is inferred for this period. The marked reduction in Podocarpus and strong increase of Poaceae suggests reduced precipitation levels during the period of widespread deglaciation (ca. 18.5-11 kyr BP). The local Late Pleistocene-Holocene non-forest to forest biostratigraphical boundary is dated at 11.2 kyr BP. It is characterised by expansion of the subalpine taxa Athrotaxis/Diselma with Nothofagus gunnii, and by the establishment of Nothofagus cunninghamii with Eucalyptus spp. A Phyllocladus bulge prior to the expansion of Nothofagus cunninghamii, reported at other Tasmanian sites, is not present at Lake St Clair. Nothofagus cunninghamii cool temperate rainforest peaked at 7800 yr BP, probably under wetter climatic conditions than present. The maximum development of rainforest in the early-middle Holocene may indicate that the temperature was slightly warmer than present, but the evidence is not definitive. The expansion of Eucalyptus spp. and Poaceae after 6000 yr BP may be partly a disclimax effect as a result of Aboriginal burning, but appears also to reflect reduced precipitation. The changes in vegetation and inferred climate can be explained by major changes in synoptic patterns of southern Australia and the adjacent southwest Pacific.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of lake cisco (Coregonus artedi): evidence supporting extensive secondary contacts between two glacial races.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, J; Bernatchez, L

    2001-04-01

    The comparative molecular phylogeography of regional fish fauna has revealed the wide distribution of young clades in freshwater fishes of formerly glaciated areas as well as interspecific incongruences in their refugial origins and recolonization routes. In this study, we employed single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analyses to describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism among 27 populations of the lake cisco (Coregonus artedi) from its entire range of distribution in order to evaluate the hypothesis of dual glacial refuges proposed by Bernatchez & Dodson against the traditional view that this species is solely of Mississippian origin. Results indicate that this taxon is composed of two closely related groups that are widely distributed and intermixed over most of the sampled range. The estimated level of divergence (0.48%), the contrast in the geographical distribution of each group, as well as the general distribution of C. artedi in North America together support the hypothesis that one group dispersed from a Mississippian refuge via the proglacial lakes, while the other is of Atlantic origin and also took advantages of earlier dispersal routes towards eastern Hudson Bay drainages. However, the signal of past range fragmentation revealed by a nested clade analysis was weak, and did not allow to formally exclude the hypothesis of a single Mississippian origin for both lineages. Comparisons with the phylogeographic patterns of other Nearctic freshwater fishes suggest that the salinity tolerance and thermal sensitivity of lake cisco may have been determinant for its extensive postglacial dispersal. The presence or co-occurrence of sympatric or allopatric eco/morphotypes were not found to be necessarily associated with the presence of both haplotype groups.

  5. Quantitative Temperature Reconstructions from Holocene and Late Glacial Lake Sediments in the Tropical Andes using Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Montoya, E.; Coe, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chironomidae (non-biting midges) is a family of two-winged aquatic insects of the order Diptera. They are globally distributed and one of the most diverse families within aquatic ecosystems. The insects are stenotopic, and the rapid turnover of species and their ability to colonise quickly favourable habitats means chironomids are extremely sensitive to environmental change, notably temperature. Through the development of quantitative temperature inference models chironomids have become important palaeoecological tools. Proxies capable of generating independent estimates of past climate are crucial to disentangling climate signals and ecosystem response in the palaeoecological record. This project has developed the first modern environmental calibration data set in order to use chironomids from the Tropical Andes as quantitative climate proxies. Using surface sediments from c. 60 lakes from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador we have developed an inference model capable of reconstructing temperatures, with a prediction error of 1-2°C, from fossil assemblages. Here we present the first Lateglacial and Holocene chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions from two sites in the tropical Andes. The first record, from a high elevation (4153 m asl) lake in the Bolivian Andes, shows persistently cool temperatures for the past 15 kyr, punctuated by warm episodes in the early Holocene (9-10 kyr BP). The chironomid-inferred Holocene temperature trends from a lake sediment record on the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador (1248 m asl) spanning the last 5 millennia are synchronous with temperature changes in the NGRIP ice core record. The temperature estimates suggest along the eastern flank of the Andes, at lower latitudes (~1°S), climate closely resemble the well-established fluctuations of the Northern Hemisphere for this time period. Late-glacial climate fluctuations across South America are still disputed with some palaeoecological records suggesting evidence for Younger Dryas

  6. Jökulhlaup (ice-dammed lake outburst flood) impact within a valley-confined sandur subject to backwater conditions, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Andrew J.

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the controls on the morphology and sedimentology of a valley-confined proglacial outwash plain or 'sandur' in West Greenland subject to glacial outburst floods (jökulhlaups). Jökulhlaup flow conditions observed during a recent (1987) flood are linked to sandur sedimentology and morphological change. Backwater effects over the distal sandur resulted in a reduction of stream power despite increasing discharge. Bar units were typically large. Bar front advance of 60 m during 1987 jökulhlaup occurred prior to waning stage bar dissection by chute channels. Channel change was confined to the distal sandur, due to the greater erodibility of the finer-grained bars. A temporary zone of sediment storage prevailed at the transition between free flowing and ponded flood waters until flood powers increased during waning flood stage as backwater effects were removed. Extension of pre-existing high-relief amplitude bars within the distal sandur records sedimentation related to at least eight jökulhlaups, whilst lower-relief amplitude, proximal sandur sediments provide a composite record of the last high stage jökulhlaup flows. Backwater conditions during jökulhlaups have increased the rapidity of spatial variation of grain sizes and fluvial facies types. Complex, within-event, sediment reworking and routing is generated by the onset and break up of backwater effects. The role of local topography is therefore crucial when interpreting the sedimentary record of former proglacial channels potentially subject to jökulhlaups. This study may prove useful in identifying the presence of flood cycles within palaeo-fluvial systems in both formerly glaciated and non glaciated areas.

  7. Decadal and Seasonal Variations of Alpine Lakes in Glacierized areas of Central Asia during 1990-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Warner, T.; Chen, X.; Bao, A.

    2016-12-01

    Central Asia is one of the world's most vulnerable areas responding to global change. Glacier lakes in the alpine regions remain sensitive to climatic change and fluctuate with temperature and precipitation variations. Study shows that glaciers in Central Asia have retreated dramatically, leading to the expansion of the existing glacial lakes and the emergence of many new glacier lakes. The existence of these lakes increases the possibility of outburst flood during the ice melting season, which can bring a disaster to the downstream area. Mapping glacial lakes and monitoring their changes would improve our understanding of regional climate change and glacier-related hazards. Glacial lakes in Central Asia are mainly located at the Tianshan Mountains, the Altai Mountains, the Kunlun Mountains and the Pamirs with average elevation more than 1500 meters. Most of these lakes are supplied with the glaciers or snowmelt water during the summer seasons. Satellite remote sensing provides an efficient and objective tool to analyze the status and variations of glacial lakes. The increased availability of remote sensing sensors with appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, broad coverage makes lake investigations more feasible and cost-effective. The paper intends to map glacier lake changes in glacierized alpine mountains with Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery. More than 600 scenes of Landsat images in circa 1990, circa 2000, circa 2010 and circa 2015 are used to map the decadal glacial lake changes over the Central Asia, and about 8 expanding glacial lakes are selected to map seasonal changes. Over 12000 glacial lakes were mapped in circa 1990, and in 2015, lake number are more than 16000, most of these new lakes are emerging in the last 10 years. The result shows that the number and area of the glacial lakes in the Altain Mountain remain stable, while the Tianshan Mountain have experienced expanding changes in the last two decades, and about a half number of lake areas are

  8. Glacial-interglacial environmental changes inferred from molecular and compound-specific δ 13C analyses of sediments from Sacred Lake, Mt. Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongsong; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Perrott, R. Alan; Metzger, Pierre; Eglinton, Geoffrey

    1999-05-01

    Molecular stratigraphic analyses, including lipid distributions and compound-specific δ 13C measurements, have been performed at 15 levels in a sediment core from Sacred Lake, Mt. Kenya, a high-altitude (2350 m a.s.l.) freshwater lake with a record extending from the last glacial (>40,000 cal. yr BP) through the present interglacial. Terrestrial and aquatic organic-matter sources were independently assessed using source-specific biomarkers. δ 13C values of long-chain n-alkyl lipids from terrestrial higher plants exhibit large glacial to interglacial shifts: those from the last glacial maximum (LGM) (-20 to -18‰) indicate a terrestrial vegetation dominated by C 4 grasses or sedges, whereas those from the early Holocene (-34 to -27‰) reflect recolonization of the catchment area by C 3 plants, consistent with a rapid rise in the upper treeline. Specific algal biomarkers, including five unsaturated hydrocarbons of novel structure ascribed to the microalga Botryococcus braunii, were abundant, as confirmed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). An extreme δ 13C shift of over 25‰ is displayed by the algal biomarkers, an elevated value of -5.1‰ at the last glacial maximum (LGM) contrasting with a minimum value of -30.3‰ at the beginning of the Holocene. A major change in the molecular distributions of the algal biomarkers parallels this large δ 13C shift, with acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons dominating the last glacial and cyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons the Holocene. The low atmospheric partial pressure of CO 2 ( pCO 2) at the LGM would favour photosynthetic organisms possessing CO 2-concentrating mechanisms, including terrestrial C 4 grasses and freshwater green algae. Hence, glacial/interglacial changes in pCO 2, and in the CO 2:O 2 ratio in particular, had a significant impact on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems on Mt. Kenya, in addition to the effects of climate and local environmental factors.

  9. Analysis of Mineral-Rich Suspended Matter in Glacial Lakes Using Simulations and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, E.; Dornhofer, K.; Gege, P.; Schenk, K.; Klinger, Ph.; Wenzel, J.; Oppelt, N.; Gruber, N.

    2016-08-01

    The contribution of mineral-rich suspended matter (MSM) to the optics of water bodies is still less treated by bio-optical modeling than that of other water constituents. However, with the increasing number of remote sensing studies on inland waters, optical properties of terrestrial particles gain importance for accurately estimating particle concentrations. We compared two current simulation tools, Hydrolight and WASI, for high MSM concentrations within the realistic context of catchments with glacial erosion. The study area is an extreme form of suspended sediment- dominated Case2 water. We simulated Rrs(0-) spectra with MSM concentrations varying from 5 to 200 g m-3. In a second step, WASI-2D was applied to invert Landsat8. In-situ measured concentrations and reflectance spectra served to assess model performance. Thus, we tested the suitability of the analytical model WASI for high MSM concentrations and point out necessities for future adaptations to (extremely) turbid environments.

  10. Response of Terrestrial Vegetation to Variations in Temperature and Aridity Since the Last Glacial Maximum in Lake Chalco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werne, J. P.; Rubesch, M.; Brown, E. T.; Ortega, B.; Caballero, M.; Lozano-Garcia, S.

    2011-12-01

    The water balance of the Southwestern United States and most of Mexico is dependent on regional climate systems, including the Mexican (or North American) Monsoon. The Mexican Monsoon leads to significant summer rainfall across a broad swath of the continent, which constitutes the major source of annual precipitation over much of this region. The position of the ITCZ and the strength of the accompanying monsoon are affected by variability in insolation. Stronger northern hemisphere summer insolation shifts the ITCZ northward, bringing about a more intense monsoon. Here we discuss a new geochemical climate record from Lake Chalco, Mexico, which couples inorganic (X-ray fluorescence) and organic (biomarkers and stable isotopes) geochemical proxies to reconstruct temperature and aridity over the past 45,000 years, as well as the response of terrestrial vegetation to such climate changes. The Basin of Mexico is a high altitude closed lacustrine basin (20°N, 99°W; 2240 m.a.s.l.) in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. The plain of Lake Chalco, located near Mexico City in the southern sub-basin, has an area of 120 km2 and a catchment of 1100 km2. Though the present-day lake has been reduced to a small marsh due to historic diversion of its waters, over longer timescales the lake has been a sensitive recorder of hydroclimatic variations. Low Ca concentrations indicate more arid periods during the late glacial (34 - 15 kybp) compared to the last interstadial or early Holocene. This observation is supported by the ratio of terrestrial to aquatic lipid biomarkers (long vs. short chain n-alkanes), which indicate greater relative inputs of aquatic biomarkers during wetter periods. The changes in aridity as shown in these geochemical proxies are compared with temperature as reflected in glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) based paleotemperature proxies to assess the extent to which insolation may have driven aridity variations, and with terrestrial and aquatic biomarker

  11. Response of Terrestrial Vegetation to Variations in Temperature and Aridity Since the Last Glacial Maximum in Lake Chalco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werne, J. P.; Halbur, J.; Rubesch, M.; Brown, E. T.; Ortega, B.; Caballero, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Lozano, S.

    2013-05-01

    The water balance of the Southwestern United States and most of Mexico is dependent on regional climate systems, including the Mexican (or North American) Monsoon. The Mexican Monsoon leads to significant summer rainfall across a broad swath of the continent, which constitutes the major source of annual precipitation over much of this region. The position of the ITCZ and the strength of the accompanying monsoon are affected by variability in insolation. Stronger northern hemisphere summer insolation shifts the ITCZ northward, bringing about a more intense monsoon. Here we discuss a new geochemical climate record from Lake Chalco, Mexico, which couples inorganic (X-ray fluorescence) and organic (biomarkers and stable isotopes) geochemical proxies to reconstruct temperature and aridity over the past 45,000 years, as well as the response of terrestrial vegetation to such climate changes. The Basin of Mexico is a high altitude closed lacustrine basin (20°N, 99°W; 2240 m.a.s.l.) in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. The plain of Lake Chalco, located near Mexico City in the southern sub-basin, has an area of 120 km2 and a catchment of 1100 km2. Though the present-day lake has been reduced to a small marsh due to historic diversion of its waters, over longer timescales the lake has been a sensitive recorder of hydroclimatic variations. Low Ca concentrations indicate more arid periods during the late glacial (34 - 15 kybp) compared to the last interstadial or early Holocene. This observation is supported by the ratio of terrestrial to aquatic lipid biomarkers (long vs. short chain n-alkanes), which indicate greater relative inputs of aquatic biomarkers during wetter periods. The changes in aridity as shown in these geochemical proxies are compared with temperature as reflected in glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) based paleotemperature proxies to assess the extent to which insolation may have driven aridity variations, and with terrestrial and aquatic biomarker

  12. Climate-induced variations in lake levels: A mechanism for short-term sea level change during non-glacial times

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, D. ); Sahagian, D. . Dept of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Variations in insolation due to periodic orbital parameters can cause climatic changes and associated variations in the intensity of monsoonal circulation. This can lead to significant variations in the levels of internally draining lakes on timescales of 10,000 to 100,000 years in regions affected by the monsoon (20,000 years for orbital precession). These variations may be responsible for small scale (few meters) eustatic sea level changes in an ice-free Earth, and may contribute to sea level changes in the presence of ice as well. The authors have estimated the volume of empty present lake basins in the regions of Asia and North Africa influenced by the monsoon. The surface water volume alone of these basins is equivalent to a two meter difference in sea level, but is considerably augmented by groundwater associated with an increase in lake level. The lake variation mechanism for sea level change has its basis in the Quaternary record of climate change and associated explanatory models. However, the argument also applies to earlier, non-glacial periods of geologic time. Clear evidence for the presence of ice in the Triassic is lacking. However, there is evidence for short-term periodic fluctuations of lake levels as well as sea level during that time. These sea level changes, as well as those in the Devonian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous, may be driven by periodic fluctuation in lacustrine and groundwater storage resulting from orbitally forced changes in monsoon intensity, even in the absence of significant glacial ice.

  13. Effects of glacial meltwater inflows and moat freezing on mixing in an ice-covered antarctic lake as interpreted from stable isotope and tritium distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Aiken, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys have risen several meters over the past two decades due to climatic warming and increased glacial meltwater inflow. To elucidate the hydrologic responses to changing climate and the effects on lake mixing processes we measured the stable isotope (??18O and ??D) and tritium concentrations of water and ice samples collected in the Lake Fryxell watershed from 1987 through 1990. Stable isotope enrichment resulted from evaporation in stream and moat samples and from sublimation in surface lake-ice samples. Tritium enrichment resulted from exchange with the postnuclear atmosphere in stream and moat samples. Rapid injection of tritiated water into the upper water column of the make and incorporation of this water into the ice cover resulted in uniformly elevated tritium contents (> 3.0 TU) in these reservoirs. Tritium was also present in deep water, suggesting that a component of bottom water was recently at the surface. During summer, melted lake ice and stream water forms the moat. Water excluded from ice formation during fall moat freezing (enriched in solutes and tritium, and depleted in 18O and 2H relative to water below 15-m depth) may sink as density currents to the bottom of the lake. Seasonal lake circulation, in response to climate-driven surface inflow, is therefore responsible for the distribution of both water isotopes and dissolved solutes in Lake Fryxell.

  14. Sources of Sulfate Found in Mounds and Lakes at the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica and Inferred Sub-glacial Microbial Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Sun, T.; Harvey, R. P.; Bish, D. L.; Tonui, E.; Bao, H.; Niles, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    Massive but highly localized Na-sulfate mounds (mirabilite, Na2SO4.10H2O) have been found at the terminal moraine of the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue (LCIT), Antarctica. δ34S and δ18O values of LCIT mirabilite range from +48.8 to +49.3‰ (CDT), and -16.6 to -17.1‰ (V-SMOW), respectively, while Δ17O average -0.37‰ (V-SMOW). LCIT mirabilite mounds are isotopically different from other mirabilite mounds found in coastal regions of Antarctica, which have isotope values close to seawater compositions. δ18O and Δ17O values suggest the incorporation of isotopically light glacial water. Data point to initial sulfate formation in an anoxic water body, either as a stratified anoxic deep lake on the surface, a sub-glacial water reservoir, or a sub-glacial lake. Several surface lakes of varying size are also present within this region of the LCIT, and in some cases are adjacent to the mirabilite mounds. O and D isotope compositions of surface lakes confirm they are derived from a mixture of glacial ice and snow that underwent moderate evaporation. δ18O and δD (V-SMOW) values of snow, ice, and lake water range from -64.2 to -29.7‰, and -456.0 to -231.7‰, respectively. However, the isotope chemistry of these surface lakes is extremely different from the mounds. Dissolved SO4-2 δ34S and δ18O values range from +12.0 to +20.0‰ and -12.8 to -22.2‰ (the most negative δ18O of terrestrial sulfate ever reported), respectively, with sulfate Δ17O ranging from +0.93 to 2.24‰. Ion chromatography data show that lake water is fresh to brackish in origin, with TDS less than 1500 ppm, and sulfate concentration less than 431 ppm. Isotope and chemical data suggest that these lakes are unlikely the source of the mirabilite mounds. We suggest that lake water sulfate is potentially composed of a mixture of atmospheric sulfate and minor components of sulfate of weathering origin, much like the sulfate in the polar plateau soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. A simple model explains

  15. High-resolution record of environmental changes and tephrochronological markers of the Last Glacial-Holocene transition at Lake Lautrey (Jura, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannière, Boris; Bossuet, Gilles; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Adatte, Thierry; Rossy, Michel; Magny, Michel

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a multiproxy investigation including volume magnetic susceptibility (), mineral and pollen analyses of Late Glacial sediments from Lake Lautrey (Jura, France). Small-scale lithological variations have been identified with high stratigraphic resolution in order to establish lithostratigraphic correlations between cores. measurements, combined with mineralogical analyses, provide information on past sedimentary processes. This combined approach reflects major changes in terrestrial habitats and soil processes which may relate to the climatic events characterising the Late Glacial climatic warming and cooling phases. During warm intervals, the record indicates increased lake productivity via carbonate precipitation and decreased input of detrital material. In contrast, cooler intervals show reduced lake productivity, catchment area instability and increased detrital inputs. Several short interruptions in reforestation and in soil stabilisation can be identified and linked with abrupt colder events occurring through the Bølling. A general trend of warming is recorded from the coldest part of the Younger Dryas. Three tephra layers were also detected. The mineral composition analyses show that the upper tephra layer corresponds to the Laacher See eruption (Eifel, Germany) while the lower ones may relate to the volcanic activity of the Chaîne des Puys (Massif Central, France) around 13 000 cal. yr BP. These two events, recognised for the first time outside the Massif Central region, may provide additional chronostratigraphic markers for the Late Glacial sedimentary records of the Jura mountains and northern Alps. Copyright

  16. Sediment analysis to support the recent glacial origin of DDT pollution in Lake Iseo (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, Roberta; Galassi, Silvana; Guilizzoni, Piero; Quadroni, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, a depth-related distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in sediments of Lake Iseo, one of the major southern Alpine Italian lakes, is reported in order to further test the hypothesis of melting Alpine glaciers as a secondary source of contamination. In a previous paper, a "glacier contamination hypothesis" was suggested to explain the unexpected contamination of the biota of Lake Iseo, mainly fed by the Alpine melting ice. The sediment core analyses covered around the last 50 years. The organic matter profile evaluated as a Loss-On-Ignition percentage indicated transition of the basin from an oligotrophic to a mesotrophic status at around the early 1970s, but there was no evidence of the shift to eutrophy in the 1980s. Among DDTs, pp'DDE was the predominant metabolite, accounting on average for 79.4% of the total DDT concentrations and ranging from 6.4 to 447.5 ng g(-1)d.w. PCBs ranged from 5.0 to 163.7 ng g(-1)d.w. The maximum PCB concentrations were found in sediment layers corresponding to the 1970s when the highest production and use of these compounds occurred in Italy. In contrast, concentrations of DDTs showed a sharp increase from the early 1990s, long after their agricultural use was banned in Italy. This delayed pollution provides support for the hypothesis that the recent retreat of glaciers represents a secondary pollution source for old pesticides that were stored in the ice at the time of their use in agriculture.

  17. A study of fluctuating asymmetry in hybrids of dwarf and normal lake whitefish ecotypes (Coregonus clupeaformis) from different glacial races.

    PubMed

    Lu, G; Bernatchez, L

    1999-12-01

    Fish ecotypes found in north temperate lakes are increasingly used as model organisms to explore patterns and processes of population divergence that may ultimately cause speciation. Processes involved in their reproductive isolation are, however, still poorly understood. Recent experimental studies on whitefish ecotypes from different glacial races revealed that embryonic mortality of hybrids was 2.4-4.7 times higher than for parental forms. In this study, we compared fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in morphological traits of these same hybrid and pure crosses to test the hypothesis that genetic stress observed in hybrids at embryonic stages is also manifested at later developmental stages. Twelve morphological traits were used to measure asymmetry. Variable degrees of asymmetry were observed depending on traits and crosses, however there was no significant difference in FA among crosses. These results thus provided no evidence in support of the working hypothesis and indicated that genetic stress may differ among life stages. It is more likely that high hybrid embryonic mortality acts together with ecological factors at later stages to increase further the extent of reproductive isolation between sympatric whitefish ecotypes.

  18. Bacterial community composition and diversity in Kalakuli, an alpine glacial-fed lake in Muztagh Ata of the westernmost Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keshao; Liu, Yongqin; Jiao, Nianzhi; Xu, Baiqing; Gu, Zhengquan; Xing, Tingting; Xiong, Jinbo

    2017-07-01

    It is widely accepted that bacterial community composition and diversity in remote alpine lakes are structured by environmental conditions such as nutrient status and temperature. However, the mechanisms that underlie and structure bacterial community composition and diversity in alpine lakes remain unclear. We used 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate the complex ecological interactions between bacterial communities and nutrient status in Kalakuli Lake, an alpine glacial-fed lake in Muztagh Ata of the westernmost Tibetan Plateau. Our results indicated that the bacterial community was dominated by the Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The results of threshold estimates showed that there were apparent shifts in dominance from the Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria groups associated with increasing carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio, and the change points were 6.794 and 2.448, respectively. Using multiple statistical methods, we found that the abiotic factors of dissolved organic carbon and total nitrogen had substantial impacts on bacterial diversity, while bacterial community compositions were significantly correlated with both the biotic element of bacterial abundance and the abiotic ones, temperature and pH. These findings demonstrated that the C:N ratio played a significant role in shifting dominant bacterial assemblages in the Kalakuli watershed and provided evidence of nutrients affecting bacterial community composition and diversity. We argue that this study could further shed light on how climate change-induced glacial retreat may impact bacterial communities in glacial-fed lakes under future global warming scenarios. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Past seismic activity in Eastern Anatolia recorded over several glacial/interglacial cycles in the sediments of Lake Van

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhecke, M.; Anselmetti, F.; Sturm, M.

    2012-12-01

    Lake sediments document besides paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate conditions also paleoseismic activity through various forms of deformation structures. These are especially visible in finely-laminated sediments. Being situated in a tectonically active region, the partly annually-laminated sedimentary sequence of the terminal Lake Van, recovered in 2010 under the context of the ICDP Paleovan project, shows dozens of earthquake-triggered microdeformations that document past seismic events of the last half a million years. Lithological and multiproxy analysis revealed that the Lake Van's depositional conditions varied in correspondence to Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch cycles. Glacial/stadial and interglacial/interstadial conditions were recorded continuously over the last half a million years excluding two discontinuities, which indicate major hydrological and geomorphological changes in Lake Van's early history. Two sites were drilled 10 km apart: A primary drill site, situated on a ridge, covers the entire lake history since its initial transgression in the middle Pleistocene; A secondary drill site, located in a more shallow northern basin, covers the past 90'000 years. Multiple coring at both drill sites allows to establish two almost complete 220 m and 145 m long composite sections, respectively. Observing deformation structures in multiple parallel cores at each site is used as a criteria to distinguish 'true' paleoseismic deformation structures from potential drilling artifacts. Deformation structures consist of i) silt-filled vertical fractures, ii) microfaults with displacements at cm-scale, iii) microfolds, iv) liquefaction structures (mushroom, pseudonodules), iv) disturbed varve laminations and v) mixed layers. While the ridge site records the paleoseismic events as microdeformations, the northern basinal site rather records seismic events through the deposition of seismo-turbidites. In some cases, individual earthquake events can even be identified

  20. Pinedale glacial history of the upper Arkansas River valley: New moraine chronologies, modeling results, and geologic mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinsberg, Avriel D.; Briner, Jason P.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Leonard, Eric M.; Brugger, Keith A.; Russell, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    This field-trip guide outlines the glacial history of the upper Arkansas River valley, Colorado, and builds on a previous GSA field trip to the area in 2010. The following will be presented: (1) new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages of moraine boulders from the Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations (Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 6, respectively) located adjacent to the Twin Lakes Reservoir, (2) numerical modeling of glaciers during the Pinedale glaciation in major tributaries draining into the upper Arkansas River, (3) discharge estimates for glacial-lake outburst floods in the upper Arkansas River valley, and (4) 10Be ages on flood boulders deposited downvalley from the moraine sequences. This research was stimulated by a new geologic map of the Granite 7.5′ quadrangle, in which the mapping of surficial deposits was revised based in part on the interpretation of newly acquired LiDAR data and field investigations. The new 10Be ages of the Pinedale terminal moraine at Twin Lakes average 21.8 ± 0.7 ka (n = 14), which adds to nearby Pinedale terminal moraine ages of 23.6 ± 1.4 ka (n = 5), 20.5 ± 0.2 ka (n = 3), and 16.6 ± 1.0 ka (n = 7), and downvalley outburst flood terraces that date to 20.9 ± 0.9 ka (n = 4) and 19.0 ± 0.6 ka (n = 4). This growing chronology leads to improved understanding of the controls and timing of glaciation in the western United States, the modeling of glacial-lake outburst flooding, and the reconstruction of paleotemperature through glacier modeling.

  1. Constraints on Lake Agassiz discharge through the late-glacial Champlain Sea (St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canada) using salinity proxies and an estuarine circulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.; Najjar, R.G.; Cronin, T.; Rayburn, J.; Mann, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    During the last deglaciation, abrupt freshwater discharge events from proglacial lakes in North America, such as glacial Lake Agassiz, are believed to have drained into the North Atlantic Ocean, causing large shifts in climate by weakening the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water and decreasing ocean heat transport to high northern latitudes. These discharges were caused by changes in lake drainage outlets, but the duration, magnitude and routing of discharge events, factors which govern the climatic response to freshwater forcing, are poorly known. Abrupt discharges, called floods, are typically assumed to last months to a year, whereas more gradual discharges, called routing events, occur over centuries. Here we use estuarine modeling to evaluate freshwater discharge from Lake Agassiz and other North American proglacial lakes into the North Atlantic Ocean through the St. Lawrence estuary around 11.5 ka BP, the onset of the Preboreal oscillation (PBO). Faunal and isotopic proxy data from the Champlain Sea, a semi-isolated, marine-brackish water body that occupied the St. Lawrence and Champlain Valleys from 13 to 9 ka, indicate salinity fell about 7-8 (range of 4-11) around 11.5 ka. Model results suggest that minimum (1600 km3) and maximum (9500 km3) estimates of plausible flood volumes determined from Lake Agassiz paleoshorelines would produce the proxy-reconstructed salinity decrease if the floods lasted <1 day to 5 months and 1 month to 2 years, respectively. In addition, Champlain Sea salinity responds very quickly to the initiation (within days) and cessation (within weeks) of flooding events. These results support the hypothesis that a glacial lake flood, rather than a sustained routing event, discharged through the St. Lawrence Estuary during the PBO. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Progressive incision of the Channeled Scablands by outburst floods.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Isaac J; Lamb, Michael P

    2016-10-13

    The surfaces of Earth and Mars contain large bedrock canyons that were carved by catastrophic outburst floods. Reconstructing the magnitude of these canyon-forming floods is essential for understanding the ways in which floods modify planetary surfaces, the hydrology of early Mars and abrupt changes in climate. Flood discharges are often estimated by assuming that the floods filled the canyons to their brims with water; however, an alternative hypothesis is that canyon morphology adjusts during incision such that bed shear stresses exceed the threshold for erosion by a small amount. Here we show that accounting for erosion thresholds during canyon incision results in near-constant discharges that are five- to ten-fold smaller than full-to-the-brim estimates for Moses Coulee, a canyon in the Channeled Scablands, which was carved during the Pleistocene by the catastrophic Missoula floods in eastern Washington, USA. The predicted discharges are consistent with flow-depth indicators from gravel bars within the canyon. In contrast, under the assumption that floods filled canyons to their brims, a large and monotonic increase in flood discharge is predicted as the canyon was progressively incised, which is at odds with the discharges expected for floods originating from glacial lake outbursts. These findings suggest that flood-carved landscapes in fractured rock might evolve to a threshold state for bedrock erosion, thus implying much lower flood discharges than previously thought.

  3. Progressive incision of the Channeled Scablands by outburst floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Isaac J.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2016-10-01

    The surfaces of Earth and Mars contain large bedrock canyons that were carved by catastrophic outburst floods. Reconstructing the magnitude of these canyon-forming floods is essential for understanding the ways in which floods modify planetary surfaces, the hydrology of early Mars and abrupt changes in climate. Flood discharges are often estimated by assuming that the floods filled the canyons to their brims with water; however, an alternative hypothesis is that canyon morphology adjusts during incision such that bed shear stresses exceed the threshold for erosion by a small amount. Here we show that accounting for erosion thresholds during canyon incision results in near-constant discharges that are five- to ten-fold smaller than full-to-the-brim estimates for Moses Coulee, a canyon in the Channeled Scablands, which was carved during the Pleistocene by the catastrophic Missoula floods in eastern Washington, USA. The predicted discharges are consistent with flow-depth indicators from gravel bars within the canyon. In contrast, under the assumption that floods filled canyons to their brims, a large and monotonic increase in flood discharge is predicted as the canyon was progressively incised, which is at odds with the discharges expected for floods originating from glacial lake outbursts. These findings suggest that flood-carved landscapes in fractured rock might evolve to a threshold state for bedrock erosion, thus implying much lower flood discharges than previously thought.

  4. Discovery of relict subglacial lakes and their geometry and mechanism of drainage

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Stephen J.; Utting, Daniel J.; Ruffell, Alastair; Clark, Chris D.; Pawley, Steven; Atkinson, Nigel; Fowler, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent proxy measurements reveal that subglacial lakes beneath modern ice sheets periodically store and release large volumes of water, providing an important but poorly understood influence on contemporary ice dynamics and mass balance. This is because direct observations of how lake drainage initiates and proceeds are lacking. Here we present physical evidence of the mechanism and geometry of lake drainage from the discovery of relict subglacial lakes formed during the last glaciation in Canada. These palaeo-subglacial lakes comprised shallow (<10 m) lenses of water perched behind ridges orientated transverse to ice flow. We show that lakes periodically drained through channels incised into bed substrate (canals). Canals sometimes trend into eskers that represent the depositional imprint of the last high-magnitude lake outburst. The subglacial lakes and channels are preserved on top of glacial lineations, indicating long-term re-organization of the subglacial drainage system and coupling to ice flow. PMID:27292049

  5. Discovery of relict subglacial lakes and their geometry and mechanism of drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, Stephen J.; Utting, Daniel J.; Ruffell, Alastair; Clark, Chris D.; Pawley, Steven; Atkinson, Nigel; Fowler, Andrew C.

    2016-06-01

    Recent proxy measurements reveal that subglacial lakes beneath modern ice sheets periodically store and release large volumes of water, providing an important but poorly understood influence on contemporary ice dynamics and mass balance. This is because direct observations of how lake drainage initiates and proceeds are lacking. Here we present physical evidence of the mechanism and geometry of lake drainage from the discovery of relict subglacial lakes formed during the last glaciation in Canada. These palaeo-subglacial lakes comprised shallow (<10 m) lenses of water perched behind ridges orientated transverse to ice flow. We show that lakes periodically drained through channels incised into bed substrate (canals). Canals sometimes trend into eskers that represent the depositional imprint of the last high-magnitude lake outburst. The subglacial lakes and channels are preserved on top of glacial lineations, indicating long-term re-organization of the subglacial drainage system and coupling to ice flow.

  6. Discovery of relict subglacial lakes and their geometry and mechanism of drainage.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Stephen J; Utting, Daniel J; Ruffell, Alastair; Clark, Chris D; Pawley, Steven; Atkinson, Nigel; Fowler, Andrew C

    2016-06-13

    Recent proxy measurements reveal that subglacial lakes beneath modern ice sheets periodically store and release large volumes of water, providing an important but poorly understood influence on contemporary ice dynamics and mass balance. This is because direct observations of how lake drainage initiates and proceeds are lacking. Here we present physical evidence of the mechanism and geometry of lake drainage from the discovery of relict subglacial lakes formed during the last glaciation in Canada. These palaeo-subglacial lakes comprised shallow (<10 m) lenses of water perched behind ridges orientated transverse to ice flow. We show that lakes periodically drained through channels incised into bed substrate (canals). Canals sometimes trend into eskers that represent the depositional imprint of the last high-magnitude lake outburst. The subglacial lakes and channels are preserved on top of glacial lineations, indicating long-term re-organization of the subglacial drainage system and coupling to ice flow.

  7. Bottom-current and wind-pattern changes as indicated by Late Glacial and Holocene sediments from western Lake Geneva (Switzerland)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Girardclos, S.; Baster, I.; Wildi, W.; Pugin, A.; Rachoud-Schneider, A. -M.

    2003-01-01

    The Late-Glacial and Holocene sedimentary history of the Hauts-Monts area (western Lake Geneva, Switzerland) is reconstructed combining high resolution seismic stratigraphy and well-dated sedimentary cores. Six reflections and seismic units are defined and represented by individual isopach maps, which are further combined to obtain a three-dimensional age-depth model. Slumps, blank areas and various geometries are identified using these seismic data. The sediment depositional areas have substantially changed throughout the lake during the end of the Late-Glacial and the Holocene. These changes are interpreted as the result of variations in the intensity of deep lake currents and the frequency of strong winds determining the distribution of sediment input from the Versoix River and from reworking of previously deposited sediments within the lacustrine basin. The identified changes in sediment distribution allowed us to reconstruct the lake's deep-current history and the evolution of dominant strong wind regimes from the Preboreal to present times.

  8. Hydroclimatic Changes in Coastal Southern California at the Last Glacial Termination (~33 to 10 Ka): Pollen and Macrofossil Evidence from Lake Elsinore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, L. E.; Kirby, M. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Peteet, D. M.; Wu, M.; Pavia, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution (1 cm ≈ 14 yrs) pollen analyses from a well-dated sediment core from Lake Elsinore record changes in coastal southern California upland and lowland vegetation at the end of the last glacial (~33 to 10 ka). Montane (>2200m) conifer forests expanded to lower elevations in the full glacial, with peak abundances at ~33ka near the beginning of the first wetland episode when aquatic macrofossils such as Potomogeton and Zannichellia seeds were present. In the Holocene, conifers were replaced by mid-elevation (1400-2100 m) oak woodlands and chaparral. Early Holocene abundance of algae and microcharcoal, absence of macrosfossils, and high total carbonate imply warmer epilimnion, eutrophication, and lower precipitation. Three general climate modes are reconstructed from the Lake Elsinore pollen data based on modern California pollen/vegetation/ hydroclimate relationships. First, beginning ~33ka, the record is characterized by a 10 kyr-long interval of high frequency changes in precipitation during which two expanded wetland episodes bracket repeated expansions of saline/alkaline vegetation. Second, low-amplitude variations in effective moisture characterize the last Glacial Maximum (23 to 15 kyrs). Third, rapid, abrupt high-amplitude changes in water availability occur during the Bølling, Allerod and Younger Dryas chronozones. Patterns of hydroclimatic change inferred from the pollen data are consistent with hydrologic variability reconstructed from lithologic and biochemical analyses of coeval samples from the Lake Elsinore core. The timing and character of the response of coastal southern California ecosystems at the termination of the last glacial is correlative with northeast Pacific Ocean climate events and with general patterns of global climate change.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Mixotrophic Protists Within a Protected Glacial Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVaul, S. B.; Sanders, R. W.

    2016-02-01

    Bacterivorous protists are vital components of the aquatic food web as prey for zooplankton and top-down regulators of bacteria. Many bacterivores utilize mixotrophic nutrition that combines photosynthesis with ingestion of particulate matter. Mixotrophic protists are capable of substantial rates of bacterivory - often greater than co-occurring heterotrophic flagellates. It has been argued that mixotrophs may gain a competitive advantage in natural systems due to their ability to utilize photosynthesis during periods of reduced particulate food or phagotrophy during periods of decreased irradiance. A central goal of ecological study has been to understand and ultimately predict the composition of communities in response to varying environmental conditions. The objectives of this study were to determine seasonal abundances and bacterial ingestion rates of heterotrophic, phototrophic and mixotrophic nanoflagellates (hereafter referred to as HNAN, PNAN and MNAN) and identify abiotic drivers that influence spatial and temporal dynamics of these functional groups. Water samples were collected approximately monthly over a 1.5 year period from Lake Lacawac, a 13,000 year old lake with a protected watershed. Trends in MNAN abundance were related to seasonal patterns of thermal stratification and varied with depth. Maximum abundance occurred in the summer epilimnion. Although HNAN abundance tended to be greater than that of MNAN, the latter generally had a greater grazer impact on bacterial biomass within the epilimnion. During the study period, MNAN removed a maximum of 75% of the bacterial biomass daily in the metalimnion. Mixotroph abundance and grazing impact tended to decrease in deeper waters, and was nearly absent in the anaerobic hypolimnion in late summer and early autumn.

  10. Using a Hydrodynamic Lake Model to Predict the Impact of Avalanche Events at Lake Palcacocha, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, R. E.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; McKinney, D. C.; Hodges, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades due to a warming climate has caused the emergence and growth of glacial lakes. As these lakes continue to grow, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). GLOFs can be triggered by moraine failures or by avalanches, rockslides, or ice calving into glacial lakes. Many of the processes influencing GLOF risk are still poorly understood. For many decades Lake Palcacocha in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru has posed a threat to citizens living in the watershed below, including the city of Huaraz which was devastated by a GLOF in 1941. A safety system for Lake Palcacocha was put in place in the 1970's to control the lake level with a tunnel and reinforced dyke, but the lake has since grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Overhanging ice from the Palcaraju glacier and a relatively low freeboard level make the lake vulnerable to avalanches and landslides. A siphon system has been put in place to lower the lake below the level of the tunnel, but this system is temporary and the potential reduction in the water level is limited. Lake Palcacocha is used as a case study to investigate the impact of an avalanche event on the lake dynamics and the ensuing flood hydrograph. Empirical equations are used to determine the initial wave characteristics of an impulse wave created by three different avalanche scenarios that represent small, medium and large events. The characteristics of the initial impulse wave are used as inputs to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to predict the wave propagation across the lake and the moraine overtopping volume. The results from this model will be used as inputs to a downstream GLOF model to predict the impact from an outburst flood event. Additionally several scenarios are considered to evaluate the downstream impact from avalanche events with a reduction in the lake level. Use of a robust three-dimensional hydrodynamic lake model enables more

  11. Map of Western Copper River Basin, Alaska, Showing Lake Sediments and Shorelines, Glacial Moraines, and Location of Stratigraphic Sections and Radiocarbon-Dated Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Galloway, John P.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make available basic data on radiocarbon dating of 61 organic samples from 40 locations in the western Copper River Basin and adjacent uplands and in the uppermost Matanuska River Valley. The former distribution of late Quaternary glacial lakes and of glaciers as mapped from field work and photo interpretation is provided as background for interpretation of the radiocarbon dates and are the basic data needed for construction of the late Quaternary chronology. The glacial boundaries, formed and expressed by moraines, ice-contact margins, marginal channels, deltas, and other features, are obscured by a drape of glaciolacustrine deposits in a series of glacial lakes. The highest lake, represented by bottom sediments as high as 914 m to 975 m above sea level, extends from Fog Lakes lowland on Susitna River upstream into the northwestern part of the Copper River Basin (the part now draining to Susitna River) where it apparently was held in by an ice border. It was apparently dammed by ice from the Mt. McKinley area, by Talkeetna G1acier, and may have had a temporary drainage threshold at the headwaters of Chunilna Creek. No shorelines have been noted within the map area, although Nichols and Yehle (1961) reported shorelines within the 914-975 m range in the Denali area to the north of that mapped. Recent work by geologic consultants for the Susitna Hydroelectric Project has confirmed the early inferences (Karlstrom, 1964) about the existence of a lake in the Susitna canyon, based originally on drilling by the Bureau of Reclamation about 35 years ago. According to dating of deposits at Tyone Bluff (map locations 0, P), Thorson and others (1981) concluded that a late Wisconsin advance of the glaciers between 11,535 and 21,730 years ago was followed by a brief interval of lacustrine sedimentation, and was preceded by a long period of lake deposition broken by a lowering of the lake between 32,000 and about 25,000 years ago. An alternate

  12. Postglacial development of the eastern Gulf of Finland: from Pleistocene glacial lake basins to Holocene lagoon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Kotilainen, Aarno; Hyttinen, Outi; Grigoriev, Andrey; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Anisimov, Mikhail; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Budanov, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    Despite significant amount of data, there are still lots of debatable questions and unsolved problems concerning postglacial geological history of the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Among these problems are: 1) locations of the end moraine and glacio-fluvial deposits; 2) time and genesis of the large accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes); 3) basinwide correlations of trangression/regression culminations with the other parts of the Baltic Sea basin; 4) study of salinity, timing, frequency and intensity of Holocene saline water inflows and their links of sedimentation processes associated with climate change. Aiming to receive new data about regional postglacial development, the GIS analyses of bottom relief and available geological and geophysical data was undertaken, the maps of preQuaternary relief, moraine and Late Pleistocene surfaces, glacial moraine and Holocene sediments thicknesses were compiled. High-resolution sediment proxy study of several cores, taken from eastern Gulf of Finland bottom, allows to study grain-size distribution and geochemical features of glacial lake and Holocene sediments, to reveal sedimentation rates and paleoenvironment features of postglacial basins. Interdisciplinary geoarcheological approaches offer new opportunities for studying the region's geological history and paleogeography. Based on proxy marine geological and coastal geoarcheological studies (e.g. off-shore acoustic survey, side-scan profiling and sediment sampling, on-shore ground-penetrating radar (GPR SIR 2000), leveling, drilling, grain-size analyses and radiocarbon dating and archeological research) detailed paleogeographical reconstruction for three micro-regions - Sestroretsky and Lahta Lowlands, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and Southern Ladoga - were compiled. As a result, new high resolution models of Holocene geological development of the Eastern Gulf of Finland were received. Model calibration and verification used results from proxy geoarcheological research

  13. Supraglacial lakes on Himalayan debris-covered glacier (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, A.; Fujita, K.

    2013-12-01

    currents driven by winds at the lake surface with a positive feedback process. The risk of GLOFs (glacial lake outburst flood) are analysed for Himalayan glacial lakes. We proposed an objective index for GLOF probability, based on depression angle from the lakeshore, which allows the lakes to be assessed using remotely sensed digital elevation models (DEMs). The index was verified by pre-GLOF topography derived by spy satellite imageries. We screened 2800 Himalayan glacial lakes and identified 49 lakes with potential flood volumes over 10 million m3.

  14. Firn and percolation conditions in the vicinity of recently formed high elevation supra-glacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet assessed by airborne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Peña, S.; Howat, I. M.; Chen, C.; Price, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The western region of the Greenland Ice Sheet around and above the equilibrium line is characterized by relatively high accumulation rates with short-lasting melt events of variable intensity during the summer months. During melt season, supra-glacial lakes are formed at least temporarily in depressions found in the topography of the ice. These ponds can form and drain rapidly, affecting the dynamics of the ice below. Recent warming trends have gradually increased the amount of meltwater found every summer over the ice sheet, with melt regimes migrating to higher altitudes. Consequentially, supra-glacial lakes are being found at higher elevations, yet it is unclear what mechanisms control their formation over firn. We used data from different radar systems acquired by Operation Icebridge around and over lakes formed above the equilibrium line of the Greenland Ice Sheet to study internal features of identified frozen/drained supra-glacial lakes, and to investigate near-surface snow and firn conditions in the vicinity of the ponds by radar-mapping internal snowpack structure. Airborne radar and additional field observations revealed extensive and impermeable ice layers 20-70 cm thick formed at elevations between 1500 m and 2200 m. Buried by winter accumulation, these ice layers prevent further meltwater to percolate deeper during melt season, limiting firn capacity to absorb meltwater and causing near-surface snowpack saturation, thus facilitating the transport of meltwater to newly-formed basins above the equilibrium line. Ice penetrating capabilities from the different radar systems allow the survey of different firn layers and internal features created by refrozen meltwater. IceBridge data is acquired in early spring, when no liquid water content is found over this region ensuring adequate radar response.

  15. Late Wisconsinan sub-glacial clastic intrusive sheets along Lake Erie bluffs, at Bradtville, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreimanis, Aleksis; Rappol, Martin

    1997-07-01

    Numerous clastic intrusive sheets, a few decimetres to more than 16 m long, 1-120 cm thick, and extending one to more than 25 m laterally, occur along a 350 m long section of the late Wisconsinan Catfish Creek Drift in the Lake Erie bluffs at Bradtville, southwestern Ontario. Most of them are downglacier-dipping dikes, the largest one terminating in the underlying middle Wisconsinan Tyrconnell Formation. Most dikes strike NNE-SSW, at right angles to the local direction of glacier movement during the deposition of Catfish Creek Drift. The tops of some of them are truncated or displaced downglacier by shearing. The main concentration of clastic intrusive sheets is on the upglacier side of a glaciotectonically folded anticline of Tyrconnell Formation clays and silts underlying the Catfish Creek Drift. The host sediments are Catfish Creek till, gravel, sand and silt, and Tyrconnell Formation silt and clay. Most intrusive sheets, particularly the small to medium ones, consist of massive to crudely laminated sand and silt, intruded from below by a dewatering process. The largest dike reflects in its composition mainly the adjoining or higher-lying host-sediment materials, and its main part was formed by downward infilling, or by gravity flows into an open fracture. The large dike is flanked by small laminated silty sand sheets and several small apophyses, some of them injected downward and sideways, others upward by dewatering. The clastic intrusive sheets were formed under a moving glacier, the Erie lobe, probably both at the beginning and towards the end of the deposition of Catfish Creek till. Their location and position was predetermined by glaciotectonically induced listric planar structures and zones of weakness, mainly tension fractures, that strike transverse to glacier movement and dip downglacier and also by confinement of pore-water in a permeable sediment wedge between the less pervious Tyrconnell Formation and massive Catfish Creek basal till.

  16. Hypsometry and the distribution of high-alpine lakes in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Buckel, Johannes; Keuschnig, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Climate change strongly affects alpine landscapes. Cold-climate processes shape the terrain in a typical way and ice-free overdeepenings in cirques and glacial valleys as well as different types of moraines favor the formation of lakes. These water bodies act as sediment sinks and high-alpine water storage but may also favor outburst and flooding events. Glacier retreat worldwide is associated with an increasing number and size of high-alpine lakes which implies a concurrent expansion of sediment retention and natural hazard potential. Rising temperatures are regarded to be the major cause for this development, but other factors such as the distribution of area over elevation and glacier erosional and depositional dynamics may play an important role as well. While models of ice flow and glacial erosion are employed to understand the impact of glaciers on mountain landscapes, comprehensive datasets and analyses on the distribution of existing high-alpine lakes are lacking. In this study we present an exhaustive database of natural lakes in the European Alps and analyze lake distribution with respect to hypsometry. We find that the distribution of lake number and lake area over elevation only weakly coincides with hypsometry. Unsurprisingly, largest lakes are often tectonically influenced and located at the fringe of the mountain range and in prominent inter-montane basins. With increasing elevation, however, the number of lakes, lake area and total area decrease until a local minimum is reached around the equilibrium line latitude (ELA) of the last glacial maximum (LGM). Above the LGM ELA, total area further decreases, but lake number and area increase again. A local maximum in lake area coincides with an absolute maximum in lake number between the ELAs of the LGM and the little ice age around 2500 m. We conclude that glacial erosional and depositional dynamics control the distribution and size of high-alpine lakes and thus demand for exceptional attention when

  17. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; Słowiński, Michał; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly

  18. Post-glacial recolonization of the Great Lakes region by the common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) inferred from mtDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Placyk, John S; Burghardt, Gordon M; Small, Randall L; King, Richard B; Casper, Gary S; Robinson, Jace W

    2007-05-01

    Pleistocene events played an important role in the differentiation of North American vertebrate populations. Michigan, in particular, and the Great Lakes region, in general, were greatly influenced by the last glaciation. While several hypotheses regarding the recolonization of this region have been advanced, none have been strongly supported. We generated 148 complete ND2 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) populations throughout the Great Lakes region to evaluate phylogeographic patterns and population structure and to determine whether the distribution of haplotypic variants is related to the post-Pleistocene retreat of the Wisconsinan glacier. The common gartersnake was utilized, as it is believed to have been one of the primary vertebrate invaders of the Great Lakes region following the most recent period of glacial retreat and because it has been a model species for a variety of evolutionary, ecological, behavioral, and physiological studies. Several genetically distinct evolutionary lineages were supported by both genealogical and molecular population genetic analyses, although to different degrees. The geographic distribution of the majority of these lineages is interpreted as reflecting post-glacial recolonization dynamics during the late Pleistocene. These findings generally support previous hypotheses of range expansion in this region.

  19. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow through glacial deposits and crystalline bedrock in the Mirror Lake area, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, Claire R.; Goode, Daniel J.; Hsieh, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the development of a computer model to simulate steady-state (long-term average) flow of ground water in the vicinity of Mirror Lake, which lies at the eastern end of the Hubbard Brook valley in central New Hampshire. The 10-km2 study area includes Mirror Lake, the three streams that flow into Mirror Lake, Leeman's Brook, Paradise Brook, and parts of Hubbard Brook and the Pemigewasset River. The topography of the area is characterized by steep hillsides and relatively flat valleys. Major hydrogeologic units include glacial deposits, composed of till containing pockets of sand and gravel, and fractured crystalline bedrock, composed of schist intruded by granite, pegmatite, and lamprophyre. Ground water occurs in both the glacial deposits and bedrock. Precipitation and snowmelt infiltrate to the water table on the hillsides, flow downslope through the saturated glacial deposits and fractured bedrock, and discharge to streams and to Mirror Lake. The model domain includes the glacial deposits, the uppermost 150m of bedrock, Mirror Lake, the layer of organic sediments on the lake bottom, and streams and rivers within the study area. A streamflow routing package was included in the model to simulate baseflow in streams and interaction between streams and ground water. Recharge from precipitation is assumed to be areally uniform, and riparian evapotranspiration along stream banks is assumed negligible. The spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity is represented by dividing the model domain into several zones, each having uniform hydraulic properties. Local variations in recharge and hydraulic conductivities are ignored; therefore, the simulation results characterize the general ground-water system, not local details of ground-water movement. The model was calibrated using a nonlinear regression method to match hydraulic heads measured in piezometers and wells, and baseflow in three inlet streams to Mirror Lake. Model calibration indicates that

  20. A Reassessment of U-Th and 14C Ages for Late-Glacial High-Frequency Hydrological Events at Searles Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, J.C.; Broecker, W.S.; Hemming, S.R.; Hajdas, I.; Anderson, Robert F.; Smith, G.I.; Kelley, M.; Bonani, G.

    1998-01-01

    U-Th isochron ages of tufas formed on shorelines suggest that the last pluvial event in Lake Lahontan and Searles Lake was synchronous at about 16,500 cal yr B.P. (equivalent to a radiocarbon age of between 14,000 and 13,500 yr B.P.), whereas the timing of this pluvial event determined by radiocarbon dating is on the order of 1000 yr younger. The timing of seven distinct periods of near desiccation in Searles Lake during late-glacial time has been reinvestigated for U-Th age determination by mass spectrometry. U-Th dating of evaporite layers in the interbedded mud and salt unit called the Lower Salt in Searles Lake was hampered by the uncertainty in assessing the initial 230Th/232Th of the samples. The resulting ages, corrected by a conservative range of initial 230Th/ 232Th ratios, suggest close correlation of the abrupt changes recorded in Greenland ice cores (Dansgaard-Oeschger events) and wet-dry conditions in Searles Lake between 35,000 and 24,000 Cal yr B.P. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  1. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. and Strelkovimermis ozawindibi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2002-10-01

    Two new species of Strelkovimermis are described from chironomid imagoes eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes. The 2 species are distinguished from the other 12 species in the genus by terminal mouths, rounded or nippled posterior ends, short buccal funnels, short terminal limbs of the S-shaped vagina, and presence of a bursal sleeve. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. is distinguished from S. ozawindibi n. sp. by the presence of a dorsal protractor. Procladius (Psilotanypus) bellus (Loew) is the host of S. rubtsovi. The chironomid host of S. ozawindibi has not been determined. An artificial key is provided to distinguish the 14 species of the genus.

  2. Climatic and morphological controls on post-glacial lake and river valley evolution in the Weichselian belt - an example from the Wda valley, Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Brauer, A.; Gierszewski, P.; Kordowski, J.; Lamparski, P.; Lorenz, S.; Noryśkiewicz, A. M.; Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Tyszkowski, S.

    2014-12-01

    The River Wda valley is a classical example of a polygenetic valley, consisting of former lake basins joined by erosive gap sections. In its middle section, which was the subject of our research, a fragment of an abandoned Lateglacial river valley is preserved, which is unique for the Weichselian moraine belt in the Central European Lowlands. The analysis of the relationship between the lacustrine and fluvial sediments and landforms enabled the authors to report many evolutionary connections between the initial period of the river system formation and the emergence of lakes during the Weichselian Lateglacial. The surface drainage essentially determined the progress of melting of dead ice blocks buried in the glacial depressions, which finally led to lake formation there. Most of the lake basins in the study area were formed during the Bølling-Allerød period. However, one section of the subglacial channel was not exposed to the thermokarst conditions and was therefore preserved with dead ice blocks throughout the entire Lateglacial. The dead ice decay at the beginning of the Holocene, as well as the emergence of another lake, created a lower base level of erosion in the close vicinity of the abandoned valley and induced a change of the river's course. Both fluvial and lacustrine deposits and landforms distributed in the central section of the River Wda valley indicate two processes, which proceeded simultaneously: (1) emergence of fluvially joined lake basins within a glacial channel, (2) degradation of the river bed in the gap sections interfering between the lakes. The processes described for the central section of the River Wda channel indicate a very dynamic river valley development during the Weichselian Lateglacial and the early Holocene. The valley formation was tightly interwoven with the morphogenesis of the primary basins within the valley, mainly with the melting of the buried blocks of dead ice and the development of lakes. This study is a contribution

  3. Spatio-temporal development of high-mountain lakes in the headwaters of the Amu Darya River (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, Martin; Müller, Johannes P.; Schneider, Jean F.

    2013-08-01

    The sources of the Amu Darya, one of the major Central Asian rivers draining to the Aral Sea, are located in the glacierized high-mountain areas of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan. There, climate change and the resulting retreat of glaciers have led to the formation of numerous new glacial lakes. Other lakes in the area are embedded in older glacial landscapes (erosion lakes) or retained by block or debris dams (e.g., Lake Sarez). A multi-temporal lake inventory is prepared and analysed, based on remotely sensed data. Corona images from 1968 are used as well as more up-to-date ASTER and Landsat 7 scenes. 1642 lakes are mapped in total, 652 out of them are glacial lakes. 73% of all lakes are located above 4000 m a.s.l. Glacial lakes, abundant in those areas where glacier tongues retreat over flat or moderately steep terrain, have experienced a significant growth, even though changes are often superimposed by short-term fluctuations. The analysis results also indicate a shifting of the growth of glacial lakes from the south western Pamir to the central and northern Pamir during the observation period. This trend is most likely associated with more elevated contribution areas in the central and northern Pamir. The lakes of the other types have remained constant in size in general. The lake development reflects changes in the state of the water resources in the study area on the one hand and determines the level of lake outburst hazards on the other hand.

  4. Living and dying with glaciers: people's historical vulnerability to avalanches and outburst floods in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Mark

    2005-07-01

    Human populations worldwide are vulnerable to natural disasters. Certain conditions—such as geographical location or people's income level—can affect the degree to which natural disasters impact people's homes and livelihoods. This paper suggests that vulnerability to natural disasters increases when local people, scientists, and policymakers do not communicate and trust each other. Additionally, a breakdown in interaction and confidence among these groups can disrupt the implementation of sound science or well-intentioned policies. This case study analyzes how local people, scientists, and government officials responded to glacier hazards in Peru's Cordillera Blanca mountain range. Cordillera Blanca glacier retreat since the late-19th century has triggered some of the world's most deadly avalanches and glacial lake outburst floods. Although a Peruvian glaciology and lakes security office has "controlled" 35 Cordillera Blanca glacial lakes, 30 glacier disasters have killed nearly 30,000 people in this region since 1941. A lack of local faith in government officials and scientists as well as the State's failure to follow scientists' warnings about potential disasters have endangered or led to the death of thousands of local residents, many of which remain living in hazard zones today.

  5. Reflection of global late glacial and Holocene paleoclimate oscillations in the palynological record from bottom sediments of Tavatui Lake (Middle Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslennikova, A. V.; Udachin, V. N.; Anfilogov, V. N.; Deryagin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The palynological analysis of the reliably dated core section of bottom sediments from Tavatui Lake revealed consistency between the chronology and succession of Late Pleistocene and Early Pliocene events (GI-a/b, CS-1, GH-11.2) in the Middle Urals and the North Atlantic region. It is established that the Holocene thermal maximum (5.3-8.0 cal. ka ago) in the Middle Urals was characterized by high temperatures and humidity. The initial stage of the Subboreal cooling was reffered to the interval of 4.5-5.3 cal. ka ago. The data obtained provided grounds for the conclusion that the palynological record in the Tavatui Lake section reflects in detail global and regional climate oscillations, which allows it to be used as a Holocene and late glacial reference section, as well as for predicting the behavior of the natural system of the Middle Urals in response to future climate change.

  6. ORIGIN AND RECENT ENDEMIC DIVERGENCE OF A CASPIAN MYSIS SPECIES FLOCK WITH AFFINITIES TO THE "GLACIAL RELICT" CRUSTACEANS IN BOREAL LAKES.

    PubMed

    Väinölä, Risto

    1995-12-01

    Aspects of the evolution of intralacustrine species flocks and of the origin of the Arctic or "glacial-relict" zoogeographical element in Eurasian inland waters were elucidated in an allozyme study of the crustacean genus Mysis. This element, of supposedly northern marine ancestry, is represented by vicarious taxa in the deeper parts of the Caspian Sea (an enclosed ancient basin) and in young boreal lakes. The three endemic Caspian Mysis species studied are very close genetically (Nei's D = 0.06), which suggests a recent intrabasin radiation and rapid morphological divergence. This is in contrast to the pattern in postglacial Holarctic boreal lakes, where the Mysis relicta group is represented by a set of morphologically uniform but probably much older sibling species (D = 0.3-0.6). The results provide a parallel to those on the recent diversification of some fish species flocks in ancient freshwater lakes. The situation is, however, unusual in that the Caspian sympatric Mysis flock is pelagic, and conditions promoting speciation through allopatric isolation or spatial segregation by trophic substrate specialization seem implausible. The monophyletic Caspian Mysis clade shows a relatively strong divergence from both the northern lacustrine and the Arctic marine congeners (D = 0.6-1.0); the phylogenetic branching order of these three zoogeographical groups is not conclusively resolved. The results contradict the prevailing hypothesis of a recent Pleistocene origin of the Caspian Arctic element by invasion from Eastern European continental proglacial lakes that drained south to the Caspian basin during the glacial maxima and served as refugia for the boreal lacustrine taxa. © 1995 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Integrating Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Lakes into the Glacially Influenced Landscape of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Larson; Lomnicky; Hoffman; Liss; Deimling

    1999-09-01

    / A basic knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of lakes is needed by management to make informed decisions to protect water resources. In this study we investigated some of the physical and chemical characteristics of 58 lakes in alpine, subalpine, and forest vegetation zones in a natural area (North Cascades National Park Service Complex) between 1989 and 1993. The objectives of the study were to: (1) document the time of ice-out relative to lake elevation; (2) determine how a sharp climate gradient west and east of the hydrologic divide affected the time of ice-out for subalpine lakes; and (3) assess how lake water quality was associated with lake elevation, lake depth, and basin geology. As expected, lake ice-out times occurred earlier with decreasing elevation. East-slope subalpine lakes iced-out earlier than did west-slope subalpine lakes because the east slope of the study area was drier and warmer than the west slope. On average, the lakes were relatively cold, neutral in pH, and low in dissolved substances and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. Although some shallow lakes (depth <10 m) exhibited the highest alkalinities, conductivities, and concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen, most shallow lakes exhibited low values for these variables that were comparable to values observed in deep lakes. Geology did not play a major role in segregating the lakes based on water quality. Overall, lake temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and concentrations of total phosphorus and total Kjeldahl N increased with decreasing elevation. These changes in water quality with decreasing elevation in this temperate mountainous region corresponded with warmer air temperatures and increased vegetation biomass, soil depth and maturity, and dissolved substances and nutrients.KEY WORDS: Limnology; Mountain lakes; Water quality; North Cascades National Park Service Complex; National Park Servicehttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267

  8. Late Glacial-Holocene sequence of Lake Saint-Point (Jura Mountains, France): Detrital inputs as records of climate change and anthropic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Aurélie; Bichet, Vincent; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Magny, Michel; Adatte, Thierry; Gauthier, Émilie; Richard, Hervé; Baltzer, Agnès

    2008-12-01

    A sediment sequence (SP05, 12.5 m long) was taken from the deep zone of Lake Saint-Point (850 m a.s.l.). Sedimentological analyses highlight two main contrasted periods of sedimentation: the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)/Late Glacial characterized by high silicates and quartz contents the Holocene dominated by the carbonated fraction. At the beginning of the Holocene (11 400 years cal. BP), silicates fraction flux abruptly decreased. The shift between the Late Glacial and the Holocene periods may be explained by forest development in the catchment. From 10 200 to 6800 years cal. BP, silicates and detrital carbonate fractions remained stable before they progressively increased steady till 5000 years cal. BP. Both increases cannot be totally attributed to an anthropic impact since pollen data indicate continuous anthropic activities only dated back from 3000 years cal. BP. They thus resulted from a dominant climatic control. From 5000 years cal. BP, silicates content still increased while detrital carbonates input became steady due to a change in pedogenetic processes affecting the catchment. During the last millennium, silicates and detrital carbonate decreased, probably due to pastureland development.

  9. Integrating physical and chemical characteristics of lakes into the glacially influenced landscape of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Washington State, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Lomnicky, G.A.; Liss, W.J.; Deimling, E.

    1999-01-01

    A basic knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of lakes is needed by management to make informed decisions to protect water resources. In this study we investigated some of the physical and chemical characteristics of 58 lakes in alpine, subalpine, and forest vegetation zones in a natural area (North Cascades National Park Service Complex) between 1989 and 1993. The objectives of the study were to: (1) document the time of ice-out relative to lake elevation; (2) determine how a sharp climate gradient west and east of the hydrologic divide affected the time of ice-out for subalpine lakes; and (3) assess how lake water quality was associated with lake elevation, lake depth, and basin geology. As expected, lake ice-out times occurred earlier with decreasing elevation. East-slope subalpine lakes iced-out earlier than did west-slope subalpine lakes because the east slope of the study area was drier and warmer than the west slope. On average, the lakes were relatively cold, neutral in pH, and low in dissolved substances and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. Although some shallow lakes (depth ,10 m) exhibited the highest alkalinities, conductivities, and concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen, most shallow lakes exhibited low values for these variables that were comparable to values observed in deep lakes. Geology did not play a major role in segregating the lakes based on water quality. Overall, lake temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and concentrations of total phosphorus and total Kjeldahl N increased with decreasing elevation. These changes in water quality with decreasing elevation in this temperate mountainous region corresponded with warmer air temperatures and increased vegetation biomass, soil depth and maturity, and dissolved substances and nutrients.

  10. The Thermal History of the East African Rift Lakes Region Since the Last Glacial Maximum Using TEX86 Paleothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a study using the TEX86 temperature proxy from sediments of East African Rift Lakes (including Lakes Turkana, Albert, and Malawi) to reconstruct the thermal history of tropical Africa for the last ~ 20,000 years at a subcentennial to multicentennial resolution. The TEX86 proxy, based on tetraether membrane lipids produced by lacustrine Crenarchaeota, has been shown to be successful at recording lake surface temperatures of some large lakes, including Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika, while providing unreasonable surface temperatures for lakes that receive a large input of soil material. The East African Rift Lakes are climatically sensitive, with the majority of water loss due to evaporation rather than outflow. Thus, they are useful for paleoclimate studies, being sensitive to even small changes in aridity. Temperature records from the northern and central basins of Lake Malawi agree well and fall within modern surface lake temperatures. A 2.5°C cooling is evident during the Younger Dryas in the northern basin record, with no response seen in the central basin. We are currently investigating mechanisms to explain why both records show a gradual cooling of 3°C during the late Holocene. Lake Albert shows an intriguing two-step cooling during the Younger Dryas, reaching temperatures 2.5°C lower than temperatures preceding or following this interval. The temperature record of Lake Turkana shows an interesting ~ 500 year cyclicity of low temperatures punctuated by abrupt warming events. Lakes Turkana and Albert show TEX86 paleotemperatures considerably lower (8°C cooler in Lake Albert and ~ 4°C cooler in Lake Turkana) than modern surface water temperatures. Although these records appear to fall in the range of temporal variability, these temperature discrepancies may indicate varying Crenarcheotal populations between lakes or other influencing factors.

  11. Initial Results from a New Lake Elsinore Sediment Core Reveal Evidence for Hydrologic Change During the Late-Glacial/Holocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantozzi, J. M.; Kirby, M. E.; Lund, S.; Hiner, C.

    2010-12-01

    While there are several well-developed records of marine climate from Southern California that span the late-Glacial/Holocene transition, there are currently no high-resolution terrestrial counterparts. In June 2010, a 20 meter sediment core covering 10-30 meters below the sediment-water interface was extracted from the depocenter of Lake Elsinore, California - the largest natural, permanent lake in the region. Here, we present the initial results of a multi-proxy study on the section of this sediment core that spans the late-Glacial/Holocene transition (10-18.5 m below the sediment-water line [bswl]). Initial results reveal three distinct sediment units. Unit I (10-15m bswl) is composed of a homogeneous, often mottled (bioturbated?), gray mud with high and moderately variable magnetic susceptibility values (avg=1.20±0.29x10-7m3/kg), low organic matter content (6.50±0.83%), and highly variable carbonate content (12.21±4.89%). Unit II (15-17m bswl) is a transitional unit that begins as a gray mud similar to that of Unit I and transitions into a massive to laminated brown mud with low and variable magnetic susceptibility values (0.88±0.38x10-7m3/kg), increasing organic matter content (11.52±2.19%), and highly variable carbonate content (10.84±4.75%). Unit III (17-18.5m bswl) is characterized by a massive to laminated brown mud with very low and stable magnetic susceptibility values (0.87±0.19x10-7m3/kg), declining organic matter content (11.21±2.02%), and low to negligible carbonate content (5.0±0.87%). Together, these data indicate a significant change in Lake Elsinore’s depositional environment that is likely related to hydrologic change (i.e. average lake level) during the late Glacial to Holocene transition - a change that has not previously been documented in Southern California.

  12. Active tectonics in Eastern Lunana (NW Bhutan): Implications for the seismic and glacial hazard potential of the Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. C.; Wiesmayr, G.; Brauner, M.; HäUsler, H.; Wangda, D.

    2006-06-01

    Paleoseismological investigations, brittle fault analysis, and paleostrain calculations combined with the interpretation of satellite imagery and flood wave modeling were used to investigate the seismic and associated glacial hazard potential in Eastern Lunana, a remote area in NW Bhutan. Seismically induced liquefaction features, cracked pebbles, and a surface rupture of about 6.8 km length constrain the occurrence of M ≥ 6 earthquakes within this high-altitude periglacial environment, which are the strongest earthquakes ever been reported for the Kingdom of Bhutan. Seismicity occurs along conjugate sets of faults trending NE-SW to NNW-SSE by strike-slip and normal faulting mechanism indicating E-W extension and N-S shortening. The strain field for these conjugate sets of active faults is consistent with widespread observations of young E-W expansion throughout southern Tibet and the north Himalaya. We expect, however, that N-S trending active strike-slip faults may even reach much farther to the south, at least into southern Bhutan. Numerous glacial lakes exist in the investigation area, and today more than 100 × 106 m3 of water are stored in moraine-dammed and supraglacial lakes which are crosscut by active faults. Strong earthquakes may trigger glacial lake outburst floods, and the impact of such flash floods may be worst 80 km downstream where the valley is broad and densely populated. Consequently, tectonic models of active deformation have to be closely linked with glacial hazard evaluation and require rethinking and modification.

  13. Reconstructing level changes and assessing evidence for tectonic and glacial-rebound induced tilting of the Lake Wakatipu basin, New Zealand using novel techniques for correlating and dating paleoshorelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColl, S. T.; Stahl, T. A.; Cook, S.

    2013-12-01

    Glacial-rebound signals have not previously been identified or isolated from tectonic processes in the New Zealand landscape. This contrasts with other parts of the world where glacial-unloading has caused tens to hundreds of meters of uplift and increased fault activity. The aim of this research was to quantify the magnitude and timing of post-glacial lake-level changes and deformation of the Lake Wakatipu basin, New Zealand. Abandoned shorelines up to 43 m above the modern water-level had previously been suggested to be tilted. Accurate measurement of the magnitude and timing of tilting would provide a unique attempt to extract a glacial-rebound signal from the tectonically-overprinted New Zealand landscape. Paleo-shoreline profiles were surveyed along the lake using GPS and existing air-borne LiDAR datasets. The shoreline profiles were correlated based on elevation and numerically cross-correlated to assess potential progressive offset. The results reveal negligible elevation differences, in conflict with previous suggestions of shoreline tilting. The timing of lake lowering was assessed with Schmidt hammer exposure-age and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of a flight of alluvial terraces directly correlated with the shorelines. The ages suggest formation of the lake by ~17.1 +/- 2.6 ka, which is assumed to be the approximate age for initial formation of the highest and most prominent preserved shoreline. Abandonment of this high-stand shoreline is thought to have commenced at ~12 ka when lake drainage switched to a new outlet, and was followed by gradual lowering (of about 20 m in 8-10 kyr). Lowering accelerated at about 2 ka, rapidly achieving 26-29 m of lowering before then reversing by 3-6 m to attain the present-day level. Glacial-rebound induced uplift or fault activity in the last 18 kyr has not been recorded by paleo-shorelines of Lake Wakatipu. We suggest that a glacial-isostatic signal is not present in the data because either glacial

  14. Response of the phytoplankton community to water quality in a local alpine glacial lake of Xinjiang Tianchi, China: potential drivers and management implications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaotian; Song, Shuai; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Zhaoyang; Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Meng; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Jenkins, Alan

    2017-08-31

    Eutrophication has become one of the most serious threats to aquatic ecosystems in the world. With the combined drivers of climate change and human activities, eutrophication has expanded from warm shallow lakes to cold-water lakes in relatively high latitude regions and has raised greater concerns over lake aquatic ecosystem health. A two-year field study was carried out to investigate water quality, phytoplankton characteristics and eutrophication status in a typical alpine glacial lake of Tianchi, a scenic area and an important drinking water source in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, in 2014 and 2015. Clear seasonal and annual variations of nutrients and organic pollutants were found especially during rainy seasons. For the phytoplankton community, Bacillariophyta held the dominant position in terms of both species and biomass throughout the year, suggesting the dominant characteristics of diatoms in the phytoplankton structure in such a high-altitude cold-water lake. This was quite different from plain and warm lakes troubled with cyanobacterial blooming. Moreover, the dominant abundance of Cyclotella sp. in Tianchi might suggest regional warming caused by climate change, which might have profound effects on the local ecosystems and hydrological cycle. Based on water quality parameters, a comprehensive trophic level index TLI (Σ) was calculated to estimate the current status of eutrophication, and the results inferred emerging eutrophication in Tianchi. Results from Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and correlation analysis of phytoplankton genera and physico-chemical variables of water indicated that abiotic factors significantly influenced the phytoplankton community and its succession in Tianchi Lake. These abiotic factors could explain 77.82% of the total variance, and ammonium was identified as the most discriminant variable, which could explain 41% of the total variance followed by TP (29%). An estimation of annual nutrient loadings to

  15. Alpine lakes preserve mineral dust signatures: Implications for long-range mineral dust transport and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) tornado frequency in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Lora, J. M.; Pollen, A.; Vollmer, T.; Thomas, M.; Leithold, E. L.; Mitchell, J.; Tripati, A.

    2016-12-01

    The net amount of mineral dust accumulation in arid and semi-arid regions might not be entirely sourced locally or even regionally; in fact, new evidence suggests that there could be significant contributions from distal sources. The contribution from the distal sources needs to be identified, and accounted for, in order to accurately understand the meteorological and climatologic factors, both regional and global, that control mineral dust accumulation in arid and semi-arid regions. Most importantly, if identified, the two components of mineral dust accumulation- fine fraction (typically <4 microns) and coarse fraction (typically >25 microns)- could provide critical information about regional as well as global climate. There are large-scale climatological controls on the finer fraction of mineral dust, while the coarser fraction is related to intense invents (i.e., the occurrence of cyclones). However, studies attempting to separate these two size fractions in terrestrial archives have been limited. Here we separate the two size fractions using grain size analysis, and use trace element analysis in each size fraction to identify contributing source regions. We apply this technique to well-dated cores collected from three lakes that are distributed across the western, southwestern and Great Plains in the United States: Pear Lake in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA), Senator Beck Lake in the San Juan Mountains (CO), and North Lake (WY). These lakes are uniquely situated to monitor dust fluxes; previous studies have demonstrated that sedimentation in these lakes are dominated by mineral dust accumulation; there is also evidence of remotely and locally sourced dust in these lakes, and of textural differences between the two types of dust fractions. We compare our results with previously published data on dust from loess deposits in the United States, and isotopic modeling (LMDZ). We find evidence that the finer-grain size fraction in alpine lake cores could be of

  16. Anatomy of terminal moraine segments and implied lake stability on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal, from electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Kulessa, Bernd; Benn, Douglas I.; Mertes, Jordan R.

    2017-04-01

    Moraine-dammed lakes at debris-covered glaciers are becoming increasingly common and pose significant outburst flood hazards if the dam is breached. While moraine subsurface structure and internal processes are likely to influence dam stability, only few sites have so far been investigated. We conducted electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys at two sites on the terminal moraine complex of the Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal, to aid assessment of future terminus stability. The resistivity signature of glacier ice at the site (100-15 kΩ m) is more consistent with values measured from cold glacier ice and while this may be feasible, uncertainties in the data inversion introduce ambiguity to this thermal interpretation. However, the ERT data does provide a significant improvement to our knowledge of the subsurface characteristics at these sites, clearly showing the presence (or absence) of glacier ice. Our interpretation is that of a highly complex latero-terminal moraine, resulting from interaction between previous glacier advance, recession and outburst flooding. If the base-level Spillway Lake continues to expand to a fully formed moraine-dammed glacial lake, the degradation of the ice core could have implications for glacial lake outburst risk.

  17. Anatomy of terminal moraine segments and implied lake stability on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal, from electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Kulessa, Bernd; Benn, Douglas I.; Mertes, Jordan R.

    2017-01-01

    Moraine-dammed lakes at debris-covered glaciers are becoming increasingly common and pose significant outburst flood hazards if the dam is breached. While moraine subsurface structure and internal processes are likely to influence dam stability, only few sites have so far been investigated. We conducted electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys at two sites on the terminal moraine complex of the Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal, to aid assessment of future terminus stability. The resistivity signature of glacier ice at the site (100–15 kΩ m) is more consistent with values measured from cold glacier ice and while this may be feasible, uncertainties in the data inversion introduce ambiguity to this thermal interpretation. However, the ERT data does provide a significant improvement to our knowledge of the subsurface characteristics at these sites, clearly showing the presence (or absence) of glacier ice. Our interpretation is that of a highly complex latero-terminal moraine, resulting from interaction between previous glacier advance, recession and outburst flooding. If the base-level Spillway Lake continues to expand to a fully formed moraine-dammed glacial lake, the degradation of the ice core could have implications for glacial lake outburst risk. PMID:28425458

  18. Anatomy of terminal moraine segments and implied lake stability on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal, from electrical resistivity tomography (ERT).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sarah S; Kulessa, Bernd; Benn, Douglas I; Mertes, Jordan R

    2017-04-20

    Moraine-dammed lakes at debris-covered glaciers are becoming increasingly common and pose significant outburst flood hazards if the dam is breached. While moraine subsurface structure and internal processes are likely to influence dam stability, only few sites have so far been investigated. We conducted electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys at two sites on the terminal moraine complex of the Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal, to aid assessment of future terminus stability. The resistivity signature of glacier ice at the site (100-15 kΩ m) is more consistent with values measured from cold glacier ice and while this may be feasible, uncertainties in the data inversion introduce ambiguity to this thermal interpretation. However, the ERT data does provide a significant improvement to our knowledge of the subsurface characteristics at these sites, clearly showing the presence (or absence) of glacier ice. Our interpretation is that of a highly complex latero-terminal moraine, resulting from interaction between previous glacier advance, recession and outburst flooding. If the base-level Spillway Lake continues to expand to a fully formed moraine-dammed glacial lake, the degradation of the ice core could have implications for glacial lake outburst risk.

  19. A Late-Glacial-to-modern reconstruction of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds: New insights from a Lake Hayes, New Zealand sediment core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, J.; Moy, C. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Sessions, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere westerly winds strongly influence air-sea CO2 exchange in the Southern Ocean, one of the largest carbon sinks on Earth. The winds may have played a significant role in accelerating deep ocean CO2 release during the last glacial termination, thus creating a positive feedback leading to enhanced warming. However, the strength and position of the westerly winds remain unclear on multi-millennial timescales, especially in different sectors of the wind field. In particular, there are limited data from the southwest Pacific sector. Here, we present a new 18-kyr lacustrine sedimentary record of climate variability from Lake Hayes, New Zealand. Using a multiproxy approach in a 6 m core, we reconstruct precipitation, catchment and lake hydrology, and lake productivity, all of which inform us on regional wind strength and direction. Our proxies include compound-specific stable isotopes (n-alkane δD), bulk organic δ13C, magnetic susceptibility, and elemental concentrations. This new record provides a climate chronology that matches well with existing records from South America, indicating zonally symmetric wind patterns during the deglaciation and Holocene.

  20. Glacial and Holocene terrestrial temperature variability in subtropical east Australia as inferred from branched GDGT distributions in a sediment core from Lake McKenzie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltering, Martijn; Atahan, Pia; Grice, Kliti; Heijnis, Henk; Taffs, Kathryn; Dodson, John

    2014-07-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) distributions observed in a sediment core from Lake McKenzie were utilized to quantitatively reconstruct the pattern of mean annual air temperature (MAAT) from coastal subtropical eastern Australia between 37 and 18.3 cal ka BP and 14.0 cal ka BP to present. Both the reconstructed trend and amplitude of MAAT changes from the top of the sediment core were nearly identical to a local instrumental MAAT record from Fraser Island, providing confidence that in this sediment core branched GDGTs could be used to produce a quantitative record of past MAAT. The reconstructed trend of MAAT during 37 to 18.3 cal ka BP and timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Lake McKenzie record were in agreement with previously published nearby marine climate records. The amplitude of lower-than-present MAAT during the LGM potentially provides information on the latitude of separation of the Tasman Front from the East Australian current in the subtropical western Pacific. The Lake McKenzie record shows an earlier onset of near modern day warm temperatures in the early Holocene compared to marine records and the presence of a warmer than present day period during the mid-Holocene.

  1. Metabolic and molecular characterization of bacterial community associated to Patagonian Chilean oligotrophic-lakes of quaternary glacial origin.

    PubMed

    Leon, Carla; Campos, Víctor; Urrutia, Roberto; Mondaca, María-Angélica

    2012-04-01

    The Patagonian Lakes have particular environmental conditions with or without intermittent disturbances. The study of the microorganisms present in aquatic ecosystems has increased notably because they can be used as micro-scale bioindicators of, among others, anthropogenic pollution and climatic change. The aim of the work was to compare the composition of the bacterial communities associated with sediments of three Patagonian Lakes with different geomorphologic patterns and disturbances. The lake sediments were characterized by molecular techniques, physiology profiles and physico-chemical analyses. The metabolic and physiological profiles of the microbial community demonstrated that non-impacted Tranquilo Lake is statistically different to impacted Bertrand and Plomo Lakes. Similar results were detected by DGGE profiles. FISH results demonstrated that betaproteobacteria showed the highest count in the Tranquilo Lake while gammaproteobacteria showed the highest counts in the Bertrand and Plomo Lakes, indicating that their sediments are highly dystrophic. The results demonstrate differences in the metabolic activity and structural and functional composition of bacterial communities of the studied lakes, which have different geomorphological patterns due to disturbances such as volcanic activity and the climatic change.

  2. Lake sediment multi-taxon DNA from North Greenland records early post-glacial appearance of vascular plants and accurately tracks environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, L. S.; Gussarova, G.; Boessenkool, S.; Olsen, J.; Haile, J.; Schrøder-Nielsen, A.; Ludikova, A.; Hassel, K.; Stenøien, H. K.; Funder, S.; Willerslev, E.; Kjær, K.; Brochmann, C.

    2015-06-01

    High Arctic environments are particularly sensitive to climate changes, but retrieval of paleoecological data is challenging due to low productivity and biomass. At the same time, Arctic soils and sediments have proven exceptional for long-term DNA preservation due to their constantly low temperatures. Lake sediments contain DNA paleorecords of the surrounding ecosystems and can be used to retrieve a variety of organismal groups from a single sample. In this study, we analyzed vascular plant, bryophyte, algal (in particular diatom) and copepod DNA retrieved from a sediment core spanning the Holocene, taken from Bliss Lake on the northernmost coast of Greenland. A previous multi-proxy study including microscopic diatom analyses showed that this lake experienced changes between marine and lacustrine conditions. We inferred the same environmental changes from algal DNA preserved in the sediment core. Our DNA record was stratigraphically coherent, with no indication of leaching between layers, and our cross-taxon comparisons were in accordance with previously inferred local ecosystem changes. Authentic ancient plant DNA was retrieved from nearly all layers, both from the marine and the limnic phases, and distinct temporal changes in plant presence were recovered. The plant DNA was mostly in agreement with expected vegetation history, but very early occurrences of vascular plants, including the woody Empetrum nigrum, document terrestrial vegetation very shortly after glacial retreat. Our study shows that multi-taxon metabarcoding of sedimentary ancient DNA from lake cores is a valuable tool both for terrestrial and aquatic paleoecology, even in low-productivity ecosystems such as the High Arctic.

  3. A fan dam for Tulare Lake, California, and implications for the Wisconsin glacial history of the Sierra Nevada.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.

    1986-01-01

    Four stratigraphically consistent 14C dates on peat and wood give an age of 26 000 yr BP for the start of Tulare Lake's late Wisconsin transgression. An earlier enlargement of Tulare Lake probably resulted from a fan dam produced by the penultimate major (Tahoe) glaciation of the Sierra Nevada. Average sedimentation rates inferred from depths to a 600 000-yr-old clay and from radiocarbon dates indicate that this earlier lake originated no later than 100 000 yr BP. The Tahoe glaciation therefore is probably pre- Wisconsin. -from Authors

  4. An In-Situ Deep-UV Optical Probe for Examining Biochemical Presence in Deep Glaciers and Sub-Glacial Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, A. L.; Behar, A.; Bhartia, R.; Conrad, P. G.; Hug, W. F.

    2007-12-01

    The quest to study and understand extremophiles has led to many quite different research paths in the past 30 years. One of the more difficult directions has been the study of biochemical material in deep glacial ice and in subglacial lakes. Lake Vostok in Eastern Antarctica has been perhaps the most discussed subglacial lake because of its large size (~14,000 sq km), deep location under >3700 m of overlying ice, and thick sediment bed (~200m). Once the physical conditions of the Lake were assessed, questions immediately arose about the potential existence of biological material - either extinct or possibly extant under conditions of extremely limited energy and nutrients [1-2]. To investigate the biology of Vostok, via in-situ methods, is a major issue that awaits proven techniques that will not contaminate the Lake beyond what may have occurred to date. Lake Ellsworth, in West Antarctica, also discovered by ice penetrating radar, is of significantly smaller size, but is also >3500 m below the overlying ice. It represents a wonderful opportunity to design, engineer and build in-situ delivery systems that consider bio-cleanliness approaches to enable examination of its water, sediment bed and the "roof" area accretion ice for biochemicals [3]. Our laboratory has been developing deep UV fluorescence and UV Raman instrumentation to locate and classify organic material at a variety of extremophile locations. The confluence of the measurement techniques and the engineering for high external pressure instrument shells has enabled us to design and begin prototype fabrication of a biochemical sensing probe that can be inserted into a hot-water drilled ice borehole, functioning as a local area mapper in water environments as deep as 6000 m. Real-time command and control is conducted from a surface science station. We have been using the deep Vostok ice cores at the U.S. National Ice Core Lab to validate our science and data analysis approaches with an "inverted" system

  5. Paleogeography and paleoenvironments of southwestern Baffin Island (Nunavut, Canada): post-glacial isostatic uplift and isolation of Nettilling Lake from marine influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narancic, Biljana; Pienitz, Reinhard; Francus, Pierre; Rolland, Nicolas; Wagner, Anne-Marie

    2013-04-01

    radiometric dating of the isolation contacts helps refine regional glacio-isostatic rebound and the duration and extent of the postglacial Tyrrell Sea marine phase. Post-glacial marine regression and the associated changes in paleosalinity are also reflected in the sediment core sedimentology and geochemistry analysed using a Multi Sensor Core Logger and a microfluorescence scanner. Jacobs J. D., Headley A. N., Maus L. A., Mode W. N. et Simms E. L., 1997. Climate and vegetation of the interior lowlands of southern Baffin Island : long-term stability at the low artic limit. Arctic 50 (2) : 167-177. Oliver D. R., 1964. A limnological investigation of a large Arctic lake, Nettilling lake, Baffin island. Papers University of Calgary 17 : 69-83. Pienitz R., Douglas M. S. V. et Smol P. J., 2004 Paleolimnological research in polar regions : An introduction. In : Pienitz R., Douglas M. S. V., Smol P. J. (Eds) Long- term environmental change in Arctic and Antarctic lakes. Springer, Dordrecht, 562 p.

  6. Hydrologic hazards along Squaw Creek from a hypothetical failure of the glacial moraine impounding Carver Lake near Sisters, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Scott, K.M.; Costa, J.E.; Orzol, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrologic hazard exists that could create a large-magnitude, but short-duration, flood in the Squaw Creek drainage and inundate areas in and around the community of Sisters, Oregon. There is a 1 to 5% probability that Carver Lake, located at elevation 7,800 ft above sea level on the east slope of South Sister mountain, Oregon, could catastrophically empty. At the U.S. Geological Survey gage (14075000) on Squaw Creek between Carver Lake and Sisters, the magnitude of the breakout flood would be 10 times that of a 1% probability meteorological flood. In Sisters, the magnitude of the breakout flood would be about five times that of a 1% probability meteorological flood. Several conditions at Carver Lake indicate the potential hazard: (1) The lake is very deep for its size; the lake contains 740 acre-ft of water and is more than 100 ft deep; (2) There is a probability that a large magnitude avalanche and consequent overtopping of the lake could occur. There are steep slopes of unstable volcanic rock and an extensively cravassed glacier located above the lake; (3) The moraine dam confining the lake is steep-faced, rendering the dam unstable, and unvegetated making it highly erodible; (4) Large amounts of readily erodible material available for transport would increase the magnitude of a large flood and keep the flood from attenuating in the steep reaches of the Squaw Creek channel; (5) and, Geologically, there is a greater than normal possibility for the area to become seismically active. Earthquakes could cause rock and ice to fall into the lake. A one-dimensional unsteady-state streamflow model was used to route a hypothetical flood down the Squaw Creek drainage. This scenario creates a starting hydrograph with a peak of 180,000 cu ft/sec. The ensuing hypothetical flood would incorporate readily erodible debris and sediments in the steep canyons, increasing the total volume of the flood by a factor of two. As the peak emerges from the steeper slopes into a more

  7. Temperature profile for glacial ice at the South Pole: Implications for life in a nearby subglacial lake

    PubMed Central

    Price, P. Buford; Nagornov, Oleg V.; Bay, Ryan; Chirkin, Dmitry; He, Yudong; Miocinovic, Predrag; Richards, Austin; Woschnagg, Kurt; Koci, Bruce; Zagorodnov, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Airborne radar has detected ≈100 lakes under the Antarctic ice cap, the largest of which is Lake Vostok. International planning is underway to search in Lake Vostok for microbial life that may have evolved in isolation from surface life for millions of years. It is thought, however, that the lakes may be hydraulically interconnected. If so, unsterile drilling would contaminate not just one but many of them. Here we report measurements of temperature vs. depth down to 2,345 m in ice at the South Pole, within 10 km from a subglacial lake seen by airborne radar profiling. We infer a temperature at the 2,810-m deep base of the South Pole ice and at the lake of −9°C, which is 7°C below the pressure-induced melting temperature of freshwater ice. To produce the strong radar signal, the frozen lake must consist of a mix of sediment and ice in a flat bed, formed before permanent Antarctic glaciation. It may, like Siberian and Antarctic permafrost, be rich in microbial life. Because of its hydraulic isolation, proximity to South Pole Station infrastructure, and analog to a Martian polar cap, it is an ideal place to test a sterile drill before risking contamination of Lake Vostok. From the semiempirical expression for strain rate vs. shear stress, we estimate shear vs. depth and show that the IceCube neutrino observatory will be able to map the three-dimensional ice-flow field within a larger volume (0.5 km3) and at lower temperatures (−20°C to −35°C) than has heretofore been possible. PMID:12060731

  8. Temperature profile for glacial ice at the South Pole: implications for life in a nearby subglacial lake.

    PubMed

    Price, P Buford; Nagornov, Oleg V; Bay, Ryan; Chirkin, Dmitry; He, Yudong; Miocinovic, Predrag; Richards, Austin; Woschnagg, Kurt; Koci, Bruce; Zagorodnov, Victor

    2002-06-11

    Airborne radar has detected approximately 100 lakes under the Antarctic ice cap, the largest of which is Lake Vostok. International planning is underway to search in Lake Vostok for microbial life that may have evolved in isolation from surface life for millions of years. It is thought, however, that the lakes may be hydraulically interconnected. If so, unsterile drilling would contaminate not just one but many of them. Here we report measurements of temperature vs. depth down to 2,345 m in ice at the South Pole, within 10 km from a subglacial lake seen by airborne radar profiling. We infer a temperature at the 2,810-m deep base of the South Pole ice and at the lake of -9 degrees C, which is 7 degrees C below the pressure-induced melting temperature of freshwater ice. To produce the strong radar signal, the frozen lake must consist of a mix of sediment and ice in a flat bed, formed before permanent Antarctic glaciation. It may, like Siberian and Antarctic permafrost, be rich in microbial life. Because of its hydraulic isolation, proximity to South Pole Station infrastructure, and analog to a Martian polar cap, it is an ideal place to test a sterile drill before risking contamination of Lake Vostok. From the semiempirical expression for strain rate vs. shear stress, we estimate shear vs. depth and show that the IceCube neutrino observatory will be able to map the three-dimensional ice-flow field within a larger volume (0.5 km(3)) and at lower temperatures (-20 degrees C to -35 degrees C) than has heretofore been possible.

  9. Potential effects of climate change on inland glacial lakes and implications for lake-dependent biota in Wisconsin: final report April 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Michael W.; Walker, John F.; Kenow, Kevin P.; Rasmussen, Paul W.; Garrison, Paul J.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    F statewide, and an increase in precipitation of 1”–2”. However, summer precipitation in the northern part of the state is expected to be less and winter precipitation will be greater. By the end of the 21st century, the magnitude of changes in temperature and precipitation are expected to intensify. Such climatic changes have altered, and would further alter hydrological, chemical, and physical properties of inland lakes. Lake-dependent wildlife sensitive to changes in water quality, are particularly susceptible to lake quality-associated habitat changes and are likely to suffer restrictions to current breeding distributions under some climate change scenarios. We have selected the common loon (Gavia immer) to serve as a sentinel lake-dependent piscivorous species to be used in the development of a template for linking primary lake-dependent biota endpoints (e.g., decline in productivity and/or breeding range contraction) to important lake quality indicators. In the current project, we evaluate how changes in freshwater habitat quality (specifically lake clarity) may impact common loon lake occupancy in Wisconsin under detailed climate-change scenarios. In addition, we employ simple land-use/land cover and habitat scenarios to illustrate the potential interaction of climate and land-use/land cover effects. The methods employed here provide a template for studies where integration of physical and biotic models is used to project future conditions under various climate and land use change scenarios. Findings presented here project the future conditions of lakes and loons within an important watershed in northern Wisconsin – of importance to water resource managers and state citizens alike.

  10. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Avalanche-Generated Impulse Waves and Evaluation of Lake-Lowering Scenarios at Lake Palcacocha, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, R. E.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades due to a warming climate has caused the emergence and growth of glacial lakes. As these lakes continue to grow, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). GLOFs can be triggered by moraine failures or by avalanches, rockslides, or ice calving into glacial lakes. For many decades Lake Palcacocha in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru has threatened citizens living in the city of Huaraz which was devastated by a GLOF in 1941. A safety system for Lake Palcacocha was put in place in the 1970's to control the lake level, but the lake has since grown to the point where it is once again dangerous. Overhanging ice from the glaciers above and a relatively low freeboard make the lake vulnerable to avalanches and landslides. Lake Palcacocha is used as a case study to investigate the impact of an avalanche event on the lake dynamics. Three-dimensional lake modeling in the context of glacial hazards is not common, but 3D simulations can enhance our understanding of avalanche-generated impulse waves and their downstream impacts. In this work, a 3D hydrodynamic model is used to simulate the generation of an impulse wave from an avalanche falling into the lake, wave propagation, and overtopping of the terminal moraine. These results are used as inputs to a downstream model to predict the impact from a GLOF. As lowering the level of the lake is the most likely mitigation alternative, several scenarios are considered to evaluate the impact from avalanche events with a reduction in the lake level. The results of this work can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the current lake management system and potential lake-lowering alternatives. Use of a robust 3D lake model enables more accurate predictions of peak flows during GLOF events and the time scales of these events so that mitigation strategies can be developed that reduce the risk to communities living downstream of hazardous lakes.

  11. A new high-resolution pollen sequence at Lake Van, Turkey: insights into penultimate interglacial-glacial climate change on vegetation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickarski, Nadine; Litt, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    A new detailed pollen and oxygen isotope record of the penultimate interglacial-glacial cycle, corresponding to the marine isotope stage (MIS) 7-6, has been generated from the Ahlat Ridge (AR) sediment core at Lake Van, Turkey. The presented Lake Van pollen record (ca. 250.2-128.8 ka) displays the highest temporal resolution in this region with a mean sampling interval of ˜ 540 years.

    The integration of all available proxies shows three temperate intervals of high effective soil moisture availability. This is evidenced by the predominance of steppe-forested landscapes (oak steppe-forest) similar to the present interglacial vegetation in this sensitive semiarid region between the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.

    The wettest and warmest stage, as indicated by highest temperate tree percentages, can be broadly correlated with MIS 7c, while the amplitude of the tree population maximum during the oldest penultimate interglacial (MIS 7e) appears to be reduced due to warm but drier climatic conditions. The detailed comparison of the penultimate interglacial complex (MIS 7) to the last interglacial (Eemian, MIS 5e) and the current interglacial (Holocene, MIS 1) provides a vivid illustration of possible differences in the successive climatic cycles. Intervening periods of treeless vegetation can be correlated with MIS 7d and 7a, in which open landscapes favor local erosion and detrital sedimentation. The predominance of steppe elements (e.g., Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae) during MIS 7d indicates very dry and cold climatic conditions. In contrast, the occurrence of higher temperate tree percentages (mainly deciduous Quercus) throughout MIS 7b points to relatively humid and mild conditions, which is in agreement with other pollen sequences in southern Europe.

    Despite the general dominance of dry and cold desert-steppe vegetation during the penultimate glacial (broadly equivalent to MIS 6), this period can be divided into

  12. Sediment sequences and palynology of outer South Bay, Manitoulin Island, Ontario: Connections to Lake Huron paleohydrologic phases and upstream Lake Agassiz events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C. F. M.; Anderson, T. W.

    2017-10-01

    South Bay on the southern coast of Manitoulin Island is a fjord-like embayment connected to Lake Huron by a natural narrow gap in the bay's outer sill 6.5-14 m above the lake. A seismic profile, pollen, plant macrofossil, grain size analyses, and other sediment properties of two piston cores from a shallow outer basin of the bay document a 9 m-thick sediment section comprising rhythmically laminated clay under silty clay containing zones with small molluscan shells and marsh detritus. A sandy pebbly layer under soft silty clay mud overlies these sediments. This stratigraphy represents inundation by deep glacial Lake Algonquin followed by the shallowing Post Algonquin series of lakes, and exposure in the early Holocene by 5 Lake Stanley lowstands in the Lake Huron basin separated by 4 Lake Mattawa highstands. Overflow from South Bay in the first lowstand is thought to have eroded the outer sill gap. Marsh environments are inferred to have formed in the bay during subsequent lowstands. The Lake Mattawa highstands are attributed to outburst floods mainly from glacial Lake Agassiz. Palynological evidence of increased spruce occurrence, an apparent regional climate reversal, during the dry pine period is attributed to cold northwest winds from the Lake Superior basin and a lake effect from the Mattawa highstands in the Lake Huron basin. Lake waters transgressed South Bay following the pine period to form the Nipissing shore on Manitoulin Island. Transfer of Lake Huron basin drainage to southern outlets and continued glacioisostatic uplift of the region led to the present configuration of South Bay and Lake Huron.

  13. Atmospheric production signal in 10Be from varved sediments of Lake Meerfelder Maar during the late glacial-early Holocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czymzik, Markus; Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Brauer, Achim; Mekhaldi, Florian; Martin-Puertas, Celia; Tjallingii, Rik; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

    2016-04-01

    Beryllium 10 concentrations (10Becon) were measured at 20-year resolution in annually laminated (varved) sediments of Lake Meerfelder Maar (western Germany) covering the late glacial-early Holocene transition 11310-13130 varve years before present. Comparing the 10Becon record to environmental proxy records from the same archive indicates that varying sediment accumulation and composition only slightly modify trends, but do not substantially influence multi-decadal to centennial 10Becon excursions. Corrected for potential environmental biases using multiple-regression analysis, the resulting 10Beatmosphere time-series likely represents an alternative mid-latitude 10Be production record, exhibiting broad similarities but also some differences to radionuclide records as 14C in tree rings and 10Be in polar ice cores. The preservation of the globally common atmospheric production signal in 10Be from varved lake sediments indicates the, to date, largely unexplored potential of these archives for the synchronization to other radionuclide records around the globe, complementing existing solar activity reconstructions and Sun-climate studies.

  14. Waterborne and on-land electrical surveys to suggest the geological evolution of a glacial lake in NW Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombero, Chiara; Comina, Cesare; Gianotti, Franco; Sambuelli, Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Geophysical surveys on and around the Candia Lake, located NE of Turin (NW Italy), in the internal depression of the Ivrea Morainic Amphitheater (IMA) right frontal sector, are reported in this paper. The surveys were intended to obtain a geophysical characterization of the lakebed, to investigate the interconnection paths between surface water and groundwater and to be used as a first general survey for suggesting the geological processes which lead to the actual morphology. An extensive waterborne continuous vertical electrical sounding (CVES) survey consisting of 15 profiles, with a total length of about 19 km of acquisition, was carried out on the lake surface. The processing of the acquired profiles with a laterally constrained inversion (LCI) approach lead to the reconstruction of the lakebed sediment distribution, down to 10 m depth. Self potential (SP) data recorded on the lake surface have also been analyzed. Moreover, to verify the areal distribution of the deposits, three electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs) were carried out on land near the northern and southern shores of the lake. The combination of the geophysical survey results with hydrogeological information and geological observations and interpretations allowed the characterization of the submerged deposits, the probable identification of the main areas of groundwater recharge and the preliminary reconstruction of the lake genesis.

  15. Mendenhall Glacier (Juneau, Alaska) icequake seismicity and its relationship to the 2012 outburst flood and other environmental forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, P. M.; Walter, J. I.; Peng, Z.; Amundson, J. M.; Meng, X.

    2013-12-01

    Glacial outburst floods occur when ice-dammed lakes or other reservoirs on the glacier release large volumes of water usually due to the failure of an ice dam. In 2011 and 2012 these types of floods have occurred at Mendenhall Glacier in Southeast Alaska, 15 km northwest of Juneau. The floods emanated from a lake within a remnant branch of Mendenhall Glacier, called Suicide Basin, and rapidly changed the levels of Mendenhall Lake. Homes on the shore of Mendenhall Lake were threatened by rapidly rising lake levels during such floods. We analyze data from a set of 4 short and broadband period seismometers placed in ice-boreholes in an array on Mendenhall Glacier for a period of 4 months in 2012. We also examine the outburst flood that occurred between July 4th and 8th 2012. We first manually pick icequakes as high-frequency bursts recorded by at least two stations. Next, we use a matched-filter technique to help complete the icequake record by detecting missed events with similar waveforms to those hand-picked events. While high-frequency noise was present during the flooding, the impulsive icequake activity did not appear to be modulated significantly during periods of flooding, suggesting that the flooding does not significantly deform the overlying ice. Impulsive icequake activity appears to show strongly diurnal periodicity, indicating that the icequakes were mainly caused by expansion/contraction of ice during daytime. We also analyze the activity in concert with GPS velocity and meteorological data from the area. By analyzing the temporal and spatial patterns of the events we hope to reveal more about the fundamental processes occurring beneath Mendenhall Glacier.

  16. Outbursts in Symbiotic Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Keyes, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A major question for symbiotic stars concerns the nature and cause of their outbursts. A small subset of symbiotics, the slow novae are fairly well established as thermonuclear events that last on the order of decades. The several symbiotic recurrent novae, which are much shorter and last on the order of months, are also thought to be thermonuclear runaways. Yet the majority of symbiotics are neither slow novae nor recurrent novae. These are the so-called classical symbiotics, many of which show outbursts whose cause is not well understood. In some cases, jets are produced in association with an outburst, therefore an investigation into the causes of outbursts will yield important insights into the production of collimated outflows. To investigate the cause and nature of classical symbiotic outbursts, we initiated a program of multiwavelength observations of these events. In FUSE Cycle 2, we obtained six observational epochs of the 2000-2002 classic symbiotic outburst in the first target of our campaign - class prototype, Z Andromedae. That program was part of a coordinated multi-wavelength Target-of-Opportunity (TOO) campaign with FUSE, XMM, Chandra, MERLIN, the VLA, and ground-based spectroscopic and high time-resolution photometric observations. Our campaign proved the concept, utility, and need for coordinated multi-wavelength observations in order to make progress in understanding the nature of the outburst mechanisms in symbiotic stars. Indeed, the FUSE data were the cornerstone of this project

  17. Comparing lake and soil records to climate model simulations of hydrologic conditions across the western United States at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, D. E.; Maher, K.; Oster, J. L.; Egger, A. E.; Harris, C.; Horton, D. E.; Weaver, K. L.