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Sample records for gland nocturnal down-regulation

  1. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So; Ho, Anthony K; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2009-02-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. Pineal Pax4 transcripts are low in the fetus and increase postnatally; Pax6 exhibits an inverse pattern of expression, being more strongly expressed in the fetus. In the adult the abundance of Pax4 mRNA exhibits a diurnal rhythm in the pineal gland with maximal levels occurring late during the light period. Sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy prevents the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA. At night the pineal gland is adrenergically stimulated by release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic innervation; here, we found that treatment with adrenergic agonists suppresses pineal Pax4 expression in vivo and in vitro. This suppression appears to be mediated by cAMP, a second messenger of norepinephrine in the pineal gland, based on the observation that treatment with a cAMP mimic reduces pineal Pax4 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA is controlled by the sympathetic neural pathway that controls pineal function acting via an adrenergic-cAMP mechanism. The daily changes in Pax4 expression may influence gene expression in the pineal gland.

  2. Resistance to pathogens in terpene down-regulated orange fruits inversely correlates with the accumulation of D-limonene in peel oil glands

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Peña, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites acting as a language for the communication of plants with the environment. In orange fruits, the monoterpene D-limonene accumulates at very high levels in oil glands from the peel. Drastic down-regulation of D-limonene synthase gene expression in the peel of transgenic oranges harboring a D-limonene synthase transgene in antisense (AS) configuration altered the monoterpene profile in oil glands, mainly resulting in reduced accumulation of D-limonene. This led to fruit resistance against Penicillium digitatum (Pd), Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and other specialized pathogens. Here, we analyze resistance to pathogens in independent AS and empty vector (EV) lines, which have low, medium or high D-limonene concentrations and show that the level of resistance is inversely related to the accumulation of D-limonene in orange peels, thus explaining the need of high D-limonene accumulation in mature oranges in nature for the efficient attraction of specialized microorganism frugivores. PMID:26023857

  3. Resistance to pathogens in terpene down-regulated orange fruits inversely correlates with the accumulation of D-limonene in peel oil glands.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Peña, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites acting as a language for the communication of plants with the environment. In orange fruits, the monoterpene D-limonene accumulates at very high levels in oil glands from the peel. Drastic down-regulation of D-limonene synthase gene expression in the peel of transgenic oranges harboring a D-limonene synthase transgene in antisense (AS) configuration altered the monoterpene profile in oil glands, mainly resulting in reduced accumulation of D-limonene. This led to fruit resistance against Penicillium digitatum (Pd), Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and other specialized pathogens. Here, we analyze resistance to pathogens in independent AS and empty vector (EV) lines, which have low, medium or high D-limonene concentrations and show that the level of resistance is inversely related to the accumulation of D-limonene in orange peels, thus explaining the need of high D-limonene accumulation in mature oranges in nature for the efficient attraction of specialized microorganism frugivores.

  4. 17 beta-estradiol modifies nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase expression and down-regulates its activity in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Cabilla, Jimena P; Díaz, María del Carmen; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Lasaga, Mercedes; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies showed that 17 beta-estradiol (17 beta-E2) regulates the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway in many tissues. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that 17 beta-E2 disrupts the inhibitory effect of NO on prolactin release, decreasing sGC activity and affecting the cGMP pathway in anterior pituitary gland of adult ovariectomized and estrogenized rats. To ascertain the mechanisms by which 17 beta-E2 affects sGC activity, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of 17 beta-E2 on sGC protein and mRNA expression in anterior pituitary gland from immature female rats. In the present work, we showed that 17 beta-E2 acute treatment exerted opposite effects on the two sGC subunits, increasing alpha1 and decreasing beta1 subunit protein and mRNA expression. This action on sGC protein expression was maximal 6-9 h after 17 beta-E2 administration. 17beta-E2 also caused the same effect on mRNA expression at earlier times. Concomitantly, 17 beta-E2 dramatically decreased sGC activity 6 and 9 h after injection. These effects were specific of 17 beta-E2, because they were not observed with the administration of other steroids such as progesterone and 17 alpha-estradiol. This inhibitory action of 17beta-E2 on sGC also required the activation of estrogen receptor (ER), because treatment with the pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780 completely blocked 17 beta-E2 action. 17 beta-E2 acute treatment caused the same effects on pituitary cells in culture. These results suggest that 17 beta-E2 exerts an acute inhibitory effect on sGC in anterior pituitary gland by down-regulating sGC beta 1 subunit and sGC activity in a specific, ER-dependent manner.

  5. Down-regulation of TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) markedly enhances the growth of a human salivary gland cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakashiro, K; Kawamata, H; Hino, S; Uchida, D; Miwa, Y; Hamano, H; Omotehara, F; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

    1998-02-01

    We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) cDNA as a new anticancer drug (Vesnarinone)-inducible gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We conducted the present study to examine whether up-regulation or down-regulation of TSC-22 can affect the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. We constructed an expression vector containing sense- or antisense-oriented human TSC-22 cDNA under the transcriptional control of the SR alpha promoter. We cotransfected TYS cells with the sense or antisense expression vector and pSV2neo and obtained more than 200 G418-resistant colonies in each sense or antisense transfectant. Approximately 80% of representative G418-resistant clones expressed the transcripts from transfected sense or antisense TSC-22 cDNA. To avoid the clonal heterogeneity of the cells, we mixed all of the G418-resistant colonies together in each sense or antisense transfectant and examined the expression of TSC-22 protein, in vitro growth, and the tumorigenicity in nude mice. The expression of TSC-22 protein was examined by solid-phase ELISA using a specific antibody against recombinant TSC-22 protein. The expression of TSC-22 protein was up-regulated in the sense transfectants and down-regulated in the antisense transfectants. Contrary to our expectation, up-regulation of TSC-22 protein did not affect both in vitro and in vivo growth of TYS cells. However, down-regulation of TSC-22 markedly enhanced the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the expression of TSC-22 mRNA in several human salivary gland tumors. The mRNA expression of TSC-22 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors was significantly decreased when compared to that in tumor-free salivary glands (P < 0.05; one-way ANOVA), and in some salivary gland tumors, the expression of TSC-22 mRNA was not detectable by reverse transcription-PCR. These results suggest that down-regulation of TSC-22 may play a major role on

  6. Nocturnal headache associated with melatonin deficiency due to a pineal gland cyst.

    PubMed

    Karadaş, Omer; Ipekdal, Ilker H; Ulaş, Umit H; Odabaşi, Zeki

    2012-02-01

    The cyclic nature of some of headache disorders is closely related to melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland. We report a 29-year-old male patient with a 2.5-year history of headaches that woke him in the middle of the night. These headaches were pulsatile and continued until sunrise. During these attacks he also suffered from allodynia over the scalp, bilateral conjunctival hyperemia, and nervousness. His brain MRI showed a 5mm by 4mm neuroepithelial cyst in the pineal gland. The peak plasma melatonin level that was measured at 2 am was 28 pg/mL. The patient underwent oral melatonin treatment (6 mg/day). After 1 month he experienced a 70% reduction in his symptoms. When the melatonin dosage was increased to 10mg/day he became headache-free, and 5 months after the treatment began, had no complaints. His 5-month follow-up plasma melatonin level at 2 am was 61 pg/mL. To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with nocturnal headache associated with a low level of melatonin due to a neuroepithelial cyst in the pineal gland.

  7. The pineal gland of nocturnal mammals. I. The pinealocytes of the bat (Nyctalus noctula, Schreber).

    PubMed

    Pevet, P; Kappers, J A; Voûte, A M

    1977-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the pinealocytes of noctule bats, mammals which live most of the time in darkness or very low light intensities, was examined and compared with the pinealocytes of other mammals. Two different populations of pinealocytes (I and II) were observed. They differ in general aspect, in location and especially in their content of cell organelles involved in synthetic processes. Mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes and lipid inclusions were present in the perikaryon of pinealocytes of both populations. In the pinealocytes of population I some granular vesicles, of presumed Golgi origin, and some other structures were observed. Pinealocytes of population II are characterized by many glycogen granules, more or less associated with a large vacuolar system. Moreover, some small vacuoles originating from cisterns of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and containing flocculent material of a moderate electron density are described. The possibility is discussed that these small vacuoles are involved in one of the secretory processes of the pineal gland while the granular vesicles of the pinealocyte of the population I are the products of another.

  8. Nocturnal activation of aurora C in rat pineal gland: its role in the norepinephrine-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Price, D M; Kanyo, R; Steinberg, N; Chik, C L; Ho, A K

    2009-05-01

    We have shown previously that Ser10 phosphorylation of histone H3 occurs in rat pinealocytes after stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) and that histone modifications such as acetylation appear to play an important role in pineal gene transcription. Here we report the nocturnal phosphorylation of a Ser10 histone H3 kinase, Aurora C, in the rat pineal gland. The time profile of this phosphorylation parallels the increase in the level of phospho-Ser10 histone H3. Studies with cultured pinealocytes indicate that Aurora C phosphorylation is induced by NE and this induction can be blocked by cotreatment with propranolol or KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Moreover, only treatment with dibutyryl cAMP, but not other kinase activators, mimics the effect of NE on Aurora C phosphorylation. These results indicate that Aurora C is phosphorylated primarily by a beta-adrenergic/protein kinase A-mediated mechanism. Treatment with an Aurora C inhibitor reduces the NE-induced histone H3 phosphorylation and suppresses the NE-stimulated induction of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), the rhythm-controlling enzyme of melatonin synthesis, and melatonin production. The effects of Aurora C inhibitors on adrenergic-induced genes in rat pinealocytes are gene specific: inhibitory for Aa-nat and inducible cAMP repressor but stimulatory for c-fos. Together our results support a role for the NE-stimulated phosphorylation of Aurora C and the subsequent remodeling of chromatin in NE-stimulated Aa-nat transcription. This phenomenon suggests that activation of this mitotic kinase can be induced by extracellular signals to participate in the transcriptional induction of a subset of genes in the rat pineal gland.

  9. DMBT1 expression is down-regulated in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Braidotti, P; Nuciforo, PG; Mollenhauer, J; Poustka, A; Pellegrini, C; Moro, A; Bulfamante, G; Coggi, G; Bosari, S; Pietra, GG

    2004-01-01

    Background We studied the expression of DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumor 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene, in normal, proliferative, and malignant breast epithelium and its possible relation to cell cycle. Methods Sections from 17 benign lesions and 55 carcinomas were immunostained with anti DMBT1 antibody (DMBTh12) and sections from 36 samples, were double-stained also with anti MCM5, one of the 6 pre-replicative complex proteins with cell proliferation-licensing functions. DMBT1 gene expression at mRNA level was assessed by RT-PCR in frozen tissues samples from 39 patients. Results Normal glands and hyperplastic epithelium in benign lesions displayed a luminal polarized DMBTh12 immunoreactivity. Normal and hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas showed a loss of polarization, with immunostaining present in basal and perinuclear cytoplasmic compartments. DMBT1 protein expression was down-regulated in the cancerous lesions compared to the normal and/or hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas (3/55 positive carcinomas versus 33/42 positive normal/hyperplastic epithelia; p = 0.0001). In 72% of cases RT-PCR confirmed immunohistochemical results. Most of normal and hyperplastic mammary cells positive with DMBTh12 were also MCM5-positive. Conclusions The redistribution and up-regulation of DMBT1 in normal and hyperplastic tissues flanking malignant tumours and its down-regulation in carcinomas suggests a potential role in breast cancer. Moreover, the concomitant expression of DMTB1 and MCM5 suggests its possible association with the cell-cycle regulation. PMID:15301691

  10. Nocturnal Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... night. Exercise-Induced Asthma (EIA) Clinical Trials Asthma: Types Allergic Asthma Exercise-Induced Asthma (EIA) FAQ Cold Weather Activities Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Monitoring Nocturnal Asthma No ...

  11. Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream.

  12. Nocturnal hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, D; John, G T

    2012-09-01

    Patients receiving conventional hemodialysis have high hospitalisation rates, poor quality of life and survival compared to the general population. Many centres around the world are providing longer hours of hemodialysis - short daily hemodialysis and nocturnal hemodialysis - with a view to improving patient survival and quality of life. Studies have shown that nocturnal haemodiaysis is more effective than conventional hemodialysis in clearing most small, middle and larger molecule toxins and suggest nocturnal dialysis enhances patient survival and quality of life. Concerns include patient acceptance, vascular access related complications and increased cost. The purpose of this review is to examine the advantages and drawbacks of nocturnal dialysis, with a focus on applicability to India where the renal physician has to face cultural and economic barriers, erratic power supply and poor water quality.

  13. Down-regulation of PERK enhances resistance to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oommen, Deepu Prise, Kevin M.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •PERK enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to ionizing radiation. •Down-regulation of PERK results in enhanced DNA repair. •Ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis is inhibited in PERK-down regulated cancer cells. -- Abstract: Although, ionizing radiation (IR) has been implicated to cause stress in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), how ER stress signaling and major ER stress sensors modulate cellular response to IR is unclear. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER transmembrane protein which initiates unfolded protein response (UPR) or ER stress signaling when ER homeostasis is disturbed. Here, we report that down-regulation of PERK resulted in increased clonogenic survival, enhanced DNA repair and reduced apoptosis in irradiated cancer cells. Our study demonstrated that PERK has a role in sensitizing cancer cells to IR.

  14. Optimal Down Regulation of mRNA Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2017-01-01

    Down regulation of mRNA translation is an important problem in various bio-medical domains ranging from developing effective medicines for tumors and for viral diseases to developing attenuated virus strains that can be used for vaccination. Here, we study the problem of down regulation of mRNA translation using a mathematical model called the ribosome flow model (RFM). In the RFM, the mRNA molecule is modeled as a chain of n sites. The flow of ribosomes between consecutive sites is regulated by n + 1 transition rates. Given a set of feasible transition rates, that models the outcome of all possible mutations, we consider the problem of maximally down regulating protein production by altering the rates within this set of feasible rates. Under certain conditions on the feasible set, we show that an optimal solution can be determined efficiently. We also rigorously analyze two special cases of the down regulation optimization problem. Our results suggest that one must focus on the position along the mRNA molecule where the transition rate has the strongest effect on the protein production rate. However, this rate is not necessarily the slowest transition rate along the mRNA molecule. We discuss some of the biological implications of these results.

  15. Optimal Down Regulation of mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2017-01-01

    Down regulation of mRNA translation is an important problem in various bio-medical domains ranging from developing effective medicines for tumors and for viral diseases to developing attenuated virus strains that can be used for vaccination. Here, we study the problem of down regulation of mRNA translation using a mathematical model called the ribosome flow model (RFM). In the RFM, the mRNA molecule is modeled as a chain of n sites. The flow of ribosomes between consecutive sites is regulated by n + 1 transition rates. Given a set of feasible transition rates, that models the outcome of all possible mutations, we consider the problem of maximally down regulating protein production by altering the rates within this set of feasible rates. Under certain conditions on the feasible set, we show that an optimal solution can be determined efficiently. We also rigorously analyze two special cases of the down regulation optimization problem. Our results suggest that one must focus on the position along the mRNA molecule where the transition rate has the strongest effect on the protein production rate. However, this rate is not necessarily the slowest transition rate along the mRNA molecule. We discuss some of the biological implications of these results. PMID:28120903

  16. Biotic Stress Globally Down-Regulates Photosynthesis Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upon herbivore and pathogen attacks, plants switch from processes supporting growth and reproduction to defense by inducing a set of defense genes and down-regulating most of the nuclear encoded photosynthetic genes. To determine if this transcriptional response is universal we used transcriptome da...

  17. Terpene down-regulation triggers defense responses in transgenic orange leading to resistance against fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Alquézar, Berta; Gadea, José; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; De Ollas, Carlos José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are isoprene compounds that are emitted by plants to communicate with the environment. In addition to their function in repelling herbivores and attracting carnivorous predators in green tissues, the presumed primary function of terpenoid volatiles released from mature fruits is the attraction of seed-dispersing animals. Mature oranges (Citrus sinensis) primarily accumulate terpenes in peel oil glands, with d-limonene accounting for approximately 97% of the total volatile terpenes. In a previous report, we showed that down-regulation of a d-limonene synthase gene alters monoterpene levels in orange antisense (AS) fruits, leading to resistance against Penicillium digitatum infection. A global gene expression analysis of AS versus empty vector (EV) transgenic fruits revealed that the down-regulation of d-limonene up-regulated genes involved in the innate immune response. Basal levels of jasmonic acid were substantially higher in the EV compared with AS oranges. Upon fungal challenge, salicylic acid levels were triggered in EV samples, while jasmonic acid metabolism and signaling were drastically increased in AS orange peels. In nature, d-limonene levels increase in orange fruit once the seeds are fully viable. The inverse correlation between the increase in d-limonene content and the decrease in the defense response suggests that d-limonene promotes infection by microorganisms that are likely involved in facilitating access to the pulp for seed-dispersing frugivores.

  18. Emotion down-regulation diminishes cognitive control: a neurophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Nicholas M; Saunders, Blair; Al-Khindi, Timour; Inzlicht, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Traditional models of cognitive control have explained performance monitoring as a "cold" cognitive process, devoid of emotion. In contrast to this dominant view, a growing body of clinical and experimental research indicates that cognitive control and its neural substrates, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), are moderated by affective and motivational factors, reflecting the aversive experience of response conflict and errors. To add to this growing line of research, here we use the classic emotion regulation paradigm-a manipulation that promotes the cognitive reappraisal of emotion during task performance-to test the extent to which affective variation in the ERN is subject to emotion reappraisal, and also to explore how emotional regulation of the ERN might influence behavioral performance. In a within-subjects design, 41 university students completed 3 identical rounds of a go/no-go task while electroencephalography was recorded. Reappraisal instructions were manipulated so that participants either down-regulated or up-regulated emotional involvement, or completed the task normally, without engaging any reappraisal strategy (control). Results showed attenuated ERN amplitudes when participants down-regulated their emotional experience. In addition, a mediation analysis revealed that the association between reappraisal style and attenuated ERN was mediated by changes in reported emotion ratings. An indirect effects model also revealed that down-regulation predicted sensitivity of error-monitoring processes (difference ERN), which, in turn, predicted poorer task performance. Taken together, these results suggest that the ERN appears to have a strong affective component that is associated with indices of cognitive control and behavioral monitoring.

  19. Down-regulation of CEACAM1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changcheng; He, Pingqing; Liu, Yiwen; He, Yiqing; Yang, Cuixia; Du, Yan; Zhou, Muqing; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guoliang; Wu, Man; Gao, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the CEA family, which has been found to exist as either soluble forms in body fluids or membrane-bound forms on the cell surface. Aberrant CEACAM1 expression is associated with tumor progression and has been found in a variety of human malignancies. Increasing interest has been devoted to the expression of CEACAM1 in breast cancer, but most of these findings are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate CEACAM1 expression in breast cancer in greater detail. Using immunohistochemical staining, we found that CEACAM1 expression was reduced or lost in breast cancer tissues compared with noncancerous breast tissues. In addition, soluble CEACAM1 levels in the culture medium of breast cancer cell lines were significantly lower than those in a nontumorigenic breast epithelial cell line. Immunofluorescence analysis consistently showed that breast cancer cell lines have relatively low expression of membrane-bound CEACAM1. Furthermore, CEACAM1 mRNA and protein expression levels were down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines as measured using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Taken together, our results demonstrate a systematic down-regulation of CEACAM1 in breast cancer and suggest that a strategy to restore CEACAM1 expression may be helpful for the treatment of breast cancer.

  20. Hypnosis and top-down regulation of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Devin B; Cleeremans, Axel; Raz, Amir; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2017-02-04

    Hypnosis is a unique form of top-down regulation in which verbal suggestions are capable of eliciting pronounced changes in a multitude of psychological phenomena. Hypnotic suggestion has been widely used both as a technique for studying basic science questions regarding human consciousness but also as a method for targeting a range of symptoms within a therapeutic context. Here we provide a synthesis of current knowledge regarding the characteristics and neurocognitive mechanisms of hypnosis. We review evidence from cognitive neuroscience, experimental psychopathology, and clinical psychology regarding the utility of hypnosis as an experimental method for modulating consciousness, as a model for studying healthy and pathological cognition, and as a therapeutic vehicle. We also highlight the relations between hypnosis and other psychological phenomena, including the broader domain of suggestion and suggestibility, and conclude by identifying the most salient challenges confronting the nascent cognitive neuroscience of hypnosis and outlining future directions for research on hypnosis and suggestion.

  1. Skp2 expression is associated with down-regulation of p27 protein and cell proliferation in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keikhaee, Mohammad Reza; Kudo, Yasusei; Siriwardena, Samadarani; Wu, Lanyan; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant salivary gland tumor, which shows frequent recurrence and metastasis, ultimately with a poor outcome. We previously demonstrated that p27 down-regulation is frequently found and is due to an enhancement of its degradation in ACC. In this study, we transfected nondegradable p27 mutant (T187A) and wild-type gene into ACC cell line. Transfection of T187A mutant gene was more effective on inhibition of cell growth of ACC cells, suggesting that aberration of p27 degradation may be present in ACC. As F-box protein S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), which is necessary for ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27, is involved in p27 down-regulation in various cancers, we examined the Skp2 expression and its association with p27 expression in 50 ACC cases. We found Skp2 expression in 36% of ACC cases and inverse association between the expression of Skp2 and p27. Moreover, Skp2 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection decreased Skp2 protein and accumulation of p27 protein and inhibited the cell growth of ACC cells in vitro. These findings, overall, suggest that Skp2 may play an important role in ACC development through the down-regulation of p27 and that Skp2 siRNA can be a novel modality of cancer gene therapy for suppression of p27 down-regulation in ACC.

  2. Winter down-regulation of intrinsic photosynthetic capacity coupled with up-regulation of Elip-like proteins and persistent energy dissipation in a subalpine forest.

    PubMed

    Zarter, C Ryan; Adams, William W; Ebbert, Volker; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Adamska, Iwona; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Overwintering, sun-exposed and photosynthetically inactive evergreens require powerful photoprotection. The goal of this study was to seasonally characterize photosynthesis and key proteins/components involved in electron transport and photoprotection. Maximal photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and photosynthetic capacity, amounts of zeaxanthin (Z), antheraxanthin (A), pheophytin and proteins (oxygen-evolving 33 kDa protein (OEC), PSII core protein D1 and subunit S (PsbS) protein, and members of the early light-inducible protein (Elip) family) were assessed in five conifer species at high altitude and in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) at moderate altitude during summer and winter. Relative to summer, winter down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity and loss of PSII efficiency at the high-altitude sites were paralleled by decreases in OEC, D1, and pheophytin; massive nocturnal retention of (Z + A) and up-regulation of two to four proteins cross-reactive with anti-Elip antibodies; and no change in PsbS amount. By contrast, ponderosa pine at moderate altitude exhibited no down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity, smaller depressions in PSII efficiency, and less up-regulation of Elip family members. These results support a function for members of the Elip family in the acclimation of sun-exposed needles that down-regulate photosynthesis during winter. A possible role in sustained photoprotection is considered.

  3. Terpene Down-Regulation Triggers Defense Responses in Transgenic Orange Leading to Resistance against Fungal Pathogens1[W

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Alquézar, Berta; Gadea, José; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; De Ollas, Carlos José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are isoprene compounds that are emitted by plants to communicate with the environment. In addition to their function in repelling herbivores and attracting carnivorous predators in green tissues, the presumed primary function of terpenoid volatiles released from mature fruits is the attraction of seed-dispersing animals. Mature oranges (Citrus sinensis) primarily accumulate terpenes in peel oil glands, with d-limonene accounting for approximately 97% of the total volatile terpenes. In a previous report, we showed that down-regulation of a d-limonene synthase gene alters monoterpene levels in orange antisense (AS) fruits, leading to resistance against Penicillium digitatum infection. A global gene expression analysis of AS versus empty vector (EV) transgenic fruits revealed that the down-regulation of d-limonene up-regulated genes involved in the innate immune response. Basal levels of jasmonic acid were substantially higher in the EV compared with AS oranges. Upon fungal challenge, salicylic acid levels were triggered in EV samples, while jasmonic acid metabolism and signaling were drastically increased in AS orange peels. In nature, d-limonene levels increase in orange fruit once the seeds are fully viable. The inverse correlation between the increase in d-limonene content and the decrease in the defense response suggests that d-limonene promotes infection by microorganisms that are likely involved in facilitating access to the pulp for seed-dispersing frugivores. PMID:24192451

  4. ZNF503/Zpo2 drives aggressive breast cancer progression by down-regulation of GATA3 expression.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Payam; Wang, Chih-Yang; Lawson, Devon A; Slorach, Euan M; Lu, Angela; Yu, Ying; Lai, Ming-Derg; Gonzalez Velozo, Hugo; Werb, Zena

    2017-03-21

    The transcription factor GATA3 is the master regulator that drives mammary luminal epithelial cell differentiation and maintains mammary gland homeostasis. Loss of GATA3 is associated with aggressive breast cancer development. We have identified ZNF503/ZEPPO2 zinc-finger elbow-related proline domain protein 2 (ZPO2) as a transcriptional repressor of GATA3 expression and transcriptional activity that induces mammary epithelial cell proliferation and breast cancer development. We show that ZPO2 is recruited to GATA3 promoter in association with ZBTB32 (Repressor of GATA, ROG) and that ZBTB32 is essential for down-regulation of GATA3 via ZPO2. Through this modulation of GATA3 activity, ZPO2 promotes aggressive breast cancer development. Our data provide insight into a mechanism of GATA3 regulation, and identify ZPO2 as a possible candidate gene for future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  5. FOXL2 down-regulates vitellogenin expression at mature stage in Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Xie, Jing; He, Lin; Wang, Yuanli; Yang, Hongdan; Duan, Zelin; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian development in crustaceans is characterized by rapid production of egg yolk protein in a process called vitellogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of a DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box RNA helicase 20 (DDX20), forkhead transcription factor (FOXL)2 and fushi tarazu factor (FTZ-F)1 in the regulation of vitellogenesis. Based on ESTs from the testis and accessory gland of Eriocheir sinensis, we cloned the full-length cDNAs of foxl2 and fushitarazu factor 1 (ftz-f1), which include the conserved structural features of the forkhead family and nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family respectively. The expression of foxl2 mRNA surged at the mature stage of the ovary, when vtg mRNA swooped, suggesting that foxl2 negatively affects the vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis at this developmental stage. Etoposide (inducing germ cell apoptosis) treatment up-regulated FOXL2 and DDX20 at both the mRNA and the protein levels, primarily in the follicular cells as shown by immunofluorescence analysis. Furthermore, foxl2, ddx20 and ftz-f1 mRNA levels increased significantly with right-eyestalk ablation. Interactions between FOXL2 and DDX20 or FTZ-F1 were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and the forkhead domain of FOXL2 was identified as the specific structure interacting with FTZ-F1. In conclusion, FOXL2 down-regulates VTG expression by binding with DDX20 in regulation of follicular cell apoptosis and with FTZ-F1 to repress the synthesis of VTG at the mature stage. This report is the first to describe the molecular mechanism of VTG synthesis in E. sinensis and may shed new light on the regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme by FOXL2 and FTZ-F1 in vitellogenesis. PMID:26430246

  6. Amphiregulin induces human ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    So, Wai-Kin; Fan, Qianlan; Lau, Man-Tat; Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Leung, Peter C K

    2014-11-03

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is associated with ovarian cancer progression. In this study, we report that the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (AREG) stimulates cell invasion and down-regulates E-cadherin expression in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3 and OVCAR5. In addition, AREG increases the expression of transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin including SNAIL, SLUG and ZEB1. siRNA targeting SNAIL or SLUG abolishes AREG-induced cell invasion. Moreover, ERK1/2 and AKT pathways are involved in AREG-induced E-cadherin down-regulation and cell invasion. Finally, we show that three EGFR ligands, AREG, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), exhibit comparable effects in down-regulating E-cadherin and promoting cell invasion. This study demonstrates that AREG induces ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin expression.

  7. Pharmacologic down-regulation of EZH2 suppresses bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shou-Hung; Huang, Hsu-Shan; Wu, Hong-Ui; Tsai, Yi-Ta; Chuang, Mei-Jen; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Huang, Shih-Ming; Sun, Guang-Huan; Chang, Sun-Yran; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Cha, Tai-Lung

    2014-01-01

    The polycomb group gene, EZH2, is highly expressed in advanced bladder cancer. Here we demonstrated that down-regulation of EZH2 in tumor tissues after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy correlated with good therapeutic response in advanced bladder cancer. We next developed a small molecule, NSC745885, derived from natural anthraquinone emodin, which down-regulated EZH2 via proteasome-mediated degradation. NSC745885 showed potent selective toxicity against multiple cancer cell lines but not normal cells. NSC745885 treatment overcame multiple-drug resistance and inhibited growth of resistant cancer cells. Over-expression of EZH2 in cancer cells attenuated effects of NSC745885, suggesting that down-regulation of EZH2 was responsible for growth inhibition of NSC745885. NSC745885 also suppressed tumor growth and down-regulated EZH2 in vivo. These results indicate that NSC7455889 suppresses bladder cancer by targeting EZH2. PMID:25431950

  8. Down-regulation of miR-125a-5p is associated with salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma progression via targeting p38/JNK/ERK signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yancan; Ye, Jiantao; Jiao, Jiuyang; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Li; Wan, Di; Duan, Liming; Wu, You; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is a relatively uncommon epithelial-like malignancy that can occur in the head and neck region. Despite its slow growth, this aggressive salivary gland tumor frequently recurs and metastasizes to distant organs since lacking effective chemotherapy treatment. MicroRNAs are key regulators in tumor metastasis and progression, but their roles during SACC progression have not been illustrated. In current study, we demonstrate that miR-125a-5p is down-regulated in SACC and closely related to the metastasis and progression in human SACC specimens. In vitro, miR-125a-5p mimic can suppress SACC cell migration and invasion; while blocking miR-125a-5p can relieve the inhibition effect. By using dual-luciferase assay, we confirmed that miR-125a-5p directly targeted to p38 and tissue samples of patients indicated the negative correlation between miR-125a-5p and p38; clinical analysis also showed that low level expression of miR-125a-5p is closely associated with poor prognosis of SACC. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-125a-5p triggered downstream p38/JNK/ERK activation. Taken together, our results indicate that down-regulation of miR-125a-5p promotes SACC progression through p38 signal pathway and miR-125a-5p can be a potential therapeutic target of SACC. PMID:28386337

  9. CDK14 expression is down-regulated by cigarette smoke in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Daniel; Xiao, Yuxuan; Shrivasatava, Vibha; Levy, Avi; Andrusier, Miriam; D’Armiento, Jeanine; Holz, Marina K.; Vigodner, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this study, DNA arrays have been employed to monitor gene expression patterns in testis of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 24 weeks and compared to control animals. The results of the analysis revealed significant changes in expression of several genes that may have a role in spermatogenesis. Cdk14 was chosen for further characterization because of a suggested role in the testis and in regulation of Wnt signaling. RT-PCR analysis confirmed down regulation of Cdk14 in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Cdk14 is expressed in all testicular cells; spermatogonia- and Sertoli-derived cell lines treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in vitro showed down-regulation of CDK14 mRNA and protein levels as well as down-regulation of β-catenin levels. CS-induced down-regulation of CDK14 mRNA and protein levels was also observed in several lung epithelium-derived cell lines including primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), suggesting that the effect is not restricted to the testis. Similar to testicular cells, CS-induced down-regulation of CDK14 in lung cells correlated with decreased levels of β-catenin, a finding suggesting impaired Wnt signaling. In the lungs, CDK14 was localized to the alveolar and bronchial epithelium. PMID:25680692

  10. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  11. Treating nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, B

    1993-04-01

    Nocturnal enuresis, commonly known as bedwetting, is described in documents dating from 1550 BC. Derived from the Greek word enourein, meaning "in urine" or "inability to control urination," it occurs in 15 to 20 per cent of five year olds and is twice as common in boys as girls. Indeed, no cure has yet been found and thousands of children and their families live with the distress the condition causes. Among affected children, this often includes behavioral problems and low self-esteem.

  12. [Nocturnal enuresis in children].

    PubMed

    Hjälmås, K

    1998-01-01

    After allergic disorders, nocturnal enuresis is the most common chronic childhood condition. Recent research has yielded abundant new knowledge about the condition, especially about its aetiology and pathophysiology, and the psychological consequences. A hereditary background has been substantiated by the identification in genetic linkage studies of areas in chromosomes 12 and 13 that are manifestly associated with bedwetting, though genotype expression in the phenotype appears to be complex and heterogeneous. Pathophysiologically, findings in current intensive research suggest three interactive factors to be involved: (i) relative nocturnal polyuria, due to insufficient antidiuretic hormone release during sleep in pre-teenagers, and due to renal tubular dysfunction in adolescents and adults; (ii) reduced nocturnal bladder capacity, especially in the 33 per cent of cases which do not respond to desmopressin treatment; and (iii) the patient's inability to waken in response to signals from a full bladder. Recent findings have also confirmed previous reports that with very few exceptions bedwetting is not caused by psychological factors. On the contrary, the condition causes psychological problems manifested in reduced self-esteem, shame and guilt, though self-esteem is restored by successful treatment. Active treatment should be started as soon as the child is ready to receive it, the main options being an enuresis alarm, desmopressin, or a combination of the two. If reduced bladder capacity is suspected, treatment with a detrusor relaxant should be included.

  13. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate hypoxic down-regulation of hERG channel protein.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Jayasri; Wang, Ning; Bergson, Pamela; Yuan, Guoxiang; Ficker, Eckhard; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2008-08-22

    Previous studies suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in physiological responses to hypoxia. In the present study, we examined the effects of hypoxia on human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) channel protein expression and assessed the role of ROS. Hypoxia, in a stimulus- and time-dependent manner, decreased hERG protein with marked reduction in hERG K+ conductance in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the hERG alpha subunit. Down-regulation of hERG by hypoxia was not due to increased proteasomal degradation or decreased transcription but due to decreased synthesis of the protein. Hypoxia increased ROS in a time-dependent manner. Antioxidants prevented hypoxia-evoked down-regulation of hERG protein and exogenous oxidants mimicked the effects of hypoxia. Hypoxia-evoked down-regulation of hERG protein and elevation in ROS were absent in p(O) cells, which are devoid of mitochondrial DNA. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase failed to prevent the effects of hypoxia. These results demonstrate that hypoxia enhances the production of ROS in the mitochondria, resulting in down-regulation of hERG translation and decreased hERG-mediated K+ conductance.

  14. The prelimbic cortex contributes to the down-regulation of attention toward redundant cues.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Melissa J; Killcross, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Previous research suggests disruption of activity in the prelimbic (PL) cortex produces deficits in tasks requiring preferential attention toward cues that are good predictors of an event. By manipulating cue predictive power, we clarify this role using Pavlovian conditioning. Experiment 1a showed pretraining excitotoxic lesions of the PL cortex disrupted the ability of animals to distribute attention across stimuli conditioned in compound. Experiment 1b demonstrated that these lesions did not affect the ability to block learning about a stimulus when it was presented simultaneously with another stimulus that was previously paired with the outcome. However, in a subsequent test, PL-lesioned animals learnt about this blocked cue faster than sham-lesioned animals when this stimulus alone was paired with reinforcement, suggesting these animals did not down-regulate attention toward the redundant cue during blocking. Experiment 2 tested this hypothesis using an unblocking procedure designed to explicitly reveal a down-regulation of attention during blocking. In this, sham-lesioned animals were shown to down-regulate attention during blocking. PL-lesioned animals did not exhibit this effect. We propose that observed deficits are the result of a specific deficit in down-regulating attention toward redundant cues, indicating the disruption of an attentional process described in Mackintosh's (Mackintosh NJ. 1975. Psychol Review. 82:276) attentional theory.

  15. Down Regulation of CLDND1 Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Achari, Chandrani; Winslow, Sofia; Larsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Identification of targets for apoptosis induction is important to provide novel therapeutic approaches in breast cancer. Our earlier studies showed that down regulation of protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) induces death in breast cancer cells. In this study we set out to identify previously unrecognized apoptosis regulators in breast cancer cells. To identify candidates, global expression analysis with microarray was performed after down regulation of PKCδ in the basal-like breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and BT-549. Genes that were down regulated in all cell lines were further studied for survival-supporting effects. The claudin-like CLDND1 was singled out since several independent siRNAs targeting CLDND1 induced cell death in several cell lines. The cell death induced by CLDND1 knockdown was caspase-dependent, suggesting induction of apoptosis. Nuclear fragmentation, cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria upon CLDND1 depletion demonstrated involvement of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK further potentiated the cell death induction by CLDND1 knockdown. However, CLDND1 down regulation augmented ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which thereby may protect against the apoptosis inducing effects of CLDND1 down regulation. A concomitant inhibition of MEK1/2 suppresses the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and markedly potentiates the cell death following CLDND1 siRNA treatment. There is today little information on the function of CLDND1. These data provide novel information on CLDND1 and highlight it as a novel survival factor in basal-like breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26083392

  16. Sodium cromoglycate in nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, A D; Connaughton, J J; Catterall, J R; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D C

    1986-01-01

    To investigate whether mast cell degranulation was important in producing nocturnal asthma, the effect of a single high dose of nebulised sodium cromoglycate on overnight bronchoconstriction, oxygen saturation, and breathing patterns in eight patients with nocturnal wheeze was examined. The study took the form of a double blind placebo controlled crossover comparison. Treatment with cromoglycate did not reduce the overnight fall in FEV1 or FVC, although it was associated with improved nocturnal oxygenation. This study suggests that mast cell degranulation may not be important in the pathogenesis of nocturnal asthma. PMID:3085257

  17. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Arda, Ersan; Cakiroglu, Basri; Thomas, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Context Nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting is the most common type of urinary incontinence in children. It has significant psychological effects on both the child and the family. Enuresis nocturna is defined as the inability to hold urine during the night in children who have completed toilet training. It is termed as being “primary” if no continence has ever been achieved or “secondary if it follows at least 6 months of dry nights. The aim of this review was to assemble the pathophysiological background and general information about nocturnal enuresis. Evidence Acquisition This review was performed by evaluating the literature on nocturnal enuresis published between 1970 and 2015, available via PubMed and using the keywords “nocturnal enuresis,” “incontinence,” “pediatric,” “review,” and “treatment.” Results Children with nocturnal enuresis produce urine at higher rates during the night, and may have lower bladder capacities. Some children with nocturnal enuresis may also have daytime urgency, frequency, and urinary incontinence. Treatment includes aggressive treatment of accompanying constipation or urinary tract infections, behavioral changes, and medical therapy. Alarm therapy remains the first-line treatment modality for primary nocturnal enuresis. High rates of patient compliance and relapse mean that alternative treatments remain on the agenda. Conclusions Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem that has multifaceted effects on both the child and the family. Due to multiple etiologic factors, nocturnal enuresis is still not clearly defined. PMID:27703953

  18. Behavioral Treatment for Nocturnal Enuresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Jones, Kevin M.

    2005-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is one of the most prevalent and distressing of all childhood problems. The treatment of nocturnal enuresis has shifted in the past few decades from a strictly psychopathological perspective to a biobehavioral perspective. Although the primary clinical features of this disorder are medical/organic, there is currently strong…

  19. Down regulation of lncSCIR1 after spinal cord contusion injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Hu, Bo; Cao, Fei; Sun, Shenggang; Zhang, Yunjian; Zhu, Qing

    2015-10-22

    Extensive changes occur at transcriptional level after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we performed a large scale screening of expression changes of long (>200 nt) RNA transcripts including both coding and non-coding RNA species in a rat contusion SCI model. We validated significant down-regulation of one long non-coding RNA (lncSCIR1) at 1, 4, and 7 days postinjury. lncSCIR1 knockdown promoted astrocyte proliferation and migration in vitro. We further validated the strong association between lncSCIR1 knock down and the expression changes of four mRNAs after injury. Our data indicated that lncSCIR1 down-regulation might play a detrimental role in the pathophysiology of traumatic SCI and thereby provided new insights into the studies of potential therapeutic targets for traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injuries.

  20. TEL2 suppresses metastasis by down-regulating SERPINE1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yi; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Luo, Donghua; Zhang, Ru-Hua; Wang, Li; Li, Mei; Luo, Rongzhen; Qian, Chao-Nan; Shao, Jian-Yong; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Kang, Tiebang

    2015-10-06

    Metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the molecular mechanisms of NPC metastasis are poorly understood. Here, using our customized gene microarray containing all of the known human transcription factors and the current markers for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, we report that TEL2 was down-regulated in highly metastatic NPC cells and the metastatic tissues in lymph node. Mechanistically, TEL2 inhibits the cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo by directly suppressing the SERPINE1 promoter in NPC. Consistently, an inverse correlation was observed between the protein levels of TEL2 and SERPINE1 using clinical NPC samples. Collectively, we have provided the first evidence that TEL2 plays a key role in NPC metastasis by directly down-regulating SERPINE1, and that this novel axis of TEL2 / SERPINE1 may be valuable to develop new strategies for treating NPC patients with metastasis.

  1. Down-regulation of lipoprotein lipase increases glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Veronica; Saraff, Kumuda; Medh, Jheem D.

    2009-11-06

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are synthetic hypoglycemic agents used to treat type 2 diabetes. TZDs target the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) and improve systemic insulin sensitivity. The contributions of specific tissues to TZD action, or the downstream effects of PPAR-{gamma} activation, are not very clear. We have used a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6 cells) to demonstrate that TZDs directly target PPAR-{gamma} in muscle cells. TZD treatment resulted in a significant repression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression in L6 cells. This repression correlated with an increase in glucose uptake. Down-regulation of LPL message and protein levels using siRNA resulted in a similar increase in insulin-dependent glucose uptake. Thus, LPL down-regulation improved insulin sensitivity independent of TZDs. This finding provides a novel method for the management of insulin resistance.

  2. Dipeptides Inhibit Melanin Synthesis in Mel-Ab Cells through Down-Regulation of Tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-e; Kim, Eun-Hyun; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Sohn, Uy Dong; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proline-serine (PS) and valine-serine (VS) dipeptides on melanogenesis in Mel-Ab cells. Proline-serine and VS significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, though neither dipeptide directly inhibited tyrosinase activity in a cell-free system. Both PS and VS down-regulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. In a follow-up study also described here, the effects of these dipeptides on melanogenesis-related signal transduction were quantified. Specifically, PS and VS induced ERK phosphorylation, though they had no effect on phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). These data suggest that PS and VS inhibit melanogenesis through ERK phosphorylation and subsequent down-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase. Properties of these dipeptides are compatible with application as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22915995

  3. Clobetasol down-regulates SLPI expression in U937 monocytoid cells.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoko; Yoshida, Hitomi; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Nishimura, Yuri; Matsuda, Satoru

    2012-02-01

    In order to investigate how glucocorticoids affect the expression of secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), which is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, clobetasol was added to cell culture medium of U937 cells and the SLPI mRNA levels were examined. The in vitro effect of the treatment on SLPI expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Clobetasol treatment of U937 cells induced an up- and down-regulation of SLPI expression in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting confirmed the down-regulation of SLPI protein expression. We hypothesized a loop formation in the SLPI genome domain, in which the glucocorticoid receptor regulates bi-directional transcriptional activity.

  4. SAMHD1 is down regulated in lung cancer by methylation and inhibits tumor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jia-lei; Lu, Fan-zhen; Shen, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Li-ting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SAMHD1 expression level is down regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. • The promoter of SAMHD1 is methylated in lung adenocarcinoma. • Over expression of SAMHD1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. - Abstract: The function of dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several viruses in human immune cells was well established. However, its regulation and function in lung cancer have been elusive. Here, we report that SAMHD1 is down regulated both on protein and mRNA levels in lung adenocarcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue. We also found that SAMHD1 promoter is highly methylated in lung adenocarcinoma, which may inhibit its gene expression. Furthermore, over expression of the SAMHD1 reduces dNTP level and inhibits the proliferation of lung tumor cells. These results reveal the regulation and function of SAMHD1 in lung cancer, which is important for the proliferation of lung tumor cells.

  5. Selective Androgen Receptor Down-Regulators (SARDs): A New Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    PCa (9). Thus far, the techniques that have been used to down-regulate the AR include antisense oligonucleotides (10, 11), ribozyme treatments (12...Our findings suggest that ICI may present a useful treatment option for patients with AR-dependent PCa. Unlike the ribozyme , antisense, siRNA, or...Catalytic cleavage of the androgen receptor messenger RNA and functional inhibition of androgen receptor activity by a hammerhead ribozyme . Mol Endocrinol

  6. Prodigiosin down-regulates survivin to facilitate paclitaxel sensitization in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.-F.; Peng, Y.-T.; Chuang, S.-M.; Lin, S.-C.; Feng, B.-L.; Lu, C.-H.; Yu, W.-J.; Chang, J.-S. Chang, C.-C.

    2009-03-01

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial metabolite with potent anticancer activity, which is attributed to its proapoptotic effect selectively active in malignant cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby prodigiosin induces apoptosis remain largely unknown. In particular, the role of survivin, a vital inhibitor of apoptosis, in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis has never been addressed before and hence was the primary goal of this study. Our results showed that prodigiosin dose-dependently induced down-regulation of survivin in multiple breast carcinoma cell lines, including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231. This down-regulation is mainly regulated at the level of transcription, as prodigiosin reduced the levels of both survivin mRNA and survivin promoter activity but failed to rescue survivin expression when proteasome-mediated degradation is abolished. Importantly, overexpression of survivin rendered cells more resistant to prodigiosin, indicating an essential role of survivin down-regulation in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that prodigiosin synergistically enhanced cell death induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug known to up-regulate survivin that in turn confers its own resistance. This paclitaxel sensitization effect of prodigiosin is ascribed to the lowering of survivin expression, because prodigiosin was shown to counteract survivin induction by paclitaxel and, notably, the sensitization effect was severely abrogated in cells that overexpress survivin. Taken together, our results argue that down-regulation of survivin is an integral component mediating prodigiosin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, and further suggest the potential of prodigiosin to sensitize anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, in the treatment of breast cancer.

  7. Down-regulation of microRNA-144 in air pollution-related lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hong-Li; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Wang, Zai-Yong; Guo, Yong-Qing; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen in humans, but the underlying tumourigenic mechanisms remain unclear. In Xuanwei city of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China, owing to severe air pollution generated by the combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis. To identify abnormal miRNAs critical for air pollution-related tumourigenesis, we performed microRNA microarray analysis in 6 Xuanwei non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and 4 NSCLCs from control regions where smoky coal was not used. We found 13 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated miRNAs in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Among them, miR-144 was one of the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs. The expanded experiments showed that miR-144 was down-regulated in 45/51 (88.2%) Xuanwei NSCLCs and 34/54 (63%) control region NSCLCs (p = 0.016). MiR-144 interacted with the oncogene Zeb1 at 2 sites in its 3′ untranslated region, and a decrease in miR-144 resulted in increased Zeb1 expression and an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype. Ectopic expression of miR-144 suppressed NSCLCs in vitro and in vivo by targeting Zeb1. These results indicate that down-regulation of miR-144 is critical for air pollution-related lung cancer, and the miR-144-Zeb1 signalling pathway could represent a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26395400

  8. Down-regulation of the zinc-finger homeobox protein TSHZ2 releases GLI1 from the nuclear repressor complex to restore its transcriptional activity during mammary tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riku, Miho; Inaguma, Shingo; Ito, Hideaki; Tsunoda, Takumi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kasai, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Although breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies, the molecular mechanisms underlying its development and progression are not fully understood. To identify key molecules involved, we screened publicly available microarray datasets for genes differentially expressed between breast cancers and normal mammary glands. We found that three of the genes predicted in this analysis were differentially expressed among human mammary tissues and cell lines. Of these genes, we focused on the role of the zinc-finger homeobox protein TSHZ2, which is down-regulated in breast cancer cells. We found that TSHZ2 is a nuclear protein harboring a bipartite nuclear localization signal, and we confirmed its function as a C-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-dependent transcriptional repressor. Through comprehensive screening, we identified TSHZ2-suppressing genes such as AEBP1 and CXCR4, which are conversely up-regulated by GLI1, the downstream transcription factor of Hedgehog signaling. We found that GLI1 forms a ternary complex with CtBP2 in the presence of TSHZ2 and that the transcriptional activity of GLI1 is suppressed by TSHZ2 in a CtBP-dependent manner. Indeed, knockdown of TSHZ2 increases the expression of AEBP1 and CXCR4 in TSHZ2-expressing immortalized mammary duct epithelium. Concordantly, immunohistochemical staining of mammary glands revealed that normal duct cells expresses GLI1 in the nucleus along with TSHZ2 and CtBP2, whereas invasive ductal carcinoma cells, which does not express TSHZ2, show the increase in the expression of AEBP1 and CXCR4 and in the cytoplasmic localization of GLI1. Thus, we propose that down-regulation of TSHZ2 is crucial for mammary tumorigenesis via the activation of GLI1. PMID:26744317

  9. Down-regulation of caveolin-1 in glioma vasculature: modulation by radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Régina, Anthony; Jodoin, Julie; Khoueir, Paul; Rolland, Yannève; Berthelet, France; Moumdjian, Robert; Fenart, Laurence; Cecchelli, Romeo; Demeule, Michel; Béliveau, Richard

    2004-01-15

    Primary brain tumors, particularly glioblastomas (GB), remain a challenge for oncology. An element of the malignant brain tumors' aggressive behavior is the fact that GB are among the most densely vascularized tumors. To determine some of the molecular regulations occuring at the brain tumor endothelium level during tumoral progression would be an asset in understanding brain tumor biology. Caveolin-1 is an essential structural constituent of caveolae that has been implicated in mitogenic signaling, oncogenesis, and angiogenesis. In this work we investigated regulation of caveolin-1 expression in brain endothelial cells (ECs) under angiogenic conditions. In vitro, brain EC caveolin-1 is down-regulated by angiogenic factors treament and by hypoxia. Coculture of brain ECs with tumoral cells induced a similar down-regulation. In addition, activation of the p42/44 MAP kinase is demonstrated. By using an in vivo brain tumor model, we purified ECs from gliomas as well as from normal brain to investigate possible regulation of caveolin-1 expression in tumoral brain vasculature. We show that caveolin-1 expression is strikingly down-regulated in glioma ECs, whereas an increase of phosphorylated caveolin-1 is observed. Whole-brain radiation treatment, a classical way in which GB is currently being treated, resulted in increased caveolin-1 expression in tumor isolated ECs. The level of tumor cells spreading around newly formed blood vessels was also elevated. The regulation of caveolin-1 expression in tumoral ECs may reflect the tumoral vasculature state and correlates with angiogenesis kinetics.

  10. Down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis in transgenic Leucaena leucocephala harboring O-methyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Smita; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, a 0.47 kb OMT gene construct from aspen, encoding for an enzyme O-methyltransferase (OMT, EC 2.1.1.6), in antisense orientation was used to down-regulate lignin biosynthesis in Leucaena leucocephala. The plants were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the antisense gene, and the transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of the npt II gene. The integration of a heterologous antisense OMT gene construct in transformed plants led to a maximum of 60% reduction in OMT activity relative to control. The evaluation of total lignin content by the Klason method revealed a maximum of 28% reduction. Histochemical analyses of stem sections depicted a reduction in lignin content and normal xylem development. The results also suggested a probable increase in aldehyde levels and a decrease in syringyl units. Lignin down-regulation was accompanied by an increase in methanol soluble phenolics to an extent that had no impact on wood discoloration, and the plants displayed a normal phenotype. Concomitantly, an increase of up to 9% in cellulose content was also observed. Upon alkali extraction, modified lignin was more extractable as evident from reduced Klason lignin in saponified residue and increased alkali soluble phenolics. The results together suggested that the extent of down-regulation of OMT activity achieved may lead to quality amelioration of Leucaena with respect to its applicability in pulp and paper manufacture as well as nutritive and easily digestible forage production.

  11. PDGF-D expression is down-regulated by TGFβ in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Charni Chaabane, Saima; Coomans de Brachène, Alexandra; Essaghir, Ahmed; Velghe, Amélie; Lo Re, Sandra; Stockis, Julie; Lucas, Sophie; Khachigian, Levon M; Huaux, François; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is a key mediator of fibrogenesis. TGFβ is overexpressed and activated in fibrotic diseases, regulates fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts and induces extracellular matrix deposition. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is also a regulator of fibrogenesis. Some studies showed a link between TGFβ and PDGF in certain fibrotic diseases. TGFβ induces PDGF receptor alpha expression in scleroderma fibroblasts. PDGF-C and -D are the most recently discovered ligands and also play a role in fibrosis. In this study, we report the first link between TGFβ and PDGF-D and -C ligands. In normal fibroblasts, TGFβ down-regulated PDGF-D expression and up-regulated PDGF-C expression at the mRNA and protein levels. This phenomenon is not limited to TGFβ since other growth factors implicated in fibrosis, such as FGF, EGF and PDGF-B, also regulated PDGF-D and PDGF-C expression. Among different kinase inhibitors, only TGFβ receptor inhibitors and the IκB kinase (IKK) inhibitor BMS-345541 blocked the effect of TGFβ. However, activation of the classical NF-κB pathway was not involved. Interestingly, in a model of lung fibrosis induced by either bleomycin or silica, PDGF-D was down-regulated, which correlates with the production of TGFβ and other fibrotic growth factors. In conclusion, the down-regulation of PDGF-D by TGFβ and other growth factors may serve as a negative feedback in the network of cytokines that control fibrosis.

  12. Executive functions and the down-regulation and up-regulation of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in executive functions (EF; assessed by measures of working memory, Stroop, trail making, and verbal fluency) and ability to down-regulate and up-regulate responses to emotionally evocative film clips. To ensure a wide range of EF, 48 participants with diverse neurodegenerative disorders and 21 older neurologically normal aging participants were included. Participants were exposed to three different movie clips that were designed to elicit a mix of disgust and amusement. While watching the films they were either instructed to watch, down-regulate, and up-regulate their visible emotional responses. Heart-rate and facial behaviors were monitored throughout. Emotion regulatory ability was operationalized as changes in heart-rate and facial behavior in the down- and up-regulation conditions, controlling for responses in the watch condition. Results indicated that higher verbal fluency scores were related to greater ability to regulate emotion in both the down-regulation and up-regulation conditions. This finding remained significant even after controlling for age and general cognitive functioning. No relationships were found between emotion regulation and the other EF measures. We believe these results derive from differences among EF measures, with verbal fluency performance best capturing the complex sequence of controlled planning, activation, and monitoring required for successful emotion regulation. These findings contribute to our understanding of emotion-cognition interaction, suggesting a link between emotion-regulatory abilities and individual differences in complex executive functions. PMID:21432634

  13. Pathological implications of Cx43 down-regulation in human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Rehana; Rashid, Rabiya; Andrabi, Khurshid; Parray, Fazl Q; Besina, Syed; Shah, Mohd Amin; Ul Hussain, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Connexin 43 is an important gap junction protein in vertebrates and is known for its tumor suppressive properties. Cx43 is abundantly expressed in the human intestinal epithelial cells and muscularis mucosae. To explore the role of Cx43 in the genesis of human colon cancer, we performed the expression analysis of Cx43 in 80 cases of histopathologically confirmed and clinically diagnosed human colon cancer samples and adjacent control tissue and assessed correlations with clinicopathological variables. Western blotting using anti-Cx43 antibody indicated that the expression of Cx43 was significantly down regulated (75%) in the cancer samples as compared to the adjacent control samples. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue samples confirmed the down regulation of the Cx43 in the intestinal epithelial cells. Cx43 down regulation showed significant association (p<0.05) with the histological type and tumor invasion properties of the cancer. Our data demonstrated that loss of Cx43 may be an important event in colon carcinogenesis and tumor progression, providing significant insights about the tumor suppressive properties of the Cx43 and its potential as a diagnostic marker for colon cancer.

  14. Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor down-regulation by UBPY-mediated deubiquitination at endosomes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Emi; Iura, Takanobu; Mukai, Akiko; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Kitamura, Naomi; Komada, Masayuki

    2005-11-01

    Ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases undergo endocytosis and are transported via endosomes to lysosomes for degradation. This "receptor down-regulation" process is crucial to terminate the cell proliferation signals produced by activated receptors. During the process, ubiquitination of the receptors serves as a sorting signal for their trafficking from endosomes to lysosomes. Here, we describe the role of a deubiquitinating enzyme UBPY/USP8 in the down-regulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). Overexpression of UBPY reduced the ubiquitination level of EGFR and delayed its degradation in EGF-stimulated cells. Immunopurified UBPY deubiquitinated EGFR in vitro. In EGF-stimulated cells, UBPY underwent ubiquitination and bound to EGFR. Overexpression of Hrs or a dominant-negative mutant of SKD1, proteins that play roles in the endosomal sorting of ubiquitinated receptors, caused the accumulation of endogenous UBPY on exaggerated endosomes. A catalytically inactive UBPY mutant clearly localized on endosomes, where it overlapped with EGFR when cells were stimulated with EGF. Finally, depletion of endogenous UBPY by RNA interference resulted in elevated ubiquitination and accelerated degradation of EGF-activated EGFR. We conclude that UBPY negatively regulates the rate of EGFR down-regulation by deubiquitinating EGFR on endosomes.

  15. Pu-erh Tea Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth by Down-Regulating Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lanjun; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms’ metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects. PMID:22174618

  16. Pu-erh tea inhibits tumor cell growth by down-regulating mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lanjun; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms' metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects.

  17. Down-regulation of rat kidney calcitonin receptors by salmon calcitonin infusion evidence by autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bouizar, Z.; Rostene, W.H.; Milhaud, G.

    1987-08-01

    In treating age-related osteoporosis and Paget disease of bone, it is of major importance to avoid an escape phenomenon that would reduce effectiveness of the treatment. The factors involved in the loss of therapeutic efficacy with administration of large pharmacological doses of the hormone require special consideration. Down-regulation of the hormone receptors could account for the escape phenomenon. Specific binding sites for salmon calcitonin (sCT) were characterized and localized by autoradiography on rat kidney sections incubated with /sup 125/I-labeled sCT. Autoradiograms demonstrated a heterogeneous distribution of /sup 125/I-labeled sCT binding sites in the kidney, with high densities in both the superficial layer of the cortex and the outer medulla. Infusion of different doses of unlabeled sCT by means of Alzet minipumps for 7 days produced rapid changes in plasma calcium, phosphate, and magnesium levels, which were no longer observed after 2 or 6 days of treatment. Besides, infusion of high doses of sCT induced down-regulation of renal sCT binding sites located mainly in the medulla, where calcitonin (CT) has been shown to exert it physiological effects on water and ion reabsorption. These data suggest that the resistance to high doses of sCT often observed during long-term treatment of patients may be the consequence of not only bone-cell desensitization but also down-regulation of CT-sensitive kidney receptor sites.

  18. Diurnal dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in shoots and rhizomes of a perennial in a constructed wetland indicate down-regulation of below ground oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Faußer, Anna C; Dušek, Jiří; Čížková, Hana; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Wetland plants actively provide oxygen for aerobic processes in submerged tissues and the rhizosphere. The novel concomitant assessment of diurnal dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations under field conditions tests the whole-system interactions in plant-internal gas exchange and regulation. Oxygen concentrations ([O2]) were monitored in-situ in central culm and rhizome pith cavities of common reed (Phragmites australis) using optical oxygen sensors. The corresponding carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) were assessed via gas samples from the culms. Highly dynamic diurnal courses of [O2] were recorded, which started at 6.5-13 % in the morning, increased rapidly up to 22 % during midday and declined exponentially during the night. Internal [CO2] were high in the morning (1.55-17.5 %) and decreased (0.04-0.94 %) during the rapid increase of [O2] in the culms. The observed negative correlations between [O2] and [CO2] particularly describe the below ground relationship between plant-mediated oxygen supply and oxygen use by respiration and biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, the nocturnal declining slopes of [O2] in culms and rhizomes indicated a down-regulation of the demand for oxygen in the complete below ground plant-associated system. These findings emphasize the need for measurements of plant-internal gas exchange processes under field conditions because it considers the complex interactions in the oxic-anoxic interface.

  19. Diurnal dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in shoots and rhizomes of a perennial in a constructed wetland indicate down-regulation of below ground oxygen consumption

    PubMed Central

    Faußer, Anna C.; Dušek, Jiří; Čížková, Hana; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Wetland plants actively provide oxygen for aerobic processes in submerged tissues and the rhizosphere. The novel concomitant assessment of diurnal dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations under field conditions tests the whole-system interactions in plant-internal gas exchange and regulation. Oxygen concentrations ([O2]) were monitored in-situ in central culm and rhizome pith cavities of common reed (Phragmites australis) using optical oxygen sensors. The corresponding carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) were assessed via gas samples from the culms. Highly dynamic diurnal courses of [O2] were recorded, which started at 6.5–13 % in the morning, increased rapidly up to 22 % during midday and declined exponentially during the night. Internal [CO2] were high in the morning (1.55–17.5 %) and decreased (0.04–0.94 %) during the rapid increase of [O2] in the culms. The observed negative correlations between [O2] and [CO2] particularly describe the below ground relationship between plant-mediated oxygen supply and oxygen use by respiration and biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, the nocturnal declining slopes of [O2] in culms and rhizomes indicated a down-regulation of the demand for oxygen in the complete below ground plant-associated system. These findings emphasize the need for measurements of plant-internal gas exchange processes under field conditions because it considers the complex interactions in the oxic-anoxic interface. PMID:27207278

  20. Ultrafine carbon particles down-regulate CYP1B1 expression in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Christiane; Frankenberger, Marion; Stanzel, Franz; Seidel, Albrecht; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Hofer, Thomas PJ

    2009-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 monoxygenases play an important role in the defence against inhaled toxic compounds and in metabolizing a wide range of xenobiotics and environmental contaminants. In ambient aerosol the ultrafine particle fraction which penetrates deeply into the lungs is considered to be a major factor for adverse health effects. The cells mainly affected by inhaled particles are lung epithelial cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Results In this study we have analyzed the effect of a mixture of fine TiO2 and ultrafine carbon black Printex 90 particles (P90) on the expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) in human monocytes, macrophages, bronchial epithelial cells and epithelial cell lines. CYP1B1 expression is strongly down-regulated by P90 in monocytes with a maximum after P90 treatment for 3 h while fine and ultrafine TiO2 had no effect. CYP1B1 was down-regulated up to 130-fold and in addition CYP1A1 mRNA was decreased 13-fold. In vitro generated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), epithelial cell lines, and primary bronchial epithelial cells also showed reduced CYP1B1 mRNA levels. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is inducing CYB1B1 but ultrafine P90 can still down-regulate gene expression at 0.1 μM of BaP. The P90-induced reduction of CYP1B1 was also demonstrated at the protein level using Western blot analysis. Conclusion These data suggest that the P90-induced reduction of CYP gene expression may interfere with the activation and/or detoxification capabilities of inhaled toxic compounds. PMID:19835593

  1. Protein kinase B/Akt1 inhibits autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wonseok; Ju, Ji-hyun; Lee, Kyung-min; Nam, KeeSoo; Oh, Sunhwa; Shin, Incheol

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a selective intracellular degradative process involving the cell's own lysosomal apparatus. An essential component in cell development, homeostasis, repair and resistance to stress, autophagy may result in either cell death or survival. The targeted region of the cell is sequestered within a membrane structure, the autophagosome, for regulation of the catabolic process. A key factor in both autophagosome formation and autophagosome maturation is a protein encoded by the ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG). Conversely, the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), which regulates survival in various cancers, inhibits autophagy through mTOR activation. We found that Akt1 may also directly inhibit autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG both in a 293T transient transfection system and breast cancer cells stably expressing Akt1. The UVRAG with mutations at putative Akt1-phosphorylation sites were still inhibited by Akt1, and dominant-negative Akt1 also inhibited UVRAG expression, suggesting that Akt1 down-regulates UVRAG by a kinase activity-independent mechanism. We showed that Akt1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells down-regulated UVRAG transcription. Cells over-expressing Akt1 were more resistant than control cells to ultraviolet light-induced autophagy and exhibited the associated reduction in cell viability. Levels of the autophagosome indicator protein LC3B-II and mRFP-GFP-LC3 were reduced in cells that over-expressing Akt1. Inhibiting Akt1 by siRNA or reintroducing UVRAG gene rescued the level of LC3B-II in UV-irradiation. Altogether, these data suggest that Akt1 may inhibit autophagy by decreasing UVRAG expression, which also sensitizes cancer cells to UV irradiation.

  2. Baicalin Down-Regulates IL-1β-Stimulated Extracellular Matrix Production in Nasal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae-Min; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Seoung-Ae; Park, Il-Ho; Lee, Heung-Man

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Baicalin, a Chinese herbal medicine, has anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The aims of present study were to investigate the effects of baicalin on the myofibroblast differentiation, extracellular matrix production, migration, and collagen contraction of interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated nasal fibroblasts and to determine the molecular mechanism of baicalin in nasal fibroblasts. Methods Nasal fibroblasts were isolated from the inferior turbinate of patients. Baicalin was used to treat IL-1β-stimulated nasal fibroblasts. To evaluate cytotoxicity, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay was used. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), fibronectin, phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK), p-Akt, p-p50, p-p65, and p-IκBα were measured by western blotting, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT—PCR),or immunofluorescence staining. Fibroblast migration was analyzed with scratch assays and transwell migration assays. Total collagen was evaluated with the Sircol collagen assay. Contractile activity was measured with a collagen gel contraction assay. Results Baicalin (0–50 μM) had no significant cytotoxic effects in nasal fibroblasts. The expression of α–SMA and fibronectin were significantly down-regulated in baicalin-treated nasal fibroblasts. Migration, collagen production, and contraction of IL-1β-stimulated nasal fibroblasts were significantly inhibited by baicalin treatment. Baicalin also significantly down-regulated p-MAPK, p-Akt, p-p50, p-p65, and p-IκBα in IL-1β-stimulated nasal fibroblasts. Conclusions We showed that baicalin down-regulated myofibroblast differentiation, extracellular matrix production, migration, and collagen contraction via the MAPK and Akt/ NF-κB pathways in IL-1β-stimulated nasal fibroblasts. PMID:28002421

  3. Down-regulation of Wnt10a affects odontogenesis and proliferation in mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang Han, Dong Wang, Lei Feng, Hailan

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Down-regulation of Wnt10a in dental mesenchymal cells impairs odontogenesis of reassociated tooth germs. •Dspp is down- and up-regulated after Wnt10a-knockdown and overexpression in dental mesenchymal cells. •Down-regulation of Wnt10a inhibits proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells. -- Abstract: The WNT10a mutation has been found in patients with abnormal odontogenesis. In mice, Wnt10a expression is found in the tooth germ, but its role has not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of Wnt10a in odontogenesis. Mesenchymal cells of the first mandibular molar germ at the bell stage were isolated, transfected with Wnt10a SiRNA or plasmid, and reassociated with epithelial part of the molar germ. Scrambled SiRNA or empty vector was used in the control group. The reassociated tooth germs were transplanted into mice subrenal capsules. After gene modification, dental mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro were checked for cell proliferation and the expression of Dspp was examined. All 12 reassociated tooth germs in the control group resumed odontogenesis, while only 5 of 12 in the Wnt10a knockdown group developed into teeth. After Wnt10a knockdown, the mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro presented repressed proliferation. Wnt10a knockdown and overexpression led to both down- and up-regulation of Dspp. We conclude that the down-regulation of Wnt10a impairs odontogensis and cell proliferation, and that Wnt10a regulates Dspp expression in mesenchymal cells. These findings help to elucidate the mechanism of abnormal tooth development in patients with the WNT10A mutation.

  4. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) inhibits breast cancer metastasis by down-regulating fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Hong, Honghai; Zhou, Ti; Fang, Shuhuan; Jia, Minghan; Xu, Zumin; Dai, Zhiyu; Li, Cen; Li, Shuai; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ting; Qi, Weiwei; Bardeesi, Adham Sameer A; Yang, Zhonghan; Cai, Weibin; Yang, Xia; Gao, Guoquan

    2014-11-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) plays an important role in the tumor growth and metastasis inhibition. It has been reported that PEDF expression is significantly reduced in breast cancer, and associated with disease progression and poor patient outcome. However, the exact mechanism of PEDF on breast cancer metastasis including liver and lung metastasis remains unclear. The present study aims to reveal the impact of PEDF on breast cancer. The orthotopic tumor mice model inoculated by MDA-MB-231 cells stably expressing PEDF or control cells was used to assess liver and lung metastasis of breast cancer. In vitro, migration and invasion experiments were used to detect the metastatic abilities of MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 breast cancer cells with or without overexpression of PEDF. The metastatic-related molecules including EMT makers, fibronectin, and p-AKT and p-ERK were detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and Fluorescent immunocytochemistry. PEDF significantly inhibited breast cancer growth and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Mechanically, PEDF inhibited breast cancer cell migration and invasion by down-regulating fibronectin and subsequent MMP2/MMP9 reduction via p-ERK and p-AKT signaling pathways. However, PEDF had no effect on EMT conversion in the breast cancer cells which was usually involved in cancer metastasis. Furthermore, the study showed that laminin receptor mediated the down-regulation of fibronectin by PEDF. These results reported for the first time that PEDF inhibited breast cancer metastasis by down-regulating fibronectin via laminin receptor/AKT/ERK pathway. Our findings demonstrated PEDF as a dual effector in limiting breast cancer growth and metastasis and highlighted a new avenue to block breast cancer progression.

  5. Requirements for cell rounding and surface protein down-regulation by Ebola virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Francica, Joseph R; Matukonis, Meghan K; Bates, Paul

    2009-01-20

    Ebola virus causes an acute hemorrhagic fever that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The viral glycoprotein is thought to contribute to pathogenesis, though precise mechanisms are unknown. Cellular pathogenesis can be modeled in vitro by expression of the Ebola viral glycoprotein (GP) in cells, which causes dramatic morphological changes, including cell rounding and surface protein down-regulation. These effects are known to be dependent on the presence of a highly glycosylated region of the glycoprotein, the mucin domain. Here we show that the mucin domain from the highly pathogenic Zaire subtype of Ebola virus is sufficient to cause characteristic cytopathology when expressed in the context of a foreign glycoprotein. Similarly to full length Ebola GP, expression of the mucin domain causes rounding, detachment from the extracellular matrix, and the down-regulation of cell surface levels of beta1 integrin and major histocompatibility complex class 1. These effects were not seen when the mucin domain was expressed in the context of a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored isoform of the foreign glycoprotein. In contrast to earlier analysis of full length Ebola glycoproteins, chimeras carrying the mucin domains from the Zaire and Reston strains appear to cause similar levels of down-modulation and cell detachment. Cytopathology associated with Ebola glycoprotein expression does not occur when GP expression is restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast to a previously published report, our results demonstrate that GP-induced surface protein down-regulation is not mediated through a dynamin-dependent pathway. Overall, these results support a model in which the mucin domain of Ebola GP acts at the cell surface to induce protein down modulation and cytopathic effects.

  6. Mechanisms of allele-selective down-regulation of HLA class I in Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Imreh, M P; Zhang, Q J; de Campos-Lima, P O; Imreh, S; Krausa, P; Browning, M; Klein, G; Masucci, M G

    1995-07-04

    Burkitt lymphomas (BL) that arise in HLA-AII-positive individuals are characterized by selective loss/down-regulation of the HLA AII polypeptide. We have investigated the molecular basis of such down-regulation by comparing 5 pairs of BL lines and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) derived from the normal B cells of the same individuals. The presence of apparently intact HLA AII genes was confirmed in all 5 BL/LCL pairs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing and by Southern-blot hybridization with HLA A locus-specific probes. Northern-blot analysis with locus- and allele-specific probes revealed a significantly lower expression or absence of AII-specific mRNA in all 5 BL lines compared to the corresponding LCLs. Up-regulation of AII-specific mRNA was achieved by IFN alpha treatment of 2 BL lines with low HLA AII expression (BL-28 and BL-72) while the treatment had no effect in 3 BL lines (WWI-BL, WW2-BL and BL41) that did not express the endogenous gene. HLA AII expression was restored by transfection of the gene in WWI-BL whereas transfectants of BL-41 remained AII-negative. An HLA-AII-promoter-driven chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene (pAIICAT) was active in WWI-BL but not in BL-41. HLA-AII was expressed in hybrids of BL-41 with an AII-positive LCL, while expression of the endogenous HLA AII gene could not be restored by fusion of BL-41 with an AII-negative LCL, although an adequate set of transcription factors was present in the hybrid. Our results suggest that genetic defects and lack of transcription factors may contribute to the selective down-regulation of HLA AII in BL cells.

  7. Intestinal multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 is down-regulated in fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Londero, Ana Sofía; Arana, Maite Rocío; Perdomo, Virginia Gabriela; Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás; Zecchinati, Felipe; Ghanem, Carolina Inés; Ruiz, María Laura; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Mottino, Aldo Domingo; García, Fabiana; Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris

    2017-02-01

    Expression and activity of jejunal multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were examined in fructose fed Wistar rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. Animals were fed on (a) control diet or (b) control diet plus 10% w/vol fructose in the drinking water. Mrp2 and the α class of GST proteins as well as their corresponding mRNAs were decreased, suggesting a transcriptional regulation by fructose. Confocal microscopy studies reaffirmed down-regulation of Mrp2. Everted intestinal sacs were incubated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in the mucosal compartment, and the glutathione-conjugated derivative, dinitrophenyl- S-glutathione (DNP-SG; model Mrp2 substrate), was measured in the same compartment to estimate Mrp2 activity. Excretion of DNP-SG was substantially decreased by fructose treatment, consistent with simultaneous down-regulation of Mrp2 and GST. In addition, the effect of fructose on intestinal barrier function exerted by Mrp2 was evaluated in vivo using valsartan, a recognized Mrp2 substrate of therapeutic use. After intraduodenal administration as a bolus, intestinal absorption of valsartan was increased in fructose-drinking animals. Fructose administration also induced oxidative stress in intestinal tissue as demonstrated by significant increases of intestinal lipid peroxidation end products and activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, by a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. Moreover, fructose treatment conduced to increased intestinal levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-β1 and IL-6. Collectively, our results demonstrate that metabolic syndrome-like conditions, induced by a fructose-rich diet, result in down-regulation of intestinal Mrp2 expression and activity and consequently in an impairment of its barrier function.

  8. Down-regulation of BK channel expression in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F; Hernandez, Eder F; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Francisco, Sebastian; Willis, Michael; Ermolinsky, Boris; Zarei, Masoud; Knaus, Hans-Guenther; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R

    2008-03-20

    In the hippocampus, BK channels are preferentially localized in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals including mossy fibers where they are thought to play an important role regulating excessive glutamate release during hyperactive states. Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK, MaxiK, Slo) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic epilepsy. However, the role of BK channels in acquired mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) remains unknown. Here we used immunohistochemistry, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), Western immunoblotting and RT-PCR to investigate the expression pattern of the alpha-pore-forming subunit of BK channels in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats obtained by the pilocarpine model of MTLE. All epileptic rats experiencing recurrent spontaneous seizures exhibited a significant down-regulation of BK channel immunostaining in the mossy fibers at the hilus and stratum lucidum of the CA3 area. Quantitative analysis of immunofluorescence signals by LSCM revealed a significant 47% reduction in BK channel immunofluorescent signals in epileptic rats when compared to age-matched non-epileptic control rats. These data correlate with a similar reduction in BK channel protein levels and transcripts in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate a seizure-related down-regulation of BK channels in chronically epileptic rats. Further functional assays are necessary to determine whether altered BK channel expression is an acquired channelopathy or a compensatory mechanism affecting the network excitability in MTLE. Moreover, seizure-mediated BK down-regulation may disturb neuronal excitability and presynaptic control at glutamatergic terminals triggering exaggerated glutamate release and seizures.

  9. Down-regulation of protein kinase Ceta by antisense oligonucleotides sensitises A549 lung cancer cells to vincristine and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Jürgen; Gekeler, Volker; Ahlbrecht, Katrin; Brischwein, Klaus; Liu, Chao; Bader, Peter; Müller, Cornelia; Niethammer, Dietrich; Beck, James F

    2004-06-25

    Previous studies point to protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme eta as a resistance factor in cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether down-regulation of PKCeta with second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) would sensitise A549 human lung carcinoma cells to cytostatics. The effects were compared to the outcome of Bcl-xL down-regulation. Upon treatment with antisense ODNs, PKCeta and Bcl-xL were both significantly reduced on mRNA and protein level. Down-regulation of either PKCeta or Bcl-xL in combination with vincristine or paclitaxel resulted in a significant increase in caspase-3 activity compared to that in the control oligonucleotide treated cells. In addition, PKCeta down-regulation augmented vincristine-induced dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In conclusion, these results confirm that PKCeta might represent a considerable resistance factor and an interesting target to improve anticancer chemotherapy.

  10. Analyzing nocturnal noise stratification.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gómez Escobar, Valentín

    2014-05-01

    Pollution associated to traffic can be considered as one of the most relevant pollution sources in our cities; noise is one of the major components of traffic pollution; thus, efforts are necessary to search adequate noise assessment methods and low pollution city designs. Different methods have been proposed for the evaluation of noise in cities, including the categorization method, which is based on the functionality concept. Until now, this method has only been studied (with encouraging results) for short-term, diurnal measurements, but nocturnal noise presents a behavior clearly different on respect to the diurnal one. In this work 45 continuous measurements of approximately one week each in duration are statistically analyzed to identify differences between the proposed categories. The results show that the five proposed categories highlight the noise stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night). A comparison of the continuous measurements with previous short-term measurements indicates that the latter can be a good approximation of the former in diurnal period, reducing the resource expenditure for noise evaluation. Annoyance estimated from the measured noise levels was compared with the response of population obtained from a questionnaire with good agreement. The categorization method can yield good information about the distribution of a pollutant associated to traffic in our cities in each period of the day and, therefore, is a powerful tool for town planning and the design of pollution prevention policies.

  11. Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0582 TITLE: Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 25 Sep 2013 - 24 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a risk factor for subsequent development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Abnormal tau

  12. Cyclin D1 down-regulation is essential for DBC2's tumor suppressor function

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshihara, Takashi; Collado, Denise; Hamaguchi, Masaaki . E-mail: hamaguchi@fordham.edu

    2007-07-13

    The expression of tumor suppressor gene DBC2 causes certain breast cancer cells to stop growing [M. Hamaguchi, J.L. Meth, C. Von Klitzing, W. Wei, D. Esposito, L. Rodgers, T. Walsh, P. Welcsh, M.C. King, M.H. Wigler, DBC2, a candidate for a tumor suppressor gene involved in breast cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 13647-13652]. Recently, DBC2 was found to participate in diverse cellular functions such as protein transport, cytoskeleton regulation, apoptosis, and cell cycle control [V. Siripurapu, J.L. Meth, N. Kobayashi, M. Hamaguchi, DBC2 significantly influences cell cycle, apoptosis, cytoskeleton, and membrane trafficking pathways. J. Mol. Biol. 346 (2005) 83-89]. Its tumor suppression mechanism, however, remains unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that DBC2 suppresses breast cancer proliferation through down-regulation of Cyclin D1 (CCND1). Additionally, the constitutional overexpression of CCND1 prevented the negative impact of DBC2 expression on their growth. Under a CCND1 promoter, the expression of CCNE1 exhibited the same protective effect. Our results indicate that the down-regulation of CCND1 is an essential step for DBC2's growth suppression of cancer cells. We believe that this discovery contributes to a better understanding of DBC2's tumor suppressor function.

  13. Rottlerin inhibits cell growth and invasion via down-regulation of Cdc20 in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lixia; Hou, Yingying; Yin, Xuyuan; Su, Jingna; Zhao, Zhe; Ye, Xiantao; Zhou, Xiuxia; Zhou, Li; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Rottlerin, isolated from a medicinal plant Mallotus phillippinensis, has been demonstrated to inhibit cellular growth and induce cytoxicity in glioblastoma cell lines through inhibition of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III. Emerging evidence suggests that rottlerin exerts its antitumor activity as a protein kinase C inhibitor. Although further studies revealed that rottlerin regulated multiple signaling pathways to suppress tumor cell growth, the exact molecular insight on rottlerin-mediated tumor inhibition is not fully elucidated. In the current study, we determine the function of rottlerin on glioma cell growth, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion. We found that rottlerin inhibited cell growth, migration, invasion, but induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Mechanistically, the expression of Cdc20 oncoprotein was measured by the RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in glioma cells treated with rottlerin. We observed that rottlerin significantly inhibited the expression of Cdc20 in glioma cells, implying that Cdc20 could be a novel target of rottlerin. In line with this, over-expression of Cdc20 decreased rottlerin-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, whereas down-regulation of Cdc20 by its shRNA promotes rottlerin-induced anti-tumor activity. Our findings indicted that rottlerin could exert its tumor suppressive function by inhibiting Cdc20 pathway which is constitutively active in glioma cells. Therefore, down-regulation of Cdc20 by rottlerin could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glioma. PMID:27626499

  14. Amino acid limitation induces down-regulation of WNT5a at transcriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zuguang; Chen Hong

    2009-01-23

    An aberrant WNT signaling contributes to the development and progression of multiple cancers. WNT5a is one of the WNT signaling molecules. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that amino acid deprivation induces changes in the WNT signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. Results showed that targets of the amino acid response pathway, ATF3 and p21, were induced in the human colon cancer cell line SW480 during amino acid limitation. There was a significant decrease in the WNT5a mRNA level following amino acid deprivation. The down-regulation of WNT5a mRNA by amino acid deprivation is not due to mRNA destabilization. There is a reduction of nuclear {beta}-catenin protein level by amino acid limitation. Under amino acid limitation, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was increased and the blockage of ERK1/2 by the inhibitor U0126 partially restored WNT5a mRNA level. In conclusion, amino acid limitation in colon cancer cells induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which then down-regulates WNT5a expression.

  15. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 is down-regulated in renal transplant recipients with rejection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsai-Hung; Lee, Hui-Ting; Lai, Chien-Chih; Yang, An-Hang; Loong, Che-Chuan; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Yu, Chia-Li; Tsai, Chang-Youh

    2016-09-01

    The role of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in maintaining the immunotolerance of renal allograft is unknown. To clarify this, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from renal transplant patients with or without rejection were analyzed for the expression of SOCS family proteins by cell culture, immunoblot, flowcytometry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Patients with renal graft rejection expressed lower levels of SOCS1 while those without rejection showed a higher SOCS1 expression in the PBMC either on stimulation or not. In addition, SOCS1 was constitutively expressed in normal individuals as well as renal transplant patients with graft tolerance while patients with rejection exhibited down-regulation of the SOCS1 but not SOCS3. The qPCR tests and flowcytometric measurements have also showed that the reduction of SOCS1 expression in rejection could be quantitatively evaluated. These results have suggested that down-regulation of SOCS1 may be regarded as a biomarker for early detection of renal allograft rejection.

  16. Effects of p21 Gene Down-Regulation through RNAi on Antler Stem Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qianqian; Wang, Datao; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle is an integral part of cell proliferation, and consists mainly of four phases, G1, S, G2 and M. The p21 protein, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, plays a key role in regulating cell cyclevia G1 phase control. Cells capable of epimorphic regeneration have G2/M accumulation as their distinctive feature, whilst the majority of somatic cells rest at G1 phase. To investigate the role played byp21 in antler regeneration, we studied the cell cycle distribution of antler stem cells (ASCs), via down-regulation of p21 in vitro using RNAi. The results showed that ASCs had high levels of p21 mRNA expression and rested at G1 phase, which was comparable to the control somatic cells. Down-regulation of p21 did not result in ASC cell cycle re-distribution toward G2/M accumulation, but DNA damage and apoptosis of the ASCs significantly increased and the process of cell aging was slowed. These findings suggest that the ASCs may have evolved to use an alternative, p21-independent cell cycle regulation mechanism. Also a unique p21-dependent inhibitory effect may control DNA damage as a protective mechanism to ensure the fast proliferating ASCs do not become dysplastic/cancerous. Understanding of the mechanism underlying the role played by p21 in the ASCs could give insight into a mammalian system where epimorphic regeneration is initiated whilst the genome stability is effectively maintained. PMID:26308075

  17. Surfactant prevents quartz induced down-regulation of complement receptor 1 in human granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, G; Lundahl, J; Curstedt, T; Eklund, A

    1997-02-01

    Quartz is known to induce an inflammatory response in the alveolar space by recruitment of different effector cells. We investigated the interaction between granulocytes and quartz with respect to expression of complement receptor type 1 (CR1) and CR3, with and without the presence of surfactant. Granulocytes from hemolyzed blood were stimulated by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), which mobilize the intracellular pool of CR1 to the surface, and the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) measured by cytofluorometry was 47.4 (46-63.6) (median; interquartile range). Quartz exposure reduced the CR1 expression to 23.2 (22.8-30.6) MFI units (P < 0.01), a porcine surfactant preparation added during quartz exposure abolished the down-regulation completely, 47.7 (43.2-62.3) MFI units (P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained after preincubation of the cells with surfactant followed by quartz exposure. No significant influence on CR1 expression was found by a synthetic lipid mixture, nor was the CR3 expression affected. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the presence of surfactant inhibits quartz induced down-regulation of CR1 on activated granulocytes.

  18. Cryptotanshinone targets tumor-initiating cells through down-regulation of stemness genes expression

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YING; CABARCAS, STEPHANIE M.; ZHENG, JI; SUN, LEI; MATHEWS, LESLEY A.; ZHANG, XIAOHU; LIN, HONGSHENG; FARRAR, WILLIAM L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumor initiation and progression, therefore representing an important cell population that may be used as a target for the development of future anticancer therapies. In the present study, Cryptotanshinone (CT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was demonstrated to regulate the behaviors of LNCaP prostate cells and prostate LNCaP TICs. The results demonstrate that treatment with CT alters cellular proliferation, cell cycle status, migration, viability, colony formation and notably, sphere formation and down-regulation of stemness genes (Nanog, OCT4, SOX2, β-catenin, CXCR4) in TICs. The present study demonstrates that CT targets the LNCaP CD44+CD24- population that is representative of prostate TICs and also affects total LNCaP cells as well via down-regulation of stemness genes. The strong effect with which CT has on prostate TICs suggests that CT may potentially function as a novel natural anticancer agent that specifically targets TICs. PMID:27313698

  19. Down-regulation of endogenous KLHL1 decreases voltage-gated calcium current density.

    PubMed

    Perissinotti, Paula P; Ethington, Elizabeth G; Cribbs, Leanne; Koob, Michael D; Martin, Jody; Piedras-Rentería, Erika S

    2014-05-01

    The actin-binding protein Kelch-like 1 (KLHL1) can modulate voltage-gated calcium channels in vitro. KLHL1 interacts with actin and with the pore-forming subunits of Cav2.1 and CaV3.2 calcium channels, resulting in up-regulation of P/Q and T-type current density. Here we tested whether endogenous KLHL1 modulates voltage gated calcium currents in cultured hippocampal neurons by down-regulating the expression of KLHL1 via adenoviral delivery of shRNA targeted against KLHL1 (shKLHL1). Control adenoviruses did not affect any of the neuronal properties measured, yet down-regulation of KLHL1 resulted in HVA current densities ~68% smaller and LVA current densities 44% smaller than uninfected controls, with a concomitant reduction in α(1A) and α(1H) protein levels. Biophysical analysis and western blot experiments suggest Ca(V)3.1 and 3.3 currents are also present in shKLHL1-infected neurons. Synapsin I levels, miniature postsynaptic current frequency, and excitatory and inhibitory synapse number were reduced in KLHL1 knockdown. This study corroborates the physiological role of KLHL1 as a calcium channel modulator and demonstrates a novel, presynaptic role.

  20. Dysregulation of Ack1 inhibits down-regulation of the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Grovdal, Lene Melsaether; Johannessen, Lene E.; Rodland, Marianne Skeie; Madshus, Inger Helene; Stang, Espen

    2008-04-01

    The protein tyrosine kinase Ack1 has been linked to cancer when over-expressed. Ack1 has also been suggested to function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and in down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). We have studied the intracellular localization of over-expressed Ack1 and found that Ack1 co-localizes with the EGFR upon EGF-induced endocytosis in cells with moderate over-expression of Ack. This co-localization is mainly observed in early endosomes. Furthermore, we found that over-expression of Ack1 retained the EGFR at the limiting membrane of early endosomes, inhibiting sorting to inner vesicles of multivesicular bodies. Down-regulation of Ack1 in HeLa cells resulted in reduced rate of {sup 125}I-EGF internalization, whereas internalization of {sup 125}I-transferrin was not affected. In cells where Ack1 had been knocked down by siRNA, recycling of internalized {sup 125}I-EGF was increased, while degradation of {sup 125}I-EGF was inhibited. Together, these data suggest that Ack1 is involved in an early step of EGFR desensitization.

  1. Down-regulation of Cdc6, a cell cycle regulatory gene, in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Robles, Liza D; Frost, Andra R; Davila, Monica; Hutson, Alan D; Grizzle, William E; Chakrabarti, Ratna

    2002-07-12

    CDC6 plays a critical role in regulation of the onset of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. We have found that Cdc6 expression is down-regulated in prostate cancer as detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR of prostate cell lines and laser-captured microdissected prostate tissues. This result was substantiated by immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue sections and immunoblot analysis of benign (BPH-1) and adenocarcinomatous prostatic cells. Furthermore, a 100-fold reduction in the transcription efficiency of the Cdc6 promoter-luciferase construct was noted in the metastatic PC3 cells compared with that in BPH-1 cells. Concentration of the E2F and Oct1 transcription factors that have putative binding sites in the Cdc6 promoter was substantially low in PC3 cells compared with BPH cells. Mutagenesis of the two E2F binding sites on the Cdc6 promoter resulted in increased promoter activity in PC3 cells owing to elimination of the negative regulation by pRb.E2F complex but not to the level of that obtained in BPH cells. We conclude that an altered interaction of transcription factors may be responsible for the down-regulation of Cdc6 transcription in PC3 cells. Our study suggests a potential use of the lack of CDC6 expression as an index of prostate cancer development.

  2. Down-regulation of tissue N:P ratios in terrestrial plants by elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Q.; Hui, D.; Luo, Y.; Elser, J. J.; Wang, Y.; Loladze, I.; Zhang, Q.; Dennis, S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations generally alter element stoichiometry in plants. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the elevated CO2 impact on plant nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratios and the underlying mechanism has not been conducted. We synthesized the results from 112 previously published studies using meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of elevated CO2 on the N:P ratio of terrestrial plants and to explore the underlying mechanism based on plant growth and soil P dynamics. Our results show that terrestrial plants grown under elevated CO2 had lower N:P ratios in both above- and below-ground biomass across different ecosystem types. The response ratio for plant N:P was negatively correlated with the response ratio for plant growth in croplands and grasslands, and showed a stronger relationship for P than for N. In addition, the CO2-induced down-regulation of plant N:P was accompanied by 19.3% and 4.2% increases in soil phosphatase activity and labile P, respectively, and a 10.1% decrease in total soil P. Our results show that down-regulation of plant N:P under elevated CO2 corresponds with accelerated soil P cycling. These findings should be useful for better understanding of terrestrial plant stoichiometry in response to elevated CO2 and of the underlying mechanisms affecting nutrient dynamics under climate change.

  3. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide down-regulates expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ernst R; Bahrami, Soheyl; Heller, Regine; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2002-03-22

    GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) is a 9.7-kDa protein regulating GTP cyclohydrolase I activity in dependence of tetrahydrobiopterin and phenylalanine concentrations, thus enabling stimulation of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis by phenylalanine to ensure its efficient metabolism by phenylalanine hydroxylase. Here, we were interested in regulation of GFRP expression by proinflammatory cytokines and stimuli, which are known to induce GTP cyclohydrolase I expression. Recombinant human GFRP stimulated recombinant human GTP cyclohydrolase I in the presence of phenylalanine and mediated feedback inhibition by tetrahydrobiopterin. Levels of GFRP mRNA in human myelomonocytoma (THP-1) cells remained unaltered by treatment of cells with interferon-gamma or interleukin-1beta, but were significantly down-regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 microg/ml), without or with cotreatment by interferon-gamma, which strongly up-regulated GTP cyclohydrolase I expression and activity. GFRP expression was also suppressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with 1 microg/ml LPS, as well as in rat tissues 7 h post intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg LPS. THP-1 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma alone showed increased pteridine synthesis by addition of phenylalanine to the culture medium. Cells stimulated with interferon-gamma plus LPS, in contrast, showed phenylalanine-independent pteridine synthesis. These results demonstrate that LPS down-regulates expression of GFRP, thus rendering pteridine synthesis independent of metabolic control by phenylalanine.

  4. Cell wall modifications triggered by the down-regulation of Coumarate 3-hydroxylase-1 in maize.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Silvia; Rencoret, Jorge; Garcia-Calvo, Laura; Capellades, Montserrat; Encina, Antonio; Santiago, Rogelio; Rigau, Joan; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Río, José-Carlos; Caparros-Ruiz, David

    2015-07-01

    Coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) catalyzes a key step of the synthesis of the two main lignin subunits, guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) in dicotyledonous species. As no functional data are available in regards to this enzyme in monocotyledonous species, we generated C3H1 knock-down maize plants. The results obtained indicate that C3H1 participates in lignin biosynthesis as its down-regulation redirects the phenylpropanoid flux: as a result, increased amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units, lignin-associated ferulates and the flavone tricin were detected in transgenic stems cell walls. Altogether, these changes make stem cell walls more degradable in the most C3H1-repressed plants, despite their unaltered polysaccharide content. The increase in H monomers is moderate compared to C3H deficient Arabidopsis and alfalfa plants. This could be due to the existence of a second maize C3H protein (C3H2) that can compensate the reduced levels of C3H1 in these C3H1-RNAi maize plants. The reduced expression of C3H1 alters the macroscopic phenotype of the plants, whose growth is inhibited proportionally to the extent of C3H1 repression. Finally, the down-regulation of C3H1 also increases the synthesis of flavonoids, leading to the accumulation of anthocyanins in transgenic leaves.

  5. Phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of apolipoprotein A5 by insulin

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Maxine; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Rommens, Corinne; Martin, Genevieve; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-02-15

    The apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene has been shown to be important in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 gene is regulated by insulin. We show here that cell and mouse treatments with insulin down-regulated APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that insulin decreases APOA5 promoter activity and subsequent deletion analyses revealed an E-box-containing fragment. We showed that Upstream Stimulatory Factors, USF1/USF2, bind to the identified E-box in the APOA5 promoter. Moreover, in cotransfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity. The treatment with insulin reduces the binding of USF1/USF2 to APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of PI3K pathway with wortmannin abolished the insulin s effect on APOA5 gene transcription. Using oligoprecipitation method of USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrated that phosphorylated USF1 failed to bind to APOA5 promoter. This indicates that the APOA5 gene transrepression by insulin involves a phosphorylation of USF through PI3K, that modulate their binding to APOA5 promoter and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in healthy men shows a decrease of the plasma ApoAV level. These data suggest a potential mechanism involving APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia.

  6. Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases characteristics associated with maintenance of cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Patricio; Soto, Nicolás; Díaz, Jorge; Mendoza, Pablo; Díaz, Natalia; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Torres, Vicente A.

    2015-08-21

    The early endosomal protein Rab5 is highly expressed in tumor samples, although a causal relationship between Rab5 expression and cell transformation has not been established. Here, we report the functional effects of targeting endogenous Rab5 with specific shRNA sequences in different tumor cell lines. Rab5 down-regulation in B16-F10 cells decreased tumor formation by subcutaneous injection into C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, Rab5 targeting in B16-F10 and A549, but not MDA-MB-231 cells was followed by decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. These findings suggest that Rab5 expression is required to maintain characteristics associated with cell transformation. - Highlights: • Rab5 is important to the maintenance of cell transformation characteristics. • Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in different cancer cells. • Rab5 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in-vivo.

  7. Down-regulation of β3-integrin inhibits bone metastasis of small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Jian-ping; Guo, Shan; Min, Jie; Liu, Li-li; Su, Hai-chuan; Feng, Ying-ming; Zhang, He-long

    2012-03-01

    Bone is one of the most frequent targets of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) metastasis, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. β3-integrin plays an important role in invasion of various kinds of tumors. Yet, its role in bone-metastasis of SCLC is still unknown. In this study, we first examined the expression of β3-integrin in SBC-5 and SBC-3 cells by real-time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. We found that, compared to none bone-metastatic SBC-3 cells, β3-integrin was highly expressed in SBC-5 cells, a specific bone-metastatic SCLC cells line characterized in our previous study. We next constructed β3-integrin siRNA and transfected SBC-5 cell line, and found that β3-integrin siRNA significantly down-regulated the β3-integrin mRNA level and protein expression in SBC-5 cell line. We further found that inhibition of β3-integrin significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. In addition, the β3-integrin down-regulated cells presented significant decrease in cell adhesion, migration and invasion activity. Our results suggest the β3-integrin has an essential effect on tumor cell proliferation and progression, and may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skeletal metastases of lung cancer.

  8. Down-regulation of pancreatic transcription factors and incretin receptors in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsuoka, Taka-aki

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent and serious metabolic diseases. Under diabetic conditions, chronic hyperglycemia and subsequent induction of oxidative stress deteriorate pancreatic β-cell function, which leads to the aggravation of type 2 diabetes. Although such phenomena are well known as glucose toxicity, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this review article, we describe the possible molecular mechanism for β-cell dysfunction found in type 2 diabetes, focusing on (1) oxidative stress, (2) pancreatic transcription factors (PDX-1 and MafA) and (3) incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors). Under such conditions, nuclear expression levels of PDX-1 and MafA are decreased, which leads to suppression of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. In addition, expression levels of GLP-1 and GIP receptors are decreased, which likely contributes to the impaired incretin effects found in diabetes. Taken together, it is likely that down-regulation of pancreatic transcription factors (PDX-1 and MafA) and down-regulation of incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors) explain, at least in part, the molecular mechanism for β-cell dysfunction found in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24379916

  9. Hypoxic Stress Facilitates Acute Activation and Chronic Down-Regulation of Fanconi Anemia Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Susan E.; Glazer, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia induces genomic instability through replication stress and dysregulation of vital DNA repair pathways. The Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI, are key members of a DNA repair pathway that responds to replicative stress, suggesting that they undergo regulation by hypoxic conditions. Here acute hypoxic stress activates the FA pathway via ubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI in an ATR-dependent manner. In addition, the presence of an intact FA pathway is required for preventing hypoxia-induced DNA damage measurable by the comet assay, limiting the accumulation of γH2AX (a marker of DNA damage or stalled replication), and protecting cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia induces transcriptional repression of FANCD2 in a manner analogous to the hypoxic down-regulation of BRCA1 and RAD51. Thus, hypoxia-induced FA pathway activation plays a key role in maintaining genome integrity and cell survival, while FA protein down-regulation with prolonged hypoxia contributes to genomic instability. PMID:24688021

  10. Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptors by blockade of mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Alcázar, J A; Hernández, I; De la Torre, M P; García, I; Santiago, E; Muñoz-Yagüe, M T; Solís-Herruzo, J A

    1995-10-13

    We have studied the effect of blockade of mitochondrial respiration on the binding of human 125I-TNF alpha to L929 cell receptors. Specific TNF alpha binding was decreased to about 20-40% of controls by blocking mitochondrial respiration. This effect was dose- and time-related and was observed independently of the level at which the respiration was blocked (respiratory chain, proton backflow, ATPase, anaerobiosis). This blockade had no effect on the half-life of the specific TNF alpha binding, the internalization or degradation of TNF alpha-receptor complexes, or the number of TNF alpha-binding sites. Scatchard analysis of TNF alpha binding data indicated a 2-4-fold decrease in the affinity of these binding sites. These effects did not appear to be related to the protein kinase C activity or to reactive oxygen radicals, since they were not antagonized by pretreatment of cells with oxygen radical scavengers, deferoxamine, or inhibitors of protein kinase C. Decrease in TNF alpha binding capacity correlated significantly with cellular ATP content (r = 0.94; p < 0.01) and with the cytocidal activity of TNF alpha against L929 cells. These findings suggest that blockade of mitochondrial respiration down-regulates the binding of TNF alpha to cells, most likely by changing the affinity of receptors for this cytokine. This down-regulation may increase the resistance of cells to TNF alpha cytotoxicity.

  11. Down-Regulation of the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase by Presenilin-dependent Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Foveau, Bénédicte; Ancot, Frédéric; Leroy, Catherine; Petrelli, Annalisa; Reiss, Karina; Vingtdeux, Valérie; Giordano, Silvia; Fafeur, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) acts through the membrane-anchored Met receptor tyrosine kinase to induce invasive growth. Deregulation of this signaling is associated with tumorigenesis and involves, in most cases, overexpression of the receptor. We demonstrate that Met is processed in epithelial cells by presenilin-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis (PS-RIP) independently of ligand stimulation. The proteolytic process involves sequential cleavage by metalloproteases and the γ-secretase complex, leading to generation of labile fragments. In normal epithelial cells, although expression of cleavable Met by PS-RIP is down-regulated, uncleavable Met displayed membrane accumulation and induced ligand-independent motility and morphogenesis. Inversely, in transformed cells, the Met inhibitory antibody DN30 is able to promote Met PS-RIP, resulting in down-regulation of the receptor and inhibition of the Met-dependent invasive growth. This demonstrates the original involvement of a proteolytic process in degradation of the Met receptor implicated in negative regulation of invasive growth. PMID:19297528

  12. High glucose induces dysfunction of airway epithelial barrier through down-regulation of connexin 43.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongmei; Yang, Juan; Zhou, Xiangdong; Xiao, Qian; Lü, Yang; Xia, Li

    2016-03-01

    The airway epithelium is a barrier to the inhaled antigens and pathogens. Connexin 43 (Cx43) has been found to play critical role in maintaining the function of airway epithelial barrier and be involved in the pathogenesis of the diabetic retinal vasculature, diabetes nephropathy and diabetes skin. Hyperglycemia has been shown to be an independent risk factor for respiratory infections. We hypothesize that the down-regulation of Cx43 induced by HG alters the expression of tight junctions (zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) and contributes to dysfunction of airway epithelial barrier, and Cx43 plays a critical role in the process in human airway epithelial cells (16 HBE). We show that high glucose (HG) decreased the expression of ZO-1 and occludin, disassociated interaction between Cx43 and tight junctions, and then increased airway epithelial transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and permeability by down-regulation of Cx43 in human airway epithelial cells. These observations demonstrate an important role for Cx43 in regulating HG-induced dysfunction of airway epithelial barrier. These findings may bring new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary infection related to diabetes mellitus and lead to novel therapeutic intervention for the dysfunction of airway epithelial barrier in chronic inflammatory airway diseases.

  13. Computational evaluation of new homologous down regulators of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) targeted for tumor reversion.

    PubMed

    Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Yadav, Mukesh; Wishard, Rohan

    2013-12-01

    The Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been investigated for tumor reversion and is a target of cancer therapy. Down regulators which suppress the expression of TCTP can trigger the process of tumor reversion leading to the transformation of tumor cells into revertant cells. The present investigation is a novel protein-protein docking approach to target TCTP by a set of proteins similar to the protein: sorting nexin 6 (SNX6) which is an established down regulator of TCTP. The established down regulator along with its set of most similar proteins were modeled using the PYTHON based software - MODELLER v9.9, followed by structure validation using the Procheck Package. Further TCTP was docked with its established and prospective down regulators using the flexible docking protocol suite HADDOCK. The results were evaluated and ranked according to the RMSD values of the complex and the HADDOCK score, which is a weighted sum of van der Waal's energy, electrostatic energy, restraints violation energy and desolvation energy. Results concluded the protein sorting nexin 6 of Mus musculus to be a better down regulator of TCTP, as compared to the suggested down regulator (Homo sapiens snx6).

  14. Nocturnal enuresis in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Rachel B; Kassim, Adetola A; Goodpaster, Robert L; DeBaun, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a prevalent and challenging problem in children and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Limited progress has been made in elucidating etiology and pathophysiology of nocturnal enuresis in individuals with SCD. Among adults with SCD ages 18-20 years, approximately 9% report nocturnal enuresis. Nocturnal enuresis contributes to decreased health related quality of life in people with SCD, resulting in low self-esteem and sometimes social isolation. Postulated non-mutually exclusive causes of nocturnal enuresis in individuals with SCD include hyposthenuria leading to nocturnal polyuria, decreased bladder capacity or nocturnal bladder overactivity, increased arousal thresholds, and sleep disordered breathing. No evidence-based therapy for nocturnal enuresis in SCD exists. This review is focused on describing the natural history, postulated causes and a rational approach to the evaluation and management of nocturnal enuresis in children and adults with SCD.

  15. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  16. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  17. "Nocturnal seizures" in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Anthony; McSweeney, Julia; Kulik, Thomas; Khatwa, Umakanth; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-10-15

    The usual differential diagnoses of nocturnal events in children include parasomnias, nocturnal seizures, nocturnal reflux (Sandifer syndrome), hypnic jerks, periodic limb movements of sleep, and sleep disordered breathing. We report a previously healthy young girl who presented to the sleep clinic for evaluation of nocturnal events which were diagnosed as medically refractory nocturnal seizures. It was not until a syncopal event occurred in the daytime, which prompted referral for cardiac evaluation, the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hyper-tension (IPAH) was made. Sleep physicians should consider IPAH in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal events in children.

  18. Royal jelly reduces melanin synthesis through down-regulation of tyrosinase expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Mi; Yeo, Joo Hong; Cho, Yoon Hee; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2011-01-01

    For cosmetic reasons, the demand for effective and safe skin-whitening agents is high. Since the key enzyme in the melanin synthetic pathway is tyrosinase, many depigmenting agents in the treatment of hyperpigmentation act as tyrosinase inhibitors. In this study, we have investigated the hypo-pigmentary mechanism of royal jelly in a mouse melanocyte cell line, B16F1. Treatment of B16F1 cells with royal jelly markedly inhibited melanin biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Decreased melanin content occurred through the decrease of tyrosinase activity. The mRNA levels of tyrosinase were also reduced by royal jelly. These results suggest that royal jelly reduces melanin synthesis by down-regulation of tyrosinase mRNA transcription and serves as a new candidate in the design of new skin-whitening or therapeutic agents.

  19. Matrix rigidity activates Wnt signaling through down-regulation of Dickkopf-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Barbolina, Maria V; Liu, Yiuying; Gurler, Hilal; Kim, Mijung; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre A; Rooper, Lisa; Shepard, Jaclyn; Weiss, Michael; Shea, Lonnie D; Penzes, Peter; Ravosa, Matthew J; Stack, M Sharon

    2013-01-04

    Cells respond to changes in the physical properties of the extracellular matrix with altered behavior and gene expression, highlighting the important role of the microenvironment in the regulation of cell function. In the current study, culture of epithelial ovarian cancer cells on three-dimensional collagen I gels led to a dramatic down-regulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf-1 with a concomitant increase in nuclear β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin/Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Increased three-dimensional collagen gel invasion was accompanied by transcriptional up-regulation of the membrane-tethered collagenase membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, and an inverse relationship between dickkopf-1 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed in human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. Similar results were obtained in other tissue-invasive cells such as vascular endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanism for functional coupling of matrix adhesion with Wnt signaling.

  20. Matrix Rigidity Activates Wnt Signaling through Down-regulation of Dickkopf-1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Liu, Yiuying; Gurler, Hilal; Kim, Mijung; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre A.; Rooper, Lisa; Shepard, Jaclyn; Weiss, Michael; Shea, Lonnie D.; Penzes, Peter; Ravosa, Matthew J.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Cells respond to changes in the physical properties of the extracellular matrix with altered behavior and gene expression, highlighting the important role of the microenvironment in the regulation of cell function. In the current study, culture of epithelial ovarian cancer cells on three-dimensional collagen I gels led to a dramatic down-regulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf-1 with a concomitant increase in nuclear β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin/Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Increased three-dimensional collagen gel invasion was accompanied by transcriptional up-regulation of the membrane-tethered collagenase membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, and an inverse relationship between dickkopf-1 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed in human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. Similar results were obtained in other tissue-invasive cells such as vascular endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanism for functional coupling of matrix adhesion with Wnt signaling. PMID:23152495

  1. Natural polyphenols down-regulate universal stress protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An in-silico approach

    PubMed Central

    Aanandhi, M. Vijey; Bhattacherjee, Debojit; George, P. Samuel Gideon; Ray, Anirban

    2014-01-01

    Universal stress protein (USP) is a novel target to overcome the tuberculosis resistance. Our present study enlightens the possibilities of some natural polyphenols as an antioxidant for USP. The study has shown some molecular simulations of some selected natural antioxidants with USP. We have considered USP (Rv1636) strain for homology modeling and the selected template was taken for the docking study. Curcumin, catechin, reservetrol has shown ARG 136 (1.8Å) hydrogen bonding and two ionic bonding with carboxyl group of curcumin with LEU 130 (3.3Å) and ASN 144 (3.4Å) respectively. INH was taken for the standard molecule to perform molecular simulation. It showed poor binding interaction with the target, that is, −5.18 kcal, and two hydrogen bonding with SER 140 (1.887Å), ARG 147 (2.064Å) respectively. The study indicates possible new generation curcumin analogue for future therapy to down-regulate USP. PMID:25364695

  2. Down-regulation of the rat serotonin transporter upon exposure to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Horschitz, S; Hummerich, R; Schloss, P

    2001-07-20

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by rapid reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into the nerve terminal or axonal varicosities. SERT represents the target of various antidepressants which inhibit 5-HT transport and are widely used for the pharmacotherapy of depression. Here, we have analyzed the function of SERT stably expressed in HEK 293 cells upon exposure to citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), with respect to 5-HT transport activity and protein expression as estimated by ligand binding experiments. Our results show that long-term exposure to an SSRI causes a down-regulation of transport activity as revealed by a reduction of the maximal transport rate, without affecting substrate affinity, accompanied by a decrease in ligand binding sites.

  3. Down-regulation of telomerase activity in DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by tocotrienol

    SciTech Connect

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo . E-mail: miyazawa@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp

    2006-09-15

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, inhibition of telomerase by drug or dietary food components is a new strategy for cancer prevention. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin E, with particular emphasis on tocotrienol (unsaturated vitamin E), on human telomerase in cell-culture study. As results, tocotrienol inhibited telomerase activity of DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in time- and dose-dependent manner, interestingly, with {delta}-tocotrienol exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity. Tocotrienol inhibited protein kinase C activity, resulting in down-regulation of c-myc and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, thereby reducing telomerase activity. In contrast to tocotrienol, tocopherol showed very weak telomerase inhibition. These results provide novel evidence for First time indicating that tocotrienol acts as a potent candidate regulator of telomerase and supporting the anti-proliferative function of tocotrienol.

  4. Study of traits and recalcitrance reduction of field-grown COMT down-regulated switchgrass

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Mi; Pu, Yunqiao; Yoo, Chang Geun; ...

    2017-01-03

    The native recalcitrance of plants hinders the biomass conversion process using current biorefinery techniques. Down-regulation of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin biosynthesis pathway of switchgrass reduced the thermochemical and biochemical conversion recalcitrance of biomass. Due to potential environmental influences on lignin biosynthesis and deposition, studying the consequences of physicochemical changes in field-grown plants without pretreatment is essential to evaluate the performance of lignin-altered plants. In this study, we determined the chemical composition, cellulose crystallinity and the degree of its polymerization, molecular weight of hemicellulose, and cellulose accessibility of cell walls in order to better understand themore » fundamental features of why biomass is recalcitrant to conversion without pretreatment. The most important is to investigate whether traits and features are stable in the dynamics of field environmental effects over multiple years.« less

  5. Down-regulation of NDRG1 promotes migration of cancer cells during reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Liang-Chuan; Su, Yi-Yu; Chen, Kuo-Chih; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Chuang, Eric Y

    2011-01-01

    One characteristic of tumor microenvironment is oxygen fluctuation, which results from hyper-proliferation and abnormal metabolism of tumor cells as well as disorganized neo-vasculature. Reoxygenation of tumors can induce oxidative stress, which leads to DNA damage and genomic instability. Although the cellular responses to hypoxia are well known, little is known about the dynamic response upon reoxygenation. In order to investigate the transcriptional responses of tumor adaptation to reoxygenation, breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured under 0.5% oxygen for 24 h followed by 24 h of reoxygenation in normoxia. Cells were harvested at 0, 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h during reoxygenation. The transcriptional profile of MCF-7 cells upon reoxygenation was examined using Illumina Human-6 v3 BeadChips. We identified 127 differentially expressed genes, of which 53.1% were up-regulated and 46.9% were down-regulated upon reoxygenation. Pathway analysis revealed that the HIF-1-alpha transcription factor network and validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation were significantly enriched in these differentially expressed genes. Among these genes, a subset of interest genes was further validated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. In particular, human N-MYC down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was highly suppressed upon reoxygenation. NDRG1 is associated with a variety of stress and cell growth-regulatory conditions. To determine whether NDRG1 plays a role in reoxygenation, NDRG1 protein was overexpressed in MCF-7 cells. Upon reoxygenation, overexpression of NDRG1 significantly inhibited cell migration. Our results revealed the dynamic nature of gene expression in MCF-7 cells upon reoxygenation and demonstrated that NDRG1 is involved in tumor adaptation to reoxygenation.

  6. Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Down-Regulates Medial Prefrontal Cortex during Experience of Flow.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Martin; Keller, Johannes; Grön, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the experience of flow aligns with a relative increase in activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and relative activation decreases of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and of the amygdala (AMY). In the present study, Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) was used to explore effective connectivity between those brain regions. To test our hypothesis that the DRN causally down-regulates activity of the MPFC and/or of the AMY, 23 healthy male students solved mental arithmetic tasks of varying difficulty during functional magnetic resonance imaging. A "flow" condition, with task demands automatically balanced with participants' skill level, was compared with conditions of "boredom" and "overload". DCM models were constructed modeling full reciprocal endogenous connections between the DRN, the MPFC, the AMY, and the calcarine. The calcarine was included to allow sensory input to enter the system. Experimental conditions were modeled as exerting modulatory effects on various possible connections between the DRN, the MPFC, and the AMY, but not on self-inhibitory connections, yielding a total of 64 alternative DCM models. Model space was partitioned into eight families based on commonalities in the arrangement of the modulatory effects. Random effects Bayesian Model Selection (BMS) was applied to identify a possible winning family (and model). Although BMS revealed a clear winning family, an outstanding winning model could not be identified. Therefore, Bayesian Model Averaging was performed over models within the winning family to obtain representative DCM parameters for subsequent analyses to test our hypothesis. In line with our expectations, Bayesian averaged parameters revealed stronger down-regulatory influence of the DRN on the MPFC when participants experienced flow relative to control conditions. In addition, these condition-dependent modulatory effects significantly predicted participants' experienced degree of

  7. Lignin Down-regulation of Zea mays via dsRNAi and Klason Lignin Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Mei, Chuansheng; Sticklen, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate the use of lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative bioenergy resource, during biological conversion processes, a pretreatment step is needed to open up the structure of the plant cell wall, increasing the accessibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. Lignin, a polyphenolic material present in many cell wall types, is known to be a significant hindrance to enzyme access. Reduction in lignin content to a level that does not interfere with the structural integrity and defense system of the plant might be a valuable step to reduce the costs of bioethanol production. In this study, we have genetically down-regulated one of the lignin biosynthesis-related genes, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (ZmCCR1) via a double stranded RNA interference technique. The ZmCCR1_RNAi construct was integrated into the maize genome using the particle bombardment method. Transgenic maize plants grew normally as compared to the wild-type control plants without interfering with biomass growth or defense mechanisms, with the exception of displaying of brown-coloration in transgenic plants leaf mid-ribs, husks, and stems. The microscopic analyses, in conjunction with the histological assay, revealed that the leaf sclerenchyma fibers were thinned but the structure and size of other major vascular system components was not altered. The lignin content in the transgenic maize was reduced by 7-8.7%, the crystalline cellulose content was increased in response to lignin reduction, and hemicelluloses remained unchanged. The analyses may indicate that carbon flow might have been shifted from lignin biosynthesis to cellulose biosynthesis. This article delineates the procedures used to down-regulate the lignin content in maize via RNAi technology, and the cell wall compositional analyses used to verify the effect of the modifications on the cell wall structure. PMID:25080235

  8. Lignin down-regulation of Zea mays via dsRNAi and klason lignin analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Mei, Chuansheng; Sticklen, Mariam

    2014-07-23

    To facilitate the use of lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative bioenergy resource, during biological conversion processes, a pretreatment step is needed to open up the structure of the plant cell wall, increasing the accessibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. Lignin, a polyphenolic material present in many cell wall types, is known to be a significant hindrance to enzyme access. Reduction in lignin content to a level that does not interfere with the structural integrity and defense system of the plant might be a valuable step to reduce the costs of bioethanol production. In this study, we have genetically down-regulated one of the lignin biosynthesis-related genes, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (ZmCCR1) via a double stranded RNA interference technique. The ZmCCR1_RNAi construct was integrated into the maize genome using the particle bombardment method. Transgenic maize plants grew normally as compared to the wild-type control plants without interfering with biomass growth or defense mechanisms, with the exception of displaying of brown-coloration in transgenic plants leaf mid-ribs, husks, and stems. The microscopic analyses, in conjunction with the histological assay, revealed that the leaf sclerenchyma fibers were thinned but the structure and size of other major vascular system components was not altered. The lignin content in the transgenic maize was reduced by 7-8.7%, the crystalline cellulose content was increased in response to lignin reduction, and hemicelluloses remained unchanged. The analyses may indicate that carbon flow might have been shifted from lignin biosynthesis to cellulose biosynthesis. This article delineates the procedures used to down-regulate the lignin content in maize via RNAi technology, and the cell wall compositional analyses used to verify the effect of the modifications on the cell wall structure.

  9. Down-regulation of MIF by NFκB under hypoxia accelerated neuronal loss during stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Zis, Odysseus; Ly, Philip T T; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Mingming; Cai, Fang; Bucala, Richard; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Song, Weihong

    2014-10-01

    Neuronal apoptosis is one of the major causes of poststroke neurological deficits. Inflammation during the acute phase of stroke results in nuclear translocation of NFκB in affected cells in the infarct area. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes cardiomyocyte survival in mice following heart ischemia. However, the role of MIF during stroke remains limited. In this study, we showed that MIF expression is down-regulated by 0.75 ± 0.10-fold of the control in the infarct area in the mouse brains. Two functional cis-acing NFκB response elements were identified in the human MIF promoter. Dual activation of hypoxia and NFκB signaling resulted in significant reduction of MIF promoter activity to 0.86 ± 0.01-fold of the control. Furthermore, MIF reduced caspase-3 activation and protected neurons from oxidative stress- and in vitro ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis. H2O2 significantly induced cell death with 12.81 ± 0.58-fold increase of TUNEL-positive cells, and overexpression of MIF blocked the H2O2-induced cell death. Disruption of the MIF gene in MIF-knockout mice resulted in caspase-3 activation, neuronal loss, and increased infarct development during stroke in vivo. The infarct volume was increased from 6.51 ± 0.74% in the wild-type mice to 9.07 ± 0.66% in the MIF-knockout mice. Our study demonstrates that MIF exerts a neuronal protective effect and that down-regulation of MIF by NFκB-mediated signaling under hypoxia accelerates neuronal loss during stroke. Our results suggest that MIF is an important molecule for preserving a longer time window for stroke treatment, and strategies to maintain MIF expression at physiological level could have beneficial effects for stroke patients.

  10. Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Down-Regulates Medial Prefrontal Cortex during Experience of Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Martin; Keller, Johannes; Grön, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the experience of flow aligns with a relative increase in activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and relative activation decreases of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and of the amygdala (AMY). In the present study, Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) was used to explore effective connectivity between those brain regions. To test our hypothesis that the DRN causally down-regulates activity of the MPFC and/or of the AMY, 23 healthy male students solved mental arithmetic tasks of varying difficulty during functional magnetic resonance imaging. A “flow” condition, with task demands automatically balanced with participants’ skill level, was compared with conditions of “boredom” and “overload”. DCM models were constructed modeling full reciprocal endogenous connections between the DRN, the MPFC, the AMY, and the calcarine. The calcarine was included to allow sensory input to enter the system. Experimental conditions were modeled as exerting modulatory effects on various possible connections between the DRN, the MPFC, and the AMY, but not on self-inhibitory connections, yielding a total of 64 alternative DCM models. Model space was partitioned into eight families based on commonalities in the arrangement of the modulatory effects. Random effects Bayesian Model Selection (BMS) was applied to identify a possible winning family (and model). Although BMS revealed a clear winning family, an outstanding winning model could not be identified. Therefore, Bayesian Model Averaging was performed over models within the winning family to obtain representative DCM parameters for subsequent analyses to test our hypothesis. In line with our expectations, Bayesian averaged parameters revealed stronger down-regulatory influence of the DRN on the MPFC when participants experienced flow relative to control conditions. In addition, these condition-dependent modulatory effects significantly predicted participants

  11. In Vitro Ischemia Triggers a Transcriptional Response to Down-Regulate Synaptic Proteins in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Joana; Vieira, Marta; Carreto, Laura; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Duarte, Carlos B.; Carvalho, Ana Luísa; Santos, Armanda E.

    2014-01-01

    Transient global cerebral ischemia induces profound changes in the transcriptome of brain cells, which is partially associated with the induction or repression of genes that influence the ischemic response. However, the mechanisms responsible for the selective vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to global ischemia remain to be clarified. To identify molecular changes elicited by ischemic insults, we subjected hippocampal primary cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model for global ischemia that resulted in delayed neuronal death with an excitotoxic component. To investigate changes in the transcriptome of hippocampal neurons submitted to OGD, total RNA was extracted at early (7 h) and delayed (24 h) time points after OGD and used in a whole-genome RNA microarray. We observed that at 7 h after OGD there was a general repression of genes, whereas at 24 h there was a general induction of gene expression. Genes related with functions such as transcription and RNA biosynthesis were highly regulated at both periods of incubation after OGD, confirming that the response to ischemia is a dynamic and coordinated process. Our analysis showed that genes for synaptic proteins, such as those encoding for PICK1, GRIP1, TARPγ3, calsyntenin-2/3, SAPAP2 and SNAP-25, were down-regulated after OGD. Additionally, OGD decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit as well as the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors, but increased the mRNA expression of the GluN3A subunit, thus altering the composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors in hippocampal neurons. Together, our results present the expression profile elicited by in vitro ischemia in hippocampal neurons, and indicate that OGD activates a transcriptional program leading to down-regulation in the expression of genes coding for synaptic proteins, suggesting that the synaptic proteome may change after ischemia. PMID:24960035

  12. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms down-regulated by thyroid hormone in human medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Monden, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yasuyo; Hashida, Tetsu; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Tomaru, Takuya; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Satoh, Teturou; Yamada, Masanobu; Mori, Masatomo; Kasai, Kikuo

    2006-04-01

    The role of thyroid hormone (T3) in the regulation of growth and development of the central nervous system including the cerebellum has been well established. However, the effects of thyroid hormone on malignant tumors derived from the cerebellum remain poorly understood. Our analysis mainly focused on expression levels of TR isoforms and the effects of thyroid hormone in human medulloblastoma HTB-185 cells. Northern blot analysis revealed TRalpha2 mRNA but not TRalpha1, beta1 or beta2 mRNA in the cell. The TRalpha1 and TRbeta1 mRNAs were detected only by RT-PCR method and TRbeta2 was not expressed. Incubation of T3 for 24 h decreased TRalpha1, TRalpha2 and TRbeta1 mRNA. Addition of actinomycin D caused an acute increase in the basal TR mRNA levels and the rate of decrease of all kinds of TR isoform mRNA was accelerated in the T3-treated groups compared to controls, indicating that the stability of TR mRNA was affected by T3. Incubation with cycloheximide also blocked a decrease in TR mRNA levels in the T3-treated HTB-185 cells suggesting that down-regulation of TR mRNA required the synthesis of new protein. Our data provide novel evidence for the expression of TRs down-regulated by T3 in HTB-185 cells, suggesting that TR expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by T3 at the level of RNA stability.

  13. Additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time of rice down-regulates cellulose synthesis in seed endosperm.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Keiko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Terauchi, Kaede; Hoshi, Masako; Ikenaga, Sachiko; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2014-01-01

    The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

  14. Estrogen-mediated down-regulation of CD24 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham; Malik, Simeen; Konduri, Santhi D.; Liu, Wensheng; Rokavec, Matjaž; van der Kuip, Heiko; Hoppe, Reiner; Hammerich-Hille, Stephanie; Fritz, Peter; Schroth, Werner; Abele, Ina; Das, Gokul M.; Oesterreich, Steffi; Brauch, Hiltrud

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported on the relevance of the prevalence of CD44+/CD24−/low cells in primary breast tumors. To study regulation of CD24, we queried a number of publicly available expression array studies in breast cancer cells, and found that CD24 was down-regulated upon estrogen treatment. We confirmed this estrogen-mediated repression of CD24 mRNA by qPCR in MCF7, T47D, and ZR75-1 cells. Repression was also seen at the protein level as measured by flow cytometry. CD24 was not down-regulated in the ERα negative MDA-MB-231 cells suggesting that ERα was necessary. This was further confirmed by ERα silencing in MCF7 cells resulting in increased CD24 levels, and by reintroduction of ERα into C4-12 cells resulting in decreased CD24 levels. Estrogen treatment did not alter half-life of CD24 mRNA, and new protein synthesis was not essential for repression, suggesting a primary transcriptional effect. HDAC inhibition by Trichostatin A completely abolished the repression, but decrease of the ERα corepressors NCoR, LCoR, RIP140, SMRT, SAFB1, and SAFB2 by siRNA or overexpression of SAFB2, NCoR, and SMRT had no effect. In silico promoter analyses led to the identification of two EREs in the CD24 promoter, one of which was able to bind ERα as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Together, our results show that CD24 is repressed by estrogen, and that this repression is a direct transcriptional effect depending on ERα and HDACs. PMID:18404683

  15. Hydrogen peroxide down-regulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor content through proteasome activation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Garrido, A; Boyano-Adánez, M C; Alique, M; Calleros, L; Serrano, I; Griera, M; Rodríguez-Puyol, D; Griendling, K K; Rodríguez-Puyol, M

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is implicated in the regulation of signaling pathways leading to changes in vascular smooth muscle function. Contractile effects produced by H(2)O(2) are due to the phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase triggered by increases in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) from intracellular stores or influx of extracellular Ca(2+). One mechanism for mobilizing such stores involves the phosphoinositide pathway. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) by binding to a family of receptors (IP(3)Rs) on the endoplasmic-sarcoplasmic reticulum that act as ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels. IP(3)Rs can be rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome, causing a decrease in cellular IP(3)R content. In this study we show that IP(3)R(1) and IP(3)R(3) are down-regulated when vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are stimulated by H(2)O(2), through an increase in proteasome activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the decrease in IP(3)R by H(2)O(2) is accompanied by a reduction in calcium efflux induced by IP(3) in VSMC. Also, we observed that angiotensin II (ANGII) induces a decrease in IP(3)R by activation of NADPH oxidase and that preincubation with H(2)O(2) decreases ANGII-mediated calcium efflux and planar cell surface area in VSMC. The decreased IP(3) receptor content observed in cells was also found in aortic rings, which exhibited a decreased ANGII-dependent contraction after treatment with H(2)O(2). Altogether, these results suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates IP(3)R down-regulation via proteasome activity.

  16. Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

  17. Outflow from a Nocturnal Thunderstorm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    P AD-A093 796 ILLINOIS STATE WATER SURVEY URBANAF/ .2 OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM. (U) NOV a0 R W SCOTT NSF-ATHN78-0a865 UNCLASSIFIED SWS...CR-242 ARO-15529.5-6S N I muuuuuuuuuuuu iDA0937 9 6 State Water Survey Division k istitute of METEOROLOGY SECTION 0 uJD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS...SWS Contract Report 242 / F OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM Robert W. Scott Meteorology Section Illinois State Water Survey -- DTIC ELECTE CD

  18. Local corticosterone infusion enhances nocturnal pineal melatonin production in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P A C M; Bothorel, B; Clesse, D; Monteiro, A W A; Calgari, C; Raison, S; Simonneaux, V; Markus, R P

    2009-02-01

    Melatonin, an important marker of the endogenous rhythmicity in mammals, also plays a role in the body defence against pathogens and injuries. In vitro experiments have shown that either pro- or anti-inflammatory agents, acting directly in the organ, are able to change noradrenaline-induced pineal indoleamine production. Whereas corticosterone potentiates melatonin production, incubation of the gland with tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreases pineal hormonal production. In the present study, we show that nocturnal melatonin production measured by intra-pineal microdialysis is enhanced in pineals perfused with corticosterone at concentrations similar to those measured in inflamed animals. In vitro experiments suggest that this enhancement may be due to an increase in the activity of the two enzymes that convert serotonin to N-acetylserotonin (NAS) and NAS to melatonin. The present results support the hypothesis that the pineal gland is a sensor of inflammation mediators and that it plays a central role in the control of the inflammatory response.

  19. miR-191 regulates mouse erythroblast enucleation by down-regulating Riok3 and Mxi1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingbo; Flygare, Johan; Wong, Piu; Lim, Bing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-01-15

    Using RNA-seq technology, we found that the majority of microRNAs (miRNAs) present in CFU-E erythroid progenitors are down-regulated during terminal erythroid differentiation. Of the developmentally down-regulated miRNAs, ectopic overexpression of miR-191 blocks erythroid enucleation but has minor effects on proliferation and differentiation. We identified two erythroid-enriched and developmentally up-regulated genes, Riok3 and Mxi1, as direct targets of miR-191. Knockdown of either Riok3 or Mxi1 blocks enucleation, and either physiological overexpression of miR-191 or knockdown of Riok3 or Mxi1 blocks chromatin condensation. Thus, down-regulation of miR-191 is essential for erythroid chromatin condensation and enucleation by allowing up-regulation of Riok3 and Mxi1.

  20. Visual Navigation in Nocturnal Insects.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Despite their tiny eyes and brains, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to visually navigate at night. Whereas some use moonlight or the stars as celestial compass cues to maintain a straight-line course, others use visual landmarks to navigate to and from their nest. These impressive abilities rely on highly sensitive compound eyes and specialized visual processing strategies in the brain.

  1. Protein Kinase C-{delta} mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng-Hou; Wu, Ying-Li; Zhao, Meng; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2009-11-15

    We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta ({Delta}PKC-{delta}). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the {Delta}PKC-{delta}, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that {Delta}PKC-{delta} mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-{delta} inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-{delta}-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of {Delta}PKC-{delta} in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of {Delta}PKC-{delta}. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-{delta} down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.

  2. Down-regulation of gibberellic acid in poplar has negligible effects on host-plant suitability and insect pest response

    DOE PAGES

    Buhl, Christine; Strauss, Steven H.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2015-01-06

    Abstract Endogenous levels and signaling of gibberellin plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA) have been genetically down-regulated to create semi-dwarf varieties of poplar. The potential benefits of semi-dwarf stature include reduced risk of wind damage, improved stress tolerance, and improved wood quality. Despite these benefits, modification of growth traits may have consequences for non-target traits that confer defense against insect herbivores. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, reductions in growth may shift allocation of carbon from growth to chemical resistance traits, thereby altering plant defense. To date, host-plant suitability and pest response have not been comprehensively evaluated in GAmore » down-regulated plants. We quantified chemical resistance and nitrogen (an index of protein) in GA down-regulated and wild-type poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) genotypes. We also evaluated performance of both generalist (Lymantria dispar) and specialist (Chrysomela scripta) insect pests reared on these genotypes. Our evaluation of resistance traits in four GA down-regulated genotypes revealed increased phenolic glycosides in one modified genotype and reduced lignin in two modified genotypes relative to the non-transgenic wild type. Nitrogen levels did not vary significantly among the experimental genotypes. Generalists reared on the four GA down-regulated genotypes exhibited reduced performance on only one modified genotype relative to the wild type. Specialists, however, performed similarly across all genotypes. Results from this study indicate that although some non-target traits varied among GA down-regulated genotypes, the differences in poplar pest susceptibility were modest and highly genotype-specific.« less

  3. Down-regulation of gibberellic acid in poplar has negligible effects on host-plant suitability and insect pest response

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, Christine; Strauss, Steven H.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2015-01-06

    Abstract Endogenous levels and signaling of gibberellin plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA) have been genetically down-regulated to create semi-dwarf varieties of poplar. The potential benefits of semi-dwarf stature include reduced risk of wind damage, improved stress tolerance, and improved wood quality. Despite these benefits, modification of growth traits may have consequences for non-target traits that confer defense against insect herbivores. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, reductions in growth may shift allocation of carbon from growth to chemical resistance traits, thereby altering plant defense. To date, host-plant suitability and pest response have not been comprehensively evaluated in GA down-regulated plants. We quantified chemical resistance and nitrogen (an index of protein) in GA down-regulated and wild-type poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) genotypes. We also evaluated performance of both generalist (Lymantria dispar) and specialist (Chrysomela scripta) insect pests reared on these genotypes. Our evaluation of resistance traits in four GA down-regulated genotypes revealed increased phenolic glycosides in one modified genotype and reduced lignin in two modified genotypes relative to the non-transgenic wild type. Nitrogen levels did not vary significantly among the experimental genotypes. Generalists reared on the four GA down-regulated genotypes exhibited reduced performance on only one modified genotype relative to the wild type. Specialists, however, performed similarly across all genotypes. Results from this study indicate that although some non-target traits varied among GA down-regulated genotypes, the differences in poplar pest susceptibility were modest and highly genotype-specific.

  4. Amitriptyline down-regulates coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Tamara; Villanueva-Paz, Marina; Díaz-Parrado, Eduardo; Illanes, Matilde; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ana; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A; de Miguel, Manuel

    2017-02-15

    Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, has been proposed as an antitumoral drug in oxidative therapy. Its pro-apoptotic effects, mediated by high reactive oxygen species generation, have been already described. In this study we analysed the effect of amitriptyline on the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ), an essential component for electron transport and a potent membrane antioxidant involved in redox signaling. We treated H460 cells, a non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, with amitriptyline and we analysed CoQ levels by HPLC and CoQ biosynthesis rate, as well as the enzymes involved in CoQ biosynthesis by real-time PCR and Western blot. Amitriptyline treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in CoQ levels in tumor cells. CoQ decreased levels were associated with down-regulation of the expression of COQ4 gene, as well as decreased Coq4 and Coq6 protein levels. Our findings suggest that the effect of amitriptyline on CoQ biosynthesis highlights the potential of this drug for antitumoral oxidative therapy.

  5. The down-regulated ING5 expression in lung cancer: A potential target of gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Xue-feng; Shen, Dao-fu; Gao, Yang; Shi, Shuai; Wu, Ji-cheng; Liu, Hong-xu; Sun, Hong-zhi; Su, Rong-jian; Zheng, Hua-chuan

    2016-01-01

    ING5 can interact with p53, thereby inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. We found that ING5 overexpression not only inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion, but also induced G2 arrest, differentiation, autophagy, apoptosis, glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in lung cancer cells. ING5 transfection up-regulated the expression of Cdc2, ATG13, ATG14, Beclin-1, LC-3B, AIF, cytochrome c, Akt1/2/3, ADFP, PFK-1 and PDPc, while down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, XIAP, survivin,β-catenin and HXK1. ING5 transfection desensitized cells to the chemotherapy of MG132, paclitaxel, and SAHA, which paralleled with apoptotic alteration. ING5 overexpression suppressed the xenograft tumor growth by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. ING5 expression level was significantly higher in normal tissue than that in lung cancer at both protein and mRNA levels. Nuclear ING5 expression was positively correlated with ki-67 expression and cytoplasmic ING5 expression. Cytoplasmic ING5 expression was positively associated with lymph node metastasis, and negatively with age, lymphatic invasion or CPP32 expression. ING5 expression was different in histological classification: squamous cell carcinoma > adenocarcinoma > large cell carcinoma > small cell carcinoma. Taken together, our data suggested that ING5 downregulation might involved in carcinogenesis, growth, and invasion of lung cancer and could be considered as a promising marker to gauge the aggressiveness of lung cancer. It might be employed as a potential target for gene therapy of lung cancer. PMID:27409347

  6. Treatment of CIA Mice with FGF21 Down-regulates TH17-IL-17 Axis.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-ming; Yu, Yin-hang; Li, Lu; Wang, Wen-fei; Li, De-shan

    2016-02-01

    Recently, FGF21 was reported to play an important role in anti-inflammation. The aim of the study is to explore the mechanism for FGF21 alleviating inflammation of CIA. CIA mice were injected with FGF21 once a day for 28 days after first booster immunization. The results showed that FGF21 alleviates arthritis severity and decreases serum anti-CII antibodies levels in CIA mice. Compared with CIA model, the number of the splenic TH17 cells was significantly decreased in FGF21-treated mice. FGF21 treatment reduced the mRNA expression of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP3 and increased level of IL-10 in the spleen tissue. The expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 was suppressed in FGF21-treated group. The mRNA expression of RORγt and IL-23 also decreased. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the beneficial effects of FGF21 on CIA mice were achieved by down-regulating Th17-IL-17 axis through STAT3/RORγt pathway. Modulating of Th17-mediated inflammatory response may be one of the mechanisms for FGF21 attenuating inflammation in CIA.

  7. Down-regulation of Stathmin Is Required for the Phenotypic Changes and Classical Activation of Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kewei; Harrison, Rene E

    2015-07-31

    Macrophages are important cells of innate immunity with specialized capacity for recognition and elimination of pathogens and presentation of antigens to lymphocytes for adaptive immunity. Macrophages become activated upon exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines and pathogenic stimuli. Classical activation of macrophages with interferon-γ (IFNγ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers a wide range of signaling events and morphological changes to induce the immune response. Our previous microtubule (MT) proteomic work revealed that the stathmin association with MTs is considerably reduced in activated macrophages, which contain significantly more stabilized MTs. Here, we show that there is a global decrease in stathmin levels, an MT catastrophe protein, in activated macrophages using both immunoblotting and immunofluorescent microscopy. This is an LPS-specific response that induces proteasome-mediated degradation of stathmin. We explored the functions of stathmin down-regulation in activated macrophages by generating a stable cell line overexpressing stathmin-GFP. We show that stathmin-GFP overexpression impacts MT stability, impairs cell spreading, and reduces activation-associated phenotypes. Furthermore, overexpressing stathmin reduces complement receptor 3-mediated phagocytosis and cellular activation, implicating a pivotal inhibitory role for stathmin in classically activated macrophages.

  8. Znhit1 causes cell cycle arrest and down-regulates CDK6 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhengmin; Cao, Yonghao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Ying; Ding, Yuqiang; Liu, Xiaolong

    2009-08-14

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) is the key element of the D-type cyclin holoenzymes which has been found to function in the regulation of G1-phase of the cell cycle and is presumed to play important roles in T cell function. In this study, Znhit1, a member of a new zinc finger protein family defined by a conserved Zf-HIT domain, induced arrest in the G1-phase of the cell cycle in NIH/3T3 cells. Of the G1 cell cycle factors examined, the expression of CDK6 was found to be strongly down-regulated by Znhit1 via transcriptional repression. This effect may have correlations with the decreased acetylation level of histone H4 in the CDK6 promoter region. In addition, considering that CDK6 expression predominates in T cells, the negative regulatory role of Znhit1 in TCR-induced T cell proliferation was validated using transgenic mice. These findings identified Znhit1 as a CDK6 regulator that plays an important role in cell proliferation.

  9. miR-203, a Tumor Suppressor Frequently Down-regulated by Promoter Hypermethylation in Rhabdomyosarcoma*

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Yarui; Guo, Xing; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Chao; Wan, Jun; Jin, Yan; Wu, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma found in children and young adults. It is characterized by the expression of a number of skeletal muscle-specific proteins, including MyoD and muscle α-actin. However, unlike normal myoblasts, RMS cells differentiate poorly both in vivo and in culture. As microRNAs are known to regulate tumorigenesis, intensive efforts have been made to identify microRNAs that are involved in RMS development. In this work, we found that miR-203 was frequently down-regulated by promoter hypermethylation in both RMS cell lines and RMS biopsies and could be reactivated by DNA-demethylating agents. Re-expression of miR-203 in RMS cells inhibited their migration and proliferation and promoted terminal myogenic differentiation. Mechanistically, miR-203 exerts its tumor-suppressive effect by directly targeting p63 and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor in RMS cells, which promotes myogenic differentiation by inhibiting the Notch and the JAK1/STAT1/STAT3 pathways, respectively. Our work reveals that miR-203 functions as a tumor suppressor in RMS development. PMID:24247238

  10. Ribozyme minigene-mediated RAD51 down-regulation increases radiosensitivity of human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Collis, S. J.; Tighe, A.; Scott, S. D.; Roberts, S. A.; Hendry, J. H.; Margison, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    The strand transferase RAD51 is a component of the homologous recombination repair pathway. To examine the contribution of RAD51 to the genotoxic effects of ionising radiation, we have used a novel ribozyme strategy. A reporter gene vector was constructed so that expression of an inserted synthetic double-stranded ribozyme-encoding oligonucleotide would be under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene enhancer/promoter system. The prostate tumour cell line LNCaP was transfected with this vector or a control vector, and a neomycin resistance gene on the vector was used to create geneticin-resistant stable cell lines. Three stable cell lines were shown by western blot analysis to have significant down-regulation of RAD51 to 20–50% of the levels expressed in control cell lines. All three cell lines had a similar increased sensitivity to γ-irradiation by 70 and 40%, respectively, compared to normal and empty vector-transfected cells, corresponding to dose-modifying factors of ∼2.0 and 1.5 in the mid-range of the dose-response curves. The amount of RAD51 protein in transfected cell lines was shown to strongly correlate with the α parameter obtained from fitted survival curves. These results highlight the importance of RAD51 in cellular responses to radiation and are the first to indicate the potential use of RAD51-targeted ribozyme minigenes in tumour radiosensitisation. PMID:11266555

  11. [Inhibition of NHE1 down-regulates IL-8 expression and enhances p38 phosphorylation].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Rui; Jin, Wei-Na; Chang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Ju; Ma, Li; Lin, Ya-Ni; Li, Qing-Hua; Ru, Rong-Xin; Pang, Tian-Xiang

    2013-02-01

    This study was purposed to explore the changes of possible angiogenetic factors other than VEGF after inhibition of NHE1 and their related mechanisms. The K562 cells were treated by NHE1 specific inhibitor cariporide, the angiogenesis factors after inhibition of NHE1 were screened by using protein chip, the IL-8 expression level after cariporide treatment was detected by real-time quantitative PCR; the K562 cells with stable interference of NHE1 were constructed, the IL-8 expression level after interference of NHE1 was detected by real-time quantitative PCR; the p38 phosphorylation level in K562 cells treated with cariporide was detected by Western blot. After treatment of K562 cells with p38 inhibitor SB203580, the IL-8 expression level was decreased by real-time quantitative PCR. The results of protein chip showed that IL-8 expression decreased after cariporide treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed this inhibitory effect. The p38 phosphorylation level increased after cariporide treatment. The down-regulation of IL-8 expression induced by cariporide treatment was partially restored after K562 cells were treated with p38 inhibitor SB203580. It is concluded that the inhibition of NHE1 can inhibit IL-8 expression through up-regulation of p38 phosphorylation.

  12. Overexpression of hsa-miR-939 follows by NGFR down-regulation and apoptosis reduction.

    PubMed

    Aghdaei, Fahimeh Hosseini; Soltani, Bahram M; Dokanehiifard, Sadat; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Neurotrophin receptors play a crucial role in neuronal survival, differentiation and regeneration. Nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) or P75(NTR) is a neurotrophin receptor that is involved in many pathological conditions including cancers. Genetic factors that are involved in regulation of neurotrophin receptors are under intense investigation. MiRNAs are novel regulators of signalling pathways that are candidates for regulation of neurotrophin receptors. Computational programs predicted that NGFR gene is a bona fide target for hsa-miR- 939. RT-qPCR, Western analysis and dual luciferase assay evidences indicated that NGFR transcript is targeted by hsa-miR-939. Also, hsa-miR-939 overexpression brought about down-regulation of NGFR expression in U87 cell line, followed by cell death rate reduction, detected by flow cytometry. Taken together, here for the first time, hsa-miR-939 is introduced as a novel key regulator of NGFR expression and its involvement in cell death/survival processes is suggested.

  13. Down-Regulation of Gene Expression by RNA-Induced Gene Silencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travella, Silvia; Keller, Beat

    Down-regulation of endogenous genes via post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a key to the characterization of gene function in plants. Many RNA-based silencing mechanisms such as post-transcriptional gene silencing, co-suppression, quelling, and RNA interference (RNAi) have been discovered among species of different kingdoms (plants, fungi, and animals). One of the most interesting discoveries was RNAi, a sequence-specific gene-silencing mechanism initiated by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), homologous in sequence to the silenced gene, which triggers degradation of mRNA. Infection of plants with modified viruses can also induce RNA silencing and is referred to as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). In contrast to insertional mutagenesis, these emerging new reverse genetic approaches represent a powerful tool for exploring gene function and for manipulating gene expression experimentally in cereal species such as barley and wheat. We examined how RNAi and VIGS have been used to assess gene function in barley and wheat, including molecular mechanisms involved in the process and available methodological elements, such as vectors, inoculation procedures, and analysis of silenced phenotypes.

  14. Protein Phosphatase 1 Down Regulates ZYG-1 Levels to Limit Centriole Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Anar; Decker, Markus; O’Connell, Kevin F.

    2017-01-01

    In humans perturbations of centriole number are associated with tumorigenesis and microcephaly, therefore appropriate regulation of centriole duplication is critical. The C. elegans homolog of Plk4, ZYG-1, is required for centriole duplication, but our understanding of how ZYG-1 levels are regulated remains incomplete. We have identified the two PP1 orthologs, GSP-1 and GSP-2, and their regulators I-2SZY-2 and SDS-22 as key regulators of ZYG-1 protein levels. We find that down-regulation of PP1 activity either directly, or by mutation of szy-2 or sds-22 can rescue the loss of centriole duplication associated with a zyg-1 hypomorphic allele. Suppression is achieved through an increase in ZYG-1 levels, and our data indicate that PP1 normally regulates ZYG-1 through a post-translational mechanism. While moderate inhibition of PP1 activity can restore centriole duplication to a zyg-1 mutant, strong inhibition of PP1 in a wild-type background leads to centriole amplification via the production of more than one daughter centriole. Our results thus define a new pathway that limits the number of daughter centrioles produced each cycle. PMID:28103229

  15. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Erica M.; Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann; Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  16. Down-regulation of GhADF1 gene expression affects cotton fibre properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yun; Wang, Juan; Gao, Peng; Jiao, Gai-Li; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Cotton fibre is the most important natural fibres for textile industry. To date, the mechanism that governs the development of fibre traits is largely unknown. In this study, we have characterized the function of a member of the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) family in Gossypium hirsutum by down-regulation of the gene (designated as GhADF1) expression in the transgenic cotton plants. We observed that both the fibre length and strength of the GhADF1-underexpressing plants increased as compared to the wild-type fibre, and transgenic fibres contained more abundant F-actin filaments in the cortical region of the cells. Moreover, the secondary cell wall of the transgenic fibre appeared thicker and the cellulose content was higher than that of the control fibre. Our results suggest that organization of actin cytoskeleton regulated by actin-associated proteins such as GhADF1 plays a critical role in the processes of elongation and secondary cell wall formation during fibre development. Additionally, our study provided a candidate intrinsic gene for the improvement of fibre traits via genetic engineering.

  17. Down-Regulation of FXYD3 Expression in Human Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Okudela, Koji; Yazawa, Takuya; Ishii, Jun; Woo, Tetsukan; Mitsui, Hideaki; Bunai, Tomoyasu; Sakaeda, Masashi; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Sato, Hanako; Tajiri, Michihiko; Ogawa, Nobuo; Masuda, Munetaka; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    FXYD3 is a FXYD-containing Na,K-ATPase ion channel regulator first identified as a protein overexpressed in murine breast tumors initiated by oncogenic ras or neu. However, our preliminary study revealed that FXYD3 expression was down-regulated in oncogenic KRAS-transduced airway epithelial cells. This contradiction led us to investigate the role of FXYD3 in carcinogenesis of the lung. FXYD3 mRNA and protein levels were lower in most of the lung cancer cell lines than in either the noncancerous lung tissue or airway epithelial cells. Protein levels were also lower in a considerable proportion of primary lung cancers than in nontumoral airway epithelia; FXYD3 expression levels decreased in parallel with the dedifferentiation process. Also, a somatic point mutation, g55c (D19H), was found in one cell line. Forced expression of the wild-type FXYD3, but not the mutant, restored the well-demarcated distribution of cortical actin in cancer cells that had lost FXYD3 expression, suggesting FXYD3 plays a role in the maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity. However, no association between FXYD3 expression and its promoter’s methylation status was observed. Therefore, inactivation of FXYD3 through a gene mutation or unknown mechanism could be one cause of the atypical shapes of cancer cells and play a potential role in the progression of lung cancer. PMID:19893046

  18. Dioscin enhances methotrexate absorption by down-regulating MDR1 in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Sun, Huijun; Huo, Xiaokui; and others

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dioscin on the absorption of methotrexate (MTX) and clarify the molecular mechanism involved in vivo and in vitro. Dioscin increased MTX chemosensitivity and transepithelial flux in the absorptive direction, significantly inhibiting multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activities in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by dioscin. Dioscin enhanced the intracellular concentration of MTX by down-regulating MDR1 expression through a mechanism that involves NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition in Caco-2 cells. Dioscin strengthened MTX absorption by inhibiting MDR1 expression in rat intestine. In addition, even though MTX is absorbed into the enterocytes, there was no increase in toxicity observed, and that, in fact, decreased toxicity was seen. - Highlights: • Dioscin raised MTX concentration by inhibiting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin suppresses MDR1 by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin can enhance MTX absorption via inhibiting MDR1 in vivo and in vitro. • Dioscin did not increase MTX-induced gastrointestinal mucosal toxicity.

  19. Down-regulation of osteoprotegerin expression as a novel biomarker for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Youn-Wha

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of tumor biology is important in the identification of molecules that are down-regulated in malignancy and in determining their role in tumor suppression. The aim of this study was to analyze osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and to investigate the underlying mechanism for changes in the expression of OPG. OPG expression was assessed in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. The methylation status of the OPG promoter region was determined, and the effects of demethylation on OPG expression were analyzed. The effects of recombinant OPG (rOPG) administration on cellular functions were also investigated. Clinical and prognostic implications of OPG protein expression in CRC patients were analyzed. The CRC tissues and cells showed significantly lower OPG expression. Pyrosequencing of OPG-silenced CRC cells revealed that the OPG gene promoter was highly methylated. Treatment with demethylating agent significantly elevated OPG mRNA and protein expression. rOPG significantly decreased cell viability and MMP-2 and VEGF-A production in CRC cells. Reduced OPG immunoreactivity was associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior in CRC. Also, OPG expression was found to be an independent predictor of recurrent hepatic metastasis and independent prognostic factor for worse survival rates. We demonstrated that OPG silencing in CRC occurs through epigenetic repression, and is involved in the development and progression of CRC. Our data suggest that OPG is a novel prognostic biomarker and a new therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with CRC. PMID:26942563

  20. Down-regulated Lotus japonicus GCR1 plants exhibit nodulation signalling pathways alteration.

    PubMed

    Rogato, Alessandra; Valkov, Vladimir Totev; Alves, Ludovico Martins; Apone, Fabio; Colucci, Gabriella; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins involved in various signalling pathways by perceiving many extracellular signals and transducing them to heterotrimeric G proteins, which further transduce these signals to intracellular downstream effectors. GCR1 is the only reliable plant candidate as a member of the GPCRs superfamily. In the legume/rhizobia symbiotic interaction, G proteins are involved in signalling pathways controlling different steps of the nodulation program. In order to investigate the putative hierarchic role played by GCR1 in these symbiotic pathways we identified and characterized the Lotus japonicus gene encoding the seven transmembrane GCR1 protein. The detailed molecular and topological analyses of LjGCR1 expression patterns that are presented suggest a possible involvement in the early steps of nodule organogenesis. Furthermore, phenotypic analyses of independent transgenic RNAi lines, showing a significant LjGCR1 expression down regulation, suggest an epistatic action in the control of molecular markers of nodulation pathways, although no macroscopic symbiotic phenotypes could be revealed.

  1. Social isolation stress down-regulates cortical early growth response 1 (Egr-1) expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kinzo; Ono, Kazuya; Ouchi, Hirofumi; Tsushima, Ryohei; Murakami, Yukihisa

    2012-07-01

    Social isolation stress induces behavioral disturbances such as aggression, cognitive impairments, and deficits in prepulse inhibition in mice. Social isolation mice have, therefore, been studied as an animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Recently, the decrease in early growth response (Egr) gene expression levels were reported in the post-mortem brains of schizophrenia patients. In this study, we investigate the effects of social isolation stress on the expression levels of Egr mRNA and protein in the frontal cortex. Social isolation stress exposure significantly down-regulated the expression of Egr-1 protein and Egr-1 gene transcript in nucleus of cortical neurons in a manner dependent on a social isolation period. This stress had no effect on the expression level of Egr-1 in the striatum or the expression levels of other Egr family members (Egr-2, -3, and -4) in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that the decrease in Egr-1 expression in the frontal cortex may be involved in social isolation stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  2. The ubiquitin isopeptidase UBPY regulates endosomal ubiquitin dynamics and is essential for receptor down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Row, Paula E; Prior, Ian A; McCullough, John; Clague, Michael J; Urbé, Sylvie

    2006-05-05

    UBPY is a ubiquitin-specific protease that can deubiquitinate monoubiquitinated receptor tyrosine kinases, as well as process Lys-48- and Lys-63-linked polyubiquitin to lower denomination forms in vitro. Catalytically inactive UBPY localizes to endosomes, which accumulate ubiquitinated proteins. We have explored the sequelae of short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of UBPY. Global levels of ubiquitinated protein increase and ubiquitin accumulates on endosomes, although free ubiquitin levels are unchanged. UBPY-depleted cells have more and larger multivesicular endosomal structures that are frequently associated through extended contact areas, characterized by regularly spaced, electron-dense, bridging profiles. Degradation of acutely stimulated receptor tyrosine kinases, epidermal growth factor receptor and Met, is strongly inhibited in UBPY knockdown cells suggesting that UBPY function is essential for growth factor receptor down-regulation. In contrast, stability of the UBPY binding partner STAM is dramatically compromised in UBPY knockdown cells. The cellular functions of UBPY are complex but clearly distinct from those of the Lys-63-ubiquitin-specific protease, AMSH, with which it shares a binding site on the SH3 domain of STAM.

  3. Endosomal deubiquitinating enzymes control ubiquitination and down-regulation of protease-activated receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Hasdemir, Burcu; Murphy, Jane E; Cottrell, Graeme S; Bunnett, Nigel W

    2009-10-09

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl ubiquitinates the G protein-coupled receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)), which is required for postendocytic sorting of activated receptors to lysosomes, where degradation terminates signaling. The mechanisms of PAR(2) deubiquitination and its importance in trafficking and signaling of endocytosed PAR(2) are unknown. We report that receptor deubiquitination occurs between early endosomes and lysosomes and involves the endosomal deubiquitinating proteases AMSH and UBPY. Expression of the catalytically inactive mutants, AMSH(D348A) and UBPY(C786S), caused an increase in PAR(2) ubiquitination and trapped the receptor in early endosomes, thereby preventing lysosomal trafficking and degradation. Small interfering RNA knockdown of AMSH or UBPY also impaired deubiquitination, lysosomal trafficking, and degradation of PAR(2). Trapping PAR(2) in endosomes through expression of AMSH(D348A) or UBPY(C786S) did not prolong the association of PAR(2) with beta-arrestin2 or the duration of PAR(2)-induced ERK2 activation. Thus, AMSH and UBPY are essential for trafficking and down-regulation of PAR(2) but not for regulating PAR(2) dissociation from beta-arrestin2 or PAR(2)-mediated ERK2 activation.

  4. Leucine zipper, down regulated in cancer-1 gene expression in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Nunziata; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A.; Recupero, Domenico; Galia, Antonio; Fraggetta, Filippo; Aiello, Anna Maria; Pepe, Pietro; Castiglione, Roberto; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous genetic alterations have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). DNA and protein microarrays have enabled the identification of genes associated with apoptosis, which is important in PCa development. Despite the molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood, inhibition of apoptosis is a critical pathophysiological factor that contributes to the onset and progression of PCa. Leucine zipper, down-regulated in cancer 1 (LDOC-1) is a known regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-mediated pathway of apoptosis through the inhibition of NF-κB. The present study investigated the expression of the LDOC-1 gene in LNCaP, PC-3, PNT1A and PNT2 prostate cell lines by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition LDOC-1 protein expression in normal prostate tissues and PCa was studied by immunohistochemistry. LDOC-1 messenger RNA resulted overexpressed in LNCaP and PC-3 PCa cell lines compared with the two normal prostate cell lines PNT1A and PNT2. The results of immunohistochemistry demonstrated a positive cytoplasmic LDOC-1 staining in all PCa and normal prostate samples, whereas no nuclear staining was observed in any sample. Furthermore, a more intense signal was evidenced in PCa samples. LDOC-1 gene overexpression in PCa suggests an activity of LDOC-1 in PCa cell lines. PMID:27698860

  5. Down-regulation of GPR137 expression inhibits proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Shen, Zhen; Liang, Xianjun; Liu, Tongjun; Wang, Tiejun; Jiang, Yang

    2014-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) are highly related to oncogenesis and cancer metastasis. G protein-coupled receptor 137 (GPR137) was initially reported as a novel orphan GPR about 10 years ago. Some orphan GPRs have been implicated in human cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of GPR137 in human colon cancer. Expression levels of GRP137 were analyzed in different colon cancer cell lines by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA was specifically designed to knock down GPR137 expression in colon cancer cells. Cell viability was measured by methylthiazoletetrazolium and colony formation assays. In addition, cell cycle characteristic was investigated by flow cytometry. GRP137 expression was observed in all seven colon cancer cell lines at different levels. The mRNA and protein levels of GPR137 were down-regulated in both HCT116 and RKO cells after lentivirus infection. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of GPR137 reduced the proliferation rate and colonies numbers. Knockdown of GPR137 in both cell lines led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. These results indicated that GPR137 plays an important role in colon cancer cell proliferation. A better understanding of GPR137's effects on signal transduction pathways in colon cancer cells may provide insights into the novel gene therapy of colon cancer.

  6. MARCH1 down-regulation in IL-10-activated B cells increases MHC class II expression.

    PubMed

    Galbas, Tristan; Steimle, Viktor; Lapointe, Réjean; Ishido, Satoshi; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    IL-10 is vastly studied for its anti-inflammatory properties on most immune cells. However, it has been reported that IL-10 activates B cells, up-regulates their MHC class II molecules and prevents apoptosis. As MARCH1 was shown to be responsible for the intracellular sequestration of MHC class II molecules in dendritic cells and monocytes in response to IL-10, we set out to clarify the role of this ubiquitin ligase in B cells. Here, we demonstrate in mice that splenic follicular B cells represent the major cell population that up-regulate MHC II molecules in the presence of IL-10. Activation of these cells through TLR4, CD40 or the IL-10 receptor caused the down-regulation of MARCH1 mRNA. Accordingly, B cells from MARCH1-deficient mice do not up-regulate I-A(b) in response to IL-10. In all, our results demonstrate that IL-10 can have opposite effects on MARCH1 regulation in different cell types.

  7. Down-Regulation of Negative Emotional Processing by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Effects of Personality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Gómez, Cleofé; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Clemente, Immaculada C.; Pascual-Leone, Álvaro; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies indicates that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a core region in emotional processing, particularly during down-regulation of negative emotional conditions. However, emotional regulation is a process subject to major inter-individual differences, some of which may be explained by personality traits. In the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left DLPFC to investigate whether transiently increasing the activity of this region resulted in changes in the ratings of positive, neutral and negative emotional pictures. Results revealed that anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS reduced the perceived degree of emotional valence for negative stimuli, possibly due to an enhancement of cognitive control of emotional expression. We also aimed to determine whether personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) might condition the impact of tDCS. We found that individuals with higher scores on the introversion personality dimension were more permeable than extraverts to the modulatory effects of the stimulation. The present study underlines the role of the left DLPFC in emotional regulation, and stresses the importance of considering individual personality characteristics as a relevant variable, although replication is needed given the limited sample size of our study. PMID:21829522

  8. Down-regulation of a calmodulin-related gene during transformation of human mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yaswen, P.; Smoll, A.; Stampfer, M.R. ); Peehl, D.M. ); Trask, D.K.; Sager, R. )

    1990-10-01

    A human cDNA library obtained from cultured normal mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) was searched by subtractive hybridization for genes whose decrease in expression might be relevant to epithelial transformation. One clone identified by this procedure corresponded to a 1.4 kilobase mRNA, designated NB-1, whose expression was decreased >50-fold in HMECs tumorigenically transformed in vitro after exposure to benzo({alpha})pyrene and Kirsten sarcoma virus. Sequence analysis of NB-1 cDNA revealed an open reading frame with a high degree of homology to calmodulin. NB-1 expression could be demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction amplification in normal breast, prostate, cervix, and epidermal tissues. The presence of NB-1 transcripts was variable in primary breast carcinoma tissues and undetectable in tumor-derived cell lines of breast, prostate, or other origins. NB-1 mRNA expression could be down-regulated in cultured HMECs by exposure to reconstituted extracellular matrix material, while exposure to transforming growth factor type {beta} increased its relative abundance. The protein encoded by NB-1 may have Ca{sup 2{sup plus}} binding properties and perform functions similar to those of authentic calmodulin. Its possible roles in differentiation and/or suppression of tumorigenicity in epithelial tissues remain to be examined.

  9. A Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Antagonist Is Down-Regulated in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blish, Kimberly Rose; Wang, Wei; Willingham, Mark C.; Du, Wei; Birse, Charles E.; Krishnan, Surekha R.; Brown, Julie C.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Garvin, A. Julian; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Torti, Frank M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed expression of candidate genes encoding cell surface or secreted proteins in normal kidney and kidney cancer. This screen identified a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, SOSTDC1 (sclerostin domain–containing-1) as down-regulated in kidney tumors. To confirm screening results, we probed cDNA dot blots with SOSTDC1. The SOSTDC1 message was decreased in 20/20 kidney tumors compared with normal kidney tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed significant decrease of SOSTDC1 protein in clear cell renal carcinomas relative to normal proximal renal tubule cells (p < 0.001). Expression of SOSTDC1 was not decreased in papillary and chromophobe kidney tumors. SOSTDC1 was abundantly expressed in podocytes, distal tubules, and transitional epithelia of the normal kidney. Transfection experiments demonstrated that SOSTDC1 is secreted and binds to neighboring cells and/or the extracellular matrix. SOSTDC1 suppresses both BMP-7–induced phosphorylation of R-Smads-1, -5, and -8 and Wnt-3a signaling. Restoration of SOSTDC1 in renal clear carcinoma cells profoundly suppresses proliferation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SOSTDC1 is expressed in the human kidney and decreased in renal clear cell carcinoma. Because SOSTDC1 suppresses proliferation of renal carcinoma cells, restoration of SOSTDC1 signaling may represent a novel target in treatment of renal clear cell carcinoma. PMID:18032587

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone down-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Kazuo; Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Mune, Tomoatsu; Miura, Atsushi; Ishizawa, Masayoshi; Kanoh, Yoshinori; Kawai, Yasunori; Natsume, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2003-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is expected to have a weight-reducing effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DHEA on genetically obese Otsuka Long Evans Fatty rats (OLETF) compared with Long-Evans Tokushima rats (LETO) as control. Feeding with 0.4% DHEA-containing food for 2 wk reduced the weight of sc, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue in association with decreased plasma leptin levels in OLETF. Adipose tissue from OLETF showed increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) protein, which was prevented by DHEA treatment. Further, we examined the effect of DHEA on PPARgamma in primary cultured adipocytes and monolayer adipocytes differentiated from rat preadipocytes. PPARgamma protein level was decreased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and DHEA significantly reduced mRNA levels of PPARgamma, adipocyte lipid-binding protein, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein, but not CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. DHEA-sulfate also reduced the PPARgamma protein, but dexamethasone, testosterone, or androstenedione did not alter its expression. In addition, treatment with DHEA for 5 d reduced the triglyceride content in monolayer adipocytes. These results suggest that DHEA down-regulates adiposity through the reduction of PPARgamma in adipocytes.

  11. microRNA172 down-regulates glossy15 to promote vegetative phase change in maize

    PubMed Central

    Lauter, Nick; Kampani, Archana; Carlson, Shawn; Goebel, Mark; Moose, Stephen P.

    2005-01-01

    Shoot development in many higher plant species is characterized by phase change, where meristems and organs transition from one set of identities to another. The transition from a juvenile to adult leaf identity in maize is regulated by the APETALA2-like gene glossy15 (gl15). We demonstrate here that increasing gl15 activity in transgenic maize not only increases the number of leaves expressing juvenile traits, but also delays the onset of reproductive development, indicating that gl15 plays a primary role in the maintenance of the juvenile phase. We also show that the accumulation of a maize microRNA homologous to miR172 increases during shoot development and mediates gl15 mRNA degradation. These data indicate that vegetative phase change in maize is regulated by the opposing actions of gl15 and miR172, with gl15 maintaining the juvenile phase and miR172 promoting the transition to the adult phase by down-regulation of gl15. Our results also suggest that the balance of activities between APETALA2-like genes and miR172 may be a general mechanism for regulating vegetative phase change in higher plants. PMID:15958531

  12. Ribozyme minigene-mediated RAD51 down-regulation increases radiosensitivity of human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Collis, S J; Tighe, A; Scott, S D; Roberts, S A; Hendry, J H; Margison, G P

    2001-04-01

    The strand transferase RAD51 is a component of the homologous recombination repair pathway. To examine the contribution of RAD51 to the genotoxic effects of ionising radiation, we have used a novel ribozyme strategy. A reporter gene vector was constructed so that expression of an inserted synthetic double-stranded ribozyme-encoding oligonucleotide would be under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene enhancer/promoter system. The prostate tumour cell line LNCaP was transfected with this vector or a control vector, and a neomycin resistance gene on the vector was used to create geneticin-resistant stable cell lines. Three stable cell lines were shown by western blot analysis to have significant down-regulation of RAD51 to 20-50% of the levels expressed in control cell lines. All three cell lines had a similar increased sensitivity to gamma-irradiation by 70 and 40%, respectively, compared to normal and empty vector-transfected cells, corresponding to dose-modifying factors of approximately 2.0 and 1.5 in the mid-range of the dose-response curves. The amount of RAD51 protein in transfected cell lines was shown to strongly correlate with the alpha parameter obtained from fitted survival curves. These results highlight the importance of RAD51 in cellular responses to radiation and are the first to indicate the potential use of RAD51-targeted ribozyme minigenes in tumour radiosensitisation.

  13. Fucoidan induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells by down-regulating p-Stat3.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Sadia; Liu, Yun-yi; Banafa, Amal; Chen, Hui-jie; Li, Ke-xiu; Yang, Guang-xiao; He, Guang-yuan; Chen, Ming-jie

    2014-06-01

    Fucoidan is one of the main bioactive components of polysaccharides. The current study was focused on the anti-tumor effects of fucoidan on human heptoma cell line HepG2 and the possible mechanisms. Fucoidan treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The results of flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan induced G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression. Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining results showed that the apoptotic cell number was increased, which was associated with a dose-dependent up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and p-Stat3. In parallel, the up-regulation of p53 and the increase in reactive oxygen species were also observed, which may play important roles in the inhibition of HepG2 growth by fucoidan. In the meantime, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 were down-regulated by fucoidan treatment. Down-regulation of p-Stat3 by fucoidan resulted in apoptosis and an increase in ROS in response to fucoidan exposure. We therefore concluded that fucoidan induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of p-Stat3. These results suggest that fucoidan may be used as a novel anti-cancer agent for hepatocarcinoma.

  14. Down-regulation of ABCG2, a urate exporter, by parathyroid hormone enhances urate accumulation in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Ryusei; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Komei; Enoki, Yuki; Imafuku, Tadashi; Sakaguchi, Yoshiaki; Murata, Michiya; Nishida, Kento; Miyamura, Shigeyuki; Ishima, Yu; Tanaka, Motoko; Matsushita, Kazutaka; Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2017-03-01

    Hyperuricemia occurs with increasing frequency among patients with hyperparathyroidism. However, the molecular mechanism by which the serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) affects serum urate levels remains unknown. This was studied in uremic rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism where serum urate levels were found to be increased and urate excretion in the intestine and kidney decreased, presumably due to down-regulation of the expression of the urate exporter ABCG2 in intestinal and renal epithelial membranes. These effects were prevented by administration of the calcimimetic cinacalcet, a PTH suppressor, suggesting that PTH may down-regulate ABCG2 expression. This was directly tested in intestinal Caco-2 cells where the expression of ABCG2 on the plasma membrane was down-regulated by PTH (1-34) while its mRNA level remained unchanged. Interestingly, an inactive PTH derivative (13-34) had no effect, suggesting that a posttranscriptional regulatory system acts through the PTH receptor to regulate ABCG2 plasma membrane expression. As found in an animal study, additional clinical investigations showed that treatment with cinacalcet resulted in significant reductions in serum urate levels together with decreases in PTH levels in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing dialysis. Thus, PTH down-regulates ABCG2 expression on the plasma membrane to suppress intestinal and renal urate excretion, and the effects of PTH can be prevented by cinacalcet treatment.

  15. HER2 mediates epidermal growth factor-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Qiu, Xin; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2013-04-26

    Overexpression of HER2 is correlated with a poor prognosis in many types of human cancers. Due to the interaction between HER2 and other ErbB receptors, HER2 is implicated in the EGF family of ligands-regulated tumor progression. In ovarian cancer, although the relationships between HER2 amplification and patient prognosis remain controversial, the underlying molecular mechanisms of HER2-mediated tumor progression are not fully understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that EGF induces ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin expression through the up-regulation of its transcriptional repressors, Snail and Slug. It has been shown that overexpression of HER2 down-regulates E-cadherin expression in human mammary epithelial cells. However, whether HER2 mediates EGF-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin remains unknown. In this study, we examined the potential role of HER2 in EGF-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin and increased cell invasion. We show that EGF treatment induces the interaction of EGFR with HER2 and increases the activation of HER2 in human ovarian cancer cells; we also show that these effects are diminished by knockdown of EGFR. Importantly, treatment with HER2-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG825, and HER2 siRNA diminished the up-regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the down-regulation of E-cadherin by EGF. Finally, we also show that EGF-induced cell invasion was attenuated by treatment with HER2 siRNA. This study demonstrates an important role for HER2 in mediating the effects of EGF on Snail, Slug and E-cadherin expression as well as invasiveness in human ovarian cancer cells.

  16. Down-regulated expression of Tim-3 promotes invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q Y; Qu, C H; Liu, J Q; Zhang, P; Yao, J

    2017-01-01

    To explore how Tim-3 is expressed and how its expression influences invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. A total of 188 CRC patients were prospectively collected for this study. Meanwhile, 135 normal controls were incorporated during the same period. Intestinal samples of the CRC radical cancerous tissues, paracancerous tissues ( 5.0 cm beyond the cancer tissue) were collected for the following experiment. Furthermore, peripheral venous blood samples (10 ml) were collected from each subject. Immunohistochemical analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot were performed for the detection of Tim-3 in different tissues. The immunohistochemical staining results showed that a positive Tim-3 signal was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, observed as yellow or brown granules. Tim-3 was largely expressed in colon carcinoma tissues and normal colon mucosa tissues but was rarely expressed in the cell membrane. RT-qPCR results indicated that Tim-3 mRNA levels were significantly lower in CRC tissues than in paracancerous tissues and normal colon mucosa tissues. A trend of decreased Tim-3 mRNA levels was also found in the paracancerous tissues compared with the normal colon mucosa tissues (all P < 0.05). Western blot results revealed reduced Tim-3 protein expression in CRC tissues compared with normal colon mucosa tissues and paracancerous tissues, and Tim-3 protein expression was much lower in the paracancerous tissues than in the normal colon mucosa tissues (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, obviously lower Tim-3 mRNA levels were found in the poorly differentiated CRC patients and in those with lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis (all P < 0.05). Collectively, Tim-3 expression was mainly located in the cytoplasm and nucleus, showing down-regulated expression in colon carcinoma tissues compared with normal and paracancerous tissues. Reduced Tim-3 expression may promote CRC invasion and metastasis providing a

  17. sgs1: a neomorphic nac52 allele impairing PTGS through SGS3 down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Butel, Nicolas; Le Masson, Ivan; Bouteiller, Nathalie; Vaucheret, Hervé; Elmayan, Taline

    2017-02-16

    Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a defense mechanism that targets invading nucleic acids from endogenous (transposons) or exogenous (pathogens, transgenes) origins. Genetic screens based on the reactivation of silenced transgenes have long been used to identify cellular PTGS components and regulators. Here we show that the first isolated PTGS-deficient mutant, sgs1, is impaired in the transcription factor NAC52. This mutant exhibits striking similarities with a mutant impaired in the H3K4me3 demethylase JMJ14 isolated from the same genetic screen. These similarities including increased transgene promoter DNA methylation, reduced H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 levels, reduced PolII occupancy and reduced transgene mRNA accumulation. Likely, increased DNA methylation is the cause of reduced transcription because the effect of jmj14 and sgs1 on transgene transcription is suppressed by drm2, a mutation that compromises de novo DNA methylation, suggesting that the JMJ14-NAC52 module promotes transgene transcription by preventing DNA methylation. Remarkably, sgs1 has a stronger effect than jmj14 and nac52 null alleles on PTGS systems requiring siRNA amplification, and this is due to reduced SGS3 mRNA levels in sgs1. Given that the sgs1 mutation changes a conserved aminoacid of the NAC proteins involved in homodimerization, we propose that sgs1 corresponds to a neomorphic nac52 allele encoding a mutant protein that lacks wild-type NAC52 activity but promotes SGS3 down-regulation. Together, these results indicate that PTGS impairment in sgs1 is due to its dual effect on transgene transcription and SGS3 transcription, thus compromising siRNA amplification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacts on the metabolome of down-regulating polyphenol oxidase in potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Louise Vida Traill; Alexander, Colin James; Hackett, Christine Anne; McRae, Diane; Sungurtas, Julia Anne; Verrall, Susan Ramsay; Morris, Jennifer Anne; Hedley, Peter Edward; Rockhold, David; Belknap, William; Davies, Howard Vivian

    2015-06-01

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Estima) genetically modified to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and enzymatic discolouration were assessed for changes in the metabolome using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Gas Chromatography (GC)-MS. Metabolome changes induced over a 48 hour (h) period by tuber wounding (sliced transverse sections) were also assessed using two PPO antisense lines (asPPO) and a wild-type (WT) control. Data were analysed using Principal Components Analysis and Analysis of Variance to assess differences between genotypes and temporal changes post-tuber wounding (by slicing). The levels of 15 metabolites (out of a total of 134 that were detected) differed between the WT and asPPO lines in mature tubers at harvest. A considerably higher number (63) of these metabolites changed significantly over a 48 h period following tuber wounding. For individual metabolites the magnitude of the differences between the WT and asPPO lines at harvest were small compared with the impacts of tuber wounding on metabolite levels. Some of the observed metabolite changes are explicable in terms of pathways known to be affected by wound responses. Whilst some statistically significant interactions (11 metabolites) were observed between line and time after wounding, very few profiles were consistent when comparing the WT with both asPPO lines, and the underlying metabolites appeared to be random in terms of the pathways they occupy. Overall, mechanical damage to tubers has a considerably greater impact on the metabolite profile than any potential unintended effects resulting from the down-regulation of PPO gene expression.

  19. Irradiation of protoporphyric mice induces down-regulation of epidermal eicosanoid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    He, D.; Lim, H.W. )

    1991-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of radiation on clinical and histologic changes, and on cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, in Skh:HR-1 hairless albino mice rendered protoporphyric by the administration of collidine. At 0.1-18 h after exposure to 12 kJ/m2 of 396-406 nm irradiation, thicknesses of back skin and ears were measured, and histologic changes were evaluated by using hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) and Giemsa's stains. Activities of eicosanoid-metabolizing enzymes in epidermal and dermal homogenates were assessed by incubating the tissue homogenates with 3H-AA, followed by quantitation of the eicosanoids generated by radio-TLC. In irradiated protoporphyric mice, an increase of back-skin thickness was noted at 0.1 h, reaching a peak at 18 h, whereas maximal increase in ear thickness was observed at 12 h. Histologic changes included dermal edema, increased mast cell degranulation, and mononuclear cells in the dermis. In these irradiated protoporphyric animals, generations of 6 keto-PGF1a, PGF2a, PGE2, PGD2, and HETE by epidermal eicosanoid-metabolizing enzymes were markedly suppressed at all the timepoints studied. Dermal eicosanoid-metabolizing enzymes of irradiated protoporphyric mice generated increased amounts of PGE2 and HETE at 18 h, probably reflecting the presence of dermal cellular infiltrates. The suppression of the activities of epidermal eicosanoid-metabolizing enzymes was prevented by intraperitoneal injection of WR-2721, a sulfhydryl group generator, prior to irradiation, suggesting that the suppression was secondary to photo-oxidative damage of the enzymes during the in vivo phototoxic response. These results suggest that the effect of protoporphyrin and radiation on cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism in this animal model in vivo is that of a down regulation of the activities of epidermal eicosanoid-metabolizing enzymes.

  20. CCoAOMT Down-Regulation Activates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Shaipulah, Nur Fariza M.; Muhlemann, Joëlle K.; Woodworth, Benjamin D.; Van Moerkercke, Alex; Ramirez, Aldana A.; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl coenzyme A (CoA) in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower development and sequestered in vacuoles during the lifespan of the flowers. The production of isoeugenol and eugenol starts when flowers open and peaks after anthesis. To elucidate additional biochemical steps toward (iso)eugenol production, we cloned and characterized a caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (PhCCoAOMT1) from the petals of the fragrant petunia ‘Mitchell’. Recombinant PhCCoAOMT1 indeed catalyzed the methylation of caffeoyl-CoA to produce feruloyl CoA. Silencing of PhCCoAOMT1 resulted in a reduction of eugenol production but not of isoeugenol. Unexpectedly, the transgenic plants had purple-colored leaves and pink flowers, despite the fact that cv Mitchell lacks the functional R2R3-MYB master regulator ANTHOCYANIN2 and has normally white flowers. Our results indicate that down-regulation of PhCCoAOMT1 activated the anthocyanin pathway through the R2R3-MYBs PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) and DEEP PURPLE, with predominantly petunidin accumulating. Feeding cv Mitchell flowers with caffeic acid induced PHZ expression, suggesting that the metabolic perturbation of the phenylpropanoid pathway underlies the activation of the anthocyanin pathway. Our results demonstrate a role for PhCCoAOMT1 in phenylpropene production and reveal a link between PhCCoAOMT1 and anthocyanin production. PMID:26620524

  1. Down-regulation of voltage-dependent sodium channels initiated by sodium influx in developing neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Dargent, B.; Couraud, F. )

    1990-08-01

    To address the issue of whether regulatory feedback exists between the electrical activity of a neuron and ion-channel density, the authors investigated the effect of Na{sup +}-channel activators (scorpion {alpha} toxin, batrachotoxin, and veratridine) on the density of Na{sup +} channels in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro. A partial but rapid (t{sub 1/2}, 15 min) disappearance of surface Na{sup +} channels was observed as measured by a decrease in the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)saxitoxin and {sup 125}I-labeled scorpion {beta} toxin and a decrease in specific {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake. Moreover, the increase in the number of Na{sup +} channels that normally occurs during neuronal maturation in vitro was inhibited by chronic channel activator treatment. The induced disappearance of Na{sup +} channels was abolished by tetrodotoxin, was found to be dependent on the external Na{sup +} concentration, and was prevented when either choline (a nonpermeant ion) or Li{sup +} (a permeant ion) was substituted for Na{sup +}. Amphotericin B, a Na{sup +} ionophore, and monensin were able to mimick the effect of Na{sup +}-channel activators, while a KCl depolarization failed to do this. This feedback regulation seems to be a neuronal property since Na{sup +}-channel density in cultured astrocytes was not affected by channel activator treatment or by amphotericin B. The present evidence suggests that an increase in intracellular Na{sup +} concentration, whether elicited by Na{sup +}-channel activators or mediated by a Na{sup +} ionophore, can induce a decrease in surface Na{sup +} channels and therefore is involved in down-regulation of Na{sup +}-channel density in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro.

  2. Down-regulated resistin level in consequence of decreased neutrophil counts in untreated Grave's disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fengjiao; Chen, Xinxin; Zhou, Yulin; Ye, Lei; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Wang, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Resistin, belongs to cysteine-rich secretory protein, is mainly produced by circulating leukocytes, such as neutrophils monocytes and macrophages in humans. To date, few but controversial studies have reported about resistin concentrations in hyperthyroid patients, especially in Graves' disease (GD). We undertaked a controlled, prospective study to explore the serum resistin concentration in GD patients before and after -MMI treatment. In addition, we also investigated the main influencing factor on serum resistin level and discuessed the potential role of serum resistin plays in GD patients. 39 untreated GD (uGD) patients, including 8 males and 31 females, were enrolled in our investigation. All of these patients were prescribed with MMI treatment, in addition to 25 healthy controls. Anthropometric parameters and hormone assessment were measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum resistin concentration in different stages of GD patients. Furthermore, neutrophil cell line NB4 with or without T3 treatment to detect the effect of thyroid hormones on resistin expression. The serum resistin level and neutrophil counts in untreated GD patients were significantly declined. And all of these parameters were recovered to normal after MMI treatment in ethyroid GD (eGD) and TRAb-negative conversion (nGD) patients. Resistin concentration exhibited a negative correlation with FT3 and FT4, but a positive correlation with absolute number of neutrophiles in uGD patients, whereas did not correlate with thyroid autoimmune antibodies and BMI. Neutrophile cell line, NB4, produced decreased expression of resistin when stimulated with T3. Our study showed a decrease of serum resistin level in GD patients and we suggested that the serum resistin might primarily secreted from circulating neutrophils and down-regulated by excessive thyroid hormones in GD patients. PMID:27637079

  3. Mutant IDH1 expression is associated with down-regulation of monocarboxylate transporters

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Pavithra; Najac, Chloe; Izquierdo, Jose L.; Pankov, Aleksandr; Hong, Chibo; Eriksson, Pia; Costello, Joseph F.; Pieper, Russell O.; Ronen, Sabrina M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are characteristic of low-grade gliomas. We recently showed that mutant IDH1 cells reprogram cellular metabolism by down-regulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Reduced pyruvate metabolism via PDH could lead to increased pyruvate conversion to lactate. The goal of this study was therefore to investigate the impact of the IDH1 mutation on the pyruvate-to-lactate flux. We used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and compared the conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate to [1-13C]-lactate in immortalized normal human astrocytes expressing mutant or wild-type IDH1 (NHAIDHmut and NHAIDHwt). Our results indicate that hyperpolarized lactate production is reduced in NHAIDHmut cells compared to NHAIDHwt. This reduction was associated with lower expression of the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 in NHAIDHmut cells. Furthermore, hyperpolarized lactate production was comparable in lysates of NHAIDHmut and NHAIDHwt cells, wherein MCTs do not impact hyperpolarized pyruvate delivery and lactate production. Collectively, our findings indicated that lower MCT expression was a key contributor to lower hyperpolarized lactate production in NHAIDHmut cells. The SLC16A3 (MCT4) promoter but not SLC16A1 (MCT1) promoter was hypermethylated in NHAIDHmut cells, pointing to possibly different mechanisms mediating reduced MCT expression. Finally analysis of low-grade glioma patient biopsy data from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that MCT1 and MCT4 expression was significantly reduced in mutant IDH1 tumors compared to wild-type. Taken together, our study shows that reduced MCT expression is part of the metabolic reprogramming of mutant IDH1 gliomas. This finding could impact treatment and has important implications for metabolic imaging of mutant IDH1 gliomas. PMID:27144334

  4. Simvastatin down-regulates differential genetic profiles produced by organochlorine mixtures in primary breast cell (HMEC).

    PubMed

    Rivero, Javier; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; D Boada, Luis; Pestano, Jose; P Luzardo, Octavio; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; F Valerón, Pilar

    2017-04-25

    Women all over the world are exposed to an unavoidable contamination by organochlorine pesticides and other chemical pollutants. Many of them are considered as xenoestrogens and have been associated with the development and progression of breast cancer. We have demonstrated that the most prevalent pesticide mixtures found in healthy women and in women diagnosed with breast cancer modulates the gene expression in human epithelial mammary cells. Statins are well-known cholesterol-depleting agents acting as inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Since the early 1990s, it has been known that statins could be successfully used in cancer therapy, including breast cancer, but the exact mechanism behind anti-tumor activity of the statins remains unclear. In the present study we evaluated the effect of simvastatin in the gene expression pattern induced by realistic organochlorine mixtures found in breast cancer patients. The gene expression of 94 genes related with the cell signaling pathways were assessed. Our results indicate that simvastatin exerts a global down regulating effect on successfully determined genes (78.7%), thus attenuating the effects induced by organochlorine mixtures on the gene profile of human mammary epithelial cells. This effect was more evident on genes whose function is the ATP-binding process (that also were particularly up-regulated by pesticide mixtures). We also found that MERTK (a proto-oncogene which is overexpressed in several malignancies) and PDGFRB (a member of the platelet-derived growth factor family whose expression is high in breast-cancer cells that have become resistant to endocrine therapy) were among the genes with a higher differential regulation by simvastatin. Since resistance to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is closely related to MERKT, our findings would enhance the possible utility of statins in breast cancer treatment, i.e. improving therapeutic results combining statins with tyrosine Kinase inhibitors.

  5. Down-regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha(2) isoform in denervated rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Quintas, L E; Caricati-Neto, A; Lafayette, S S; Jurkiewicz, A; Noël, F

    2000-09-15

    In the rat vas deferens, an organ richly innervated by peripheral sympathetic neurons, we have demonstrated recently the expression of alpha(1) and alpha(2), but not alpha(3) isoforms of the alpha subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.37), a membrane-bound enzyme of vital function for living cells (Noël et al., Biochem Pharmacol 55: 1531-1535, 1998). In the present work, we characterized, qualitatively and quantitatively, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha isoforms in denervated rat vasa deferentia. [(3)H]Ouabain binding at concentrations defined for high-affinity isoforms (alpha(2) and/or alpha(3)) detected only one class of specific binding sites in control (C) and denervated (D) vas deferens. Although the dissociation constant was similar for both groups [K(d) = 138 +/- 14 nM (C) and 125 +/- 8 nM (D)], a marked decrease in density was observed after denervation [716 +/- 81 fmol.mg protein(-1) (C) and 445 +/- 34 fmol.mg protein(-1) (D), P < 0.05]. In addition, western blotting revealed that denervated vasa deferentia produce the alpha(1) and alpha(2) isoforms but not alpha(3), just as we reported for the controls previously (Noël et al., Biochem Pharmacol 55: 1531-1535, 1998). Densitometric analysis showed a decrease of the alpha(2) isoform by about 40% in denervated organs, in very good agreement with what was shown with the [(3)H]ouabain binding technique, but no significant change in alpha(1) isoform density. Truncated alpha(1) (alpha(1)T), an isoform suggested to exist in the guinea pig vas deferens, was not detected. Altogether, our results demonstrated that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha(2) is down-regulated after sympathetic denervation of the rat vas deferens.

  6. Down-regulation of voltage-dependent sodium channels initiated by sodium influx in developing neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Dargent, B; Couraud, F

    1990-01-01

    To address the issue of whether regulatory feedback exists between the electrical activity of a neuron and ion-channel density, we investigated the effect of Na(+)-channel activators (scorpion alpha toxin, batrachotoxin, and veratridine) on the density of Na+ channels in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro. A partial but rapid (t1/2, 15 min) disappearance of surface Na+ channels was observed as measured by a decrease in the specific binding of [3H]saxitoxin and 125I-labeled scorpion beta toxin and a decrease in specific 22Na+ uptake. Moreover, the increase in the number of Na+ channels that normally occurs during neuronal maturation in vitro was inhibited by chronic channel activator treatment. The induced disappearance of Na+ channels was abolished by tetrodotoxin, was found to be dependent on the external Na+ concentration, and was prevented when either choline (a nonpermeant ion) or Li+ (a permeant ion) was substituted for Na+. Amphotericin B, a Na+ ionophore, and monensin were able to mimick the effect of Na(+)-channel activators, while a KCl depolarization failed to do this. This feedback regulation seems to be a neuronal property since Na(+)-channel density in cultured astrocytes was not affected by channel activator treatment or by amphotericin B. The present evidence suggests that an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration, whether elicited by Na(+)-channel activators or mediated by a Na+ ionophore, can induce a decrease in surface Na+ channels and therefore is involved in down-regulation of Na(+)-channel density in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro. PMID:2165609

  7. Ectodermal-neural cortex 1 down-regulates Nrf2 at the translational level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Donna D

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 is the master regulator of a cellular defense mechanism against environmental insults. The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response is accomplished by the transcription of a battery of genes that encode phase II detoxifying enzymes, xenobiotic transporters, and antioxidants. Coordinated expression of these genes is critical in protecting cells from toxic and carcinogenic insults and in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. Activation of the Nrf2 pathway is primarily controlled by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), which is a molecular switch that turns on or off the Nrf2 signaling pathway according to intracellular redox conditions. Here we report our finding of a novel Nrf2 suppressor ectodermal-neural cortex 1 (ENC1), which is a BTB-Kelch protein and belongs to the same family as Keap1. Transient expression of ENC1 reduced steady-state levels of Nrf2 and its downstream gene expression. Although ENC1 interacted with Keap1 indirectly, the ENC1-mediated down-regulation of Nrf2 was independent of Keap1. The negative effect of ENC1 on Nrf2 was not due to a change in the stability of Nrf2 because neither proteasomal nor lysosomal inhibitors had any effects. Overexpression of ENC1 did not result in a change in the level of Nrf2 mRNA, rather, it caused a decrease in the rate of Nrf2 protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that ENC1 functions as a negative regulator of Nrf2 through suppressing Nrf2 protein translation, which adds another level of complexity in controlling the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  8. Delta-Like Ligand 4 Modulates Liver Damage by Down-Regulating Chemokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Dewidar, Bedair; Hu, Junhao; Park, Ogyi; Feng, Teng; Xu, Chengfu; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Qi; Meyer, Christoph; Ilkavets, Iryna; Müller, Alexandra; Stump-Guthier, Carolin; Munker, Stefan; Liebe, Roman; Zimmer, Vincent; Lammert, Frank; Mertens, Peter R; Li, Hai; Ten Dijke, Peter; Augustin, Hellmut G; Li, Jun; Gao, Bin; Ebert, Matthias P; Dooley, Steven; Li, Youming; Weng, Hong-Lei

    2016-07-01

    Disrupting Notch signaling ameliorates experimental liver fibrosis. However, the role of individual Notch ligands in liver damage is unknown. We investigated the effects of Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) in liver disease. DLL4 expression was measured in 31 human liver tissues by immunohistochemistry. Dll4 function was examined in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-challenged mouse models in vivo and evaluated in hepatic stellate cells, hepatocytes, and Kupffer cells in vitro. DLL4 was expressed in patients' Kupffer and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Recombinant Dll4 protein (rDll4) ameliorated hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in mice after carbon tetrachloride challenge. In vitro, rDll4 significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide-dependent chemokine expression in both Kupffer and hepatic stellate cells. In bile duct ligation mice, rDll4 induced massive hepatic necrosis, resulting in the death of all animals within 1 week. Inflammatory cell infiltration and chemokine ligand 2 (Ccl2) expression were significantly reduced in rDll4-receiving bile duct ligation mice. Recombinant Ccl2 rescued bile duct ligation mice from rDll4-mediated death. In patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure, DLL4 expression was inversely associated with CCL2 abundance. Mechanistically, Dll4 regulated Ccl2 expression via NF-κB. Taken together, Dll4 modulates liver inflammatory response by down-regulating chemokine expression. rDll4 application results in opposing outcomes in two models of liver damage. Loss of DLL4 may be associated with CCL2-mediated cytokine storm in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  9. CCoAOMT Down-Regulation Activates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Petunia.

    PubMed

    Shaipulah, Nur Fariza M; Muhlemann, Joëlle K; Woodworth, Benjamin D; Van Moerkercke, Alex; Verdonk, Julian C; Ramirez, Aldana A; Haring, Michel A; Dudareva, Natalia; Schuurink, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl coenzyme A (CoA) in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower development and sequestered in vacuoles during the lifespan of the flowers. The production of isoeugenol and eugenol starts when flowers open and peaks after anthesis. To elucidate additional biochemical steps toward (iso)eugenol production, we cloned and characterized a caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (PhCCoAOMT1) from the petals of the fragrant petunia 'Mitchell'. Recombinant PhCCoAOMT1 indeed catalyzed the methylation of caffeoyl-CoA to produce feruloyl CoA. Silencing of PhCCoAOMT1 resulted in a reduction of eugenol production but not of isoeugenol. Unexpectedly, the transgenic plants had purple-colored leaves and pink flowers, despite the fact that cv Mitchell lacks the functional R2R3-MYB master regulator ANTHOCYANIN2 and has normally white flowers. Our results indicate that down-regulation of PhCCoAOMT1 activated the anthocyanin pathway through the R2R3-MYBs PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) and DEEP PURPLE, with predominantly petunidin accumulating. Feeding cv Mitchell flowers with caffeic acid induced PHZ expression, suggesting that the metabolic perturbation of the phenylpropanoid pathway underlies the activation of the anthocyanin pathway. Our results demonstrate a role for PhCCoAOMT1 in phenylpropene production and reveal a link between PhCCoAOMT1 and anthocyanin production.

  10. Read-through transcripts in normal human lung parenchyma are down-regulated in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cotroneo, Chiara E.; Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara; Piazza, Rocco; Pirola, Alessandra; Spinelli, Roberta; Incarbone, Matteo; Palleschi, Alessandro; Rosso, Lorenzo; Santambrogio, Luigi; Dragani, Tommaso A.; Colombo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Read-through transcripts result from the continuous transcription of adjacent, similarly oriented genes, with the splicing out of the intergenic region. They have been found in several neoplastic and normal tissues, but their pathophysiological significance is unclear. We used high-throughput sequencing of cDNA fragments (RNA-Seq) to identify read-through transcripts in the non-involved lung tissue of 64 surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma patients. A total of 52 distinct read-through species was identified, with 24 patients having at least one read-through event, up to a maximum of 17 such transcripts in one patient. Sanger sequencing validated 28 of these transcripts and identified an additional 15, for a total of 43 distinct read-through events involving 35 gene pairs. Expression levels of 10 validated read-through transcripts were measured by quantitative PCR in pairs of matched non-involved lung tissue and lung adenocarcinoma tissue from 45 patients. Higher expression levels were observed in normal lung tissue than in the tumor counterpart, with median relative quantification ratios between normal and tumor varying from 1.90 to 7.78; the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon's signed-rank test for paired samples) for eight transcripts: ELAVL1–TIMM44, FAM162B–ZUFSP, IFNAR2–IL10RB, INMT–FAM188B, KIAA1841–C2orf74, NFATC3–PLA2G15, SIRPB1–SIRPD, and SHANK3–ACR. This report documents the presence of read-through transcripts in apparently normal lung tissue, with inter-individual differences in patterns and abundance. It also shows their down-regulation in tumors, suggesting that these chimeric transcripts may function as tumor suppressors in lung tissue. PMID:27058892

  11. Exposure to Fluorescent Light Triggers Down Regulation of Genes Involved with Mitotic Progression in Xiphophorus Skin

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Ronald B.; Walter, Dylan J.; Boswell, William T.; Caballero, Kaela L.; Boswell, Mikki; Lu, Yuan; Chang, Jordan; Savage, Markita G.

    2015-01-01

    We report RNA-Seq results from skin of X. maculatus Jp 163 B after exposure to various doses of “cool white” fluorescent light (FL). We show that FL exposure incites a genetic transcriptional response in skin nearly as great as observed for UVB exposure; however, the gene sets modulated due to exposure to the two light sources are quite different. Known light responsive genes involved in maintaining circadian cycling (e.g., clock, cry2a, cry1b, per1b, per2, per3, arntl1a, etc.) exhibited expected shifts in transcriptional expression upon FL exposure. Exposure to FL also resulted in down-regulated transcription of many genes involved with cell cycle progression (e.g., cdc20, cdc45, cdca7b, plk1, cdk1, ccnb-3, cdca7a, etc.) and chromosome segregation (e.g., cenpe, cenpf, cenpi, cenpk, cenpo, cenpp, and cenpu; cep70; knstrm, kntc, mcm2, mcm5; smc2, etc.). In addition, several DNA replication and recombination repair genes (e.g., pola1, pole, rec52, rad54l, rpa1, parpbp, etc.) exhibit reduced expression in FL exposed X. maculatus skin. Some genes down modulated by FL are known to be associated with DNA repair and human diseases (e.g., atm2, brip1, fanc1, fancl, xrcc4, etc.). The overall suppression of genes involved with mitotic progression in the skin of adult fish is consistent with entry into the light phase of the circadian cycle. Current efforts are aimed at determining specific wavelengths that may lead to differential expression among the many genes affected by fluorescent light exposure. PMID:26334372

  12. Down-regulating alpha-galactosidase enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic petunia.

    PubMed

    Pennycooke, Joyce C; Jones, Michelle L; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2003-10-01

    Alpha-galactosidase (alpha-Gal; EC 3.2.1.22) is involved in many aspects of plant metabolism, including hydrolysis of the alpha-1,6 linkage of raffinose oligosaccharides during deacclimation. To examine the relationship between endogenous sugars and freezing stress, the expression of alpha-Gal was modified in transgenic petunia (Petunia x hybrida cv Mitchell). The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Lea-Gal gene under the control of the Figwort Mosaic Virus promoter was introduced into petunia in the sense and antisense orientations using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. RNA gel blots confirmed that alpha-Gal transcripts were reduced in antisense lines compared with wild type, whereas sense plants had increased accumulation of alpha-Gal mRNAs. alpha-Gal activity followed a similar trend, with reduced activity in antisense lines and increased activity in all sense lines evaluated. Raffinose content of nonacclimated antisense plants increased 12- to 22-fold compared with wild type, and 22- to 53-fold after cold acclimation. Based upon electrolyte leakage tests, freezing tolerance of the antisense lines increased from -4 degrees C for cold-acclimated wild-type plants to -8 degrees C for the most tolerant antisense line. Down-regulating alpha-Gal in petunia results in an increase in freezing tolerance at the whole-plant level in nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants, whereas overexpression of the alpha-Gal gene caused a decrease in endogenous raffinose and impaired freezing tolerance. These results suggest that engineering raffinose metabolism by transformation with alpha-Gal provides an additional method for improving the freezing tolerance of plants.

  13. Down-Regulating α-Galactosidase Enhances Freezing Tolerance in Transgenic Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Pennycooke, Joyce C.; Jones, Michelle L.; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2003-01-01

    α-Galactosidase (α-Gal; EC 3.2.1.22) is involved in many aspects of plant metabolism, including hydrolysis of the α-1,6 linkage of raffinose oligosaccharides during deacclimation. To examine the relationship between endogenous sugars and freezing stress, the expression of α-Gal was modified in transgenic petunia (Petunia × hybrida cv Mitchell). The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Lea-Gal gene under the control of the Figwort Mosaic Virus promoter was introduced into petunia in the sense and antisense orientations using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. RNA gel blots confirmed that α-Gal transcripts were reduced in antisense lines compared with wild type, whereas sense plants had increased accumulation of α-Gal mRNAs. α-Gal activity followed a similar trend, with reduced activity in antisense lines and increased activity in all sense lines evaluated. Raffinose content of nonacclimated antisense plants increased 12- to 22-fold compared with wild type, and 22- to 53-fold after cold acclimation. Based upon electrolyte leakage tests, freezing tolerance of the antisense lines increased from –4°C for cold-acclimated wild-type plants to –8°C for the most tolerant antisense line. Down-regulating α-Gal in petunia results in an increase in freezing tolerance at the whole-plant level in nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants, whereas overexpression of the α-Gal gene caused a decrease in endogenous raffinose and impaired freezing tolerance. These results suggest that engineering raffinose metabolism by transformation with α-Gal provides an additional method for improving the freezing tolerance of plants. PMID:14500789

  14. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  15. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... women; stimulates sperm production in men Prolactin - stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to produce important substances that have properties similar ...

  16. Management of nocturnal enuresis - myths and facts

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajiv; Raut, Sumantra

    2016-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis often causes considerable distress or functional impairment to patient and their parents necessitating a multidisciplinary approach from paediatrician, paediatric nephrologist, urologists and psychiatrist. Mechanisms of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis are mainly nocturnal polyuria, bladder overactivity and failure to awaken from sleep in response to bladder sensations. Goal oriented and etiology wise treatment includes simple behavioral intervention, conditioning alarm regimen and pharmacotherapy with desmopressin, imipramine and anticholinergic drugs. Symptoms often recurs requiring change over or combination of different modes of treatment. PMID:27458562

  17. YM155 sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through cathepsin S-dependent down-regulation of Mcl-1 and NF-κB-mediated down-regulation of c-FLIP expression in human renal carcinoma Caki cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Bo Ram; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2016-01-01

    YM155, a small-molecule survivin inhibitor, has been reported for its anti-cancer activity in various cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of YM155 to enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells. We found that YM155 alone had no effect on apoptosis, however, combined treatment with YM155 and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells (Caki, ACHN, and A498), breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231), and glioma cells (U251MG), but not normal cells [mesangial cell (MC) and human skin fibroblast (HSF)]. YM155 induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 expression at the post-translational levels, and the overexpression of Mcl-1 markedly inhibited YM155 plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, YM155 induced down-regulation of c-FLIP mRNA expression through inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activity. Ectopic expression of c-FLIP markedly blocked YM155-induced TRAIL sensitization. Taken together, our results suggested that YM155 sensitizes TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via down-regulation of Mcl-1 and c-FLIP expression in renal carcinoma Caki cells. PMID:27528031

  18. Inhibition of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 in in vitro cultured human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Said, Harun M; Polat, Buelent; Stein, Susanne; Guckenberger, Mathias; Hagemann, Carsten; Staab, Adrian; Katzer, Astrid; Anacker, Jelena; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study short dsRNA oligonucleotides (siRNA) as a potent tool for artificially modulating gene expression of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) gene induced under different physiological conditions (Normoxia and hypoxia) modulating NDRG1 transcription, mRNA stability and translation. METHODS: A cell line established from a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. Plasmid DNA for transfections was prepared with the Endofree Plasmid Maxi kit. From plates containing 5 × 107 cells, nuclear extracts were prepared according to previous protocols. The pSUPER-NDRG1 vectors were designed, two sequences were selected from the human NDRG1 cDNA (5’-GCATTATTGGCATGGGAAC-3’ and 5’-ATGCAGAGTAACGTGGAAG-3’. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers designed using published information on β-actin and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α mRNA sequences in GenBank. NDRG1 mRNA and protein level expression results under different conditions of hypoxia or reoxygenation were compared to aerobic control conditions using the Mann-Whitney U test. Reoxygenation values were also compared to the NDRG1 levels after 24 h of hypoxia (P < 0.05 was considered significant). RESULTS: siRNA- and iodoacetate (IAA)-mediated downregulation of NDRG1 mRNA and protein expression in vitro in human glioblastoma cell lines showed a nearly complete inhibition of NDRG1 expression when compared to the results obtained due to the inhibitory role of glycolysis inhibitor IAA. Hypoxia responsive elements bound by nuclear HIF-1 in human glioblastoma cells in vitro under different oxygenation conditions and the clearly enhanced binding of nuclear extracts from glioblastoma cell samples exposed to extreme hypoxic conditions confirmed the HIF-1 Western blotting results. CONCLUSION: NDRG1 represents an additional diagnostic marker for brain tumor detection, due to the role of hypoxia in regulating this gene, and it can represent a potential target for tumor treatment in human

  19. N-Cadherin Mediates Neuronal Cell Survival through Bim Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Boscher, Cécile; Wolff, Emeline; Mège, René-Marc; Birbes, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    results show that N-cadherin engagement mediates neuronal cell survival by enhancing the MAP kinase pathway and down-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bim-EL. PMID:22427990

  20. SLX4-SLX1 Protein-independent Down-regulation of MUS81-EME1 Protein by HIV-1 Viral Protein R (Vpr).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaohong; DeLucia, Maria; Ahn, Jinwoo

    2016-08-12

    Evolutionarily conserved structure-selective endonuclease MUS81 forms a complex with EME1 and further associates with another endonuclease SLX4-SLX1 to form a four-subunit complex of MUS81-EME1-SLX4-SLX1, coordinating distinctive biochemical activities of both endonucleases in DNA repair. Viral protein R (Vpr), a highly conserved accessory protein in primate lentiviruses, was previously reported to bind SLX4 to mediate down-regulation of MUS81. However, the detailed mechanism underlying MUS81 down-regulation is unclear. Here, we report that HIV-1 Vpr down-regulates both MUS81 and its cofactor EME1 by hijacking the host CRL4-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Multiple Vpr variants, from HIV-1 and SIV, down-regulate both MUS81 and EME1. Furthermore, a C-terminally truncated Vpr mutant and point mutants R80A and Q65R, all of which lack G2 arrest activity, are able to down-regulate MUS81-EME1, suggesting that Vpr-induced G2 arrest is not correlated with MUS81-EME1 down-regulation. We also show that neither the interaction of MUS81-EME1 with Vpr nor their down-regulation is dependent on SLX4-SLX1. Together, these data provide new insight on a conserved function of Vpr in a host endonuclease down-regulation.

  1. Neuropeptidase activity is down-regulated by estradiol in steroid-sensitive regions of the hypothalamus in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Lisa A.; Cyr, Nicole E.; Qiao, Jana W.; DeFries, Christa C.; Tetel, Marc J.; Wolfson, Adele J.

    2012-01-01

    Thimet oligopeptidase (TOP) and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) are neuropeptidases involved in the hydrolysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. GnRH is regulated in part by feedback from steroid hormones such as estradiol. Previously, we demonstrated that TOP levels are down-regulated by estradiol in reproductively-relevant regions of the female rodent brain. The present study supports these findings by showing that TOP enzyme activity, as well as protein levels, in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of female mice are controlled estradiol. We further demonstrate that PEP levels in this same brain region are down-regulated by estradiol in parallel with those of TOP. These findings provide evidence that these neuropeptidases are part of the fine control of hormone levels in the HPG axis. PMID:22672888

  2. Down-regulation of adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells by oscillating high-gradient magnetic fields and mechanical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablotskii, V.; Lunov, O.; Novotná, B.; Churpita, O.; Trošan, P.; HoláÅ, V.; Syková, E.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Š.

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus in medicine on molecular genetics has resulted in a disregard for the physical basis of treatment even though many diseases originate from changes in cellular mechanics. Perturbations of the cellular nanomechanics promote pathologies, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Furthermore, whilst the biological and therapeutic effects of magnetic fields are a well-established fact, to date the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we show that oscillating high-gradient magnetic field (HGMF) and mechanical vibration affect adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by the transmission of mechanical stress to the cell cytoskeleton, resulting in F-actin remodelling and subsequent down-regulation of adipogenic genes adiponectin, PPARγ, and AP2. Our findings propose an insight into the regulation of cellular nanomechanics, and provide a basis for better controlled down-regulation of stem cell adipogenesis by HGMF, which may facilitate the development of challenging therapeutic strategies suitable for the remote control of biological systems.

  3. Novel MHC Class II Breast Cancer Vaccine Using RNA Interference (RNAi) to Down Regulate Invariant Chain (li)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    patients, and may provide a powerful tool for activation of the immune system against primary tumor and metastatic disease . Body: Statement of...cells with IL-12 reduces established metastatic disease and stimulates immune effectors and monokine-induced by interferon-gamma. Canc. Immunol...concomitant down-regulation of Ii via RNAi may further improve vaccine efficacy and protect and/or treat tumor recurrence and/ or metastatic disease

  4. Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Response to Traumatic Brain Injury Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giulio Maria Pasinetti MD., PhD...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Down-Regulation of Olfactory Receptors in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Promotes Risk for Alzheimer’s...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a risk factor for subsequent development of Alzheimer’s

  5. Oncogenic MicroRNA-155 Down-regulates Tumor Suppressor CDC73 and Promotes Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Mohammad Iqbal; Nagashri, Mathighatta N.; Swamy, Shivananda S.; Gopinath, Kodaganur S.; Kumar, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The CDC73 gene is mutationally inactivated in hereditary and sporadic parathyroid tumors. It negatively regulates β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-MYC. Down-regulation of CDC73 has been reported in breast, renal, and gastric carcinomas. However, the reports regarding the role of CDC73 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are lacking. In this study we show that CDC73 is down-regulated in a majority of OSCC samples. We further show that oncogenic microRNA-155 (miR-155) negatively regulates CDC73 expression. Our experiments show that the dramatic up-regulation of miR-155 is an exclusive mechanism for down-regulation of CDC73 in a panel of human cell lines and a subset of OSCC patient samples in the absence of loss of heterozygosity, mutations, and promoter methylation. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in HEK293 cells dramatically reduced CDC73 levels, enhanced cell viability, and decreased apoptosis. Conversely, the delivery of a miR-155 antagonist (antagomir-155) to KB cells overexpressing miR-155 resulted in increased CDC73 levels, decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, and marked regression of xenografts in nude mice. Cotransfection of miR-155 with CDC73 in HEK293 cells abrogated its pro-oncogenic effect. Reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of KB cells were dependent on the presence or absence of the 3′-UTR in CDC73. In summary, knockdown of CDC73 expression due to overexpression of miR-155 not only adds a novelty to the list of mechanisms responsible for its down-regulation in different tumors, but the restoration of CDC73 levels by the use of antagomir-155 may also have an important role in therapeutic intervention of cancers, including OSCC. PMID:23166327

  6. Silencing Id-1 inhibits lymphangiogenesis through down-regulation of VEGF-C in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zuoqing; Wei, Fengcai; Zhou, Chengjun; Sumida, Tomoki; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Hu, Yingwei; Liu, Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of Id-1 (inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding) was associated with lymphatic metastasis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, we further unveiled the association of Id-1 with vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and peritumoral lymphatic vessel density (PLVD), and the effect of silencing Id-1 on inhibiting lymphangiogenesis in OSCC. We found that Id-1 was associated with VEGF-C (r=0.569, p<0.001) and PLVD (r=0.240, p<0.001) in OSCC. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference targeting Id-1 in an OSCC cell line Tca8113 resulted in down-regulation of VEGF-C (p=0.003, 0.007). Moreover, when Id-1 was suppressed by injecting Id-1-siRNA-lentivirus into the transplanted tumors in nude mice, VEGF-C was down-regulated (p=0.018) and the PLVD decreased (p=0.001). Our results suggest that Id-1 was correlated with lymphangiogenesis in OSCC. Silencing Id-1 could inhibit lymphangiogenesis through down-regulation of VEGF-C and it might be a promising treatment modality for the lymphatic metastasis of OSCC.

  7. An ethanol extract of Piper betle Linn. mediates its anti-inflammatory activity via down-regulation of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Sudipto; Mula, Soumyaditya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2007-05-01

    The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for the relief of pain; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. betle (100 mg kg(-1); PB) were demonstrated in a complete Freund's adjuvant-induced model of arthritis in rats with dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg(-1)) as the positive control. At non-toxic concentrations of PB (5-25 microg mL(-1)), a dose-dependent decrease in extracellular production of nitric oxide in murine peritoneal macrophages was measured by the Griess assay and corroborated by flow cytometry using the nitric oxide specific probe, 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate. This decreased generation of reactive nitrogen species was mediated by PB progressively down-regulating transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages, and concomitantly causing a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of interleukin-12 p40, indicating the ability of PB to down-regulate T-helper 1 pro-inflammatory responses. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthrotic activity of PB is attributable to its ability to down-regulate the generation of reactive nitrogen species, thus meriting further pharmacological investigation.

  8. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaodong; Shan, Xiu; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yan, Qiu; Liu, Jiwei

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important factor in lung cancer metastasis, and targeting EMT is a potential therapeutic strategy. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic cancer sugar antigen Lewis Y (LeY) was abnormally elevated in many cancers. In this study, a traditional Chinese medicine ginsenoside Rg3 was used to investigate whether its inhibition to EMT and invasion of lung cancer is by the glycobiology mechanism. We found that Rg3 treatment (25, 50, 100 μg/ml) inhibited cell migration and invasion by wound-healing and transwell assays. Rg3 could significantly alter EMT marker proteins with increased E-cadherin, but decreased Snail, N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Rg3 also down-regulated FUT4 gene and protein expression in lung cancer cells by qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. After FUT4 down-regulated with shFUT4, EMT was obviously inhibited. Furthermore, the activation of EGFR through decreased LeY biosynthesis was inhibited, which blocked the downstream MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. In addition, Rg3 reduced tumor volume and weight in xenograft mouse model, and significantly decreased tumor metastasis nodules in lung tissues by tail vein injection. In conclusion, Rg3 inhibits EMT and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4 mediated EGFR inactivation and blocking MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. Rg3 may be a potentially effective agent for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:26636541

  9. Down-Regulation of Desmosomes in Cultured Cells: The Roles of PKC, Microtubules and Lysosomal/Proteasomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    McHarg, Selina; Hopkins, Gemma; Lim, Lusiana; Garrod, David

    2014-01-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular adhesive junctions of major importance for tissue integrity. To allow cell motility and migration they are down-regulated in epidermal wound healing. Electron microscopy indicates that whole desmosomes are internalised by cells in tissues, but the mechanism of down-regulation is unclear. In this paper we provide an overview of the internalisation of half-desmosomes by cultured cells induced by calcium chelation. Our results show that: (i) half desmosome internalisation is dependent on conventional PKC isoforms; (ii) microtubules transport internalised half desmosomes to the region of the centrosome by a kinesin-dependent mechanism; (iii) desmosomal proteins remain colocalised after internalisation and are not recycled to the cell surface; (iv) internalised desmosomes are degraded by the combined action of lysosomes and proteasomes. We also confirm that half desmosome internalisation is dependent upon the actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest that half desmosomes are not disassembled and recycled during or after internalisation but instead are transported to the centrosomal region where they are degraded. These findings may have significance for the down-regulation of desmosomes in wounds. PMID:25291180

  10. Reversal of islet GIP receptor down-regulation and resistance to GIP by reducing hyperglycemia in the Zucker rat

    SciTech Connect

    Piteau, Shalea; Olver, Amy; Kim, Su-Jin; Winter, Kyle; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Lynn, Francis; Manhart, Susanne; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Speck, Madeleine; Pederson, Raymond A.; McIntosh, Christopher H.S.

    2007-11-03

    In type 2 diabetes (T2DM) {beta}-cell responsiveness to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is reduced. In a model of T2DM, the VDF Zucker rat, GIP receptor mRNA and protein levels were shown to be down-regulated. Possible restoration of responsiveness to GIP in Zucker rats by reducing hyperglycemia has been examined. ZDF rats with extreme hyperglycemia demonstrated greater islet GIP receptor mRNA down-regulation (94.3 {+-} 3.8%) than ZF rats (48.8 {+-} 22.8%). GIP receptor mRNA levels in ZDF rats returned to 83.0 {+-} 17.9% of lean following normalization of hyperglycemia by phlorizin treatment and pancreas perfusions demonstrated markedly improved GIP responsiveness. Treatment of VDF rats with a DP IV inhibitor (P32/98) resulted in improved glucose tolerance and restored sensitivity to GIP in isolated pancreata. These findings support the proposal that GIP receptor down-regulation in rodent T2DM is secondary to chronic hyperglycemia and that normalization of glycemia can restore GIP sensitivity.

  11. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lili; Shen, Dachuan; Li, Xiaodong; Shan, Xiu; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yan, Qiu; Liu, Jiwei

    2016-01-12

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important factor in lung cancer metastasis, and targeting EMT is a potential therapeutic strategy. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic cancer sugar antigen Lewis Y (LeY) was abnormally elevated in many cancers. In this study, a traditional Chinese medicine ginsenoside Rg3 was used to investigate whether its inhibition to EMT and invasion of lung cancer is by the glycobiology mechanism. We found that Rg3 treatment (25, 50, 100 μg/ml) inhibited cell migration and invasion by wound-healing and transwell assays. Rg3 could significantly alter EMT marker proteins with increased E-cadherin, but decreased Snail, N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Rg3 also down-regulated FUT4 gene and protein expression in lung cancer cells by qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. After FUT4 down-regulated with shFUT4, EMT was obviously inhibited. Furthermore, the activation of EGFR through decreased LeY biosynthesis was inhibited, which blocked the downstream MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. In addition, Rg3 reduced tumor volume and weight in xenograft mouse model, and significantly decreased tumor metastasis nodules in lung tissues by tail vein injection. In conclusion, Rg3 inhibits EMT and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4 mediated EGFR inactivation and blocking MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. Rg3 may be a potentially effective agent for the treatment of lung cancer.

  12. Interferons alpha and beta down-regulate the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in human carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R K; Gutman, M; Bucana, C D; Sanchez, R; Llansa, N; Fidler, I J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the influence of interferons alpha, beta, and gamma (IFN-alpha, -beta, and -gamma) on the production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by human renal carcinoma cells. The human renal carcinoma cell metastatic line SN12PM6 was established in culture from a lung metastasis and SN12PM6-resistant cells were selected in vitro for resistance to the antiproliferative effects of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta. IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, but not IFN-gamma, down-regulated the expression of bFGF at the mRNA and protein levels by a mechanism independent of their antiproliferative effects. Down-regulation of bFGF required a long exposure (> 4 days) of cells to low concentrations (> 10 units/ml) of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta. The withdrawal of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta from the medium permitted SN12PM6-resistant cells to resume production of bFGF. The incubation of human bladder, prostate, colon, and breast carcinoma cells with noncytostatic concentrations of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta also produced down-regulation of bFGF production. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7753843

  13. The herpes simplex virus receptor nectin-1 is down-regulated after trans-interaction with glycoprotein D

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, Katie M.; Milne, Richard S.B.; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Krummenacher, Claude

    2008-03-30

    During herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry, membrane fusion occurs either on the cell surface or after virus endocytosis. In both cases, binding of glycoprotein D (gD) to a receptor such as nectin-1 or HVEM is required. In this study, we co-cultured cells expressing gD with nectin-1 expressing cells to investigate the effects of gD on nectin-1 at cell contacts. After overnight co-cultures with gD expressing cells, there was a down-regulation of nectin-1 in B78H1-C10, SY5Y, A431 and HeLa cells, which HSV enters by endocytosis. In contrast, on Vero cells, which HSV enters at the plasma membrane, nectin-1 was not down-regulated. Further analysis of B78H1-derived cells showed that nectin-1 down-regulation corresponds to the ability of gD to bind nectin-1 and is achieved by internalization and low-pH-dependent degradation of nectin-1. Moreover, gD is necessary for virion internalization in B78H1 cells expressing nectin-1. These data suggest that the determinants of gD-mediated internalization of nectin-1 may direct HSV to an endocytic pathway during entry.

  14. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  15. Homologous down-regulation of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Aleppo, G; Moskal, S F; De Grandis, P A; Kineman, R D; Frohman, L A

    1997-03-01

    Repeated stimulation of pituitary cell cultures with GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) results in diminished responsiveness, a phenomenon referred to as homologous desensitization. One component of GHRH-induced desensitization is a reduction in GHRH-binding sites, which is reflected by the decreased ability of GHRH to stimulate a rise in intracellular cAMP. In the present study, we sought to determine if homologous down-regulation of GHRH receptor number is due to a decrease in GHRH receptor synthesis. To this end, we developed and validated a quantitative RT-PCR assay system that was capable of assessing differences in GHRH-R messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in total RNA samples obtained from rat pituitary cell cultures. Treatment of pituitary cells with GHRH, for as little as 4 h, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GHRH-R mRNA levels. The maximum effect was observed with 0.1 and 1 nM GHRH, which reduced GHRH-R mRNA levels to 49 +/- 4% (mean +/- SEM) and 54 +/- 11% of control values, respectively (n = three separate experiments; P < 0.05). Accompanying the decline in GHRH-R mRNA levels was a rise in GH release; reaching 320 +/- 31% of control values (P < 0.01). Because of the possibility that the rise in medium GH level is the primary regulator of GHRH-R mRNA, we pretreated pituitary cultures for 4 h with GH to achieve a concentration comparable with that induced by a maximal stimulation with GHRH (8 micrograms GH/ml medium). Following pretreatment, cultures were stimulated for 15 min with GHRH and intracellular cAMP accumulation was measured by RIA. GH pretreatment did not impair the ability of GHRH to induce a rise in cAMP concentrations. However, as anticipated, GHRH pretreatment (10 nM) significantly reduced subsequent GHRH-stimulated cAMP to 46% of untreated controls. These data suggest that GHRH, but not GH, directly reduces GHRH-R mRNA levels. To determine whether this effect was mediated through cAMP, cultures were treated with forskolin, a direct stimulator of

  16. Central Interleukin-1β Suppresses the Nocturnal Secretion of Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Herman, A. P.; Bochenek, J.; Król, K.; Krawczyńska, A.; Antushevich, H.; Pawlina, B.; Herman, A.; Romanowicz, K.; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D.

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, numerous processes occur in a rhythmic manner. The hormonal signal reliably reflecting the environmental light conditions is melatonin. Nocturnal melatonin secretion patterns could be disturbed in pathophysiological states, including inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. All of these states share common elements in their aetiology, including the overexpression of interleukin- (IL-) 1β in the central nervous system. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the effect of the central injection of exogenous IL-1β on melatonin release and on the expression of the enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewe. It was found that intracerebroventricular injections of IL-1β (50 µg/animal) suppressed (P < 0.05) nocturnal melatonin secretion in sheep regardless of the photoperiod. This may have resulted from decreased (P < 0.05) synthesis of the melatonin intermediate serotonin, which may have resulted, at least partially, from a reduced expression of tryptophan hydroxylase. IL-1β also inhibited (P < 0.05) the expression of the melatonin rhythm enzyme arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. However, the ability of IL-1β to affect the expression of these enzymes was dependent upon the photoperiod. Our study may shed new light on the role of central IL-1β in the aetiology of disruptions in melatonin secretion. PMID:27212805

  17. Down-regulation of muscarinic receptors and the m3 subtype in white-footed mice by dietary exposure to parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jett, D.A.; Hill, E.F.; Fernando, J.C.; Eldefrawi, M.E.; Eldefrawi, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of ad libitum dietary exposure (as occurs in the field) to parathion for 14 d was investigated on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in brains and submaxillary glands of adults of a field species, the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus. Immunoprecipitation using subtype selective antibodies revealed that the relative ratios of the m1-m5 mAChR subtypes in Peromyscus brain were similar to those in rat brain. There was little variability in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in control mice brains but large variability in 39 exposed mice, resulting from differences in food ingestion and parathion metabolism. Accordingly, data on radioligand binding to mAChRs in each mouse brain were correlated with brain AChE activity in the same mouse, and AChE inhibition served as a biomarker of exposure reflecting in situ paraoxon concentrations. Exposure to parathion for 14 d reduced maximal binding (Bmax) of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB), [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS), and [3H]-4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide ([3H]-4-DAMP) by up to approximately 58% without affecting receptor affinities for these ligands. Maximal reduction in Bmax of [3H]QNB and [3H]-4-DAMP binding occurred in mice with highest AChE inhibition, while equivalent maximal reduction in Bmax of [3H]NMS occurred in mice with only approximately 10% AChE inhibition, without further change at higher parathion doses. This is believed to be due to the hydrophilicity of [3H]NMS, which limits its accessibility to internalized desensitized receptors. In submaxillary glands (mAChRs are predominantly m3 subtype), there were significant dose-dependent reductions in [3H]QNB binding and m3 mRNA levels in exposed mice, revealed by Northern blot analyses. The reduction in m3 receptors is suggested to result mostly from reduced synthesis at the transcription level, rather than from translational or posttranslational events. The data suggest that down-regulation of mAChRs occurs

  18. Nocturnal Hypoxia and Loss of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sofia B.; Ronksley, Paul E.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Tsai, Willis H.; Manns, Braden J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Klarenbach, Scott W.; Chin, Rick; Clement, Fiona M.; Hanly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in patients with kidney disease, whether nocturnal hypoxia affects kidney function is unknown. Methods We studied all adult subjects referred for diagnostic testing of sleep apnea between July 2005 and December 31 2007 who had serial measurement of their kidney function. Nocturnal hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 90% for ≥12% of the nocturnal monitoring time. The primary outcome, accelerated loss of kidney function, was defined as a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥4 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. Results 858 participants were included and followed for a mean study period of 2.1 years. Overall 374 (44%) had nocturnal hypoxia, and 49 (5.7%) had accelerated loss of kidney function. Compared to controls without hypoxia, patients with nocturnal hypoxia had a significant increase in the adjusted risk of accelerated kidney function loss (odds ratio (OR) 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25, 6.67). Conclusion Nocturnal hypoxia was independently associated with an increased risk of accelerated kidney function loss. Further studies are required to determine whether treatment and correction of nocturnal hypoxia reduces loss of kidney function. PMID:21559506

  19. Virtual Experiments Enable Exploring and Challenging Explanatory Mechanisms of Immune-Mediated P450 Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Brenden K.; Ropella, Glen E. P.; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450 levels are down-regulated during inflammatory disease states, which can cause changes in downstream drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. Long-term, we seek sufficient new insight into P450-regulating mechanisms to correctly anticipate how an individual’s P450 expressions will respond when health and/or therapeutic interventions change. To date, improving explanatory mechanistic insight relies on knowledge gleaned from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical experiments augmented by case reports. We are working to improve that reality by developing means to undertake scientifically useful virtual experiments. So doing requires translating an accepted theory of immune system influence on P450 regulation into a computational model, and then challenging the model via in silico experiments. We build upon two existing agent-based models—an in silico hepatocyte culture and an in silico liver—capable of exploring and challenging concrete mechanistic hypotheses. We instantiate an in silico version of this hypothesis: in response to lipopolysaccharide, Kupffer cells down-regulate hepatic P450 levels via inflammatory cytokines, thus leading to a reduction in metabolic capacity. We achieve multiple in vitro and in vivo validation targets gathered from five wet-lab experiments, including a lipopolysaccharide-cytokine dose-response curve, time-course P450 down-regulation, and changes in several different measures of drug clearance spanning three drugs: acetaminophen, antipyrine, and chlorzoxazone. Along the way to achieving validation targets, various aspects of each model are falsified and subsequently refined. This iterative process of falsification-refinement-validation leads to biomimetic yet parsimonious mechanisms, which can provide explanatory insight into how, where, and when various features are generated. We argue that as models such as these are incrementally improved through multiple rounds of mechanistic falsification and validation, we will

  20. High Silicon Accumulation in the Shoot is Required for Down-Regulating the Expression of Si Transporter Genes in Rice.

    PubMed

    Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2016-12-01

    Rice requires high silicon (Si) for its high and sustainable yield. The efficient uptake of Si in rice is mediated by two transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, which function as influx and efflux transporters, respectively. Our previous studies showed that the mRNA expression levels of these transporter genes were down-regulated by Si. Herein we investigated the mechanism underlying regulation of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 expression. There was a negative correlation between the expression level of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 and shoot Si accumulation when the rice seedlings were exposed to different Si supply conditions. A split root experiment showed that the expression of both OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 was also down-regulated in half the roots without direct Si exposure when the other half of the roots were exposed to Si. Analysis with transgenic rice carrying different lengths of OsLsi1 promoter regions fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene revealed that the region responsible for the Si response of OsLsi1 expression is present between -327 to -292 in the promoter. However, this region was not associated with the tissue and cellular localization of OsLsi1. In conclusion, the Si-induced down-regulation of Si transporter genes is controlled by shoot Si, not root Si, and the region between -327 and -292 in the OsLsi1 promoter is involved in this regulation of OsLsi1 expression in rice.

  1. Water deficit down-regulates miR398 and miR408 in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Živko; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Mikić, Aleksandar; Radović, Svetlana; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), recently recognized as important regulator of gene expression at posttranscriptional level, have been found to be involved in plant stress responses. The observation that some miRNAs are up- or down regulated by stress implies that they could play vital roles in plant resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. We investigated the effect of water stress treatment during 10 days on expression of conserved miRNAs-miR398a/b and miR408 in pea plants. This time frame reflects the changes as close as possible to the changes where water stress causes visible effects under field condition. It was observed that dehydration strongly down regulates the expression of both miR398a/b and miR408 in pea roots and shoots. The down-regulation of miR398a/b and the up-regulation of potential target genes - copper superoxide dismutase, CSD1, highlight the involvement of this miRNA in pea stress response. To the contrary, the mRNA level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5 (COX5b) did not change in roots and shoots of water-stressed plants, compared to control (well) hydrated plants. This suggests that COX5b is not the target of miR398, or that its expression is regulated by some other mechanism. P1B-ATPase expression increased during water deficit only in the shoots of pea; in the roots there were no changes in expression. Our results help to understand the possible role of investigated miRNAs and their contribution to pea capacity to cope with water deficit.

  2. Activin A, B and AB decrease progesterone production by down-regulating StAR in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Shi, Feng-Tao; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-09-05

    Activins are homo- or heterodimers of inhibin β subunits that play important roles in the reproductive system. Our previous work has shown that activins A (βAβA), B (βBβB) and AB (βAβB) induce aromatase/estradiol, but suppress StAR/progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells. However, the underlying molecular determinants of these effects have not been examined. In this continuing study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) to investigate the effects of activins in regulating StAR/progesterone and the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, activins A, B and AB produced comparable down-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. In addition, all three activin isoforms induced equivalent phosphorylation of both SMAD2 and SMAD3. Importantly, the activin-induced down-regulation of StAR, increase in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and decrease in progesterone were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. Interestingly, the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALK4 but not ALK5 reversed the activin-induced suppression of StAR. Furthermore, the knockdown of SMAD4 or SMAD2 but not SMAD3 abolished the inhibitory effects of all three activin isoforms on StAR expression. These results provide evidence that activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of activins on human granulosa cell steroidogenesis.

  3. Necdin, a negative growth regulator, is a novel STAT3 target gene down-regulated in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Rachel; Eschrich, Steven; Bloom, Gregory; Ma, Yihong; Minton, Susan; Jove, Richard; Cress, W Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways involving STAT3 are frequently constitutively activated in many human primary tumors, and are known for the transcriptional role they play in controlling cell growth and cell cycle progression. However, the extent of STAT3's reach on transcriptional control of the genome as a whole remains an important question. We predicted that this persistent STAT3 signaling affects a wide variety of cellular functions, many of which still remain to be characterized. We took a broad approach to identify novel STAT3 regulated genes by examining changes in the genome-wide gene expression profile by microarray, using cells expressing constitutively-activated STAT3. Using computational analysis, we were able to define the gene expression profiles of cells containing activated STAT3 and identify candidate target genes with a wide range of biological functions. Among these genes we identified Necdin, a negative growth regulator, as a novel STAT3 target gene, whose expression is down-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels when STAT3 is constitutively active. This repression is STAT3 dependent, since inhibition of STAT3 using siRNA restores Necdin expression. A STAT3 DNA-binding site was identified in the Necdin promoter and both EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirm binding of STAT3 to this region. Necdin expression has previously been shown to be down-regulated in a melanoma and a drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. Further analysis of Necdin expression demonstrated repression in a STAT3-dependent manner in human melanoma, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. These results suggest that STAT3 coordinates expression of genes involved in multiple metabolic and biosynthetic pathways, integrating signals that lead to global transcriptional changes and oncogenesis. STAT3 may exert its oncogenic effect by up-regulating transcription of genes involved in promoting growth and proliferation, but also by down-regulating expression

  4. Complotype affects the extent of down-regulation by Factor I of the C3b feedback cycle in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lay, E; Nutland, S; Smith, J E; Hiles, I; Smith, R A G; Seilly, D J; Buchberger, A; Schwaeble, W; Lachmann, P J

    2015-01-01

    Sera from a large panel of normal subjects were typed for three common polymorphisms, one in C3 (R102G) and two in Factor H (V62I and Y402H), that influence predisposition to age-related macular degeneration and to some forms of kidney disease. Three groups of sera were tested; those that were homozygous for the three risk alleles; those that were heterozygous for all three; and those homozygous for the low-risk alleles. These groups vary in their response to the addition of exogenous Factor I when the alternative complement pathway is activated by zymosan. Both the reduction in the maximum amount of iC3b formed and the rate at which the iC3b is converted to C3dg are affected. For both reactions the at-risk complotype requires higher doses of Factor I to produce similar down-regulation. Because iC3b reacting with the complement receptor CR3 is a major mechanism by which complement activation gives rise to inflammation, the breakdown of iC3b to C3dg can be seen to have major significance for reducing complement-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate for the first time that sera from subjects with different complement alleles behave as predicted in an in-vitro assay of the down-regulation of the alternative complement pathway by increasing the concentration of Factor I. These results support the hypothesis that exogenous Factor I may be a valuable therapeutic aid for down-regulating hyperactivity of the C3b feedback cycle, thereby providing a treatment for age-related macular degeneration and other inflammatory diseases of later life. PMID:25124117

  5. p38 MAPK down-regulates fibulin 3 expression through methylation of gene regulatory sequences: role in migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Arechederra, María; Priego, Neibla; Vázquez-Carballo, Ana; Sequera, Celia; Gutiérrez-Uzquiza, Álvaro; Cerezo-Guisado, María Isabel; Ortiz-Rivero, Sara; Roncero, Cesáreo; Cuenda, Ana; Guerrero, Carmen; Porras, Almudena

    2015-02-13

    p38 MAPKs regulate migration and invasion. However, the mechanisms involved are only partially known. We had previously identified fibulin 3, which plays a role in migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis, as a gene regulated by p38α. We have characterized in detail how p38 MAPK regulates fibulin 3 expression and its role. We describe here for the first time that p38α, p38γ, and p38δ down-regulate fibulin 3 expression. p38α has a stronger effect, and it does so through hypermethylation of CpG sites in the regulatory sequences of the gene. This would be mediated by the DNA methylase, DNMT3A, which is down-regulated in cells lacking p38α, but once re-introduced represses Fibulin 3 expression. p38α through HuR stabilizes dnmt3a mRNA leading to an increase in DNMT3A protein levels. Moreover, by knocking-down fibulin 3, we have found that Fibulin 3 inhibits migration and invasion in MEFs by mechanisms involving p38α/β inhibition. Hence, p38α pro-migratory/invasive effect might be, at least in part, mediated by fibulin 3 down-regulation in MEFs. In contrast, in HCT116 cells, Fibulin 3 promotes migration and invasion through a mechanism dependent on p38α and/or p38β activation. Furthermore, Fibulin 3 promotes in vitro and in vivo tumor growth of HCT116 cells through a mechanism dependent on p38α, which surprisingly acts as a potent inducer of tumor growth. At the same time, p38α limits fibulin 3 expression, which might represent a negative feed-back loop.

  6. Growth retardation induced by avian leukosis virus subgroup J associated with down-regulated Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiguo; Zhou, Defang; Meng, Wei; Li, Gen; Zhuang, Pingping; Pan, Zhifang; Wang, Guihua; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-03-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces growth retardation and neoplasia in chickens, leading to enormous economic losses in poultry industry. Increasing evidences showed several signal pathways involved in ALV-J infection. However, what signaling pathway involved in growth retardation is largely unknown. To explore the possible signaling pathway, we tested the cell proliferation and associated miRNAs in ALV-J infected CEF cells by CCK-8 and Hiseq, respectively. The results showed that cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by ALV-J and three associated miRNAs were identified to target Wnt/β-catenin pathway. To verify the Wnt/β-catenin pathway involved in cell growth retardation, we analyzed the key molecules of Wnt pathway in ALV-J infected CEF cells. Our data demonstrated that protein expression of β-catenin was decreased significantly post ALV-J infection compared with the normal (P < 0.05). The impact of this down-regulation caused low expression of known target genes (Axin2, CyclinD1, Tcf4 and Lef1). Further, to obtain in vivo evidence, we set up an ALV-J infection model. Post 7 weeks infection, ALV-J infected chickens showed significant growth retardation. Subsequent tests showed that the expression of β-catenin, Tcf1, Tcf4, Lef1, Axin2 and CyclinD1 were down-regulated in muscles of growth retardation chickens. Taken together, all data demonstrated that chicken growth retardation caused by ALV-J associated with down-regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  7. [Role of calcineurin in down-regulation of left ventricular transmural voltage- dependent K(+) currents in mice with heart failure].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chen-Xia; Dong, Fang; Chang, Yan-Chao; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yan-Fang

    2015-08-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of calcineurin in the down-regulation of left ventricular transmural voltage-dependent K(+) currents in heart failure. Transverse aorta was banded by using microsurgical techniques to create mouse heart failure model. Sham-operated (Sham) or aorta banded (Band) mice were randomized to receive calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) or vehicle. The densities and kinetic properties of voltage-dependent K(+) currents, as well as action potential (AP), of left ventricular subendocardial (Endo) and subepicardial (Epi) myocytes were determined by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that calcineurin activity was significant higher in Endo myocytes than that in Epi ones in all the groups. Compared with Sham group, Band mice showed significantly increased calcineurin activity both in Endo and Epi myocytes. CsA significantly reduced calcineurin activity in Band mice. CsA treatment in Band mice partially reversed the down-regulation of Ito density, completely reversed the down-regulation of IK,slow density both in Endo and Epi myocytes, and Iss density in Endo myocytes. In addition, CsA treatment in Band mice partially antagonized the prolongation of action potential duration (APD), and APD at 50% (APD50) and 90% repolarization (APD90) were significantly reduced. Because of non-parallel shortening of APD in Endo and Epi myocytes, the ratio of Endo/Epi APD90 was reduced from 4.8:1 in Band mice to 2.6:1 in CsA-treated mice, which was close to that in Sham mice. The results suggest that non-parallel activation of calcineurin in Endo and Epi myocytes contributes to the down-regulation of transmural voltage-dependent K(+) currents and the amplification of transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in left ventricular failure hearts. Inhibition of calcineurin may be a potential new therapeutic strategy to prevent and cure arrhythmias and sudden death in heart failure.

  8. Bile acids down-regulate caveolin-1 in esophageal epithelial cells through sterol responsive element-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Prade, Elke; Tobiasch, Moritz; Hitkova, Ivana; Schäffer, Isabell; Lian, Fan; Xing, Xiangbin; Tänzer, Marc; Rauser, Sandra; Walch, Axel; Feith, Marcus; Post, Stefan; Röcken, Christoph; Schmid, Roland M; Ebert, Matthias P A; Burgermeister, Elke

    2012-05-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol and are major risk factors for Barrett adenocarcinoma (BAC) of the esophagus. Caveolin-1 (Cav1), a scaffold protein of membrane caveolae, is transcriptionally regulated by cholesterol via sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1). Cav1 protects squamous epithelia by controlling cell growth and stabilizing cell junctions and matrix adhesion. Cav1 is frequently down-regulated in human cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms that lead to this event are unknown. We show that the basal layer of the nonneoplastic human esophageal squamous epithelium expressed Cav1 mainly at intercellular junctions. In contrast, Cav1 was lost in 95% of tissue specimens from BAC patients (n = 100). A strong cytoplasmic expression of Cav1 correlated with poor survival in a small subgroup (n = 5) of BAC patients, and stable expression of an oncogenic Cav1 variant (Cav1-P132L) in the human BAC cell line OE19 promoted proliferation. Cav1 was also detectable in immortalized human squamous epithelial, Barrett esophagus (CPC), and squamous cell carcinoma cells (OE21), but was low in BAC cell lines (OE19, OE33). Mechanistically, bile acids down-regulated Cav1 expression by inhibition of the proteolytic cleavage of 125-kDa pre-SREBP1 from the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus and nuclear translocation of active 68-kDa SREBP1. This block in SREBP1's posttranslational processing impaired transcriptional activation of SREBP1 response elements in the proximal human Cav1 promoter. Cav1 was also down-regulated in esophagi from C57BL/6 mice on a diet enriched with 1% (wt/wt) chenodeoxycholic acid. Mice deficient for Cav1 or the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor showed hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the basal cell layer of esophageal epithelia, respectively. These data indicate that bile acid-mediated down-regulation of Cav1 marks early changes in the squamous epithelium, which may contribute to onset of Barrett esophagus

  9. NUDT2 Disruption Elevates Diadenosine Tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and Down-Regulates Immune Response and Cancer Promotion Genes.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Andrew S; Vasieva, Olga; Fang, Yongxiang; Copeland, Nikki A; McLennan, Alexander G; Jones, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is one of several roles proposed for the stress-induced nucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). We have examined this directly by a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of KBM-7 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and KBM-7 cells in which the NUDT2 Ap4A hydrolase gene had been disrupted (NuKO cells), causing a 175-fold increase in intracellular Ap4A. 6,288 differentially expressed genes were identified with P < 0.05. Of these, 980 were up-regulated and 705 down-regulated in NuKO cells with a fold-change ≥ 2. Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA®) was used to assign these genes to known canonical pathways and functional networks. Pathways associated with interferon responses, pattern recognition receptors and inflammation scored highly in the down-regulated set of genes while functions associated with MHC class II antigens were prominent among the up-regulated genes, which otherwise showed little organization into major functional gene sets. Tryptophan catabolism was also strongly down-regulated as were numerous genes known to be involved in tumor promotion in other systems, with roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Conversely, some pro-apoptotic genes were up-regulated. Major upstream factors predicted by IPA® for gene down-regulation included NFκB, STAT1/2, IRF3/4 and SP1 but no major factors controlling gene up-regulation were identified. Potential mechanisms for gene regulation mediated by Ap4A and/or NUDT2 disruption include binding of Ap4A to the HINT1 co-repressor, autocrine activation of purinoceptors by Ap4A, chromatin remodeling, effects of NUDT2 loss on transcript stability, and inhibition of ATP-dependent regulatory factors such as protein kinases by Ap4A. Existing evidence favors the last of these as the most probable mechanism. Regardless, our results suggest that the NUDT2 protein could be a novel cancer chemotherapeutic target, with its inhibition potentially exerting

  10. NUDT2 Disruption Elevates Diadenosine Tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and Down-Regulates Immune Response and Cancer Promotion Genes

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Andrew S.; Vasieva, Olga; Fang, Yongxiang; Copeland, Nikki A.; McLennan, Alexander G.; Jones, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is one of several roles proposed for the stress-induced nucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A). We have examined this directly by a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of KBM-7 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and KBM-7 cells in which the NUDT2 Ap4A hydrolase gene had been disrupted (NuKO cells), causing a 175-fold increase in intracellular Ap4A. 6,288 differentially expressed genes were identified with P < 0.05. Of these, 980 were up-regulated and 705 down-regulated in NuKO cells with a fold-change ≥ 2. Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA®) was used to assign these genes to known canonical pathways and functional networks. Pathways associated with interferon responses, pattern recognition receptors and inflammation scored highly in the down-regulated set of genes while functions associated with MHC class II antigens were prominent among the up-regulated genes, which otherwise showed little organization into major functional gene sets. Tryptophan catabolism was also strongly down-regulated as were numerous genes known to be involved in tumor promotion in other systems, with roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Conversely, some pro-apoptotic genes were up-regulated. Major upstream factors predicted by IPA® for gene down-regulation included NFκB, STAT1/2, IRF3/4 and SP1 but no major factors controlling gene up-regulation were identified. Potential mechanisms for gene regulation mediated by Ap4A and/or NUDT2 disruption include binding of Ap4A to the HINT1 co-repressor, autocrine activation of purinoceptors by Ap4A, chromatin remodeling, effects of NUDT2 loss on transcript stability, and inhibition of ATP-dependent regulatory factors such as protein kinases by Ap4A. Existing evidence favors the last of these as the most probable mechanism. Regardless, our results suggest that the NUDT2 protein could be a novel cancer chemotherapeutic target, with its inhibition potentially exerting

  11. Down-regulation of SFRP1 as a putative tumor suppressor gene can contribute to human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Yun-Li; Teng, Xiao-Mei; Lin, Yun; Zheng, Da-Li; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Han, Ze-Guang

    2007-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. SFRP1 (the secreted frizzled-related protein 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene mapped onto chromosome 8p12-p11.1, the frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) region in human HCC, encodes a Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling antagonist and is frequently inactivated by promoter methylation in many human cancers. However, whether the down-regulation of SFRP1 can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis still remains unclear. Methods We investigated the expression of SFRP1 through real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining. The cell growth and colony formation were observed as the overexpression and knockdown of SFRP1. The DNA methylation status within SFRP1 promoter was analyzed through methylation-specific PCR or bisulphate-treated DNA sequencing assays. Loss of heterozygosity was here detected with microsatellite markers. Results SFRP1 was significantly down-regulated in 76.1% (35/46) HCC specimens at mRNA level and in 30% (30/100) HCCs indicated by immunohistochemistry staining, as compared to adjacent non-cancerous livers. The overexpression of SFRP1 can significantly inhibit the cell growth and colony formation of YY-8103, SMMC7721, and Hep3B cells. The RNA interference against the constitutional SFRP1 in the offspring SMMC7721 cells, which were stably transfected by ectopic SFRP1, can markedly promote cell growth of these cells. LOH of both microsatellite markers D8S532 and D8SAC016868 flanking the gene locus was found in 13% (6 of 46 HCCs) and 6.5% (3 of 46 HCCs) of the informative cases, respectively, where 5 of 8 HCC specimens with LOH showed the down-regulation of SFRP1. DNA hypermethylation within SFRP1 promoter was identified in two of three HCC specimens without SFRP1 expression. Moreover, the DNA methylation of SFRP1 promoter was significantly reduced, along with the re-expression of the gene, in those HCC cell lines, Bel7404, QGY7701, and MHCC-H, as treated by DAC

  12. Improvement of resistant hypertension by nocturnal hemodialysis in a patient with end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaojing; Hu, Xiaohong; Mei, Changlin; Yu, Shengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common and refractory complication of hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here we present a case of resistant hypertension treated successfully by nocturnal HD. A 63-year-old female with end-stage kidney disease was hospitalized for severe headache, objective vertigo and persistent vomiting for 1 month on February 6, 2012. She had been on intermittent HD for 3 months, and her blood pressure maintained 200-240/100-130 mm Hg even after using 7 kinds of antihypertensive drugs including olmesartan, benazepril, nitrendipine, arotinolol, terazosin, clonidine and torasemide. A CT of the abdomen revealed a mild hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland (fig. 1). However, plasma renin, angiotensin and aldosterone were all within the normal range. Nocturnal extended HD was initiated with a blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a dialysis time of 7 h. After 3 months of nocturnal HD, all symptoms were relieved and her systolic blood pressure started to decrease by 10-20 mm Hg. Six months later, the predialysis blood pressure was decreased to 140-160/90-100 mm Hg and the antihypertensive drugs were reduced to 4 kinds. Meanwhile, the blood biochemical parameters including hemoglobin, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were all controlled well during 2 years of treatment. This case indicates that nocturnal extended HD is probably a promising and effective choice for resistant hypertension in HD patients.

  13. Circadian regulation of pineal gland rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

    2012-02-05

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity.

  14. Can nocturnal hypertension predict cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Oded; Logan, Alexander G

    2009-01-01

    Nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping of blood pressure during sleep are distinct entities that often occur together and are regarded as important harbingers of poor cardiovascular prognosis. This review addresses several aspects related to these blood pressure abnormalities including definitions, diagnostic limitations, pathogenesis and associated patient profiles, prognostic significance, and therapeutic strategies. Taken together, persistent nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping blood pressure pattern, perhaps secondary to abnormal renal sodium handling and/or altered nocturnal sympathovagal balance, are strongly associated with deaths, cardiovascular events, and progressive loss of renal function, independent of daytime and 24-hour blood pressure. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches may restore nocturnal blood pressure and circadian blood pressure rhythm to normal; however, whether this translates to a clinically meaningful reduction in unfavorable cardiovascular and renal consequences remains to be seen. PMID:21949613

  15. Concordant down-regulation of proto-oncogene PML and major histocompatibility antigen HLA class I expression in high-grade prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiming; Melamed, Jonathan; Wei, Ping; Cox, Karen; Frankel, Wendy; Bahnson, Robert R; Robinson, Nikki; Pyka, Ron; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Pan

    2003-02-14

    Recognition of tumor cells by cytolytic T lymphocytes depends on cell surface MHC class I expression. As a mechanism to evade T cell recognition, many malignant cancer cells, including those of prostate cancer, down-regulate MHC class I. For the majority of human cancers, the molecular mechanism of MHC class I down regulation is unclear, although it is well established that MHC class I down-regulation is often associated with the down-regulation of multiple genes devoted to antigen presentation. Since the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) proto-oncogene controls multiple antigen-presentation genes in some murine cancer cells, we analyzed the expression of proto-oncogene PML and MHC class I in high-grade prostate cancer. We found that 30 of 37 (81%) prostate adenocarcinoma cases with a Gleason grade of 7-8 had more than 50% down-regulation of HLA class I expression. Among these, 22 cases (73.3%) had no detectable PML protein, while 4 cases (13.3%) showed partial PML down-regulation. In contrast, all 7 cases of prostate cancer with high expression of cell surface HLA class I had high levels of PML expression. Concordant down-regulation of HLA and PML was observed in different histological patterns of prostate adenocarcinoma. These results suggest that in high-grade prostate cancer, malfunction of proto-oncogene PML is a major factor in the down-regulation of cell surface HLA class I molecules, the target molecules essential for the direct recognition of cancer cells by cytolytic T lymphocytes.

  16. Is Isolated Nocturnal Hypertension A Reproducible Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Jeff; Muntner, Paul; Diaz, Keith M.; Reynolds, Kristi; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH), defined as nocturnal without daytime hypertension on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM), has been observed to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term reproducibility of INH. METHODS The Improving the Detection of Hypertension Study enrolled a community-based sample of adults (N = 282) in upper Manhattan without CVD, renal failure, or treated hypertension. Each participant completed two 24-hour ABPM recordings (ABPM1: first recording and ABPM2: second recording) with a mean ± SD time interval of 33±17 days between recordings. Daytime hypertension was defined as mean awake systolic/diastolic BP ≥ 135/85mm Hg; nocturnal hypertension as mean sleep systolic/diastolic BP ≥ 120/70mm Hg; INH as nocturnal without daytime hypertension; isolated daytime hypertension (IDH) as daytime without nocturnal hypertension; day and night hypertension (DNH) as daytime and nocturnal hypertension, and any ambulatory hypertension as having daytime and/or nocturnal hypertension. RESULTS On ABPM1, 26 (9.2%), 21 (7.4%), and 50 (17.7%) participants had INH, IDH, and DNH, respectively. On ABPM2, 24 (8.5%), 19 (6.7%), and 54 (19.1%) had INH, IDH, and DNH, respectively. The kappa statistics were 0.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04–0.38), 0.25 (95% CI 0.06–0.44), and 0.65 (95% CI 0.53–0.77) for INH, IDH, and DNH respectively; and 0.72 (95% CI 0.63–0.81) for having any ambulatory hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that INH and IDH are poorly reproducible phenotypes, and that ABPM should be primarily used to identify individuals with daytime hypertension and/or nocturnal hypertension. PMID:25904648

  17. Senescence-related functional nuclear barrier by down-regulation of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Young; Ryu, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hong Ju; Choi, Hae Ri; Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristic natures of senescent cells is the hypo- or irresponsiveness not only to growth factors but also to apoptotic stress. In the present study, we confirmed the inhibition of nuclear translocation of activated p-ERK1/2 and NF-kB p50 in response to growth stimuli or LPS in the senescent human diploid fibroblasts. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the senescence-associated hypo-responsiveness, we carried out the comparison study for gene expression profiles through microarray analysis. In consequence, we observed the vast reduction in expression of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in senescent cells, when compared with those in young cells. Expression levels of several nucleoporins, karyopherin {alpha}, karyopherin {beta}, Ran, and Ran-regulating factors were confirmed to be down-regulated in senescent HDFs by using RT-PCR and Western blot methods. Taken together, these data suggest the operation of certain senescence-associated functional nuclear barriers by down-regulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking genes in the senescent cells.

  18. Chelerythrine down regulates expression of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS by arresting G-Quadruplex structures at their promoter regions

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Jagannath; Mondal, Soma; Bhattacharjee, Payel; Sengupta, Pallabi; Roychowdhury, Tanaya; Saha, Pranay; Kundu, Pallob; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu

    2017-01-01

    A putative anticancer plant alkaloid, Chelerythrine binds to G-quadruplexes at promoters of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS genes and down regulates their expression. The association of Chelerythrine to G-quadruplex at the promoters of these oncogenes were monitored using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, CD melting, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulation and quantitative RT-PCR technique. The pronounced hypochromism accompanied by red shifts in UV absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ethidium bromide displacement assay indicates end stacking mode of interaction of Chelerythrine with the corresponding G-quadruplex structures. An increase in fluorescence anisotropy and CD melting temperature of Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex revealed the formation of stable Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry data confirmed that Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex formation is thermodynamically favourable. Results of quantative RT-PCR experiment in combination with luciferase assay showed that Chelerythrine treatment to MCF7 breast cancer cells effectively down regulated transcript level of all three genes, suggesting that Chelerythrine efficiently binds to in cellulo quadruplex motifs. MD simulation provides the molecular picture showing interaction between Chelerythrine and G-quadruplex. Binding of Chelerythrine with BCL2, VEGFA and KRAS genes involved in evasion, angiogenesis and self sufficiency of cancer cells provides a new insight for the development of future therapeutics against cancer. PMID:28102286

  19. Establishment of an ovarian metastasis model and possible involvement of E-cadherin down-regulation in the metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Yoshiko; Yamada, Taketo; Yamazaki, Ken; Du, Wen-Lin; Banno, Kouji; Aoki, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2008-10-01

    Clinical observations of cases of ovarian metastasis suggest that there may be a unique mechanism underlying ovarian-specific metastasis. This study was undertaken to establish an in vivo model of metastasis to the ovary, and to investigate the mechanism of ovarian-specific metastasis. We examined the capacity for ovarian metastasis in eight different human carcinoma cell lines by implantation in female NOD/SCID mice transvenously and intraperitoneally. By transvenous inoculation, only RERF-LC-AI, a poorly differentiated carcinoma cell line, frequently demonstrated ovarian metastasis. By intraperitoneal inoculation, four of the eight cell lines (HGC27, MKN-45, KATO-III, and RERF-LC-AI) metastasized to the ovary. We compared E-cadherin expression among ovarian metastatic cell lines and others. All of these four ovarian metastatic cell lines and HSKTC, a Krukenberg tumor cell line, showed E-cadherin down-regulation and others did not. E-cadherin was then forcibly expressed in RERF-LC-AI, and inhibited ovarian metastasis completely. The capacity for metastasizing to the other organs was not affected by E-cadherin expression. We also performed histological investigation of clinical ovarian-metastatic tumor cases. About half of all ovarian-metastatic tumor cases showed loss or reduction of E-cadherin expression. These data suggest that E-cadherin down-regulation may be involved in ovarian-specific metastasis.

  20. Thymoquinone inhibits the migration of mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells by down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Paramasivam; Subramanian, Raghunandhakumar; Priyadharsini, Jayaseelan Vijayashree; Gopalswamy, Jayaraman

    2016-12-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ), an active component derived from the medial plant Nigella sativa, has been used for medical purposes for more than 2 000 years. Recent studies have reported that TQ blocked angiogenesis in animal model and reduced migration, adhesion, and invasion of glioblastoma cells. We have recently shown that TQ could exhibit a potent cytotoxic effect and induce apoptosis in mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells. In the present study, TQ treatment markedly decreased the adhesion and migration of Neuro-2a cells. TQ down-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression and mRNA levels and their activities. Furthermore, TQ significantly down-regulated the protein expression of transcription factor NF-κB (p65) but not significantly altered the expression of N-Myc. Taken together, our data indicated that TQ's inhibitory effect on the migration of Neuro-2a cells was mediated through the suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, suggesting that TQ treatment can be a promising therapeutic strategy for human malignant neuroblastoma.

  1. Down-regulation of survivin expression by small interfering RNA induces pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis and enhances its radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hai-Tao; Xue, Xing-Huan; Dai, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Xi-Jing; Li, Ang; Qin, Zhao-Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of survivin in pancreatic cancer cell line PC-2 and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity. METHODS: A siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin was constructed and transfected into PC-2 cells with LipofectamineTM 2000. The down regulation of survivin expression was detected by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and immunohistochemical SP method and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity was detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The sequence-specific siRNA efficiently and specifically down-regulated the expression of survivin at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression inhibition ratio was 81.25% at mRNA level detected by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and 74.24% at protein level detected by immunohistochemical method. Forty-eight hours after transfection,apoptosis was induced in 7.03% cells by siRNA and in 14.58% cells by siRNA combined with radiation. CONCLUSION: The siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin can inhibit the expression of survivin in PC-2 cells efficiently and specifically. Inhibiting the expression of survivin can induce apoptosis of PC-2 cells and enhance its radiosensitivity significantly. RNAi against survivin is of potential value in gene therapy of pancreatic cancer. PMID:16718816

  2. Majority of differentially expressed genes are down-regulated during malignant transformation in a four-stage model

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Frida; Skogs, Marie; Huss, Mikael; Rexhepaj, Elton; O’Hurley, Gillian; Klevebring, Daniel; Pontén, Fredrik; Gad, Annica K. B.; Uhlén, Mathias; Lundberg, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of normal cells to malignant, metastatic tumor cells is a multistep process caused by the sequential acquirement of genetic changes. To identify these changes, we compared the transcriptomes and levels and distribution of proteins in a four-stage cell model of isogenically matched normal, immortalized, transformed, and metastatic human cells, using deep transcriptome sequencing and immunofluorescence microscopy. The data show that ∼6% (n = 1,357) of the human protein-coding genes are differentially expressed across the stages in the model. Interestingly, the majority of these genes are down-regulated, linking malignant transformation to dedifferentiation. The up-regulated genes are mainly components that control cellular proliferation, whereas the down-regulated genes consist of proteins exposed on or secreted from the cell surface. As many of the identified gene products control basic cellular functions that are defective in cancers, the data provide candidates for follow-up studies to investigate their functional roles in tumor formation. When we further compared the expression levels of four of the identified proteins in clinical cancer cohorts, similar differences were observed between benign and cancer cells, as in the cell model. This shows that this comprehensive demonstration of the molecular changes underlying malignant transformation is a relevant model to study the process of tumor formation. PMID:23569271

  3. Transcriptional down-regulation of the retinoblastoma protein is associated with differentiation and apoptosis in human colorectal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Guy, M; Moorghen, M; Bond, J A; Collard, T J; Paraskeva, C; Williams, A C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of Rb protein expression in relation to increased differentiation and induction of apoptosis in colonic epithelial cells. In vivo, Rb protein expression was found to be down-regulated towards the top of the normal colonic crypt, coincident with the region of differentiation and apoptosis, but highly expressed in colonic carcinoma tissue. Using in vitro models to study the regulation of Rb expression in pre-malignant colonic epithelial cells, we have been able to show for the first time that Rb protein expression is transcriptionally down-regulated in differentiated pre-malignant cells (in post-confluent cultures) but not in malignant colorectal epithelial cells. Furthermore, suppression of rb protein function by the HPV-E7 viral oncoprotein increased both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that Rb is able to act as a survival factor in colonic epithelial cells by suppressing apoptosis, and that over-expression of pRb in colorectal tumour cells can cause a loss of sensitivity to apoptotic signalling, resulting in aberrant cell survival and resistance to therapy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11207048

  4. Multinuclear giant cell formation is enhanced by down-regulation of Wnt signaling in gastric cancer cell line, AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Shi-Mun; Kim, Rockki; Ryu, Jae-Hyun; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Song, Ki-Joon; Jang, Shyh-Ing; Kee, Sun-Ho . E-mail: keesh@korea.ac.kr

    2005-08-01

    AGS cells, which were derived from malignant gastric adenocarcinoma tissue, lack E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion but have a high level of nuclear {beta}-catenin, which suggests altered Wnt signal. In addition, approximately 5% of AGS cells form multinuclear giant cells in the routine culture conditions, while taxol treatment causes most AGS cells to become giant cells. The observation of reduced nuclear {beta}-catenin levels in giant cells induced by taxol treatment prompted us to investigate the relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. After overnight serum starvation, the shape of AGS cells became flattened, and this morphological change was accompanied by decrease in Myc expression and an increase in the giant cell population. Lithium chloride treatment, which inhibits GSK3{beta} activity, reversed these serum starvation effects, which suggests an inverse relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Wnt signaling caused by the over-expression of ICAT, E-cadherin, and Axin enhanced giant cell formation. Therefore, down-regulation of Wnt signaling may be related to giant cell formation, which is considered to be a survival mechanism against induced cell death.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of tamoxifen derivatives with a long alkyl side chain as selective estrogen receptor down-regulators.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Takuji; Kato, Masashi; Harada, Rintaro; Fujisato, Takuma; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Demizu, Yosuke; Inoue, Hideshi; Naito, Mikihiko; Kurihara, Masaaki

    2015-07-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) play a major role in the growth of human breast cancer cells. An antagonist that acts as not only an inhibitor of ligand binding but also an inducer of the down-regulation of ER would be useful for the treatment for ER-positive breast cancer. We previously reported the design and synthesis of a selective estrogen receptor down-regulator (SERD), (E/Z)-4-(1-{4-[2-(dodecylamino)ethoxy]phenyl}-2-phenylbut-1-en-1-yl)phenol (C12), which is a tamoxifen derivative having a long alkyl chain on the amine moiety. This compound induced degradation of ERα via a proteasome-dependent pathway and showed an antagonistic effect in MCF-7 cells. With the aim of increasing the potency of SERDs, we designed and synthesized various tamoxifen derivatives that have various lengths and terminal groups of the long alkyl side chain. During the course of our investigation, C10F having a 10-fluorodecyl group on the amine moiety of 4-OHT was shown to be the most potent compound among the tamoxifen derivatives. Moreover, computational docking analysis suggested that the long alkyl chain interacted with the hydrophobic region on the surface of the ER, which is a binding site of helix 12 and coactivator. These results provide useful information to develop promising candidates as SERDs.

  6. Expression of neurexin and neuroligin in the enteric nervous system and their down-regulated expression levels in Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangye; Wang, Jian; Li, Aiwu; Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Wentong; Cui, Xinhai; Wang, Kelai

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the expression levels of neurexins and neuroligins in the enteric nervous system (ENS) in Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR). Longitudinal muscles with adherent mesenteric plexus were obtained by dissection of the fresh gut wall of mice, guinea pigs, and humans. Double labeling of neurexin I and Hu (a neuron marker), neuroligin 1 and Hu, neurexin I and synaptophysin (a presynaptic marker), and neuroligin 1 and PSD95 (a postsynaptic marker) was performed by immunofluorescence staining. Images were merged to determine the relative localizations of the proteins. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in different segments of the ENS in HSCR were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Neurexin and neuroligin were detected in the mesenteric plexus of mice, guinea pigs, and humans with HSCR. Neurexin was located in the presynapse, whereas neuroligin was located in the postsynapse. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin were significant in the ganglionic colonic segment of HSCR, moderate in the transitional segment, and negative in the aganglionic colonic segment. The expressions of neurexin and neuroligin in the transitional segments were significantly down-regulated compared with the levels in the normal segments (P < 0.05). Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in ENS are significantly down-regulated in HSCR, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

  7. Down-regulation of ABCG2 and ABCB4 transporters in the placenta of rats exposed to cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lili; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Shuiwang; Zhou, Shanyu; Deng, Yingyu; Dong, Ming; Huang, Jianxun; Zeng, Yuli; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Na; Li, Hongling; Ding, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    As a maternal and developmental toxicant, cadmium (Cd) possesses weak penetrability through the placental barrier. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To gain insight into the protein molecules associated with Cd toxicity in placenta and explore their roles in Cd transportation, a reproductive animal experiment was carried out using Sprague-Dawley rats. We performed proteomic analysis of the placenta by Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The DIGE assay identified 15 protein spots that were differentially expressed with a greater than 1.5-fold change in placenta of Cd-treated rats compared to the control rats. Based on the expression patterns and biological functions of the proteins, we selected the ABCG2 and ABCB4 transporter proteins for further analysis. Western blot analysis showed that Cd exposure could down-regulate the expression of ABCG2 and ABCB4 in the placenta. There was a negative dose-response relationship between Cd exposure and the expression of ABCG2 or ABCB4 protein. These results indicated that down-regulation of ABCG2 and ABCB4 transporters may regulate Cd across through placenta and thus affect the in vivo toxic effect of Cd to fetus. PMID:27203216

  8. Transcriptional down-regulation of Brca1 and E-cadherin by CtBP1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Deng, Hui; Liu, Jing; Han, Gangwen; Malkoski, Stephen; Liu, Bolin; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Qinghong

    2012-06-01

    Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a transcriptional co-repressor with oncogenic potential. Immunohistochemistry staining using human breast cancer tissue arrays revealed that 92% of invasive ductal breast cancer cases have CtBP1-positive staining compared to 4% CtBP1-positive in normal breast tissue. To explore the functional impact of CtBP1 in breast cancer, we examined CtBP1's transcriptional regulation of known tumor suppressors, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (Brca1), and E-cadherin. We found CtBP1 was recruited to the promoter regions of Brca1 and E-cadherin genes in breast cancer cells. Concomitantly, Brca1 loss was detected in 57% and E-cadherin loss was detected in 76% of human invasive ductal breast cancers, and correlated with CtBP1 nuclear staining in these lesions. Importantly, siRNA knock down of CtBP1 restored Brca1 and E-cadherin expression in breast cancer cell lines, implying CtBP1 down-regulates Brca1 and E-cadherin genes in human breast cancer. This study provides evidence that although genetic loss of Brca1 and E-cadherin are infrequent in breast cancer, they are down-regulated at the transcriptional level by CtBP1 expression. Thus, CtBP1 activation could be a potential biomarker for breast cancer development.

  9. Majority of differentially expressed genes are down-regulated during malignant transformation in a four-stage model.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Frida; Skogs, Marie; Huss, Mikael; Rexhepaj, Elton; O'Hurley, Gillian; Klevebring, Daniel; Pontén, Fredrik; Gad, Annica K B; Uhlén, Mathias; Lundberg, Emma

    2013-04-23

    The transformation of normal cells to malignant, metastatic tumor cells is a multistep process caused by the sequential acquirement of genetic changes. To identify these changes, we compared the transcriptomes and levels and distribution of proteins in a four-stage cell model of isogenically matched normal, immortalized, transformed, and metastatic human cells, using deep transcriptome sequencing and immunofluorescence microscopy. The data show that ∼6% (n = 1,357) of the human protein-coding genes are differentially expressed across the stages in the model. Interestingly, the majority of these genes are down-regulated, linking malignant transformation to dedifferentiation. The up-regulated genes are mainly components that control cellular proliferation, whereas the down-regulated genes consist of proteins exposed on or secreted from the cell surface. As many of the identified gene products control basic cellular functions that are defective in cancers, the data provide candidates for follow-up studies to investigate their functional roles in tumor formation. When we further compared the expression levels of four of the identified proteins in clinical cancer cohorts, similar differences were observed between benign and cancer cells, as in the cell model. This shows that this comprehensive demonstration of the molecular changes underlying malignant transformation is a relevant model to study the process of tumor formation.

  10. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng; Yue, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi; Qing, Guoliang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes. - Highlights: • N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid. • NMHC exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity. • NMHC leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased metabolism. • NMHC down-regulates the AKT signaling pathway.

  11. Chelerythrine down regulates expression of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS by arresting G-Quadruplex structures at their promoter regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Jagannath; Mondal, Soma; Bhattacharjee, Payel; Sengupta, Pallabi; Roychowdhury, Tanaya; Saha, Pranay; Kundu, Pallob; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu

    2017-01-01

    A putative anticancer plant alkaloid, Chelerythrine binds to G-quadruplexes at promoters of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS genes and down regulates their expression. The association of Chelerythrine to G-quadruplex at the promoters of these oncogenes were monitored using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, CD melting, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulation and quantitative RT-PCR technique. The pronounced hypochromism accompanied by red shifts in UV absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ethidium bromide displacement assay indicates end stacking mode of interaction of Chelerythrine with the corresponding G-quadruplex structures. An increase in fluorescence anisotropy and CD melting temperature of Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex revealed the formation of stable Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry data confirmed that Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex formation is thermodynamically favourable. Results of quantative RT-PCR experiment in combination with luciferase assay showed that Chelerythrine treatment to MCF7 breast cancer cells effectively down regulated transcript level of all three genes, suggesting that Chelerythrine efficiently binds to in cellulo quadruplex motifs. MD simulation provides the molecular picture showing interaction between Chelerythrine and G-quadruplex. Binding of Chelerythrine with BCL2, VEGFA and KRAS genes involved in evasion, angiogenesis and self sufficiency of cancer cells provides a new insight for the development of future therapeutics against cancer.

  12. Down-regulation of β-arrestin2 promotes tumour invasion and indicates poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wu-Yi; Hu, Shan-Shan; Wu, Jing-Jing; Huang, Qiong; Ma, Yang; Wang, Qing-Tong; Chen, Jing-Yu; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    β-arrestins, including β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2, are multifunctional adaptor proteins. β-arrestins have recently been found to play new roles in regulating intracellular signalling networks associated with malignant cell functions. Altered β-arrestin expression has been reported in many cancers, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear. We therefore examined the roles of β-arrestins in HCC using an animal model of progressive HCC, HCC patient samples and HCC cell lines with stepwise metastatic potential. We demonstrated that β-arrestin2 level, but not β-arrestin1 level, decreased in conjunction with liver tumourigenesis in a mouse diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumour model. Furthermore, β-arrestin2 expression was reduced in HCC tissues compared with noncancerous tissues in HCC patients. β-arrestin2 down-regulation in HCC was significantly associated with poor patient prognoses and aggressive pathologic features. In addition, our in vitro study showed that β-arrestin2 overexpression significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in cultured HCC cells. Furthermore, β-arrestin2 overexpression up-regulated E-cadherin expression and inhibited vimentin expression and Akt activation. These results suggest that β-arrestin2 down-regulation increases HCC cell migration and invasion ability. Low β-arrestin2 expression may be indicative of a poor prognosis or early cancer recurrence in patients who have undergone surgery for HCC. PMID:27759077

  13. Galangin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins in renal carcinoma Caki cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min Ae; Lee, Dong Hee; Woo, Seon Min; Seo, Bo Ram; Min, Kyoung-jin; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kim, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Galangin, bioflavonoids, has been shown anti-cancer properties in various cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether galangin could enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in TRAIL resistant renal carcinoma Caki cells. Galangin alone and TRAIL alone had no effect on apoptosis, while combined treatment with galangin and TRAIL significantly induced apoptosis in renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN and A498) but not normal cells (normal mouse kidney cells and human normal mesangial cells). Galangin induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein at the transcriptional level via inhibition of NF-κB activation but not p53 pathway. Furthermore, galangin induced down-regulation of cFLIP, Mcl-1 and survivin expression at the post-translational levels, and the over-expression of Bcl-2, cFLIP, Mcl-1 and survivin markedly reduced galangin-induced TRAIL sensitization. In addition, galangin increased proteasome activity, but galangin had no effect on expression of proteasome subunits (PSMA5 and PSMD4). In conclusion, our investigation suggests that galangin is a potent candidate for sensitizer of TRAIL resistant cancer cell therapy. PMID:26725939

  14. Galangin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins in renal carcinoma Caki cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Min Ae; Lee, Dong Hee; Woo, Seon Min; Seo, Bo Ram; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kim, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2016-01-04

    Galangin, bioflavonoids, has been shown anti-cancer properties in various cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether galangin could enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in TRAIL resistant renal carcinoma Caki cells. Galangin alone and TRAIL alone had no effect on apoptosis, while combined treatment with galangin and TRAIL significantly induced apoptosis in renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN and A498) but not normal cells (normal mouse kidney cells and human normal mesangial cells). Galangin induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein at the transcriptional level via inhibition of NF-κB activation but not p53 pathway. Furthermore, galangin induced down-regulation of cFLIP, Mcl-1 and survivin expression at the post-translational levels, and the over-expression of Bcl-2, cFLIP, Mcl-1 and survivin markedly reduced galangin-induced TRAIL sensitization. In addition, galangin increased proteasome activity, but galangin had no effect on expression of proteasome subunits (PSMA5 and PSMD4). In conclusion, our investigation suggests that galangin is a potent candidate for sensitizer of TRAIL resistant cancer cell therapy.

  15. Antiproliferative effects of crocin in HepG2 cells by telomerase inhibition and hTERT down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Noureini, Sakineh Kazemi; Wink, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Crocin, the main pigment of Crocus sativus L., has been shown to have antiproliferative effects on cancer cells, but the involved mechanisms are only poor understood. This study focused on probable effect of crocin on the immortality of hepatic cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of crocin (IC50 3 mg/ml) in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells was determined after 48 h by neutral red uptake assay and MTT test. Immortality was investigated through quantification of relative telomerase activity with a quantitative real-time PCR-based telomerase repeat amplification protocol (qTRAP). Telomerase activity in 0.5 μg protein extract of HepG2 cells treated with 3 mg/ml crocin was reduced to about 51% as compared to untreated control cells. Two mechanisms of inhibition, i.e. interaction of crocin with telomeric quadruplex sequences and down regulation of hTERT expression, were examined using FRET analysis to measure melting temperature of a synthetic telomeric oligonucleotide in the presence of crocin and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, respectively. No significant changes were observed in the Tm telomeric oligonucleotides, while the relative expression level of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) gene showed a 60% decrease as compared to untreated control cells. In conclusion, telomerase activity of HepG2 cells decreases after treatment with crocin, which is probably caused by down-regulation of the expression of the catalytic subunit of the enzyme.

  16. CD44v6 down-regulation is an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Liu, Qin; Lin, Dongliang; Lai, Maode

    2015-01-01

    We aim to investigate the variation of CD44v6 expression in the normal-adenoma-primary carcinoma-liver metastasis sequence and its prognostic impact on colorectal carcinomas. The difference in CD44v6 expression between the tumor center and invasive front was also assessed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD44v6 on two cohorts. The first was tissue microarrays including 402 primary CRCs sampled from the tumor center and the invasive margin. The second was whole-tissue sections, consisting of 217 adenomas, 72 primary carcinomas, and the corresponding metastatic carcinomas. In the first cohort, we found that CD44v6 down-regulation was inclined to lymph node metastasis and perineural invasion, and had an unfavorable prognosis compared with CD44v6 up-regulation. In the second cohort, CD44v6 expression was predominant in adenoma over primary carcinoma and liver metastasis in multiple steps (normal < adenoma > primary carcinoma and liver metastasis). In addition, our analysis showed that CD44v6 expression was decreased at the invasion front of the CRC compared with the center of the tumor. In conclusion, the maximal expression of CD44v6 in adenoma plays a crucial role in colorectal carcinogenesis, while loss of CD44v6 expression on the cell surface of the tumor edge enhances the progression of metastasis. CD44v6 down-regulation is an independent prognostic factor for strikingly worse disease-specific survival.

  17. Terpene down-regulation in orange reveals the role of fruit aromas in mediating interactions with insect herbivores and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-06-01

    Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens.

  18. IgG1 cytoplasmic tail is essential for cell surface expression in Igβ down-regulated cells.

    PubMed

    Todo, Kagefumi; Koga, Orie; Nishikawa, Miwako; Hikida, Masaki

    2014-03-14

    It has been shown that cytoplasmic tail of the IgG1 B cell receptors (BCRs) are essential for the induction of T-dependent immune responses. Also it has been revealed that unique tyrosine residue in the cytoplasmic tail of IgG2a has the potential of being phosphorylated at tyrosine and that this phosphorylation modulates BCR signaling. However, it still remains unclear whether such phosphorylation of IgG cytoplasmic tail is involved in the regulation of BCR surface expression. In order to approach the issue, we established and analyzed the cell lines which express wild-type or mutated forms of IgG1 BCR. As the result, we found that IgG1 BCR expressed normally on the surface of A20 B cell line independent of the cytoplasmic tail. In contrast, IgG1 BCR whose cytoplasmic tyrosine was replaced with glutamic acid which mimics phosphorylated tyrosine, was expressed most efficiently on the surface of non-B lineage cells and Igβ-down-regulated B cell lines. These results suggest that tyrosine residue in IgG cytoplasmic tail is playing a essential role for the efficient expression of IgG BCR on the cell surface when BCR associated signaling molecules, including Igβ, are down-regulated.

  19. Down-regulation apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 gene reduced the Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyte apoptosis in WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Hua; Chen, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Bi, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is crucial in various cellular responses. In the present study, we identified and characterized an ASK1 homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvASK1). The full-length cDNA of LvASK1 was 5400 bp long, with an open reading frame encoding a putative 1420 amino acid protein. LvASK1 was highly expressed in muscle, hemocyte, eyestalk and heart. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the LvASK1 was upregulated during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The knocked-down expression of LvASK1 by RNA interference significantly reduced the apoptotic ratio of the hemocytes collected from WSSV-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LvASK1 also decreased the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected L. vannamei. These results suggested that down-regulation of LvASK1 decreased the apoptotic rate of hemocytes in WSSV-infected shrimp, and that it could contribute to the reduction of cumulative mortality in WSSV-infected L. vannamei.

  20. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Quoilin, C.; Mouithys-Mickalad, A.; Duranteau, J.; Gallez, B.; Hoebeke, M.

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  1. Annexin A1 Down-Regulation in Head and Neck Cancer Is Associated with Epithelial Differentiation Status

    PubMed Central

    Pedrero, Juana Maria Garcia; Fernandez, M. Pilar; Morgan, Reginald O.; Zapatero, Agustin Herrero; Gonzalez, Maria Victoria; Nieto, Carlos Suarez; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1) protein expression was evaluated by Western blot in a series of 32 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) in a search for molecular alterations that could serve as useful diagnostic/prognostic markers. ANXA1 down-regulation was observed in 24 cases (75%) compared with patient-matched normal epithelium. In relation to clinicopathological variables, ANXA1 down-regulation was significantly associated with advanced T stages (P = 0.029), locoregional lymph node metastases (P = 0.038), advanced disease stage (P = 0.006), hypopharyngeal localization (P = 0.038), and poor histological differentiation (P = 0.005). ANXA1 expression was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded sections from 22 of 32 HNSCCs and 8 premalignant lesions. All dysplastic tissues showed significantly reduced ANXA1 expression compared to a strong positive signal observed in adjacent normal epithelia (except basal and suprabasal cells). A close association was observed between ANXA1 expression and the histological grade in HNSCC. Well-differentiated tumors presented a positive ANXA1 signal in highly keratinized areas whereas moderately and poorly differentiated tumors exhibited very weak or negative staining. Our findings clearly identify ANXA1 as an effective differentiation marker for the histopathological grading of HNSCCs and for the detection of epithelial dysplasia. PMID:14695321

  2. Down-regulation of sup 3 H-imipramine binding sites in rat cerebral cortex prenatal exposure to antidepressants

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, D.; de Ceballos, M.L. ); Del Rio, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Several antidepressant drugs were given to pregnant rats in the last 15 days of gestation and {sup 3}H-imipramine binding ({sup 3}H-IMI) was subsequently measured in the cerebral cortex of the offspring. The selective serotonin (5-HT) uptake blockers chlorimipramine and fluoxetine as well as the selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl induced, after prenatal exposure, a down-regulation of {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites at postnatal day 25. The density of these binding sites was still reduced at postnatal day 90 in rats exposed in utero to the MAO inhibitors. The antidepressants desipramine and nomifensine were ineffective in this respect. After chronic treatment of adult animals, only chlorimipramine was able to down-regulate the {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites. Consequently, prenatal exposure of rats to different antidepressant drugs affecting predominantly the 5-HT systems induces more marked and long-lasting effects on cortical {sup 3}H-IMI binding sites. The results suggest that the developing brain is more susceptible to the actions of antidepressants.

  3. Chronic Treatment with Anti-bipolar Drugs Down-Regulates Gene Expression of TRPC1 in Neurones

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ting; Rong, Yan; Feng, Rui; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Peng, Liang

    2017-01-01

    In the brain, TRPC1 channels are abundantly expressed in neurones virtually in all regions; these proteins function as receptor-activated ion channels and are implicated in numerous processes, being specifically important for neurogenesis. Primary cultures of mouse cerebellar granule cell, cerebral cortical neurones, and freshly isolated neurones from in vivo brains were used to study effects of chronic treatment with anti-bipolar drugs [carbamazepine (CBZ), lithium salts and valproic acid] on gene expression of TRPC1. Expression of TRPC1 mRNA was identified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, whereas protein content was determined by Western blotting. Store-operated plasmalemmal Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was measured with fura-2 based microfluorimetry. Chronic treatment with each of the three drugs down-regulated mRNA and protein expression in cultured cerebellar granule cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Similar effect was also observed in cultured cerebral cortical neurones treated with CBZ, lithium salts and valproic acid and in freshly isolated neurones from the brains of CBZ-treated animals. The amplitude of SOCE was substantially decreased in cerebellar granule cells chronically treated with each of the three drugs. Our findings indicate that down-regulation of TRPC1 gene expression and function in neurones may be one of the mechanisms of anti-bipolar drugs action. PMID:28119572

  4. Down-Regulation of Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase in Maize Revisited Using a Transgenic Approach1

    PubMed Central

    Piquemal, Joel; Chamayou, Simon; Nadaud, Isabelle; Beckert, Michel; Barrière, Yves; Mila, Isabelle; Lapierre, Catherine; Rigau, Joan; Puigdomenech, Pere; Jauneau, Alain; Digonnet, Catherine; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Goffner, Deborah; Pichon, Magalie

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays) plants were generated with a construct harboring a maize caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) cDNA in the antisense (AS) orientation under the control of the maize Adh1 (alcohol dehydrogenase) promoter. Adh1-driven β-glucuronidase expression was localized in vascular tissues and lignifying sclerenchyma, indicating its suitability in transgenic experiments aimed at modifying lignin content and composition. One line of AS plants, COMT-AS, displayed a significant reduction in COMT activity (15%–30% residual activity) and barely detectable amounts of COMT protein as determined by western-blot analysis. In this line, transgenes were shown to be stably integrated in the genome and transmitted to the progeny. Biochemical analysis of COMT-AS showed: (a) a strong decrease in Klason lignin content at the flowering stage, (b) a decrease in syringyl units, (c) a lower p-coumaric acid content, and (d) the occurrence of unusual 5-OH guaiacyl units. These results are reminiscent of some characteristics already observed for the maize bm3 (brown-midrib3) mutant, as well as for COMT down-regulated dicots. However, as compared with bm3, COMT down-regulation in the COMT-AS line is less severe in that it is restricted to sclerenchyma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an AS strategy has been applied to modify lignin biosynthesis in a grass species. PMID:12481050

  5. Effect of 7,8-dihydroneopterin mediated CD36 down regulation and oxidant scavenging on oxidised low-density lipoprotein induced cell death in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shchepetkina, Anastasia A; Hock, Barry D; Miller, Allison; Kennedy, Martin A; Gieseg, Steven P

    2017-03-26

    The role of CD36 in oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) mediated cell death was examined by down regulating the receptor level with the macrophage generated antioxidant 7,8-dihydroneopterin. Down regulation of CD36 protein levels in human monocyte derived macrophages by 7,8-dihydroneopterin corresponded to a decrease in CD36-mRNA. The oxidation products of 7,8-dihydroneopterin, dihydroxanthopterin and neopterin did not significantly down regulate CD36. The CD36 down regulation resulted in a decrease in oxLDL uptake measured as 7-ketocholesterol accumulation. Though less oxLDL was taken up by the macrophages as a result of the 7,8-dihydroneopterin induced down regulation in CD36 levels, the cytotoxicity of the oxLDL was not decreased. Addition of 7,8-dihydroneopterin to oxLDL treated macrophages decreased the concentration of intracellular oxidants. In the presence of oxLDL, 7,8-dihydroneopterin was oxidised to neopterin showing that the 7,8-dihydroneopterin was scavenging intracellular oxidants generated in response to the oxLDL. The results show CD36 down regulation does not protect human macrophages form oxLDL cytotoxicity but 7,8-dihydroneopterin intracellular oxidant scavenging is protective.

  6. Cobalt chloride-induced estrogen receptor alpha down-regulation involves hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungyoon; Kim, Dukkyung; Lee, SeungKi; Lee, YoungJoo

    2005-05-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is down-regulated under hypoxia via a proteasome-dependent pathway. We studied the mechanism of ERalpha degradation under hypoxic mimetic conditions. Cobalt chloride-induced ERalpha down-regulation was dependent on the expression of newly synthesized protein(s), one possibility of which was hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha). To examine the role of HIF-1alpha expression in ERalpha down-regulation under hypoxic-mimetic conditions, we used a constitutively active form of HIF-1alpha, HIF-1alpha/herpes simplex viral protein 16 (VP16), constructed by replacing the transactivation domain of HIF-1alpha with that of VP16. Western blot analysis revealed that HIF-1alpha/VP16 down-regulated ERalpha in a dose-dependent manner via a proteasome-dependent pathway. The kinase pathway inhibitors PD98059, U0126, wortmannin, and SB203580 did not affect the down-regulation. A mammalian two-hybrid screen and immunoprecipitation assays indicated that ERalpha interacted with HIF-1alpha physically. These results suggest that ERalpha down-regulation under hypoxia involves protein-protein interactions between the ERalpha and HIF-1alpha.

  7. Pathogenesis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshiko

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired GPI deficiency caused by somatic mutation of the PIGA gene in one or several hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, PNH caused by somatic mutation of one allele of the PIGT gene in combination with a germline mutation of the other allele was reported, showing that PIGA is not the only gene responsible for PNH, though other causes are rare. These mutant cells become GPI deficient, expand clonally and differentiate into all of the hematopoietic lineages. When GPI deficient erythrocytes increase in proportion, massive hemolysis occurs due to activated complement attack during infection. As the complement regulatory proteins such as CD59 and DAF are GPI anchored proteins, they are defective on GPI deficient erythrocytes and these abnormal erythrocytes are thereby left unprotected from complement attack. Hemolytic anemia, venous thrombosis, and bone marrow failure are thus the resulting triad of symptoms. Clonal expansion does not occur with PIGA deficiency alone. We hypothesize that PIGA deficient cells acquire a proliferative phenotype via additional gene mutations within the associated environment of bone marrow failure. This hypothesis will be explained by introducing recent reports.

  8. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  9. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  10. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  11. Pineal melatonin and the innate immune response: the TNF-alpha increase after cesarean section suppresses nocturnal melatonin production.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Gerlândia N; Cardoso, Elaine C; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda M S; Markus, Regina P

    2007-11-01

    The nocturnal surge of melatonin is the endocrine expression of the circadian system and is essential for organizing the timing of various endogenous processes. Previous works suggest that, in the beginning of a defense response, the increase in circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) leads to a transient block of nocturnal melatonin production and promotes a disruption of internal time organization. In the present paper, the concentration of melatonin and cytokines [TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12] in the colostrum (postdelivery day 3) and in the milk (postdelivery days 10, 15, 20 and 30) obtained at midday and midnight from mothers who gave birth by vaginal or cesarean section were compared. The nocturnal melatonin surge observed 3 days after vaginal delivery was absent after cesarean section. IL-12 presented no daily variation in either case, while daily variations in IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-5 were observed after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. On the other hand, the increase in TNF-alpha after cesarean section resulted in suppression of the nocturnal melatonin surge. Daily variation of IL-2 was only observed after recovery of the nocturnal melatonin surge, 30 days after cesarean section. The present paper supports the hypothesis of a cross-talk between the pineal gland and the immune system, which could represent a putative immune-pineal axis.

  12. High glucose concentrations induce TNF-α production through the down-regulation of CD33 in primary human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CD33 is a membrane receptor containing a lectin domain and a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) that is able to inhibit cytokine production. CD33 is expressed by monocytes, and reduced expression of CD33 correlates with augmented production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. However, the role of CD33 in the inflammation associated with hyperglycemia and diabetes is unknown. Therefore, we studied CD33 expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion in freshly isolated monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia, monocytes from healthy donors were cultured with different glucose concentrations (15-50 mmol/l D-glucose), and CD33 expression and inflammatory cytokine production were assessed. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling protein-3 (SOCS-3) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also evaluated to address the cellular mechanisms involved in the down-regulation of CD33. Results CD33 expression was significantly decreased in monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes, and higher levels of TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-12p70 were detected in the plasma of patients compared to healthy donors. Under high glucose conditions, CD33 protein and mRNA expression was significantly decreased, whereas spontaneous TNF-α secretion and SOCS-3 mRNA expression were increased in monocytes from healthy donors. Furthermore, the down-regulation of CD33 and increase in TNF-α production were prevented when monocytes were treated with the antioxidant α-tocopherol and cultured under high glucose conditions. Conclusion Our results suggest that hyperglycemia down-regulates CD33 expression and triggers the spontaneous secretion of TNF-α by peripheral monocytes. This phenomenon involves the generation of ROS and the up-regulation of SOCS-3. These observations support the importance of blood glucose control for maintaining innate immune function and suggest

  13. STAT5 proteins are involved in down-regulation of iron regulatory protein 1 gene expression by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Starzynski, Rafal Radoslaw; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia; Muzeau, Françoise; Tyrolczyk, Zofia; Smuda, Ewa; Drapier, Jean-Claude; Beaumont, Carole; Lipinski, Pawel

    2006-12-01

    RNA-binding activity of IRP1 (iron regulatory protein 1) is regulated by the insertion/extrusion of a [4Fe-4S] cluster into/from the IRP1 molecule. NO (nitic oxide), whose ability to activate IRP1 by removing its [4Fe-4S] cluster is well known, has also been shown to down-regulate expression of the IRP1 gene. In the present study, we examine whether this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level. Analysis of the mouse IRP1 promoter sequence revealed two conserved putative binding sites for transcription factor(s) regulated by NO and/or changes in intracellular iron level: Sp1 (promoter-selective transcription factor 1) and MTF1 (metal transcription factor 1), plus GAS (interferon-gamma-activated sequence), a binding site for STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins. In order to define the functional activity of these sequences, reporter constructs were generated through the insertion of overlapping fragments of the mouse IRP1 promoter upstream of the luciferase gene. Transient expression assays following transfection of HuH7 cells with these plasmids revealed that while both the Sp1 and GAS sequences are involved in basal transcriptional activity of the IRP1 promoter, the role of the latter is predominant. Analysis of protein binding to these sequences in EMSAs (electrophoretic mobility-shift assays) using nuclear extracts from mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated to synthesize NO showed a significant decrease in the formation of Sp1-DNA and STAT-DNA complexes, compared with controls. We have also demonstrated that the GAS sequence is involved in NO-dependent down-regulation of IRP1 transcription. Further analysis revealed that levels of STAT5a and STAT5b in the nucleus and cytosol of NO-producing macrophages are substantially lower than in control cells. These findings provide evidence that STAT5 proteins play a role in NO-mediated down-regulation of IRP1 gene expression.

  14. Herbal medicine Gamgungtang down-regulates autoimmunity through induction of TH2 cytokine production by lymphocytes in experimental thyroiditis model.

    PubMed

    Sa, Eun-Ho; Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kang, Bong-Seok; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, June-Ki; Park, Won-Hwan; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2007-02-12

    The crude herbal formulation, Gamgungtang (GGT), has been shown to protect animals against a wide range of spontaneously developing or induced autoimmune diseases. We have previously reported that GGT shows marked down-regulation of several experimental autoimmune diseases. Although very effective at preventing thyroid infiltrates in mice immunized with mouse deglycosylated thyroglobulin and complete Freund's adjuvant and in spontaneous models of thyroiditis, it completely failed to modify experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) induced in mice immunized with mouse thyroglobulin and lipopolysaccharide. In this study, in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms by which GGT suppresses EAT, and autoimmunity in general, we investigated the in vivo effects of this drug on the Th1/Th2 lymphocyte balance, which is important for the induction or inhibition of autoreactivity. Naive SJL/J mice were treated orally for 5 days with GGT (80 mg/(kg day)). Spleen cells were obtained at various time points during the treatment period and were stimulated in vitro with concanavalin A. Interleukins IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) cytokine production was evaluated at the protein levels of the cytokines in the medium and mRNA expressions. A significant upregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta was observed following treatment with GGT, which peaked at day 5 (IL-10) or day 10 (IL-4). On the other hand, IL-12 and IFN-gamma production were either unchanged or decreased. It seems therefore that GGT induces in vivo a shift towards Th2 lymphocytes which may be one of the mechanisms of down-regulation of the autoimmune reactivity in EAT. Our observations indicate that down-regulation of TH1 cytokines (especially IL-12) and enhancement of Th2 cytokine production may play an important role in the control of T-cell-mediated autoimmunity. These data may contribute to the design of new immunomodulating treatments for a group of

  15. Amphiphilic Nanoparticles Repress Macrophage Atherogenesis: Novel Core/Shell Designs for Scavenger Receptor Targeting and Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, an inflammatory lipid-rich plaque disease is perpetuated by the unregulated scavenger-receptor-mediated uptake of oxidized lipoproteins (oxLDL) in macrophages. Current treatments lack the ability to directly inhibit oxLDL accumulation and foam cell conversion within diseased arteries. In this work, we harness nanotechnology to design and fabricate a new class of nanoparticles (NPs) based on hydrophobic mucic acid cores and amphiphilic shells with the ability to inhibit the uncontrolled uptake of modified lipids in human macrophages. Our results indicate that tailored NP core and shell formulations repress oxLDL internalization via dual complementary mechanisms. Specifically, the most atheroprotective molecules in the NP cores competitively reduced NP-mediated uptake to scavenger receptor A (SRA) and also down-regulated the surface expression of SRA and CD36. Thus, nanoparticles can be designed to switch activated, lipid-scavenging macrophages to antiatherogenic phenotypes, which could be the basis for future antiatherosclerotic therapeutics. PMID:24972372

  16. Hypoxia-induced 15-HETE enhances the constriction of internal carotid arteries by down-regulating potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanmei; Chen, Li; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Weizhi; Zhu, Daling; Zhu, Yulan

    2010-08-15

    Severe hypoxia induces the constriction of internal carotid arteries (ICA), which worsens ischemic stroke in the brain. A few metabolites are presumably involved in hypoxic vasoconstriction, however, less is known about how such molecules provoke this vasoconstriction. We have investigated the influence of 15-hydroxyeicosatetrienoic acid (15-HETE) produced by 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) on vasoconstriction during hypoxia. As showed in our results, 15-LOX level increases in ICA endothelia and smooth muscles. 15-HETE enhances the tension of ICA ring in a dose-dependent manner, as well as attenuates the activities and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv 1.5 and Kv 2.1). Therefore, the down-regulation of Kv channels by 15-HETE during hypoxia may weaken the repolarization of action potentials and causes a dominant influx of calcium ions to enhance smooth muscle tension and ICA constriction.

  17. Down-regulation of the A3 adenosine receptor in human mast cells upregulates mediators of angiogenesis and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Rudich, Noam; Dekel, Ornit; Sagi-Eisenberg, Ronit

    2015-05-01

    Adenosine activated mast cells have been long implicated in allergic asthma and studies in rodent mast cells have assigned the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R) a primary role in mediating adenosine responses. Here we analyzed the functional impact of A3R activation on genes that are implicated in tissue remodeling in severe asthma in the human mast cell line HMC-1 that shares similarities with lung derived human mast cells. Quantitative real time PCR demonstrated upregulation of IL6, IL8, VEGF, amphiregulin and osteopontin. Moreover, further upregulation of these genes was noted upon the addition of dexamethasone. Unexpectedly, activated A3R down regulated its own expression and knockdown of the receptor replicated the pattern of agonist induced gene upregulation. This study therefore identifies the human mast cell A3R as regulator of tissue remodeling gene expression in human mast cells and demonstrates a heretofore-unrecognized mode of feedback regulation that is exerted by this receptor.

  18. Down-Regulation of Human Enteric Antimicrobial Peptides by NOD2 during Differentiation of the Paneth Cell Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Gao; Li, Run-hua; Li, Chen; Wu, Fang; Zhao, Xin-mei; Ma, Jia-yi; Lei, Shan; Zhang, Wen-di; Zhi, Fa-chao

    2015-01-01

    Ileal Crohn's disease (CD) arising from the alteration of intestinal homeostasis is characterized by two features, namely a decrease in Paneth cell-produced antimicrobial peptides that play a key role in maintaining this balance and an increase in NOD2, an intracellular sensor. Although mutations in NOD2 are highly correlated with the incidence of CD, the physiological role of NOD2 in intestinal immunity remains elusive. Here, we show that NOD2 can down-regulate the expression of human enteric antimicrobial peptides during differentiation of the Paneth cell lineage. This finding, which links the decrease of human enteric antimicrobial peptides to increased NOD2 in ileal CD patients, provides a new view into the pathogenesis of ileal CD. PMID:25670499

  19. First Pharmacophore-Based Identification of Androgen Receptor Down-regulating Agents: Discovery of Potent Anti-Prostate Cancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Purushottamachar, Puranik; Khandelwal, Aakanksha; Chopra, Pankaj; Maheshwari, Neha; Gediya, Lalji K; Vasaitis, Tadas S.; Bruno, Robert; Clement, Omoshile O.; Njar, Vincent C. O.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative 3D pharmacophore model (a common feature based model or Catalyst HipHop algorithm) was developed for well known natural product androgen receptor down-regulating agents (ARDAs). The four common chemical features identified included: one hydrophobic group, one ring aromatic group and two hydrogen bond acceptors. This model served as a template in virtual screening of the Maybridge and NCI databases that resulted in identification of 6 new ARDAs (EC50 values 17.5 – 212 μM). Five of these molecules strongly inhibited the growth of human prostate LNCaP cells. These novel compounds may be used as leads to develop other novel anti-prostate cancer agents. PMID:17383188

  20. Tristetraprolin suppresses the EMT through the down-regulation of Twist1 and Snail1 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nal Ae; Jo, Hyun Gun; Lee, Unn Hwa; Park, Ji Hye; Yoon, Ji Eun; Ryu, Jinhyun; Kang, Sang Soo; Min, Young Joo; Ju, Seong-A; Seo, Eun Hui; Huh, In Young; Lee, Byung Ju; Park, Jeong Woo; Cho, Wha Ja

    2016-02-23

    Inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors Twist and Snail prevents tumor metastasis but enhances metastatic growth. Here, we report an unexpected role of a tumor suppressor tristetraprolin (TTP) in inhibiting Twist and Snail without enhancing cellular proliferation. TTP bound to the AU-rich element (ARE) within the mRNA 3'UTRs of Twist1 and Snail1, enhanced the decay of their mRNAs and inhibited the EMT of cancer cells. The ectopic expression of Twist1 or Snail1 without their 3'UTRs blocked the inhibitory effects of TTP on the EMT. We also observed that TTP overexpression suppressed the growth of cancer cells. Our data propose a new model whereby TTP down-regulates Twist1 and Snail1 and inhibits both the EMT and the proliferation of cancer cells.

  1. miR-625 down-regulation promotes proliferation and invasion in esophageal cancer by targeting Sox2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Qiao, Qiao; Chen, Min; Li, Xianhua; Wang, Zhenjun; Liu, Chuanxin; Xie, Zongtao

    2014-03-18

    miR-625 has been reported to exhibit abnormal expression in esophageal cancer (EC), but the mechanism and functions of miR-625 in esophageal cancer remain unclear. miR-625 down-regulation and Sox2 up-regulation were validated by qRT-PCR in 158 EC samples. Low expression of miR-625 promotes cell proliferation and invasion, while high expression of miR-625 has the opposite effect. Sox2, a target gene of miR-625, was examined by luciferase assay and western blot. Our data suggest that miR-625 may regulate the biological processes of EC via controlling Sox2 expression.

  2. Protein Kinase Cα (PKCα) Is Resistant to Long Term Desensitization/Down-regulation by Prolonged Diacylglycerol Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lum, Michelle A; Barger, Carter J; Hsu, Alice H; Leontieva, Olga V; Black, Adrian R; Black, Jennifer D

    2016-03-18

    Sustained activation of PKCα is required for long term physiological responses, such as growth arrest and differentiation. However, studies with pharmacological agonists (e.g. phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)) indicate that prolonged stimulation leads to PKCα desensitization via dephosphorylation and/or degradation. The current study analyzed effects of chronic stimulation with the physiological agonist diacylglycerol. Repeated addition of 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8) resulted in sustained plasma membrane association of PKCα in a pattern comparable with that induced by PMA. However, although PMA potently down-regulated PKCα, prolonged activation by DiC8 failed to engage known desensitization mechanisms, with the enzyme remaining membrane-associated and able to support sustained downstream signaling. DiC8-activated PKCα did not undergo dephosphorylation, ubiquitination, or internalization, early events in PKCα desensitization. Although DiC8 efficiently down-regulated novel PKCs PKCδ and PKCϵ, differences in Ca(2+) sensitivity and diacylglycerol affinity were excluded as mediators of the selective resistance of PKCα. Roles for Hsp/Hsc70 and Hsp90 were also excluded. PMA, but not DiC8, targeted PKCα to detergent-resistant membranes, and disruption of these domains with cholesterol-binding agents demonstrated a role for differential membrane compartmentalization in selective agonist-induced degradation. Chronic DiC8 treatment failed to desensitize PKCα in several cell types and did not affect PKCβI; thus, conventional PKCs appear generally insensitive to desensitization by sustained diacylglycerol stimulation. Consistent with this conclusion, prolonged (several-day) membrane association/activation of PKCα is seen in self-renewing epithelium of the intestine, cervix, and skin. PKCα deficiency affects gene expression, differentiation, and tumorigenesis in these tissues, highlighting the importance of mechanisms that protect PKCα from

  3. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors in failing human myocardium. Implications for mechanisms of down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphree, S.S.; Saffitz, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The density of beta-adrenergic receptors is reduced in crude membranes prepared from failing human myocardium. We used quantitative autoradiography of radioligand binding sites in intact tissue slices to determine whether the total tissue content of receptors is reduced and to characterize the transmural distribution of receptors in cardiac myocytes and the coronary vasculature in hearts obtained from nine cardiac transplant patients with severe congestive failure. Binding of (125Iodo)cyanopindolol to transmural slices of human myocardium was rapid, saturable, stereoselective, and displaceable by agonists and antagonists with an appropriate rank order of potency. Binding isotherms in four normal and nine failing ventricles showed a significant reduction in the total tissue content of beta-receptors in failing myocardium (38.3 +/- 2.0 fmol/mg protein) compared with normal tissue (52.4 +/- 1.7 fmol/mg protein, p = 0.038). In the normal ventricles, the greatest receptor density was observed autoradiographically in myocytic regions of the subendocardium. Receptor density of the coronary arterioles was approximately 70% of that in adjacent myocytic regions. The density of binding sites in both myocytic regions and arterioles was diminished in all regions of the failing ventricles, but down-regulation was due primarily to a selective reduction of beta-receptors of subendocardial myocytes (63 +/- 5% of subepicardial receptor density vs. 115 +/- 6% in controls, p less than 0.0001). These observations indicate that down-regulation occurs nonuniformly in the transmural distribution and thus is likely not related simply to elevated circulating catecholamine levels.

  4. Down-regulation of let-7 microRNA increased K-ras expression in lung damage induced by radon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihai; Wang, Dapeng; Gu, Chao; Liu, Xing; Pei, Weiwei; Li, Jianxiang; Cao, Yi; Jiao, Yang; Tong, Jian; Nie, Jihua

    2015-09-01

    Radon has long been recognized as a human carcinogen leading to lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent studies have shown that the let-7 microRNA and K-ras play an important role in the development of various cancers. However, the exact role between let-7 and K-ras in radon induced lung damage has not been explored so far. In the present study, wistar rats and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were long-term exposed to radon, and then alterations in histological pathology of rat lung tissue, ROS, antioxidant enzymes activities and clonogenic formation in HBE cells, as well as changes in let-7 and K-ras expression were determined to observe the adverse effects induced by radon. The results showed that long-term exposure to radon produced severe lung damage in rats, significantly increased ROS production and clonogenic formation ratios and decreased SOD activities in HBE cells. In addition, an obvious down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of K-ras were also revealed both in mRNA and in protein level in lung tissue of rats and HBE cells exposed to radon. Furthermore, a significant down-regulation of K-ras was then confirmed in both let-7b-3p and let-7a-2-3p transfected HBE cells. Taken together, the present results propose an involvement of let-7 microRNA and K-ras in radon induced lung damage both in vivo and in vitro, which may thus be of potential value in early diagnosis and therapy of radon-induced lung tumorgenesis.

  5. Sex-lethal enables germline stem cell differentiation by down-regulating Nanos protein levels during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chau, Johnnie; Kulnane, Laura Shapiro; Salz, Helen K

    2012-06-12

    Drosophila ovarian germ cells require Sex-lethal (Sxl) to exit from the stem cell state and to enter the differentiation pathway. Sxl encodes a female-specific RNA binding protein and in somatic cells serves as the developmental switch gene for somatic sex determination and X-chromosome dosage compensation. None of the known Sxl target genes are required for germline differentiation, leaving open the question of how Sxl promotes the transition from stem cell to committed daughter cell. We address the mechanism by which Sxl regulates this transition through the identification of nanos as one of its target genes. Previous studies have shown that Nanos protein is necessary for GSC self-renewal and is rapidly down-regulated in the daughter cells fated to differentiate in the adult ovary. We find that this dynamic expression pattern is limited to female germ cells and is under Sxl control. In the absence of Sxl, or in male germ cells, Nanos protein is continuously expressed. Furthermore, this female-specific expression pattern is dependent on the presence of canonical Sxl binding sites located in the nanos 3' untranslated region. These results, combined with the observation that nanos RNA associates with the Sxl protein in ovarian extracts and loss and gain of function studies, suggest that Sxl enables the switch from germline stem cell to committed daughter cell by posttranscriptional down-regulation of nanos expression. These findings connect sexual identity to the stem cell self-renewal/differentiation decision and highlight the importance of posttranscriptional gene regulatory networks in controlling stem cell behavior.

  6. N-MYC DOWN-REGULATED-LIKE Proteins Regulate Meristem Initiation by Modulating Auxin Transport and MAX2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Ghawana, Sanjay; Jones, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background N-MYC DOWN-REGULATED-LIKE (NDL) proteins interact with the Gβ subunit (AGB1) of the heterotrimeric G protein complex and play an important role in AGB1-dependent regulation of lateral root formation by affecting root auxin transport, auxin gradients and the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding the PIN-FORMED 2 and AUXIN 1 auxin transport facilitators. Auxin transport in aerial tissue follows different paths and utilizes different transporters than in roots; therefore, in the present study, we analyzed whether NDL proteins play an important role in AGB1-dependent, auxin-mediated meristem development. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression levels of NDL gene family members need to be tightly regulated, and altered expression (both over-expression and down-regulation) confers ectopic growth. Over-expression of NDL1 disrupts vegetative and reproductive organ development. Reduced expression of the NDL gene family members results in asymmetric leaf emergence, twinning of rosette leaves, defects in leaf formation, and abnormal silique distribution. Reduced expression of the NDL genes in the agb1-2 (null allele) mutant rescues some of the abnormal phenotypes, such as silique morphology, silique distribution, and peduncle angle, suggesting that proper levels of NDL proteins are maintained by AGB1. We found that all of these abnormal aerial phenotypes due to altered NDL expression were associated with increases in basipetal auxin transport, altered auxin maxima and altered MAX2 expression within the inflorescence stem. Conclusion/Significance NDL proteins, together with AGB1, act as positive regulators of meristem initiation and branching. AGB1 and NDL1 positively regulate basipetal inflorescence auxin transport and modulate MAX2 expression in shoots, which in turn regulates organ and lateral meristem formation by the establishment and maintenance of auxin gradients. PMID:24223735

  7. Down-regulation of malignant potential by alpha linolenic acid in human and mouse colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, John P; Moon, Hyun-Seuk

    2015-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ω-3 fatty acis or n-3 fatty acid) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Numerous test tube and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent or inhibit the growth of cancers, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are important in cancer physiology. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is one of an essential omega-3 fatty acid and organic compound found in seeds (chia and flaxseed), nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils. ALA has also been shown to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells. However, direct evidence that ALA suppresses to the development of colon cancer has not been studied. Also, no previous studies have evaluated whether ALA may regulate malignant potential (adhesion, invasion and colony formation) in colon cancer cells. In order to address the questions above, we conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether ALA may down-regulate malignant potential in human (HT29 and HCT116) and mouse (MCA38) colon cancer cell lines. We observed that treatment with 1-5 mM of ALA inhibits cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion in both human and mouse colon cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we observed that ALA did not decrease total colony numbers when compared to control. By contrast, we found that size of colony was significantly changed by ALA treatment when compared to control in all colon cancer cell lines. We suggest that our data enhance our current knowledge of ALA's mechanism and provide crucial information to further the development of new therapies for the management or chemoprevention of colon cancer.

  8. Role of activator protein-1 in the down-regulation of the human CYP2J2 gene in hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Marden, Nicole Y; Fiala-Beer, Eva; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Murray, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2J2 arachidonic acid epoxygenase gene was down-regulated at a pre-translational level in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells incubated in a hypoxic environment; under these conditions, the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA and protein was increased. The 5'-upstream region of the CYP2J2 gene was isolated by amplification of a 2341 bp fragment and putative regulatory elements that resembled activator protein-1 (AP-1)-like sequences were identified. From transient transfection analysis, c-Jun was found to strongly activate a CYP2J2 -luciferase reporter construct, but co-transfection with plasmids encoding c-Fos or c-Fos-related antigens, Fra-1 and -2, abrogated reporter activity. Using a series of deletion-reporter constructs, a c-Jun-responsive module was identified between bp -152 and -50 in CYP2J2 : this region contained an AP-1-like element between bp -56 and -63. The capacity of this element to interact directly with c-Jun, but not c-Fos, was confirmed by electromobility-shift assay analysis. Mutagenesis of the -56/-63 element abolished most, but not all, of the activation of CYP2J2 by c-Jun, thus implicating an additional site within the c-Jun-responsive region. The present results establish an important role for c-Jun in the control of CYP2J2 expression in liver cells. Activation of c-Fos expression by hypoxia promotes the formation of c-Jun/c-Fos heterodimers, which decrease the binding of c-Jun to the CYP2J2 upstream region, leading to gene down-regulation. PMID:12737630

  9. miR-125b suppresses the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells through down-regulation of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li-hong; Li, Hui; Li, Jin-ping; Zhong, Hui; Zhang, Han-chon; Chen, Jia; Xiao, Tao

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-125b is frequently down-regulated in osteosarcoma samples and human osteosarcoma cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic restoration of miR-125b suppresses cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is the direct and functional downstream target of miR-125b. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 can bind to the promoter region of miR-125b and serves as a transactivator. -- Abstract: There is accumulating evidence that microRNAs are involved in multiple processes in development and tumor progression. Abnormally expressed miR-125b was found to play a fundamental role in several types of cancer; however, whether miR-125b participates in regulating the initiation and progress of osteosarcoma still remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that miR-125b is frequently down-regulated in osteosarcoma samples and human osteosarcoma cell lines. The ectopic restoration of miR-125b expression in human osteosarcoma cells suppresses proliferation and migration in vitro and inhibits tumor formation in vivo. We further identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as the direct and functional downstream target of miR-125b. Interestingly, we discovered that the expression of miR-125b is regulated by STAT3 at the level of transcription. STAT3 binds to the promoter region of miR-125b in vitro and serves as a transactivator. Taken together, our findings point to an important role in the molecular etiology of osteosarcoma and suggest that miR-125b is a potential target in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  10. Protein Kinase Cα (PKCα) Is Resistant to Long Term Desensitization/Down-regulation by Prolonged Diacylglycerol Stimulation*

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Michelle A.; Barger, Carter J.; Hsu, Alice H.; Leontieva, Olga V.; Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained activation of PKCα is required for long term physiological responses, such as growth arrest and differentiation. However, studies with pharmacological agonists (e.g. phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)) indicate that prolonged stimulation leads to PKCα desensitization via dephosphorylation and/or degradation. The current study analyzed effects of chronic stimulation with the physiological agonist diacylglycerol. Repeated addition of 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8) resulted in sustained plasma membrane association of PKCα in a pattern comparable with that induced by PMA. However, although PMA potently down-regulated PKCα, prolonged activation by DiC8 failed to engage known desensitization mechanisms, with the enzyme remaining membrane-associated and able to support sustained downstream signaling. DiC8-activated PKCα did not undergo dephosphorylation, ubiquitination, or internalization, early events in PKCα desensitization. Although DiC8 efficiently down-regulated novel PKCs PKCδ and PKCϵ, differences in Ca2+ sensitivity and diacylglycerol affinity were excluded as mediators of the selective resistance of PKCα. Roles for Hsp/Hsc70 and Hsp90 were also excluded. PMA, but not DiC8, targeted PKCα to detergent-resistant membranes, and disruption of these domains with cholesterol-binding agents demonstrated a role for differential membrane compartmentalization in selective agonist-induced degradation. Chronic DiC8 treatment failed to desensitize PKCα in several cell types and did not affect PKCβI; thus, conventional PKCs appear generally insensitive to desensitization by sustained diacylglycerol stimulation. Consistent with this conclusion, prolonged (several-day) membrane association/activation of PKCα is seen in self-renewing epithelium of the intestine, cervix, and skin. PKCα deficiency affects gene expression, differentiation, and tumorigenesis in these tissues, highlighting the importance of mechanisms that protect PKCα from

  11. Flavones induce neutrophil apoptosis by down-regulation of Mcl-1 via a proteasomal-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Christopher D; Allen, Keith C; Dorward, David A; Hoodless, Laura J; Melrose, Lauren A; Marwick, John A; Tucker, Carl S; Haslett, Christopher; Duffin, Rodger; Rossi, Adriano G

    2013-03-01

    Neutrophil apoptosis and subsequent nonphlogistic clearance by surrounding phagocytes are key to the successful resolution of neutrophilic inflammation, with dysregulated apoptosis reported in multiple human inflammatory diseases. Enhancing neutrophil apoptosis has proresolution and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical models of inflammation. Here we investigate the ability of the flavones apigenin, luteolin, and wogonin to induce neutrophil apoptosis in vitro and resolve neutrophilic inflammation in vivo. Human neutrophil apoptosis was assessed morphologically and by flow cytometry following incubation with apigenin, luteolin, and wogonin. All three flavones induced time- and concentration-dependent neutrophil apoptosis (apigenin, EC=12.2 μM; luteolin, EC=14.6 μM; and wogonin, EC=28.9 μM). Induction of apoptosis was caspase dependent, as it was blocked by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh and was associated with both caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation. Flavone-induced apoptosis was preceded by down-regulation of the prosurvival protein Mcl-1, with proteasomal inhibition preventing flavone-induced Mcl-1 down-regulation and apoptosis. The flavones abrogated the survival effects of mediators that prolong neutrophil life span, including lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, dexamethasone, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, by driving apoptosis. Furthermore, wogonin enhanced resolution of established neutrophilic inflammation in a zebrafish model of sterile tissue injury. Wogonin-induced resolution was dependent on apoptosis in vivo as it was blocked by caspase inhibition. Our data show that the flavones induce neutrophil apoptosis and have potential as neutrophil apoptosis-inducing anti-inflammatory, proresolution agents.

  12. Onset and organ specificity of Tk2 deficiency depends on Tk1 down-regulation and transcriptional compensation.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Beatriz; Area, Estela; Akman, Hasan O; Hirano, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a frequent cause of isolated myopathy or encephalomyopathy in children with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. To determine the bases of disease onset, organ specificity and severity of TK2 deficiency, we have carefully characterized Tk2 H126N knockin mice (Tk2-/-). Although normal until postnatal day 8, Tk2-/- mice rapidly develop fatal encephalomyopathy between postnatal days 10 and 13. We have observed that wild-type Tk2 activity is constant in the second week of life, while Tk1 activity decreases significantly between postnatal days 8 and 13. The down-regulation of Tk1 activity unmasks Tk2 deficiency in Tk2-/- mice and correlates with the onset of mtDNA depletion in the brain and the heart. Resistance to pathology in Tk2 mutant organs depends on compensatory mechanisms to the reduced mtDNA level. Our analyses at postnatal day 13 have revealed that Tk2-/- heart significantly increases mitochondrial transcript levels relative to the mtDNA content. This transcriptional compensation allows the heart to maintain normal levels of mtDNA-encoded proteins. The up-regulation in mitochondrial transcripts is not due to increased expression of the master mitochondrial biogenesis regulators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha and nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2, or to enhanced expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors A, B1 or B2. Instead, Tk2-/- heart compensates for mtDNA depletion by down-regulating the expression of the mitochondrial transcriptional terminator transcription factor 3 (MTERF3). Understanding the molecular mechanisms that allow Tk2 mutant organs to be spared may help design therapies for Tk2 deficiency.

  13. Systemic responses to inhaled ozone in mice: cachexia and down-regulation of liver xenobiotic metabolizing genes

    SciTech Connect

    Last, Jerold A. . E-mail: jalast@ucdavis.edu; Gohil, Kishorchandra; Mathrani, Vivek C.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2005-10-15

    Rats or mice acutely exposed to high concentrations of ozone show an immediate and significant weight loss, even when allowed free access to food and water. The mechanisms underlying this systemic response to ozone have not been previously elucidated. We have applied the technique of global gene expression analysis to the livers of C57BL mice acutely exposed to ozone. Mice lost up to 14% of their original body weight, with a 42% decrease in total food consumption. We previously had found significant up-regulation of genes encoding proliferative enzymes, proteins related to acute phase reactions and cytoskeletal functions, and other biomarkers of a cachexia-like inflammatory state in lungs of mice exposed to ozone. These results are consistent with a general up-regulation of different gene families responsive to NF-{kappa}B in the lungs of the exposed mice. In the present study, we observed significant down-regulation of different families of mRNAs in the livers of the exposed mice, including genes related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism, and to carbohydrate metabolism in this tissue, consistent with a systemic cachexic response. Several interferon-dependent genes were down-regulated in the liver, suggesting a possible role for interferon as a signaling molecule between lung and liver. In addition, transcription of several mRNAs encoding enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism in the livers of mice exposed to ozone was decreased, suggesting cytokine-mediated suppression of cytochrome P450 expression. This finding may explain a previously controversial report from other investigators more than 20 years ago of prolongation of pentobarbital sleeping time in mice exposed to ozone.

  14. Induction of K562 Cell Apoptosis by As4S4 via Down-Regulating miR181

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jiangjiang; Zheng, Shunli; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Meng, Jiali

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has unsatisfactory treatment efficacy at present. As the major component of red orpiment, tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4) has been recently used in treating leukemia, but with unclear mechanism targeting CML. MicroRNA (miR) is a group of endogenous non-coding RNAs regulating pathogenesis. MiR181 has been shown to exert important roles in tumor progression. The relationship between miR181 and As4S4 in inducing K562 cell apoptosis, however, is still unclear. Material/Methods CML cell line K562 was cultured in vitro in a control group and in groups receiving various dosages (20 μM and 40 μM) of As4S4. MTT assay was employed to detect the effect on K562 cell survival. MiR181 expression was quantified by real-time PCR. MTT assay and assay kit were used to determine K562 cell survival and caspase 3 expression. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Bcl-2 expression was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results As4S4 significantly suppressed proliferation of K562 cells (p<0.05) and decreased miR181 expression, and increased caspase3 activity compared to the control group. It can induce K562 cell apoptosis via remarkably down-regulating mRNA and protein expressions of Bcl-2 (p<0.05). Conclusions As4S4 can facilitate K562 cell apoptosis via down-regulating miR181, inhibiting Bcl02 expression, and enhancing apoptotic protein caspase3 activity. PMID:28072759

  15. Pamidronate Down-regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression in Human Intervertebral Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Mi; Hong, Seong-Hwan; Yang, Jae-Ho; Oh, Jin-Cheol; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Byung Ho; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background N-containing bisphosphonates (BPs), such as pamidronate and risedronate, can inhibit osteoclastic function and reduce osteoclast number by inducing apoptotic cell death in osteoclasts. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of pamidronate, second generation nitrogen-containing BPs and to elucidate matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) mRNA expression under serum starvation and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation on metabolism of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. Methods Firstly, to test the effect of pamidronate on IVD cells in vitro, various concentrations (10-12, 10-10, 10-8, and 10-6 M) of pamidronate were administered to IVD cells. Then DNA and proteoglycan synthesis were measured and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of type I collagen, type II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed. Secondly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in human IVD cells under the lower serum status, IVD cells were cultivated in full serum or 1% serum. Thirdly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in IVD cells under the stimulation of 1% serum and TNF-α (10 ng/mL) In this study, IVD cells were cultivated in three dimensional alginate bead. Results Under the lower serum culture, IVD cells in alginate beads showed upregulation of MMP 2, 3, 9, 13 mRNA. The cells in lower serum and TNF-α also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2, 3, 9, and 13 mRNA. The cells with various doses of pamidronate and lower serum and TNF-α were reveled partial down-regulation of MMPs. Conclusions Pamidronate, N-containing second generation BPs, was safe in metabolism of IVD in vitro maintaining chondrogenic phenotype and matrix synthesis, and down-regulated TNF-α induced MMPs expression. PMID:27622181

  16. Micheliolide provides protection of mice against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA infection by down-regulating inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinru; Wang, Yuli; Qin, Yifei; He, Weigang; Benlahrech, Adel; Zhang, Qingwen; Jiang, Xin; Lu, Zhenhui; Ji, Guang; Zheng, Yuejuan

    2017-01-01

    A major obstacle to therapy in intensive care units is sepsis caused by severe infection. In recent years gram-positive (G+) bacteria, most commonly staphylococci, are thought to be the main pathogens. Micheliolide (MCL) was demonstrated to provide a therapeutic role in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory intestinal disease, colitis-associated cancer, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main component of G− bacterial cell wall) induced septic shock. We proved here that MCL played an anti-inflammatory role in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) induced peritonitis. It inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with peptidoglycan (PGN, the main cell wall composition of G+ bacteria). PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways account for the anti-inflammatory role of MCL after PGN stimulation. MCL reduced IL-6 secretion through down-regulating NF-κB activation and improved the survival status in mice challenged with a lethal dose of S. aureus. In MRSA infection mouse model, MCL down-regulated the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1/CCL2 and IFN-γ in sera, and ameliorated the organ damage of liver and kidney. In conclusion, MCL can help maintain immune equilibrium and decrease PGN, S. aureus and MRSA-triggered inflammatory response. These provide the rationality for the potential usage of MCL in sepsis caused by G+ bacteria (e.g., S. aureus) and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., MRSA). PMID:28165033

  17. High throughput microscopy identifies bisphenol AP, a bisphenol A analog, as a novel AR down-regulator.

    PubMed

    Stossi, Fabio; Dandekar, Radhika D; Bolt, Michael J; Newberg, Justin Y; Mancini, Maureen G; Kaushik, Akash K; Putluri, Vasanta; Sreekumar, Arun; Mancini, Michael A

    2016-03-29

    Prostate cancer remains a deadly disease especially when patients become resistant to drugs that target the Androgen Receptor (AR) ligand binding domain. At this stage, patients develop recurring castrate-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). Interestingly, CRPC tumors maintain dependency on AR for growth; moreover, in CRPCs, constitutively active AR splice variants (e.g., AR-V7) begin to be expressed at higher levels. These splice variants lack the ligand binding domain and are rendered insensitive to current endocrine therapies. Thus, it is of paramount importance to understand what regulates the expression of AR and its splice variants to identify new therapeutic strategies in CRPCs. Here, we used high throughput microscopy and quantitative image analysis to evaluate effects of selected endocrine disruptors on AR levels in multiple breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Bisphenol AP (BPAP), which is used in chemical and medical industries, was identified as a down-regulator of both full length AR and the AR-V7 splice variant. We validated its activity by performing time-course, dose-response, Western blot and qPCR analyses. BPAP also reduced the percent of cells in S phase, which was accompanied by a ~60% loss in cell numbers and colony formation in anchorage-independent growth assays. Moreover, it affected mitochondria size and cell metabolism. In conclusion, our high content analysis-based screening platform was used to classify the effect of compounds on endogenous ARs, and identified BPAP as being capable of causing AR (both full-length and variants) down-regulation, cell cycle arrest and metabolic alterations in CRPC cell lines.

  18. Intracellular Acidosis Promotes Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway: Role of EMMPRIN Down-regulation via Specific Single-chain Fv Intrabody

    PubMed Central

    Thammasit, Patcharin; Sangboonruang, Sirikwan; Suwanpairoj, Supattara; Khamaikawin, Wannisa; Intasai, Nutjeera; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is a human leukocyte surface molecule that is enriched on the surface of many cancer cells, and it plays an important role in proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we utilized the chimeric adenoviral vector Ad5/F35 carrying gene encoding scFv against EMMPRIN (scFv-M6-1B9) to down-regulate EMMPRIN cell surface expression and investigated programmed cell death response in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell, Caco-2. The scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody exhibits robust activity in reducing EMMPRIN cell surface expression. This approach led to the inducing of apoptosis, which was relative to the increasing of apoptotic bodies in sub-G1 peak, phosphatidylserine externalization, as well as TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, real-time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis indicated that apoptosis was enhanced through the mitochondrial pathway, a marked reduction of Bcl-2, leading to the translocation of cytochrome c and also the dramatic activation of caspase-3. Moreover, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a tumor marker for CRC, was found to have significantly diminished in both secreted protein and mRNA levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that EMMPRIN down-regulation by scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody has great potential in enhancing the efficacy of apoptosis induction through the mitochondrial pathway and in effecting a decline in the CEA level. Thus, its benefits could be applied to project the future prospects for targeted gene therapy and therapeutic application in monitoring colorectal cancer. PMID:25663946

  19. Bortezomib-mediated down-regulation of telomerase and disruption of telomere homeostasis contributes to apoptosis of malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Ci, Xinyu; Li, Bingnan; Ma, Xueping; Kong, Feng; Zheng, Chengyun; Björkholm, Magnus; Jia, Jihui; Xu, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Bortezomib inhibits the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway to achieve its anti-cancer effect and its well characterized activity is the NF-κB inhibition through which the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 expression is down-regulated and apoptosis is subsequently induced. However, the downstream molecular targets of bortezomib are still incompletely defined. Because telomere stabilization via activation of telomerase, induction of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and appropriate expression of shelterin proteins is essential to cancer development and progression, we investigated the effect of bortezomib on telomere homeostasis/function in malignant cells. The bortezomib treatment of leukemic (HEL) and gastric cancer cells (BGC-823) led to significant inhibition of hTERT and telomerase expression, widespread dysregulation of shelterin protein expression, and telomere shortening, thereby triggering telomere dysfunction and DNA damage. hTERT over-expression attenuated bortezomib-induced telomere shortening, abnormal shelterin expression and telomere dysfunction. Importantly, bortezomib-mediated apoptosis of malignant cells was partially prevented by hTERT over-expression. Mechanistically, hTERT first robustly enhances bcl2 expression and maintains significantly high residual levels of bcl2 even in bortezomib-treated HEL cells. Second, hTERT protects against bortezomib-induced DNA damage. Our findings collectively reveal a profound impact of bortezomib on telomere homeostasis/function. Down-regulation of hTERT expression and telomere dysfunction induced by bortezomib both contribute to its cancer cell killing actions. It is evident from the present study that hTERT can confer resistance of malignant cells to bortezomib-based target cancer therapy, which may have important clinical implications. PMID:26472030

  20. Down-regulation of glutaminase C in human hepatocarcinoma cell by diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Kayoko . E-mail: kkayoko@pharm.teikyo-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Toshihide; Ochi, Takafumi

    2007-05-01

    In a poisonous incident in Kamisu, Japan, it is understood that diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was a critical contaminant of ground water. Most patients showed dysfunction of the central nervous system. To understand the overall mechanism of DPAA toxicity and to gain some insight into the application of a remedy specific for intoxication, the molecular target must be clarified. As an approach, a high throughput analysis of cell proteins in cultured human hepatocarcinoma HpG2 exposed to DPAA was performed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Four proteins, which were up- and down-regulated by exposure of cultured HepG2 cells to DPAA, were identified. They were chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), ribosomal protein P0 and glutaminase C (GAC). Of these, GAC was the only protein that was down-regulated by DPAA exposure, and cellular expression levels were reduced by DPAA in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Decrease in cellular GAC levels was accompanied by decreased activity of the enzyme, phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). Decreased expression of GAC by DPAA was also observed in human cervical carcinoma HeLa and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. By contrast, no significant changes in GAC protein expression were observed when cells were incubated with arsenite [iAs (III)] and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid [DMA (III)]. In the central nervous system, GAC plays a role in the production of the neurotransmitter glutamic acid. Selective inhibition of GAC expression by DPAA may be a cause of dysfunction of glutamatergic neuronal transmission and the resultant neurological impairments.

  1. Evidence for cell proliferation in the sheep brain and its down-regulation by parturition and interactions with the young.

    PubMed

    Brus, M; Meurisse, M; Franceschini, I; Keller, M; Lévy, F

    2010-11-01

    Production of new neurons continues throughout life in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and is influenced by both endocrine and social factors. In sheep parturition is associated with the establishment of a selective bond with the young based on an olfactory learning. The possibility exists that endocrine changes at parturition together with interactions with the young modulate cell proliferation in the neurogenic zones. In the present study, we first investigated the existence of cell proliferation in sheep. Newly born cells labeled by the cell proliferation marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) were found in the SVZ, the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the DG and completely co-localized with Ki-67, another mitotic marker. Forty to 50% of the BrdU-labeled cells contained GFAP suggestive of the presence of neural stem cells. Secondly, parturition with or without interactions with the lamb for 2 days, down-regulated the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the 3 proliferation sites in comparison to no pregnancy. An additional control provided evidence that this effect is specific to early postpartum period: estrus with interactions with males did not affect cell proliferation. Our results provide the first characterization of neural cell proliferation in the SVZ, the DG and unexpectedly in the MOB of adult sheep. We hypothesize that the down-regulation of cell proliferation observed in the early postpartum period could facilitate the olfactory perceptual and memory demands associated with maternal behavior by favouring the survival and integration of neurons born earlier.

  2. Down-regulation of MicroRNA-126 in Glioblastoma and its Correlation with Patient Prognosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Han, In Bo; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Soo Hong; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Se Hoon; Chang, Jong Hee; Teng, Yang D

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the adult human brain. Although microRNA-126 (miR-126) has been reported to exhibit expression abnormalities in various types of cancer, to date very few studies have examined changes in miR-126 level in glioblastoma. In this pilot study, we investigated the changes in miR-126 expression in newly-dissected primary glioblastoma to explore possible roles of miR-126 in patient prognosis. Total RNA was extracted from tumoral and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 14 patients' paired frozen specimens. Using an established quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR protocol, the levels of miR-126 in glioblastoma and adjacent non-tumor brain tissues were compared against small nucleolar RNA U48 (RNU48) as a reference gene. The expression of miR-126 in glioblastoma samples was significantly lower than in paired non-tumoral controls (p<0.05). Importantly, age-adjusted analyses suggest that glioblastoma patients with higher relative intratumoral miR-126 expression (i.e. 53-79% relative to that of the control tissue; n=7) had significantly improved survival duration than patients whose miR-126 levels were lower (i.e. 12-48%, n=7; stratified log-rank analysis p=0.011 when the dividing threshold was set at ≥51%; total: n=14, male: 8; female: 6). Thus, intraglioblastoma miR-126 may be down-regulated relative to normal tissue and patients with less down-regulation of intratumoral miR-126 expression could have improved postsurgical prognosis. Future clinical studies with larger sample sizes should be performed to validate this observation.

  3. CRM 1-mediated degradation and agonist-induced down-regulation of beta-adrenergic receptor mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Lu, Huafei; Machida, Curtis A

    2006-10-01

    The beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-AR) mRNAs are post-transcriptionally regulated at the level of mRNA stability and undergo accelerated agonist-mediated degradation via interaction of its 3' untranslated region (UTR) with RNA binding proteins, including the HuR nuclear protein. In a previous report [Kirigiti et al. (2001). Mol. Pharmacol. 60:1308-1324], we examined the agonist-mediated down-regulation of the rat beta1-AR mRNAs, endogenously expressed in the rat C6 cell line and ectopically expressed in transfectant hamster DDT1MF2 and rat L6 cells. In this report, we determined that isoproterenol treatment of neonatal rat cortical neurons, an important cell type expressing beta1-ARs in the brain, results in significant decreases in beta1-AR mRNA stability, while treatment with leptomycin B, an inhibitor of the nuclear export receptor CRM 1, results in significant increases in beta1-AR mRNA stability and nuclear retention. UV-crosslinking/immunoprecipitation and glycerol gradient fractionation analyses indicate that the beta1-AR 3' UTR recognize complexes composed of HuR and multiple proteins, including CRM 1. Cell-permeable peptides containing the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) were used as inhibitors of CRM 1-mediated nuclear export. When DDT1MF2 transfectants were treated with isoproterenol and peptide inhibitors, only the co-addition of the NES inhibitor reversed the isoproterenol-induced reduction of beta1-AR mRNA levels. Our results suggest that CRM 1-dependent NES-mediated mechanisms influence the degradation and agonist-mediated down-regulation of the beta1-AR mRNAs.

  4. 21-Aminosteroids prevent the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induced by hypoxia and inflammation in conscious rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Galal, Ahmed; du Souich, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess whether a 21-aminosteroid, U74389G, could prevent the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) induced by acute moderate hypoxia or an inflammatory reaction.The rabbits of two groups (n=6 per group) were subjected to acute moderate hypoxia (PaO2≈35 mmHg), one pre-treated with U74389G (3 mg kg−1 i.v. every 6 h, for 48 h). The rabbits of two other groups received 5 ml of turpentine s.c., one of them being pre-treated with U74389G (3 mg kg−1 i.v. every 6 h, for 72 h). The kinetics of theophylline (2.5 mg kg−1) were assessed to evaluate the activity of the P450. Once the rabbits were sacrificed, the P450 content and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of lipid peroxidation, were estimated in the liver.Compared with control rabbits, hypoxia and inflammation increased theophylline plasma concentrations, as a result of a decrease in theophylline systemic clearance (P<0.05). Both experimental conditions reduced hepatic content of P450 by 40–50% (P<0.05) and increased the amount of hepatic TBARS by around 50% (P<0.05). Pre-treatment with U74389G prevented the hypoxia- and inflammation-induced decrease in theophylline systemic clearance, the down-regulation of hepatic P450, and the increase in liver TBARS.It is concluded that in the rabbit, U74389G prevents hepatic P450 depression produced by acute moderate hypoxia and a turpentine-induced inflammatory reaction, possibly by eliciting a radical quenching antioxidant activity. PMID:10510447

  5. Phospholipase C-epsilon augments epidermal growth factor-dependent cell growth by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sanguk; Hong, Won-Pyo; Choi, Jang Hyun; Yi, Kye Sook; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2008-01-04

    The down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is critical for the termination of EGF-dependent signaling, and the dysregulation of this process can lead to oncogenesis. In the present study, we suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of EGF receptor down-regulation by phospholipase C-epsilon. The overexpression of PLC-epsilon led to an increase in receptor recycling and decreased the down-regulation of the EGF receptor in COS-7 cells. Adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) was identified as a novel binding protein that associates with the PLC-epsilon RA2 domain independently of Ras. The interaction of PLC-epsilon with AP2 was responsible for the suppression of EGF receptor down-regulation, since a perturbation in this interaction abolished this effect. Enhanced EGF receptor stability by PLC-epsilon led to the potentiation of EGF-dependent growth in COS-7 cells. Finally, the knockdown of PLC-epsilon in mouse embryo fibroblast cells elicited a severe defect in EGF-dependent growth. Our results indicated that PLC-epsilon could promote EGF-dependent cell growth by suppressing receptor down-regulation.

  6. Disruption of mechanical stress in extracellular matrix is related to Stanford type A aortic dissection through down-regulation of Yes-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Jian; Ren, Wei-Hong; Liu, Xu-Jie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fu-Jian; Sun, Li-Zhong; Lan, Feng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Jia

    2016-09-05

    In this study, we assessed whether the down-regulation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) is involved in the pathogenesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanical stress-induced Stanford type A aortic dissection (STAAD). Human aortic samples were obtained from heart transplantation donors as normal controls and from STAAD patients undergoing surgical replacement of the ascending aorta. Decreased maximum aortic wall velocity, ECM disorders, increased VSMC apoptosis, and YAP down-regulation were identified in STAAD samples. In a mouse model of STAAD, YAP was down-regulated over time during the development of ECM damage, and increased VSMC apoptosis was also observed. YAP knockdown induced VSMC apoptosis under static conditions in vitro, and the change in mechanical stress induced YAP down-regulation and VSMC apoptosis. This study provides evidence that YAP down-regulation caused by the disruption of mechanical stress is associated with the development of STAAD via the induction of apoptosis in aortic VSMCs. As STAAD is among the most elusive and life-threatening vascular diseases, better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of STAAD is critical to improve clinical outcome.

  7. Disruption of mechanical stress in extracellular matrix is related to Stanford type A aortic dissection through down-regulation of Yes-associated protein

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen-Jian; Ren, Wei-Hong; Liu, Xu-Jie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fu-Jian; Sun, Li-Zhong; Lan, Feng; Du, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Jia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assessed whether the down-regulation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) is involved in the pathogenesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanical stress-induced Stanford type A aortic dissection (STAAD). Human aortic samples were obtained from heart transplantation donors as normal controls and from STAAD patients undergoing surgical replacement of the ascending aorta. Decreased maximum aortic wall velocity, ECM disorders, increased VSMC apoptosis, and YAP down-regulation were identified in STAAD samples. In a mouse model of STAAD, YAP was down-regulated over time during the development of ECM damage, and increased VSMC apoptosis was also observed. YAP knockdown induced VSMC apoptosis under static conditions in vitro, and the change in mechanical stress induced YAP down-regulation and VSMC apoptosis. This study provides evidence that YAP down-regulation caused by the disruption of mechanical stress is associated with the development of STAAD via the induction of apoptosis in aortic VSMCs. As STAAD is among the most elusive and life-threatening vascular diseases, better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of STAAD is critical to improve clinical outcome. PMID:27608489

  8. The effects of frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis: the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Michael V.; Lockridge, Robert S.; Beck, Gerald J.; Eggers, Paul W.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Chan, Christopher T.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Copland, Michael; Hoy, Christopher D.; Lindsay, Robert M.; Levin, Nathan W.; Ornt, Daniel B.; Pierratos, Andreas; Pipkin, Mary F.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Stokes, John B.; Unruh, Mark L.; Star, Robert A.; Kliger, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Prior small studies have shown multiple benefits of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis compared to conventional three times per week treatments. To study this further, we randomized 87 patients to three times per week conventional hemodialysis or to nocturnal hemodialysis six times per week, all with single-use high-flux dialyzers. The 45 patients in the frequent nocturnal arm had a 1.82-fold higher mean weekly stdKt/Vurea, a 1.74-fold higher average number of treatments per week, and a 2.45-fold higher average weekly treatment time than the 42 patients in the conventional arm. We did not find a significant effect of nocturnal hemodialysis for either of the two coprimary outcomes (death or left ventricular mass (measured by MRI) with a hazard ratio of 0.68, or of death or RAND Physical Health Composite with a hazard ratio of 0.91). Possible explanations for the left ventricular mass result include limited sample size and patient characteristics. Secondary outcomes included cognitive performance, self-reported depression, laboratory markers of nutrition, mineral metabolism and anemia, blood pressure and rates of hospitalization, and vascular access interventions. Patients in the nocturnal arm had improved control of hyperphosphatemia and hypertension, but no significant benefit among the other main secondary outcomes. There was a trend for increased vascular access events in the nocturnal arm. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate a definitive benefit of more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis for either coprimary outcome. PMID:21775973

  9. The effects of frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis: the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V; Lockridge, Robert S; Beck, Gerald J; Eggers, Paul W; Gassman, Jennifer J; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Chan, Christopher T; Chertow, Glenn M; Copland, Michael; Hoy, Christopher D; Lindsay, Robert M; Levin, Nathan W; Ornt, Daniel B; Pierratos, Andreas; Pipkin, Mary F; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Stokes, John B; Unruh, Mark L; Star, Robert A; Kliger, Alan S; Kliger, A; Eggers, P; Briggs, J; Hostetter, T; Narva, A; Star, R; Augustine, B; Mohr, P; Beck, G; Fu, Z; Gassman, J; Greene, T; Daugirdas, J; Hunsicker, L; Larive, B; Li, M; Mackrell, J; Wiggins, K; Sherer, S; Weiss, B; Rajagopalan, S; Sanz, J; Dellagrottaglie, S; Kariisa, M; Tran, T; West, J; Unruh, M; Keene, R; Schlarb, J; Chan, C; McGrath-Chong, M; Frome, R; Higgins, H; Ke, S; Mandaci, O; Owens, C; Snell, C; Eknoyan, G; Appel, L; Cheung, A; Derse, A; Kramer, C; Geller, N; Grimm, R; Henderson, L; Prichard, S; Roecker, E; Rocco, M; Miller, B; Riley, J; Schuessler, R; Lockridge, R; Pipkin, M; Peterson, C; Hoy, C; Fensterer, A; Steigerwald, D; Stokes, J; Somers, D; Hilkin, A; Lilli, K; Wallace, W; Franzwa, B; Waterman, E; Chan, C; McGrath-Chong, M; Copland, M; Levin, A; Sioson, L; Cabezon, E; Kwan, S; Roger, D; Lindsay, R; Suri, R; Champagne, J; Bullas, R; Garg, A; Mazzorato, A; Spanner, E; Rocco, M; Burkart, J; Moossavi, S; Mauck, V; Kaufman, T; Pierratos, A; Chan, W; Regozo, K; Kwok, S

    2011-11-01

    Prior small studies have shown multiple benefits of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis compared to conventional three times per week treatments. To study this further, we randomized 87 patients to three times per week conventional hemodialysis or to nocturnal hemodialysis six times per week, all with single-use high-flux dialyzers. The 45 patients in the frequent nocturnal arm had a 1.82-fold higher mean weekly stdKt/V(urea), a 1.74-fold higher average number of treatments per week, and a 2.45-fold higher average weekly treatment time than the 42 patients in the conventional arm. We did not find a significant effect of nocturnal hemodialysis for either of the two coprimary outcomes (death or left ventricular mass (measured by MRI) with a hazard ratio of 0.68, or of death or RAND Physical Health Composite with a hazard ratio of 0.91). Possible explanations for the left ventricular mass result include limited sample size and patient characteristics. Secondary outcomes included cognitive performance, self-reported depression, laboratory markers of nutrition, mineral metabolism and anemia, blood pressure and rates of hospitalization, and vascular access interventions. Patients in the nocturnal arm had improved control of hyperphosphatemia and hypertension, but no significant benefit among the other main secondary outcomes. There was a trend for increased vascular access events in the nocturnal arm. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate a definitive benefit of more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis for either coprimary outcome.

  10. Vision and visual navigation in nocturnal insects.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    With their highly sensitive visual systems, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to discriminate colors, orient themselves using faint celestial cues, fly unimpeded through a complicated habitat, and navigate to and from a nest using learned visual landmarks. Even though the compound eyes of nocturnal insects are significantly more sensitive to light than those of their closely related diurnal relatives, their photoreceptors absorb photons at very low rates in dim light, even during demanding nocturnal visual tasks. To explain this apparent paradox, it is hypothesized that the necessary bridge between retinal signaling and visual behavior is a neural strategy of spatial and temporal summation at a higher level in the visual system. Exactly where in the visual system this summation takes place, and the nature of the neural circuitry that is involved, is currently unknown but provides a promising avenue for future research.

  11. Mechanisms Underlying the Very High Susceptibility of the Immature Mammary Gland to Carcinogenic Initiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    lipopolysacchride-BP (LBP) 59 human PCA clone DJ0740D02 7p14 4 rat putative RNA binding protein gene 60 human mRNA for Pex protein 5 rat GSH S-transferase (3) 61...the comet assay to primary mammary cells, and 5) identified numerous genes that are either up or down regulated in immature mammary gland. We are...related to the increased sensitivity of radiation-induced cell killing? 6. How is the spectrum of gene expression in the immature and mature mammary glands

  12. MiR-203 suppresses tumor growth and invasion and down-regulates MiR-21 expression through repressing Ran in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Yang, Zhiping; Cao, Minjun; Xu, Yinsheng; Li, Jintao; Chen, Xuebin; Gao, Zhi; Xin, Jing; Zhou, Shaomei; Zhou, Zhixiang; Yang, Yishu; Sheng, Wang; Zeng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The expression of miR-203 has been reported to be significantly down-regulated in esophageal cancer. We showed here that overexpression of miR-203 in esophageal cancer cells dramatically increased cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as tumor growth and down-regulated miR-21 expression. We subsequently identified that small GTPase Ran was a target gene of miR-203. Furthermore, Ran restoration partially counteracted the tumor suppressive effects of miR-203 and increased miR-21 expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-203 may act as novel tumor suppressor in esophageal cancer through down-regulating the expression of Ran and miR-21.

  13. Transforming growth factor-α induces human ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin in a Snail-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Fan, Qianlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; So, Wai-Kin; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-05-22

    Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), like epidermal growth factor (EGF) and amphiregulin (AREG) binds exclusively to EGF receptor (EGFR). We have previously demonstrated that EGF, AREG and TGF-α down-regulate E-cadherin and induce ovarian cancer cell invasion, though whether these ligands use the same molecular mediators remains unknown. We now show that, like EGF, TGF-α- and AREG-induced E-cadherin down-regulation involves both EGFR and HER2. However, in contrast to EGF and AREG, the transcription factor Snail is not required for TGF-α-induced E-cadherin down-regulation. This study shows that TGF-α uses common and divergent molecular mediators to regulate E-cadherin expression and cell invasion.

  14. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  15. Down-regulation of tumor suppressor gene PTEN, overexpression of p53, plus high proliferating cell nuclear antigen index predict poor patient outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma after resection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tsung-Hui; Wang, Chih-Chi; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Chao-Long; Hung, Chao-Hung; Chen, Chien-Hung; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Lee, Chuan-Mo; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2007-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interaction of two tumor suppressor genes PTEN and p53 and their relationship with cell cycle protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 124 resected HCC paraffin specimens were collected from 1987 to 1999 for immunohistochemistry. Expression of PTEN, p53 and PCNA in HCC were analyzed for clinicopathologic correlation. The study revealed decreased or absent PTEN immunostaining (PTEN down-regulation) in 42.7% and positive p53 (p53+) immunostaining in 41.9% of HCC. There was a positive correlation between PTEN down-regulation and p53 (+) (P=0.001). PTEN down-regulation or p53 (+) correlated with increased HCC dedifferentiation, advanced pathologic stages and high PCNA labeling index (LI) of tumors (P<0.05). Patients with either PTEN down-regulation, p53 (+), or high PCNA LI had shorter survival and higher recurrence rates than patients with intact PTEN expression, p53 (-), or low PCNA LI respectively (P<0.05). By combining the three genes, patients with all PTEN down-regulation (+)/p53 (+)/high PCNA LI had the shortest overall survival (P<0.001) and the highest recurrence rates (P<0.001), followed by patients with two, one and none of three events accordingly. Combination of PTEN/p53/PCNA represented an independent prognostic factor for tumor recurrence and disease-specific survival (P<0.05). In conclusion, the down-regulated PTEN expression and p53 over-expression are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC. They correlate with high PCNA expression, HCC de-differentiation and advanced HCC stages. A combination of the three genes predicts patient outcome more powerfully than any of the individual genes.

  16. Species-independent down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis and respiration in response to shading: evidence from six temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anping; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Osnas, Jeanne L D; Pacala, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The ability to down-regulate leaf maximum net photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and dark respiration rate (Rdark) in response to shading is thought to be an important adaptation of trees to the wide range of light environments that they are exposed to across space and time. A simple, general rule that accurately described this down-regulation would improve carbon cycle models and enhance our understanding of how forest successional diversity is maintained. In this paper, we investigated the light response of Amax and Rdark for saplings of six temperate forest tree species in New Jersey, USA, and formulated a simple model of down-regulation that could be incorporated into carbon cycle models. We found that full-sun values of Amax and Rdark differed significantly among species, but the rate of down-regulation (proportional decrease in Amax or Rdark relative to the full-sun value) in response to shade was not significantly species- or taxon-specific. Shade leaves of sun-grown plants appear to follow the same pattern of down-regulation in response to shade as leaves of shade-grown plants. Given the light level above a leaf and one species-specific number (either the full-sun Amax or full-sun Rdark), we provide a formula that can accurately predict the leaf's Amax and Rdark. We further show that most of the down regulation of per unit area Rdark and Amax is caused by reductions in leaf mass per unit area (LMA): as light decreases, leaves get thinner, while per unit mass Amax and Rdark remain approximately constant.

  17. Green tea polyphenols down-regulate caveolin-1 expression via ERK1/2 and p38MAPK in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanrong; Ying, Chenjiang; Zuo, Xuezhi; Yi, Haiwei; Yi, Weijie; Meng, Yi; Ikeda, Katsumi; Ye, Xiaolei; Yamori, Yukio; Sun, Xiufa

    2009-12-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a negative regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), influences various aspects of the cardiovascular functions. We had reported that a high-fat diet up-regulated aortic Cav-1 expressions in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial Cav-1 expression and phosphorylation in vitro. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with 4 microg/ml GTPs for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h, and with 0, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 40 microg/ml GTPs for 16 h, respectively. Cav-1 protein and mRNA were detected using Western blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Cav-1 protein expression was down-regulated after treatment of BAECs with 4 microg/ml GTPs for 12, 16 and 24 h. And decrease in the level of Cav-1 mRNA was observed after GTP treatment for 4 and 8 h. GTPs (0.04-4 microg/ml) down-regulate Cav-1 protein expressions and mRNA levels dose dependently. PD98059, an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), up-regulated Cav-1 expression in BAECs alone and abolished the down-regulation effects of GTPs in BAECs while pretreatment with it. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) with SB203580, which down-regulates Cav-1 expression in BAECs alone, deteriorated the Cav-1 down-regulating effects by GTPs. In addition to the effects on expression of Cav-1, GTP treatment inhibited phosphorylation of Cav-1 [tyrosine 14 (Tyr14)]. These data indicate that GTPs down-regulate gene expression of Cav-1 time- and dose- dependently via activating ERK1/2 and inhibiting p38MAPK signaling.

  18. Species-Independent Down-Regulation of Leaf Photosynthesis and Respiration in Response to Shading: Evidence from Six Temperate Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Anping; Lichstein, Jeremy W.; Osnas, Jeanne L. D.; Pacala, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to down-regulate leaf maximum net photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and dark respiration rate (Rdark) in response to shading is thought to be an important adaptation of trees to the wide range of light environments that they are exposed to across space and time. A simple, general rule that accurately described this down-regulation would improve carbon cycle models and enhance our understanding of how forest successional diversity is maintained. In this paper, we investigated the light response of Amax and Rdark for saplings of six temperate forest tree species in New Jersey, USA, and formulated a simple model of down-regulation that could be incorporated into carbon cycle models. We found that full-sun values of Amax and Rdark differed significantly among species, but the rate of down-regulation (proportional decrease in Amax or Rdark relative to the full-sun value) in response to shade was not significantly species- or taxon-specific. Shade leaves of sun-grown plants appear to follow the same pattern of down-regulation in response to shade as leaves of shade-grown plants. Given the light level above a leaf and one species-specific number (either the full-sun Amax or full-sun Rdark), we provide a formula that can accurately predict the leaf's Amax and Rdark. We further show that most of the down regulation of per unit area Rdark and Amax is caused by reductions in leaf mass per unit area (LMA): as light decreases, leaves get thinner, while per unit mass Amax and Rdark remain approximately constant. PMID:24727745

  19. Policosanol safely down-regulates HMG-CoA reductase - potential as a component of the Esselstyn regimen.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2002-09-01

    Many of the wide-ranging health benefits conferred by statin therapy are mediated, not by reductions in LDL cholesterol, but rather by inhibition of isoprenylation reactions essential to the activation of Rho family GTPases; this may be the mechanism primarily responsible for the favorable impact of statins on risk for ischemic stroke, senile dementia, and fractures, as well as the anti-hypertensive and platelet-stabilizing actions of these drugs. Indeed, the extent of these benefits is such as to suggest that most adults would be wise to take statins; however, owing to the significant expense of statin therapy, as well as to the potential for dangerous side effects that mandates regular physician follow-up, this strategy appears impractical. However, policosanol, a mixture of long-chain aliphatic alcohols extractable from sugar cane wax, has shown cholesterol-lowering potency comparable to that of statins, and yet appears to be devoid of toxic risk. Recent evidence indicates that policosanol down-regulates cellular expression of HMG-CoA reductase, and thus has the potential to suppress isoprenylation reactions much like statins do. Consistent with this possibility, the results of certain clinical and animal studies demonstrate that policosanol has many effects analogous to those of statins that are not likely explained by reductions of LDL cholesterol. However, unlike statins, policosanol does not directly inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, and even in high concentrations it fails to down-regulate this enzyme by more than 50% - thus likely accounting for the safety of this nutraceutical. In light of the fact that policosanol is quite inexpensive and is becoming available as a non-prescription dietary supplement, it may represent a practical resource that could enable the general public to enjoy health benefits comparable to those conferred by statins. In a long-term clinical study enrolling patients with significant symptomatic coronary disease, Esselstyn has demonstrated

  20. Down-regulation of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase gene in switchgrass reveals a novel monolignol analog

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.68 (COMT) gene in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) resulted in cell walls of transgenic plants releasing more constituent sugars after pretreatment by dilute acid and treatment with glycosyl hydrolases from an added enzyme preparation and from Clostridium thermocellum. Fermentation of both wild-type and transgenic switchgrass after milder hot water pretreatment with no water washing showed that only the transgenic switchgrass inhibited C. thermocellum. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS)-based metabolomics were undertaken on cell wall aqueous extracts to determine the nature of the microbial inhibitors. Results GCMS confirmed the increased concentration of a number of phenolic acids and aldehydes that are known inhibitors of microbial fermentation. Metabolomic analyses of the transgenic biomass additionally revealed the presence of a novel monolignol-like metabolite, identified as trans-3, 4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (iso-sinapyl alcohol) in both non-pretreated, as well as hot water pretreated samples. iso-Sinapyl alcohol and its glucoside were subsequently generated by organic synthesis and the identity of natural and synthetic materials were confirmed by mass spectrometric and NMR analyses. The additional novel presence of iso-sinapic acid, iso-sinapyl aldehyde, and iso-syringin suggest the increased activity of a para-methyltransferase, concomitant with the reduced COMT activity, a strict meta-methyltransferase. Quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the most likely homodimeric lignans generated from dehydration reactions, but these products were not evident in plant samples. Conclusions Down-regulation of COMT activity in switchgrass resulted in the accumulation of previously undetected metabolites resembling sinapyl alcohol and its related metabolites, but that are derived from para-methylation of 5-hydroxyconiferyl

  1. Nocturnal manifestations of atypical parkinsonian disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Jitkritsadakul, Onanong; Colosimo, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Although nocturnal disturbances are increasingly recognized as an integral part of the continuum of daytime manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), there is still little evidence in the medical literature to support the occurrence of these complex phenomena in patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs). Based on the anatomical substrates in APDs, which are considered to be more extensive outside the basal ganglia than in PD, we might expect that patients with APDs encounter the whole range of nocturnal disturbances, including motor, sleep disorders, autonomic dysfunctions, and neuropsychiatric manifestations at a similar, or even greater, frequency than in PD. This article is a review of the current literature on the problems at nighttime of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. MEDLINE, life science journals and online books were searched by querying appropriate key words. Reports were included if the studies were related to nocturnal manifestations in APDs. Forty articles fulfilled the selection criteria. Differences between these symptoms in APDs and PD are highlighted, given the evidence available about each manifestation. This analysis of nocturnal manifestations of APDs suggests the need for future studies to address these issues to improve the quality of life not only of patients with APDs but the caregivers who encounter the challenges of supporting these patients on a daily basis.

  2. The Behavioral Treatment of Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that of the treatments attempted for nocturnal enuresis, pharmacotherapy, individual psychotherapy, and behavioral conditioning, the most effective is behavioral conditioning with a urine alarm. Reviews the enuresis literature and provides recommendations for use of the urine alarm approach. (Author/ABB)

  3. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  4. Crepuscular and nocturnal illumination and its effects on color perception by the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Sönke; Kelber, Almut; Warrant, Eric; Sweeney, Alison M; Widder, Edith A; Lee, Raymond L; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that certain nocturnal insect and vertebrate species have true color vision under nocturnal illumination. Thus, their vision is potentially affected by changes in the spectral quality of twilight and nocturnal illumination, due to the presence or absence of the moon, artificial light pollution and other factors. We investigated this in the following manner. First we measured the spectral irradiance (from 300 to 700 nm) during the day, sunset, twilight, full moon, new moon, and in the presence of high levels of light pollution. The spectra were then converted to both human-based chromaticities and to relative quantum catches for the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor, which has color vision. The reflectance spectra of various flowers and leaves and the red hindwings of D. elpenor were also converted to chromaticities and relative quantum catches. Finally, the achromatic and chromatic contrasts (with and without von Kries color constancy) of the flowers and hindwings against a leaf background were determined under the various lighting environments. The twilight and nocturnal illuminants were substantially different from each other, resulting in significantly different contrasts. The addition of von Kries color constancy significantly reduced the effect of changing illuminants on chromatic contrast, suggesting that, even in this light-limited environment, the ability of color vision to provide reliable signals under changing illuminants may offset the concurrent threefold decrease in sensitivity and spatial resolution. Given this, color vision may be more common in crepuscular and nocturnal species than previously considered.

  5. Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Forensically Important Diptera in Central England.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kate M; Grace, Karon A; Bulling, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England.

  6. Hyaluronan–CD44 interaction hampers migration of osteoclast-like cells by down-regulating MMP-9

    PubMed Central

    Spessotto, Paola; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Degan, Massimo; Di Francia, Raffaele; Perris, Roberto; Colombatti, Alfonso; Gattei, Valter

    2002-01-01

    Osteoclast (OC) precursors migrate to putative sites of bone resorption to form functionally active, multinucleated cells. The preOC FLG 29.1 cells, known to be capable of irreversibly differentiating into multinucleated OC-like cells, displayed several features of primary OCs, including expression of specific integrins and the hyaluronan (HA) receptor CD44. OC-like FLG 29.1 cells adhered to and extensively migrated through membranes coated with fibronectin, vitronectin, and laminins, but, although strongly binding to HA, totally failed to move on this substrate. Moreover, soluble HA strongly inhibited OC-like FLG 29.1 cell migration on the permissive matrix substrates, and this behavior was dependent on its engagement with CD44, as it was fully restored by function-blocking anti-CD44 antibodies. HA did not modulate the cell–substrate binding affinity/avidity nor the expression levels of the corresponding integrins. MMP-9 was the major secreted metalloproteinase used by OC-like FLG 29.1 cells for migration, because this process was strongly inhibited by both TIMP-1 and GM6001, as well as by MMP-9–specific antisense oligonucleotides. After HA binding to CD44, a strong down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein was detected. These findings highlight a novel role of the HA–CD44 interaction in the context of OC-like cell motility, suggesting that it may act as a stop signal for bone-resorbing cells. PMID:12235127

  7. Mutational analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus: the orf-B region down-regulates virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Luciw, P A; Cheng-Mayer, C; Levy, J A

    1987-01-01

    Mutations were made by recombinant DNA techniques in an infectious molecular clone of the human immunodeficiency virus San Francisco isolate 2 (HIVSF2) [formerly the prototype isolate of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus (ARV-2)]. The effect of these changes on the replicative and cytopathologic properties of the virus was studied by transfecting modified virus clones into cultured human cells. Mutations in the gag, pol, env, and tat regions precluded virus replication and cytopathology in lymphoid cells. A mutation in orf-A dramatically reduced but did not abolish virus replication. Mutant viruses with deletions in the orf-B region were highly cytopathic and replicated to approximately 5-fold higher levels than wild-type virus. They also produced approximately 5-fold more viral DNA in infected lymphoid cells than did wild-type virus. Thus, the orf-B region may function to down-regulate virus replication. This mutational analysis of the HIVSF2 genome is a means of assessing genes regulating viral replication and cytopathology. Images PMID:2434956

  8. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Wu, Fenping; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chong; Su, Wenmei

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management.

  9. Down-regulation of transcription elogation factor A (SII) like 4 (TCEAL4) in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akaishi, Junko; Onda, Masamitsu; Okamoto, Junichi; Miyamoto, Shizuyo; Nagahama, Mitsuji; Ito, Kouichi; Yoshida, Akira; Shimizu, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and appears to arise mainly from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. Previously, we investigated specific genes related to ATC based on gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray analysis. One of these genes, transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 4 (TCEAL4), encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like gene family. The detailed function of TCEAL4 has not been described nor has any association between this gene and human cancers been reported previously. Methods To investigate the role of TCEAL4 in ATC carcinogenesis, we examined expression levels of TCEAL4 in ACLs as well as in other types of thyroid cancers and normal human tissue. Results Expression of TCEAL4 was down-regulated in all 11 ACLs as compared to either normal thyroid tissues or papillary and follicular thyroid cancerous tissues. TCEAL4 was expressed ubiquitously in all normal human tissues tested. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of altered TCEAL4 expression in human cancers. We suggest that loss of TCEAL4 expression might be associated with development of ATC from DTC. Further functional studies are required. PMID:17076909

  10. Down-regulation of miR-181a can reduce heat stress damage in PBMCs of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Lin; Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Min-Yan; Li, Hui-Xia

    2016-09-01

    Heat stress can weaken the immune system and even increase livestock's susceptibility to disease. MicroRNA (miR) is short non-coding RNA that functions in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and some phenotypes. Our recent study found that miR-181a is highly expressed in the serum of heat-stressed Holstein cows, but the potential function of miR-181a is still not clarified. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from Holstein cows' peripheral blood, were used to investigate the effects of miR-181a inhibitor on heat stress damage. Our results showed that significant apoptosis and oxidative damage were induced by heat stress in PBMCs. However, with apoptosis, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were reduced, while the content of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased even under heat stress conditions after transfecting miR-181a inhibitors to PBMCs. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of bax and caspase-3 was significantly decreased, but mRNA expression of bcl-2 was increased in transfected PBMCs. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-181a can reduce heat stress damage in PBMCs of Holstein cows.

  11. Interleukin-6 increases matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) levels via down-regulation of p53 to drive cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Cathcart, Jillian M.; Banach, Anna; Liu, Alice; Chen, Jun; Goligorsky, Michael; Cao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in cancer invasion and metastasis by digesting basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM). Much attention has focused on the enzymatic activities of MMPs; however, the regulatory mechanism of MMP expression remains elusive. By employing bioinformatics analysis, we identified a potential p53 response element within the MMP-14 promoter. Experimentally, we found that p53 can repress MMP-14 promoter activity, whereas deletion of this p53 response element abrogated this effect. Furthermore, we found that p53 expression decreases MMP-14 mRNA and protein levels and attenuates MMP-14-mediated cellular functions. Additional promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies identified a mechanism of regulation of MMP-14 expression by which p53 and transcription factor Sp1 competitively bind to the promoter. As the correlation between inflammation and cancer aggressiveness is well described, we next sought to evaluate if inflammatory cytokines could differentially affect p53 and MMP-14 levels. We demonstrate that interleukin-6 (IL-6) down-regulates p53 protein levels and thus results in a concomitant increase in MMP-14 expression, leading to enhanced cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Our data collectively indicate a novel mechanism of regulation of MMP-14 by a cascade of IL-6 and p53, demonstrating that the tumor microenvironment directly stimulates molecular changes in cancer cells to drive an invasive phenotype. PMID:27531896

  12. Manganese induces oligomerization to promote down-regulation of the intracellular trafficking receptor used by Shiga toxin

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Ritika; Jarvela, Timothy; Linstedt, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) protects cells against lethal doses of purified Shiga toxin by causing the degradation of the cycling transmembrane protein GPP130, which the toxin uses as a trafficking receptor. Mn-induced GPP130 down-regulation, in addition to being a potential therapeutic approach against Shiga toxicosis, is a model for the study of metal-regulated protein sorting. Significantly, however, the mechanism by which Mn regulates GPP130 trafficking is unknown. Here we show that a transferable trafficking determinant within GPP130 bound Mn and that Mn binding induced GPP130 oligomerization in the Golgi. Alanine substitutions blocking Mn binding abrogated both oligomerization of GPP130 and GPP130 sorting from the Golgi to lysosomes. Further, oligomerization was sufficient because forced aggregation, using a drug-controlled polymerization domain, redirected GPP130 to lysosomes in the absence of Mn. These experiments reveal metal-induced oligomerization as a Golgi sorting mechanism for a medically relevant receptor for Shiga toxin. PMID:25079690

  13. A gene encoding a protein elicitor of Phytophthora infestans is down-regulated during infection of potato.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, S; van West, P; de Jong, A J; de Groot, K E; Vleeshouwers, V G; Govers, F

    1997-01-01

    Most species of the genus Phytophthora produce 10-kDa extracellular protein elicitors, collectively termed elicitins. Elicitins induce hypersensitive response in a restricted number of plants, particularly in the genus Nicotiana within the Solanaceae family. A cDNA encoding INF1, the major secreted elicitin of Phytophthora infestans, a pathogen of solanaceous plants, was isolated and characterized. The expression of the corresponding inf1 gene during the disease cycle of P. infestans was analyzed. inf1 was shown to be expressed in mycelium grown in various culture media, whereas it was not expressed in sporangiospores, zoospores, cysts, and germinating cysts. In planta, during infection of potato, particularly during the biotrophic stage, expression of inf1 was down-regulated compared to in vitro. The highest levels of expression of inf1 were observed in in vitro grown mycelium and in late stages of infection when profuse sporulation and leaf necrosis occur. The potential role of INF1 as an elicitor in interactions between P. infestans and Solanum species was investigated. Nineteen lines, representing nine solanaceous species with various levels of resistance to P. infestans, were tested for response to an Escherichia coli expressed INF1. Within the genus Solanum, resistance to P. infestans did not appear to be mediated by a defense response elicited by INF1. However, INF1 recognition could be a component of nonhost resistance of tobacco to P. infestans.

  14. miR-101 is down-regulated in glioblastoma resulting in EZH2-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Michiel; Nilsson, Jonas; Mir, Shahryar E.; van der Stoop, Petra M.; Hulleman, Esther; Niers, Johanna M.; de Witt Hamer, Phillip C.; Marquez, Victor E.; Cloos, Jacqueline; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Noske, David P.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Würdinger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor with dismal prognosis. GBM patients have a median survival of less than 2 years. GBM is characterized by fast cell proliferation, infiltrative migration, and by the induction of angiogenesis. MicroRNAs and polycomb group (PcG) proteins have emerged as important regulators of gene expression. Methods: Here we determined that miR-101 is down-regulated in GBM, resulting in overexpression of the miR-101 target PcG protein EZH2, a histone methyltransferase affecting gene expression profiles in an epigenetic manner. Results: Inhibition of EZH2 in vitro by pre-miR-101, EZH2 siRNA, or small molecule DZNep, attenuated GBM cell growth, migration/invasion, and GBM-induced endothelial tubule formation. In addition, for each biological process we identified ontology-associated transcripts that significantly correlate with EZH2 expression. Inhibition of EZH2 in vivo by systemic DZNep administration in a U87-Fluc-mCherry GBM xenograft mouse imaging model resulted in reduced tumor growth. Conclusion: Our results indicate that EZH2 has a versatile function in GBM progression and that its overexpression is at least partly due to decreased miR-101 expression. Inhibition of EZH2 may be a potential therapeutic strategy to target GBM proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. PMID:21321380

  15. Resistin impairs glucose permeability in EA.hy926 cells by down-regulating GLUT1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Cai, Yuxi; Huang, Jing; Yu, Xiaolan; Sun, Jun; Yang, Zaiqing; Zhou, Lei

    2016-10-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease which is now affecting the health of more and more people in the world. Resistin, discovered in 2001, is considered to be closely related to metabolic dysfunction and obesity. Previous study showed that hyperglycemia is always accompanied by a high serum resistin concentration. We therefore investigated whether resistin can mediate glucose transfer across the blood-tissue barrier. Here, we employed a transwell system to analyze glucose permeability in EA.hy926 human endothelial cells treated without or with human resistin. In EA.hy926 cells treated with resistin, the permeability to glucose was heavily impaired. This was due to the down-regulation of GLUT1 expression as a result of the treatment, rather than regulation of tight junctions. In addition, overexpression of GLUT1 in EA.hy926 cells was able to recover the blocking effect of resistin on glucose permeability. We further found that resistin could inhibit the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and consequently impede the transcription of GLUT1. The results of the present study suggested that resistin could cause glucose retention in serum and thus result in hyperglycemia. This provides a novel explanation for hyperglycemia and a potential new way of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Down-Regulation of lncRNA-AK001085 and its Influences on the Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chai, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Ni, Ming; Chen, Jiying; Dong, Jiyuan; Zhou, Yonggang; Hao, Libo; Bai, Yang; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-02

    BACKGROUND Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been confirmed to play an important role in the development and progression of diseases. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease and it is hard to be found in early time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of lncRNA-AK001085 in the diagnosis of AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of lncRNA-AK001085 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The relationship between its expression and clinicopathologic characteristics was also analyzed. Meanwhile the correlation between lncRNA-AK001085 expression and diseases activity indexes was estimated. In addition, the value of it in the diagnosis of AS was explored through establishing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS Serum lncRNA-AK001085 expression was decreased in patients with AS compared with healthy individuals. And its expression was proved to be influenced by ever cigarette smoker, exercise level and occupational activity level. Besides, the correlation of the expression of lncRNA-AK001085 and disease activity indexes (BASDI, ASDAS, ESR, CRP) were all negative, which suggested that the lncRNA-AK001085 was significantly lower in patients with a high disease activity score. It might showed that the expression of lncRNA-AK001085 affected the activity of AS. CONCLUSIONS LncRNA-AK001085 was down-regulated in AS patients and it could be an independent diagnostic indicator.

  17. Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Derived RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1 and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75%, 83% and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1 and OPR respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30-50% survival and FOW2 between 45-70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants.

  18. The reported clinical utility of taurine in ischemic disorders may reflect a down-regulation of neutrophil activation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1999-10-01

    The first publications regarding clinical use of taurine were Italian reports claiming therapeutic efficacy in angina, intermittent claudication and symptomatic cerebral arteriosclerosis. A down-regulation of neutrophil activation and endothelial adhesion might plausibly account for these observations. Endothelial platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a crucial stimulus to neutrophil adhesion and activation, whereas endothelial nitric oxide (NO) suppresses PAF production and acts in various other ways to antagonize binding and activation of neutrophils. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a neutrophil product which avidly oxidizes many sulfhydryl-dependent proteins, can be expected to inhibit NO synthase while up-regulating PAF generation; thus, a vicious circle can be postulated whereby HOCl released by marginating neutrophils acts on capillary or venular endothelium to promote further neutrophil adhesion and activation. Taurine is the natural detoxicant of HOCl, and thus has the potential to intervene in this vicious circle, promoting a less adhesive endothelium and restraining excessive neutrophil activation. Agents which inhibit the action of PAF on neutrophils, such as ginkgolides and pentoxifylline, have documented utility in ischemic disorders and presumably would complement the efficacy of taurine in this regard. Fish oil, which inhibits endothelial expression of various adhesion factors and probably PAF as well, and which suppresses neutrophil leukotriene production, may likewise be useful in ischemia. These agents may additionally constitute a non-toxic strategy for treating inflammatory disorders in which activated neutrophils play a prominent pathogenic role. Double-blind studies to confirm the efficacy of taurine in symptomatic chronic ischemia are needed.

  19. Down-regulation of GIGANTEA-like genes increases plant growth and salt stress tolerance in poplar.

    PubMed

    Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Ho Soo; Wang, Zhi; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Choi, Young-Im; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2017-03-01

    The flowering time regulator GIGANTEA (GI) connects networks involved in developmental stage transitions and environmental stress responses in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about the role of GI in growth, development and responses to environmental challenges in the perennial plant poplar. Here, we identified and functionally characterized three GI-like genes (PagGIa, PagGIb and PagGIc) from poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). PagGIs are predominantly nuclear localized and their transcripts are rhythmically expressed, with a peak around zeitgeber time 12 under long-day conditions. Overexpressing PagGIs in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis induced early flowering and salt sensitivity, while overexpressing PagGIs in the gi-2 mutant completely or partially rescued its delayed flowering and enhanced salt tolerance phenotypes. Furthermore, the PagGIs-PagSOS2 complexes inhibited PagSOS2-regulated phosphorylation of PagSOS1 in the absence of stress, whereas these inhibitions were eliminated due to the degradation of PagGIs under salt stress. Down-regulation of PagGIs by RNA interference led to vigorous growth, higher biomass and enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic poplar plants. Taken together, these results indicate that several functions of Arabidopsis GI are conserved in its poplar orthologues, and they lay the foundation for developing new approaches to producing salt-tolerant trees for sustainable development on marginal lands worldwide.

  20. Antitumor activity of curcumin is involved in down-regulation of YAP/TAZ expression in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lixia; Yin, Xuyuan; Yan, Jingzhe; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies worldwide and is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Certain studies have demonstrated that curcumin exerts its anti-tumor function in a variety of human cancers including PC, via targeting multiple therapeutically important cancer signaling pathways. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Two transcriptional co-activators, YAP (Yes-associated protein) and its close paralog TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif) exert oncogenic activities in various cancers. Therefore, in this study we aimed to determine the molecular basis of curcumin-induced cell proliferation inhibition in PC cells. First, we detected the anti-tumor effects of curcumin on PC cell lines using CTG assay, Flow cytometry, clonogenic assay, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay. We found that curcumin significantly suppressed cell growth, weakened clonogenic potential, inhibited migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in PC cells. We further measured that overexpression of YAP enhanced cell proliferation and abrogated the cytotoxic effects of curcumin on PC cells. Moreover, we found that curcumin markedly down-regulated YAP and TAZ expression and subsequently suppressed Notch-1 expression. Collectively, these findings suggest that pharmacological inhibition of YAP and TAZ activity may be a promising anticancer strategy for the treatment of PC patients. PMID:27738325

  1. Systemic Delivery of siRNA Down Regulates Brain Prion Protein and Ameliorates Neuropathology in Prion Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Resina, Sarah; Brillaud, Elsa; Casanova, Danielle; Vincent, Charles; Hamela, Claire; Poupeau, Sophie; Laffont, Mathieu; Gabelle, Audrey; Delaby, Constance; Belondrade, Maxime; Arnaud, Jacques-Damien; Alvarez, Maria-Teresa; Maurel, Jean-Claude; Maurel, Patrick; Crozet, Carole

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges for neurodegenerative disorders that are principally incurable is the development of new therapeutic strategies, which raises important medical, scientific and societal issues. Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases are rare neurodegenerative fatal disorders which today remain incurable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the down-regulation of the prion protein (PrP) expression using siRNA delivered by, a water-in-oil microemulsion, as a therapeutic candidate in a preclinical study. After 12 days rectal mucosa administration of Aonys/PrP-siRNA in mice, we observed a decrease of about 28% of the brain PrPC level. The effect of Aonys/PrP-siRNA was then evaluated on prion infected mice. Several mice presented a delay in the incubation and survival time compared to the control groups and a significant impact was observed on astrocyte reaction and neuronal survival in the PrP-siRNA treated groups. These results suggest that a new therapeutic scheme based an innovative delivery system of PrP-siRNA can be envisioned in prion disorders. PMID:24551164

  2. Down-regulation of plasma intrinsic protein1 aquaporin in poplar trees is detrimental to recovery from embolism.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2014-04-01

    During their lifecycles, trees encounter multiple events of water stress that often result in embolism formation and temporal decreases in xylem transport capacity. The restoration of xylem transport capacity requires changes in cell metabolic activity and gene expression. Specifically, in poplar (Populus spp.), the formation of xylem embolisms leads to a clear up-regulation of plasma membrane protein1 (PIP1) aquaporin genes. To determine their role in poplar response to water stress, transgenic Populus tremula × Populus alba plants characterized by the strong down-regulation of multiple isoforms belonging to the PIP1 subfamily were used. Transgenic lines showed that they are more vulnerable to embolism, with 50% percent loss of conductance occurring 0.3 MPa earlier than in wild-type plants, and that they also have a reduced capacity to restore xylem conductance during recovery. Transgenic plants also show symptoms of a reduced capacity to control percent loss of conductance through stomatal conductance in response to drought, because they have a much narrower vulnerability safety margin. Finally, a delay in stomatal conductance recovery during the period of stress relief was observed. The presented results suggest that PIP1 genes are involved in the maintenance of xylem transport system capacity, in the promotion of recovery from stress, and in contribution to a plant's control of stomatal conductance under water stress.

  3. Rapid transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc expression during cyclic adenosine monophosphate-promoted differentiation of leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Slungaard, A; Confer, D L; Schubach, W H

    1987-05-01

    Pharmacologic elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) promotes growth arrest and differentiation in a variety of transformed mammalian cells, including the HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. However, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. Because cellular oncogenes play a pivotal role in regulating proliferation and differentiation, we examined whether cAMP-promoted differentiation of HL-60 was preceded by a decrease in the expression of c-myc, a cellular oncogene both amplified and constitutively expressed in HL-60. We find that cyclic AMP elevation in HL-60 caused by three different pharmacologic regimens is followed by an abrupt, greater than 90% decrease in steady state c-myc mRNA levels within 3 h, well before detectable changes in proliferation and differentiation. This decrease, which occurs despite protein synthetic blockade, is attributable to transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc and is accompanied by changes in chromatin structure near c-myc promoter sites. Our findings establish that cAMP, a ubiquitous intracellular regulatory messenger previously known only to enhance gene transcriptional activity in higher eukaryotic cells, can also suppress transcription of a cellular oncogene, thereby suggesting a potential mechanism for cAMP-promoted differentiation.

  4. Rapid transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc expression during cyclic adenosine monophosphate-promoted differentiation of leukemic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Slungaard, A; Confer, D L; Schubach, W H

    1987-01-01

    Pharmacologic elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) promotes growth arrest and differentiation in a variety of transformed mammalian cells, including the HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. However, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. Because cellular oncogenes play a pivotal role in regulating proliferation and differentiation, we examined whether cAMP-promoted differentiation of HL-60 was preceded by a decrease in the expression of c-myc, a cellular oncogene both amplified and constitutively expressed in HL-60. We find that cyclic AMP elevation in HL-60 caused by three different pharmacologic regimens is followed by an abrupt, greater than 90% decrease in steady state c-myc mRNA levels within 3 h, well before detectable changes in proliferation and differentiation. This decrease, which occurs despite protein synthetic blockade, is attributable to transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc and is accompanied by changes in chromatin structure near c-myc promoter sites. Our findings establish that cAMP, a ubiquitous intracellular regulatory messenger previously known only to enhance gene transcriptional activity in higher eukaryotic cells, can also suppress transcription of a cellular oncogene, thereby suggesting a potential mechanism for cAMP-promoted differentiation. Images PMID:2437157

  5. Chronic fetal exposure to caffeine altered resistance vessel functions via RyRs-BKCa down-regulation in rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Li, Yongmei; Gao, Qinqin; Li, Dawei; Tang, Jiaqi; Sun, Miao; Zhang, Pengjie; Liu, Bailin; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine modifies vascular/cardiac contractility. Embryonic exposure to caffeine altered cardiac functions in offspring. This study determined chronic influence of prenatal caffeine on vessel functions in offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (5-month-old) were exposed to high dose of caffeine, their offspring (5-month-old) were tested for vascular functions in mesenteric arteries (MA) and ion channel activities in smooth muscle cells. Prenatal exposure to caffeine increased pressor responses and vasoconstrictions to phenylephrine, accompanied by enhanced membrane depolarization. Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels in buffering phenylephrine-induced vasoconstrictions was decreased, whole cell BKCa currents and spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) were decreased. Single channel recordings revealed reduced voltage/Ca2+ sensitivity of BKCa channels. BKCa α-subunit expression was unchanged, BKCa β1-subunit and sensitivity of BKCa to tamoxifen were reduced in the caffeine offspring as altered biophysical properties of BKCa in the MA. Simultaneous [Ca2+]i fluorescence and vasoconstriction testing showed reduced Ca2+, leading to diminished BKCa activation via ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels (RyRs), causing enhanced vascular tone. Reduced RyR1 was greater than that of RyR3. The results suggest that the altered STOCs activity in the caffeine offspring could attribute to down-regulation of RyRs-BKCa, providing new information for further understanding increased risks of hypertension in developmental origins. PMID:26277840

  6. A Molecular Toolbox for Rapid Generation of Viral Vectors to Up- or Down-Regulate Neuronal Gene Expression in vivo

    PubMed Central

    White, Melanie D.; Milne, Ruth V. J.; Nolan, Matthew F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a molecular toolbox for manipulation of neuronal gene expression in vivo. The toolbox includes promoters, ion channels, optogenetic tools, fluorescent proteins, and intronic artificial microRNAs. The components are easily assembled into adeno-associated virus (AAV) or lentivirus vectors using recombination cloning. We demonstrate assembly of toolbox components into lentivirus and AAV vectors and use these vectors for in vivo expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir3.2) and an artificial microRNA targeted against the ion channel HCN1 (HCN1 miRNA). We show that AAV assembled to express HCN1 miRNA produces efficacious and specific in vivo knockdown of HCN1 channels. Comparison of in vivo viral transduction using HCN1 miRNA with mice containing a germ line deletion of HCN1 reveals similar physiological phenotypes in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The easy assembly and re-usability of the toolbox components, together with the ability to up- or down-regulate neuronal gene expression in vivo, may be useful for applications in many areas of neuroscience. PMID:21772812

  7. miR-214 down-regulates ARL2 and suppresses growth and invasion of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ruiqing; Men, Jianlong; Ma, Rui; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yang; Sun, Ying; Ren, Jing

    2017-03-11

    Increasing evidence has shown that miRNAs are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. In this study, we confirmed that miR-214 is frequently down-regulated in cervical cancer compared with normal cervical tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-214 suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of HeLa and C33A cervical cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (ARL2) was a potential target of miR-214 and was remarkably up-regulated in cervical cancer. Knockdown of ARL2 markedly inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, similarly to over-expression of miR-214, indicating that ARL2 may function as an oncogene in cervical cancer. In conclusion, our study revealed that miR-214 acts as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells through targeting ARL2, and that both miR-214 and ARL2 may serve as prognostic or therapeutic targets for cervical cancer.

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 expression is down-regulated by angiotensin II and under hypertension in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Alba, Gonzalo; El Bekay, Rajaa; Chacón, Pedro; Reyes, M Edith; Ramos, Eladio; Oliván, Josefina; Jiménez, Juan; López, José M; Martín-Nieto, José; Pintado, Elízabeth; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a peptide hormone able to elicit a strong production of reactive oxygen species by human neutrophils. In this work, we have addressed whether expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme, becomes altered in these cells upon Ang II treatment or under hypertension conditions. In neutrophils from healthy and hypertensive subjects, induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein expression with a parallel increase in enzyme activity took place upon treatment with 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-PGJ2 (15dPGJ2). However, Ang II prevented HO-1 synthesis by normal neutrophils in vitro, and HO-1 expression was depressed in neutrophils from hypertensive patients in comparison with cells from healthy subjects. In addition, Ang II treatment led to a reduced HO-1 enzyme activity to levels similar to those found in neutrophils from hypertensive patients. NO donors reversed the inhibition of 15dPGJ2-dependent HO-1 expression in neutrophils from hypertensive patients, and conversely, inhibition of inducible NO synthase (NOS2) activity counteracted the stimulatory effect of 15dPGJ2 on HO-1 expression in normal human neutrophils. Moreover, Ang II canceled 15dPGJ2-dependent induction of NOS2 mRNA synthesis. Present findings indicate that down-regulation of HO-1 expression in neutrophils from hypertensive subjects is likely exerted through the inhibition of NOS2 expression. Additionally, they underscore the potential usefulness of NO donors as new, therapeutic agents against hypertension.

  9. Top-Down Regulation, Climate and Multi-Decadal Changes in Coastal Zoobenthos Communities in Two Baltic Sea Areas

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities. PMID:23737998

  10. Andrographolide could inhibit human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells migration and invasion via down-regulation of MMP-7 expression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming-Der; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chiang, Tai-An; Tsai, Li-Yu; Tsai, Shu-Mei; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2009-08-14

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to have potent anti-cancer activity against human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells by inhibiting cell-cycle progression. To further investigate the mechanism for the anti-cancer properties of Andro, it was used to examine the effect on migration and invasion of Lovo cells. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that Andro inhibited dose-dependently the migration and invasion of Lovo cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Using zymographic assay and RT-PCR, the results revealed that Andro diminished the activity and the mRNA and protein levels of MMP-7, but not MMP-2 or MMP-9. The down-regulation of MMP-7 appeared to be via the inactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) since the treatment with Andro suppressed the nuclear protein level of AP-1, which was accompanied by a decrease in DNA-binding level of the factor. Taken together, these results indicated that Andro reduces the MMP-7-mediated cellular events in Lovo cells, and provided a new mechanism for its anti-cancer activity.

  11. Andrographolide inhibits osteopontin expression and breast tumor growth through down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Patil, H S; Sharma, P; Kumar, D; Dasari, S; Puranik, V G; Thulasiram, H V; Kundu, G C

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in India and around the world. Despite recent advancement in the treatment of breast cancer, the results of chemotherapy to date remain unsatisfactory, prompting a need to identify natural agents that could target cancer efficiently with least side effects. Andrographolide (Andro) is one such molecule which has been shown to possess inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. In this study, Andro, a natural diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase and induces apoptosis through caspase independent pathway. Our experimental evidences suggest that Andro attenuates endothelial cell motility and tumor-endothelial cell interaction. Moreover, Andro suppresses breast tumor growth in orthotopic NOD/SCID mice model. The anti-tumor activity of Andro in both in vitro and in vivo model was correlated with down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt activation and inhibition of pro-angiogenic molecules such as OPN and VEGF expressions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Andro may act as an effective anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Down-regulation of uncoupling protein-3 and -2 by thiazolidinediones in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, A; Alegret, M; Sánchez, R M; Adzet, T; Laguna, J C; Vázquez, M

    2000-10-27

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial membrane proton transporters that uncouple respiration from oxidative phosphorylation by dissipating the proton gradient across the membrane. We studied the direct effect of several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligands on UCP-3 and UCP-2 mRNA expression in C2C12 myotubes for 24 h. In the absence of exogenous fatty acids, treatment of C2C12 cells with a selective PPARalpha activator (Wy-14,643) or a non-selective PPAR activator (bezafibrate) did not affect the expression of UCP-3 mRNA levels, whereas UCP-2 expression was slightly increased. In contrast, troglitazone, a thiazolidinedione which selectively activates PPARgamma, strongly decreased UCP-3 and UCP-2 mRNA levels. Another thiazolidinedione, ciglitazone, had the same effect, but to a lower extent, suggesting that PPARgamma activation is involved. Further, the presence of 0.5 mM oleic acid strongly increased UCP-3 mRNA levels and troglitazone addition failed to block the effect of this fatty acid. The drop in UCP expression after thiazolidinedione treatment correlated well with a reduction in PPARalpha mRNA levels produced by this drug, linking the reduction in PPARalpha mRNA levels with the down-regulation of UCP mRNA in C2C12 myotubes after thiazolidinedione treatment.

  13. Hippocampal microglial activation and glucocorticoid receptor down-regulation precipitate visceral hypersensitivity induced by colorectal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Zhao, Bing-Xue; Hua, Rong; Kang, Jie; Shao, Bo-Ming; Carbonaro, Theresa M; Zhang, Yong-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is a common characteristic in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other disorders with visceral pain. Although the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity remains speculative due to the absence of pathological changes, the long-lasting sensitization in neuronal circuitry induced by early life stress may play a critical role beyond the digestive system even after complete resolution of the initiating event. The hippocampus integrates multiple sources of afferent inputs and sculpts integrated autonomic outputs for pain and analgesia regulation. Here, we examined the hippocampal mechanism in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity with a rat model induced by neonatal and adult colorectal distensions (CRDs). Neither neonatal nor adult CRD evoked behavioral abnormalities in adulthood; however, adult re-exposure to CRD induced persistent visceral hypersensitivity, depression-like behaviors, and spatial learning impairment in rats that experienced neonatal CRD. Rats that experienced neonatal and adult CRDs presented a decrease in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) immunofluorescence staining and protein expression, and increases in hippocampal microglial activation and cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) accumulation. The decrease in hippocampal GR expression and increase in hippocampal IL-1β and TNF-α accumulation could be prevented by hippocampal local infusion of minocycline, a microglial inhibitor. These results suggest that neonatal CRD can increase the vulnerability of hippocampal microglia, and adult CRD challenge facilitates the hippocampal cytokine release from the sensitized microglia, which down-regulates hippocampal GR protein expression and, subsequently, precipitates visceral hypersensitivity.

  14. Down-regulation of photosynthesis following girdling, but contrasting effects on fruit set and retention, in two sweet cherry cultivars.

    PubMed

    Quentin, A G; Close, D C; Hennen, L M H P; Pinkard, E A

    2013-12-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees were manipulated to analyse the contribution of soluble sugars to sink feedback down-regulation of leaf net CO2 assimilation rate (Anet) and fruit set and quality attributes. Total soluble sugar concentration and Anet were measured in the morning on fully expanded leaves of girdled branches in two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Kordia' and 'Sylvia' characterised typically by low and high crop load, respectively. Leaves on girdled trees had higher soluble sugar concentrations and reduced Anet than leaves on non-girdled trees. Moreover, RuBP carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vcmax) and triose-phosphate utilisation (TPU) were repressed in the girdled treatments, despite Jmax remaining unchanged; suggesting an impairment of photosynthetic capacity in response to the girdling treatment. Leaf Anet was negatively correlated to soluble sugars, suggesting a sink feedback regulatory control of photosynthesis. Although there were significantly less fruit set and retained in 'Kordia' than 'Sylvia'; girdling had contrasting effects in each cultivar. Girdling significantly increased fruit set and fruitlet retention in 'Sylvia' cultivar, but had no effect in 'Kordia' cultivar. We propose that low inherent sink demand for photoassimilates of 'Kordia' fruit could have contributed to the low fruit retention rate, since both non-girdled and girdled trees exhibited similar retention rate and that increases in foliar carbohydrates was observed above the girdle. In 'Sylvia' cultivar, the carbohydrate status may be a limiting factor for 'Sylvia' fruit, since girdling improved both fruit set and retention, and leaf soluble solids accumulation.

  15. The effects of aging on pulmonary oxidative damage, protein nitration, and extracellular superoxide dismutase down-regulation during systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Starr, Marlene E; Ueda, Junji; Yamamoto, Shoji; Evers, B Mark; Saito, Hiroshi

    2011-01-15

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), a serious clinical condition characterized by whole-body inflammation, is particularly threatening for elderly patients, who suffer much higher mortality rates than the young. A major pathological consequence of SIRS is acute lung injury caused by neutrophil-mediated oxidative damage. Previously, we reported an increase in protein tyrosine nitration (a marker of oxidative/nitrosative damage) and a decrease in the antioxidant enzyme extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) in the lungs of young mice during endotoxemia-induced SIRS. Here we demonstrate that during endotoxemia, down-regulation of EC-SOD is significantly more profound and prolonged, whereas up-regulation of iNOS is augmented, in aged compared to young mice. Aged mice also showed 2.5-fold higher protein nitration levels, compared to young mice, with particularly strong nitration in the pulmonary vascular endothelium during SIRS. Additionally, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and mass spectrometry, we identified proteins that show increased tyrosine nitration in age- and SIRS-dependent manners; these proteins (profilin-1, transgelin-2, LASP 1, tropomyosin, and myosin) include components of the actin cytoskeleton responsible for maintaining pulmonary vascular permeability. Reduced EC-SOD in combination with increased oxidative/nitrosative damage and altered cytoskeletal protein function due to tyrosine nitration may contribute to augmented lung injury in the aged with SIRS.

  16. miR-297 modulates multidrug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma by down-regulating MRP-2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Liang, Xin; Shen, Ke; Cui, Daling; Zheng, Yuanhong; Xu, Jianhua; Fan, Zhongze; Qiu, Yanyan; Li, Qi; Ni, Lei; Liu, Jianwen

    2012-09-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a frequent cause of cancer-related death in men and women. miRNAs (microRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression negatively at the post-transcriptional level. In the present study we investigated the possible role of microRNAs in the development of MDR (multidrug resistance) in colorectal carcinoma cells. We analysed miRNA expression levels between MDR colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT116/L-OHP cells and their parent cell line HCT116 using a miRNA microarray. miR-297 showed lower expression in HCT116/L-OHP cells compared with its parental cells. MRP-2 (MDR-associated protein 2) is an important MDR protein in platinum-drug-resistance cells and is a predicted target of miR-297. Additionally miR-297 was down-regulated in a panel of human colorectal carcinoma tissues and negatively correlated with expression levels of MRP-2. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of miR-297 in MDR colorectal carcinoma cells reduced MRP-2 protein level and sensitized these cells to anti-cancer drugs in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-297 could play a role in the development of MDR in colorectal carcinoma cells, at least in part by modulation of MRP-2.

  17. Down-Regulation of lncRNA-AK001085 and its Influences on the Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Chai, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Ni, Ming; Chen, Jiying; Dong, Jiyuan; Zhou, Yonggang; Hao, Libo; Bai, Yang; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been confirmed to play an important role in the development and progression of diseases. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease and it is hard to be found in early time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of lncRNA-AK001085 in the diagnosis of AS. Material/Methods The expression of lncRNA-AK001085 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The relationship between its expression and clinicopathologic characteristics was also analyzed. Meanwhile the correlation between lncRNA-AK001085 expression and diseases activity indexes was estimated. In addition, the value of it in the diagnosis of AS was explored through establishing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Serum lncRNA-AK001085 expression was decreased in patients with AS compared with healthy individuals. And its expression was proved to be influenced by ever cigarette smoker, exercise level and occupational activity level. Besides, the correlation of the expression of lncRNA-AK001085 and disease activity indexes (BASDI, ASDAS, ESR, CRP) were all negative, which suggested that the lncRNA-AK001085 was significantly lower in patients with a high disease activity score. It might showed that the expression of lncRNA-AK001085 affected the activity of AS. Conclusions LncRNA-AK001085 was down-regulated in AS patients and it could be an independent diagnostic indicator. PMID:28042142

  18. The vitamin C transporter SVCT2 is down-regulated during postnatal development of slow skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Daniel; Ojeda, Jorge; Low, Marcela; Nualart, Francisco; Marcellini, Sylvain; Osses, Nelson; Henríquez, Juan Pablo

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin C plays key roles in cell homeostasis, acting as a potent antioxidant as well as a positive modulator of cell differentiation. In skeletal muscle, the vitamin C/sodium co-transporter SVCT2 is preferentially expressed in oxidative slow fibers. Besides, SVCT2 is up-regulated upon the early fusion of primary myoblasts. However, our knowledge of the postnatal expression profile of SVCT2 remains scarce. Here we have analyzed the expression of SVCT2 during postnatal development of the chicken slow anterior and fast posterior latissimus dorsi muscles, ranging from day 7 to adulthood. SVCT2 expression is consistently higher in the slow than in the fast muscle at all stages. After hatching, SVCT2 expression is significantly down-regulated in the anterior latissimus dorsi, which nevertheless maintains a robust slow phenotype. Taking advantage of the C2C12 cell line to recapitulate myogenesis, we confirmed that SVCT2 is expressed in a biphasic fashion, reaching maximal levels upon early myoblasts fusion and decreasing during myotube growth. Together, these findings suggest that the dynamic expression levels of SVCT2 could be relevant for different features of skeletal muscle physiology, such as muscle cell formation, growth and activity.

  19. Rosiglitazone reverses memory decline and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor down-regulation in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Escribano, Luis; Simon, Ana-Maria; Perez-Mediavilla, Alberto; Salazar-Colocho, Pablo; Rio, Joaquin Del; Frechilla, Diana

    2009-02-06

    Clinical trials with rosiglitazone, a potent agonist at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) suggest an improvement of cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The mechanisms mediating this potential beneficial effect remain to be fully elucidated. In mice overexpressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP), a model of AD, we found that memory impairment in the object recognition test was prevented and also reversed by chronic rosiglitazone treatment. Given the possible involvement of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the actions of PPAR{gamma}-ligands, we studied the effect of chronic rosiglitazone treatment on GR levels in the hippocampus of hAPP mice. An early down-regulation of GR, not related to elevated plasma corticosterone levels, was found in different hippocampal subfields of the transgenic mice and this decrease was prevented by rosiglitazone. In parallel with behavioural studies, rosiglitazone also normalized GR levels in older animals. This effect may contribute to explain the attenuation of memory decline by PPAR{gamma} activation in an AD mouse model.

  20. Atorvastatin protected from paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in alveolar macrophages via down-regulation of TLR-4.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh-Tabrizi, Nazli; Malekinejad, Hassan; Varasteh, Soheil; Cheraghi, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    The current study designed to clarify the mechanism of paraquat-induced cytotoxicity and protective effects of Atorvastatin on freshly isolated alveolar macrophages (AMs). AMs were collected via bronchoalveolar lavage and exposed to various concentrations of paraquat in the presence and absence of atorvastatin for 24h. Cell viability, myeloperoxidase activity; nitric oxide generation and total antioxidant capacity were assessed. Expression of TLR-4 at mRNA and protein levels were studied by using PCR and western blot methods Atorvastatin enhanced the paraquat-reduced cell viability and reduced the paraquat-induced myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide production. Moreover, atorvastatin down-regulated by 60% the paraquat up-regulated expression of TLR-4 at protein and mRNA level. Our results suggest that, AMs in vitro model could be a novel cytological tool for studies on paraquat poisoning and therapy regimens. Additionally, atorvastatin cytoprotective effects on paraquat-induced cytotoxicity partly attribute to its anti-myeloperoxidase, antioxidant properties, which might be regulated via TLR-4 expression.

  1. Keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet radiation reveal three down-regulated genes with potential function in differentiation and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Pötter, T; Göhde, W; Wedemeyer, N; Köhnlein, W

    2000-08-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in epidemic proportion. Although solar UV radiation is known to be the major risk factor, much information is lacking about the molecular mechanisms leading to skin cancer. To gain a deeper insight into these mechanisms, we have examined cells of a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCat) after exposure to 0.16 minimal erythema doses of UVB radiation. This dose led to an S-phase delay that was reversible 22 h postirradiation. To examine gene expression 10 h after UV irradiation, a nonradioactive differential display was employed. Three genes were identified as being down-regulated significantly. The first encodes for topoisomerase-IIbeta-binding protein 1 (expression level 5% 6 h after irradiation). This protein is associated with human topoisomerase IIbeta and appears to be necessary for DNA replication during the onset of S phase. The second gene product has previously been reported to be involved in differentiation and is therefore known as differentiation-dependent A4 protein (28% 8 h after irradiation). The third gene is XPO1 (also known as CRM1) (5% 8 h after irradiation), whose protein is involved in nuclear export of mRNA molecules. Differential expression of these genes after UV irradiation has not been reported. Because of their potential involvement in cell cycle control and differentiation, these proteins could be important for understanding the reaction of keratinocytes after exposure to UV radiation.

  2. Circular RNAs are down-regulated in KRAS mutant colon cancer cells and can be transferred to exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yongchao; Cha, Diana J.; Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Higginbotham, James N.; Jeppesen, Dennis K.; Weaver, Alissa M.; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn; Coffey, Robert J.; Patton, James G.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant, widely expressed in mammals, and can display cell-type specific expression. However, how production of circRNAs is regulated and their precise biological function remains largely unknown. To study how circRNAs might be regulated during colorectal cancer progression, we used three isogenic colon cancer cell lines that differ only in KRAS mutation status. Cellular RNAs from the parental DLD-1 cells that contain both wild-type and G13D mutant KRAS alleles and isogenically-matched derivative cell lines, DKO-1 (mutant KRAS allele only) and DKs-8 (wild-type KRAS allele only) were analyzed using RNA-Seq. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify and evaluate circRNA candidates from RNA-Seq data. Hundreds of high-quality circRNA candidates were identified in each cell line. Remarkably, circRNAs were significantly down-regulated at a global level in DLD-1 and DKO-1 cells compared to DKs-8 cells, indicating a widespread effect of mutant KRAS on circRNA abundance. This finding was confirmed in two independent colon cancer cell lines HCT116 (KRAS mutant) and HKe3 (KRAS WT). In all three cell lines, circRNAs were also found in secreted extracellular-vesicles, and circRNAs were more abundant in exosomes than cells. Our results suggest that circRNAs may serve as promising cancer biomarkers. PMID:27892494

  3. Down-regulation of the Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase Gene in Switchgrass Reveals a Novel Monolignol Analog

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Standaert, Robert F; Engle, Nancy L; Martin, Madhavi Z; Sangha, Amandeep K; Parks, Jerry M; Smith, Jeremy C; Samuel, Reichel; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, A J; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Fu, Chunxiang; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Davison, Brian H; Dixon, Richard A; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) resulted in cell walls of transgenic plants releasing more constituent sugars after pretreatment by dilute acid and treatment with glycosyl hydrolases from an added enzyme preparation and from Clostridium thermocellum. Fermentation of both wild-type and transgenic switchgrass after milder hot water pretreatment with no water washing showed that only the transgenic switchgrass inhibited C. thermocellum. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics were undertaken on cell wall aqueous extracts to determine the nature of the microbial inhibitors, confirming the increased concentration of a number of phenolic acids and aldehydes that are known inhibitors of fermentation. Metabolomic analyses of the transgenic biomass additionally revealed the presence of a novel monolignol-like metabolite, identified as trans-3, 4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (iso-sinapyl alcohol) in both non-pretreated, as well as hot water pretreated samples. Although there was no indication that iso-sinapyl alcohol was integrated into the cell wall, diversion of substrates from sinapyl alcohol to free iso-sinapyl alcohol, its glucoside, and associated upstream lignin pathway changes, including increased phenolic aldehydes and acids, are associated with more facile cell wall deconstruction, and to the observed inhibitory effect on microbial growth.

  4. Morphine-induced desensitization and down-regulation at mu-receptors in 7315C pituitary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Puttfarcken, P.S.; Cox, B.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Pituitary 7315c tumor cells maintained in culture were treated with varying concentrations of morphine from 10 nM to 300 {mu}M, for periods of five or forty-eight hours. The ability of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase in washed membrane preparations from the treated cells was compared with its activity in membranes from cells incubated in the absence of added morphine. In the same membrane preparations, the number and affinity of mu-opioid receptors was estimated by measurements of ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine binding. After 5 hr of treatment with morphine concentrations of 100 nM or higher, a significant reduction in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by DAMGO was observed. Little further loss of agonist activity was observed when the incubations were extended to 48 hr. After 5 hr of morphine treatment, there was no change in either the number of receptors, or their affinity for ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine. However after 48 hr of morphine treatment, greater than 25% reductions in receptor number were apparent with morphine pretreatment concentrations of 10 {mu}M or higher. These results suggest that opioid tolerance in this system is primarily associated with a reduced ability of agonist-occupied receptor to activate the effector system. Receptor down-regulation was not necessary for loss of agonist response, although a reduction in receptor number occurred after exposure to high concentrations of morphine for periods longer than 5hr.

  5. Down-regulated Th17 Responses Are Associated with Reduced Gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Bimczok, Diane; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Cover, Timothy L.; Venegas, Alejandro; Salazar, Maria G.; Smythies, Lesley E.; Harris, Paul R.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori induces less gastric inflammation in children than adults. Here we investigated whether this reduced inflammation involves dysregulated Th17 responses. H. pylori-infected children and adults in Santiago, Chile had similar levels of H. pylori colonization, proportions of bacteria containing cagA and s1/s2 vacA markers of virulence and strain genotypes (predominantly hpEurope), but the children had significantly reduced levels of gastric inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. The reduced neutrophil accumulation in infected children was accompanied by significantly fewer gastric Th17 cells and significantly lower levels of IL-17-specific mRNA and protein compared to infected adults. The gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected children also contained higher numbers of IL-10+ cells and increased levels of both IL-10 and Foxp3 mRNA compared to that of infected adults. Thus, reduced gastric inflammation, including diminished neutrophil accumulation, in H. pylori-infected children compared with infected adults is likely due to down-regulated gastric Th17/IL-17 responses as a consequence of enhanced mucosal regulatory T cell activity in the children. PMID:23299619

  6. Pin1 down-regulates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling by inducing degradation of Smad proteins.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ayako; Koinuma, Daizo; Miyazawa, Keiji; Uchida, Takafumi; Saitoh, Masao; Kawabata, Masahiro; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Akiyama, Hirotada; Abe, Masahiro; Miyazono, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toshio; Imamura, Takeshi

    2009-03-06

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is crucial in numerous cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. TGF-beta signaling is transduced by intracellular Smad proteins that are regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) prevents TGF-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling by interacting with Smads and inducing their ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Here we identified Pin1, a peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase, as a novel protein binding Smads. Pin1 interacted with Smad2 and Smad3 but not Smad4; this interaction was enhanced by the phosphorylation of (S/T)P motifs in the Smad linker region. (S/T)P motif phosphorylation also enhanced the interaction of Smad2/3 with Smurf2. Pin1 reduced Smad2/3 protein levels in a manner dependent on its peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Knockdown of Pin1 increased the protein levels of endogenous Smad2/3. In addition, Pin1 both enhanced the interaction of Smurf2 with Smads and enhanced Smad ubiquitination. Pin1 inhibited TGF-beta-induced transcription and gene expression, suggesting that Pin1 negatively regulates TGF-beta signaling by down-regulating Smad2/3 protein levels via induction of Smurf2-mediated ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation.

  7. RNA Interference based Approach to Down Regulate Osmoregulators of Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci): Potential Technology for the Control of Whitefly.

    PubMed

    Raza, Amir; Malik, Hassan Jamil; Shafiq, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Scheffler, Jodi A; Scheffler, Brian E; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade RNA interference (RNAi) technology has emerged as a successful tool not only for functional genomics, but in planta expression of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that could offer great potential for insect pest management. The diet of insects feeding exclusively on phloem sieves contains water and sugars as main components, and the uptake of the liquid food greatly depends on the osmotic pressure within the insect body. Based on this physiological mechanism, transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum were generated expressing double stranded RNA (dsRNA) against both aquaporin (AQP) and a sucrase gene, alpha glucosidase (AGLU). These two genes are involved in osmotic pressure maintenance particularly in sap sucking insects, and the aim was to disrupt osmoregulation within the insect ultimately leading to mortality. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to assess the suppression of gene expression in Bemisia tabaci (B. tabaci) and mortality was recorded during transgenic tobacco feeding bioassays. Feeding of insects on plants expressing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci after six days of feeding and more than 70% mortality was observed in B. tabaci fed on transgenic plants compared to the control plants. Our data shows that down-regulation of genes related to osmoregulation may find practical applications for the control of this important pest in cotton and other crops.

  8. NRG1, a repressor of filamentous growth in C.albicans, is down-regulated during filament induction

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Burkhard R.; Kadosh, David; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a variety of external signals, the fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a transition between ellipsoidal single cells (blastospores) and filaments composed of elongated cells attached end-to-end. Here we identify a DNA-binding protein, Nrg1, that represses filamentous growth in Candida probably by acting through the co-repressor Tup1. nrg1 mutant cells are predominantly filamentous under non-filament-inducing conditions and their colony morphology resembles that of tup1 mutants. We also identify two filament-specific genes, ECE1 and HWP1, whose transcription is repressed by Nrg1 under non-inducing conditions. These genes constitute a subset of those under Tup1 control, providing further evidence that Nrg1 acts by recruiting Tup1 to target genes. We show that growth in serum at 37°C, a potent inducer of filamentous growth, causes a reduction of NRG1 mRNA, suggesting that filamentous growth is induced by the down-regulation of NRG1. Consistent with this idea, expression of NRG1 from a non-regulated promoter partially blocks the induction of filamentous growth. PMID:11532939

  9. Acute physiological stress down-regulates mRNA expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O B; Beckman, Brian R; Iwama, George K; Devlin, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish.

  10. Acute Physiological Stress Down-Regulates mRNA Expressions of Growth-Related Genes in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O. B.; Beckman, Brian R.; Iwama, George K.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish. PMID:23990952

  11. EVI1-mediated down regulation of MIR449A is essential for the survival of EVI1 positive leukaemic cells.

    PubMed

    De Weer, An; Van der Meulen, Joni; Rondou, Pieter; Taghon, Tom; Konrad, Torsten A; De Preter, Katleen; Mestdagh, Pieter; Van Maerken, Tom; Van Roy, Nadine; Jeison, Marta; Yaniv, Isaac; Cauwelier, Barbara; Noens, Lucien; Poirel, Hélène-Antoine; Vandenberghe, Peter; Lambert, Frédéric; De Paepe, Anne; Sánchez, Maria García; Odero, Maria; Verhasselt, Bruno; Philippé, Jan; Vandesompele, Joke; Wieser, Rotraud; Dastugue, Nicole; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Poppe, Bruce; Speleman, Frank

    2011-08-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements involving the MECOM (MDS1 and EVI1 complex) locus are recurrent genetic events in myeloid leukaemia and are associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we assessed the role of MECOM locus protein EVI1 in the transcriptional regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the leukaemic phenotype. For this, we profiled expression of 366 miRNAs in 38 MECOM-rearranged patient samples, normal bone marrow controls and MECOM (EVI1) knock down/re-expression models. Cross-comparison of these miRNA expression profiling data showed that MECOM rearranged leukaemias are characterized by down regulation of MIR449A. Reconstitution of MIR449A expression in MECOM-rearranged cell line models induced apoptosis resulting in a strong decrease in cell viability. These effects might be mediated in part by MIR449A regulation of NOTCH1 and BCL2, which are shown here to be bona fide MIR449A targets. Finally, we confirmed that MIR449A repression is mediated through direct promoter occupation of the EVI1 transcriptional repressor. In conclusion, this study reveals MIR449A as a crucial direct target of the MECOM locus protein EVI1 involved in the pathogenesis of MECOM-rearranged leukaemias and unravels NOTCH1 and BCL2 as important novel targets of MIR449A. This EVI1-MIR449A-NOTCH1/BCL2 regulatory axis might open new possibilities for the development of therapeutic strategies in this poor prognostic leukaemia subgroup.

  12. Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected pigs to identify pathways that may be involved. Ileal samples originating from twenty-eight weaner pigs experimentally challenged with a pure culture of L. intracellularis (strain LR189/5/83) were subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray transcriptional signatures were validated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of selected genes at various time points post challenge. At peak of infection (14 days post challenge) 86% of altered transcripts were down regulated, particularly those involved in maintenance of mucosal integrity and regulation of cell transport. Among the up-regulated transcripts, CD163 and CDK1 were novel findings and considered to be important, due to their respective roles in innate immunity and cellular proliferation. Overall, targeted cellular mechanisms included those that are important in epithelial restitution, migration and protection; maintenance of stable inter-epithelial cell relationships; cell transport of nutrients and electrolytes; innate immunity; and cell cycle. PMID:24885874

  13. Down-regulation of ARNT promotes cancer metastasis by activating the fibronectin/integrin β1/FAK axis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Ruei; Lee, Chung-Ta; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Chang, Wen-Chang; Liu, Yao-Wen; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Chen, Ben-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is broadly involved in regulating tumorigenesis by inducing genes that are involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Tumorigenesis usually involves normoxic conditions. However, the role of ARNT in tumor metastasis during normoxia remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ARNT protein levels were decreased in late-stage human colorectal cancer using immunohistochemical analysis. Down-regulation of ARNT protein promoted cancer cell migration and invasion, which was mediated by activation of the fibronectin/integrin β1/FAK signaling axis. In addition, the enhancement of migration and invasion in ANRT knockdown cells was blocked when ARNT was restored in the cells. In xenografts in severe combined immunodeficiency mice, tumor growth was significantly inhibited in the ARNT-knockdown condition. However, the tail-vein injection animal model revealed that the depletion of ARNT-induced metastatic lung colonies was further enhanced when ARNT expression was recovered post-injection. Interestingly, chemotherapeutic drugs inhibited ARNT expression and promoted the invasion of residual tumor cells. These results suggest that ARNT may play a positive role during tumor growth (either in early-stage tumor growth or in organ metastases), but plays a negative role in tumor migration and invasion. Therefore, the efficiency of ARNT-targeted therapy during different cancer stages should be carefully evaluated. PMID:25839165

  14. RNA Interference based Approach to Down Regulate Osmoregulators of Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci): Potential Technology for the Control of Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Amir; Malik, Hassan Jamil; Shafiq, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Scheffler, Jodi A.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade RNA interference (RNAi) technology has emerged as a successful tool not only for functional genomics, but in planta expression of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that could offer great potential for insect pest management. The diet of insects feeding exclusively on phloem sieves contains water and sugars as main components, and the uptake of the liquid food greatly depends on the osmotic pressure within the insect body. Based on this physiological mechanism, transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum were generated expressing double stranded RNA (dsRNA) against both aquaporin (AQP) and a sucrase gene, alpha glucosidase (AGLU). These two genes are involved in osmotic pressure maintenance particularly in sap sucking insects, and the aim was to disrupt osmoregulation within the insect ultimately leading to mortality. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to assess the suppression of gene expression in Bemisia tabaci (B. tabaci) and mortality was recorded during transgenic tobacco feeding bioassays. Feeding of insects on plants expressing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci after six days of feeding and more than 70% mortality was observed in B. tabaci fed on transgenic plants compared to the control plants. Our data shows that down-regulation of genes related to osmoregulation may find practical applications for the control of this important pest in cotton and other crops. PMID:27105353

  15. Down-regulation of tumor endothelial marker 8 suppresses cell proliferation mediated by ERK1/2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chuangjie; Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Leilei; Bai, Lihong; Wang, Yuefeng; Liang, Yingjie; Dou, Chengyun; Wang, Liantang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) was recently suggested as a putative anti-tumor target in several types of human cancer based on its selective overexpression in tumor versus normal endothelial cells. The objective of this study was to detect the potential functions of TEM8 in osteosarcoma. Overall, TEM8 was mainly located in cytoplasm and was up-regulated in osteosarcoma compared to benign bone lesions and adjacent non tumor tissue (ANT). High TEM8 expression group had a significant lower overall survival rate than that in the low TEM8 expression group. TEM8 knock-down by siRNA or shRNA results in significant reduction of osteosarcoma cell growth and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Ablation of TEM8 led to increasing of p21 and p27 and suppression of cyclin D1 mediated by Erk1/2 activity. These findings suggest that down-regulation of TEM8 play an important role in the inhibition of tumorigenesis and development of osteosarcoma. PMID:26996335

  16. Natural product ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis through down-regulating MDM2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2012-01-01

    Although ginseng and related herbs have a long history of utility for various health benefits, their application in cancer therapy and underlying mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Our recent work has shown that 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol (25-OCH(3)-PPD), a newly identified ginsenoside from Panax notoginseng, exerts activities against a variety of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. This study was designed to investigate its anti-breast cancer activity and the underlying mechanisms of action. We observed that 25-OCH(3)-PPD decreased the survival of breast cancer cells by induction of apoptosis and G1 phase arrest and inhibited the growth of breast cancer xenografts in vivo. We further demonstrated that, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, 25-OCH(3)-PPD inhibited MDM2 expression at both transcriptional and post-translational levels in human breast cancer cells with various p53 statuses (wild type and mutant). Moreover, 25-OCH(3)-PPD inhibited in vitro cell migration, reduced the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and prevented in vivo metastasis of breast cancer. In summary, 25-OCH(3)-PPD is a potential therapeutic and anti-metastatic agent for human breast cancer through down-regulating MDM2. Further preclinical and clinical development of this agent is warranted.

  17. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng; Yue, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi; Qing, Guoliang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes.

  18. Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Delivered RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1, and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75, 83, and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1, and OPR, respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30–50% survival and OPR between 45 and 70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants. PMID:25654075

  19. Engagement of the T-cell receptor during positive selection in the thymus down-regulates RAG-1 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Brändle, D; Müller, C; Rülicke, T; Hengartner, H; Pircher, H

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the expression of the recombination activating gene RAG-1 by in situ hybridization to thymi from mice bearing transgenes for the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain, TCR beta chain, or both TCR alpha and beta chains. RAG-1 transcription was found in the thymic cortex of transgenic mice carrying a single TCR alpha- or TCR beta-chain transgene, comparable to normal mice. However, RAG-1 transcription was strikingly reduced in the thymic cortex from transgenic mice carrying both TCR alpha- and beta-chain genes and expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (H-2b) molecules necessary for positive selection of the transgenic TCR. In contrast, thymi of transgenic mice also carrying both TCR alpha- and beta-chain genes but expressing MHC molecules (H-2d) that did not positively select the transgenic TCR displayed high levels of RAG-1 transcription. The low thymic RAG-1 expression coincided with high transgenic TCR alpha-chain surface expression and with inhibition of endogenous TCR alpha-chain rearrangement. Our findings suggest that binding of the TCR to self MHC molecules during positive selection down-regulates RAG-1 transcription in cortical thymocytes and thereby prevents further TCR alpha-chain rearrangements. Images PMID:1329099

  20. Whole genome methylation array reveals the down-regulation of IGFBP6 and SATB2 by HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Li, Sai-Kam; Yi Yang, Kevin; Liu, Minghua; Lee, Nelson; Tang, Xian; Wang, Hui; Liu, Li; Chen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Chiyu; Wang, Jianhua; Kwok-Wing Tsui, Stephen

    2015-06-03

    Nowadays, the knowledge in DNA methylation-mediated gene regulation has shed light on the understanding of virus-host interplay in the context of genome alteration. It has also been shown that HIV is able to change the DNA methylation pattern by DNA methyltransferases and such changes can be correlated with the progression of AIDS. In this study, we have investigated the relationship between genome-wide DNA methylation pattern and HIV infection using the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation--microarray method. A pair of monozygotic twins was recruited: one of the twins was infected with HIV while the other was not. Based on data from the microarray experiment, 4679 differentially methylated regions in the HIV positive subject with the significant peak values were identified. Selected genes were then validated in human T lymphocyte CEM*174 cell line and HIV/AIDS patients by comparing with normal subjects. We found that IGFBP6 and SATB2 were significantly down-regulated in HIV-infected CEM*174 cells and 3 different cohorts of HIV/AIDS patients while their promoters were predominantly hyper-methylated compared with normal controls. This study also provides a resource for the identification of HIV-induced methylation and contributes to better understanding of the development of HIV/AIDS.

  1. Interleukin-8 Regulates Endothelial Permeability by Down-regulation of Tight Junction but not Dependent on Integrins Induced Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongchi; Huang, Xianliang; Ma, Yunlong; Gao, Min; Wang, Ou; Gao, Ting; Shen, Yang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a common inflammatory factor, which involves in various non-specific pathological processes of inflammation. It has been found that increased endothelial permeability accompanied with high expression of IL-8 at site of injured endothelium and atherosclerotic plaque at early stages, suggesting that IL-8 participated in regulating endothelial permeability in the developing processes of vascular disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the regulation effects of IL-8 on the vascular endothelial permeability, and the mRNA and protein expression of tight junction components (i.e., ZO-1, Claudin-5 and Occludin). Endothelial cells were stimulated by IL-8 with the dose of 50, 100 and 200 ng/mL, and duration of 2, 4, 6, 8h, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression level of tight junction components with IL-8 under different concentration and duration was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Meanwhile, the integrins induced focal adhesions event with IL-8 stimulation was also investigated. The results showed that IL-8 regulated the permeability of endothelium by down-regulation of tight junction in a dose- and time-dependence manner, but was not by integrins induced focal adhesions. This finding reveals the molecular mechanism in the increase of endothelial cell permeability induced by IL-8, which is expected to provide a new idea as a therapeutic target in vascular diseases. PMID:24155670

  2. SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 directly down-regulate STIMULATED BY RETINOIC ACID 8 (STRA8) expression.

    PubMed

    Desimio, M G; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; De Felici, M; Farini, D

    2015-01-01

    As the name implies, Stimulated by Retinoic Acid 8 is an early retinoic acid (RA) responsive gene pivotal for the beginning of meiosis in female and male germ cells. Its expression is strictly time-dependent and cell-specific (pre-meiotic germ cells) and likely requires a complex mechanism of regulation. In this study, we demonstrate a direct negative control of SOHLH1 and SOHLH2, 2 germ cell specific bHLH transcription factors, on Stra8 expression. We observed a negative correlation between STRA8 and SOHLH1 expression in prepuberal differentiating mouse KIT(+) spermatogonia and found that SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 were able to directly and cooperatively repress STRA8 expression in cell lines in vitro through binding to its promoter. We also identified 2 canonical E-Box motives in the Stra8 promoter that mediated the negative regulation of SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 on these gene both in the cell lines and KIT(+) spermatogonia. We hypothesize that this novel negative activity of SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 in male cooperates with that of other transcription factors to coordinate spermatogonia differentiation and the RA-induced meiosis and in female ensures STRA8 down-regulation at mid-end stages of meiotic prophase I.

  3. [Phenylhexyl isothiocyanate induces gene p15 demethylation by down-regulating DNA methyltransferases in Molt-4 cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shao-hong; Ma, Xu-dong; Huang, Yi-qun; Xu, Yun-lu; Zheng, Rui-ji

    2009-04-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHI), which has been proved to be a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) recently, on gene p15 de novo expression in acute leukemia cell line Molt-4, and to further study its potential mechanism. Modified methylation specific PCR (MSP) was used to screen p15-M and p15-U mRNA. DNA methyltransferasel (DNMT1), 3A (DNMT3A), 3B (DNMT3B) and p15 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. P15 protein was detected by Western blotting. Hypermethylation of gene p15 was reversed and activation transcription of gene p15 in Molt-4 was de novo after 5 days exposure to PHI in a concentration dependent manner. DNMT1 and DNMT3B were inhibited by exposure to PHI for 5 days (P < 0.05). Alteration of DNMT3A was not significant. It is showed that PHI could reverse hypermethylation of gene p15 and transcriptional activation of gene p15 is de novo by PHI. It may result from down-regulating DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3B, or up-regulating the histone acetylation that allows chromatin unfolding and the accessibility of regulators for transcriptional activation in the p15 promoter.

  4. Acute stress induces down-regulation of large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels in the lateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan-yan; Liu, Shui-bing; Cui, Guang-Bin; Ma, Lan; Feng, Bin; Xing, Jiang-hao; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiao-qiang; Wu, Yu-mei; Xiong, Li-ze; Zhang, Weiqi; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2012-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels (BKCa) are highly expressed in the lateral amygdala (LA), which is closely involved in assigning stress disorders, but data on their role in the neuronal circuits of stress disorders are limited. In the present study, a significant reduction in BKCa channel expression in the amygdala of mice accompanied anxiety-like behaviour induced by acute stress. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from LA neurons of the anxious animals revealed a pronounced reduction in the fast after-hyperpolarization (fAHP) of action potentials mediated by BKCa channels that led to hyperexcitability of the LA neurons. Activation of BKCa channels in the LA reversed stress-induced anxiety-like behaviour after stress. Furthermore, down-regulated BKCa channels notably increased the evoked NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the thalamo-LA synapses. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that restraint stress-induced anxiety-like behaviour could at least partly be explained by alterations in the functional BKCa channels in the LA. PMID:22199169

  5. CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells induce NKG2D down-regulation in natural killer cells in CD86-RAE-1ε transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhijie; Wang, Changrong; Xia, Haizui; Liu, Weiguang; Xiao, Weiming; Qian, Li; Jia, Xiaoqin; Ding, Yanbing; Ji, Mingchun; Gong, Weijuan

    2014-01-01

    The binding of NKG2D to its ligands strengthens the cross-talk between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells, particularly at early stages, before the initiation of the adaptive immune response. We found that retinoic acid early transcript-1ε (RAE-1ε), one of the ligands of NKG2D, was persistently expressed on antigen-presenting cells in a transgenic mouse model (pCD86-RAE-1ε). By contrast, NKG2D expression on NK cells, NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity and tumour rejection, and dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis were all down-regulated in this mouse model. The down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells was reversed by stimulation with poly (I:C). The ectopic expression of RAE-1ε on dendritic cells maintained NKG2D expression levels and stimulated the activity of NK cells ex vivo, but the higher frequency of CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells in transgenic mice led to the down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells in vivo. Hence, high levels of RAE-1ε expression on antigen-presenting cells would be expected to induce the down-regulation of NK cell activation by a regulatory T-cell subset. PMID:24708417

  6. Expression of Fragaria vesca PIP Aquaporins in Response to Drought Stress: PIP Down-Regulation Correlates with the Decline in Substrate Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Šurbanovski, Nada; Sargent, Daniel J.; Else, Mark A.; Simpson, David W.; Zhang, Hanma; Grant, Olga M.

    2013-01-01

    PIP aquaporin responses to drought stress can vary considerably depending on the isoform, tissue, species or level of stress; however, a general down-regulation of these genes is thought to help reduce water loss and prevent backflow of water to the drying soil. It has been suggested therefore, that it may be necessary for the plant to limit aquaporin production during drought stress, but it is unknown whether aquaporin down-regulation is gradual or triggered by a particular intensity of the stress. In this study, ten Fragaria PIP genes were identified from the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome sequence and characterised at the sequence level. The water relations of F. vesca were investigated and the effect of different intensities of drought stress on the expression of four PIP genes, as well as how drought stress influences their diurnal transcription was determined. PIP down-regulation in the root corresponded to the level of drought stress. Moreover, transcript abundance of two genes highly expressed in the root (FvPIP1;1 and FvPIP2;1) was strongly correlated to the decline in substrate moisture content. The amplitude of diurnal aquaporin expression in the leaves was down-regulated by drought without altering the pattern, but showing an intensity-dependent effect. The results show that transcription of PIP aquaporins can be fine-tuned with the environment in response to declining water availability. PMID:24086403

  7. Expression of Fragaria vesca PIP aquaporins in response to drought stress: PIP down-regulation correlates with the decline in substrate moisture content.

    PubMed

    Šurbanovski, Nada; Sargent, Daniel J; Else, Mark A; Simpson, David W; Zhang, Hanma; Grant, Olga M

    2013-01-01

    PIP aquaporin responses to drought stress can vary considerably depending on the isoform, tissue, species or level of stress; however, a general down-regulation of these genes is thought to help reduce water loss and prevent backflow of water to the drying soil. It has been suggested therefore, that it may be necessary for the plant to limit aquaporin production during drought stress, but it is unknown whether aquaporin down-regulation is gradual or triggered by a particular intensity of the stress. In this study, ten Fragaria PIP genes were identified from the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome sequence and characterised at the sequence level. The water relations of F. vesca were investigated and the effect of different intensities of drought stress on the expression of four PIP genes, as well as how drought stress influences their diurnal transcription was determined. PIP down-regulation in the root corresponded to the level of drought stress. Moreover, transcript abundance of two genes highly expressed in the root (FvPIP1;1 and FvPIP2;1) was strongly correlated to the decline in substrate moisture content. The amplitude of diurnal aquaporin expression in the leaves was down-regulated by drought without altering the pattern, but showing an intensity-dependent effect. The results show that transcription of PIP aquaporins can be fine-tuned with the environment in response to declining water availability.

  8. AKAP150 participates in calcineurin/NFAT activation during the down-regulation of voltage-gated K(+) currents in ventricular myocytes following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline; Hirenallur-Shanthappa, Dinesh; Nygren, Patrick J; Hinke, Simon A; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Langeberg, Lorene K; Navedo, Manuel; Santana, Luis F; Scott, John D

    2016-07-01

    The Ca(2+)-responsive phosphatase calcineurin/protein phosphatase 2B dephosphorylates the transcription factor NFATc3. In the myocardium activation of NFATc3 down-regulates the expression of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels after myocardial infarction (MI). This prolongs action potential duration and increases the probability of arrhythmias. Although recent studies infer that calcineurin is activated by local and transient Ca(2+) signals the molecular mechanism that underlies the process is unclear in ventricular myocytes. Here we test the hypothesis that sequestering of calcineurin to the sarcolemma of ventricular myocytes by the anchoring protein AKAP150 is required for acute activation of NFATc3 and the concomitant down-regulation of Kv channels following MI. Biochemical and cell based measurements resolve that approximately 0.2% of the total calcineurin activity in cardiomyocytes is associated with AKAP150. Electrophysiological analyses establish that formation of this AKAP150-calcineurin signaling dyad is essential for the activation of the phosphatase and the subsequent down-regulation of Kv channel currents following MI. Thus AKAP150-mediated targeting of calcineurin to sarcolemmal micro-domains in ventricular myocytes contributes to the local and acute gene remodeling events that lead to the down-regulation of Kv currents.

  9. CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells induce NKG2D down-regulation in natural killer cells in CD86-RAE-1ε transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijie; Wang, Changrong; Xia, Haizui; Liu, Weiguang; Xiao, Weiming; Qian, Li; Jia, Xiaoqin; Ding, Yanbing; Ji, Mingchun; Gong, Weijuan

    2014-03-01

    The binding of NKG2D to its ligands strengthens the cross-talk between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells, particularly at early stages, before the initiation of the adaptive immune response. We found that retinoic acid early transcript-1ε (RAE-1ε), one of the ligands of NKG2D, was persistently expressed on antigen-presenting cells in a transgenic mouse model (pCD86-RAE-1ε). By contrast, NKG2D expression on NK cells, NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity and tumour rejection, and dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis were all down-regulated in this mouse model. The down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells was reversed by stimulation with poly (I:C). The ectopic expression of RAE-1ε on dendritic cells maintained NKG2D expression levels and stimulated the activity of NK cells ex vivo, but the higher frequency of CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells in transgenic mice led to the down-regulation of NKG2D on NK cells in vivo. Hence, high levels of RAE-1ε expression on antigen-presenting cells would be expected to induce the down-regulation of NK cell activation by a regulatory T-cell subset.

  10. Ketogenic HMGCS2 Is a c-Myc target gene expressed in differentiated cells of human colonic epithelium and down-regulated in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Camarero, Nuria; Mascaró, Cristina; Mayordomo, Cristina; Vilardell, Felip; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F

    2006-09-01

    HMGCS2, the gene that regulates ketone body production, is expressed in liver and several extrahepatic tissues, such as the colon. In CaCo-2 colonic epithelial cells, the expression of this gene increases with cell differentiation. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies shows that HMGCS2 is expressed mainly in differentiated cells of human colonic epithelium. Here, we used a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to study the molecular mechanism responsible for this expression pattern. The assay revealed that HMGCS2 is a direct target of c-Myc, which represses HMGCS2 transcriptional activity. c-Myc transrepression is mediated by blockade of the transactivating activity of Miz-1, which occurs mainly through a Sp1-binding site in the proximal promoter of the gene. Accordingly, the expression of human HMGCS2 is down-regulated in 90% of Myc-dependent colon and rectum tumors. HMGCS2 protein expression is down-regulated preferentially in moderately and poorly differentiated carcinomas. In addition, it is also down-regulated in 80% of small intestine Myc-independent tumors. Based on these findings, we propose that ketogenesis is an undesirable metabolic characteristic of the proliferating cell, which is down-regulated through c-Myc-mediated repression of the key metabolic gene HMGCS2.

  11. p120-Catenin Down-Regulation and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Overexpression Results in a Transformed Epithelium That Mimics Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Heather L.; Yang, Xuebin; Welsh, Patricia A.; Stairs, Douglas B.

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis due to its highly invasive and metastatic potential. The molecular pathogenesis underlying the invasive mechanism of ESCC is not well known because of the lack of existing models to study this disease. p120-Catenin (p120ctn) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have each been implicated in several cancers, including ESCC. p120ctn is down-regulated in 60% of ESCC tumors, whereas EGFR is the most commonly overexpressed oncogene in ESCC. For these reasons, we investigated the cooperation between p120ctn and EGFR and its effect on ESCC invasion. We show that p120ctn down-regulation is commonly associated with EGFR overexpression. By using a three-dimensional culture system, we demonstrate that the inverse relationship between p120ctn and EGFR has biological implications. Specifically, p120ctn down-regulation coupled with EGFR overexpression in human esophageal keratinocytes (EPC1-PE) was required to promote invasion. Morphological comparison of EPC1-PE cells grown in three-dimensional culture and human ESCC revealed identical features, including significantly increased cellularity, nuclear grade, and proliferation. Molecular characteristics were measured by keratin expression patterns, which were nearly identical between EPC1-PE cells in three-dimensional culture and ESCC samples. Altogether, our analyses have demonstrated that p120ctn down-regulation and EGFR overexpression are able to mimic human ESCC in a relevant three-dimensional culture model. PMID:25529795

  12. Involvement of tyrosine residues located in the carboxyl tail of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor in agonist-induced down-regulation of the receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Valiquette, M; Bonin, H; Hnatowich, M; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J; Bouvier, M

    1990-01-01

    Chronic exposure of various cell types to adrenergic agonists leads to a decrease in cell surface beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) number. Sequestration of the receptor away from the cell surface as well as a down-regulation of the total number of cellular receptors are believed to contribute to this agonist-mediated regulation of receptor number. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not well characterized. Recently, tyrosine residues located in the cytoplasmic tails of several membrane receptors, such as the low density lipoprotein and mannose-6-phosphate receptors, have been suggested as playing an important role in the agonist-induced internalization of these receptors. Accordingly, we assessed the potential role of two tyrosine residues in the carboxyl tail of the human beta 2AR in agonist-induced sequestration and down-regulation of the receptor. Tyr-350 and Tyr-354 of the human beta 2AR were replaced with alanine residues by site-directed mutagenesis and both wild-type and mutant beta 2AR were stably expressed in transformed Chinese hamster fibroblasts. The mutation dramatically decreased the ability of the beta 2AR to undergo isoproterenol-induced down-regulation. However, the substitution of Tyr-350 and Tyr-354 did not affect agonist-induced sequestration of the receptor. These results suggest that tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of human beta 2AR are crucial determinants involved in its down-regulation. PMID:2164220

  13. The non-structural protein Nsp2TF of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus down-regulates the expression of Swine Leukocyte Antigen class I.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qian M; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Ni, Yan-Yan; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is arguably the most economically-important global swine pathogen. Here we demonstrated that PRRSV down-regulates Swine Leukocyte Antigen class I (SLA-I) expression in porcine alveolar macrophages, PK15-CD163 cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. To identify the viral protein(s) involved in SLA-I down-regulation, we tested all 22 PRRSV structural and non-structural proteins and identified that Nsp1α and Nsp2TF, and GP3 significantly down-regulated SLA-I expression with Nsp2TF showing the greatest effect. We further generated a panel of mutant viruses in which the Nsp2TF protein synthesis was abolished, and found that the two mutants with disrupted -2 ribosomal frameshifting elements and additional stop codons in the TF domain were unable to down-regulate SLA-I expression. Additionally we demonstrated that the last 68 amino acids of TF domain in Nsp2TF are critical for this function. Collectively, the results indicate a novel function of Nsp2TF in negative modulation of SLA-I expression.

  14. SAHA down-regulates the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase via inhibition of the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway in gallbladder carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Jiang, Guanmin; Gao, Jiao; Li, Lingling; Du, Jun; Jiao, Xingyuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway in suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)-mediated down-regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in gallbladder carcinoma cells. We treated SGC-996 gallbladder carcinoma cells with IFN-γ and SAHA. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of IDO, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation and interferon regulatory factor genes-1 (IRF-1). Confocal microscopy analysis was used to detect STAT1 translocation. Transient transfection and reporter gene assay was used for detecting the activation of γ-activated sites (GAS) and interferon-stimulated response elements (ISRE). The results revealed that IDO was expressed in SGC-996 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner when stimulated with IFN-γ and SAHA down-regulated the expression of IDO induced by IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. SAHA blocked the expression of IRF-1 induced by IFN-γ and SAHA inhibited IFN-γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In addition, SAHA down-regulated IFN-γ-induced activation of GAS and ISRE. In conclusion, SAHA down-regulated IDO expression via inhibition of the activation of members of the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway. Therefore, regulation of the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway may provide a new gallbladder carcinoma immunotherapeutic strategy to break tumor immune tolerance.

  15. Recombinant R-spondin2 and Wnt3a Up- and Down-Regulate Novel Target Genes in C57MG Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baljinnyam, Bolormaa; Klauzinska, Malgorzata; Saffo, Saad; Callahan, Robert; Rubin, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    R-spondins (Rspos) comprise a family of four secreted proteins that have important roles in cell proliferation, cell fate determination and organogenesis. Rspos typically exert their effects by potentiating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. To systematically investigate the impact of Rspo/Wnt on gene expression, we performed a microarray analysis using C57MG mouse mammary epithelial cells treated with recombinant Rspo2 and/or Wnt3a. We observed the up- and down-regulation of several previously unidentified target genes, including ones that encode proteins involved in immune responses, effectors of other growth factor signaling pathways and transcription factors. Dozens of these changes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Time course experiments showed that Rspo2 typically had little or no effect on Wnt-dependent gene expression at 3 or 6 h, but enhanced expression at 24 h, consistent with biochemical data indicating that Rspo2 acts primarily to sustain rather than acutely increase Wnt pathway activation. Up-regulation of gene expression was inhibited by pre-treatment with Dickkopf1, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonist, and by siRNA knockdown of β-catenin expression. While Dickkopf1 blocked Rspo2/Wnt3a-dependent down-regulation, a number of down-regulated genes were not affected by β-catenin knockdown, suggesting that in these instances down-regulation was mediated by a β-catenin-independent mechanism. PMID:22238613

  16. Down-regulation of MHC Class I by the Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) UL49.5 Gene Product Mildly Affects Virulence in a Haplotype-specific Fashion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease is a devastating neoplastic disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus 2 or Marek’s disease virus (MDV), which is characterized by massive visceral tumors, immune suppression, neurologic syndromes, and peracute deaths. It has been reported that MDV down-regulates surface expre...

  17. Human cytomegalovirus miR-US33-5p inhibits viral DNA synthesis and viral replication by down-regulating expression of the host Syntaxin3.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Ma, Yanping; Shao, Yaozhong; Jiang, Shujuan; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2015-02-13

    During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), overexpression of hcmv-miR-US33 can inhibit the lytic viral replication and down-regulate US29 mRNA. However, it remains unknown whether inhibition of viral replication by miR-US33 is mediated by down-regulation of expression of US29 or another host gene. Here, we identified the host gene Syntaxin3 (STX3) to be a direct target of hcmv-miR-US33-5p using Hybrid-PCR and luciferase-reporter assays. It was further demonstrated that the levels of STX3 protein were down-regulated in hcmv-miR-US33-5p-overexpressing cells. Experiments with STX3-specific siRNA, or with an inhibitor of hcmv-miR-US33-5p confirmed that hcmv-miR-US33-5p-mediated inhibition of HCMV DNA synthesis and of viral replication are specifically mediated by down-regulation of STX3 expression.

  18. Examining the effect of down regulation under high [CO2] on the growth of soybean assimilating a semi process-based model and FACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.; Yokozawa, M.

    2011-12-01

    The actual impact of elevated [CO2] with the interaction of the other climatic factors on the crop growth is still debated. In many process-based crop models, the response of photosynthesis per single leaf to environmental factors is basically described using the biochemical model of Farquhar et al. (1980). However, the decline in photosynthetic enhancement known as down regulation has not been taken into account. On the other hand, the mechanisms causing photosynthetic down regulation is still unknown, which makes it difficult to include the effect of down regulation into process-based crop models. The current results of Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments have reported the effect of down regulation under actual environments. One of the effective approaches to involve these results into future crop yield prediction is developing a semi process-based crop growth model, which includes the effect of photosynthetic down regulation as a statistical model, and assimilating the data obtained in FACE experiments. In this study, we statistically estimated the parameters of a semi process-based model for soybean growth ('SPM-soybean') using a hierarchical Baysian method with the FACE data on soybeans (Morgan et al. 2005). We also evaluated the effect of down regulation on the soybean yield in future climatic conditions. The model selection analysis showed that the effective correction to the overestimation of the Farquhar's biochemical C3 model was to reduce the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) under elevated [CO2]. However, interestingly, the difference in the estimated final crop yields between the corrected model and the non-corrected model was very slight (Fig.1a) for future projection under climate change scenario (Miroc-ESM). This was due to that the reduction in Vcmax also brought about the reduction of the base dark respiration rate of leaves. Because the dark respiration rate exponentially increases with temperature, the slight difference in base

  19. Molecular mechanisms of benzodiazepine-induced down-regulation of GABAA receptor alpha 1 subunit protein in rat cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Bristow, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Chronic benzodiazepine treatment of rat cerebellar granule cells induced a transient down-regulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor alpha 1 subunit protein, that was dose-dependent (1 nM-1 microM) and prevented by the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (1 microM). After 2 days of treatment with 1 microM flunitrazepam the alpha 1 subunit protein was reduced by 41% compared to untreated cells, which returned to, and remained at, control cell levels from 4-12 days of treatment. Chronic flunitrazepam treatment did not significantly alter the GABAA receptor alpha 6 subunit protein over the 2-12 day period. 2. GABA treatment for 2 days down-regulates the alpha 1 subunit protein in a dose-dependent (10 microM-1 mM) manner that was prevented by the selective GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (10 microM). At 10 microM and 1 mM GABA the reduction in alpha 1 subunit expression compared to controls was 31% and 66%, respectively. 3. The flunitrazepam-induced decrease in alpha 1 subunit protein is independent of GABA, which suggests that it involves a mechanism distinct from the GABA-dependent action of benzodiazepines on GABAA receptor channel activity. 4. Simultaneous treatment with flunitrazepam and GABA did not produce an additive down-regulation of alpha 1 subunit protein, but produced an effect of the same magnitude as that of flunitrazepam alone. This down-regulation induced by the combination of flunitrazepam and GABA was inhibited by flumazenil (78%), but unaffected by bicuculline. 5. The flunitrazepam-induced down-regulation of alpha 1 subunit protein at 2 days was completely reversed by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine (0.3 microM). 6. This study has shown that both flunitrazepam and GABA treatment, via their respective binding sites, caused a reduction in the expression of the GABAA receptor alpha 1 subunit protein; an effect mediated through the same neurochemical mechanism. The results also imply that the benzodiazepine effect

  20. Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes. Role of third intracellular m2 loop and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Tsuga, H; Kameyama, K; Haga, T; Honma, T; Lameh, J; Sadée, W

    1998-02-27

    Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine m2 receptors (hm2 receptors) and a hm2 receptor mutant lacking a central part of the third intracellular loop (I3-del m2 receptor) were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells stably expressing these receptors and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Agonist-induced internalization of up to 80-90% of hm2 receptors was demonstrated by measuring loss of [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding sites from the cell surface, and transfer of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites from the plasma membrane into the light-vesicle fractions separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Additionally, translocation of hm2 receptors with endocytic vesicles were visualized by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Agonist-induced down-regulation of up to 60-70% of hm2 receptors was demonstrated by determining the loss of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in the cells. The half-time (t1/2) of internalization and down-regulation in the presence of 10(-4) M carbamylcholine was estimated to be 9.5 min and 2.3 h, respectively. The rates of both internalization and down-regulation of hm2 receptors in the presence of 10(-6) M or lower concentrations of carbamylcholine were markedly increased by coexpression of GRK2. Agonist-induced internalization of I3-del m2 receptors was barely detectable upon incubation of cells for 1 h, but agonist-induced down-regulation of up to 40-50% of I3-del m2 receptors occurred upon incubation with 10(-4) M carbamylcholine for 16 h. However, the rate of down-regulation was lower compared with wild type receptors (t1/2 = 9.9 versus 2.3 h). These results indicate that rapid internalization of hm2 receptors is facilitated by their phosphorylation with GRK2 and does not occur in the absence of the third intracellular loop, but down-regulation of hm2 receptors may occur through both GRK2-facilitating pathway and third intracellular loop-independent pathways.

  1. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-10-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO expression.

  2. Down-regulation of Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase (LlCCR) gene induces significant changes in phenotype, soluble phenolic pools and lignin in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Prashant, S; Srilakshmi Sunita, M; Pramod, S; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Anil Kumar, S; Rao Karumanchi, S; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2011-12-01

    cDNA and genomic clones of cinnamoyl CoA reductase measuring 1011 and 2992 bp were isolated from a leguminous pulpwood tree Leucaena leucocephala, named as LlCCR. The cDNA exhibited 80-85% homology both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with other known sequences. The genomic sequence contained five exons and four introns. Sense and antisense constructs of LlCCR were introduced in tobacco plants to up and down-regulate this key enzyme of lignification. The primary transformants showed a good correlation between CCR transcript levels and its activity. Most of the CCR down-regulated lines displayed stunted growth and development, wrinkled leaves and delayed senescence. These lines accumulated unusual phenolics like ferulic and sinapic acids in cell wall. Histochemical staining suggested reduction in aldehyde units and increased syringyl over guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin. Anatomical studies showed thin walled, elongated xylem fibres, collapsed vessels with drastic reduction of secondary xylem. The transmission electron microscopic studies revealed modification of ultrastructure and topochemical distribution of wall polysaccharides and lignin in the xylem fibres. CCR down-regulated lines showed increased thickness of secondary wall layers and poor lignification of S2 and S3 wall layers. The severely down-regulated line AS17 exhibited 24.7% reduction of Klason lignin with an increase of 15% holocellulose content. Contrarily, the CCR up-regulated lines exhibited robust growth, development and significant increase in lignin content. The altered lignin profiles observed in transgenic tobacco lines support a role for CCR down-regulation in improving wood properties of L. leucocephala exclusively used in the pulp and paper industry of India.

  3. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. • Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. • The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-κB activity.

  4. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A During Ligand-Induced Down-Regulation of Luteinizing Hormone Receptor in the Ovary☆

    PubMed Central

    Harada, M.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important regulators of ovarian angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the temporal relationship between VEGF-A and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) mRNA expression during ligand-induced down-regulation of LHR. Immature female rats were treated with pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin followed by 25 IU hCG 56h later (day 0). On day 5, treatment with hCG (50 IU) to down-regulate LHR showed a temporal decrease in VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels in parallel with decreasing LHR mRNA. This effect was specific since the expression of CYP11A1 mRNA showed no decline. Examination of VEGF-A mRNA expression, using in situ hybridization histochemistry with 35S-labeled antisense VEGF-A mRNA probe, showed intense signal in the corpora lutea on day 5. Treatment with 50 IU hCG to down-regulate LHR mRNA showed a decline in the intensity of VEGF-A mRNA in the corpora lutea. VEGF-A mRNA expression returned to control level 53 hours later when the expression of LHR mRNA also recovered. These results show that the transient down-regulation of VEGF-A mRNA and protein closely parallels the ligand-induced down-regulation of LHR mRNA. The present study establishes a close association between VEGF-A and LHR mRNA expression, suggesting the possibility that VEGF-A-induced vascularization of the ovary is dictated by the expression of LHR and this might play a regulatory role in ovarian physiology. PMID:20619315

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha mediates epidermal growth factor-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin expression and cell invasion in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2013-02-28

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) regulates the transcription of a number of genes under hypoxia and other extracellular stimulations. It has been shown that E-cadherin is down-regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF) stimulation, and that cells with low E-cadherin expression are more invasive. Our recent study demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGF down-regulates E-cadherin expression through production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the activation of p38 MAPK in human ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we were interested in examining the potential role of HIF-1α in cell invasion under normoxic conditions, specifically when cells are treated with EGF, which is known to down-regulate E-cadherin and increase invasiveness. We show that EGF treatment induces HIF-1α expression in two human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and OVCAR5), and that this effect is diminished by treatment with a membrane-permeable H(2)O(2) scavenger, PEG-catalase. However, the induction of HIF-1α by EGF did not require the activation of p38 MAPK. Treatment with siRNA targeting HIF-1α reduces both basal and EGF-induced HIF-1α levels. Importantly, treatment with HIF-1α siRNA diminishes the up-regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the down-regulation of E-cadherin by EGF. The involvement of HIF-1α in the down-regulation of E-cadherin was confirmed with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), a hypoxia-mimetic reagent. Finally, we also show that EGF-induced cell invasion is attenuated by treatment with HIF-1α siRNA. This study demonstrates an important role for HIF-1α in mediating the effects of EGF on Snail, Slug and E-cadherin expression as well as invasiveness in human ovarian cancer cells.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide mediates EGF-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin expression via p38 MAPK and snail in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2010-08-01

    In ovarian cancer, it has been shown that E-cadherin is down-regulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) activation, and that cells with low E-cadherin expression are particularly invasive. Although it is generally believed that reactive oxygen species play important roles in intracellular signal transduction, the role of reactive oxygen species in EGF-mediated reductions in E-cadherin remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that EGF treatment down-regulated E-cadherin by up-regulating its transcriptional repressors, Snail and Slug, in human ovarian cancer cells. Using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester staining, we found that intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production was increased in EGF-treated cells and could be inhibited by treatment with an EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, or an H(2)O(2) scavenger, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-catalase. In addition, PEG-catalase diminished EGF-induced p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase, phosphorylation. PEG-catalase and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 abolished EGF-induced Snail, but not Slug, expression and E-cadherin down-regulation. Furthermore, the involvement of p38 MAPK in the down-regulation of E-cadherin was confirmed using specific p38alpha MAPK small interfering RNA. Finally, we also show that EGF-induced cell invasion was abolished by treatment with PEG-catalase and SB203580, as well as p38alpha MAPK small interfering RNA, and that forced expression of E-cadherin diminished intrinsic invasiveness as well as EGF-induced cell invasion. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism in which EGF down-regulates E-cadherin expression through production of H(2)O(2), activation of p38 MAPK, and up-regulation of Snail in human ovarian cancer cells.

  7. Down-regulated Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) in Lung Epithelial Cells Promotes a PPARγ Agonist-reversible Proinflammatory Phenotype in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)*

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Sowmya P.; Reddy, Aravind T.; Zhang, Yingze; Sciurba, Frank C.; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Duncan, Steven R.; Reddy, Raju C.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive inflammatory condition and a leading cause of death, with no available cure. We assessed the actions in pulmonary epithelial cells of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a nuclear hormone receptor with anti-inflammatory effects, whose role in COPD is largely unknown. We found that PPARγ was down-regulated in lung tissue and epithelial cells of COPD patients, via both reduced expression and phosphorylation-mediated inhibition, whereas pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was increased. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, and exposing airway epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) likewise down-regulated PPARγ and activated NF-κB. CSE also down-regulated and post-translationally inhibited the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-α) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), a corepressor important for glucocorticoid action and whose down-regulation is thought to cause glucocorticoid insensitivity in COPD. Treating epithelial cells with synthetic (rosiglitazone) or endogenous (10-nitro-oleic acid) PPARγ agonists strongly up-regulated PPARγ expression and activity, suppressed CSE-induced production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and reversed its activation of NF-κB by inhibiting the IκB kinase pathway and by promoting direct inhibitory binding of PPARγ to NF-κB. In contrast, PPARγ knockdown via siRNA augmented CSE-induced chemokine release and decreases in HDAC activity, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory role of endogenous PPARγ. The results imply that down-regulation of pulmonary epithelial PPARγ by cigarette smoke promotes inflammatory pathways and diminishes glucocorticoid responsiveness, thereby contributing to COPD pathogenesis, and further suggest that PPARγ agonists may be useful for COPD treatment. PMID:24368768

  8. DDX6 post-transcriptionally down-regulates miR-143/145 expression through host gene NCR143/145 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Iio, Akio; Takagi, Takeshi; Miki, Kohei; Naoe, Tomoki; Nakayama, Atsuo; Akao, Yukihiro

    2013-10-01

    In various human malignancies, widespread dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is reported to occur and affects various cell growth programs. Recent studies suggest that the expression levels of miRNAs that act as tumor suppressors are frequently reduced in cancers because of chromosome deletions, epigenetical changes, aberrant transcription, and disturbances in miRNA processing. MiR-143 and -145 are well-recognized miRNAs that are highly expressed in several tissues, but down-regulated in most types of cancers. However, the mechanism of this down-regulation has not been investigated in detail. Here, we show that DEAD-box RNA helicase 6, DDX6 (p54/RCK), post-transcriptionally down-regulated miR-143/145 expression by prompting the degradation of its host gene product, NCR143/145 RNA. In human gastric cancer cell line MKN45, DDX6 protein was abundantly expressed and accumulated in processing bodies (P-bodies). DDX6 preferentially increased the instability of non-coding RNA, NCR143/145, which encompasses the miR-143/145 cluster, and down-regulated the expression of mature miR-143/145. In human monocytic cell line THP-1, lipopolysaccharide treatment promoted the assembly of P-bodies and down-regulated the expression of NCR143/145 and its miR-143/145 rapidly. In these cells, cycloheximide treatment led to a loss of P-bodies and to an increase in NCR143/145 RNA stability, thus resulting in up-regulation of miR-143/145 expression. These data demonstrate that DDX6 contributed to the control of NCR143/145 RNA stability in P-bodies and post-transcriptionally regulated miR-143/145 expression in cancer cells.

  9. Internalization and down-regulation of mu opioid receptors by endomorphins and morphine in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kristen A; Zadina, James E

    2004-12-03

    The human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, was used to examine the effects of morphine and the endogenous opioid peptides, endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (EM-2), on mu opioid receptor (MOR) internalization and down-regulation. Treatment for 24 h with EM-1, EM-2 or morphine at 100 nM, 1 microM and 10 microM resulted in a dose-dependent down-regulation of mu receptors. Exposure of cells to 10 microM EM-1 for 2.5, 5 and 24 h resulted in a time-dependent down-regulation of mu receptors. Down-regulation of mu receptors by morphine and EM-1 was blocked by treatment with hypertonic sucrose, consistent with an endocytosis-dependent mechanism. Sensitive cell-surface binding studies with a radiolabeled mu antagonist revealed that morphine was able to induce internalization of mu receptors naturally expressed in SH-SY5Y cells. EM-1 produced a more rapid internalization of mu receptors than morphine, but hypertonic sucrose blocked the internalization induced by each of these agonists. This study demonstrates that, like morphine, the endomorphins down-regulate mu opioid receptors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This study also demonstrates that morphine, as well as EM-1, can induce rapid, endocytosis-dependent internalization of mu opioid receptors in SH-SY5Y cells. These results may help elucidate the ability of mu agonists to regulate the number and responsiveness of their receptors.

  10. Down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in lung epithelial cells promotes a PPARγ agonist-reversible proinflammatory phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Reddy, Aravind T; Zhang, Yingze; Sciurba, Frank C; Mallampalli, Rama K; Duncan, Steven R; Reddy, Raju C

    2014-03-07

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive inflammatory condition and a leading cause of death, with no available cure. We assessed the actions in pulmonary epithelial cells of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a nuclear hormone receptor with anti-inflammatory effects, whose role in COPD is largely unknown. We found that PPARγ was down-regulated in lung tissue and epithelial cells of COPD patients, via both reduced expression and phosphorylation-mediated inhibition, whereas pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was increased. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, and exposing airway epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) likewise down-regulated PPARγ and activated NF-κB. CSE also down-regulated and post-translationally inhibited the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-α) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), a corepressor important for glucocorticoid action and whose down-regulation is thought to cause glucocorticoid insensitivity in COPD. Treating epithelial cells with synthetic (rosiglitazone) or endogenous (10-nitro-oleic acid) PPARγ agonists strongly up-regulated PPARγ expression and activity, suppressed CSE-induced production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and reversed its activation of NF-κB by inhibiting the IκB kinase pathway and by promoting direct inhibitory binding of PPARγ to NF-κB. In contrast, PPARγ knockdown via siRNA augmented CSE-induced chemokine release and decreases in HDAC activity, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory role of endogenous PPARγ. The results imply that down-regulation of pulmonary epithelial PPARγ by cigarette smoke promotes inflammatory pathways and diminishes glucocorticoid responsiveness, thereby contributing to COPD pathogenesis, and further suggest that PPARγ agonists may be useful for COPD treatment.

  11. Parathyroid glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  12. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  13. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... malignant. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  14. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  15. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  16. Cetuximab in combination with anti-human IgG antibodies efficiently down-regulates the EGF receptor by macropinocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Christian; Madshus, Inger Helene; Stang, Espen

    2012-12-10

    The monoclonal antibody C225 (Cetuximab) blocks binding of ligand to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, it is known that incubation with C225 induces endocytosis of the EGFR. This endocytosis has previously been shown to be increased when C225 is combined with an additional monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. However, the effects of antibody combinations on EGFR activation, endocytosis, trafficking and degradation have been unclear. By binding a secondary antibody to the C225-EGFR complex, we here demonstrate that a combination of antibodies can efficiently internalize and degrade the EGFR. Although the combination of antibodies activated the EGFR kinase and induced ubiquitination of the EGFR, the kinase activity was not required for internalization of the EGFR. In contrast to EGF-induced EGFR down-regulation, the antibody combination efficiently degraded the EGFR without initiating downstream proliferative signaling. The antibody-induced internalization of EGFR was found not to depend on clathrin and/or dynamin, but depended on actin polymerization, suggesting induction of macropinocytosis. Macropinocytosis may cause internalization of large membrane areas, and this could explain the highly efficient internalization of the EGFR induced by combination of antibodies. -- Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cetuximab induced endocytosis of EGFR increases upon combination with anti-human IgG. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody combination causes internalization of EGFR by macropinocytosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody-induced internalization of EGFR is independent of EGFR kinase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody combination may have a zipper effect and cross-link EGFRs on neighboring cells.

  17. Apigenin ameliorates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and down-regulates cardiac hypoxia inducible factor-lα in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zeng-Yan; Gao, Tian; Huang, Yan; Xue, Jie; Xie, Mei-Lin

    2016-04-01

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid compound that can inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression in cultured tumor cells under hypoxic conditions. Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy is always accompanied by abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism due to an increase of HIF-1α. However, whether or not apigenin may ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism remains unknown. This study aimed to examine the effects of apigenin. Rats with cardiac hypertrophy induced by renovascular hypertension were treated with apigenin 50-100 mg kg(-1) (the doses can be achieved by pharmacological or dietary supplementation for an adult person) by gavage for 4 weeks. The results showed that after treatment with apigenin, the blood pressure, heart weight, heart weight index, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, serum angiotensin II, and serum and myocardial free fatty acids were reduced. It is important to note that apigenin decreased the expression level of myocardial HIF-1α protein. Moreover, apigenin simultaneously increased the expression levels of myocardial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)-4 proteins and decreased the expression levels of myocardial PPARγ, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase genes (GPAT), and glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 proteins. These findings demonstrated that apigenin could improve hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism in rats, and its mechanisms might be associated with the down-regulation of myocardial HIF-1α expression and, subsequently increasing the expressions of myocardial PPARα and its target genes CPT-1 and PDK-4, and decreasing the expressions of myocardial PPARγ and its target genes GPAT and GLUT-4.

  18. MicroRNA-mediated down-regulation of NKG2D ligands contributes to glioma immune escape.

    PubMed

    Codo, Paula; Weller, Michael; Meister, Gunter; Szabo, Emese; Steinle, Alexander; Wolter, Marietta; Reifenberger, Guido; Roth, Patrick

    2014-09-15

    Malignant gliomas are intrinsic brain tumors with a dismal prognosis. They are well-adapted to hypoxic conditions and poorly immunogenic. NKG2D is one of the major activating receptors of natural killer (NK) cells and binds to several ligands (NKG2DL). Here we evaluated the impact of miRNA on the expression of NKG2DL in glioma cells including stem-like glioma cells. Three of the candidate miRNA predicted to target NKG2DL were expressed in various glioma cell lines as well as in glioblastomas in vivo: miR-20a, miR-93 and miR-106b. LNA inhibitor-mediated miRNA silencing up-regulated cell surface NKG2DL expression, which translated into increased susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis. This effect was reversed by neutralizing NKG2D antibodies, confirming that enhanced lysis upon miRNA silencing was mediated through the NKG2D system. Hypoxia, a hallmark of glioblastomas in vivo, down-regulated the expression of NKG2DL on glioma cells, associated with reduced susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis. This process, however, was not mediated through any of the examined miRNA. Accordingly, both hypoxia and the expression of miRNA targeting NKG2DL may contribute to the immune evasion of glioma cells at the level of the NKG2D recognition pathway. Targeting miRNA may therefore represent a novel approach to increase the immunogenicity of glioblastoma.

  19. MicroRNA-mediated down-regulation of NKG2D ligands contributes to glioma immune escape

    PubMed Central

    Codo, Paula; Weller, Michael; Meister, Gunter; Szabo, Emese; Steinle, Alexander; Wolter, Marietta; Reifenberger, Guido; Roth, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are intrinsic brain tumors with a dismal prognosis. They are well-adapted to hypoxic conditions and poorly immunogenic. NKG2D is one of the major activating receptors of natural killer (NK) cells and binds to several ligands (NKG2DL). Here we evaluated the impact of miRNA on the expression of NKG2DL in glioma cells including stem-like glioma cells. Three of the candidate miRNA predicted to target NKG2DL were expressed in various glioma cell lines as well as in glioblastomas in vivo: miR-20a, miR-93 and miR-106b. LNA inhibitor-mediated miRNA silencing up-regulated cell surface NKG2DL expression, which translated into increased susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis. This effect was reversed by neutralizing NKG2D antibodies, confirming that enhanced lysis upon miRNA silencing was mediated through the NKG2D system. Hypoxia, a hallmark of glioblastomas in vivo, down-regulated the expression of NKG2DL on glioma cells, associated with reduced susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis. This process, however, was not mediated through any of the examined miRNA. Accordingly, both hypoxia and the expression of miRNA targeting NKG2DL may contribute to the immune evasion of glioma cells at the level of the NKG2D recognition pathway. Targeting miRNA may therefore represent a novel approach to increase the immunogenicity of glioblastoma. PMID:25277195

  20. Serine 649 phosphorylation within the protein kinase C-regulated domain down-regulates CARMA1 activity in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Miguel E; Sommer, Karen; Haftmann, Claudia; Sontheimer, Clayton; Andrews, Sarah F; Rawlings, David J

    2009-12-01

    Phosphorylation of CARMA1 is a crucial event initiating the assembly of IkappaB kinase and JNK signaling complexes downstream of activated Ag receptors. We previously mapped three protein kinase C (PKC) target sites in murine CARMA1 in vitro, and demonstrated that mutation of two of these serines (S564 and S657) resulted in reduced NF-kappaB activation, whereas mutation of the third serine (S649) had no clear effect. In this study, we report that when low concentrations of Ag receptor activators are used, loss of S649 (by mutation to alanine) promotes enhanced IkappaB kinase and JNK activation in both B and T cell lines. Reconstitution of CARMA1(-/-) DT40 B cells with CARMA1 S649A leads to increased cell death and reduced cell growth in comparison to wild-type CARMA1, likely a result of enhanced JNK activation. To directly determine whether S649 is modified in vivo, we generated phospho-specific Abs recognizing phospho-S649, and phospho-S657 as a positive control. Although phospho-S657 peaked and declined rapidly after Ag receptor stimulation, phospho-S649 occurred later and was maintained for a significantly longer period poststimulation in both B and T cells. Interestingly, phospho-S657 was completely abolished in PKCbeta-deficient B cells, whereas delayed phosphorylation at S649 was partially intact and depended, in part, upon novel PKC activity. Thus, distinct PKC-mediated CARMA1 phosphorylation events exert opposing effects on the activation status of CARMA1. We propose that early phosphorylation events at S657 and S564 promote the initial assembly of the CARMA1 signalosome, whereas later phosphorylation at S649 triggers CARMA1 down-regulation.

  1. Down-regulation of microRNA152 is associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nai-Guo; Wang, Da-Chuan; Tan, Bing-Yi; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Ze-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Potential values of microRNA152 (miR-152) as a serum diagnostic and prognostic biomarker have not been determined in human osteosarcoma. By detecting the expression of miR-152 among 80 osteosarcoma patients, 20 periostitis patients and 20 healthy individuals using qRT-PCR, we aimed to explore the clinical significance of miR-152 in osteosarcoma patients. The expression of miR-152 was significantly decreased in patients with osteosarcoma compared to patients with periostitis (P<0.01) and healthy controls (P<0.01). The relationship between clinicopathologic characteristics and miR-152 was analyzed by chi-square test. The outcome indicated that miR-152 might be linked with the development of osteosarcoma. Moreover, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to estimate the diagnostic value of miR-152. The result demonstrated that miR-152 might be a promising diagnostic marker of osteosarcoma with an AUC of 0.956, combing with 92.5% specificity and 96.2% sensitivity. The relationship between miR-152 and overall survival of osteosarcoma patients was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curve and log rank test. As a result, the survival time of patients with low miR-152 expression was significantly shorter than those with high miR-152 expression (P<0.001). Then Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the prognostic value of miR-152 in osteosarcoma. The outcomes showed that low miR-152 expression (P=0.004) might be a potential independent prognostic marker for osteosarcoma patients. These findings suggested that down-regulation of miR-152 could be considered as a predictor for diagnosis and prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. PMID:26464682

  2. Functional down-regulation of volume-regulated anion channels in AQP4 knockdown cultured rat cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Benfenati, Valentina; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Svelto, Maria; Rapisarda, Carmela; Frigeri, Antonio; Ferroni, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    In the brain, the astroglial syncytium is crucially involved in the regulation of water homeostasis. Accumulating evidence indicates that a dysregulation of the astrocytic processes controlling water homeostasis has a pathogenetic role in several brain injuries. Here, we have analysed by RNA interference technology the functional interactions occurring between the most abundant water channel in the brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and the swelling-activated Cl(-) current expressed by cultured rat cortical astrocytes. We show that in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes transfected with control small interfering RNA (siRNA), hypotonic shock promotes an increase in cellular volume accompanied by augmented membrane conductance mediated by volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC). Conversely, astroglia in which AQP4 was knocked down (AQP4 KD) by transfection with AQP4 siRNA changed their morphology from polygonal to process-bearing, and displayed normal cell swelling but reduced VRAC activity. Pharmacological manipulations of actin cytoskeleton in rat astrocytes, and functional analysis in mouse astroglial cells, which retain their morphology upon knockdown of AQP4, suggest that stellation of AQP4 KD rat cortical astrocytes was not causally linked to reduction of VRAC current. Molecular analysis of possible candidates of swelling-activated Cl(-) current provided evidence that in AQP4 KD astrocytes, there was a down-regulation of chloride channel-2 (CIC-2), which, however, was not involved in VRAC conductance. Inclusion of ATP in the intracellular saline restored VRAC activity upon hypotonicity. Collectively, these results support the view that in cultured astroglial cells, plasma membrane proteins involved in cell volume homeostasis are assembled in a functional platform.

  3. Down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Chen, Yang-Mei; Zhu, Fei; Tang, Shi-Ting; Xiao, Ji-Dong; Li, Lv-Li; Lin, Xin-Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine whether the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) activity in ischemic penumbra is associated with the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. An experimental model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was made by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats and the changes of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the ischemic penumbra was examined by Enzyme Assay Kit. Extensive infarction was observed in the frontal and parietal cortical and subcortical areas at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 3 d and 7 d after tMCAO. Enzyme Assay analyses revealed the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase was decreased in the ischemic penumbra of model rats after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion compared with sham-operated rats, and reduced to its minimum at 48 h, while the infarct volume was enlarged gradually. In addition, accompanied by increased brain water content, apoptosis-related bcl-2 and Bax proteins, apoptotic index and neurologic deficits Longa scores, but fluctuated the ratio of bcl-2/Bax. Correlation analysis showed that the infarct volume, apoptotic index, neurologic deficits Longa scores and brain water content were negatively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity, while the ratio of bcl-2/Bax was positively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Our results suggest that down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra might be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury presumably through the imbalance ratio of bcl-2/Bax and neuronal apoptosis, and identify novel target for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention in cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:26722460

  4. Arthrophytum scoparium inhibits melanogenesis through the down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expressions in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hui-Chia; Najjaa, Hanen; Villareal, Myra O; Ksouri, Riadh; Han, Junkyu; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-02-01

    Melanin performs a crucial role in protecting the skin against harmful ultraviolet light. However, hyperpigmentation may lead to aesthetic problems and disorders such as solar lentigines (SL), melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and even melanoma. Arthrophytum scoparium grows in the desert in the North African region, and given this type of environment, A. scoparium exhibits adaptations for storing water and produces useful bioactive factors. In this study, the effect of A. scoparium ethanol extract (ASEE) on melanogenesis regulation in B16 murine melanoma cells was investigated. Cells treated with 0.017% (w/v) ASEE showed a significant inhibition of melanin biosynthesis in a time-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. To clarify the mechanism behind the ASEE-treated melanogenesis regulation, the expressions of tyrosinase enzyme and melanogenesis-related genes were determined. Results showed that the expression of tyrosinase enzyme was significantly decreased and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated. LC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis of the extract identified the presence of six phenolic compounds: coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, chrysoeriol, cyanidin, catechol and caffeoylquinic acid. The melanogenesis inhibitory effect of ASEE may therefore be attributed to its catechol and tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative content. We report here that ASEE can inhibit melanogenesis in a time-dependent manner by decreasing the tyrosinase protein and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions. This is the first report on the antimelanogenesis effect of A. scoparium and on its potential as a whitening agent.

  5. MicroRNA-224 inhibits proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells by down-regulating Fizzled 5 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Yang; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Guoqiang; Han, Jiguang

    2016-08-02

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is crucial for the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. However, the expression of microRNA-224 (miR-224) in the different types of breast cancers and its role in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells are poorly understood. In this study, the levels of miR-224 in different types of breast cancer tissues and cell lines were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and the potential targets of miR-224 in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling were investigated. The effects of altered miR-224 expression on the frequency of CD44+CD24- cancer stem-like cells (CSC), proliferation and migration of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were examined by flow cytometry, MTT and transwell migration. We found that the levels of miR-224 expression in different types of breast cancer tissues and cell lines were associated inversely with aggressiveness of breast cancers. Enhanced miR-224 expression significantly reduced the fizzled 5-regulated luciferase activity in 293T cells, fizzled 5 expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the β-dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells, and the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in MDA-MB-231 cells. miR-224 inhibition significantly increased the percentages of CSC in MCF-7 cells and enhanced proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cells. Enhanced miR-224 expression inhibited proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, and the growth of implanted breast cancers in vivo. Induction of Frizzled 5 over-expression mitigated the miR-224-mediated inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation. Collectively, these data indicated that miR-224 down-regulated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling possibly by binding to Frizzled 5 and inhibited proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells.

  6. Down-Regulation by Resveratrol of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Stimulated Osteoprotegerin Synthesis through Suppression of Akt in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Otsuka, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Nakakami, Akira; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, reduced the FGF-2-induced OPG release and the OPG mRNA expression. PD98059, an inhibitor of upstream kinase activating p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, had little effect on the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release. On the other hand, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SP600125, an inhibitor of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and Akt inhibitor suppressed the OPG release induced by FGF-2. Resveratrol failed to affect the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. The phosphorylation of Akt induced by FGF-2 was significantly suppressed by resveratrol or SRT1720. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol down-regulates FGF-2-stimulated OPG synthesis through the suppression of the Akt pathway in osteoblasts and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation. PMID:25290095

  7. Internalization and Down-Regulation of the ALK Receptor in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Monoclonal Antibodies Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mazot, Pierre; Cazes, Alex; Dingli, Florent; Degoutin, Joffrey; Irinopoulou, Théano; Boutterin, Marie-Claude; Lombard, Bérangère; Loew, Damarys; Hallberg, Bengt; Palmer, Ruth Helen; Delattre, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recently, activating mutations of the full length ALK receptor, with two hot spots at positions F1174 and R1275, have been characterized in sporadic cases of neuroblastoma. Here, we report similar basal patterns of ALK phosphorylation between the neuroblastoma IMR-32 cell line, which expresses only the wild-type receptor (ALKWT), and the SH-SY5Y cell line, which exhibits a heterozygous ALK F1174L mutation and expresses both ALKWT and ALKF1174L receptors. We demonstrate that this lack of detectable increased phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells is a result of intracellular retention and proteasomal degradation of the mutated receptor. As a consequence, in SH-SY5Y cells, plasma membrane appears strongly enriched for ALKWT whereas both ALKWT and ALKF1174L were present in intracellular compartments. We further explored ALK receptor trafficking by investigating the effect of agonist and antagonist mAb (monoclonal antibodies) on ALK internalization and down-regulation, either in SH-SY5Y cells or in cells expressing only ALKWT. We observe that treatment with agonist mAbs resulted in ALK internalization and lysosomal targeting for receptor degradation. In contrast, antagonist mAb induced ALK internalization and recycling to the plasma membrane. Importantly, we correlate this differential trafficking of ALK in response to mAb with the recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase Cbl and ALK ubiquitylation only after agonist stimulation. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms regulating ALK trafficking and degradation, showing that various ALK receptor pools are regulated by proteasome or lysosome pathways according to their intracellular localization. PMID:22479414

  8. Interleukin-10 receptor expression and signalling were down-regulated in CD4+ T cells of lupus nephritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, H D; Qi, Z M; Yang, L L; Qi, L; Zhang, N; Zhang, X L; Du, S Y; Jiang, Y

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)-10 has a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, a protective effect of IL-10 in SLE was also observed. Because the exact mechanism of IL-10 signalling in the pathogenesis of SLE is unclear, this study sought to assess the expression and signalling of interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) in peripheral leucocytes from patients with SLE. We used flow cytometry to examine the expression of IL-10R1 on different peripheral leucocytes from 28 SLE patients, of whom 14 had lupus nephritis (LN) and 14 were healthy controls. We also examined the effects of IL-10 on phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and STAT-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 13 SLE patients and seven healthy controls. Plasma cytokines were detected by flow cytometric bead array (CBA) techniques. Although IL-10R1 expression levels on each peripheral leucocyte subset from 28 SLE patients and 14 healthy controls were similar, the expression levels on CD4+ T cells from LN patients were significantly lower than on CD4+ T cells from controls and SLE patients without nephritis (P < 0·01). IL-10R1 expression levels on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were correlated negatively with the SLE disease activity index (P < 0·01). Additionally, the phosphorylation of STAT-3 was delayed and reduced in PBMCs from LN patients and active SLE patients. Plasma IL-10 levels were significantly higher in LN patients than controls. IL-10R1 expression on CD4+ T cells and signalling in PBMCs were down-regulated in LN patients, indicating that IL-10 and its receptor may have a special role in LN pathogenesis. PMID:21635228

  9. Down-regulation of Na+-coupled glutamate transporter EAAT3 and EAAT4 by AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Sopjani, Mentor; Alesutan, Ioana; Dërmaku-Sopjani, Miribane; Fraser, Scott; Kemp, Bruce E; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2010-06-01

    The glutamate transporters EAAT3 and EAAT4 are expressed in neurons. They contribute to the cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate and thus to the clearance of the excitatory transmitters from the extracellular space. During ischemia, extracellular accumulation of glutamate may trigger excitotoxicity. Energy depletion leads to activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a kinase enhancing energy production and limiting energy expenditure. The present study thus explored the possibility that AMPK regulates EAAT3 and/or EAAT4. To this end, EAAT3 or EAAT4 were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without AMPK and electrogenic glutamate transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. In EAAT3- and in EAAT4-expressing oocytes glutamate generated a current (I(g)), which was half maximal (K(M)) at 74 microM (EAAT3) or at 4 microM (EAAT4) glutamate. Co-expression of constitutively active (gammaR70Q)AMPK or of wild type AMPK did not affect K(M) but significantly decreased the maximal I(g) in both EAAT3- (by 34%) and EAAT4- (by 49%) expressing oocytes. Co-expression of the inactive mutant (alphaK45R)AMPK [alpha1(K45R)beta1gamma1] did not appreciably affect I(g). According to confocal microscopy and chemiluminescence co-expression of (gammaR70Q)AMPK or of wild type AMPK reduced the membrane abundance of EAAT3 and EAAT4. The observations show that AMPK down-regulates Na(+)-coupled glutamate transport.

  10. Down-regulation of phospholipase D2 mRNA in neonatal rat brainstem and cerebellum after hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jeng-Hsiung F; Feng, Yangzheng; Rhodes, Philip G

    2006-10-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were implicated in apoptosis and cancer. However, direct evidence on the role of PLD in the cause of apoptosis remains obscure. It was recently reported that apoptosis and necrosis could be induced in the cerebellum and brainstem after focal cerebral hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. It was found that apoptosis could be enhanced by farnesol inhibition of PLD signal transduction. Whereas it was shown that highly invasive cancer cell line depends on PLD activity for survival when deprived of serum growth factors. Based on these reports, it is postulated that apoptosis in the cerebellum and brainstem induced after focal cerebral HI treatment may be caused by faulty PLD expression. This is consistent with a report that PLD1 activity and mRNA levels were down-regulated during apoptosis. To test this hypothesis, Northern blotting was used to examine PLD2 mRNA expression after focal cerebral HI. The results show that both PLD2 mRNA 10.8 and 3.9 kb transcripts were significantly decreased by as much as 37% in the brainstem and cerebellum areas 3 h after HI compared to the control, concur with previous report of decreasing PLD activity after ischemia. These PLD2 transcripts, however, were not significantly different from the control 3 days after HI, indicating that the decrease in PLD2 transcription after HI maybe a transient phenomenon. This is the first report to show that the loss of membrane integrity resulting from deprivation of energy and growth factors after HI could cause decrease in PLD2 transcription that promotes apoptosis. The hypothetic role of PLD2 and the mechanism leading to apoptosis remains to be further elucidated.

  11. Methyl jasmonate abolishes the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence indicates that methyl jasmonate (MJ), a plant stress hormone, exhibits anti-cancer activity on human cancer cells. The aim of this study is to determine whether sub-cytotoxic MJ can abolish the migration, invasion and angiogenesis gastric cancer cells. Methods Human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and MKN-45 were treated with diverse concentrations of MJ. Cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis capabilities of cancer cells were measured by MTT colorimetry, EdU incorporation, scratch assay, matrigel invasion assay, and tube formation assay. Gene expression was detected by western blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Binding of transcription factor on gene promoter was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Sub-cytotoxic (0.05 to 0.2 mM) MJ attenuated the migration, invasion and angiogenesis, but not the cell viability or proliferation, of gastric cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14) and its downstream gene vascular endothelial growth factor. Restoration of MMP-14 expression rescued the SGC-7901 and MKN-45 cells from sub-cytotoxic MJ-inhibited migration, invasion and angiogenesis. In addition, sub-cytotoxic MJ decreased the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression and binding on MMP-14 promoter, while restoration of Sp1 expression rescued the cancer cells from sub-cytotoxic MJ-mediated defects in MMP-14 expression, migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Conclusions Sub-cytotoxic MJ attenuates the MMP-14 expression via decreasing the Sp1 expression and binding on MMP-14 promoter, thus inhibiting the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells. PMID:23394613

  12. Interactions with the young down-regulate adult olfactory neurogenesis and enhance the maturation of olfactory neuroblasts in sheep mothers

    PubMed Central

    Brus, Maïna; Meurisse, Maryse; Keller, Matthieu; Lévy, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    New neurons are continuously added in the dentate gyrus (DG) and the olfactory bulb of mammalian brain. While numerous environmental factors controlling survival of newborn neurons have been extensively studied, regulation by social interactions is less documented. We addressed this question by investigating the influence of parturition and interactions with the young on neurogenesis in sheep mothers. Using Bromodeoxyuridine, a marker of cell division, in combination with markers of neuronal maturation, the percentage of neuroblasts and new mature neurons in the olfactory bulb and the DG was compared between groups of parturient ewes which could interact or not with their lamb, and virgins. In addition, a morphological analysis was performed by measuring the dendritic arbor of neuroblasts in both structures. We showed that the postpartum period was associated with a decrease in olfactory and hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In the olfactory bulb, the suppressive effect on neuroblasts was dependent on interactions with the young whereas in the DG the decrease in new mature neurons was associated with parturition. In addition, dendritic length and number of nodes of neuroblasts were significantly enhanced by interactions with the lamb in the olfactory bulb but not in the DG. Because interactions with the young involved learning of the olfactory signature of the lamb, we hypothesize that this learning is associated with a down-regulation in olfactory neurogenesis and an enhancement of olfactory neuroblast maturation. Our assumption is that fewer new neurons decrease cell competition in the olfactory bulb and enhance maturation of those new neurons selected to participate in the learning of the young odor. PMID:24600367

  13. Hepatitis C Virus Increases Free Fatty Acids Absorption and Promotes its Replication Via Down-Regulating GADD45α Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, An-ling; Yang, Gui; Hu, Han-ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as a major cause of chronic hepatic diseases, is always accompanied with an abnormality of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of free fatty acids (FFA) in human HCV infection. Material/Methods Peripheral blood lipid indexes among HCV patients with different viral loads (199 samples) and healthy donors (80 samples) were detected by clinical biochemistry tests. HCV replication and the expression of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene 45-α (GADD45α) in Huh7 cells and clinical samples were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Lipid accumulation in Huh7 cells was detected by immunofluorescence. Results In this study, we found that FFA showed a significant positive correlation with viral load in peripheral blood of HCV patients, but not total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). GADD45α expression in HCV patients dramatically decreased with the increase of viral load. In Huh7 cells, FFA treatment significantly enhanced HCV replication. HCV infection inhibited GADD45α expression, and this effect was further enhanced with the presence of FFA treatment. Ectopic expression of GADD45α in HCV-infected Huh7 cells markedly inhibited the absorption of FFA and HCV replication. However, FFA significantly elevated GADD45α expression without HCV infection. Conclusions These results demonstrated that HCV down-regulates GADD45α expression to enhance FFA absorption and thus facilitate its replication. GADD45α is an essential mediator for the pathogenesis of HCV infection. Thus, our study provides potential clues in the search for novel therapeutics and fatty lipid control options for HCV patients. PMID:27381636

  14. Down regulation of cerebellar serotonergic receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: Effect of pyridoxine and Aegle marmelose.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Pretty Mary; Paul, Jes; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-29

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cerebellar damage caused by diabetes, leading to deterioration in glucose homeostasis causing metabolic disorders. The present study was carried out to find the effects of Aegle marmelose leaf extract and insulin alone and in combination with pyridoxine on the cerebellar 5-HT through 5-HT(2A) receptor subtype, gene expression studies on the status of antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and immunohistochemical studies in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 5-HT and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding parameters, B(max) and K(d), showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the cerebellum of diabetic rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of SOD, GPx, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT in cerebellum showed a significant down regulation (p<0.001) in diabetic rats compared to control. Pyridoxine treated alone and in combination with insulin, A. marmelose to diabetic rats reversed the B(max), K(d) of 5-HT, 5-HT(2A) and the gene expression of SOD, GPx, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT in cerebellum to near control. The gene expression of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Also, the Rotarod test confirms the motor dysfunction and recovery by treatment. These data suggest the antioxidant and neuroprotective role of pyridoxine and A. marmelose through the up regulation of 5-HT through 5-HT(2A) receptor in diabetic rats. Our results suggest that pyridoxine treated alone and in combination with insulin and A. marmelose has a role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and release, normalizing diabetic related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration affecting the motor ability of an individual by serotonergic receptors through 5-HT(2A) function. This has clinical significance in the management of diabetes.

  15. Metformin reduces the endotoxin-induced down-regulation of apolipoprotein E gene expression in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Stavri, Simona; Trusca, Violeta G.; Simionescu, Maya; Gafencu, Anca V.

    2015-05-29

    The atheroprotective role of macrophage-derived apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known. Our previous reports demonstrated that inflammatory stress down-regulates apoE expression in macrophages, aggravating atherogenesis. Metformin, extensively used as an anti-diabetic drug, has also anti-inflammatory properties, and thus confers vascular protection. In this study, we questioned whether metformin could have an effect on apoE expression in macrophages in normal conditions or under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress. The results showed that metformin slightly increases the apoE expression only at high doses (5–10 mM). Low doses of metformin (1–3 mM) significantly reduce the LPS down-regulatory effect on apoE expression in macrophages. Our experiments demonstrated that LPS-induced NF-κB binds to the macrophage-specific distal regulatory element of apoE gene, namely to the multienhancer 2 (ME.2) and its 5′-deletion fragments. The NF-κB binding on ME.2 and apoE promoter has a down-regulatory effect. In addition, data revealed that metformin impairs NF-κB nuclear translocation, and thus, improves the apoE levels in macrophages under inflammatory stress. The positive effect of metformin in the inflammatory states, its clinical safety and low cost, make this drug a potential adjuvant in the therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • High doses of metformin slightly increase apoE expression in macrophages. • Low doses of metformin up-regulate apoE gene in endotoxin-stressed macrophages. • Metformin reduces the negative effect of LPS on apoE expression by NF-κB inhibition.

  16. Down-regulation of intestinal apical calcium entry channel TRPV6 by ubiquitin E3 ligase Nedd4-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Na, Tao; Wu, Guojin; Jing, Haiyan; Peng, Ji-Bin

    2010-11-19

    Nedd4-2 is an archetypal HECT ubiquitin E3 ligase that disposes target proteins for degradation. Because of the proven roles of Nedd4-2 in degradation of membrane proteins, such as epithelial Na(+) channel, we examined the effect of Nedd4-2 on the apical Ca(2+) channel TRPV6, which is involved in transcellular Ca(2+) transport in the intestine using the Xenopus laevis oocyte system. We demonstrated that a significant amount of Nedd4-2 protein was distributed to the absorptive epithelial cells in ileum, cecum, and colon along with TRPV6. When co-expressed in oocytes, Nedd4-2 and, to a lesser extent, Nedd4 down-regulated the protein abundance and Ca(2+) influx of TRPV6 and TRPV5, respectively. TRPV6 ubiquitination was increased, and its stability was decreased by Nedd4-2. The Nedd4-2 inhibitory effects on TRPV6 were partially blocked by proteasome inhibitor MG132 but not by the lysosome inhibitor chloroquine. The rate of TRPV6 internalization was not significantly altered by Nedd4-2. The HECT domain was essential to the inhibitory effect of Nedd4-2 on TRPV6 and to their association. The WW1 and WW2 domains interacted with TRPV6 terminal regions, and a disruption of the interactions by D204H and D376H mutations in the WW1 and WW2 domains increased TRPV6 ubiquitination and degradation. Thus, WW1 and WW2 may serve as a molecular switch to limit the ubiquitination of TRPV6 by the HECT domain. In conclusion, Nedd4-2 may regulate TRPV6 protein abundance in intestinal epithelia by controlling TRPV6 ubiquitination.

  17. Intermedin 1-53 Inhibits Myocardial Fibrosis in Rats by Down-Regulating Transforming Growth Factor-β

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jian; Luan, Jiangwei; Zhu, Gaohong; Qi, Chang; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Sheng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Xinzhong; Guo, Naipeng; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    Background Myocardial fibrosis is the result of persistent anoxia and ischemic myocardial fibers caused by coronary atherosclerotic stenosis, which lead to heart failure, threatening the patient’s life. This study aimed to explore the regulatory role of intermedin 1-53 (IMD1-53) in cardiac fibrosis using neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and a myocardial infarction (MI) rat model both in vitro and in vivo. Material/Methods The Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression of collagen I and collagen III in myocardial fibroblasts. The SYBR Green I real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect the mRNA expression of collagen type I and III, IMD1-53 calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Masson staining was used to detect the area changes of myocardial fibrosis in MI rats. Results Results in vivo showed that IMD1-53 reduced the scar area on the heart of MI rats and inhibited the expression of collagen type I and III both in mRNA and protein. Results of an in vitro study showed that IMD1-53 inhibited the transformation of cardiomyocytes into myofibroblasts caused by angiotensin II (Ang II). The further mechanism study showed that IMD1-53 inhibited the expression of TGF-β and the phosphorylation of smad3, which further up-regulated the expression of MMP-2. Conclusions IMD1-53 is an effective anti-fibrosis hormone that inhibits cardiac fibrosis formation after MI by down-regulating the expression of TGF-β and the phosphorylation of smad3, blocking fibrous signal pathways, and up-regulating the expression of MMP-2, thereby demonstrating its role in regression of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:28065931

  18. AR-12 suppresses dengue virus replication by down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and GRP78.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Chin; Lin, Yee-Shin; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chang, Chih-Peng

    2017-02-23

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection has become a public health issue of worldwide concern and is a serious health problem in Taiwan, yet there are no approved effective antiviral drugs to treat DENV. The replication of DENV requires both viral and cellular factors. Owing to the rapid mutation rate of viral factors, targeting host factors may serve as a more promising antiviral strategy. It has been known that up-regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling and GRP78 by DENV infection supports its replication. AR-12, a phase I trial completed anticancer drug, shows potent inhibitory activities on both PI3K/AKT signaling and GRP78 expression levels, and recently has been found to block the replication of several hemorrhagic fever viruses. However the efficacy of AR-12 in treating DENV infection is still unclear. Here, we provide evidence to show that AR-12 is able to suppress DENV replication before or after virus infection in cell culture and mice. The antiviral activities of AR-12 are positive against infection of the four different DENV serotypes. AR-12 significantly down-regulates the PI3K/AKT activity and GRP78 expression in DENV infected cells whereas GRP78 rescue is able to attenuate anti-DENV effect of AR-12. Using a DENV-infected suckling mice model, we further demonstrate that treatment of AR-12 before or after DENV infection abolishes virus replication and mice mortality. In conclusion, we uncover the potential efficacy of AR-12 as a novel drug for treating dengue.

  19. Andrographolide derivative AL-1 improves insulin resistance through down-regulation of NF-κB signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongmei; Yan, Hui; Zhang, Zaijun; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Yu, Pei; Wang, Yuqiang; Xu, Lipeng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Andrographolide is the most active constituent of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. Previously, we synthesized a novel andrographolide derivative AL-1, conjugating andrographolide with lipoic acid. Although the antioxidative and/or anti-inflammatory activity of AL-1 contributes to its cytoprotective effects, whether AL-1 can improve insulin resistance and the mechanisms responsible for its action have not been elucidated. Experimental Approach We investigated the anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic effects of AL-1 in a high-fat diet/streptozocin-induced animal diabetic model. In addition, we investigated the effect of AL-1 on the NF-κB signalling pathway in rat islet derived insulinoma cells (RIN-m cells) with a focus on the link between reactive oxygen species-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. Key Results AL-1, at doses of 40 and 80 mg·kg−1, had a significant hypoglycaemic effect; it significantly reduced the level of cholesterol and increased HDL. AL-1 also reduced the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and enhanced insulin sensitivity. In addition, AL-1 improved the morphology of pancreatic islets and their function. Furthermore, AL-1 suppressed high glucose-induced phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα in RIN-m cells. Conclusion and Implications AL-1 has a hypoglycaemic effect and improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. It protected islet from high glucose-induced oxidative damage by down-regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway. Further investigations of AL-1 as a promising new agent for treatment and/or prevention of diabetes are warranted. PMID:25712508

  20. Heat Shock Protein 27 is down-regulated in Ballooned Hepatocytes of Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

    PubMed Central

    Sookoian, Silvia; Castaño, Gustavo O.; Scian, Romina; San Martino, Julio; Pirola, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Ballooning degeneration (BD) of hepatocytes is a distinguishing histological feature associated with the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Under the assumption that NAFLD severity is associated with metabolic-stress we explored the hypothesis that heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSP27), a protein chaperone involved in stress resistance and cytoskeletal-remodeling, might be deregulated in ballooned hepatocytes. We observed that fasting plasma glucose (fpG) (p = 0.00002), total cholesterol (p = 0.02) and triglycerides (p = 0.01) levels, and female sex (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with the presence of BD. A logistic regression model showed that BD was independently associated with fpG (p = 0.002); OR per unit of glucose concentration 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.09. Furthermore, BD was associated with a significant 2.24-fold decrease in the expression level of HSP27-mRNA in comparison with absence of ballooning, p = 0.002. Ballooned hepatocytes showed very low HSP27 immunoreactivity compared with hepatocyes without ballooning (p = 0.009); HSP27 immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with fpG levels (R: −0.49, p = 0.01). In conclusion, BD is associated with down-regulation of liver HSP27 gene and protein expression, suggesting that ballooned hepatocytes fail to ensure a robust physiological response to metabolic-induced stress. PMID:26935030

  1. Rnf11 sequestration of Smurf2 on membranes antagonizes Smad7 down-regulation of TGFβ signaling.

    PubMed

    Malonis, Ryan J; Fu, Wenxiang; Jelcic, Mark J; Thompson, Marae; Canter, Brian S; Tsikitis, Mary; Esteva, Francisco J; Sánchez, Irma

    2017-03-14

    The activity of the E3 ligase, Smurf2, is antagonized by an intra-molecular, auto-inhibitory interaction between its C2 and Hect domains. Relief of Smurf2 auto-inhibition is induced by TGFβ and is mediated by the inhibitory SMAD, Smad7. In a proteomic screen for endo-membrane interactants of the RING-domain E3 ligase, Rnf11, we identified Smurf2, among a cohort of Hect E3 ligases previously implicated in TGFβ signaling. Reconstitution of the Smurf2/Rnf11 complex in vitro unexpectedly revealed robust Smurf2 E3 ligase activity, with biochemical properties previously restricted to the Smurf2/Smad7 complex. Using in vitro binding assays, we find that Rnf11 can directly compete with Smad7 for Smurf2 and that binding is mutually exclusive and dependent on a proline-rich domain. Moreover, we found that co-expression of Rnf11 and Smurf2 dramatically reduced Smurf2 ubiquitylation in the cell. This effect is strictly dependent on complex formation and sorting determinants that regulate the association of Rnf11 with membranes. Rnf11 is over-expressed in certain tumors, and, importantly, we find that depletion of this protein down-regulated gene expression of several TGFβ-responsive genes, dampened cell proliferation, and dramatically reduced cell migration in response to TGFβ. Our data suggest for the first time that choice of binding partners for Smurf2 can sustain or repress TGFβ signaling and Rnf11 may promote TGFβ-induced cell migration.

  2. Down-regulation of PAR1 activity with a pHLIP-based allosteric antagonist induces cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kelly E; Thévenin, Damien

    2015-12-15

    Even though abnormal expression of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and of their ligands is observed in many cancer cells of various origins, only a few anti-cancer compounds directly act on their signalling. One promising approach to modulate their activity consists of targeting the receptor cytoplasmic surfaces interacting with the associated G-proteins using peptides mimicking the intracellular loops of the receptor. Thus, to be fully effective, the peptide mimics must be selectively targeted to the tumour while sparing healthy tissues, translocated across the cell membrane and stay anchored to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we introduce a novel way to selectively target and inhibit the activity of a GPCR in cancer cells under acidic conditions, such as those found in solid tumours. We find that the conjugation of a peptide fragment derived from the third intracellular loop (i3) of the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) to a peptide that can selectively target tumours solely based on their acidity [pH(Low) Insertion Peptide (pHLIP)], produces a construct capable of effectively down-regulating PAR1 activity in a concentration- and pH-dependent manner and of inducing a potent cytotoxic effect in a panel of cancer cells that is proportional to the relative level of receptor expression at the cell surface. This strategy not only allows for a more selective targeting and specific intracellular delivery than current approaches, but also offers new possibilities for developing novel anti-cancer drugs targeting GPCRs.

  3. Down-regulating the expression of IL-3Rβ interfered with the proliferation, not differentiation in NB4 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wu, Yong; Chen, Yuanzhong

    2011-01-01

    The human IL-3 receptor is composed of both α and β subunits. In early studies, we showed that the level of IL-3Rβ expression was lower in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) than healthy donors and patients in complete remission by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). With the differentiation of cells, enhanced expression of IL-3Rβ was also observed in all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced NB4 cells. To unravel the role of IL-3Rβ upregulation in NB4 cells induced with ATRA, we knocked down IL-3Rβ expression by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of IL-3Rβ resulted in decreased proliferation in NB4 cells induced with or without ATRA, observed by cell growth curves, colony formation assays and cell cycle analysis. Surface expression of CD11b antigen and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays were also carried out at different time points. However, no significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups treated with ATRA. Other findings suggested that IL-3Rα was decreased in NB4-IL-3Rβ shRNA cells by western blot. Down-regulation of IL-3Rβ also caused a decrease in PML/RARα expression detected with RT-qPCR. Together, these results suggest that abnormalities of IL-3Rβ expression were observed in APL; knockdown of IL-3Rβ inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells with or without ATRA, but no effect was detected in the cellular differentiation. When NB4 cells exposed to ATAR, the up-regulation of IL-3Rβ expression may contribute to the maintenance of proliferation rather than cell differentiation.

  4. Down-regulation of Decapping Protein 2 mediates chronic nicotine exposure-induced locomotor hyperactivity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Jinghan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Tong; Ren, Qingzhong; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2012-01-01

    Long-term tobacco use causes nicotine dependence via the regulation of a wide range of genes and is accompanied by various health problems. Studies in mammalian systems have revealed some key factors involved in the effects of nicotine, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), dopamine and other neurotransmitters. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways that link nicotine-induced molecular and behavioral modifications remain elusive. Utilizing a chronic nicotine administration paradigm, we found that adult male fruit flies exhibited locomotor hyperactivity after three consecutive days of nicotine exposure, while nicotine-naive flies did not. Strikingly, this chronic nicotine-induced locomotor hyperactivity (cNILH) was abolished in Decapping Protein 2 or 1 (Dcp2 or Dcp1) -deficient flies, while only Dcp2-deficient flies exhibited higher basal levels of locomotor activity than controls. These results indicate that Dcp2 plays a critical role in the response to chronic nicotine exposure. Moreover, the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of Dcp2 in the fly head was suppressed by chronic nicotine treatment, and up-regulation of Dcp2 expression in the nervous system blocked cNILH. These results indicate that down-regulation of Dcp2 mediates chronic nicotine-exposure-induced locomotor hyperactivity in Drosophila. The decapping proteins play a major role in mRNA degradation; however, their function in the nervous system has rarely been investigated. Our findings reveal a significant role for the mRNA decapping pathway in developing locomotor hyperactivity in response to chronic nicotine exposure and identify Dcp2 as a potential candidate for future research on nicotine dependence.

  5. Airway-parenchyma uncoupling in nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Irvin, C G; Pak, J; Martin, R J

    2000-01-01

    Airway flow resistance is well known to be dependent upon lung volume. The rise in lung volume that occurs in asthma is therefore thought to be an important mechanism that defends airway patency. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interdependence or mechanical coupling between airways and lung parenchyma during the inflammatory processes that occur in the patient with nocturnal asthma. Five patients with documented nocturnal asthma were studied in both a vertical and a horizontal body plethysmograph. Lung volume was altered with continuous negative pressure as applied to the chest wall with a poncho cuirass in different postures and during sleep. We found during the awake phase that an increase in lung volume decreased lower pulmonary resistance (Rlp); however, within 30 min of sleep onset, functional residual capacity (FRC) fell and Rlp rose more than would be expected for the fall in FRC. Restoring FRC to presleep values either at an early (half-hour) or a late (3-h) time point did not cause Rlp to significantly fall. A second phase of the study showed that the loss of Rlp dependence on lung volume was not due to the assumption of the supine posture. Indirect measurements of lung compliance were consistent with a stiffening of the lung. We conclude that with sleep there is an immediate uncoupling of the parenchyma to the airway, resulting in a loss of interdependence that persists throughout sleep and may contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with nocturnal asthma.

  6. Down-regulation of IL-8 by high-dose vitamin D is specific to hyperinflammatory macrophages and involves mechanisms beyond up-regulation of DUSP1

    PubMed Central

    Dauletbaev, N; Herscovitch, K; Das, M; Chen, H; Bernier, J; Matouk, E; Bérubé, J; Rousseau, S; Lands, L C

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is current interest in vitamin D as a potential anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic inflammatory lung disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Vitamin D transcriptionally up-regulates the anti-inflammatory gene DUSP1, which partly controls production of the inflammatory chemokine IL-8. IL-8 is overabundant in CF airways, potentially due to hyperinflammatory responses of CF macrophages. We tested the ability of vitamin D metabolites to down-regulate IL-8 production in CF macrophages. Experimental Approach CF and healthy monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were treated with two vitamin D metabolites, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), or paricalcitol, synthetic analogue of 1,25(OH)2D3. 25OHD3 was tested at doses of 25–150 nM, whereas 1,25(OH)2D3 and paricalcitol at doses of up to 100 nM. IL-8 was stimulated by bacterial virulence factors. As potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of vitamin D metabolites, we assessed up-regulation of DUSP1. Key Results MDM from patients with CF and some healthy donors showed excessive production of stimulated IL-8, highlighting their hyperinflammatory phenotype. Vitamin D metabolites down-regulated stimulated IL-8 only in those hyperinflammatory MDM, and only when used at high doses (>100 nM for 25OHD3, or >1 nM for 1,25(OH)2D3 and paricalcitol). The magnitude of IL-8 down-regulation by vitamin D metabolites or paricalcitol was moderate (∼30% vs. >70% by low-dose dexamethasone). Transcriptional up-regulation of DUSP1 by vitamin D metabolites was seen in all tested MDM, regardless of IL-8 down-regulation. Conclusions and Implications Vitamin D metabolites and their analogues moderately down-regulate IL-8 in hyperinflammatory macrophages, including those from CF. This down-regulation appears to go through DUSP1-independent mechanisms. PMID:26178144

  7. F-box protein complex FBXL19 regulates TGFβ1-induced E-cadherin down-regulation by mediating Rac3 ubiquitination and degradation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rac3 is a small GTPase multifunctional protein that regulates cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. It has been considered as an oncogene in breast cancer; however, its role in esophageal cancer and the regulation of its stability have not been studied. F-box proteins are major subunits within the Skp1-Cullin-1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases that recognize particular substrates for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Recently, we have shown that SCFFBXL19 targets Rac1 and RhoA, thus regulating Rac1 and RhoA ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we demonstrate the role of FBXL19 in the regulation of Rac3 site-specific ubiquitination and stability. Expression of TGFβ1 is associated with poor prognosis of esophageal cancer. TGFβ1 reduces tumor suppressor, E-cadherin, expression in various epithelial-derived cancers. Here we investigate the role of FBXL19-mediated Rac3 degradation in TGFβ1-induced E-cadherin down-regulation in esophageal cancer cells. Methods FBXL19-regulated endogenous and over-expressed Rac3 stability were determined by immunoblotting and co-immunoprecipitation. Esophageal cancer cells (OE19 and OE33) were used to investigate TGFβ1-induced E-cadherin down-regulation by Immunoblotting and Immunostaining. Results Overexpression of FBXL19 decreased endogenous and over-expressed Rac3 expression by interacting and polyubiquitinating Rac3, while down-regulation of FBXL19 suppressed Rac3 degradation. Lysine166 within Rac3 was identified as an ubiquitination acceptor site. The FBXL19 variant with truncation at the N-terminus resulted in an increase in Rac3 degradation; however, the FBXL19 variant with truncation at the C-terminus lost its ability to interact with Rac3 and ubiquitinate Rac3 protein. Further, we found that Rac3 plays a critical role in TGFβ1-induced E-cadherin down-regulation in esophageal cancer cells. Over-expression of FBXL19 attenuated TGFβ1-induced E-cadherin down-regulation and esophageal cancer cells

  8. Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro A; Pinato, Luciana; Ferreira, Zulma S; Markus, Regina P

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system. We have previously shown that agents involved in inflammatory responses, such as cytokines and corticosterone, modulate pineal melatonin synthesis. The nuclear transcription factor NFKB, detected by our group in the rat pineal gland, modulates this effect. Here, we evaluated a putative constitutive role for the pineal gland NFKB pathway. Male rats were kept under 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle or under constant darkness (DD) condition. Nuclear NFKB was quantified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on pineal glands obtained from animals killed throughout the day at different times. Nuclear content of NFKB presented a daily rhythm only in LD-entrained animals. During the light phase, the amount of NFKB increased continuously, and a sharp drop occurred when lights were turned off. Animals maintained in a constant light environment until ZT 18 showed diurnal levels of nuclear NFKB at ZT15 and ZT18. Propranolol (20 mg/kg, i.p., ZT 11) treatment, which inhibits nocturnal sympathetic input, impaired nocturnal decrease of NFKB only at ZT18. A similar effect was observed in free-running animals, which secreted less nocturnal melatonin. Because melatonin reduces constitutive NFKB activation in cultured pineal glands, we propose that this indolamine regulates this transcription factor pathway in the rat pineal gland, but not at the LD transition. The controversial results regarding the inhibition of pineal function by constant light or blocking sympathetic neurotransmission are discussed according to the hypothesis that the prompt effect of lights-off is not mediated by noradrenaline, which otherwise contributes to maintaining low levels of nuclear NFKB at night. In summary, we report here a novel transcription factor in the pineal gland, which exhibits a constitutive rhythm dependent on environmental photic

  9. Molecular mechanisms of silk gland damage caused by phoxim exposure and protection of phoxim-induced damage by cerium chloride in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Sun, Qingqing; Yu, Xiaohong; Xie, Yi; Hong, Jie; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sang, Xuezi; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

    2015-09-01

    It is known that exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OP) including phoxim can produce oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and greatly attenuate cocooning rate in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Cerium treatment has been demonstrated to relieve phoxim-induced toxicity in B. mori; however, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of silk gland injury due to OP exposure and protection of gland damage due to cerium pretreatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate silk gland damage and its molecular mechanisms in phoxim-induced silkworm toxicity and the protective mechanisms of cerium following exposure to phoxim. The results showed that phoxim exposure resulted in severe gland damage, reductions in protein synthesis and the cocooning rate of silkworms. Cerium (Ce) attenuated gland damage caused by phoxim, promoted protein synthesis, increased the antioxidant capacity of the gland and increased the cocooning rate of B. mori. Furthermore, digital gene expression data suggested that phoxim exposure led to significant up-regulation of 714 genes and down-regulation of 120 genes. Of these genes, 122 were related to protein metabolism, specifically, the down-regulated Ser2, Ser3, Fib-L, P25, and CYP450. Ce pretreatment resulted in up-regulation of 162 genes, and down-regulation of 141 genes, importantly, Ser2, Ser3, Fib-L, P25, and CYP333B8 were up-regulated. Treatment with CeCl3 + phoxim resulted in higher levels of Fib-L, P25, Ser2, Ser3, CAT, TPx, and CYP333B8 expression in the silk gland of silkworms. These findings indicated that Ce increased cocooning rate via the promotion of silk protein synthesis-related gene expression in the gland under phoxim-induced toxicity. These findings may expand the application of rare earths in sericulture.

  10. Nocturnal Sleep Dynamics Identify Narcolepsy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Franceschini, Christian; Liguori, Rocco; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of nocturnal sleep dynamics in the differential diagnosis of central disorders of hypersomnolence. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: One hundred seventy-five patients with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, n = 79), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2, n = 22), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH, n = 22), and “subjective” hypersomnolence (sHS, n = 52). Interventions: None. Methods: Polysomnographic (PSG) work-up included 48 h of continuous PSG recording. From nocturnal PSG conventional sleep macrostructure, occurrence of sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP), sleep stages distribution, and sleep stage transitions were calculated. Patient groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to test the diagnostic utility of nocturnal PSG data to identify NT1. Results: Sleep macrostructure was substantially stable in the 2 nights of each diagnostic group. NT1 and NT2 patients had lower latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and NT1 patients showed the highest number of awakenings, sleep stage transitions, and more time spent in N1 sleep, as well as most SOREMPs at daytime PSG and at multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) than all other groups. ROC curve analysis showed that nocturnal SOREMP (area under the curve of 0.724 ± 0.041, P < 0.0001), percent of total sleep time spent in N1 (0.896 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), and the wakefulness-sleep transition index (0.796 ± 0.034, P < 0.0001) had a good sensitivity and specificity profile to identify NT1 sleep, especially when used in combination (0.903 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), similarly to SOREMP number at continuous daytime PSG (0.899 ± 0.026, P < 0.0001) and at MSLT (0.956 ± 0.015, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sleep macrostructure (i.e. SOREMP, N1 timing) including stage transitions reliably identifies hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 among central disorders of hypersomnolence. Citation: Pizza F, Vandi S

  11. Inhibition of mouse mammary ductal morphogenesis and down-regulation of the EGF receptor by epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S; Daniel, C W

    1990-02-01

    EGF, initially demonstrated to be a potent mitogen for a variety of cell types, has more recently been shown to inhibit proliferation of several cell lines. Few studies, however, have addressed the effects of EGF on growth and morphogenesis of tissues in vivo, particularly with regard to EGF as a possible inhibitor. We now demonstrate that EGF treatment of vigorously growing mammary ducts, administered directly to the glands by slow release plastic implants, inhibited normal ductal growth. Inhibition was restricted to the region around the implant and untreated glands in the same animal were normal, indicating direct effects of EGF. EGF-treated end buds were smaller and demonstrated reduced levels of DNA synthesis, although remnants of a stem (cap) cell layer persisted. Full inhibition of growth occurred within 3 days of implantation and required extended exposure to EGF, since treatment of 5 hr or less had no effect on ductal growth. At the lower inhibitory doses tested, growth resumed within 8 days, indicating reversibility of inhibition. No lobuloalveolar or hyperplastic response was seen. 125I-EGF autoradiography revealed that ductal growth inhibition was preceded by the disappearance of EGF receptors located in the cap cell layer of the end bud epithelium and in stromal cells adjacent to the buds. These results, in conjunction with our previous evidence demonstrating the growth-stimulatory effect by EGF on nonproliferating mammary ducts, suggest a growth regulatory role for EGF in mouse mammary ductal morphogenesis.

  12. Fungal pattern receptors down-regulate the inflammatory response by a cross-inhibitory mechanism independent of interleukin-10 production.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mario; Márquez, Saioa; de la Rosa, Juan Vladimir; Alonso, Sara; Castrillo, Antonio; Sánchez Crespo, Mariano; Fernández, Nieves

    2017-02-01

    Cyclic AMP regulatory element binding protein and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) may control inflammation by several mechanisms, one of the best characterized is the induction of the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). STAT3 also down-regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled receptors, a mechanism termed cross-inhibition. Because signalling via ITAM-dependent mechanisms is a hallmark of fungal pattern receptors, STAT3 activation might be involved in the cross-inhibition associated with invasive fungal infections. The fungal surrogate zymosan produced the phosphorylation of Y705-STAT3 and the expression of Ifnb1 and Socs3, but did not induce the interferon (IFN)-signature cytokines Cxcl9 and Cxcl10 in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Unlike lipopolysaccharide (LPS), zymosan induced IL-10 and phosphorylated Y705-STAT3 to a similar extent in Irf3 and Ifnar1 knockout and wild-type mice. Human dendritic cells showed similar results, although the induction of IFNB1 was less prominent. These results indicate that LPS and zymosan activate STAT3 through different routes. Whereas type I IFN is the main effector of LPS effect, the mechanism involved in Y705-STAT3 phosphorylation by zymosan is more complex, cannot be associated with type I IFN, IL-6 or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and seems dependent on several factors given that it was partially inhibited by the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB2086 and high concentrations of COX inhibitors, p38 mitogen-activate protein kinase inhibitors, and blockade of tumour necrosis factor-α function. Altogether, these results indicate that fungal pattern receptors share with other ITAM-coupled receptors the capacity to produce cross-inhibition through a mechanism involving STAT3 and induction of SOCS3 and IL-10, but that cannot be explained through type I IFN

  13. Down-regulation of CD81 tetraspanin in human cells producing retroviral-based particles: tailoring vector composition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A F; Guerreiro, M R; Santiago, V M; Dalba, C; Klatzmann, D; Alves, P M; Carrondo, M J T; Coroadinha, A S

    2011-11-01

    Retroviral-derived biopharmaceuticals (RV) target numerous therapeutic applications, from gene therapy to virus-like particle (rVLP)-based vaccines. During particle formation, beside the pseudotyped envelope proteins, RV can incorporate proteins derived from the virus producer cells (VPC). This may be detrimental by reducing the amounts of the pseudotyped envelope and/or by incorporating protein capable of inducing immune responses when non-human VPC are used. Manipulating the repertoire of VPC proteins integrated onto the vector structure is an underexplored territory and should provide valuable insights on potential targets to improve vector pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. In this work, human HEK 293 cells producing retrovirus-like particles (rVLPs) and infectious RV vectors were used to prove the concept of customizing RV composition by manipulating cellular protein content. The tetraspanin CD81 was chosen since it is significantly incorporated in the RV membrane, conferring to the vector significant immunogenicity when used in mice. RNA interference-mediated by shRNA lentiviral vector transduction was efficiently used to silence CD81 expression (up to 99%) and the rVLPs produced by knocked-down cells lack CD81. Silenced clones were analyzed for cell proliferation, morphological changes, susceptibility to oxidative stress conditions, and rVLP productivities. The results showed that the down-regulation of VPC proteins requires close monitoring for possible side effects on cellular production performance. Yet, they confirm that it is possible to change the composition of host-derived immunogens in RV by altering cellular protein content with no detriment for vector productivity and titers. This constitutes an important manipulation tool in vaccinology--by exploiting the potential adjuvant effect of VPC proteins or using them as fusion agents to other proteins of interest to be exposed on the vector membrane--and in gene therapy, by reducing the

  14. A model for migratory B cell oscillations from receptor down-regulation induced by external chemokine fields.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cliburn; Billard, Matthew; Ramirez, Samuel A; Schmidl, Harald; Monson, Eric; Kepler, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    receptor down-regulation induced by external chemokine fields can give rise to spontaneous interzonal and intrazonal oscillations in the absence of any extrinsic regulation. While the extent to which such simple feedback mechanisms contributes to B cell migration patterns in the germinal center is unknown, the model provides an alternative hypothesis for how complex B cell migration patterns might arise from very simple mechanisms.

  15. Down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in PC12 cells by nerve growth factor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Suárez, Salvador; Castellanos, María Carmen; Alvarez-Tejado, Miguel; Vara, Alicia; Landázuri, Manuel O; del Peso, Luis

    2003-08-22

    Cellular responses to low oxygen tension are mediated, at least in part, by the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In the presence of oxygen, specific HIF residues become hydroxylated by the action of a recently described group of dioxygenases. These post-translational modifications target HIF for proteosomal degradation and prevent its transcriptional activity. Despite these detailed studies, little is known about the regulation of HIF by stimuli other than hypoxia. Here we report that, in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation results in a decrease of both basal and hypoxia-induced levels of HIF-2 alpha protein. NGF treatment did not increase HIF-hydroxylase gene expression or activity, and the reduction of the HIF-2 alpha protein level upon stimulation was observed even in the presence of HIF-hydroxylase inhibitors such as deferoxamine or dimethyloxoglutarate. Thus, in contrast to the response to hypoxia, the effect of NGF on HIF-2 alpha protein levels is not mediated by the HIF hydroxilases. Quantitative real time (RT)-PCR showed that NGF stimulation results in a decrease of the HIF-2 alpha mRNA level similar to that found at the protein level. Interestingly, NGF effect was specific for HIF-2 alpha mRNA because it did not affect HIF-1 alpha mRNA levels. NGF treatment reduced HIF-2 alpha mRNA levels even in the presence of actinomycin D, suggesting an effect on mRNA stability. Finally, the effect of NGF on HIF2 alpha correlates with reduction of both basal and hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. Reporter assays suggest that the reduced expression of hypoxia-inducible genes upon NGF treatment is related, at least in part, to the reduction of HIF-2 alpha protein. Hence, in PC12 cells the level of HIF-2 alpha protein and its effect on gene expression can be down-regulated by stimuli other than oxygen.

  16. MicroRNA-126 inhibits tumor proliferation and angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma by down-regulating EGFL7 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming-Hua; Ma, Chen-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ye, Chen-Dong; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Chen, Lin; Wang, Jin-Guo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-126 (miR-126) on tumor proliferation and angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by targeting EGFL7. HCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 71 HCC patients. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to detect expressions of EGFL7 and VEGF and the micro-vessel density (MVD). HCC cell lines were collected and assigned into the blank, miR-126 mimics, miR-126 inhibitors, miR-126 mimics negative control (NC), miR-126 inhibitors NC, si-EGFL7, and miR-126 inhibitors + si-EGFL7 groups. Expressions of miR-126 and EGFL7 mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR assay. The protein expressions of EGFL7 and VEGF were measured by Western blotting. MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation of HCC cells. Tumor xenograft model in nude mice was utilized to evaluate the influence of miR-126 on tumor growth. HCC tissues had higher miR-126 expression and lower EGFL7 mRNA expression than adjacent normal tissues. Compared with the blank, miR-126 mimic NC, miR-126 inhibitor NC and miR-126 inhibitors + si-EGFL7 groups, the protein expressions of EGFL7 and VEGF and cell proliferation were reduced in the miR-126 mimics and si-EGFL7 groups, while the opposite trend was found in the miR-126 inhibitors group. Compared with the blank and miR-126 inhibitors + siRNA-EGFL7 groups, tumor size, tumor weight, and MVD of transplanted tumors in nude mice were significantly reduced in the miR-126 mimics and siRNA-EGFL7 groups, while the opposite trend was found in the miR-126 inhibitors group. In conclusion, miR-126 could inhibit tumor proliferation and angiogenesis of HCC by down-regulating EGFL7 expression. PMID:27611944

  17. Down-regulation of p53-inducible microRNAs 192, 194 and 215 impairs the p53/MDM2 auto-regulatory loop in multiple myeloma development

    PubMed Central

    Pichiorri, Flavia; Suh, Sung-Suk; Rocci, Alberto; De Luca, Luciana; Taccioli, Cristian; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Wenchao, Zhou; Benson, Don M.; Hofmainster, Craig; Alder, Hansjuerg; Garofalo, Michela; Di Leva, Gianpiero; Volinia, Stefano; Lin, Huey-Jen; Perrotti, Danilo; Kuehl, Michael; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Palumbo, Antonio; Croce, Carlo M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In multiple myeloma (MM), an incurable B-cell neoplasm, mutation or deletion of p53 is rarely detected at diagnosis. Using small-molecule inhibitors of MDM2, we provide evidence that miR-192, 194 and 215, which are down-regulated in a subset of newly diagnosed MMs, can be transcriptionally activated by p53 and then modulate MDM2 expression. Furthermore, ectopic re-expression of these miRNAs in MM cells increases the therapeutic action of MDM2 inhibitors in vitro and in vivo by enhancing their p53-activating effects. In addition, miR-192 and 215 target the IGF pathway, preventing enhanced migration of plasma cells into bone marrow. The results suggest that these miRNAs are positive regulators of p53 and that their down-regulation plays a key role in MM development. PMID:20951946

  18. Loss of Sprouty2 in human high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas promotes EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation and cell invasion.

    PubMed

    So, Wai-Kin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Fan, Qianlan; Wong, Alice S T; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-01-30

    Sprouty (SPRY) proteins are well-characterized factors that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Our Human Exonic Evidence-Based Oligonucleotide (HEEBO) microarray results showed that the mRNA levels of SPRY2, but not of SPRY1 or SPRY4, are down-regulated in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) tissues and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines. Molecular inversion probe (MIP) copy number analysis showed the deletion of the SPRY2 locus in HGSC. Overexpression of SPRY2 reduced EGF-induced cell invasion by attenuating EGF-induced E-cadherin down-regulation. Moreover, a positive correlation between SPRY2 and E-cadherin protein levels was observed in HGSC tissues. This study reveals the loss of SPRY2 in HGSC and indicates an important tumor-suppressive role for SPRY2 in mediating the stimulatory effect of EGF on human EOC progression.

  19. Subcutaneous administration of collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone down regulates IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in scleroderma skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Furuzawa-Carballeda, J; Krötzsch, E; Barile-Fabris, L; Alcalá, M; Espinosa-Morales, R

    2005-01-01

    In this study the effect of collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone (collagen-PVP) vs. triamcinolone acetonide (Triam) in scleroderma (SSc) skin lesions was evaluated. Ten SSc patients were treated weekly with subcutaneous injections of 0.2 mL Triam (8 mg/mL) or 0.2 mL collagen-PVP (1.66 mg collagen). Skin biopsies were obtained from lesions before and after treatment. Tissue sections were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry (ELAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and PDGF). The corticoid-treated group showed abnormal tissue architecture while the biodrug-treatment restored cutaneous appendages and type I/III collagen proportion. Cytokine and adhesion molecule expression was almost inhibited with Triam, while collagen-PVP down-regulated it. Collagen-PVP improved the tissue architecture of SSc lesions and down-regulated some proinflammatory parameters, without the side effects induced by corticoids.

  20. The ACAT inhibitor VULM1457 significantly reduced production and secretion of adrenomedullin (AM) and down-regulated AM receptors on human hepatoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Drímal, J; Fáberová, V; Schmidtová, L; Bednáriková, M; Drímal, J; Drímal, D

    2005-12-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an important enzyme in the pathways of cholesterol esterification. It has been shown that new ACAT inhibitor 1-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)-3-[4-(4'-nitrophenylthio)phenyl] urea (VULM1457) significantly reduced atherogenic activity in animal experimental atherosclerosis. Proliferative hormone adrenomedullin (AM) has been shown to be released in response to hypoxia, however, its role in cellular protection has remained elusive. The effect of increased local production of AM in cells and resultant down-regulation of AM receptors has not been investigated yet. We hypothesized that increased expression of AM in hypoxic cells was the result of excessive AM production with resultant AM receptor down-regulation, surface-membrane protein degradation and that the new specific ACAT inhibitor would reduce AM induction in hypoxia and thus proliferation of cells. In order to investigate specific cellular AM signaling and protection induced by VULM1457, we characterized specific surface-membrane [125I]AM receptors expressed on cells, evaluated AM secretion (RIA assays), AM mRNA expression in cultured cells (RT-PCR analysis) and proliferation (incorporation of [3H]thymidine) in control, hypoxic and metabolically stressed human hepatoblastoma cell lines exposed to gradually increasing concentrations of VULM1457. The new ACAT inhibitor VULM1457 in concentration 0.03 and 0.1 micromol/l significantly down-regulated specific AM receptors on HepG2 cells, reduced AM secretion of HepG2 cells exposed to hypoxia. These results suggest that VULM1457, as new member of ACAT family of inhibitors could negatively regulate cell proliferation induced by AM, which may correlate with down-regulation of membrane-bound AM receptors on HepG2 cells, and moreover, with the induction and expression of AM in hypoxia.

  1. Increased reactive oxygen species production down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated alpha pathway in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, Agatha; Alegret, Marta; Sanchez, Rosa M; Adzet, Tomas; Laguna, Juan C; Carrera, Manuel Vazquez

    2002-03-22

    Generation of reactive oxygen species may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases involving intracellular lipid accumulation. To explore the mechanisms leading to these pathologies we tested the effects of etomoxir, an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which contains a fatty acid-derived structure, in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Etomoxir treatment for 24 h resulted in a down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) mRNA expression, achieving an 87% reduction at 80 microm etomoxir. The mRNA levels of most of the PPARalpha target genes studied were reduced at 100 microm etomoxir. By using several inhibitors of de novo ceramide synthesis and C(2)-ceramide we showed that they were not involved in the effects of etomoxir. Interestingly, the addition of triacsin C, a potent inhibitor of acyl-CoA synthetase, to etomoxir-treated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells did not prevent the down-regulation in PPARalpha mRNA levels, suggesting that the active form of the drug, etomoxir-CoA, was not involved. Given that saturated fatty acids may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), we determined whether the addition of etomoxir resulted in ROS generation. Etomoxir increased ROS production and the activity of the well known redox transcription factor NF-kappaB. In the presence of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of NF-kappaB activity, etomoxir did not down-regulate PPARalpha mRNA in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. These results indicate that ROS generation and NF-kappaB activation are responsible for the down-regulation of PPARalpha and may provide a new mechanism by which intracellular lipid accumulation occurs in skeletal muscle cells.

  2. Down-regulation of miR-320 associated with cancer progression and cell apoptosis via targeting Mcl-1 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Zou, Ping; Wang, Tiejun; Xiang, Jingying; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Daozhen; Zhou, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated overexpression of Mcl-1 in cervical cancer tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of its overexpression remains not elucidated. MiR-320 has been reported to be down-regulated in various types of cancer, and bioinformatics prediction indicated that it may regulate the expression of Mcl-1. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-320 and its target gene Mcl-1 in cervical cancer progression and to assess their clinical significance. miR-320 and Mcl-1 expressions in human cervical cancer tissues were investigated by qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The clinicopathological implications of these molecules were analyzed. Bioinformatic prediction and luciferase assays were employed to identify the predicted microRNA (miRNA) which regulates Mcl-1. The apoptosis, proliferation, migration, and invasion assays were performed to investigate the effect of miR-320 on the cervical cancer cells. MiR-320 expression is significantly down-regulated versus Mcl-1 expression is up-regulated in cervical cancer tissues compared with normal controls with a negative correlation between them. Luciferase assay showed that miR-320 negatively regulates Mcl-1 expression. In addition, miR-320 induces apoptosis via down-regulation of Mcl-1 and activation of caspase-3 but inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis in cervical cancer cells. Our studies show that miR-320 expression is decreased in cervical cancer, and its expression is negatively correlated with Mcl-1 expression in cervical cancer. In addition, miR-320 inhibits cervical cancer progression by down-regulation of Mcl-1. These results indicate that miR-320 may be an important biomarker and target for diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer patient.

  3. Down-regulation of types I, II and III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors is mediated by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Oberdorf, J; Webster, J M; Zhu, C C; Luo, S G; Wojcikiewicz, R J

    1999-01-01

    Activation of certain phosphoinositidase-C-linked cell-surface receptors is known to cause an acceleration of the proteolysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptors and, thus, lead to Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor down-regulation. In the current study we have sought to determine whether the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway is involved in this adaptive response. The data presented show (i) that activation of phosphoinositidase-C-linked receptors causes Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor ubiquitination in a range of cell types (AR4-2J cells, INS-1 cells and rat cerebellar granule cells), (ii) that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor down-regulation induced by activation of these receptors is blocked by proteasome inhibitors, (iii) that all known Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors (types I, II and III) are substrates for ubiquitination, (iv) that ubiquitination occurs while Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors are membrane-bound, (v) that Ins(1,4, 5)P3-receptor ubiquitination and down-regulation are stimulated only by those agonists that elevate Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration persistently, and (vi) that a portion of cellular Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors (those that are not type-I-receptor-associated) can be resistant to ubiquitination and degradation. In total these data indicate that the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway mediates Ins(1,4, 5)P3-receptor down-regulation and suggest that ubiquitination is stimulated by the binding of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to its receptor. PMID:10191279

  4. DNA methylation-mediated down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) is coincident with, but not essential for, global hypomethylation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, Boris; Wong, Nick C; Sibson, Mandy; Ng, Hong-Kiat; Morley, Ruth; Manuelpillai, Ursula; Down, Thomas; Rakyan, Vardhman K; Beck, Stephan; Hiendleder, Stefan; Roberts, Claire T; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard

    2010-03-26

    The genome of extraembryonic tissue, such as the placenta, is hypomethylated relative to that in somatic tissues. However, the origin and role of this hypomethylation remains unclear. The DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, -3A, and -3B are the primary mediators of the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation in mammals. In this study, we investigated promoter methylation-mediated epigenetic down-regulation of DNMT genes as a potential regulator of global methylation levels in placental tissue. Although DNMT3A and -3B promoters lack methylation in all somatic and extraembryonic tissues tested, we found specific hypermethylation of the maintenance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) gene and found hypomethylation of the DNMT3L gene in full term and first trimester placental tissues. Bisulfite DNA sequencing revealed monoallelic methylation of DNMT1, with no evidence of imprinting (parent of origin effect). In vitro reporter experiments confirmed that DNMT1 promoter methylation attenuates transcriptional activity in trophoblast cells. However, global hypomethylation in the absence of DNMT1 down-regulation is apparent in non-primate placentas and in vitro derived human cytotrophoblast stem cells, suggesting that DNMT1 down-regulation is not an absolute requirement for genomic hypomethylation in all instances. These data represent the first demonstration of methylation-mediated regulation of the DNMT1 gene in any system and demonstrate that the unique epigenome of the human placenta includes down-regulation of DNMT1 with concomitant hypomethylation of the DNMT3L gene. This strongly implicates epigenetic regulation of the DNMT gene family in the establishment of the unique epigenetic profile of extraembryonic tissue in humans.

  5. HAb18G/CD147 inhibits starvation-induced autophagy in human hepatoma cell SMMC7721 with an involvement of Beclin 1 down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Gou, Xingchun; Ru, Qiang; Zhang, Hongxin; Chen, Yanke; Li, Ling; Yang, Hushan; Xing, Jinliang; Chen, Zhinan

    2009-05-01

    HAb18G/CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in various types of malignant cells, mainly functions as an inducer of matrix metalloproteinases to promote tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. However, whether there are other mechanisms underlying the role of HAb18G/CD147 in tumor progression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the functional effects of HAb18G/CD147 on autophagy in hepatoma cell line SMMC7721 using immunofluorescence staining, Western blot and transmission electronmicroscopy. Our data showed that specific small interference RNA (siRNA) considerably down-regulated the expression of HAb18G/CD147 in SMMC7721 cells at both messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. The down-regulation of HAb18G/CD147 significantly promoted starvation-induced autophagy in a dose-dependent manner. Using trypan blue exclusion assay, we found that HAb18G/CD147 notably enhanced the survival of SMMC7721 cells through inhibiting starvation-induced autophagy. In addition, we demonstrated that HAb18G/CD147 down-regulated the expression of autophagy-regulating protein Beclin 1 in SMMC7721 cells. Furthermore, our data indicated that HAb18G siRNA-transfected SMMC7721 cells had a significantly decreased level of phosphorylated serine/threonine protein kinase B (pAkt) and the expression of Beclin 1 was inversely associated with the level of pAkt, suggesting that the Class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-Akt pathway may be involved in the down-regulation of Beclin 1 by HAb18G/CD147. Overall, we provide the first experimental evidence to show that HAb18G/CD147 may play an important role in the inhibitory regulation of autophagy. Therefore, our data suggest a new molecular mechanism for HAb18G-mediated hepatoma progression.

  6. Sequential down-regulation of E-cadherin with squamous cell carcinoma progression: loss of E-cadherin via a prostaglandin E2-EP2 dependent posttranslational mechanism.

    PubMed

    Brouxhon, Sabine; Kyrkanides, Stephanos; O'Banion, M Kerry; Johnson, Renee; Pearce, David A; Centola, Gina M; Miller, Jen-nie H; McGrath, Kieran H; Erdle, Brandon; Scott, Glynis; Schneider, Sandra; VanBuskirk, JoAnne; Pentland, Alice P

    2007-08-15

    The incidence of skin cancer is on the rise, with over 1 million new cases yearly. Although it is known that squamous cell cancers (SCC) are caused by UV light, the mechanism(s) involved remains poorly understood. In vitro studies with epithelial cells or reports examining malignant skin lesions suggest that loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts may contribute to SCCs. Other studies show a pivotal role for cyclooxygenase-dependent prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in this process. Using chronically UV-irradiated SKH-1 mice, we show a sequential loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts as lesions progress from dysplasia to SCCs. This E-cadherin down-regulation was also evident after acute UV exposure in vivo. In both chronic and acute UV injury, E-cadherin levels declined at a time when epidermal PGE2 synthesis was enhanced. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis by indomethacin in vitro, targeted deletion of EP2 in primary mouse keratinocyte (PMK) cultures or deletion of the EP2 receptor in vivo abrogated this UV-induced E-cadherin down-regulation. In contrast, addition of PGE2 or the EP2 receptor agonist butaprost to PMK produced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in E-cadherin. We also show that UV irradiation, via the PGE2-EP2 signaling pathway, may initiate tumorigenesis in keratinocytes by down-regulating E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts through its mobilization away from the cell membrane, internalization into the cytoplasm, and shuttling through the lysosome and proteasome degradation pathways. Further understanding of how UV-PGE2-EP2 down-regulates E-cadherin may lead to novel chemopreventative strategies for the treatment of skin and other epithelial cancers.

  7. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other type of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:23743303

  8. Aspirin down Regulates Hepcidin by Inhibiting NF-κB and IL6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Ying; Li, Fei-Mi; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Zhong-Min; Ma, Juan; Ya, Ke; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2016-12-16

    Aspirin down regulates transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and up regulates ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ferritin expression in BV-2 microglial cells treated without lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as well as down regulates hepcidin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in cells treated with LPS. However, the relevant mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of aspirin on expression of hepcidin and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and P65 (nuclear factor-κB), and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in BV-2 microglial cells treated with and without LPS. We demonstrated that aspirin inhibited hepcidin mRNA as well as NO production in cells treated with LPS, but not in cells without LPS, suppresses IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) phosphorylation and has no effect on IRP1 in cells treated with or without LPS. These findings provide evidence that aspirin down regulates hepcidin by inhibiting IL6/JAK2/STAT3 and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) pathways in the cells under inflammatory conditions, and imply that an aspirin-induced reduction in TfR1 and an increase in ferritin are not associated with IRP1 and NO.

  9. Hypoxia-Mediated Down-Regulation of Bid and Bax in Tumors Occurs via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms and Contributes to Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Erler, Janine T.; Cawthorne, Christopher J.; Williams, Kaye J.; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Wouters, Bradley G.; Wilson, Clare; Miller, Crispin; Demonacos, Costas; Stratford, Ian J.; Dive, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    Solid tumors with disorganized, insufficient blood supply contain hypoxic cells that are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Drug resistance, an obstacle to curative treatment of solid tumors, can occur via suppression of apoptosis, a process controlled by pro- and antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family. Oxygen deprivation of human colon cancer cells in vitro provoked decreased mRNA and protein levels of proapoptotic Bid and Bad. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) was dispensable for the down-regulation of Bad but required for that of Bid, consistent with the binding of HIF-1α to a hypoxia-responsive element (positions −8484 to −8475) in the bid promoter. Oxygen deprivation resulted in proteosome-independent decreased expression of Bax in vitro, consistent with a reduction in global translation efficiency. The physiological relevance of Bid and Bax down-regulation was confirmed in tumors in vivo. Oxygen deprivation resulted in decreased drug-induced apoptosis and clonogenic resistance to agents with different mechanisms of action. The contribution of Bid and/or Bax down-regulation to drug responsiveness was demonstrated by the relative resistance of normoxic cells that had no or reduced expression of Bid and/or Bax and by the finding that forced expression of Bid in hypoxic cells resulted in increased sensitivity to the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide. PMID:15024076

  10. The synthetic antimicrobial peptide 19-2.5 attenuates septic cardiomyopathy and prevents down-regulation of SERCA2 in polymicrobial sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; Horst, Klemens; Chiazza, Fausto; Oggero, Silvia; Collino, Massimo; Brandenburg, Klaus; Hildebrand, Frank; Marx, Gernot; Thiemermann, Christoph; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    An impairment of cardiac function is a key feature of the cardiovascular failure associated with sepsis. Although there is some evidence that suppression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATP-ase (SERCA2) contributes to septic cardiomyopathy, it is not known whether prevention of the down-regulation of SERCA2 improves outcome in sepsis. Thus, we investigated whether the administration of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide Pep2.5 may attenuate the cardiac dysfunction in murine polymicrobial sepsis through regulating SERCA2 expression. We show here for the first time that the infusion of Pep2.5 reduces the impaired systolic and diastolic contractility and improves the survival time in polymicrobial sepsis. Preservation of cardiac function in sepsis by Pep2.5 is associated with prevention of the activation of NF-κB and activation of the Akt/eNOS survival pathways. Most notably, Pep2.5 prevented the down-regulation of SERCA2 expression in a) murine heart samples obtained from mice with sepsis and b) in cardiomyocytes exposed to serum from septic shock patients. Thus, we speculate that Pep2.5 may be able to prevent down-regulation of cardiac SERCA2 expression in patients with sepsis, which, in turn, may improve cardiac function and outcome in these patients. PMID:27853260

  11. Growth promotion in pigs by oxytetracycline coincides with down regulation of serum inflammatory parameters and of hibernation-associated protein HP-27.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laura; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Jessen, Flemming; Escribano, Damian; Niewold, Theo

    2016-05-01

    The growth promoting effect of supplementing animal feed with antibiotics like tetracycline has traditionally been attributed to their antibiotic character. However, more evidence has been accumulated on their direct anti-inflammatory effect during the last two decades. Here we used a pig model to explore the systemic molecular effect of feed supplementation with sub therapeutic levels of oxytetracycline (OTC) by analysis of serum proteome changes. Results showed that OTC promoted growth, coinciding with a significant down regulation of different serum proteins related to inflammation, oxidation and lipid metabolism, confirming the anti-inflammatory mechanism of OTC. Interestingly, apart from the classic acute phase reactants also down regulation was seen of a hibernation associated plasma protein (HP-27), which is to our knowledge the first description in pigs. Although the exact function in non-hibernators is unclear, down regulation of HP-27 could be consistent with increased appetite, which is possibly linked to the anti-inflammatory action of OTC. Given that pigs are good models for human medicine due to their genetic and physiologic resemblance, the present results might also be used for rational intervention in human diseases in which inflammation plays an important role such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. The carboxyl terminus of the chemokine receptor CCR3 contains distinct domains which regulate chemotactic signaling and receptor down-regulation in a ligand-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Sabroe, Ian; Jorritsma, Annelies; Stubbs, Victoria E L; Xanthou, Georgina; Jopling, Louise A; Ponath, Paul D; Williams, Timothy J; Murphy, Philip M; Pease, James E

    2005-04-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR3 regulates the chemotaxis of leukocytes implicated in allergic disease, such as eosinophils. Incubation of eosinophils with CCL11, CCL13 or CCL5 resulted in a rapid decrease of cell-surface CCR3 which was replicated using CCR3 transfectants. Progressive truncation of the CCR3 C terminus by 15 amino acids produced three constructs, Delta340, Delta325 and Delta310. Delta340 and Delta325 were able to bind CCL11 with affinities similar to wild-type CCR3. Delta340 transfectants exhibited enhanced migration and reduced receptor down-regulation in response to CCL11 and CCL13. Delta325 transfectants displayed chemotactic responses to CCL11 and CCL13 similar to wild-type CCR3, and had impaired down-regulation when stimulated with CCL13 but not CCL11. In contrast, neither the Delta325 nor Delta340 truncation affected chemotaxis or receptor down-regulation induced by CCL5. Delta310 transfectants bound CCL11 poorly and were biologically inactive. Inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI3-kinase antagonized eosinophil shape change responses and chemotaxis of transfectants to CCL11 and CCL13. In contrast, shape change but not chemotaxis was sensitive to inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase pathway suggesting differential regulation of the two responses. Thus, the CCR3 C terminus contains distinct domains responsible for the regulation of receptor desensitization and for coupling to chemotactic responses.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured under hypoxia escape from senescence via down-regulation of p16 and extracellular signal regulated kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Yonghui; Kato, Tomohisa; Furu, Moritoshi; Nasu, Akira; Kajita, Yoichiro; Mitsui, Hiroto; Ueda, Michiko; Aoyama, Tomoki; Nakayama, Tomitaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Toguchida, Junya

    2010-01-15

    Hypoxia has been considered to affect the properties of tissue stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Effects of long periods of exposure to hypoxia on human MSCs, however, have not been clearly demonstrated. MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions (20% pO{sub 2}) ceased to proliferate after 15-25 population doublings, while MSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% pO{sub 2}) retained the ability to proliferate with an additional 8-20 population doublings. Most of the MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions were in a senescent state after 100 days, while few senescent cells were found in the hypoxic culture, which was associated with a down-regulation of p16 gene expression. MSCs cultured for 100 days under hypoxic conditions were superior to those cultured under normoxic conditions in the ability to differentiate into the chondro- and adipogenic, but not osteogenic, lineage. Among the molecules related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) was significantly down-regulated by hypoxia, which helped to inhibit the up-regulation of p16 gene expression. Therefore, the hypoxic culture retained MSCs in an undifferentiated and senescence-free state through the down-regulation of p16 and ERK.

  14. HIV-1 Nef Binds a Subpopulation of MHC-I throughout Its Trafficking Itinerary and Down-regulates MHC-I by Perturbing Both Anterograde and Retrograde Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ling; Rosales, Tilman; Rose, Jeremy J.; Chaudhury, Bhabhadeb; Knutson, Jay R.; Venkatesan, Sundararajan

    2010-01-01

    The HIV protein Nef is thought to mediate immune evasion and promote viral persistence in part by down-regulating major histocompatibility complex class I protein (MHC-I or HLA-I) from the cell surface. Two different models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon as follows: 1) stimulation of MHC-I retrograde trafficking from and aberrant recycling to the plasma membrane, and 2) inhibition of anterograde trafficking of newly synthesized HLA-I from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. We show here that Nef simultaneously uses both mechanisms to down-regulate HLA-I in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or HeLa cells. Consistent with this, we found by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy that a third of diffusing HLA-I at the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi/trans-Golgi network, and the plasma membrane (PM) was associated with Nef. The binding of Nef was similarly avid for native HLA-I and recombinant HLA-I A2 at the PM. Nef binding to HLA-I at the PM was sensitive to specific inhibition of endocytosis. It was also attenuated by cyclodextrin disruption of PM lipid micro-domain architecture, a change that also retarded lateral diffusion and induced large clusters of HLA-I. In all, our data support a model for Nef down-regulation of HLA-I that involves both major trafficking itineraries and persistent protein-protein interactions throughout the cell. PMID:20622010

  15. CXCR4 Is Down-Regulated in Cells Infected with the CD4-Independent X4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolate m7NDK

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Susana T.; Chanel, Chantal; Dumonceaux, Julie; Olivier, René; Marullo, Stephano; Briand, Pascale; Hazan, Uriel

    2001-01-01

    Macrophages and T cells infected in vitro with CD4-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates have reduced levels of CD4 protein, a phenomenon involved in retroviral interference. We have previously characterized the first CD4-independent HIV-1 X4 isolate m7NDK, which directly interacts with CXCR4 through its mutated gp120. We thus investigate CXCR4 expression in cells infected with this m7NDK CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 mutant. We present evidence of the down-regulation of CXCR4 membrane expression in CD4-positive or -negative cells chronically infected with the HIV-1 m7NDK, a phenomenon which is not observed in the CD4-dependent HIV-1 NDK parental strain. This down-regulation of CXCR4 was demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and was confirmed by the absence of CXCR4 functionality in m7NDK-infected cells, independently of the presence of CD4 protein. Furthermore, a drastic reduction of the intracellular level of CXCR4 protein was also observed. Reduced levels of CXCR4 mRNA transcripts were found in m7NDK-infected HeLa and CEM cells, reduced levels that could not be attributed to a reduced stability of CXCR4 mRNA. Down-regulation of CXCR4 on m7NDK-infected cells may thus be explained by transcriptional regulation. PMID:11119612

  16. Sprouty4 mediates amphiregulin-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin and cell invasion in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    So, Wai-Kin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Liu, Yingtao; Xu, Congjian; Zhao, Jianfang; Chang, Vincent T W; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-07-01

    Sprouty (SPRY) proteins are well-characterized factors that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated activation of cellular signaling pathways. The down-regulation of SPRY4 expression has been reported in human ovarian cancer. However, the specific roles and mechanisms by which SPRY4 affects ovarian cancer progression are completely unknown. Amphiregulin (AREG) binds exclusively to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and has been considered to be a dominant autocrine/paracrine EGFR ligand in ovarian cancer. In the present study, we first examined the effects of AREG on SPRY4 expression and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this process in two human ovarian cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrated that treatment with AREG up-regulated SPRY4 expression by activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In addition, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of SPRY4 attenuated the AREG-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin by inhibiting the expression of SNAIL but not SLUG. In contrast, overexpression of SPRY4 enhanced AREG-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin by increasing the expression of SNAIL. Moreover, SPRY4 knockdown attenuated AREG-induced cell migration and invasion. Overexpression of SPRY4 enhanced AREG-induced cell invasion. This study reveals that SPRY4 is involved in EGFR-mediated human ovarian cancer progression.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 2 induces E-cadherin down-regulation via PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK signaling in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lau, Man-Tat; So, Wai-Kin; Leung, Peter C K

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is produced by ovarian cancer cells and it has been suggested to play an important role in tumor progression. In this study, we report that FGF2 treatment down-regulated E-cadherin by up-regulating its transcriptional repressors, Slug and ZEB1, in human ovarian cancer cells. The pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and MEK suggests that both PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK signaling are required for FGF2-induced E-cadherin down-regulation. Moreover, FGF2 up-regulated Slug and ZEB1 expression via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, respectively. Finally, FGF2-induced cell invasion was abolished by the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways, and the forced expression of E-cadherin diminished the intrinsic invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells as well as the FGF2-induced cell invasion. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism in which FGF2 down-regulates E-cadherin expression through the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK signaling, and the up-regulation of Slug and ZEB1 in human ovarian cancer cells.

  18. Aspirin down Regulates Hepcidin by Inhibiting NF-κB and IL6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan-Ying; Li, Fei-Mi; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Zhong-Min; Ma, Juan; Ya, Ke; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin down regulates transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and up regulates ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ferritin expression in BV-2 microglial cells treated without lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as well as down regulates hepcidin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in cells treated with LPS. However, the relevant mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of aspirin on expression of hepcidin and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and P65 (nuclear factor-κB), and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in BV-2 microglial cells treated with and without LPS. We demonstrated that aspirin inhibited hepcidin mRNA as well as NO production in cells treated with LPS, but not in cells without LPS, suppresses IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) phosphorylation and has no effect on IRP1 in cells treated with or without LPS. These findings provide evidence that aspirin down regulates hepcidin by inhibiting IL6/JAK2/STAT3 and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) pathways in the cells under inflammatory conditions, and imply that an aspirin-induced reduction in TfR1 and an increase in ferritin are not associated with IRP1 and NO. PMID:27999284

  19. Cellular transcriptional profiling in human lung epithelial cells infected by different subtypes of influenza A viruses reveals an overall down-regulation of the host p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses can modulate and hijack several cellular signalling pathways to efficiently support their replication. We recently investigated and compared the cellular gene expression profiles of human lung A549 cells infected by five different subtypes of human and avian influenza viruses (Josset et al. Plos One 2010). Using these transcriptomic data, we have focused our analysis on the modulation of the p53 pathway in response to influenza infection. Results Our results were supported by both RT-qPCR and western blot analyses and reveal multiple alterations of the p53 pathway during infection. A down-regulation of mRNA expression was observed for the main regulators of p53 protein stability during infection by the complete set of viruses tested, and a significant decrease in p53 mRNA expression was also observed in H5N1 infected cells. In addition, several p53 target genes were also down-regulated by these influenza viruses and the expression of their product reduced. Conclusions Our data reveal that influenza viruses cause an overall down-regulation of the host p53 pathway and highlight this pathway and p53 protein itself as important viral targets in the altering of apoptotic processes and in cell-cycle regulation. PMID:21651802

  20. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-08-02

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1-Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1-100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion.

  1. Inhibition of leucine aminopeptidase 3 suppresses invasion of ovarian cancer cells through down-regulation of fascin and MMP-2/9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejian; Shi, Lihong; Deng, Yilin; Qu, Meihua; Mao, Shumei; Xu, Liyan; Xu, Wenfang; Fang, Chunyan

    2015-12-05

    Leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3) is a cell surface aminopeptidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of leucine residues from the amino termini of protein or peptide substrates. The over-expression of LAP3 correlates with prognosis and malignant development of several human cell carcinomas. However, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we used ES-2 ovarian cancer cell line as a model system to explore the role of LAP3 in regulation of cancer cell invasion by employing a natural LAP3 inhibitor bestatin and LAP3 siRNA. Bestatin inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. More interestingly, bestatin down-regulated expression of fascin protein and inhibited activity of fascin promoter luciferase reporter. Both proteome profiler array and Western blot assay showed that bestatin up-regulated the phosphorylation of Hsp27. Furthermore, LAP3 siRNA could up-regulate the phosphorylation of Hsp27 and down-regulate the expression of fascin. Meanwhile, LAP3 siRNA could also down-regulate the phosphorylation of Akt and the expression of MMP-2/9. Taken together, LAP3 could affect the expression of fascin and MMP-2/9 and may act as a potential anti-metastasis therapeutic target.

  2. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1–Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1–100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:27480614

  3. Down-regulation of Heat Shock Protein HSP90ab1 in Radiation-damaged Lung Cells other than Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Peter; Fitze, Guido; Baretton, Gustavo B.

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) leads to fibrosing alveolitis (FA) after a lag period of several weeks to months. In a rat model, FA starts at 8 weeks after IR. Before that, at 5.5 weeks after IR, the transcription factors Sp1 (stimulating protein 1) and AP-1 (activator protein 1) are inactivated. To find genes/proteins that were down-regulated at that time, differentially expressed genes were identified in a subtractive cDNA library and verified by quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction), western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IH). The mRNA of the molecular chaperone HSP90AB1 (heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha, class B member 1) was down-regulated 5.5 weeks after IR. Later, when FA manifested, HSP90ab1 protein was down-regulated by more than 90% in lung cells with the exception of mast cells. In most mast cells of the normal lung, both HSP90ab1 and HSP70, another major HSP, show a very low level of expression. HSP70 was massively up-regulated in all mast cells three months after irradiation whereas HSP90AB1 was up-regulated only in a portion of mast cells. The strong changes in the expression of central molecular chaperones may contribute to the well-known disturbance of cellular functions in radiation-damaged lung tissue. PMID:24670792

  4. Region-specific down-regulation of Crhr1 gene expression in alcohol-preferring msP rats following ad lib access to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Anita C; Cippitelli, Andrea; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Heilig, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone 1 receptors (CRH-R1) mediate increased behavioral sensitivity to stress and excessive alcohol self-administration following a history of dependence. It was recently demonstrated that the genetically selected alcohol-preferring msP rat line replicates many characteristics of the post-dependent state, due to an innate up-regulation of the Crhr1 transcript in several limbic areas related to alcohol drinking motivation. Here, we examined whether voluntary alcohol consumption might be able to down-regulate Crhr1 transcript levels in msP rats in brain areas where elevated expression previously has been shown. Within central and medial amygdala (CeA, MeA), as well as the Nc. Accumbens, 2 weeks'ad lib access to alcohol led to a highly significant down-regulation of the Crhr1 transcript. Alcohol-induced Crhr1 down-regulation was not seen in cingulate cortex. These data support that recruitment of CRH-R1 signaling within components of the extended amygdala drives excessive alcohol intake, and that alcohol is voluntarily consumed in part for its ability to reduce CRH-R1 activity in this region.

  5. IL-27 inhibits HIV-1 infection in human macrophages by down-regulating host factor SPTBN1 during monocyte to macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lue; Lidie, Kristy B; Chen, Qian; Adelsberger, Joseph W; Zheng, Xin; Huang, DaWei; Yang, Jun; Lempicki, Richard A; Rehman, Tauseef; Dewar, Robin L; Wang, Yanmei; Hornung, Ronald L; Canizales, Kelsey A; Lockett, Stephen J; Lane, H Clifford; Imamichi, Tomozumi

    2013-03-11

    The susceptibility of macrophages to HIV-1 infection is modulated during monocyte differentiation. IL-27 is an anti-HIV cytokine that also modulates monocyte activation. In this study, we present new evidence that IL-27 promotes monocyte differentiation into macrophages that are nonpermissive for HIV-1 infection. Although IL-27 treatment does not affect expression of macrophage differentiation markers or macrophage biological functions, it confers HIV resistance by down-regulating spectrin β nonerythrocyte 1 (SPTBN1), a required host factor for HIV-1 infection. IL-27 down-regulates SPTBN1 through a TAK-1-mediated MAPK signaling pathway. Knockdown of SPTBN1 strongly inhibits HIV-1 infection of macrophages; conversely, overexpression of SPTBN1 markedly increases HIV susceptibility of IL-27-treated macrophages. Moreover, we demonstrate that SPTBN1 associates with HIV-1 gag proteins. Collectively, our results underscore the ability of IL-27 to protect macrophages from HIV-1 infection by down-regulating SPTBN1, thus indicating that SPTBN1 is an important host target to reduce HIV-1 replication in one major element of the viral reservoir.

  6. Meta-analysis reveals up-regulation of cholesterol processes in non-alcoholic and down-regulation in alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wruck, Wasco; Adjaye, James

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare transcriptomes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in a meta-analysis of liver biopsies. METHODS Employing transcriptome data from patient liver biopsies retrieved from several public repositories we performed a meta-analysis comparing ALD and NAFLD. RESULTS We observed predominating commonalities at the transcriptome level between ALD and NAFLD, most prominently numerous down-regulated metabolic pathways and cytochrome-related pathways and a few up-regulated pathways which include ECM-receptor interaction, phagosome and lysosome. However some pathways were regulated in opposite directions in ALD and NAFLD, for example, glycolysis was down-regulated in ALD and up-regulated in NAFLD. Interestingly, we found rate-limiting genes such as HMGCR, SQLE and CYP7A1 which are associated with cholesterol processes adversely regulated between ALD (down-regulated) and NAFLD (up-regulated). We propose that similar phenotypes in both diseases may be due to a lower level of the enzyme CYP7A1 compared to the cholesterol synthesis enzymes HMGCR and SQLE. Additionally, we provide a compendium of comparative KEGG pathways regulation in ALD and NAFLD. CONCLUSION Our finding of adversely regulated cholesterol processes in ALD and NAFLD draws the focus to regulation of cholesterol secretion into bile. Thus, it will be interesting to further investigate CYP7A1-mediated cholesterol secretion into bile - also as possible drug targets. The list of potential novel biomarkers may assist differential diagnosis of ALD and NAFLD. PMID:28357032

  7. Involvement of SIRT1 in hypoxic down-regulation of c-Myc and β-catenin and hypoxic preconditioning effect of polyphenols

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Kyung-Soo; Park, Jun-Ik; Kim, Mi-Ju; Kim, Hak-Bong; Lee, Jae-Won; Dao, Trong Tuan; Oh, Won Keun; Kang, Chi-Dug; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2012-03-01

    SIRT1 has been found to function as a Class III deacetylase that affects the acetylation status of histones and other important cellular nonhistone proteins involved in various cellular pathways including stress responses and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1 signaling in the hypoxic down-regulations of c-Myc and β-catenin and hypoxic preconditioning effect of the red wine polyphenols such as piceatannol, myricetin, quercetin and resveratrol. We found that the expression of SIRT1 was significantly increased in hypoxia-exposed or hypoxic preconditioned HepG2 cells, which was closely associated with the up-regulation of HIF-1α and down-regulation of c-Myc and β-catenin expression via deacetylation of these proteins. In addition, blockade of SIRT1 activation using siRNA or amurensin G, a new potent SIRT1 inhibitor, abolished hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression but increased c-Myc and β-catenin expression. SIRT1 was also found to stabilize HIF-1α protein and destabilize c-Myc, β-catenin and PHD2 under hypoxia. We also found that myricetin, quercetin, piceatannol and resveratrol up-regulated HIF-1α and down-regulated c-Myc, PHD2 and β-catenin expressions via SIRT1 activation, in a manner that mimics hypoxic preconditioning. This study provides new insights of the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic preconditioning and suggests that polyphenolic SIRT1 activators could be used to mimic hypoxic/ischemic preconditioning. -- Graphical abstract: Polyphenols mimicked hypoxic preconditioning by up-regulating HIF-1α and SIRT1 and down-regulating c-Myc, PHD2, and β-catenin. HepG2 cells were pretreated with the indicated doses of myricetin (MYR; A), quercetin (QUR; B), or piceatannol (PIC; C) for 4 h and then exposed to hypoxia for 4 h. Levels of HIF-1α, SIRT1, c-Myc, β-catenin, and PHD2 were determined by western blot analysis. The data are representative of three individual experiments. Highlights: ► SIRT1 expression is increased in hypoxia

  8. The cytoplasmic domain of CD4 is sufficient for its down-regulation from the cell surface by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S J; Lenburg, M; Landau, N R; Garcia, J V

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef down-regulates surface expression of murine and human CD4 but not human CD8. We recently reported that the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 is required for its down-regulation by Nef. Using a chimeric molecule composed of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of human CD8 fused to the cytoplasmic domain of human CD4, we show here that the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 is sufficient for down-regulation by Nef. Since the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 is also the site of its association with p56lck, we used a series of CD4 mutants to determine whether the regions of the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 required for down-regulation by Nef are the same as those required for p56lck binding. Our results indicate that the portion of the cytoplasmic domain required for the down-regulation of CD4 by Nef overlaps with the binding site of p56lck, but the cysteine residues which are essential for the association of CD4 with p56lck are not required. This observation raised the possibility that Nef competes with p56lck for binding to CD4. However, under conditions which are considerably milder than those permissive for coimmunoprecipitation of CD4 and p56lck, we found no evidence for an association between Nef and CD4. While a decrease in total CD4 was observed in lysates of cells expressing Nef, the levels of p56lck were not significantly affected. Pulse-chase experiments further revealed a decrease in the half-life of CD4 in Nef-expressing cells. These results show that the decrease in surface CD4 expression induced by Nef is mediated at least in part by a decrease in the half-life of CD4 protein. These results also indicate that a large portion of p56lck is free of CD4 in T cells expressing Nef, which could have a significant effect on T-cell function. Images PMID:8151774

  9. DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L.; Yang, J.-J.; Chen, H.-W.

    2007-12-15

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

  10. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  12. Nickel-induced down-regulation of {Delta}Np63 and its role in the proliferation of keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhuo; Li Wenqi; Cheng Senping; Yao Hua; Zhang Fan; Chang Qingshan; Ke Zunji; Wang Xin; Son, Young-Ok; Luo Jia; Shi Xianglin

    2011-06-15

    Epidemiological, animal, and cell studies have demonstrated that nickel compounds are human carcinogens. The mechanisms of their carcinogenic actions remain to be investigated. p63, a close homologue of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, has been linked to cell fate determination and/or maintenance of self-renewing populations in several epithelial tissues, including skin, mammary gland, and prostate. {Delta}Np63, a dominant negative isoform of p63, is amplified in a variety of epithelial tumors including squamous cell carcinomas and carcinomas of the prostate and mammary glands. The present study shows that nickel suppressed {Delta}Np63 expression in a short-time treatment (up to 48 h). Nickel treatment caused activation of NF-{kappa}B. Blockage of NF-{kappa}B partially reversed nickel-induced {Delta}Np63 suppression. Nickel decreased interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and IRF7, IKK{epsilon}, and Sp100. Over-expression of IRF3 increased {Delta}Np63 expression suppressed by nickel. Nickel was able to activate p21, and its activation was offset by the over-expression of {Delta}Np63. In turn, elevated p63 expression counteracted the ability of nickel to restrict cell growth. The present study demonstrated that nickel decreased interferon regulatory proteins IRF3 and IRF7, and activated NF-{kappa}B, resulting in {Delta}Np63 suppression and then p21 up-regulation. {Delta}Np63 plays an important role in nickel-induced cell proliferation. - Highlights: > Ni suppressed {Delta}Np63 expression in HaCat cells. > Ni activated NF-{kappa}B, decreased expressions of IRF3 and IRF7, IKK{epsilon}, and Sp100. > Over-expression of IRF3 increased {Delta}Np63 expression suppressed by Ni. > Ni activated p21, and its activation was offset by over-expression of {Delta}Np63. > Elevated p63 expression counteracted the ability of nickel to restrict cell growth.

  13. Visual orientation and navigation in nocturnal arthropods.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2010-01-01

    With their highly sensitive visual systems, the arthropods have evolved a remarkable capacity to orient and navigate at night. Whereas some navigate under the open sky, and take full advantage of the celestial cues available there, others navigate in more difficult conditions, such as through the dense understory of a tropical rainforest. Four major classes of orientation are performed by arthropods at night, some of which involve true navigation (i.e. travel to a distant goal that lies beyond the range of direct sensory contact): (1) simple straight-line orientation, typically for escape purposes; (2) nightly short-distance movements relative to a shoreline, typically in the context of feeding; (3) long-distance nocturnal migration at high altitude in the quest to locate favorable feeding or breeding sites, and (4) nocturnal excursions to and from a fixed nest or food site (i.e. homing), a task that in most species involves path integration and/or the learning and recollection of visual landmarks. These four classes of orientation--and their visual basis--are reviewed here, with special emphasis given to the best-understood animal systems that are representative of each.

  14. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids

    PubMed Central

    Hölker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift. PMID:24688857

  15. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids.

    PubMed

    Perkin, Elizabeth K; Hölker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month's exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.

  16. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  17. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F; Shi, Qiong; Morin, Fabrice; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2007-08-01

    NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p < 0.05) and 16 that are up-regulated (>twofold, p < 0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved in differentiation, development, signal transduction and trafficking. These findings represent the first step toward elucidating the role of NeuroD1 in the rodent pinealocyte.

  18. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  19. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  20. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  1. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  2. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center