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Sample records for glandes salivaires lymphomes

  1. Profil épidémiologique des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires : à propos de 154 cas

    PubMed Central

    Setti, Khadija; Mouanis, Mohamed; Moumni, Abdelmounim; Maher, Mostafa; Harmouch, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires sont des tumeurs rares représentant 3à 5% des tumeurs de la tête et du cou. La classification de l'OMS 2005 distingue les tumeurs épithéliales, les tumeurs mésenchymateuses, les tumeurs hématologiques et les tumeurs secondaires. Méthodes Notre travail consiste en une étude rétrospective réalisée sur une période de 10 ans allant de janvier 2002 à janvier 2012. Les critères d'inclusion étaient: l'âge, le sexe, le siège de la tumeur et le type histologique. Résultats L'incidence annuelle des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires dans notre série était de 15 cas par an. Cent cinquante quatre cas de tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires ont été colligés sans prédominance de sexe (78 femmes (50,6%) et 76 hommes (49,4%)). La moyenne d'âge était de 60 ans avec des extrêmes de 4 et 83 ans et un pic de fréquence entre 51et 70 ans. Deux tiers des cas (65%) avaient une localisation au niveau des glandes principales avec 66 cas au niveau de la parotide (43%) et 34 cas au niveau de la glande sous maxillaire (22%). Cinquante quatre patients avaient une tumeur maligne des glandes salivaires accessoires (35%) dont 61% au niveau du palais. Aucun cas de tumeur maligne de la glande sublinguale n'a été recensé dans notre étude. Le type histologique prédominant dans notre série était le carcinome adénoïde kystique et retrouvé chez 43 patients (27,9%), suivi de l'adénocarcinome sans autre indication chez 37 patients (24%) puis du carcinome mucoépidermoïde chez 16 patients (10,4%) et de l'adénocarcinome polymorphe de bas grade également chez 16 patients (10. 4%). Conclusion Les tumeurs malignes des glandes salivaires représentent un ensemble hétérogène de maladies de caractérisation complexe et de fréquence variable. PMID:25120861

  2. Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires, étude épidémio-clinique et corrélation anatomoradiologique: étude rétrospective à propos de 148 cas

    PubMed Central

    Fassih, Malika; Abada, Redallah; Rouadi, Sami; Mahtar, Mohamed; Roubal, Mohamed; Essaadi, Mustapha; El Kadiri, Mohamed Fatmi

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires sont rares, elles représentent moins de 3% de l'ensemble des tumeurs. Les tumeurs bénignes sont les plus fréquentes dominées par l'adénome pléomorphe, la glande parotide reste la localisation la plus commune. L'objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer la contribution des 3 méthodes d'imagerie: échographie, TDM et IRM dans la différentiation entre tumeur maligne et lésion bénigne. C'est une étude rétrospective à propos de 148 cas de tumeurs des glandes salivaires collectés sur 5 ans. Les paramètres étudiés étaient l’âge, le sexe du patient, le motif de consultation, les données de l'examen clinique, les données de l'imagerie. Chacun des critères radiologiques utilisés pour déterminer la nature de la tumeur a été analysée et corrélé avec les données de l'histologie. L'analyse s'est basée sur le test du X2 et le calcul du p. Nous avons calculé la sensibilité, la spécificité et l'efficacité diagnostique pour chaque modalité. La localisation parotidienne était prédominante (80%), les tumeurs bénignes ont représenté 76%, dominés par l'adénome pléomorphe. L’échographie a révélé que seulement la présence de quelques critères prédisent le caractère malin de la masse: les limites floues, irrégulières, et la présence d'adénopathies (p < 0,05). A la TDM, seules les limites floues de la masse et l'extension aux tissus adjacents étaient des indicateurs de malignité. A l'IRM, l'irrégularité des contours, l'hyposignal et le signal intermédiaire en séquences T1 et T2, et l'extension aux tissus avoisinants étaient en faveur de la malignité. La corrélation entre résultats de l'imagerie et diagnostic histologique a révélé la supériorité de l'IRM par rapport au scanner et à l’échographie, en termes de sensibilité, spécificité et efficacité diagnostique. L’évaluation préopératoire des tumeurs des glandes salivaires est devenue un challenge pour les ORL et les

  3. Lymphome primitif du sein: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Njoumi, Noureddine; Najih, Mohamed; Haqqi, Laila; Atolou, Gilles; Bougtab, Abdessalm; Hachi, Hafid; Benjelloun, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Le lymphome primitif du sein est une entité histologique très rare du cancer du sein. Les aspects cliniques et radiologiques ne présentent pas de spécificités particulières. Le diagnostic est souvent retardé. Le traitement se base essentiellement sur la chimiothérapie. Le pronostic est globalement péjoratif. Nous rapportons un cas de lymphome malin non Hodgkinien primitif du sein chez une patiente de 38 ans. Parallèlement une revue de la littérature est entreprise évoquant les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques et thérapeutiques de ce néoplasme. PMID:22937198

  4. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lymphome malin non hodgkinien du cavum: protocoles thérapeutiques et facteurs pronostiques

    PubMed Central

    Ouraini, Saloua; Nakkabi, Ismail; Benariba, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Le lymphome malin non hodgkinien est une entité histologique rare parmi les cancers du cavum, la plupart des tumeurs du nasopharynx étant des carcinomes indifférenciés ou Undifferencied Carcinoma of Nasopharyngeal Type (UCNT); Il pose souvent un problème de diagnostic positif clinique et histologique. La symptomatologie est généralement peu spécifique et la démarche étiologique repose sur la biopsie du cavum faite à l'examen endoscopique avec examen immuno-histochimique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un lymphome non hodgkinien avec atteinte du nasopharynx, l'analyse anatomopathologique est en faveur d'un lymphome malin non hodgkinien de phénotype B. Les aspects cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques et thérapeutiques sont décrits. PMID:26889334

  6. Spondylodiscite granulomateuse: surtout la tuberculose mais ne pas omettre le lymphome

    PubMed Central

    Zinebi, Ali; Rkiouak, Adil; Akhouad, Yousef; Reggad, Ahmed; Kasmy, Zohour; Boudlal, Mostafa; Lho, Abdelhamid Nait; Rabhi, Moncef; Sinaa, Mohamed; Ennibi, Khalid; Chaari, Jilali

    2016-01-01

    Les douleurs lombaires relèvent d'étiologies multiples dont le diagnostic peut être source de grandes difficultés. Le lymphome rachidien primitif est rare et son diagnostic nécessite une biopsie souvent scanoguidée. Un homme de 30 ans, était hospitalisé pour lombalgies inflammatoires évoluant dans un contexte d'altération de l'état général avec à l'examen des douleurs à la palpation des apophyses épineux L2L3, sans syndrome tumoral périphérique. Le bilan biologique montrait un syndrome inflammatoire. Le bilan morphologique était en faveur d'une spondylodiscite. La première biopsie montrait une ostéite granulomateuse. L'aggravation clinique et radiologique sous anti bacillaire a mené à reconsidérer le diagnostic et la deuxième biopsie confirme le diagnostic du lymphome. Le diagnostic de tuberculose osseuse en particulier vertébrale nécessite une confirmation bactériologique et ou histologique pour ne pas méconnaître un lymphome osseux primitif. PMID:28292061

  7. Lymphome et grossesse: le point de vue de l'obstétricien, à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    Amourak, Sarah; Alaoui, Fatimazahra Fdili; Jayi, Sofia; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    L'association lymphome et grossesse est une situation rare, mais non exceptionnelle, relevant de la coïncidence. Le lymphome vient en 4ème position des cancers rencontrés chez la femme enceinte, La clinique est trompeuse et inconstante, le diagnostic reste histologique et on distingue 2 types: lymphome malin hodgkinien (LMH) et le lymphome malin non hodgkinien (LMNH). Malgré le contexte de véritable urgence hématologique, la décision d'initier ou de différer le traitement est délicate, influencée par le type de lymphome, son extension et sa localisation, la répercussion organique, le degré de maturation f'tale, les risques obstétricaux et les valeurs éthiques, culturelles et religieuses de la patiente. Le traitement consiste essentiellement à une chimiothérapie. Le LH durant la grossesse est relativement moins agressif et d’évolution plus favorable que le LMNH. PMID:25883744

  8. Pneumopathie à éosinophile révélant un lymphome non hodgkinien de type B

    PubMed Central

    Fikal, Siham; Sajiai, Hafsa; Serhane, Hind; Aitbatahar, Salma; Amro, Lamyae

    2016-01-01

    Le diagnostic de pneumonie à éosinophile est rare et l'étiologie maligne reste exceptionnelle. Les étiologies sont variables et sont dominées essentiellement par les affections allergiques et les causes médicamenteuses. Nous rapportons le cas d'un lymphome non hodgkinien de type B révélé par une pneumonie à éosinophile chez un patient de 61 ans. Le diagnostic de pneumonie à éosinophile a été confirmé par un taux d'éosinophile à 56% au lavage bronchoalvéolaire. L'étude immunohistochimique de la biopsie ostéomédullaire a révélé un lymphome malin non hodgkinien à petites cellules de phénotype B. PMID:28154647

  9. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  10. Lymphome malin non hodgkinien primitif bilatéral du sein: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    El Mazghi, Abderrahman; Loukili, Kaoutar; Mesnaoui, Ayoub; Lalya, Issam; Bouhafa, Touria; El Kacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Taieb; Hassouni, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Les lymphomes malins non-hodgkiniens (LMNH) primitifs du sein sont des tumeurs rares. Leur symptomatologie clinique est polymorphe. L'imagerie médicale est non-spécifique. Le diagnostic peut être évoqué à l'examen cytologique, sa confirmation est toujours histologique. Il s'agit essentiellement de lymphomes de type B, ceux de type NK/T restant rares. Les plus fréquents sont les lymphomes diffus à grandes cellules présentant la particularité de donner des rechutes sous forme d'extension au système nerveux central. Nous rapportons un cas de LMNH primitif bilatéral du sein chez une patiente âgée de 33 ans, révélé par deux nodules mammaires bilatéraux. La mammographie et l'examen extemporané ont évoqué une tumeur phyllode. Le diagnostic du LMNH n'a été fait qu'après examen histologique définitif. Sous chimiothérapie, l’évolution était favorable avec un recul de 15 mois. PMID:27386030

  11. Pneumopathie interstitielle diffuse révélant la leucémie-lymphome à cellules T de l’adulte HTLV1+

    PubMed Central

    Bouanani, Nouama; Lamchahab, Mouna

    2016-01-01

    La leucémie/lymphome à cellules T de l'adulte est une prolifération tumorale de cellules lymphoïdes T matures activées, dont l'agent étiologique est le rétrovirus humain T cell-leukemia virus type 1, ce virus entraine rarement des désordres inflammatoires bronchioloalveolaires. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient hospitalisé pour une pneumopathie interstitielle diffuse et dont le bilan étiologique a révélé une leucémie lymphome à cellules T de l'adulte HTLV1+. PMID:28292112

  12. Gastrointestinal lymphomas: the French experience of the Groupe D'etude des Lymphomes Digestifs (GELD).

    PubMed

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A

    2000-01-01

    Since 1983, the French Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes Digestifs (GELD), under the aegis of the Fondation Française de Cancérologie Digestive, has aimed to identify the different prognostic groups of the primary digestive-tract lymphomas (PDTL) and their optimal treatment. Successive multicenter studies were conducted and 91 PDTL were evaluated. A marked improvement in their prognosis was obtained by a strategy including precise histologic typing and clinical staging followed by a therapeutic approach combining initial surgical resection, whenever possible or reasonable, followed by chemotherapy adapted to the grade of malignancy and resectability of the lymphoma. The multivariate analysis indicated that the factors for good prognosis were age (< 65 yrs), gastric localisation, stage IE and radical or even incomplete surgery. However, Helicobacter pylori eradication should be the first treatment in stage IE low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) tumors. The long-term results of such medical treatment are evaluated together with the management and the place of surgery in these localised tumors. However, owing to the limited number of patients, a large international co-operative trial is needed to confirm the findings. Thirty-one cases of multiple lymphomatous polyposis were also collected and confirmed to be a distinct entity among PDTL and the gastrointestinal counterpart of the mantle-cell-zone lymphomas. High-dose radio-chemotherapy supported by auto-transplantation improved their prognosis.

  13. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  14. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  15. Lymphome non Hodgkinien intramusculaire primitif chez le sujet jeune: à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Majdoul, Soufya; Omari, Nabil; Allali, Youness; Ghabri, Reda; Benchakroun, Nadia; Fadili, Mostafa; Tawfiq, Nezha; Jouhadi, Hassan; Sahraoui, Souha; Nechad, Mohamed; Benider, Abdelatif

    2016-01-01

    Le lymphome non hodgkinien (LNHK) extra-ganglionnaire primitif est rare et sa localisation intramusculaire primitive est exceptionnelle puisqu'elle est observée chez moins de 0,5% des patients. Ils touchent généralement des hommes dont l'âge moyen est de 70 ans. Le traitement standard associe l'exérèse chirurgicale, la chimiothérapie et la radiothérapie. Nous rapportons un cas d'un jeune patient de 31 ans qui s'est présenté pour un syndrome pseudotumorale musculaire au niveau de la jambe droite dont l'examen anatomopathologique avait conclu un lymphome malin non hodgkinien à grandes cellules B intramusculaire. Le patient a été traité par chimiothérapie exclusive avec une rémission complète. PMID:28293339

  16. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  17. Association rare d'un adenome pleomorphe et d'un carcinome epithelial myoepithelial de la glande parotide

    PubMed Central

    Jahidi, Ali; Hemmaoui, Bouchaib; Noureddine, Errami; Youssef, Darouassi; Issam, Rharrasi; Hafsa, Chahdi; Benariba, Fouad

    2014-01-01

    Le Carcinome épithélial - myoépithélial (CEM) est une tumeur maligne rare des glandes salivaires touchant principalement la glande parotide. Son association avec un adénome pléomorphe est exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons le cas d'une femme de 57 ans avec adénome pléomorphe de la glande parotide évoluant depuis plusieurs années. L'augmentation récente du volume de la glande associée à l'apparition d'adénopathies cervicales homolatérales nous a fait penser à une transformation maligne. L'examen histologique final après parotidectomie totale a montré une association inattendue d'un adénome pléomorphe et un CEM. Le CEM est une tumeur maligne de bas grade. Elle peut survenir de novo ou sur un adénome pléomorphe. La transformation maligne de l'adénome est suspectée devant l'augmentation rapide du volume de l'adénome avec apparition d'adénopathies cervicales. Toutefois, ces modifications cliniques peuvent annoncer l'apparition d'une tumeur distincte. Malgré sa tendance à la récidive locale et un faible potentiel métastatique, de rares cas de CEM peuvent avoir un comportement agressif et des métastases à distance. Le traitement consiste principalement en une résection chirurgicale complète si possible suivie d'une radiothérapie dans le but de prévenir la récidive locale. PMID:25368716

  18. Lymphome B à grandes cellules primitif du médiastin chez la femme: à propos de cinq cas

    PubMed Central

    Ouassou, Safaa; Herrak, Laila; Achachi, Leila; Nachite, Fatima; Znati, Kaoutar; Ftouh, Mustapha El

    2016-01-01

    Le lymphome médiastinal primitif à grandes cellules B (LBPM) est un lymphome survenant dans le médiastin antérieur à partir des cellules B de la zone médullaire thymique. Il s’agit d’une entité rare qui présente des particularités tant sur le plan épidémiologique, clinique et évolutif, que sur le plan anatomo-pathologique et immuno-histochimique. Nous rapportons une série de 5 patientes hospitalisées au service de pneumologie de l’hôpital Ibn Sina entre Janvier 2012 et Mai 2016, et chez qui on a retenu le diagnostic de LBPM. L’âge moyen était de 34 ans, le délai moyen de consultation était de 2 mois. Les symptômes rapportés étaient la dyspnée, la douleur thoracique, la toux sèche; deux patientes présentaient un syndrome cave supérieur. Le taux de LDH était élevé chez 4 patientes. L’imagerie thoracique montrait chez les 5 patientes un processus tissulaire médiastinal antérieur. Le diagnostic histologique était posé sur ponction biopsie transpariétale scanno-guidée chez les 5 patientes, et l’apport de l’immunohistochimie était déterminant dans tous les cas. Les patientes ont été adressées à l’institut national d’oncologie pour prise en charge thérapeutique. Le pronostic du LBPM est réservé, il survient volontiers chez des femmes jeunes, ce qui rend d’autant plus nécessaire une thérapeutique agressive afin d’améliorer le taux de survie. PMID:27795778

  19. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  20. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  1. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  2. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors including pheochromocytomas Infections A problem in another gland, such as the pituitary, which helps to regulate the adrenal gland Certain medicines Treatment depends on which problem you have. Surgery or ...

  3. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  4. Intraläsionale Therapie niedrig maligner primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome mit Anti-CD20-Antikörper: Nebenwirkungen korrelieren mit gutem klinischen Ansprechen.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Franziska C; Holstein, Julia; Scheu, Alexander; Fend, Falko; Yazdi, Amir S

    2017-03-01

    Die intraläsionale Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörpern (Rituximab) wurde als effektive Therapieoption für Patienten mit niedrig malignen primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphomen beschrieben. Bis heute wurden allerdings keine Parameter identifiziert, welche reproduzierbar ein gutes klinisches Ansprechen dieser Therapie vorhersagen. Ziel dieser Studie ist, sowohl das klinische Ansprechen und die unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen als auch die Patientenwahrnehmung hinsichtlich intraläsionaler Injektionen von anti-CD20-Antikörpern zur Behandlung indolenter primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome im Vergleich mit anderen Therapien zu evaluieren. Elf Patienten mit einem primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphom, namentlich primär kutanes Keimzentrumslymphom (n = 9) und primär kutanes Marginalzonenlymphom (n = 2), welche mittels intraläsionalem Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurden, wurden retrospektiv evaluiert hinsichtlich der Ansprechrate und unerwünschter Nebenwirkungen sowie in Bezug auf deren Selbsteinschätzung dieser und anderer Therapien des primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphoms. Patienten, deren primär kutanes B-Zell-Lymphom mittels intraläsionaler Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurde, zeigten ein komplettes oder partielles Ansprechen in 45 % beziehungsweise 27 % aller Patienten. Speziell Patienten mit grippeähnlichen Symptomen nach erfolgter Injektion zeigten ein gutes Ansprechen. Die Mehrheit der Patienten empfand die Therapie mit Rituximab als die beste Therapie im Vergleich zu anderen Therapien wie beispielsweise chirurgische Exzision oder Radiotherapie. Intraläsionales Rituximab ist eine effektive Therapie mit hoher Patientenzufriedenheit. Starke therapiebedingte Nebenwirkungen wie Fieber, Schüttelfrost und Kopfschmerzen nach Gabe von Rituximab könnten als Indikator für gute Wirksamkeit dienen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands are in your mouth. You have three pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of small (minor) glands. They make ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause them to become irritated and swollen. ...

  6. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  7. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  8. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  9. Parathyroid glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  10. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  11. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  12. Occlusion intestinale aigue révélant un lymphome T digestif associé à la maladie cœliaque, à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Garba, Abdoul Aziz; Adamou, Harissou; Magagi, Ibrahim Amadou; Brah, Souleymane; Habou, Oumarou

    2016-01-01

    Le lymphome T intestinal associé à une entéropathie ou Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), est une complication rare de la maladie cœliaque (MC). Nous rapportons l'observation d'un lymphome T associée à une MC révélé par une occlusion intestinale aigue. Une patiente maghrébine de 38 ans, aux antécédents de stérilité et de douleurs abdominales chroniques, était admise en urgence pour occlusion intestinale aigue. L'intervention chirurgicale retrouvait une tumeur au dépend du grêle avec des adénopathies mésentériques. L'histologie et l'immunohistochimie de la pièce opératoire objectivait un lymphome T digestif CD3+ et le bilan immunologique de la maladie cœliaque était positif. Le diagnostic d'EATL était ainsi retenu. La patiente était mise sous chimiothérapie (CHOEP) et régime sans gluten avec une réponse complète au traitement. L'EATL est une complication rare de la MC qui peut être révélée par une occlusion intestinale. Son pronostic peut être amélioré par une prise en charge précoce associant chirurgie et chimiothérapie. Sa prévention passe par un diagnostic précoce de la MC et un régime sans gluten. PMID:27217874

  13. [Comparative ultrastructural study of parotid gland, lacrimal gland and pituitary gland between miniature pig and mouse].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing; Hai, Bo; Sun, Yi-lin; Zhang, Chun-mei; Wang, Song-ling

    2009-02-01

    To study the ultrastructure of parotid glands, lacrimal glands and pituitary glands between miniature pig and mouse. Five adult miniature pigs and 5 mice were studied. Ultrastructure of their parotid glands, lacrimal glands, and pituitary glands was observed. The secretary granules in acinar cell of miniature pig parotid glands showed higher density and more aequalis than those of mice. The cell apparatus in acinar cell of mouse parotid glands were more plentiful than those of miniature pigs. The secretary granules on blood vessel wall were richer in parotid gland of miniature pigs compared with mouse parotid gland. Lacrimal gland had the similar ultrastructure to parotid gland in these two animals. Many blood vessel antrum were found in pituitary glands of these two animals. Compared with mouse parotid glands, there are more secretary granules in acinar cells and vascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands, which might enter blood stream and have function of endocrine secretion.

  14. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  16. Long-term outcome of adults with systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma treated within the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte trials.

    PubMed

    Sibon, David; Fournier, Marion; Brière, Josette; Lamant, Laurence; Haioun, Corinne; Coiffier, Bertrand; Bologna, Serge; Morel, Pierre; Gabarre, Jean; Hermine, Olivier; Sonet, Anne; Gisselbrecht, Christian; Delsol, Georges; Gaulard, Philippe; Tilly, Hervé

    2012-11-10

    Systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a T-cell lymphoma, whose anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression varies according to age. Long-term outcomes of chemotherapy-treated adults are not definitively established and should be evaluated. Patients treated in three Groupe d'Étude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte prospective clinical trials with confirmed systemic ALCL after immunohistopathologic review and defined ALK expression status were analyzed. Among the 138 adult patients with ALCL, 64 (46%) were ALK positive, and 74 (54%) were ALK negative. Median follow-up was 8 years. At diagnosis, significantly more patients younger than 40 years old were ALK positive than ALK negative (66% v 23%, respectively; P < .001). Comparing patients with ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL, β(2)-microglobulin was ≥ 3 mg/L in 12% and 33% (P = .017); International Prognostic Index was high (score, 3 to 5) in 23% and 48% (P = .03); complete response rates to first-line treatment were 86% and 68% (P = .01); and 8-year overall survival (OS) rates were 82% (95% CI, 69% to 89%) and 49% (95% CI, 37% to 61%), respectively (P < .001). The survival difference mostly affected patients age ≥ 40 years. Multivariate analysis identified β(2)-microglobulin ≥ 3 mg/L (P < .001) and age ≥ 40 years (P = .029), but not ALK status, as prognostic for OS. These two variables distinguished four survival risk groups, with 8-year OS ranging from 84% to 22%. CONCLUSION Results of this long-term study enabled refinement of the prognosis of adult systemic ALCL, with ALK prognostic value dependent on age, and could provide guidance for eventual treatment adjustment.

  17. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted to ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce more ...

  18. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  19. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  20. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  1. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  2. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  3. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  4. Male accessory gland infection.

    PubMed

    Krause, W

    2008-04-01

    Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) is a consequence of canalicular spreading of agents via urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, deferent duct, epididymis and testis. Haematogenous infections are rare. The main infectious agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and also enterobacteriae at a lesser frequency. Characteristic symptoms of MAGI are leukocytospermia, enhanced concentration of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. As complications, obstruction of the ductus epididymidis and/or another duct section, impairment of spermatogenesis in orchitis, impairment of sperm function, and dysfunctions of the male accessory glands may occur. Reduction of male fertility is a rare consequence. The treatment has to consider specific antibiotics.

  5. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  6. [Salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H

    1995-11-01

    Only about 1% of head and neck tumors are neoplasms of the salivary glands. The majority [80%] of these tumors are benign. Pleomorphic adenomas, the most frequent benign tumors of the salivary glands, can transform into malignancy, especially after a long duration. Treatment of salivary gland tumors consists of complete surgical excision by a surgeon experienced in microsurgery of the facial nerve. Acute suppurative and viral sialadenitis is usually treated by the general practitioner either symptomatically or, if possible, specifically. Chronic sialadenitis, sialadenosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Frey's syndrome often need long-term follow-up and medical treatment, which is also usually delivered by the general practitioner, after the diagnosis has been established. Trauma to the salivary gland with transsection of the duct or facial nerve needs immediate microsurgical repair by an otolaryngologist. Sialolithiasis is also treated surgically in most cases.

  7. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  8. Lacrimal gland tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... B. Lacrimal gland tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... JA. Secondary orbital tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...

  9. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  11. Mammary Gland Development

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  12. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  13. Étude des anomalies chromosomiques après radiothérapie chez des patients traités pour lymphome malin non-Hodgkinien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahe, M. A.; André, M. J.; Moyon, E.; Le Mevel, A.; Soubeyran, P.; Hamidou, M.; Milpied, N.; Bourdin, S.; Cuillière, J. C.; Chatal, J. F.

    1998-04-01

    Structural chromosome defects were evaluated in the lymphocytes of 30 patients (pts) who had undergone radiotherapy for non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Twelve had received 20 Grays (Gy) over the abdomen (group I), 12 whole body irradiation at 1.5 Gy (group II) and 6 whole body irradiation at 15 Gy (group III). A cohort of 468 unirradiated pts served as controls. For the irradiated group, 7% of cells had aberrations compared to 0.4% in controls {P <10-6}. The frequency of abnormal cells was statistically higher in group I (12%) than in group II (3.5%) and III (2.5%) . In group I, frequency of aberrations was statistically higher in pts who had additionnal extra-abdominal involved field irradiation, those with evolutive NHL and those receiving chemotherapy at the time of the cytogenetic analysis. Les aberrations chromosomiques ont ,été, mesurées sur les lymphocytes de 30 patients (pts) irradiés pour lymphome malin non-hodgkinien (LNH) selon 3 modalités : 20 Grays (Gy) sur l'abdomen (groupe I : 12 pts), Irradiation corporelle totale 1,5 Gy (groupe II : 12 pts), ou 15 Gy (groupe III : 6 pts). Une population non irradiée de 468 pts a servi de témoin. Dans le groupe irradié, 7 % des cellules présentaient des anomalies contre 0,4 % dans le groupe témoin {P <10-6}. Les aberrations ,étaient statistiquement plus nombreuses dans le groupe I (12 % des cellules) que dans les groupes II (3,5 %) et III (2,5 %). Dans le groupe I, les anomalies , étaient statistiquement plus fréquentes chez les pts ayant eu une irradiation localisée extra-abdominale en complément de celle de l'abdomen ainsi que chez ceux en rechute de leur LNH et ceux recevant une chimiothérapie lors de l',étude cytogénétique.

  14. Accessory parotid gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M; Huliyappa, Harsha A

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches.

  15. Accessory parotid gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches. PMID:23483721

  16. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  17. Bartholin gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Violante; Casorelli, Assunta; Bardhi, Erlisa; Vena, Flaminia; Claudia, Marchetti; Muzii, Ludovico; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi

    2017-09-01

    Bartholin gland carcinoma is an extremely rare condition. Because of its, phase III trials have not been carried out, there exists no unanimous consensus on treatment and guidelines are missing. All studies reporting cases of Bartholin cancer were collected and screened for the evaluations. Baseline characteristics of studies were extracted and were queried in a database. A total number of 133 manuscripts collected were available for the review process, representing a total number of 275 reported cases. The histological type of Bartholin gland cancer was specified in 90.4% cases: 30.7% cases were squamous cell carcinoma, 29.6% adenoid cystic carcinoma, 25% adenocarcinomas. At multivariate analysis adenocarcinoma histotype and positive lymph node were statistical correlated with worse prognosis. Bartholin gland cancer remains a challenge for gynecologic oncologists. To better understand and treat this disease, centralization to referral centers and design of multi institutional trials is crucial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  19. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... source of sex steroids, such as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not work properly. They can be classified into disorders that occur when too much hormone is produced or when too little hormone is produced. These ...

  1. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  2. Parathyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and will remove the diseased glands with the instruments. Endoscopic parathyroidectomy: Your surgeon will make two or three small cuts in the front of your neck and one cut above the top of your collarbone. This reduces visible scarring, pain, and recovery time. This cut is less than ...

  3. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  4. Radioisotope study of salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    De Rossi, G.

    1987-01-01

    The book discusses the use of radioisotope methods in the diagnosis of salivary gland diseases. Anatomical and physiological features of the salivary gland are summarized and radiotracer deposition processes are described. Clinical applications of scintigraphy are detailed. The degree of functional impairment due to various inflammatory diseases is contrasted by means of semiquantitative computerized methods with follow-up therapeutic results. Post-irradiatory involvement and possible functional recovery of salivary glands are also considered. The contents discussed are: Salivary Gland Physiology and Radioisotope Uptake. Radioisotope Study of Salivary Glands. Radioisotope Studies Under Normal Conditions. Survey of Radiographic Methods. Dosimetric Assessment. Conclusions and Index.

  5. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland abnormalities and salivary dysfunction are important orofacial disorders. Patients with such problems are usually seen in the dental office for evaluation and therapy, and the dental practitioner is required to make a diagnosis and institute care. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be knowledgeable regarding the more common pathologic entities that involve the salivary apparatus, and also be familiar with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are available. Successful diagnosis is dependent on the organized integration of the information derived from past history, clinical examination, salivary volume study, imaging, serology, and histopathologic examination. This article discusses the most common disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center and indicates the current approaches to diagnosis. Improvement in diagnostic skills will avoid serious complications and lead to specific and effective therapy.

  6. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pape, S A; MacLeod, R I; McLean, N R; Soames, J V

    1995-09-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) is an uncommon, non-inflammatory condition which usually causes bilateral, diffuse enlargement of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid. We present a series of 7 patients with sialadenosis. Two had bilateral and 4 unilateral parotid involvement. One patient had unilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. One patient had bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. The clinicopathological features and management of the condition are reviewed.

  8. [Sonography of the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Rüeger, R

    2005-03-02

    In the abdominal ultrasonography, the representation of normal adrenal glands is frequently problematic, also for experienced practitioners in ultrasonography. During a seminary at the congress of the SGUM in Davos, in June 2004, it was specially entered to this problematic by anatomical illustrations and live demonstrations. These statements will be summarized in the following article. Also, the technics of examination of the adrenal glands will be explained, especially in comparison to anatomical cut-preparations. It will be entered to particular pathological statements of the adrenal glands. The proceeding will be described by the localisation of accidentally detected tumours of adrenal glands.

  9. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kerémi, Beáta; Beck, Anita; Fábián, Tibor Károly; Fábián, Gábor; Szabó, Géza; Nagy, Ákos; Varga, Gábor

    2017-02-15

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients.

  10. Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, C; MacBean, A

    2012-01-01

    Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

  11. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... into or spread to the salivary glands. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Most non-Hodgkin lymphomas start in lymph nodes. Rarely, these cancers ... cells). For more information on lymphomas, see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . Sarcomas: The salivary glands contain blood vessels, ...

  12. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  13. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Kim, J H; Lee, J K; Lim, S C

    2017-10-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland is a rare subtype of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The most common site of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands is the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland, and the minor salivary glands. Here we report the first case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Clinicians should consider sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm. Surgical excision with clear margins seems to be a sufficient initial treatment option for sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  15. Organizing the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  16. [Thyroid gland and sleep].

    PubMed

    Steiger, A

    1999-01-01

    A set of data suggests that the thyroid gland plays a role in the bi-directional interaction between the electrophysiological and the endocrine components of sleep, e.g. the nonREM-REM-cycle and the patterns of nocturnal hormone secretion, respectively. In detail thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxin (T4) show circadian rhythms. A specific relationship was observed between TSH and REM sleep. Blunted TSH levels were found in healthy elderly subjects and, probably due to overactivity of corticotropin-releasing hormone in patients with depression in comparison to young normal controls. Pulsatile administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone induced a decrease of sleep efficiency and an earlier occurrence of the cortisol rise in normal controls. Slow wave sleep was reduced in patients with hypothyroidism in comparison to normal controls. The sleep EEG normalised after therapy.

  17. Cryopreservation of parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Marlon A

    2010-01-01

    The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  18. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Marlon A.

    2010-01-01

    The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. PMID:21197072

  19. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  20. Les tumeurs primitives de la glande submandibulaire: à propos de 25 cas

    PubMed Central

    Btissam, Belhoucha; Saidi, Zahra; khaoula, Hsaine; Youssef, Rochdi; Lahcen, Aderdour; Mouna, Khouchani; Abdelaziz, Raji

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires sont rares, elles constituent 3% des tumeurs de la tête et du cou et 0,6% des tumeurs humaines. La pathologie tumorale de la glande sous-maxillaire est moins fréquente que celle de la parotide et pose autant de problèmes aussi bien diagnostiques que thérapeutiques, surtout l'opportunité de la radiothérapie post-opératoire et l'attitude vis-à-vis des récidives. L'objectif de notre étude est de discuter les problèmes diagnostiques, les résultats thérapeutiques et évolutifs que présentent ces tumeurs afin d'en dégager l'attitude thérapeutique la plus appropriée en se basant sur une étude rétrospectif incluant une série de 25 cas de tumeurs de la glande sous maxillaire colligées aux services d'orl et au service de radiothérapie du CHU MED VI de Marrakech sur une période allant de Janvier 2009 jusqu'au décembre 2014. L’étude a concerné 09 hommes et 18 femmes. La moyenne d’âge était de 48 ans (25 - 71 ans), La tuméfaction sous mandibulaire était le principal symptôme révélateur. Le caractère douloureux a été signalé par 09 patients. Une seule paralysie du rameau mentonnier du nerf facial a été objectivée au moment de l'examen chez un malade. Les adénopathies cervicales ont été retrouvées chez 09 patients. La localisation jugulo-carotidienne haute homolatérale est la plus fréquente. Sur le plan thérapeutique, une sous maxillectomie a été réalisée chez 24 malades dont 02 réopéré pour récidive d'un adénome pléomorphe et un patient pour un carcinome adénoïde kystique. 3 tumeurs malignes n'ont pu bénéficier d'aucun traitement chirurgical du fait du caractère explosif de la lésion Les résultats histopathologiques ont montré une répartition largement dominée par l'adénome pléomorphe pour les tumeurs bénignes (66,66% des tumeurs bénignes), et le carcinome adénoïde kystique pour les tumeurs malignes (37,5% des tumeurs malignes). Neuf malades de notre série ont

  1. [Inflammation of the parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Sheu, S-Y; Schmid, K W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the parathyroid glands is rare when compared to other endocrine organs. This leads to the use of descriptive terms as well as the lack of a generally accepted classification for inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid glands. This review article proposes that parathyroid inflammation be subdivided morphologically into (a) non-specific lymphocytic infiltration, which is more an expression of damage to small vessels, due to e. g. severe systemic inflammation or myocardial infarction, (b) autoimmunogenic lymphocytic parathyroiditis, (c) nonimmunogenic inflammation caused by granulomatous diseases or infections and (d) invasive sclerosing (peri) parathyroiditis. As only parathyroid glands removed due to hyperparathyroidism and normal parathyroid glands incidentally removed during thyroid surgery are seen almost exclusively in routine histopathology, virtually no information about the morphological correlate of hypoparathyroidism is available.

  2. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  3. Réactivation d'hépatite virale B chez un patient traité pour lymphome non hodgkinien B diffus à grandes cellules par rituximab: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Houssou, Bienvenu; Massi, Romaric Mahutondji; Camara, Marième; Mifdal, Hassan; Nourichafi, Nadia; Zafad, Saadia; Oukkache, Bouchra

    2015-01-01

    La réactivation du virus de l'hépatite B est secondaire à une diminution de l'immunité de l'hôte et peut être suivie d'une poussée d'hépatite aigue potentiellement mortelle. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient D.H, 47 ans, sexe masculin, AgHBs négatif, jamais transfusé, jamais vacciné contre l'hépatite B qui avait présenté en mars 2013 un LNH B diffus à grandes cellules stade IV par moelle. Traité par 8 cures R-CHOP, il était en rémission complète clinique et paraclinique. Neuf mois après, il fait une rechute de son lymphome classé stade III, associée à une hépatite virale B en réplication virale (18.000 copies/mL): réactivation virale B chez porteur occulte traité avec entécavir 0.5mg par jour pendant 6 mois, l'ADN du VHB était indétectable en fin de traitement. Il avait reçu deux cures de DHAP puis deux cures R-DHAP avec une rémission complète. Lors du recueil des cellules souches en vue de l'autogreffe, l'AgHBs est à nouveau positif. Il a été greffé le 12/01/2015 et continue son traitement antiviral pour 6 mois encore. PMID:26664523

  4. Autophagy in the endocrine glands.

    PubMed

    Weckman, Andrea; Di Ieva, Antonio; Rotondo, Fabio; Syro, Luis V; Ortiz, Leon D; Kovacs, Kalman; Cusimano, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy is an important cellular process involving the degradation of intracellular components. Its regulation is complex and while there are many methods available, there is currently no single effective way of detecting and monitoring autophagy. It has several cellular functions that are conserved throughout the body, as well as a variety of different physiological roles depending on the context of its occurrence in the body. Autophagy is also involved in the pathology of a wide range of diseases. Within the endocrine system, autophagy has both its traditional conserved functions and specific functions. In the endocrine glands, autophagy plays a critical role in controlling intracellular hormone levels. In peptide-secreting cells of glands such as the pituitary gland, crinophagy, a specific form of autophagy, targets the secretory granules to control the levels of stored hormone. In steroid-secreting cells of glands such as the testes and adrenal gland, autophagy targets the steroid-producing organelles. The dysregulation of autophagy in the endocrine glands leads to several different endocrine diseases such as diabetes and infertility. This review aims to clarify the known roles of autophagy in the physiology of the endocrine system, as well as in various endocrine diseases.

  5. Sebaceous gland lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna

    2009-01-01

    The principal activity of mature sebaceous glands is producing and secreting sebum, which is a complex mixture of lipids. Sebum composition is different among species and this difference is probably due to the function that sebum has to absolve. In human sebum there are unique lipids, such as squalene and wax esters not found anywhere else in the body nor among the epidermal surface lipids. Moreover, they correspond to major components supplying the skin with protection. However, the ultimate role of human sebum, as well the metabolic pathways regulating its composition and secretion rate, are far from a complete understanding. Increased sebum secretion is considered, among all features, the major one involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Along with increased sebum secretion rate, quali- and quantitative modifications of sebum are likely to occur in this pathology. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify new targets that can be addressed to achieve a selective modulation of lipid biosynthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy to correct lipid disregulations in acne and other disorders of the pilosebaceous unit. PMID:20224686

  6. Telocytes in parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Mihnea I; Bucur, Alexandru; Dinca, Octavian; Rusu, Mugurel C; Popescu, Laurentiu M

    2012-03-01

    The parotid histological structure includes acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells, surrounded by a connective stromal component. The parotid stroma is mostly regarded as an inert shell, consisting of septa, which divide the parenchyma. Telocytes were recently identified as a new stromal cell type in various organs, including exocrine pancreas. We aimed to evaluate telocytes presence in parotid stroma and whether their topographical features might support an involvement in parotid function modulation. Serial ultrathin sections of human and rat parotid glands were studied and compared by transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional concatenation of sequenced micrographs allowed the ultrastructural identification of parotid telocytes, with their specific long, thin, and moniliform prolongations (telopodes). Telocyte location appeared frequently as a strategic one, in close contact or vicinity of both secretory (acini and ducts) and regulatory (nerves and blood vessels) apparatuses. They were also found in the interacinar and the subductal stroma. Two previously reported telocyte markers (c-kit/CD117 and vimentin) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Actin expression was also evaluated. Telocytes are making a network, especially by branching of their long telopodes. Elements of this telocyte network are interacting with each other (homocellular connections) as well as with other cell types (heterocellular connections). These interactions are achieved either by direct contact (stromal synapse), or mediated via shed microvesicles/exosomes. Since telocyte connections include both neurovascular and exocrine elements (e.g., acini and ducts), it is attractive to think that telocytes might mediate and integrate neural and/or vascular input with parotid function.

  7. Adrenal gland and bone.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  8. The thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Hellman, D E

    1980-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland are frequently unrecognized and untreated by the attending physician and present the anesthesiologist with a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Very large goiters distort and compress the larynx and require an experienced anesthesiologist for safe intubation. If surgery is elective and can be postponed in patients suspected of being hypo- or hyperthyroid, there is sufficient time to permit the anesthesiologist and the attending physician to obtain appropriate tests of thyroid function and institute appropriate therapeutic measures to restore the metabolic rate to normal. When there is insufficient time to confirm a clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease, the anesthesiologist is faced with important therapeutic decisions. It is the author's opinion that therapeutic intervention is, in most instances, preferable to therapeutic nihilism. In the case of a patient suspected of hypothyroidism, it is usually safe to administer a physiologic replacement dose of thyroxine to support the patient intraoperatively or postoperatively. If hypothyroidism is associated with cardiovascular disease, other debilitating illness, or advanced age, thyroxine must be given with extreme caution in order to avoid dangerous tachyarrhythmias or too rapid acceleration of the metabolic rate. The hyperthyroid patient facing nonelective surgery represents a very serious challenge to the anesthesiologist, since marked accentuation of clinical hyperthyroidism (thyroid storm) is a major risk of such surgery. In such a situation, intravenous propranolol and intravenous iodine are the optimal drugs for a safe and uncomplicated clinical course during and following surgery. In both instances, the anesthesiologist must use skillful clinical judgment in making the appropriate diagnosis and selecting appropriate therapy. Careful and continuous supervision of the patient is necessary during and following surgery and appropriate treatment and support of the patient should be

  9. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  10. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic Recurrent Major or Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-25

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  11. Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

    2010-10-01

    Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ⁄ or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences.

  12. Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

  13. Innervation of eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V E; Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    1980-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown on the example of primate skin that in addition to abundant cholinergic innervation, the eccrine glands are also supplied by adrenergic fibers, containing catecholamines. The presence of an adrenergic component of the innervation is demonstrated on the plantar eccrine sweat glands of a number of rodents and the cat by the detection of monoamine oxidase in it. The myelin nerve trunks, the short unmyelinated varicose terminals in direct contact with the secretory cells, as well as the mitochondria of cells of the eccrine sweat glands are rich in monoamine oxidase. Specific and nonspecific cholinesterases are localized in the dense network of nerves in lacing the secretory portions of the glands; individual fibers accompany the excretory ducts. The acetylcholinesterase concentration is lower than the concentration of nonspecific cholinesterase. In rats with chemical sympathectomy, induced by four-week administration of 25 mg/kg guanethidine from the first day of birth, in which 99% of the neurons in the stellate ganglia die, the monoamine oxidase concentration in the myelin nerves and in the mitochondria of the secretory cells drops very sharply, and acetylcholinesterase disappears from the nerves surrounding the glands.

  14. Intravascular lymphoma and thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katalinić, Darko; Valković, Toni; Lucin, Ksenija; Rudez, Josip

    2006-03-01

    Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare disease characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic cells in the small blood vessels that frequently goes undiagnosed until the time of autopsy. The neoplastic cells are usually of B-cell origin. The clinical course was examined to determine factors that would facilitate antemortem diagnosis. IVL is observed with clinical, histopathological and immunohystochemical methods. This is a unique case because the thyroid gland is a rare place for IVL. Accent is given on immunohystochemical methods and tissue biopsy in the differential diagnosis of IVL when nervous system and thyroid gland dysfunction occur This report indicates that micro-ecosystem of multinodular goitrous might influence the expression of chemokines and/or adhesion moleculs on endothelial and lymphoma cells, leading to heavy infiltration of thyroid gland. Concurrently, that may guide the physician to tissue biopsy facilitating antemortem diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy.

  15. Adrenal gland disease in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Adrenal gland disease in ferrets is unique to this species, with clinical signs and pathophysiology different from those seen in the dog. Its prevalence is increasing; 70% of pet ferrets in the United States were affected in 2003. The exact causes of the adrenal gland changes that lead to the disease are not known. Early oophorohysterectomies and neutering, combined with the artificially prolonged photoperiod experienced by indoor pet ferrets, and a possible genetic component, may be contributing factors. Signs of adrenal gland disease include progressive hair loss, pruritus, lethargy, atrophy, and, in female ferrets, vulvar swelling. An understanding of the signs and physiologic changes is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. A review of anatomy, physiology, and current surgical and medical options is presented.

  16. [Phosphate sensing and parathyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Masahide; Suzuki, Taihei

    2012-10-01

    In the latter 1990s, phosphate, as well as calcium, has been shown to have a direct action on parathyroid function. Since then although many researchers have tried to detect the phosphate sensor in parathyroid gland, none has found it yet. In 2000s, the importance of FGF23 was revealed in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets and then investigating the role of FGF23 in mineral metabolism has spread. FGF23 target organs comprise those that express coreceptor Klotho, such as kidney and parathyroid glands. While associations of calcium sensing receptor or vitamin D receptor with parathyroid function have been mainly investigated for parathyroid dysfunction, many efforts recently have made to study the effects of FGF23 on parathyroid glands.

  17. Bilateral isolated submandibular gland mumps.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Linnea; Henderson, Arthur Harry; Banfield, Graham; Carswell, Andrew

    2017-06-05

    Isolated submandibular swellings pose a diagnostic challenge to the practising otolaryngologist. We report an unusual case of mumps isolated to bilateral submandibular glands. We discuss the case and the literature surrounding this condition and remind clinicians that mumps should be considered as a diagnosis in the presence of submandibular gland swelling in the absence of typical parotid swelling associated with mumps. Early consideration of this differential diagnosis, serological testing and a multidisciplinary approach may help to clinch the diagnosis earlier and prevent spread of the virus. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    PubMed

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Adrenal glands transabdominal ultrasonography - pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Chira, Romeo Ioan; Chira, Alexandra; Manzat-Saplacan, Roberta Maria; Nagy, Georgiana; Valea, Ana; Silaghi, Alina Cristina; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Valean, Simona

    2017-05-03

    Adrenal gland ultrasonography is one of the corner stones of the abdominal ultrasonography examination for many medical specialties. The adrenal areas can be easily overlooked though adrenal gland pathology is diverse. We present the normal aspects and various transabdominal ultrasonography findings of the adrenal glands, both common and rare. Even though ultrasound examination is operator and patient dependent, we consider the examination of the adrenal glands very important, due to relatively frequent incidental detection of an adrenal mass.

  20. [Unilateral congenital aplasia of the submandibular gland].

    PubMed

    Damar, Murat; Kalaycı, Cem Burak; Bekar, Ulkü; Turhan, Bünyamin

    2013-01-01

    Aplasia of the major salivary glands is very uncommon, whereas isolated aplasia of unilateral submandibular gland is even rarer. In this article, we report a 55-year-old female case in whom unilateral aplasia of the left submandibular gland was detected incidentally by ultrasonography with no other congenital comorbidities in the light of literature data.

  1. Undifferentiated carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    López, J I; Alfaro, J; Ballestin, C

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of undifferentiated carcinomas of the major salivary glands were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. Results showed that this entity was a high grade malignant neoplasm arising from the excretory duct. Despite the undifferentiated appearance multiple immunophenotypes were evident in both cases. PMID:2045506

  2. Congenital deficiency of meibomian glands.

    PubMed Central

    Bron, A J; Mengher, L S

    1987-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with contact lens intolerance. She was found to have a marked deficiency of meibomian glands in the upper lids and almost total absence in the lower lids. Evidence of tear film instability was found and attributed to deficient lid oil production. A daily wear soft contact lens was later fitted and tolerated. PMID:3580344

  3. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  4. Cyst of accessory lacrimal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Durán, J. A.; Cuevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    We present a case of an epithelial cyst of the conjunctiva caused by the dilatation of an accessory lacrimal gland. The case is peculiar in regard to the size of the cyst and the absence of traumatic or inflammatory factors to explain the retention of fluid. Images PMID:6860616

  5. The reptilian thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Sam; Lock, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The field of reptilian clinical endocrinology is still in its infancy. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are intimately involved with many basic metabolic functions. These glands have been the subject of extensive research studies in reptilian species; however, the effects of abnormal gland function have been poorly documented in clinical cases. These glands play a major role in maintaining physiologic homeostasis in all vertebrates. With the advent of more sensitive assays, it should be possible to measure the small amounts of hormones found in reptilian species. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding clinical endocrinology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in reptiles.

  6. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland (SMG), which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of three general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  7. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  8. Neuropeptidergic control of Octopus oviducal gland.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The oviducal gland of the female of Octopus vulgaris lies about halfway along the oviduct. Progesterone and 17beta-estradiol receptors have been immunolocalized in the nuclei of the cells of the glandular compartment of previtellogenic glands. We also have evidence of FMRFamide-like and cGnRH-I-like immunoreactivity in the nerve endings that reach the oviducal gland. Moreover, we have recently shown APGWamide immunoreactivity in the glandular cells of the inner part of the oviducal gland. Here we report a review on these findings as well as our latest studies on the effect that neuropeptides may exert on the secretory activity of the oviducal gland. cAMP seems to be a possible second messenger involved in such a process. We discuss the findings of a neuropeptidergic action on the glandular cells of oviducal gland in a more complex frame of molecules, such as steroids, biogenic amines and neuromodulators, controlling the activity of the gland.

  9. The effect of the transplanted pineal gland on the sympathetic innervation of the rat sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Chanthaphavong, R S; Murphy, S M; Anderson, C R

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effect of the pineal on sympathetic neurons that normally innervate the sublingual gland of the rat. When the pineal gland was transplanted into the sublingual gland, it remained as a distinct mass that was innervated by sympathetic axons. Injection of the retrograde tracer, Fast Blue, into the sublingual gland labelled sympathetic neurons in the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Thirty per cent of all neurons labelled retrogradely by Fast Blue injection into transplanted pineal glands were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calbindin. This combination is characteristic of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in its normal location, but not the sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons normally innervating the sublingual gland. This, and our previous study in which the pineal gland was shown to similarly influence the phenotype of salivary secretomotor neurons, suggests that a range of different functional classes of sympathetic neuron are able to change their phenotype in response to signals released by the pineal gland.

  10. Pituitary gland development: an update.

    PubMed

    Bancalari, Rodrigo E; Gregory, Louise C; McCabe, Mark J; Dattani, Mehul T

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic development of the pituitary gland involves a complex and highly spatio-temporally regulated network of integrating signalling molecules and transcription factors. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism in association with a wide spectrum of craniofacial/midline defects ranging from incompatibility with life to holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cleft palate and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Increasing evidence supports a genotypic overlap with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal disorders such as Kallmann syndrome, which is consistent with the known overlap in phenotypes between these disorders. This chapter reviews the cascade of events leading up to the successful development of the pituitary gland and to highlight key areas where genetic variations can occur thus leading to congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Microwave thermolysis of sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jessi E; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F; Kim, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a condition that affects a large percentage of the population and has a significant impact on peoples' lives. This report presents a technical overview of a new noninvasive, microwave-based device for creating thermolysis of sweat glands. The fundamental principles of operation of the device are presented, as well as the design and optimization of the device to target the region where the sweat glands reside. An applicator was designed that consists of an array of four waveguide antennas, a cooling system, and a vacuum acquisition system. Initially, the performance of the antenna array was optimized via computer simulation such that microwave absorption was maximized near the dermal/hypodermal interface. Subsequently, hardware was implemented and utilized in pre-clinical testing on a porcine model to optimize the thermal performance and analyze the ability of the system to create thermally affected zones of varying size yet centered on the target region. Computer simulation results demonstrated absorption profiles at a frequency of 5.8 GHz that had low amounts of absorption at the epidermis and maximal absorption at the dermal/hypodermal interface. The targeted zone was shown to be largely independent of skin thickness. Gross pathological and histological response from pre-clinical testing demonstrated the ability to generate thermally affected zones in the desired target region while providing protection to the upper skin layers. The results demonstrate that microwave technology is well suited for targeting sweat glands while allowing for protection of both the upper skin layers and the structures beneath the subcutaneous fat. Promising initial results from simulation and pre-clinical testing demonstrate the potential of the device as a noninvasive solution for sweat gland thermolysis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, L.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD. PMID:21441486

  13. Simulation of flow in the silk gland.

    PubMed

    Breslauer, David N; Lee, Luke P; Muller, Susan J

    2009-01-12

    Spiders and silkworms employ the complex flow of highly concentrated silk solution as part of silk fiber spinning. To understand the role of fluidic forces in this process, the flow of silk solution in the spider major ampullate and silkworm silk glands was investigated using numerical simulation. Our simulations demonstrate significant differences between flow in the spider and silkworm silk glands. In particular, shear flow effects are shown to be much greater in the spider than the silkworm, the silkworm gland exhibits a much different flow extension profile than the spider gland, and the residence time within the spider gland is eight times greater than in the silkworm gland. Lastly, simulations on the effect of spinning speed on the flow of silk solution suggest that a critical extension rate is the initiating factor for fiber formation from silk solution. These results provide new insight into silk spinning processes and will guide the future development of novel fiber spinning technologies.

  14. [Unknown hepatoid glands of some species of cats and deer].

    PubMed

    Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    2003-01-01

    Our histological description of the fourth type of mammalian skin glands--hepatiod glands--allowed us to revise the obtained and published data mistaking the alveolar glands of the anal sacs in cats and the limb glands in deers as sebaceous. Large clusters of hepatiod glands were discovered in the anal sacs of the cat, lynx, and tiger, interdigital gland of elk, and the tarsal gland of reindeer. These glands secrete considerable amounts of protein to the clearance of the intercellular canaliculi and contain hydrophobic lipids. The available data substantiate revision of the data on the structure of many skin glandular organs with atypical sebaceous glands.

  15. The parathyroid gland in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L.; Cassady, J.; Hajianpour, M. A.; Paz, J.; Reiss, E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied the parathyroid glands from 100 previously healthy subjects who died suddenly and were admitted to the Dade County Medical Examiner's (ME) morgue and from 66 inpatients who died at Jackson Memorial Hospital (JMH). Parathyroid glands in patients with diseases (JMH series) were heavier than those in healthy persons (ME series), and both groups of glands were significantly heavier than those previously reported. Mean glandular weight in white subjects was 42.6 +/- 20.3 mg, with a range of 22-103 mg. The 95% upper limit of gland weight for healthy white subjects was 73.1 mg and for black subjects, 91.6 mg. The size and weight exhibited a skewed distribution. Gland weight varied with age, increasing to a maximum in the 41-60 year old age group in all subsets except white women, in whom it continued to increase till after age 70. There was slight correlation (r2 = 0.15) of gland weight with body weight within series and race groups; parenchymal content of the glands was not constant but correlated positively with glandular weight. Glands from both series had a comparable fat content. Fat was unevenly distributed throughout the gland, and its amount was highly variable, ranging between 0 and 90%, with a mean of 26% for white subjects and 24% for black subjects in both series. Therefore, percentage fat may not be used as an index of hyperplasia. Healthy back subjects had heavier glands than healthy white subjects, unaccounted for by differences in body weights; this difference was not statistically significant in subjects with disease. Within the black race, glands were not significantly heavier in disease than in health, and in the few cases with serum calcium determinations, the gland weight did not vary inversely with serum calcium levels as in white subjects, suggesting a basic difference in parathyroid calcium metabolism between the two races. PMID:3789088

  16. Thyroid Gland Hematoma After Blunt Neck Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Saylam, Baris; Çomçali, Bülent; Ozer, Mehmet Vasfi; Coskun, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Hemorrhage of a previously normal thyroid gland as a result of blunt trauma is a very rare condition. We report a case of blunt trauma that caused acute hemorrhage into the thyroid gland and presented with hoarseness. The diagnosis of thyroid gland hematoma was made with a combination of fiberoptic laryngoscopy, cervical computed tomography, and carotid angiography. The patient was treated conservatively, had a favorable course without further complications, and was discharged four days after admission. PMID:20046242

  17. Quality of life assessment in Hodgkin's disease: a new comprehensive approach. First experiences from the EORTC/GELA and GHSG trials. EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group. Groupe D'Etude des Lymphomes de L'Adulte and German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed

    Flechtner, H; Rüffer, J U; Henry-Amar, M; Mellink, W A; Sieber, M; Fermé, C; Eghbali, H; Josting, A; Diehl, V

    1998-01-01

    Previous reports from available trials have dealt with negative long-term sequelae in Hodgkin's disease (HD) survivors. There is, however, a lack of longitudinal data showing the correlation between outcome and various treatment-related variables and the process of re-adaptation into normal life after the end of treatment. In order to investigate the quality of life (QoL) of patients with HD in different dimensions during active treatment and follow-up and to identify longitudinal patterns of QoL dimensions during re-adaptation to normal life within the EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group and Groupe D'Etude des Lymphomes de L'Adulte (EORTC/GELA) and the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG), QoL assessment strategies were put into use over the last three to five years. Furthermore, the efforts aimed at obtaining cross-cultural comparisons between the participating countries and study groups (EORTC/GELA and GHSG). Within the randomised EORTC/GELA Trial 'H8' for clinical stage I-II HD which started in September 1993, patients receive a QoL questionnaire for completion at each follow-up visit during the first 10 years after the end of active therapy. The corresponding 'HD8' study of the GHSG employs the assessment of QoL during and after active treatment periods. Within both studies, the EORTC QLQ C30 is used for QoL assessment incorporated in the QLQ-S (quality of life questionnaire for survivors), which additionally addresses the aspects of fatigue/malaise, sexuality, specific side effects, and retrospective evaluation of treatment. In total the QLQ-S includes 45 questions on 14 functional, symptom, and fatigue scales, 15 additional single items, and 3 open questions. In addition to the longitudinal QoL assessment, the GHSG carried out cross-sectional QoL trials with all cured surviving patients from the past HD1-6 studies and a matched normal control sample employing the QLQ-S and the life situation questionnaire (LSQ), an instrument covering objective data from 45

  18. Cell biology of the harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Chieffi, G; Baccari, G C; Di Matteo, L; d'Istria, M; Minucci, S; Varriale, B

    1996-01-01

    The harderian gland is an orbital gland of the majority of land vertebrates. It is the only orbital gland in anuran amphibians since the lacrimal gland develops later during phylogenesis in some reptilian species. Perhaps because it is not found in man, little interest was paid to this gland until about four decades ago. In recent years, however, the scientific community has shown new interest in analyzing the ontogenetic and morphofunctional aspects of the harderian gland, particularly in rodents, which are the preferred experimental model for physiologists and pathologists. One of the main characteristics of the gland is the extreme variety not only in its morphology, but also in its biochemical properties. This most likely reflects the versatility of functions related to different adaptations of the species considered. The complexity of the harderian gland is further shown in its control by many exogenous and endogenous factors, which vary from species to species. The information gained so far points to the following functions for the gland: (1) lubrication of the eye and nictitating membrane, (2) a site of immune response, particularly in birds, (3) a source of pheromones, (4) a source of saliva in some chelonians, (5) osmoregulation in some reptiles, (6) photoreception in rodents, (7) thermoregulation in some rodents, and (8) a source of growth factors.

  19. Distribution of calcification within the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Pilling, J R; Hawkins, T D

    1977-11-01

    The distribution of calcification in the normal pineal gland was investigated by a macroradiographic in vitro technique. The centre of calcification in 72 out of 73 glands studied was within 2 mm of the mid-line of the gland. In one gland it lay 2.6 mm from the mid-line. These findings explain the accepted normal limits for pineal calcification on the standard semi-axial projection of the skull of up to 2 mm to either side of the mid-line and the occasional measurement in excess of this in normal subjects.

  20. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  1. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques.

  2. [MRI of the pineal gland].

    PubMed

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

    2014-11-10

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI.

  3. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Disorders > About > Diagnosis Page Content ​ ​How do health care providers diagnose adrenal gland disorders? Methods for diagnosing ... Tumors To diagnose an adrenal gland tumor, a health care provider may order one or more tests. 3 ...

  4. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer About Salivary Gland Cancer What’s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  5. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life.

  6. Primitive neuroectodermal adrenal gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y P; Lang, Brian H H; Tam, S C; Wong, K P

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, also called primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland, is extremely rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a woman with adult-onset primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland presenting with progressive flank pain. Computed tomography confirmed an adrenal tumour with invasion of the left diaphragm and kidney. Radical surgery was performed and the pain completely resolved; histology confirmed the presence of primitive neuroectodermal tumour, for which she was given chemotherapy. The clinical presentation of this condition is non-specific, and a definitive diagnosis is based on a combination of histology, as well as immunohistochemical and cytogenic analysis. According to the literature, these tumours demonstrate rapid growth and aggressive behaviour but there are no well-established guidelines or treatment strategies. Nevertheless, surgery remains the mainstay of local disease control; curative surgery can be performed in most patients. Adjuvant chemoirradiation has been advocated yet no consensus is available. The prognosis of patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumours remains poor.

  7. Flagelliform or coronata glands of Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Candelas, G C

    1995-07-01

    The flagelliform or coronata glands of the orb-web spider, Nephila clavipes, have been studied and compared to other silk-producing glands from the organism. The glands, which produce silk for the double filament of the core thread in the sticky spiral, exhibit three distinct morphological areas: tail, sac, and duct. Electrophoretic separation of the solubilized contents of the glands yields an uppermost diffuse band of high molecular size, preceded by a stepladder of well-defined peptides, which have been shown to be products of discontinuous translation in three other sets of glands. The luminal contents do not migrate as a discrete and well-defined band as those of the other glands, but rather as a diffuse area, typical of glycosylated proteins. Fibroin synthesis is stimulated by the mechanical depletion of the organism's stored silks, as in other Nephila glands, judged by the increased intensity of the bands and also by the structural alterations seen in cross sections of the glands' tails.

  8. Salivary Gland Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2017-03-01

    This current review focuses on current concepts and controversies for select key salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. Rather than the traditional organization of benign and malignant tumors, this review is structured around select key topics: biphasic tumors, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and the controversy surrounding polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin.

  9. Pineal Gland Agenesis: Review and Case Illustration

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Marcus A; Voin, Vlad; Shoja, Mohammadali; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Agenesis of the pineal gland has rarely been reported in the medical literature. Herein, we report a cadaveric specimen found to have agenesis of the pineal gland. The remaining gross examination of the brain was normal. A review of the literature was performed on this unusual finding. PMID:28690948

  10. The adrenal glands and their functions.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Deepthi C; Wijesiriwardene, Bandula

    2007-09-01

    The adrenal glands secrete hormones essential for metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, and sodium and glucose homeostasis. Hypo- or hypersecretion of these hormones is life threatening. Understanding the physiological functions of adrenal hormones is a prerequisite to the management of adrenal gland disease.

  11. Pathology of the parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews the embryology, histology and pathology of the human parathyroid glands. It emphasizes those pathologic lesions which are found in the setting of clinical hyperparathyroidism. Also discussed are certain molecular features of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. The difficulties encountered in parathyroid FNA are reviewed and illustrated.

  12. Mantle irradiation of the major salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, P.

    1985-11-01

    Radiation given to the mantle field for treatment of Hodgkin's disease impinges on the submandibular and parotid glands at levels that have been both measured and calculated to be the complete tumor dose. This dosage is above the level of irradiation that has been shown to cause partial or complete loss of salivary gland function.

  13. Aquaporins in salivary glands and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Salivary glands and pancreas are involved in saliva secretion, pancreatic fluid secretion and insulin secretion. These functions are essential for proper oral, pancreatic and glucose homeostasis. Aquaporins are water-permeable transmembrane protein involved in the physiology of these secretory gland functions. This review gives an overview of the morphology of salivary glands and pancreas, the expression and localization of aquaporins, the secretion roles and mechanisms, the physiological roles of aquaporins, and the role of aquaporins in pathophysiological conditions. Several aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and pancreas, and some play important physiological roles. Modulation of aquaporin expression and/or trafficking may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases affecting salivary glands and pancreas glands such as xerostomic conditions, pancreatic insufficiencies and diabetes. Aquaporins are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes in salivary glands and pancreas. They could represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases affecting the salivary glands and pancreas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. © 2013.

  14. The human meibomian gland epithelial cell line as a model to study meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian

    2017-10-01

    The meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the leading cause of dry eye disease (DED) throughout the world. The investigation of MGD lacks suitable in vivo and in vitro models. In 2010 a human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC) was established, so far the only available meibomian gland cell line. The characterization of HMGEC is of major importance to clarify its suitability for studying the meibomian gland (patho)physiology in vitro. The current culture protocol and new concepts of HMGEC culture will be compared. Hormones are believed to be a key factor in meibomian gland dysfunction thus HMGEC responsiveness to hormone stimulation is crucial to elucidate the hormonal influence on the meibomian gland. This review will summarize current findings about HMGEC and discuss its role in the meibomian gland dysfunction research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence. PMID:23798838

  16. Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

    2004-01-01

    The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl− and HCO3− and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

  17. Submaxillary gland mucocele: presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Boneu-Bonet, Fernando; Vidal-Homs, Enric; Maizcurrana-Tornil, Aránzazu; González-Lagunas, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The term mucocele is referred to two concepts: the extravasation cysts resulting from salivary glandular duct rupture, with mucin leakage into the surrounding peri-glandular soft tissue, and the retention cysts, caused by a glandular duct obstruction and resulting in a decrease or even an absence of glandular secretion. Mucocele can not be considered as a true cyst because its wall lacks an epithelial lining. These lesions are very common in the minor salivary glands (particularly in the labial glands), but are very infrequent in the major salivary glands--including the submaxillary glands. The present study describes a clinical case of a right submaxillary gland mucocele resolved by surgical treatment and reviews the differential diagnosis with other clinical entities.

  18. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years.

  19. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells.

  20. Distribution of transglutaminase in quail uropygial glands.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Maruyama, T; Morohashi, M

    1995-02-01

    The holocrine secretion of the uropygial gland has been explained as autolysis due to intracellular lysosomal enzymes. In the present study, the distribution of transglutaminase, a marker of epidermal differentiation, in quail uropygial glands was observed by histochemical methods to confirm whether a mechanism similar to epidermal differentiation also exists in the uropygial gland. The transglutaminase activity was positive in the deep and shallow portions of the secretory tubules as well as the transitional and degenerating cell layers of the uropygial gland. This activity was stronger in the deep portions than the shallow portions. These findings suggest that the process of secretion in the quail uropygial gland involves not only the autolysis due to lysosomal enzymes but also a mechanism similar to that of epidermal differentiation, and that a phenomenon similar to epidermal differentiation is more evident in the deep portions than the shallow portions.

  1. Imaging of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bloch, Klaus Poulsen

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Tissue engineering of parathyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Iovino, F; Armano, G; Auriemma, P P; Sergio, R; De Sena, G; Capuozzo, V; Rosso, F; Marino, G; Papale, F; Grimaldi, A; Barbarisi, A

    2010-01-01

    The postoperative hypoparathyroidism is a not rare complication after total thyroidectomy and/or total parathyroidectomy. Attempts to transplant parathyroid tissue began in 1975 with the work of Wells, but still today results are disappointing. However, with the development of tissue engineering techniques, some experimental approaches to build artificial parathyroid are been made. Bioengineered device, actively secreting PTH, for transplant in patients with iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism is unavailable. Parathyroid cells were obtained from three chronic uremic patients in hemodialysis, operated for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Cell cultures in RPMI medium were subsequently seeded on collagen scaffold (three-dimensional matrix with slow biodegradation). Collagen is the major component of the extracellular matrix and thus is a good substrate for cell adhesion and growth. Culture media, with a low calcium concentration, were optimised to physiologically stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion. Cell cultures were morphologically observed in optical and electron (ESEM) microscopy and metabolically assayed by MTT method until the tenth week. Besides, concentration of parathyroid hormone in the culture medium has been measured for several weeks. After 24 hours of culture in RPMI, cells extracted from human parathyroid glands were nearly all adherent and organised in clusters to resemble the glandular organization. The cellular population consisted predominantly of parathyroid cells (90-95%). On collagen scaffolds, cells maintains an epithelial-like morphology also after 10 weeks, colonizing the scaffold surface and keeping a good proliferative rate with a discrete production of parathyroid hormone. The use of parathyroid cells extracted from patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was certainly an appropriate choice that enabled us to achieve these results, that albeit partial bode well for the experimental in vivo animal model. The bioengineered scaffolds when

  3. Small ampullate glands of Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Ortíz, R; Céspedes, W; Nieves, L; Robles, I V; Plazaola, A; File, S; Candelas, G C

    2000-02-01

    The small ampullate glands of the orb-web spider, Nephila clavipes, have been studied and compared to other of the silk producing glands from this organism. They exhibit the same gross morphological features of the other glands. Electrophoretic analyses show that the gland's luminal contents migrate as a single band, while the contents of the secretory epithelium reveal a step-ladder array of peptides in addition to the full size product. Previous studies from our laboratory identified these peptides as products generated by translational pauses. This alternate mode of translation is typical of fibroin synthesis in all the spider glands thus far studied as well as in those of the silkworm. The correlation of the peptides to the process of fibroin synthesis is shown through experimental evidence in this paper. The gradual ultrastructural changes in Golgi vesicles elicited by the fibroin synthesis stimulus can be seen in this paper. The response to stimulation is of a higher magnitude in these glands than in any of those previously analyzed. These studies show the small ampullate glands are a promising and certainly exploitable model system for studies on the synthesis of tissue-specific protein product and its control. J. Exp. Zool. 286:114-119, 2000.

  4. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds.

  5. Mammary gland tumors in male dogs.

    PubMed

    Saba, Corey F; Rogers, Kenita S; Newman, Shelley J; Mauldin, Glenna E; Vail, David M

    2007-01-01

    Reports of mammary-gland tumors in male dogs are lacking. To describe the clinical characteristics of mammary-gland tumors in male dogs. Eight male dogs diagnosed with mammary-gland tumors. Retrospective study. Medical databases from 3 institutions were searched. Medical records were abstracted, and owners and referring veterinarians contacted for follow-up information. Tissues were reviewed for histologic type, and immunohistochemical staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) was performed. Eight dogs with histologically confirmed mammary-gland tumors were included in this retrospective study. Median age at diagnosis was 11.5 years. Four dogs were sexually intact; 4 were neutered. All were purebred. Mammary-gland tumors were incidental findings in 7 of 8 dogs. All dogs were treated with only surgical excision. All but 1 dog had benign epithelial tumors. The dog with the malignant tumor was the only dog to develop possible local recurrence but de novo tumor development cannot be excluded. No dog had evidence of metastatic disease at diagnosis. Based on institutional population data, it was determined that female dogs are 62 times more likely to develop mammary-gland tumors than male dogs (P < .001). Estrogen-receptor expression was strong in the majority of tumors; progesterone-receptor expression, although present in all tumors, was less intense. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This study suggests that mammary-gland tumors in male dogs are rare, usually benign, and surgery alone can provide long-term control in most dogs.

  6. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy. PMID:26264034

  7. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stokić, Edita; Kljajić, Vladimir; Idjuški, Stevan; Benc, Damir; Popović, Djordje; Protić, Mladjan; Crnobrnja, Veljko

    2014-01-01

    Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  8. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  9. Uncovering head gland diversity in neotropical Polistinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae): comparative analysis and description of new glands.

    PubMed

    Penagos-Arévalo, Andrea C; Billen, Johan; Sarmiento, Carlos E

    2015-09-01

    Exocrine glands are involved in several wasp colony activities; however, the number of known glands in the Vespidae is rather low when compared to other social insect groups. The aim of this study is to survey the head of Neotropical social wasps and to provide a detailed comparative study of the glands found in the Polistinae. A total of 33 species distributed over 13 genera were studied with serial histological sections of the head, excluding the labiomaxillary complex. Additionally, the exoskeleton was explored using scanning electron microscopy looking for associated modifications. A total of eleven exocrine glands were observed, five are structures recorded for the first time for the Hymenoptera, three are new records for the Polistinae and three are previously known organs. The glands studied are: ocellar gland I, ocellar gland II, periocular gland, subantennal gland, hypopharyngeal gland, clypeal gland, posterobasal genal gland, ectal mandibular gland, mesal mandibular gland, intramandibular gland I, and intramandibular gland II. The widespread distribution of most of these glands suggests an origin prior to the evolution of the Polistinae. Our results highlight the importance of detailed morphological studies to unveil the significance of chemical communication in one of the most characteristic groups of social animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs.

  11. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  12. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Wronski, A; Arendt, L M; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Although mouse models have provided invaluable information on the mechanisms of mammary gland development, anatomical and developmental differences between human and mice limit full understanding of this fundamental process. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland by injecting immortalized human breast stromal cells into the cleared murine mammary fat pad enables the growth and development of human mammary epithelial cells or tissue. This facilitates the characterization of human mammary gland development or tumorigenesis by utilizing the mouse mammary fat pad. Here we describe the process of isolating human mammary stromal and epithelial cells as well as their introduction into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice.

  13. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  14. CULTIVATION IN VITRO OF THE THYROID GLAND

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Alexis; Burrows, M. T.

    1911-01-01

    The thyroid gland of mammals can be cultivated outside the body. The proliferated elements consist of connective tissue and epithelial cells, the former predominating. The cells survive in cultures for two weeks or longer, which period can be increased by secondary and sometimes by tertiary cultivations. It is to be noted that the method of growing in vitro organs such as the thyroid gland may come to be used with advantage in the study of the substances concerned with the internal secretion of certain glands. PMID:19867423

  15. Adenoma of anogenital mammary-like glands.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sartaj; Campbell, Ross M; Li, Jin Hong; Wang, Li Juan; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2007-11-01

    Adenomas in the anogenital region are uncommon. There has been debate about the origin, including ectopic breast tissue, cutaneous apocrine gland, and most recently anogenital mammary-like gland. An anogenital mass in a 36-year-old woman was excised, and histopathologic examination and immunostaining were performed. Microscopic tissue sections showed a morphologic pattern similar to that of a mammary fibroadenoma, and immunostaining demonstrated the presence of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. The possibility of adenomas of anogenital mammary-like glands should be considered when evaluating patients with a mass in this area with confirmation by tissue biopsy or aspiration cytology.

  16. Pineal gland calcification (PGC) in Ugandans. A radiological study of 200 isolated pineal glands.

    PubMed

    Mugondi, S G; Poltera, A A

    1976-07-01

    Two hundred formalin-fixed pineal glands from consecutive unselected post-mortems on Ugandan Africans have been X-rayed. The degree of pineal gland calcification has been divided into four stages and it is shown that 43 per cent of all pineal glands after the age of ten years are likely to be detected in an ordinary skull X ray. This high percentage of calcification contrasts with the previously reported low figure from races other than whites. The pineal glands from females were more often calcified and heavier than those from males; however, the stalks of pineal glands from males were calcified more frequently than those of females. The average weight per decade was almost constant. In Ugandan Africans the pineal glands were significantly lighter than in Caucasians, and a possible reason for this is briefly discussed.

  17. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J R; Fisher, Brian L

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  18. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  19. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  20. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  1. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  2. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  3. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  4. [Pheochromocytomas as adrenal gland incidentalomas].

    PubMed

    Cerović, Snezana; Cizmić, Milica; Milović, Novak; Ajdinović, Boris; Brajusković, Goran

    2002-07-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are a heterogeneous group of pathological entities, including benign or malignant adrenocortical or medullary tumors, hormonally active or inactive lesions, which are identified incidentally during the examination of nonadrenal-related abdominal complaints. About 1.5% to 23% of adrenal incidentalomas are pheochromocytomas. Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare tumour of adrenal medulla with divergente clinical course. This type of pheochromocytoma is designated "composite" or "mixed," depending on whether pheochromocytoma and nonpheochromocytoma components show the same embryologic origin. Nonpheochromocytoma components found in the composite pheochromocytoma include ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, and malignant schwannoma. The biologic behavior of composite pheochromocytomas may be as difficult to predict as more traditional pheochromocytomas; based on the number of cases reported to date the presence of areas resembling ganglioneuroblastoma or neuroblastoma does not necessary indicate a poor prognosis. Some may behave in a malignant fashion with metastasis by a component of the tumour which has neural features. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are well-defined entities. Some of their nonsporadic associations and unusual morphological appearances are not universally appreciated. We report on a rare association of left adrenal CP, with typical right adrenal phochromocytoma and retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and a review of literature. We analyzed the clinical and immunohistochemical features in a 24-year-old woman with composite pheochromocytoma localized in the left adrenal gland and associated with blood pressure of 200/140 mmHg. Abdominal computed tomography and 131-J MIBG revealed a 65 x 60 mm mass in the right adrenal gland, but no revealed 45 x 40 mm retroperitoneal mass and 20 x 20 mm mass in the left adrenal region. Serum and urinary adrenaline levels were high, and catecholamine levels in the blood sample of

  5. Structure and context in prostatic gland segmentation and classification.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kien; Sarkar, Anindya; Jain, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    A novel gland segmentation and classification scheme applied to an H&E histology image of the prostate tissue is proposed. For gland segmentation, we associate appropriate nuclei objects with each lumen object to create a gland segment. We further extract 22 features to describe the structural information and contextual information for each segment. These features are used to classify a gland segment into one of the three classes: artifact, normal gland and cancer gland. On a dataset of 48 images at 5x magnification (which includes 525 artifacts, 931 normal glands and 1,375 cancer glands), we achieved the following classification accuracies: 93% for artifacts v. true glands; 79% for normal v. cancer glands, and 77% for discriminating all three classes. The proposed method outperforms state of the art methods in terms of segmentation and classification accuracies and computational efficiency.

  6. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Sublingual Salivary Gland Obstructing the Submandibular Salivary Gland Duct

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Venkata Suneel; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Beeraka, Swapna; Natarajan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual salivary gland malignancies are extremely rare and account for only 0.3-1% of all epithelial salivary gland tumors. Here, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the sublingual salivary gland that presented as a swelling in the right anterior floor of the mouth obstructing the submandibular duct. Sublingual salivary gland ACC obstructing the submandibular duct is rare and only three cases have been reported in the literature until date. We discuss the different patterns of ACC seen during the pathologic investigations and its radiologic features. PMID:24516773

  7. Salivary gland progenitor cell biology provides a rationale for therapeutic salivary gland regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, I M A; Knox, S M; Hoffman, M P

    2011-07-01

    An irreversible loss of salivary gland function often occurs in humans after removal of salivary tumors, after therapeutic radiation of head and neck tumors, as a result of Sjögren's syndrome and in genetic syndromes affecting gland development. The permanent loss of gland function impairs the oral health of these patients and broadly affects their quality of life. The regeneration of functional salivary gland tissue is thus an important therapeutic goal for the field of regenerative medicine and will likely involve stem/progenitor cell biology and/or tissue engineering approaches. Recent reports demonstrate how both innervation of the salivary gland epithelium and certain growth factors influence progenitor cell growth during mouse salivary gland development. These advances in our understanding suggest that developmental mechanisms of mouse salivary gland development may provide a paradigm for postnatal regeneration of both mice and human salivary glands. Herein, we will discuss the developmental mechanisms that influence progenitor cell biology and the implications for salivary gland regeneration.

  8. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    PubMed

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland.

  9. Mammary gland: From embryogenesis to adult life.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano; Imbesi, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on the molecular factors that ensure the optimal development and maintenance of the mammary gland thanks to their integration and coordination. The development of the mammary gland is supported, not only by endocrine signals, but also by regulatory molecules, which are able to integrate signals from the surrounding microenvironment. A major role is certainly played by homeotic genes, but their incorrect expression during the spatiotemporal regulation of proliferative, functional and differentiation cycles of the mammary gland, may result in the onset of neoplastic processes. Attention is directed also to the endocrine aspects and sexual dimorphism of mammary gland development, as well as the role played by ovarian steroids and their receptors in adult life.

  10. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Salivary Gland Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Martin G.; Watson, Philip A.; Ho, Alan L.; Morris, Luc G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers comprise a small subset of human malignancies, and are classified into multiple subtypes that exhibit diverse histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Local disease is potentially curable with surgery, which may be combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, metastatic or unresectable tumors rarely respond to chemotherapy and carry a poorer prognosis. Recent molecular studies have shown evidence of androgen receptor signaling in several types of salivary gland cancer, mainly salivary duct carcinoma. Successful treatment with anti-androgen therapy in other androgen receptor-positive malignancies such as prostate and breast cancer has inspired researchers to investigate this treatment in salivary gland cancer as well. In this review, we describe the prevalence, biology, and therapeutic implications of androgen receptor signaling in salivary gland cancer. PMID:28208703

  11. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  12. Plexiform Neurofibroma Involving the Lacrimal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Hofsli, Mikael; Gampenrieder, Nico; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Background To present a rare case of a 2-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who presented with ptosis of the right upper eyelid along with a tumor in the eyelid. Methods A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the orbit revealed a solid tumor located extraconally at the site of the right lacrimal gland. A transcranial orbitotomy was performed. Results Histopathological examination demonstrated expanded nerve branches/fascicles cut in various planes in between normal lacrimal gland acini. These findings were consistent with a plexiform neurofibroma presumably deriving from the lacrimal nerve and/or a supraorbital nerve branch. Conclusion This is the first case of a plexiform neurofibroma involving the lacrimal gland ever described and the tumor shows similarities with neurofibroma in other salivary glands with a high recurrence rate. Plexiform neurofibromas are frequently seen in patients with NF1 and rarely undergo malignant transformation. PMID:28203199

  13. Trace element transport in the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The mammary gland has a remarkable capacity to adapt to maternal deficiency or excess of iron, copper, and zinc and to homeostatically control milk concentrations of these essential nutrients. Similarly, it can regulate changes in concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc change during lactation. For iron, this regulation is achieved by transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, whereas mammary gland copper metabolism is regulated by Ctr1, ATP7A, and ATP7B. Zinc homeostasis is complex, involving both zinc importers (Zip3) and zinc exporters (ZnT-1, ZnT-2, and ZnT-4). Both transcriptional and post-translational regulation can affect protein abundance and cellular localization of these transporters, finely orchestrating uptake, intracellular trafficking, and secretion of iron, copper, and zinc. The control of mammary gland uptake and milk secretion of iron, copper, and zinc protects both the mammary gland and the breast-fed infant against deficiency and excess of these nutrients.

  14. Role of sebaceous glands in inflammatory dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Vivian Y; Leo, Michael; Hassoun, Lauren; Chahal, Dev S; Maibach, Howard I; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-11-01

    Skin is an important interface between the host and its environment. Inflammatory dermatoses often have disrupted skin barrier function, rendering patients more susceptible to allergenic triggers leading to an exaggerated immune response. The skin surface lipid film, an important component of the skin barrier, comprises a mixture of keratinocyte and sebaceous gland-derived lipids. Recent evidence demonstrated that defective keratinocyte lipid synthesis predisposes for the development of atopic dermatitis. However, the important role of sebaceous gland-derived lipids in skin inflammatory diseases may be underrecognized. This overview focuses on the importance of the contribution of sebaceous glands to barrier function. Sebaceous gland alteration may play a role in the pathogenesis of common skin diseases including acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis.

  15. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are different methods for the assessment of salivary gland hypofunction; however, none of them are considered to be standard procedure. This article reviews the value of common methods in the assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands. PMID:21511748

  16. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    MedlinePlus

    ... where they do their work. Why are thyroid hormones important? Thyroid hormones help all your organs work ... even babies—can have thyroid problems. Having thyroid hormone levels that are too low (underactive thyroid gland) ...

  17. Unusual Presentation of Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, S M; Badu, B P; Lavaju, P; Shrestha, B G; Pant, A R; Agarwal, M

    2014-01-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland presents as a painless, progressive, slowly growing supero-temporal swelling with variable proptosis. This tumor is usually found in adults and extremely rare in teenage. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland which mimicked pseudotumor of orbit due to its presentation as an orbital inflammatory disease and the age distribution. Neuroimaging also suggested pseudotumor and oral steroid was started. But, there was no improvement on steroids and ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed which suggested Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. En-bloc excision of the mass through antero-lateral orbitotomy was done with satisfactory final outcome The histopathological evaluation was consistent with pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.

  18. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  19. [Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands: diagnostic considerations].

    PubMed

    Bagán Sebastián, J V; Silvestre Donat, F J

    1990-09-01

    We present 3 cases of Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands, one male and two females, who presented associated systemic pathology (liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus), detected following clinically suspect syaloadenosis (the patients were unaware of their systemic disease). In all three cases definitive diagnosis was established by needle aspiration of the gland. Which revealed great acinar dilatation. Finally, differential diagnosis was established between sialoadenosis and those conditions with clinical presentations similar to those described for sialoadenosis.

  20. [Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland

  1. Primary hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Oklu, Rahmi

    2014-10-23

    An elderly man presented with a 2-year history of refractory hypertension. His medical history, physical examination and laboratory findings were unremarkable. On subsequent ultrasound study for the evaluation of renal artery stenosis, a large mass obliterating the adrenal gland containing internal cystic structures was identified. A CT study confirmed the diagnosis of primary adrenal gland hydatid cyst. Following surgical resection, the patient's hypertension resolved and medications to control blood pressure were discontinued.

  2. Modification of the submandibular gland transfer procedure.

    PubMed

    Marzouki, Hani Z; Elkhalidy, Youness; Jha, Naresh; Scrimger, Rufus; Debenham, Brock J; Harris, Jeffrey R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    The treatment for most advanced head and neck cancers (stage III and IV) usually includes radiation, and the most common side effect of this treatment modality is a permanent decrease in salivary production. Xerostomia is a devastating complication that significantly affects patients' quality of life by interfering with functions of taste, mastication, deglutition, and speech production. Treatment of xerostomia is varied, but one of the strategies developed by our group was to preserve one submandibular gland by surgically transferring it to the submental space and shielding it from the full dose of radiation. This procedure is proven to reduce the rate of radiation-induced xerostomia, but its main disadvantage is that it is contraindicated in oral cavity cancer. This study describes and evaluates a modification of the submandibular gland transfer (SGT) procedure, where the submandibular gland contralateral to the disease process is relocated to the parotid region. This modification has the potential of expanding the benefits of submandibular gland transfer procedures to patients with oral cavity cancers. Prospective feasibility study. This study involved nine patients with a new diagnosis of advanced head and neck cancer undergoing major head and neck cancer resection with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. The new modified salivary gland transfer procedure was performed on all nine patients, and the glands total dose received with radiation therapy was assessed. All the modified SGT procedures were successful with no post-operative complications. The radiation oncology team has been able to successfully localize the transferred submandibular glands and shield them from the radiation beam postoperatively. We have successfully demonstrated that surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the parotid region is feasible, surgically viable, oncologically sound, and does not interfere with radiation therapy. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2492-2496, 2016.

  3. Ocular surface microbiome in meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Watters, Grant A; Turnbull, Philip R; Swift, Simon; Petty, Alex; Craig, Jennifer P

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the ocular microbiome in meibomian gland dysfunction in Auckland, New Zealand. Prospective, cross-sectional, observational, university-based study. Participants resident in New Zealand for ≥2 years (n = 157) were classified as normal (n = 66), mild (n = 41) or moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction (n = 50). Contact lens wear and anterior blepharitis status were recorded, as well as symptoms and clinical features. Bacteria collected from lid margin swabs, before and after gland expression, were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological culture techniques. Aerobic isolates were identified in all 157 participants, and both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated in a subset of 87 subjects. Bacterial incidence according to meibomian gland dysfunction status RESULTS: Symptoms, bulbar hyperaemia, conjunctival staining, lipid layer grade and tear film stability, but not corneal staining, showed moderate association with meibomian gland dysfunction severity. Participants with and without meibomian gland dysfunction showed a similar microbiome, unaffected by gland expression. Anterior blepharitis, a common co-morbidity, was not an independent predictor of the microbiome. Sterile cultures were more common in contact lens wearers than non-wearers. The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus was higher than anticipated across all severity groups, and that of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and streptococci was lower. Modest differences in relative proportions of bacteria compared with other studies support climatic variations in the ocular surface microbiome. Similarity in microbiome profile, irrespective of meibomian gland dysfunction severity, anterior blepharitis presence or contact lens wear, suggests potential for commonality in treatment. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Infantile Hemangioendothelioma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chaubal, Rajas; Tavri, Om; Sawant, Atul; Singh, Chitrangada

    2017-01-01

    A 4-month-old infant presented with a painless swelling overlying the left angle of mandible. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large lesion replacing the entire left parotid gland, with multiple enlarged vessels. Homogeneous enhancement of the lesion was seen on the postcontrast MRI scans. Based on the imaging features, a diagnosis of infantile hemangioendothelioma of the parotid gland was offered. This helped in avoiding any further invasive testing. PMID:28217408

  5. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lacrimal Gland Radiosensitivity in Uveal Melanoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Karin Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Naus, Nicole; Pan, Connie de; Santen, Cornelis A. van; Levendag, Peter; Luyten, Gre P.M.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To find a dose-volume effect for inhomogeneous irradiated lacrimal glands. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2006, 72 patients (42 men and 30 women) were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial (median follow-up, 32 months). A total dose of 50 Gy was given on 5 consecutive days. The mean of all Schirmer test results obtained {>=}6 months after treatment was correlated with the radiation dose delivered to the lacrimal gland. Also, the appearance of dry eye syndrome (DES) was related to the lacrimal gland dose distribution. Results: Of the 72 patients, 17 developed a late Schirmer value <10 mm; 9 patients developed DES. A statistically significant relationship was found between the received median dose in the lacrimal gland vs. reduced tear production (p = 0.000) and vs. the appearance of DES (p = 0.003), respectively. A median dose of 7 Gy/fraction to the lacrimal gland caused a 50% risk of low Schirmer results. A median dose of 10 Gy resulted in a 50% probability of DES. Conclusion: We found a clear dose-volume relationship for irradiated lacrimal glands with regard to reduced tear production and the appearance of DES.

  7. Surgical complications of submandibular gland excision.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Monica; Echarri, Rosa Maria; Taha, Muhammad; Martin-Fragueiro, Luz; Hernando, Ana; Mayor, Guillermo Plaza

    2012-01-01

    Submandibular gland excision is the treatment of choice in chronic pathology resistant to medical treatments or in oncological cases. The aim of this study was to analyse its current postoperative complications. Retrospective study on submandibular gland excisions performed at our University Hospital between 2004 and 2010. A total of 29 submandibular gland excisions were performed: 44.8% (13) for chronic sialadenitis, 37.9% (11) for salivary gland neoplasm and 17.2% (5) for adjacent tumours. Median length of hospital stay was 2 days. Complications were more common after gland excision due to inflammatory causes. There were only 2 cases of paralysis of the marginal facial nerve branch (6.8%); 1 was due to neoplastic pathology and 1, from inflammatory pathology. Despite marginal facial nerve paresis being one of the most relevant issues after submandibular gland excision, this type of surgery is a safe technique in our experience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Pineal gland abnormalities in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Grois, N; Prosch, H; Waldhauser, F; Minkov, M; Strasser, G; Steiner, M; Unger, E; Prayer, D

    2004-09-01

    The most common types of central nervous system (CNS) disease in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) comprise involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary region (HPR) and neurodegenerative changes in the cerebellum, basal ganglia or pons. In the review process of magnetic resonance images (MRI) from 129 LCH patients a high frequency of cysts within or large pineal glands was noted by chance. To prove whether this observation was specific for LCH or not, we compared MRI findings of the HPR in LCH patients with a control group of 55 non-LCH patients with the same age and sex distribution. In LCH patients, the pineal gland was significantly larger and also the number of pineal cysts was significantly higher as compared to the control group. No difference was found regarding the size or frequency of cystic changes between patients who had received chemotherapy prior to the MRI and untreated patients. In the LCH patients, we further found a significant correlation of pineal gland enlargement with involvement of the HPR, but not with neurodegenerative changes. Analysis of melatonin (the principal hormone of the pineal gland) levels in 24 hr urine in 14 LCH patients did not reveal a melatonin deficiency or overproduction in the LCH group as compared to 6 normal controls. The pineal gland is another site of possible CNS involvement in LCH. LCH CNS patients did not show an overt disturbance in melatonin levels. The role of the pineal gland in CNS LCH remains to be defined. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The pineal gland from development to function.

    PubMed

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  10. The neurobiology of the meibomian glands.

    PubMed

    Cox, Stephanie M; Nichols, Jason J

    2014-07-01

    This article compiles research regarding the neuroanatomy of the meibomian glands and their associated blood vessels. After a review of meibomian gland morphology and regulation via hormones, a case for innervation is made based on anatomical findings whereby the nerves lack a myelin sheath and Schwann cells. The localization and co-localization of dopamine beta-hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P are explored with emphasis on differences that exist between species. The presence of the various neuropeptides/neurotransmitters adjacent to the meibomian gland versus the vasculature associated with the meibomian gland is documented so that conclusions can be made with regard to direct and indirect effects. Research regarding the presence of receptors and receptor proteins for these neuropeptides is documented. Evidence supporting the influence of certain neurotransmitters and/or neuropeptides on the meibomian gland is given based on research that correlates changes in meibomian gland morphology and/or tear film with changes in neurotransmitter and/or neuropeptide presence. Conclusions are drawn related to direct and indirect regulation and differences between the various nervous systems.

  11. Pleomorphic Adenoma Of Minor Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Raza, Syed Shahmeer; Hussain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Haq, Ihtisham Ul; Hussain, Amer Kamal; Nadeem, Muhammad Daniyal; Farid, Khayyam

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumour of salivary glands which is Known for its wide pleomorphic architecture. It accounts for 45-75% of all salivary gland neoplasm. It can involve major as well as minor salivary glands. Among minor salivary glands (5-10% of cases) the palate lip, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea are the most common sites. Diagnosis is made with biopsy along with histopathology. Wide excision with biopsy and removal of underlying extension of tumour is the treatment of choice. Sixty years old farmer presented with painless swelling in the upper lip for the last 8 years. History revealed recurrent mass in the midline of upper lip with no other complaints. He was operated 3 times for this complaint in the past. Belonging to poor socioeconomic status no biopsy records were found. On examination 3×4 cm hard and mobile mass was found. Lymph nodes of head and neck and parotid gland revealed no enlargement. Surgery by wide excision was planned. After baseline investigation surgery was done and the mass sent for histopathology. Biopsy reports showed pleomorphic adenoma on unusual site. Dissection of salivary gland tumour is important as they have propensity to metastasize. Wide local excision along with biopsy is the method of choice. Proper surgical techniques are required to avoid recurrence.

  12. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-02-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts).

  13. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours.

  14. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    López-Figueroa, M O; Møller, M

    1996-10-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased intracellular content of cGMP. The role of cGMP in pineal metabolism, however, is still enigmatic. Using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the presence of NOS has been confirmed in the pineal gland of some species. In the rat and especially in the sheep, NOS is located in nerve fibres innervating the gland. These nerve fibres also contain the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), and are probably of parasympathetic origin. In cell cultures and tissue sections NOS immunoreactivity has been shown to be present in pinealocytes of the rat and bovine but not in the sheep. Finally, NOS is also present in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the pineal gland. Accordingly, in the mammalian pineal gland, NO is synthesized in both presynaptic nerve fibers and pinealocytes, as well as in blood vessels. However, the anatomical location of NO synthesis varies considerably among species. NO released in the pineal gland, might influence both the pineal metabolism and the blood flow of the gland.

  15. The accessory parotid gland and facial process of the parotid gland on computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dongbin; Yeo, Chang Ki; Han, Soon Yong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland, such as an accessory parotid gland (APG) or facial process (FP) and to evaluate its characteristics on computed tomography (CT) scans. We reviewed CT scans of 1,600 parotid glands from 800 patients. An APG on CT was defined as a soft-tissue mass of the same density as the main parotid gland, located at the anterior part of the main parotid gland, and completely separate from the main parotid gland. An FP was defined as a lobe of the parotid gland protruding anteriorly over the anterior edge of the ramus of the mandible on CT and showing continuity with the main gland. The overall incidence rates and characteristics of APGs and FPs were evaluated according to age, sex, and side. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs were 10.2% (163/1,600) and 28.3% (452/1,600), respectively. The mean size of an APG was 15.8 mm × 5.0 mm and the mean distance from the main parotid gland was 10.5 mm. The FP reached anteriorly between the anterior edge of the mandibular ramus and the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 405 (89.6%) cases, while it extended over the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 47 (10.4%) cases. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing age, showing significant linear correlations. However, the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland (either an APG or an FP) was similar across all age groups. The present study showed that CT might be helpful in identifying anterior extensions of the parotid gland including APGs and FPs. The anatomical information gained from this study contributes to a better understanding of APGs and FPs and how their incidence changes with age. PMID:28915265

  16. The accessory parotid gland and facial process of the parotid gland on computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dongbin; Yeo, Chang Ki; Han, Soon Yong; Kim, Jeong Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland, such as an accessory parotid gland (APG) or facial process (FP) and to evaluate its characteristics on computed tomography (CT) scans. We reviewed CT scans of 1,600 parotid glands from 800 patients. An APG on CT was defined as a soft-tissue mass of the same density as the main parotid gland, located at the anterior part of the main parotid gland, and completely separate from the main parotid gland. An FP was defined as a lobe of the parotid gland protruding anteriorly over the anterior edge of the ramus of the mandible on CT and showing continuity with the main gland. The overall incidence rates and characteristics of APGs and FPs were evaluated according to age, sex, and side. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs were 10.2% (163/1,600) and 28.3% (452/1,600), respectively. The mean size of an APG was 15.8 mm × 5.0 mm and the mean distance from the main parotid gland was 10.5 mm. The FP reached anteriorly between the anterior edge of the mandibular ramus and the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 405 (89.6%) cases, while it extended over the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 47 (10.4%) cases. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing age, showing significant linear correlations. However, the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland (either an APG or an FP) was similar across all age groups. The present study showed that CT might be helpful in identifying anterior extensions of the parotid gland including APGs and FPs. The anatomical information gained from this study contributes to a better understanding of APGs and FPs and how their incidence changes with age.

  17. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  18. [Non-neoplastic changes in the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Franz, P; Swoboda, H; Quint, C

    1994-05-01

    Non-neoplastic disorders of the salivary glands are divided into the following groups: malformations, salivary gland cysts, sialadenosis, sialolithiasis, sialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, oncocytosis and necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland infarction). Clinically, an etiological classification of sialadenitis is mandatory. Sialadenosis is distinguishable from sialadenitis by its clinical, radiological, and morphological characteristics. Non-neoplastic cysts make up about 6% of diseases of the salivary glands. Mucoceles represent the majority of these cysts (75%). HIV-associated salivary gland disease includes lymphoepithelial lesions and cysts involving the salivary gland tissue and/or intraglandular lymph nodes, and Sjögren's syndrome-like conditions, diffuse interstitial lymphocytosis syndrome, and other reported lesions of the major salivary glands. The diagnosis, differential diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of different non-neoplastic salivary gland disorders are discussed.

  19. Identification of parathyroid glands: anatomical study and surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Melo, Catarina; Pinheiro, Susana; Carvalho, Lina; Bernardes, António

    2015-03-01

    While performing thyroid surgery, the unintentional lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves results in a profound alteration in patient's quality of life. To minimize thyroid surgery morbidity, the surgeon must have an in-depth knowledge of the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck. This work intended to simulate total thyroidectomies using cadaver parts and isolate fragments that may correspond to parathyroid glands. The thyroid glands and "eventual" parathyroid glands were then submitted to histological study. Ninety-two cadaver parts were used for macroscopic dissection. A total of 242 fragments were isolated, 154 of which were confirmed through histological study to be parathyroid glands. In 36 cases, all "eventual" parathyroid glands isolated during dissection were confirmed through histological verification. In 40 cases, some glands were confirmed. In 16 cases, none of the "eventual" parathyroid glands was confirmed. The 92 thyroid glands isolated during dissection were also submitted to histological study. In 21 thyroid glands, 16 parathyroid glands were identified in the histological cuts: 8 sub-capsular, 8 extra-capsular, 6 intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical difference between the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid gland identification and preservation are sometimes a challenge during thyroid surgery, difficulty that has been demonstrated during dissection of cadaver parts.

  20. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined.

  1. Salivary gland surgery and medical malpractice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Steven S; Yheulon, Christopher G; Sniezek, Joseph C

    2013-04-01

    To better understand the causes and outcomes of lawsuits involving salivary gland surgery by analyzing malpractice litigation trends to prevent future litigation and improve physician education. Analysis of a national database. All US civil trials. The WESTLAW database was reviewed from January 1987 to March 2011. Data were compiled on the demographics of the defendant, anatomic site of injury, initial pathology, nature of injury, legal allegations, verdicts, and indemnities. Twenty-six cases met inclusion criteria and were selected for review. Verdicts/settlements for the plaintiffs predominated (58%), and the average sum of the plaintiff's monetary award was $933,235. Sixteen cases (62%) involved injury to the parotid gland/duct, with 10 cases involving injury to the facial nerve. No cases were filed on the grounds of failure to use facial nerve monitoring. Nine cases (35%) involved injury to the submandibular gland/duct. The most common legal allegations listed were improper performance followed by unnecessary procedures. If failure or inadequate consent was a component of the legal allegations, the verdict outcome significantly favored the defendants. Our study reveals that the plaintiffs in litigations involving salivary gland surgery have a slight advantage in outcomes with a fairly substantial award. Our litigation review reiterates the importance of detailed anatomic knowledge of the lingual and facial nerve to avoid the pitfalls of surgical error and consequent litigation. In addition, thorough preoperative evaluation of salivary gland pathology, including radiographic studies and needle biopsy, may help avoid errors in diagnosis and subsequent litigations.

  2. The origin of the parathyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Masataka; Graham, Anthony

    2004-12-21

    It has long been held that the parathyroid glands and parathyroid hormone evolved with the emergence of the tetrapods, reflecting a need for new controls on calcium homeostasis in terrestrial, rather than aquatic, environments. Developmentally, the parathyroid gland is derived from the pharyngeal pouch endoderm, and studies in mice have shown that its formation is under the control of a key regulatory gene, Gcm-2. We have used a phylogenetic analysis of Gcm-2 to probe the evolutionary origins of the parathyroid gland. We show that in chicks, as in mice, Gcm-2 is expressed in the pharyngeal pouches and the forming parathyroid gland. We find that Gcm-2 is present not only in tetrapods but also in teleosts and chondrichthyans, and that in these species, Gcm-2 is expressed within the pharyngeal pouches and internal gill buds that derive from them in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a teleost, and dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula), a chondrichthyan. We further demonstrate that Gcm-2 is required for the formation of the internal gill buds in zebrafish. We also have identified parathyroid hormone 1/2-encoding genes in fish and show that these genes are expressed by the gills. We further show that the gills express the calcium-sensing receptor, which is used in tetrapods to monitor serum calcium levels. These results indicate that the tetrapod parathyroid gland and the gills of fish are evolutionarily related structures, and that the parathyroid likely came into being as a result of the transformation of the gills during tetrapod evolution.

  3. Estrogens sensitize anterior pituitary gland to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pisera, D; Candolfi, M; Navarra, S; Ferraris, J; Zaldivar, V; Jaita, G; Castro, M G; Seilicovich, A

    2004-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis results from a balance between cell proliferation and cell death by apoptosis. Estradiol affects proliferation as well as apoptosis in hormone-dependent tissues. In the present study, we investigated the apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary gland to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cycling female rats, and the influence of estradiol in this response in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were chronically estrogenized with implanted Silastic capsules containing 1 mg of 17beta-estradiol (E2). Cycling or OVX and E2-treated rats were injected with LPS (250 microg/rat ip). Apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method in sections of the anterior pituitary gland and spleen. Chronic estrogenization induced apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland. Acute endotoxemia triggered apoptosis of cells in the anterior pituitary gland of E2-treated rats but not of OVX rats. No differences were observed in the apoptotic response to LPS in spleen between OVX and E2-treated rats. The apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary to LPS was variable along the estrous cycle, being higher at proestrus than at estrus or diestrus I. Approximately 75% of the apoptotic cells were identified as lactotropes by immunofluorescence. In conclusion, our results indicate that estradiol induces apoptosis and enables the proapoptotic action of LPS in the anterior pituitary gland. Also, our study suggests that estrogens may be involved in anterior pituitary cell renewal during the estrous cycle, sensitizing lactotropes to proapoptotic stimuli.

  4. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca2+-dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers – for example InsP3 and Ca2+ – and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na+-K+-Cl− cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid–base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined. PMID:26014472

  5. Occurrence of antennal glands in ants.

    PubMed

    Renthal, Robert; Velasquez, Daniel; Olmos, David; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2008-11-01

    A previous report of the discovery of exocrine glands in the antennal club of queens and workers of Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972 left open the question of the extent to which similar glands occur in the Formicidae family. We wanted to know if these antennal glands are unique to Solenopsis, or they are found in a wider taxonomic group. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examined the antennae of 41 ant species. Presence of the antennal glands was indicated by a characteristic circumferential ring of pores in a distal antennal segment of workers. Pores were found in the 9th antennal segment of all 26 species of Solenopsis examined. Pores were absent in the following: Monomorium minimum, M. pharaonis, Pheidole sp., Crematogaster sp., Linepithema humile, Forelius sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Paratrechina sp., Oecophylla smaragdina, Campanotus sp., Ectatomma ruidum, E. tuberlatum, and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea. However, pores were found in the antennal club of Tetramorium bicarinatum workers and queens. After KOH digestion of T. bicarinatum antennae, internal canals were observed in both workers and queens, and the canals are connected to spherical reservoirs in queens. T. bicarinatum was the only non-Solenopsis species examined, which showed evidence for antennal glands in the distal funiculus.

  6. The aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    The acinar salivary glands of cockroaches receive a dual innervation from the subesophageal ganglion and the stomatogastric nervous system. Acinar cells are surrounded by a plexus of dopaminergic and serotonergic varicose fibers. In addition, serotonergic terminals lie deep in the extracellular spaces between acinar cells. Excitation-secretion coupling in cockroach salivary glands is stimulated by both dopamine and serotonin. These monoamines cause increases in the intracellular concentrations of cAMP and Ca(2+). Stimulation of the glands by serotonin results in the production of a protein-rich saliva, whereas stimulation by dopamine results in saliva that is protein-free. Thus, two elementary secretory processes, namely electrolyte/water secretion and protein secretion, are triggered by different aminergic transmitters. Because of its simplicity and experimental accessibility, cockroach salivary glands have been used extensively as a model system to study the cellular actions of biogenic amines and to examine the pharmacological properties of biogenic amine receptors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands and discuss our efforts to characterize Periplaneta biogenic amine receptors molecularly.

  7. Occurrence of Antennal Glands in Ants

    PubMed Central

    Renthal, Robert; Velasquez, Daniel; Olmos, David; Vinson, S. Bradleigh

    2010-01-01

    A previous report of the discovery of exocrine glands in the antennal club of queens and workers of Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972 (Isidoro et al., Insectes Sociaux 47: 236-240, 2000) left open the question of the extent to which similar glands occur in the Formicidae family. We wanted to know if these antennal glands are unique to Solenopsis, or if they are found in a wider taxonomic group. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examined the antennae of 41 ant species. Presence of the antennal glands was indicated by a characteristic circumferential ring of pores in a distal antennal segment of workers. Pores were found in the 9th antennal segment of all 26 species of Solenopsis examined. Pores were absent in the following: Monomorium minimum, M. pharaonis, Pheidole sp., Crematogaster sp., Linepithema humile, Forelius sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Paratrechina sp., Oecophylla smaragdina, Campanotus sp., Ectatomma ruidum, E. tuberlatum, and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea. However, pores were found in the antennal club of Tetramorium bicarinatum workers and queens. After KOH digestion of T. bicarinatum antennae, internal canals were observed in both workers and queens, and the canals connected to spherical reservoirs in queens. T. bicarinatum was only non-Solenopsis species examined which showed evidence for antennal glands in the distal funiculus. PMID:18655135

  8. Management of the thyroid gland during laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Li, S X; Polacco, M A; Gosselin, B J; Harrington, L X; Titus, A J; Paydarfar, J A

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to: describe the incidence of thyroid gland involvement in advanced laryngeal cancer, analyse patterns of spread to the thyroid and elucidate predictors of thyroid involvement. A retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent laryngectomy from 1991 to 2015 as a primary or salvage treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, hypopharynx or base of tongue. The incidence of thyroidectomy during total laryngectomy, type of thyroidectomy, incidence of gland involvement, route of spread, and positive predictors of spread were analysed and reported. A total of 188 patients fit the inclusion criteria. Of these, 125 (66 per cent) underwent thyroidectomy. The thyroid was involved in 10 of the 125 patients (8 per cent), 9 by direct extension and 1 by metastasis. Cartilage invasion was a predictor of thyroid gland involvement, with a positive predictive value of 26 per cent. There is a low incidence of thyroid gland involvement in laryngeal carcinoma. Most cases of gland involvement occurred by direct extension. Thyroidectomy during laryngectomy should be considered for advanced stage tumours with cartilage invasion.

  9. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeun J.; Hong, Hyun S.; Jeong, Sun H.; Lee, Eun H.; Jung, Min J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) is a rare malignancy with the histopathological feature of undifferentiated carcinoma and an intermixed reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Although clinically significant because of its malignant nature, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis by preoperative imaging. Here, we report 3 cases of primary LEC arising in the major salivary glands, which showed unusual imaging features unlike other malignant tumors. Patient concerns: Our first case is a 44-year-old man with LEC in the right parotid gland, the second case is a 71-year-old woman with LEC in the right submandibular gland, and the third case is a 35-year-old woman with LEC in the right parotid gland. All of the patients presented with a palpable mass of variable duration. Diagnoses: Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a relatively well-defined, slightly hyperattenuated exophytic solid mass that had homogeneous well-enhanced regions. Ultrasonography (US) in the first 2 cases showed well-defined, hypoechoic solid masses with posterior enhancement. The CT findings seem to be benign tumors, but US features are compatible with highly cellular and hypervascular tumors. Interventions: The resection of the involved salivary gland with postoperative radiation therapy was performed. Outcomes: There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 5 years in all 3 patients. Lessons: Understanding these unusual imaging findings may be helpful in detecting LEC, and may also help clinicians provide adequate management to patients, such as surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy, because of its malignant entity. PMID:28207533

  10. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight exciting new advances and opportunities in studies of cell-cell interactions, mechanical forces, growth factors, and gene expression patterns to improve our understanding of this important process. PMID:21125789

  11. Transcutaneous approach for the removal of parotid gland stones.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Oh, Je-Seok; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones in the parotid gland can be treated with a wide range of methods. Stones close to the opening of the duct can be easily removed through the oral cavity, whereas the entire salivary gland may need to be removed if stones are located close to the parotid gland. In such cases, surgical removal of the parotid gland may be lengthy and may produce facial nerve injury. We report a simple extraoral approach used for the removal of parotid gland stones located close to the parotid gland by precisely identifying the location of stones in 2 patients with parotid sialolithiasis.

  12. [Morphofunctional and molecular bases of pineal gland aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S

    2012-01-01

    The review analyzed morphology, molecular and functional aspects of pineal gland aging and methods of it correction. The pineal gland is central organ, which regulates activity of neuroimmunoendocrine, antioxidant and other organisms systems. Functional activity of pineal gland is discreased at aging, which is the reason of melatonin level changing. The molecular and morphology research demonstrated, that pineal gland hadn't strongly pronounced atrophy at aging. Long-term experience showed, that peptides extract of pineal gland epithalamin and synthetic tetrapeptide on it base epithalon restored melatonin secretion in pineal gland and had strong regulatory activity at neuroimmunoendocrine and antioxidant organism systems.

  13. Computed tomography of the pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written entirely to include the imaging of the pituitary gland by computed tomography (CT). The first three chapters illustrated technical aspects of scanning, anatomic depiction of the gland by CT, and the use of dynamic CT scanning for detecting and displaying abnormalities. The chapters discuss and illustrate various types of pathologic processes in and around the pituitary gland. One short but very helpful chapter demonstrates potential pitfalls due to the combination of anatomic variants and the geometry of CT sections. Some illustrations of disease processed are depicted by magnetic resonance imaging. All major types of pituitary diseases are illustrated. Lists of readily available English-language references are available. A small subject index is provided at the end of the book in which the illustrations are identified by use of a special numeric front.

  14. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  15. Morphology of isolated crustacean larval salt glands.

    PubMed

    Lowy, R J; Conte, F P

    1985-06-01

    Larval salt glands isolated from the naupliar brine shrimp (Artemia salina) were examined using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These methods demonstrated that most cellular and subcellular features of the in vitro organ compared favorably with those seen in vivo. This salt gland measures 130 micron in diameter and is comprised of 50-70 secretory cells, which are of a single epithelial cell type. Characteristic ultrastructural features that are well preserved include apical to basal cell polarity, apical plasma membrane projections, and the extent of the basolateral tubular labyrinth and its association with numerous mitochondria. Some features that have been altered are a decrease in cell-cell contact, separation of septate junctions, and expansion of tubular labyrinth lumens and mitochondrial cristae. Use of this preparation has allowed examination of the salt gland cell's hemocoelic surface for the first time and provided information about the ultrastructure of the tufts formed by the apical plasma membrane.

  16. Pathophysiology of myoepithelial cells in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amisha Ashok Kumar; Mulla, Aamera Farouq; Mayank, Mrinal

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. MECs structurally resemble both epithelial cells and smooth muscles. Diagnostic dilemmas caused are due to inadequacy of characterizing the wide spectrum of morphologic and immunologic features which are different for both normal and neoplastic MECs. This article discusses the development, functions and structure of both normal and neoplastic MECs, their staining properties and differences in the morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of the MEC in detail. It also describes the role of MEC in pathogenesis and morphogenesis of various nonneoplastic and neoplastic salivary gland lesions and thereby are responsible for the myriad histopathology of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27721615

  17. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  19. The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Bierc, Marcin; Minarowski, Lukasz; Woźniak, Lukasz; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Knas, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2010-09-30

    The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.

  20. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Białek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  1. The development of meibomian glands in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Chyong Jy; Massei, Salina; Lin, Gloria; Liu, Hongshan; Paugh, Jerry R.; Liu, Chia-Yang; Kao, Winston Whei-Yang; Brown, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the natural history of meibomian gland morphogenesis in the mouse. Methods Embryonic (E) and post natal (P) C57Bl/6 mouse pups were obtained at E18.5, P0, P1, P3, P5, P8, P15, and P60. Eyelids were fixed and processed for en bloc staining with Phalloidin/DAPI to identify gland morphogenesis, or frozen for immunohistochemistry staining with Oil red O (ORO) to identify lipid and antibodies specific against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to identify meibocyte differentiation. Samples were then evaluated using a Zeiss 510 Meta laser scanning confocal microscope or Nikon epi-fluorescent microscope. Tissues from adult mice (2 month-old) were also collected for western blotting. Results Meibomian gland morphogenesis was first detected at E18.5 with the formation of an epithelial placode within the fused eyelid margin. Invagination of the epithelium into the eyelid was detected at P0. From P1 to P3 there was continued extension of the epithelium into the eyelid. ORO and PPARγ staining was first detected at P3, localized to the central core of the epithelial cord thus forming the presumptive ductal lumen. Ductal branching was first detected at P5 associated with acinar differentiation identified by ORO and PPARγ staining. Adult meibomian glands were observed by P15. Western blotting of meibomian gland proteins identified a 50 kDa and a 72 kDa band that stained with antibodies specific to PPARγ. Conclusions We have demonstrated that meibomian gland development bears distinct similarities to hair development with the formation of an epithelial placode and expression of PPARγ co-incident with lipid synthesis and meibocyte differentiation. PMID:20664693

  2. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  3. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  4. The Parathyroid Gland and Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Spandana J; Ruppe, Mary D; Tabatabai, Laila S

    2017-01-01

    The parathyroid glands are critical to maintaining calcium homeostasis through actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Recent clinical and molecular research has shown that direct and indirect actions of PTH also affect the heart and vasculature through downstream actions of G protein-coupled receptors in the myocardium and endothelial cells. Patients with disorders of the parathyroid gland have higher incidences of hypertension, arrhythmias, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and calcific disease which translate into increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Importantly, clinical research also suggests that early treatment of parathyroid disorders through medical or surgical management may reverse cardiovascular remodeling and mitigate cardiac risk factors.

  5. Practical imaging of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Bag, Asim K; Curé, Joel K; Chapman, Philip R; Pettibon, Keith D; Gaddamanugu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    The parotid gland may be affected by numerous pathologies, and physicians from many different medical and surgical specialties request parotid imaging. Mastering the typical imaging features of various types of parotid pathology is facilitated by understanding how various diseases produce their characteristic imaging findings. In this review article, we present succinct overviews of the normal anatomy and the common pathologies of the parotid gland and recommend a practical approach to differential diagnosis that can be easily implemented in day-to-day radiology practice.

  6. Nonneoplastic disorders of the eccrine glands.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, F G; Horn, T D

    1998-01-01

    Eccrine glands are uniquely susceptible to a variety of pathologic processes. Alteration in the rate of sweat secretion manifests as hypohidrosis and hyperhidrosis. Obstruction of the eccrine duct leads to miliaria. The excretion of drugs into eccrine sweat may be a contributory factor in neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH), syringosquamous metaplasia (SSM), coma bulla, and erythema multiforme (EM). Alterations in the electrolyte composition of eccrine sweat can be observed in several systemic diseases, most notably cystic fibrosis. This article summarizes current knowledge of eccrine gland pathophysiology.

  7. Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

    1981-10-01

    Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

  8. Breast cancer metastasis to the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Julia Fragoso; Bacchin, Renata Prota; Costa, Priscila Scatena; Alves, Gisele Malavazi; Fraige Filho, Fadlo; Stella, Lenira Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic tumors to the pituitary gland are an unusual complication typically seen in elderly patients with diffuse malignant disease. Breast and lung are the commonest sites of the primary tumor. Prognosis of patients with breast cancer metastasis is poor and depends on the primary neoplastic extension. We report a 54 year-old woman with breast cancer metastasis to the pituitary stalk first diagnosed because of visual disturbance with no other symptoms. Pituitary gland stalk metastasis is a very uncommon find and this case report includes a literature review.

  9. Congenital absence of salivary glands in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Marwan; Hershkovits, Miriyam; Bornstein, Jacob; Loberant, Norman; Blumenthal, Monique; Ophir, Ella

    2013-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome have different saliva composition compared to normal children. The presence or absence of the salivary glands has not been previously reported. To examine the presence or absence of the salivary glands in children with Down syndrome. 15 children with Down syndrome underwent an ultrasound examination of the salivary glands. The control group consisted of 31 healthy children. The areas of the parotid and submandibular glands on both sides were scanned in an attempt to demonstrate all four glands. The result was reported as 'present' or 'absent'. In four children out of 15 with Down syndrome, one or more salivary glands were absent (26.7%), while in the controls all salivary glands were present. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p=0.008). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age and sex. At least one salivary gland is undetected by ultrasound in some children with Down syndrome.

  10. The orbitofacial glands of bats: an investigation of the potential correlation of gland structure with social organization.

    PubMed

    Rehorek, Susan J; Smith, Timothy D; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P

    2010-08-01

    The facial glands of bats are modified skin glands, whereas there are up to three different orbital glands: Harderian, lacrimal, and Meibomian glands. Scattered studies have described the lacrimal and Meibomian glands in a handful of bat species, but there is as yet no description of a Harderian gland in bats. In this study we examined serial sections of orbitofacial glands in eight families of bats. Much variation amongst species was observed, with few phylogenetic patterns emerging. Enlarged facial glands, either sudoriparous (five genera) or sebaceous (vespertilionids only) were observed. Meibomian and lacrimal glands were present in most species examined (except Antrozous), though the relative level of development varied. Two types of anterior orbital glands were distinguished: the Harderian gland (tubulo-acinar: observed in Rousettus, Atribeus, Desmodus and Miniopterus) and caruncular (sebaceous: observed in Eptesicus and Dieamus). The relative development of the nasolacrimal duct and the vomeronasal organ did not appear to be correlated with the development of any of the exocrine glands examined. There does, however, appear to be a correlation between the presence of at least one well developed exocrine gland and the level of communality and known olfactory acuity, best documented in Artibeus, Desmodus, and Miniopterus.

  11. Submandibular gland mucocele associated with a mixed ranula.

    PubMed

    Hze-Khoong, Eugene Poh; Xu, Liqun; Shen, Shukun; Yin, Xuelai; Wang, Lizhen; Zhang, Chenping

    2012-06-01

    Mucoceles of the submandibular gland are extremely rare pathologic occurrences that present an investigative and management dilemma owing to their clinical indistinguishability from plunging ranulas. Of the few that have been documented, these mucous extravasation cysts involved the submandibular gland alone. We describe perhaps the first case of an extensive submandibular gland mucocele occurring in conjunction with a mixed ranula from the ipsilateral sublingual gland, and discuss the various considerations in the management of such lesions.

  12. Comparative aspects of mammary gland development and homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mammary glands are crucial to the reproductive strategy of mammals and the milk of domesticated ruminants serves as an important source of nutrients for the human population. The majority of mammary gland development occurs postnatally and the mammary gland undergoes cyclical periods of growth, dif...

  13. Comparative histochemistry of posterior lingual salivary glands of mouse.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Asterios; Fletcher, David

    2017-01-01

    Normal posterior deep and superficial salivary glands of tongue were examined in male mice by means of light microscopical histochemistry and neurohistology. Both glands showed acini and simple ducts. Demilunes were present in the superficial gland. Disulphides and neutral mucosubstances occurred in acini and demilunes. Tryptophan staining was seen in acini of the deep gland and demilunes, whereas acid mucosubstances were exclusively localised in the superficial gland. Dehydrogenase activities were widespread. Strong esterase activity occurred throughout the parenchyma of the deep gland and in demilunes; it was variably inhibited by E600, apart from acinar apical regions in the deep gland. Lipase was confined to acini of the deep gland and demilunes. Acid phosphatase staining was similarly localised; it was also seen in periluminal ductal rims of the deep gland, in which ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase was localised basolaterally. Staining for alkaline phosphatase decorated occasional myoepithelial-like arrangements and interstitial capillaries. Acetylcholinesterase was associated with nerve fibres embracing glandular parenchyma. Adrenergic fibres were not seen. The results suggest that the acini of the posterior deep lingual gland secrete neutral glycoproteins, whereas the ducts transport ions and absorb luminal material. The posterior superficial lingual gland mainly secretes acid glycoproteins. Both glands produce lingual lipase, receive cholinergic-type innervation and have inconspicuous myoepithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Dysgenetic polycystic disease of the minor and submandibular salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Koudounarakis, Eleftherios; Willems, Stefan; Karakullukcu, Baris

    2016-06-01

    Dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease is a rare pathology. No case of minor salivary gland involvement has been reported in the literature. A female patient presented with bilateral tumors of the parotid glands, bilateral submandibular gland enlargement, and multiple cystic lesions of the oral mucosa. MRI of the neck was performed along with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the parotid tumors and excisional biopsy of an oral lesion. Imaging and FNA findings of the parotid glands were suggestive of bilateral Warthin tumors. Excisional biopsy of the oral lesion revealed a minor salivary gland with histopathological features of dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease. Submandibular gland enlargement was also attributed to this rare entity based on the imaging characteristics. This is the first report of dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease of the minor salivary glands, combined with involvement of the submandibular glands and bilateral Warthin tumors of the parotid gland. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2437-E2439, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion. PMID:26752884

  16. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  17. Pineal gland cyst evaluated by transcranial sonography.

    PubMed

    Budisic, M; Bosnjak, J; Lovrencic-Huzjan, A; Mikula, I; Bedek, D; Demarin, V

    2008-03-01

    Transcranial sonography (TCS) has never been used in the evaluation of morphology of pineal gland. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of TCS to distinguish normal from cystic pineal gland and to correlate its size with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the first examination and during follow-up. Sixty patients with previously made MRI of the brain were evaluated by two independent observers using TCS, blinded to the results of the MRI. Inappropriate bone window limited TCS examination in seven patients. All 14 pineal gland cysts (PGC) seen on MRI were detected by both observers using TCS. Control group consisted of 39 healthy examinees. No statistically significant difference has been found between: PGC size measured by first and second observer by TCS (P = 0.425), PGC size measured by TCS and MRI (first observer, P = 0.353; second observer, P = 0.425), size of the pineal gland measured by TCS and MRI in control group (first observer, P = 0.497; second observer, P = 0.370) or interobserver variability in control group (P = 0.373). The MRI and TCS follow-up of ten patients after six months did not show any difference in size of PGC. TCS can be used as a method in detection, measurement and follow-up of PGC.

  18. Metastatic liposarcoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Azar, A R; Weynand, B; Daumerie, C; Coche, E

    2003-10-01

    Metastatic liposarcoma of the thyroid gland is exceptionally rare. A case of pleomorphic liposarcoma, which manifested as a soft tissue lump in the neck, is described in a 30-year-old woman. Fine needle aspiration cytology permitted prompt diagnosis. The ultrasound and CT appearance of this type of thyroid metastasis is described which has not been previously reported in the literature.

  19. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of /sup 125/I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands.

  20. Stem cells and the developing mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Maisam; Spike, Benjamin T; Dravis, Christopher; Kannan, Nagarajan; Wahl, Geoffrey M; Eaves, Connie J

    2013-06-01

    The mammary gland undergoes dynamic changes throughout life. In the mouse, these begin with initial morphogenesis of the gland in the mid-gestation embryo followed by hormonally regulated changes during puberty and later in adulthood. The adult mammary gland contains a hierarchy of cell types with varying potentials for self-maintenance and differentiation. These include cells able to produce complete, functional mammary glands in vivo and that contain daughter cells with the same remarkable regenerative potential, as well as cells with more limited clonogenic activity in vitro. Here we review how applying in vitro and in vivo methods for quantifying these cells in adult mammary tissue to fetal mammary cells has enabled the first cells fulfilling the functional criteria of transplantable, isolated mammary stem cells to be identified a few days before birth. Thereafter, the number of these cells increases rapidly. Populations containing these fetal stem cells display growth and gene expression programs that differ from their adult counterparts but share signatures characteristic of certain types of breast cancer. Such observations reinforce growing evidence of important differences between tissue-specific fetal and adult cells with stem cell properties and emphasize the merits of investigating their molecular basis.

  1. [Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Ferariu, D; Boişteanu, Otilia; Haba, Danisia

    2011-01-01

    Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity. Definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult to determine preoperatively because of the lack of pathognomonic features. The most frequent location of a parotid dermoid cyst is a triangular area lying above the pinna. Imaging studies do not definitely diagnose a parotid dermoid cyst. Although parotid dermoid cyst is (generally) well-encapsulated, complete removal of the cyst wall is not sufficient to cure it, so it is mandatory to perform careful excision of the cyst by parotidectomy, in terms of preserving facial nerve integrity. Histopathology of the parotid gland tumor removed by parotidectomy makes a diagnosis of certainty, by revealing a cyst wall with keratinization of the squamous epithelium and the presence of skin annexes (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). We present a rare case of parotid dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old male patient with symptoms and imaging rather suggestive of arch I branchial cyst and a brief review of data in the medical literature of the last 20 years.

  2. [Hypertrophy of the salivary glands in bulimia].

    PubMed

    Herrlinger, P; Gundlach, P

    2001-07-01

    We report a case of bulimia nervosa with bilateral swelling of the parotid and submandibular glands. It was the only symptom of the behavioral disorder. Sjögren's disease was excluded histologically. In our case, the parotomegaly as a symptom of sialadenosis was found at the same time as the eating disorder. MRI or ultrasound are important diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis.

  3. Membrana nictitans gland cyst in a dog.

    PubMed

    Latimer, C A; Wyman, M; Szymanski, C; Werling, K

    1983-11-01

    A cyst involving the gland of the 3rd eyelid was removed from an 8-year-old dog. Clinically the circumscribed mass resembled a pigmented neoplasm. Histologically the cyst was multiloculated, with homogeneous eosinophilic periodic acid-Schiff-positive content. Melanin pigment was present in epithelial cells and cystic lumens. Protective functions of the 3rd eyelid were retained following excisional biopsy.

  4. FGF23 and the parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2010-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphatonin that is secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in response to hyperphosphatemia and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). It acts on its receptor complex, Klotho-FGFR1c (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 c-splicing form), in the distal convoluted tubule to repress renal phosphorus reabsorption in the proximal tubule and suppress the renal synthesis of 1,25D. Klotho-FGFR1c is also expressed in the parathyroid glands. FGF23 acts on the receptor complex in the parathyroid glands to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene expression and PTH secretion through activation of the MAPK pathway. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), both FGF23 and PTH are increased, implying resistance of the parathyroid glands to FGF23. There is a decrease in the Klotho-FGFR1c complex in the parathyroid glands in both experimental CKD and in patients with end-stage renal disease. In addition, in advanced experimental CKD, FGF23 has a decreased ability to inhibit PTH expression.

  5. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, YSH; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

    2012-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “salivary duct carcinoma.” The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:22434951

  6. The Salivary Glands of Adult Blackflies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Salivary glands of adult female blackflies of known ages were examined by histological methods. These studies showed that each of the paired...secretory cells when the blackfly takes a blood meal. During the first 24 h after a blood meal the secretory cells again synthesize some PAS-positive

  7. Occult carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Arellano, L; Ibarra, A

    1984-09-01

    Ten occult carcinomas of the thyroid gland were found in 274 unselected autopsies at the Pathology Service, Hospital José Joaquín Aguirre, between December 1980 and March 1983. This is the lowest incidence among the most recent published series. The present results suggest that environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of this type of carcinoma.

  8. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kun; Duan, Zejun; Bian, Yu; Wang, Mengyang; Qi, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4) resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  9. Efficacy of Intraductal Meibomian Gland Probing on Tear Function in Patients With Obstructive Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao; Lu, Yan

    2016-06-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of intraductal meibomian gland probing in patients with obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction who experienced little improvement with eyelid warming, massage, or artificial tears. Forty-nine patients with obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction were randomly divided into 2 groups: intraductal meibomian gland probing with 0.1% fluorometholone (group I), and 0.1% fluorometholone alone (group II). Subjective symptom scores and objective signs, including lid margin abnormalities, meibum quality and expressibility, meibomian gland dropout, fluorescein staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), and Schirmer I test results, were recorded before treatment and after 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month posttreatment. Clinical subjective symptoms and objective signs including meibum grade, TBUT, lid margin abnormalities, and fluorescein staining demonstrated significant improvements in both groups after treatment over time (all P < 0.05), and group I was better than group II 1 month after treatment in meibum grade (6.1 ± 3.3 vs. 10.4 ± 4.9, respectively; P < 0.001), lid margin abnormalities (0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3, respectively; P < 0.001), and TBUT (8.2 ± 2.1 vs. 7.0 ± 3.0, respectively; P = 0.0293). Before applying any medications, 76% of patients obtained immediate symptom relief 1 day after probing. However, the Schirmer I test results and meibomian gland dropout were insignificant pre- and posttreatment in either group (P > 0.1, respectively). Intraductal meibomian gland probing demonstrated significant efficacy in symptom relief and tear film stabilization. Probing helped release accumulated meibum and could help increase the accessibility of diseased meibomian glands to topical corticosteroids.

  10. Autoimmune diseases of the adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, gonads, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

    PubMed

    Muir, A; Maclaren, N K

    1991-09-01

    Autoimmunity directed against the adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, gonads, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis can arise in isolation or as part of a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. Affected patients can be asymptomatic, but they may also suffer significant morbidity or even mortality. Currently, treatment is restricted largely to hormone replacement when end-organ destruction is almost complete. As our understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrinopathies improves, it is probable that early patient detection will become practical and trials of protective immunotherapies entertained.

  11. Silks produced by insect labial glands

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Tara

    2008-01-01

    Insect silks are secreted from diverse gland types; this chapter deals with the silks produced by labial glands of Holometabola (insects with pupa in their life cycle). Labial silk glands are composed of a few tens or hundreds of large polyploid cells that secrete polymerizing proteins which are stored in the gland lumen as a semi-liquid gel. Polymerization is based on weak molecular interactions between repetitive amino acid motifs present in one or more silk proteins; cross-linking by disulfide bonds may be important in the silks spun under water. The mechanism of long-term storage of the silk dope inside the glands and its conversion into the silk fiber during spinning is not fully understood. The conversion occurs within seconds at ambient temperature and pressure, under minimal drawing force and in some cases under water. The silk filament is largely built of proteins called fibroins and in Lepidoptera and Trichoptera coated by glue-type proteins known as sericins. Silks often contain small amounts of additional proteins of poorly known function. The silk components controlling dope storage and filament formation seem to be conserved at the level of orders, while the nature of polymerizing motifs in the fibroins, which determine the physical properties of silk, differ at the level of family and even genus. Most silks are based on fibroin β-sheets interrupted with other structures such as α-helices but the silk proteins of certain sawflies have predominantly a collagen-like or polyglycine II arrangement and the silks of social Hymenoptera are formed from proteins in a coiled coil arrangement. PMID:19221523

  12. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found.

  13. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gribova, O. V. Choynzonov, E. L.; Musabaeva, L. I. Lisin, V. A. Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  14. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  15. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-27

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  16. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  17. Contact endoscopy for identifying the parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A V; Brandão, L G; Dedivitis, R A

    2010-02-01

    Aim of this study was to analyse contact endoscopy as an auxiliary method for identifying parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery and to identify other variables that may interfere with this correlation. Overall, 125 patients underwent thyroid surgery between January 2004 and February 2006. The variables analysed were: the total duration of surgery; time taken to locate and identify parathyroid glands; improvement in identifying these; numbers of parathyroid glands located by the surgeon and confirmed by contact endoscopy; histopathological diagnosis; presence of thyroiditis; thyroid weight; number of parathyroid glands left in thyroid specimens; and number of parathyroid gland autotransplantations. A total of 331 parathyroid glands were observed by the surgeon. However, 282 glands were identified by contact endoscopy. Nine parathyroid glands (7.2%) were observed together with thyroid specimens (Kappa = 0.534). The longer the total duration of surgery (p = 0.03) and time taken to locate and identify (p = 0.00) the parathyroid glands by contact endoscopy, the lower the observed agreement. The second year of performing contact endoscopy led to better agreement between the results (p = 0.02). In conclusion, contact endoscopy is an efficient auxiliary method for identifying parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. During the period studied, association between total duration of surgery and time taken to locate and identify parathyroid glands was statistically significant.

  18. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  19. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Accessory Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Das, Somdipto; Nayak, Umanath K; Buggavetti, Rahul; Sekhar, Shobana

    2016-05-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary gland tissue separated from the main gland at a variable distance. This gland is histologically similar to the main gland, but has a higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the main gland. Regarding the various malignant neoplasms, studies have shown higher incidences of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with less than 2% being adenoid cystic carcinoma. We present a case of swelling in the midcheek region that, after clinical examination, was diagnosed as a case of neoplasm of the accessory parotid gland. On the basis of auxiliary investigations including intraoperative frozen section, it was concluded that it was adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade I, and after wide surgical resection, the tumor was removed without undergoing superficial parotidectomy. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and was followed for 14 months without any recurrence or substantial facial asymmetry. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands in evolutionary perspective].

    PubMed

    Chernova, O F

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands is considered based on the analysis of the literature and our own original data with the focus on the issues of gland polymorphism and specific features in postnatal development (from the case study of circumanal hepatoid glands of newborn domestic dogs), including the features reflecting the evolutionary relationships of various types of cutaneous glands. The hepatoid glands are a component of the glandular complex ofthe hair follicle, which also includes sebaceous and sweat glands; have a specific structure; and produce protein secretion by a merocrine pathway. Characteristic of these glands are wide polymorphism, sex- and age-related differences in the degree of development, occurrence in only a few phylogenetically related mammalian taxa (even-toed ungulates and carnivores); and a signaling type of their secretion. The data support the "generative concept," relying on the idea of a separate and independent origination of diverse derivatives of the external integuments.

  1. Giant sialolith of submandibular gland: report of a case†.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Selçuk; Vuralkan, Erkan; Çobanog˘lu, Bengü; Arslan, Ahmet; Ural, Ahmet

    2015-04-05

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common diseases of salivary glands in middle-aged patients. Sialoliths are localized in submandibular glands in nearly 80% of the reported cases and they are classified as 'giant' in case any dimension exceeds 15 mm. Giant sialolith in submandibular gland is a rare disorder. Here, an unusual case of giant sialolith in submandibular gland is reported. A 42-year-old man referred with complaints of recurrent pain and swelling in the left submandibular area. Computerized tomography revealed a calcified mass of 42 × 17 mm size within the submandibular gland. Excision was performed in the submandibular gland and a giant sialolith of 35 mm length localized in the body of the gland was detected. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient fully recovered. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015.

  2. Giant sialolith of submandibular gland: report of a case†

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Selçuk; Vuralkan, Erkan; Çobanog˘lu, Bengü; Arslan, Ahmet; Ural, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common diseases of salivary glands in middle-aged patients. Sialoliths are localized in submandibular glands in nearly 80% of the reported cases and they are classified as ‘giant’ in case any dimension exceeds 15 mm. Giant sialolith in submandibular gland is a rare disorder. Here, an unusual case of giant sialolith in submandibular gland is reported. A 42-year-old man referred with complaints of recurrent pain and swelling in the left submandibular area. Computerized tomography revealed a calcified mass of 42 × 17 mm size within the submandibular gland. Excision was performed in the submandibular gland and a giant sialolith of 35 mm length localized in the body of the gland was detected. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient fully recovered. PMID:25848088

  3. [Sialendoscopy: endoscopic approach to obstructive salivary gland disease].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Pijpe, J; van Ingen, J M; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    Sialendoscopy: endoscopic approach to obstructive salivary gland defects Obstructive defects of the parotid and the submandibular gland often present themselves clinically by mealtime-related swelling of the affected salivary gland, the so-called 'mealtime syndrome'. Salivary ductal obstruction of the parotid and submandibular gland is predominantly caused by the presence of a salivary stone, a mucous plug, or by ductal stenosis. Until recently, diagnostic and treatment options for these obstructive salivary gland defects were restricted. Surgical removal of the affected salivary gland was often the treatment of choice. By applying sialendoscopy, a minimally invasive, semi rigid optical technique, it is possible to diagnose and treat obstructions which are found in the salivary ductal system. In many cases, therefore, the surgical removal of the salivary gland becomes unnecessary.

  4. Pleomorphic adenoma of submandibular gland: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Preeti; Burde, Krishna; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.; Thorawat, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasms that arise in the salivary glands are relatively rare, yet they represent a wide variety of both benign and malignant histologic subtypes. Approximately 70% of the salivary gland tumors affect parotid gland with the submandibular gland being affected in 5-10% of the cases, sublingual gland in 1% and minor glands in 5-15% of the cases. Submandibular gland tumors are relatively rare and very few studies have been reported in the literature that is exclusively conducted on tumors affecting submandibular gland. In this paper, we describe a case of pleomorphic adenoma affecting submandibular gland with brief review of current literature on submandibular gland tumors. PMID:25097655

  5. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  6. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Herr, Keith; Muglia, Valdair F; Koff, Walter José; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  7. Carcinosarcoma of parotid gland (malignant mixed tumor).

    PubMed

    Feng, Duan; Fidele, Nyimi Bushabu; Agustin, Mansthumba Milolo; Jian, Guan; Bourleyi, Sekele Isouradi; Augustin, Lamwe; Olivier, Ngueji Kakubu

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm; with a poor prognosis. The most common epithelial components are adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the most common mesenchymal components are chondrosarcoma. It should not be confused with the most common carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, in which the epithelial component alone is malignant. This condition might exhibit with a wide variety of presentation and symptoms along with associated conditions. We present a case of an old patient who presented with a very unusual type clinically with confusing presentation which was eventually diagnosed as carsinosarcoma. In addition, the literature is reviewed, and the possible clinical signs and management of malignant mixed tumor of the salivary gland are briefly discussed.

  8. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  9. Cytokine signalling in mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christine J; Oliver, Carrie H; Khaled, Walid T

    2011-03-01

    Mammary gland development occurs in three distinct stages during the lifetime of the female mammal: in embryonic, pubertal and reproductive life. At each of these developmental stages, different signalling molecules induce changes in both the epithelium and the surrounding stroma. However, it is during pregnancy that the most dramatic changes occur, resulting in a massive increase in the number of epithelial cells and in their function. Pregnancy initiates the development of a new epithelial lineage, the alveolar cells, which form the milk-producing lobuloalveolar structures. These cells become redundant at the end of lactation and are removed in an exquisitely controlled process of tissue remodelling coupled with extensive cell death. All of these events require not only steroid hormones but also sequential signalling by cytokines. A recent surprising discovery was that the signalling pathways and cytokines that regulate lineage determination in T helper cells are also involved in mammary gland development during pregnancy.

  10. Genetic alterations in salivary gland cancers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Linda X; Ha, Patrick K

    2016-06-15

    Salivary gland cancers are an incredibly heterogeneous group of tumors that include 24 histologically distinct tumor types. The use of new genetic methods has paved the way for promising advancements in our understanding of the molecular biology underlying each type of tumor. The objective of this review was to highlight common oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and cytogenetic and epigenetic changes associated with the most common tumor types: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, and acinic cell carcinoma. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of each cancer subtype have helped better define and classify these tumors. Further research in salivary gland cancers should focus on determining the key genes involved in the tumorigenesis of each distinct malignancy and identifying individualized chemotherapies directed at these targets. Cancer 2016;122:1822-31. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. Microscopy of the koala mandibular (submandibular) glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, W J

    2010-12-01

    Koala mandibular (submandibular) glands are compound tubuloacinar glands, the secretory units of which consist only of serous cells. Intercellular canaliculi occur between the serous cells, which are continuous with a minute lumen that courses through the centre of each secretory unit. Intercalated ducts are abundant and join striated ducts, the latter being characterized by elaborate basolateral infoldings of the plasmalemma. Secretory granules within the serous cells fail to stain with either the PAS or Alcian Blue (pH 2.5) staining procedures. Ultrastructurally, the secretory granules are membrane bound, and consist of a homogeneous electron lucent material with a fine filamentous texture. The granules tend to coalesce into irregular shaped complexes of secretory material. Discharge of secretory material into the canalicular lumen is a common observation.

  12. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions*

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Keith; Muglia, Valdair F.; Koff, Walter José; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. PMID:25741090

  13. Small cell sweat gland carcinoma of childhood

    PubMed Central

    Drut, R; Giménez, O P; Oliva, J

    2005-01-01

    Small cell sweat gland carcinoma appears to represent a very unusual histological type of sweat gland anlage tumour presenting in children. The differential diagnosis from other small blue cell tumours involving the skin is often difficult. The present report confirms the original observation describing two patients of 2 and 5 years of age harbouring cutaneous tumours. The histology of these lesions showed a monomorphic proliferation of small cells with a high mitotic rate and areas of necrosis. Immunohistochemically, the cells were negative for desmin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, Cam 5.2, CD99, chromogranin, CD56, synaptophysin, and S-100, and focally positive for the pancytokeratin marker AE1/AE3, carcinoembryonic antigen (one case), and neurone specific enolase (one case). The prognosis of this type of tumour seems to be good. As more cases are added, the clinical pathological spectrum of the lesion will become better defined. PMID:16311358

  14. Oncocytoma of the adrenal gland medulla.

    PubMed

    Chisté, Marcela; Poppiti, Robert J; Bianco, Fernando J

    2013-02-01

    We report an unprecedented case of an oncocytoma of the adrenal gland medulla in a 61-year-old woman. The patient presented with right flank pain and hematuria. Computed tomographic studies revealed a right adrenal gland mass that measured 2 cm, which was subsequently excised laparoscopically. Grossly, the tumor in the medulla measured 1.9 × 1.2 cm, weighed 5 g, and had a solid tan-brown cut surface. Histologically, it consisted of large tumor cells containing eosinophilic granular cytoplasm arranged in trabecular and nodular patterns. Electron microscopy revealed closely packed mitochondria in the cytoplasm of almost all tumor cells. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for vimentin. The patient resumed usual activities 2 weeks after surgery, and at 6-month follow-up, she is doing well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Amplification and expression of a salivary gland DNA puff gene in the prothoracic gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Candido-Silva, Juliana Aparecida; Machado, Maiaro Cabral Rosa; Hartfelder, Klaus Hartmann; de Almeida, Jorge Cury; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Monesi, Nadia

    2015-03-01

    The DNA puff BhC4-1 gene, located in DNA puff C4 of Bradysiahygida, is amplified and expressed in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar as a late response to the increase in 20-hydroxyecdysone titer that triggers metamorphosis. Functional studies revealed that the mechanisms that regulate BhC4-1 expression in the salivary gland are conserved in transgenic Drosophila. These studies also led to the identification of a cis-regulatory module that drives developmentally regulated expression of BhC4-1-lacZ in the prothoracic gland cells of the ring gland, a compound organ which in Drosophila results from the fusion of the prothoracic glands, the corpus allatum and the corpus cardiacum. Here we have investigated the occurrence of BhC4-1 expression in B. hygida prothoracic glands. We report the identification of the B. hygida prothoracic gland and demonstrate that it releases ecdysone. Using RT-qPCR, western blots and immunolocalization experiments, we demonstrate that the BhC4-1 mRNA and the BhC4-1 protein are both expressed in the B. hygida prothoracic glands at the same time that DNA puff C4 is formed in the salivary gland. We also show that BhC4-1 is concomitantly amplified 4.8-fold in the prothoracic gland and 23-fold in the salivary gland. Our results reveal the occurrence of stage specific expression of a DNA puff gene in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida, and extend previous studies that have shown that DNA puff genes expression is not restricted to the salivary gland. In addition, the description of stage specific gene amplification in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida constitutes the first demonstration that gene amplification in Diptera might occur concomitantly in two different tissues in the same developmental stage.

  16. Treatment of complications of parotid gland surgery

    PubMed Central

    Marchese-Ragona, R; De Filippis, C; Marioni, G; Staffieri, A

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although several reports in the literature have documented the surgical technique, and the oncological outcome achieved with parotidectomy, only a few articles have described the complications of parotid gland surgery and their management. Several complications have been reported in parotid surgery. We re-classified the complications of parotidectomy in intra-operative and post-operative (early and late). The commonest complications after parotidectomy are temporary or permanent facial palsy and Frey’s syndrome. PMID:16450773

  17. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands*

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures. PMID:28057963

  19. Proteomic analysis of human meibomian gland secretions

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, P S; Evans, J E; Green, K M; Sullivan, R M; Schaumberg, D A; Richards, S M; Dana, M R; Sullivan, D A

    2006-01-01

    Background/aim Human tears contain hundreds of proteins that may exert a significant influence on tear film stability, ocular surface integrity, and visual function. The authors hypothesise that many of these proteins originate from the meibomian gland. This study's aim was to begin to develop the proteomic methodology to permit the testing of their hypothesis. Methods Meibomian gland secretions were collected from the lower eyelids of adult volunteers and placed in a chloroform‐methanol mixture. Samples were partitioned in a biphasic system and non‐lipid phase materials were reduced, alkylated, and trypsin digested to obtain peptides for protein identification. This peptide mixture was separated by µ‐capillary reverse phase chromatography and the effluent examined by nano‐electrospray MS and data dependent MS/MS. SEQUEST software was used to identify proteins from the MS/MS spectra. Results The methodological approach to date has permitted the identification of more than 90 proteins in human meibomian gland secretions. Proteins include the α2‐macroglobulin receptor, IgA α chain, farnesoid X activated receptor, interferon regulatory factor 3, lacritin precursor, lactotransferrin, lipocalin 1, lysozyme C precursor, potential phospholipid transporting ATPase IK, seven transmembrane helix receptor (also termed somatostatin receptor type 4), testes development related NYD‐SP21 (also termed high affinity IgE receptor β subunit), and TrkC tyrosine kinase. Conclusions These findings indicate that the meibomian gland secretes a number of proteins into the tear film. It is quite possible that these proteins contribute to the dynamics of the tear film in both health and disease. PMID:16488965

  20. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm(2). Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.32 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures.

  1. [Secret excretion from the mouse mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Tolkunov, Iu A; Balakina, G B; Markov, A G

    2000-02-01

    Histological studies revealed that the mammary gland nipple have smooth muscle fibres along the nipple channel. These fibres infiltrate the connective tissue parallel to the skin. The ring muscles are not obvious. Delays in the milk excretion in mice may be due to specifics of allocation and functioning of the nipple smooth muscles. To obtain milk, a mechanical action upon the nipple and a synchronised release of oxitocin into the blood are necessary.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of CFTR in salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Minkyoung; Choi, Se-Young; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guang-Yan; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-12-02

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a key role in exocrine secretion, including salivary glands. However, its functional expression in salivary glands has not been rigorously studied. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and regulatory mechanism of CFTR in salivary glands using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, Ussing chamber study, methylation-specific PCR, and bisulfite sequencing. Using an organ culture technique, we found that CFTR expression was first detected on the 15th day at the embryonic stage (E15) and was observed in ducts but not in acini. CFTR expression was confirmed in HSG and SIMS cell lines, which both originated from ducts, but not in the SMG C-6 cell line, which originated from acinar cells. Treatment of SMG C-6 cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) restored the expression level of CFTR mRNA in a time-dependent manner. Restoration of CFTR was further confirmed by a functional study. In the Ussing chamber study, 10 μM Cact-A1, a CFTR activator, did not evoke any currents in SMG C-6 cells. In contrast, in SMG C-6 cells pretreated with 5-Aza-CdR, Cact-A1 evoked a robust increase of currents, which were inhibited by the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh-172. Furthermore, forskolin mimicked the currents activated by Cact-A1. In our epigenetic study, SMG C-6 cells showed highly methylated CG pairs in the CFTR CpG island and most of the methylated CG pairs were demethylated by 5-Aza-CdR. Our results suggest that epigenetic regulation is involved in the development of salivary glands by silencing the CFTR gene in a tissue-specific manner.

  3. Giant Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Rehman, Sajid; Misbah, Junaid

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare entity. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common amongst these, comprising 60 - 70% of all parotid tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas are benign and tend to increase in size slowly. Here we are presenting a case of giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid, being the largest in size to be excised in Pakistan in recorded literature measuring 24 x 22 x 12 cm and weighing 1.8 kgs. Superficial parotidectomy was done with an excellent cosmetic outcome.

  4. Morphology of lacrimal gland in pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2008-02-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the lacrimal gland were conducted on pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to better visualize the anatomical elements, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, and 30th day of gestation the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the lacrimal gland was collected. Staining with H-E and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th and 35th day of gestation ectodermal cells were not found in the collected material. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of gland cells. On the 94th day of gestation the number of lobes is substantially higher than on the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, while the number of lobules forming lobes decreases. On the 112th day of gestation each lobe is composed of 8-22 excretory ducts made up of the simple cuboid epithelium with a round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally.

  5. Morphogenesis of the human lacrimal gland

    PubMed Central

    de la Cuadra-Blanco, C; Peces-Peña, M D; Mérida-Velasco, J R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main stages of the lacrimal gland's developmental process in humans and to establish its precise morphogenetic timetable. Its onset is generally assumed to take place at O'Rahilly's stage 21, arising from an epithelial thickening of the superior extreme of the temporary conjunctival fornix. However, the present study points to a prior stage in the process: the presence of epithelial–mesenchymal changes in embryos at O'Rahilly's stage 19. The study was performed using light microscopy on serial sections of 37 human specimens: 23 embryos and 14 fetuses ranging from 15 to 137 mm crown–rump length (7–116 weeks of development). Three stages in lacrimal gland morphogenesis were identified: (1) the presumptive glandular stage, O'Rahilly's stages 19–20, characterized by a thickening of the superior fornix epithelium together with surrounding mesenchymal condensation; (2) the bud stage, generally assumed to be the first manifestation of glandular origin, characterized initially by the appearance of nodular formations in the region of the superior conjunctival fornix and concluding with the appearance of lumina within the epithelial buds; and (3) the glandular maturity stage, weeks 9–16, the period in which the gland begins to take on the morphology of adulthood. PMID:14635806

  6. Corticomedullary mixed tumor of the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, J A; Thompson, L D; Heffess, C S

    2001-10-01

    Corticomedullary mixed tumors of the adrenal gland are quite rare, with only five well-documented cases reported in the literature.(1-4) Herein, we report the light microscopic and immunohistochemical features of two cases of this rare tumor. Patient 1 is a 34-year-old woman who presented with hypertension, hair loss, and amenorrhea of 1-year duration. Patient 2 is a 52-year-old woman who presented with flank pain and what appeared to be a renal mass on arteriogram with no history of hypertension, Cushing's syndrome, or other endocrine abnormalities. At surgery, the tumor was noted to arise from the adrenal gland rather than the kidney and adrenalectomy was performed. In both cases, the surgically resected specimens consisted of a well-circumscribed, single adrenal mass surrounded by a rim of uninvolved adrenal cortical tissue. The tumors were composed of adrenal cortical cells intimately admixed with pheochromocytes. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted these two cellular components. The pheochromocytes were strongly reactive with chromogranin and the sustentacular cells with S-100 protein, whereas the adrenal cortical cells reacted specifically with inhibin. Thus, we report two additional cases of mixed corticomedullary tumor of the adrenal gland. Ann Diagn Pathol 5:304-308, 2001. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.

  7. [Thoracoscopic resection of mediastinal hypersecretant parathyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Gramática, Luis; Mercado Luna, Andrés; Verasay, Guillermo; Brizuela, Adrián; Gramática, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In general experienced hands, the inferior parathyroid glands, localized in the thymus or low extrathymus are the main cause or surgical therapeutic failure. When they could not be approached through cervicotomy, or when they were diagnosed after surgery the sternotomy or the angiographic ablation were chosen as treatment. The limited number of thoracoscopic approach whit good results published so far, moved us to use this method. Patient of 49 years with a 7 year secondary hiperprathyroidism due to CRI. After a sub total parathyroidectomy with bilateral thimectomy, the patient did not present clinical or laboratory improvement. Through a thoracic centellogram sixth MIBI, NMR and CAT, a tumor in the middle mediastinum was fond. The mediastinal structures have been easily identified through a left thoracoscopic approach. At the level of the aortopulmonary window, a tumoral mass is located and, with a simple dissection, et is easily extracted in bag. The biopsy through freezing confirms the parathyroid etiology of the gland. Clinical and laboratory evolution has been favorable, with hospital discharged at the 3 day, and being asymptomatic after two years. The hipersecretant parathyroid glands, located in middle mediastinum, that can not be approach through cervicotomy, can be successfully approach through thoracoscopic technique.

  8. The mystery of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daniel; Ellis, Harold

    2016-09-01

    The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago (Miller , Tissue Antigens 63:509-517). Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus (Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr 2:877-881). Until Miller (, Lancet 278:748-749) eventually proved its primarily immunological role, the history of this mysterious gland has closely mirrored the history of medicine itself, troubling the minds of pathologists such as Virchow (, Ueber die Chlorose und die damit zusammenhängenden Anomalien im Gefässapparate, insbesondere über "Endocarditis puerperalis," vorgetragen in der Sitzung der Berliner Geburtshülflichen Gesellschaft vom 12) and Grawitz (, Deut Med Wochenschr 22:429-431), surgeons such as Astley Cooper (, The Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) and Keynes (1953, Ann R Coll Surg 12:88), and eminent medical epidemiologists such as Greenwood and Woods [, J Hyg (Lond) 26:305-326]. This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike. Clin. Anat. 29:679-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies. PMID:28848453

  10. The pineal gland in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Awerbuch, G I

    1991-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of unknown etiology. Clinical, neurochemical, and neuroradiological data implicate the pineal gland in the pathophysiology of MS. To investigate the relationship of MS to the pineal gland further, we surveyed the prevalence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in a cohort of 29 MS patients (7 men, 22 women, mean age: 40.1 years, SD = 8.9) who were admitted consecutively to a neurological service for acute exacerbation of symptoms. For the purpose of comparison, we also surveyed the prevalence of choroid plexus calcification (CPC) in the sample. Twenty-one age and sex-matched neurological patients served as controls (5 men, 16 women, mean age: 37.0, SD = 9.2). PC was seen in 100% of MS patients, while 72.4% patients (N = 21) had CPC. In the control sample, PC was found in 42.8% (N = 9) and CPC in 28.5% (N = 6). Thus, the strikingly high prevalence of PC in MS provides indirect support for an association between MS and abnormalities of the pineal gland. Moreover, since pineal melatonin is involved in neuroimmunomodulation, we propose, for the first time, that abnormalities of pineal melatonin functions are implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease.

  11. Inflammatory diseases of the parathyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Talat, Nadia; Diaz-Cano, Salvador; Schulte, Klaus-Martin

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid gland are very rare as compared with those of other endocrine organs. The aim of this study was to provide the first systematic review of this condition. A 42-year-old patient underwent surgery for recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism. Histology showed hyperplastic parathyroiditis defined by a mixed inflammatory infiltrate with active germinal centres. Molecular markers revealed significant upregulation of CD68 in an ischaemic background (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 upregulation) with mitochondrial reaction (malate dehydrogenase 2 upregulation) and hyperparathyroidism (carbonic anhydrase 4 upregulation). Our case demonstrates true intraparathyroid inflammation with terminal B-cell differentiation. We searched PubMed, ISI Thompson and Google Scholar up to January 2011, using the terms 'parathyroiditis', 'inflammation of parathyroid gland', 'lymphocytic infiltrate', 'tuberculosis of the parathyroid', 'sarcoidosis', and 'graulomatous inflammation'. Three autopsy series, 27 articles and 96 case reports with inflammatory parathyroid disorders were identified. Autopsy series showed lymphocytic infiltrates in up to 16% of all cases. The entire material reported lymphocytic infiltrates (n=69), parathyroiditis with germinal centres (n=15), sarcoidosis (n=6), tuberculosis (n=4), and other granulomatous diseases (n=2). Distinct inflammatory and granulomatous processes in the parathyroid gland are rare. Scanty lymphocytic infiltrates are common, and occur in generalized inflammatory conditions or venous congestion. We note the surprising absence of an association between histological proof of parathyroiditis and hypoparathyroidism. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  12. Salivary Glands in Predatory Mollusks: Evolutionary Considerations.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Giovanna; Modica, Maria Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Many marine mollusks attain or increase their predatory efficiency using complex chemical secretions, which are often produced and delivered through specialized anatomical structures of the foregut. The secretions produced in venom glands of Conus snails and allies have been extensively studied, revealing an amazing chemical diversity of small, highly constrained neuropeptides, whose characterization led to significant pharmacological developments. Conversely, salivary glands, the other main secretory structures of molluscan foregut, have been neglected despite their shared occurrence in the two lineages including predatory members: Gastropoda and Cephalopoda. Over the last few years, the interest for the chemistry of salivary mixtures increased based on their potential biomedical applications. Recent investigation with -omics technologies are complementing the classical biochemical descriptions, that date back to the 1950s, highlighting the high level of diversification of salivary secretions in predatory mollusks, and suggesting they can be regarded as a pharmaceutical cornucopia. As with other animal venoms, some of the salivary toxins are reported to target, for example, sodium and/or potassium ion channels or receptors and transporters for neurotransmitters such as, glutamate, serotonin, neurotensin, and noradrenaline, thus manipulating the neuromuscular system of the preys. Other bioactive components possess anticoagulant, anesthetic and hypotensive activities. Here, we overview available knowledge on the salivary glands of key predatory molluscan taxa, gastropods, and cephalopods, summarizing their anatomical, physiological and biochemical complexity in order to facilitate future comparative studies on main evolutionary trends and functional convergence in the acquisition of successful predatory strategies.

  13. Management of salivary gland tumors in a Nigerian tertiary institution.

    PubMed

    Fomete, Benjamin; Adebayo, E T; Ononiwu, C N

    2015-01-01

    The salivary glands consist of three major paired glands (the parotid, submandibular and sublingual) as well as numerous minor salivary glands, situated mostly in the oral cavity but also found in the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and sinuses. Tumours of salivary glands show a wide variety of pathologic types varying from benign to malignant. More salivary gland tumours are benign than malignant. Data for this study were obtained from retrospective survey of case notes of all patients with Salivary gland tumours seen at the Maxillofacial Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Zaria between January 2003 and August 2013. There were 135 patients 73 (54.1%) females and 62 (45.9%) males within the age range of 2.5 to 80 years (41.85 years). Thirty nine (28.9%) were benign while 96 (71.1%) were malignant. Major salivary glands were involved in 60.7% of tumours; the rest 39.3% involved minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma (86.7%) formed the bulk of benign tumours while adenoid cystic carcinoma (47.5%) was the predominant malignant tumour of salivary glands. Of 135 patients (n=,57.1% had surgery in our institution and were followed up. Those with malignancy also benefited from radiotherapy, chemotherapy or palliative oncology treatment. Management of salivary glands tumours in our environment is a challenge due to late presentation and the size of the tumour.

  14. Generation gland morphology in cordylid lizards: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Mouton, P le Fras N; Flemming, Alexander F; Broeckhoven, Chris

    2014-04-01

    To elucidate the functional significance of the three distinct types of generation glands that have been identified among cordylid lizards, we mapped gland type to the terminal taxa in the most recent phylogenetic tree for the Cordylidae. We used the phylogenetic programme Mesquite and applied the principle of parsimony to infer character states for the ancestral nodes in the tree. For those species where information on gland type was not available from the literature, we conducted a histological investigation of generation gland morphology, using standard histological techniques. We included two species of the sister family Gerrhosauridae in the analysis to serve as outgroups. In both Gerrhosaurus typicus and G. flavigularis, scales immediately anterior to the femoral pores displayed glandular activity, but differed from generation glands of cordylids in the absence of mature glandular generations. Among the cordylids investigated, we identified a fourth type of generation gland in Pseudocordylus subviridis, P. spinosus, and in the two Hemicordylus species, one where the glands consistently comprise of two mature glandular generations. In H. capensis, both single- and two-layer type glands are present. Our reconstruction of ancestral character states suggests a minimum of six transformations from one gland type to another during the evolutionary history of the family. The reconstruction furthermore suggests that the single-layer type gland reappeared at least once (in Hemicordylus) in the Cordylinae after having been lost. The reconstruction also unequivocally shows that the pit-like multiple-layer type gland evolved directly from the single-layer type and not from the protruding multiple-layer type. The two-layer type gland appears to be an intermediary condition between the multiple-layer and single-layer types. The evolutionary transformation of generation gland type appears to be linked to changes in lifestyle and associated changes in degree of territoriality

  15. Clasper gland morphology and development in Potamotrygon magdalenae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Anaya-López, Paola; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Clasper gland morphology and development in Potamotrygon magdalenae and its relation with the acquisition of reproductive maturity is described in males of different developmental stages (embryos, neonates, juveniles, and reproductively active and resting adults). The glands are subcutaneous masses in the proximal base of each clasper. They are partially bilobate organs with a ventral groove that bears a row of papillae. Glands tend to be asymmetric, the left gland has a larger size, a trend that has been observed in other organs of elasmobranchs. Glands are formed by radially organized tubular secretory units lined with a simple columnar epithelium with basal nuclei and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm; vascularized loose connective tissue surrounds the gland units. The gland is covered by two layers of striated muscle tissue in circular and longitudinal arrangement. The clasper glands begin to develop in neonates and their secretory activity begins in juveniles. The active secretion of the clasper gland is observed in mature males, it includes glycoproteins and sulfated mucopolysaccharides. The size of the glands has a positive and direct relationship with body size, measured as disc width. Significant differences in clasper gland size were found between mature (active and resting) and immature (neonates and juveniles) males, suggesting that the acquisition of the sexual maturity involves the increase in the size of the gland due to a highly augmented secretory activity. Therefore, clasper glands are clearly associated with the reproductive activity of males and their secretion should have an endocrine control as other sexual secondary organs. J. Morphol. 278:369-379, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. THE ANTAGONISM BETWEEN THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLANDS

    PubMed Central

    Uhlenhuth, Eduard

    1918-01-01

    From the facts stated in this paper it is evident that the thymus gland of mammals contains a substance which is capable of producing tetany when fed to the larvæ of certain species of salamanders (Ambystoma opacum and Ambystoma maculatum). As long as the larvæ have not developed their own thymus glands, they are able, by means of some mechanism, to counterbalance the tetanic action of the thymus substance introduced in their food. When, however, the secretion from their own thymus glands is added to the thymus material introduced with the food, this mechanism of preventing tetany becomes inadequate and tetany ensues. In the larva of a third species of salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, this mechanism will prevent tetany even when the larvæ are fed on thymus. In mammals the parathyroids are known to prevent tetany and are supposed either to absorb the tetany-producing substance and thus prevent its action or to change it into another non-toxic substance. It is at least probable that in the amphibians the parathyroids play the same rôle. Larvæ of anuran amphibians, which develop their parathyroids soon after hatching, never show tetanic convulsions if they are fed on thymus, but in certain species of salamanders, whose parathyroids develop only during metamorphosis, the larvæ invariably have tetanic convulsions upon thymus feeding, while the metamorphosed animals never show tetany. But in addition to the parathyroids the salamanders must possess still another mechanism which during the larval period inhibits the production of tetany by the animal's own thymus glands. In the larvæ of Ambystoma opacum and Ambystoma maculatum this mechanism is sufficient only to prevent tetany from the animal's own thymus, while in the larvæ of Ambystoma tigrinum it is capable of preventing tetany even when the larvæ are fed with thymus. If the thymus is the organ by whose action tetany is produced, we can understand why tetany in human beings occurs far more frequently in

  17. Evolution of Brunner gland hamartoma associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kurella, Ravi R; Ancha, Hanumantha R; Hussain, Sanam; Lightfoot, Stan A; Harty, Richard

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Brunner gland hamartoma of the duodenum is unknown. This case report describes the chronology of the development of Brunner gland hamartoma from Brunner gland hyperplasia over a 12-year interval. The study subject, a 64-year-old man with chronic iron deficiency anemia, underwent serial upper endoscopies during this period. Repeated endoscopies demonstrated the evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia, as manifest endoscopically by a submucosal mass, to a pedunculated polyp with histologic features of Brunner gland hamartoma. The duodenal polypoid mass was removed by snare polypectomy. The patient also had a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. This report details the time-dependent evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia to hamartoma in association with chronic gastric H. pylori infection.

  18. Mammary gland stem cells and their application in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Wang, Hui; Jiao, Baowei

    2017-02-07

    The mammary gland is an organ comprising two primary lineages, specifically the inner luminal and the outer myoepithelial cell layers. Mammary gland stem cells (MaSCs) are highly dynamic and self-renewing, and can give rise to these mammary gland lineages. The lineages are responsible for gland generation during puberty as well as expansion during pregnancy. In recent years, researchers have focused on understanding how MaSCs are regulated during mammary gland development and transformation of breast cancer. Here, we summarize the identification of MaSCs, and how they are regulated by the signaling transduction pathways, mammary gland microenvironment, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Moreover, we debate the evidence for their serving as the origin of breast cancer, and discuss the therapeutic perspectives of targeting breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). In conclusion, a better understanding of the key regulators of MaSCs is crucial for the clinical treatment of breast cancer.

  19. Histology and mucosubstance histochemistry of mongoose salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Poddar, S; Jacob, S

    1978-01-01

    The histology and mucosubstance histochemistry of the mongoose salivary glands were studied. Histologically, the mongoose salivary glands were generally similar to those in other carnivores (dog, cat and ferret). The mucosubstance histochemistry demonstrated considerable variations in the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands in comparison to the other carnivores. The partoid gland contained carboxylated mucin which was sialidase-resistant. Granules in a few cells also contained sulphated mucin. Both submandibular and sublingual glands contained mainly carboxylated sialomucin which was sialidase-labile except in a few cell, some neutral mucin but no sulphated mucin. The molar and zygomatic glands were similar to those in the other carnivores. They contained both sulphated and carboxylated mucins but no neutral mucin. The carboxylated mucin was sialidase-resistant.

  20. Semi-automatic elastic registration on thyroid gland ultrasonic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Zhong, Yue; Luo, Yan; Li, Deyu; Lin, Jiangli; Wang, Tianfu

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. However, the shape of thyroid gland is irregular and difficult to calculate. For precise estimation of thyroid volume by ultrasound imaging, this paper presents a novel semiautomatic minutiae matching method in thyroid gland ultrasonic image by means of thin-plate spline model. Registration consists of four basic steps: feature detection, feature matching, mapping function design, and image transformation and resampling. Due to the connectivity of thyroid gland boundary, we choose active contour model as feature detector, and radials from centric points for feature matching. The proposed approach has been used in thyroid gland ultrasound images registration. Registration results of 18 healthy adults' thyroid gland ultrasound images show this method consumes less time and energy with good objectivity than algorithms selecting landmarks manually.

  1. Positional variations in mammary gland development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Veltmaat, Jacqueline M; Ramsdell, Ann F; Sterneck, Esta

    2013-06-01

    Most mammals develop their mammary glands in pairs of which the two counterparts are symmetrically displaced away from the ventral midline. Based on this symmetry and the same functional outcome as a milk-producing organ, the mammary glands are easily presumed to be mere copies of one another. Based on our analysis of published data with inclusion of new results related to mammary development and pathology in mice, we argue that this presumption is incorrect: Between and within pairs, mammary glands differ from one another, and tumor incidence and biology depend on the position along the anterior-posterior and the left-right axis as well. This insight has implications for experimental designs with mouse models and for data extrapolation between mammary glands within and between species. We suggest that improved documentation of location-specific mammary gland features will lead to more insights into the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland development and cancer biology in both mice and humans.

  2. Remarkable Triple Pleomorphic Adenoma Affecting both Parotid and Submandibular Glands

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Arias-Gallo, L. J.; Demaría-Martínez, G.; Chamorro Pons, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the first case reported in the literature of metachronous pleomorphic adenoma of bilateral parotid glands and submaxillary gland. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old female with metachronous mixed tumors in her right parotid and submandibular glands. The patient has no history of previous radiotherapy. All three lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. The histopathologic evaluation of all three major salivary gland masses demonstrated pleomorphic adenomas, with no occult malignancy observed on serial sections. The presentation of pleomorphic adenomas in the parotids and submandibular glands probably represents three unrelated primary sites of tumor, yet the possibility of metastasis from one gland to the other cannot be excluded. PMID:26000084

  3. The Weight of the Pineal Gland in Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, E.; Blumfield, Marianne

    1970-01-01

    A series of 150 pineal glands removed at routine postmortems in a general hospital have been examined. Statistical analysis of the weights of 147 of these glands from patients aged between 45 and 90 years, shows that the glands from patients dying of malignant disease are significantly lighter than those where the cause of death was non-malignant. These results are almost the exact reverse of those described recently in a similar series in America. After decalcification very little difference in the weight of the gland can be detected between the two groups and it would appear that the higher weight of the glands from non-malignant patients is due, at least in part, to the presence of a greater amount of mineral in these glands. PMID:4913769

  4. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-09-30

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen.

  5. Salivary Gland Epithelial- Myoepithelial Carcinoma: behaviour, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Senis-Segarra, L; Sahuquillo-Arce, E; Davo, R; Hamad-Arcis, P; Floria-Garcia, L M; Baquero, M C

    2002-01-01

    Across the whole spectrum of the tumoral pathology in the maxillo-facial and cervical areas, we can find those tumours where the aetieology is in the salivary glands. The tumours in the salivary glands are subdivided in benign and malignant tumours whenever this theorical subdivision is possible. The Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma represents about the 1% of the malignant neoplasms in the salivary glands and also affect other anatomical areas where there are glands: lung, kidney, uterus and so on. We start from a clinical case of a Epithelial-Myoepithelial of salivary minor gland carcinoma doing a bibliographic review of this unusual histological lineage. So we present a case of Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of a minor salivary gland in the right cheek. We'll review the clinical and histological features of this uncommon tumour. And we'll discuss about the best way for diagnosis, treatment and the differential diagnosis to similar clinical injuries.

  6. Salivary gland disease in pediatric HIV patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andres; De Rossi, Scott S

    2004-01-01

    Oral manifestations are one of the earliest clinical indicators of HIV infection and progression in children. Prompt recognition of these signs and symptoms by dental providers can help in the diagnosis and intervention of delaying the progression of HIV disease to AIDS. Salivary gland disease is a common manifestation of HIV infection in pediatric patients, presenting either as gland enlargement and/or xerostomia. The parotid glands by far are most frequently affected, though the other major glands are commonly involved. Diseases of the salivary glands and the corresponding quantitative changes in saliva affect the homeostasis of the oral cavity and account for significant morbidity during the progression of HIV disease. This paper summarizes the research on HIV-related salivary gland disease and outlines treatment and management considerations.

  7. Ectoparasites, uropygial glands and hatching success in birds.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Erritzøe, Johannes; Rózsa, Lajos

    2010-06-01

    The uropygial gland of birds secretes wax that is applied to the plumage, where the secretions are hypothesized to eliminate fungi and bacteria, thereby potentially providing important benefits in terms of plumage maintenance. We analyzed variation in size of the uropygial gland in 212 species of birds to determine the function and the ecological correlates of variation in gland size. Bird species with larger uropygial glands had more genera of chewing lice of the sub-order Amblycera, but not of the sub-order Ischnocera, and more feather mites. There was a fitness advantage associated with relatively large uropygial glands because such species had higher hatching success. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the uropygial gland functions to manage the community of microorganisms, and that certain taxa of chewing lice have diverged as a consequence of these defenses.

  8. A rare case of chronic sialadenitis of accessory parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Nilam Uttam; Thakare, Samir; Wadkar, Gaurav; Gaikwad, Ninad

    2014-01-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary tissue adjacent to stenson's duct that is separated from the main parotid gland and lying on masseter muscle. It has secondary duct empting into the stenson's duct. The differential diagnosis of mid-cheek masses include pathology arising from normal anatomic structures or from variations of normal accessory parotid gland tissue. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for the accessory parotid gland tumor. We report a case of accessory parotid gland with chronic sialadenitis in a 26 years old male with the diagnosis and treatment. Accessory parotid gland pathologies should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient presently with a mid-cheek mass.

  9. Congenital salivary fistula of accessory parotid gland: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Gadodia, A; Seith, A; Sharma, R; Thakar, A

    2008-03-01

    We report the imaging findings in a rare case of an accessory parotid gland fistula. An eight-year-old boy was presented with complaints of serous discharge from his left cheek since birth. As part of the radiological investigation, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography sialography with fistulography, and digital sialography with fistulography were performed. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the exact location of an accessory parotid gland but failed to demonstrate the accessory duct. The presence of an accessory gland was well delineated on computed tomography fistulography and computed tomography sialography. Fistulography revealed a small accessory parotid duct and gland. No communication between the ductal systems of both glands was demonstrated. In such cases, pre-operative imaging (with sialography, magnetic resonance sialography and computed tomography sialography with fistulography) is helpful for exact delineation of the ductal anatomy. To the best of our knowledge, only four previous cases of congenital accessory parotid gland fistula have been reported in the English literature.

  10. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Joos, Zachary P.; Patel, Bhupendra C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  11. Uptake of indocyanine green by hamster sebaceous glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Lo, Kai-Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2001-05-01

    Photothermal injury to the sebaceous glands is a potential curative treatment for the common skin disease acne vulgaris. Accumulation of the exogenous chromophore indocyanine green in the sebaceous glands may be accomplished using an emulsion or liposomal formulation applied to the skin surface. An emulsion containing 0.09% by weight indocyanine green (ICG) was applied to the epidermis of hamster ears ex vivo and the flank organ in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of ICG in the underlying sebaceous glands. The concentration of ICG that may be expected to accumulate in sebaceous glands of humans was then estimated on the basis of the gland size and orifice area, for the case of topical application of a more concentrated 1% ICG liposomal formulation. Monte Carlo modeling and heat transfer calculations showed that the sebaceous glands containing the exogenous chromophore may be selectively damaged by pulsed 810 nm laser radiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling.

  12. Dufour glands in the hymenopterans (Apidae, Formicidae, Vespidae): a review.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, F C; da Cruz-Landim, C

    2001-02-01

    Associated to the sting apparatus of the aculeate hymenopterans is found the poison gland, originated from the glands associated to the ovipositor of the non-aculeate hymenopterans and the less derived Dufour gland, homologue of the coletterial gland of other insects, and found in all hymenopteran females. The Dufour gland functions is mostly uncertain in hymenopterans but in ants it is involved with communication and defense and in non social bees with the nest building and protection. In wasps possibly with kin-recognition. Differences in morphology and chemical composition of the gland secretion were observed among species, in the same species, between the castes in the social species and among individual of the same caste playing different tasks or belonging to different nest. Its original function of egg-protective substance producing, or favoring the oviposition, appear to have been replaced or complemented in hymenopterans by the production of semiochemicals with function in communication.

  13. 18F-FDG-avid brunner gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol Hoon; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jae Seung

    2014-08-01

    Brunner gland hyperplasia, a rare duodenal tumor, usually presents with benign features. A 68-year-old man with a history of anemia presented with a polypoid duodenal mass that was detected by CT and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. This mass showed high F-FDG avidity on PET/CT and was histopathologically confirmed as Brunner gland hyperplasia. We suggest that Brunner gland hyperplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of F-FDG-avid duodenal tumors.

  14. Identification of lingual glands and ducts ventrally in pigs' tongues.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S E; Josephson, G K

    1989-01-01

    Hitherto unreported tubulo-acinar mucous lingual glands were located ventrally in the free tip of the tongue, just cranial to the attachment of the frenulum linguae in 186 of 400 (47%) of pigs' tongues. The glands were bilateral in 126 (32%) of the tongues. These glands emptied by several ducts onto the ventral surface of the tongue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2606778

  15. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Akshya; Johnson, Mahlon; Hussain, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting.

  16. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Akshya; Johnson, Mahlon; Hussain, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:26605125

  17. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of parotid gland in a child.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Huang, Xiaofeng; Tang, Enyi

    2009-02-01

    Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare tumor presenting predominantly in the parotid gland. Most sebaceous lymphadenomas are composed of variably sized sebaceous glands admixed with salivary ducts in a diffuse lymphoid background. The treatment is complete surgical excision, and this tumor is rarely recurrent. Reported here is a case of sebaceous lymphadenoma of the left parotid gland in a 16-year-old boy. A left superficial parotidectomy was performed.

  18. Peripheral Sweat Gland Function Improves With Humid Heat Acclimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Individual variations in structure and function of human eccrine sweat gland . Am. j. Physio!. 245, R203-R208. strydom, N.B .. Wyndham, e.H., Williams, e.G...Naval Health Research Center Peripheral Sweat Gland Function Improves With Humid Heat Acclimation . M. J. Buono S. L. Martha...Biology E!.SFVILR journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jtherbio Peripheral sweat gland function is improved with humid heat acclimation Michael

  19. Pleomorphic adenoma of a deep orbital ectopic lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Misra, Somen; Bhandari, Akshay; Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Mahajan, Shruti

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic lacrimal gland, being one of the choristomas, is comprised of lacrimal gland tissue outside the lacrimal gland fossa in the fronto-lateral part of the orbital roof. Ectopic lacrimal gland is a rare condition where the gland may be found in the orbit, eyelids, ocular adnexa or within the globe. Neoplastic transformation of such tissue may occur. A sixty-two-year old male patient presented with right eye proptosis and slight nasal displacement of the globe. Computerized tomography scan revealed a well-defined hypodense lesion of size 19 x 18 x 20 mm supero-lateral to lateral rectus muscle, with mild proptosis and thinning of the right lateral orbital wall. Excisional biopsy was performed through a lateral orbitotomy approach. A well circumscribed globular mass was removed from the right orbit, well behind the fossa for the lacrimal gland in the retrobulbar space. Histopathology was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland. Pleomorphic adenoma is an epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland which is extremely rare from an ectopic lacrimal gland and only few cases have been reported in literature till date.

  20. Lead toxicosis and salt glands in domestic ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Buggiani, S.S.; Rindi, S.

    1980-01-01

    The supraorbital nasal glands (salt glands), although present in all birds, have an important functional significance in marine birds and water fowl. In these species, such organs are remarkably developed and it has been demonstrated these nasal glands provide an extra-renal pathway for the excretion of sodium chloride mostly when the environmental conditions oblige these birds to consume quantities of salt greater than their relative ability of renal clearance. In the light of these facts and knowing the interaction of lead on the ATP-ase activity, we have analyzed the nasal glands from domestic ducks lead-dosed, upon various experimental conditions.

  1. Endosonography of the adrenal glands: normal size--pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Kann, P; Hengstermann, C; Heussel, C P; Bittinger, F; Engelbach, M; Beyer, J

    1998-01-01

    Transabdominal sonography of the adrenal glands frequently is non-successful. It was the aim of this project to improve the imaging of the adrenal glands using high resolution sonography in order to obtain information about even small changes in these organs. Therefore, endosonographic imaging was investigated using an endosonoscope PENTAX FG32UA. The correct identification of the adrenal glands was examined in five human cadavers. A total of 58 patients with 113 adrenal glands (in 3 cases history of unilateral adrenalectomy) were investigated. 109 adrenal glands (97%) were identified and evaluated. Healthy adrenal glands are slightly hyperechoich and regarding their echogeneity comparable to other endocrine organs such as the testes or the thyroid. Adrenal size can be determined as largest cross sectional area and was found to be 216 +/- 93 mm2 right and 231 +/- 98 mm2 left. In the adrenal glands which could be imaged by endosonography, all findings detected by CT (n = 33) or MRI (n = 19) could also be demonstrated endosonographically. Additional information as compared to CT/MRI was obtained in 7 out of 33 and in 6 out of 19 patients. This concerns in particular differentiation between tumor and hyperplasia and detection of small adrenal adenomas. High resolution endosonography of the adrenal glands can provide information about adrenal gland morphology which cannot be obtained by any other diagnostic approach.

  2. Idiopathic salivary gland enlargement (sialadenosis) in dogs: a microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Sozmen, M; Brown, P J; Whitbread, T J

    2000-06-01

    A histological, histochemical and morphometric study was performed on submandibular salivary glands from 13 dogs which had presented with a submandibular mass or swelling that proved to be a portion of non-inflammatory and non-neoplastic submandibular salivary gland. There were no consistent changes in lectin-binding histochemistry or immunohistochemical expression of various cell markers, and, in most cases, there was no measurable difference in acinar size in the affected gland. The possible explanation for the clinical salivary gland enlargement is therefore unclear.

  3. Doxorubicin-induced alopecia is associated with sebaceous gland degeneration.

    PubMed

    Selleri, Silvia; Seltmann, Holger; Gariboldi, Silvia; Shirai, Yuri F; Balsari, Andrea; Zouboulis, Christos C; Rumio, Cristiano

    2006-04-01

    Alopecia, accompanied by skin dryness, is one of the distressing side effects often occurring in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients. Little is known of the effects of chemotherapy on sebaceous glands, despite their importance in hair follicle homeostasis. This study investigates sebaceous gland morphology and the response of SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line to doxorubicin (DXR) treatment. The morphology of sebaceous glands during intraperitoneal DXR treatment was investigated by optical and electron microscopy in a 7-day-old rat model and further confirmed in an adult mouse model. Moreover, in vitro studies using the SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line were performed to assess the response of sebocytes to DXR in terms of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis. DXR treatment induced sebaceous gland regression and occasionally caused their complete disappearance. This observed damage and disappearance preceded DXR-induced hair loss. In vitro experiments using the SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line indicated that DXR treatment induced a differentiation process leading to premature sebocytes apoptosis. Owing to the importance of the sebaceous gland in hair follicle homeostasis, DXR-induced involution of this gland might be related to subsequent hair loss.

  4. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland.

    PubMed

    Salibian, A; Montalti, D

    2009-05-01

    This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms.

  5. Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring

    PubMed Central

    Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

  6. Cross-sectional imaging of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Loevner, Laurie A; Kaplan, Summer L; Cunnane, Mary Elizabeth; Moonis, Gul

    2008-08-01

    Directed imaging is useful in assessing the thyroid gland. Nuclear scintigraphy reveals functional information about the thyroid gland, while cross-sectional imaging, including ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging provide important adjunctive anatomic information about the thyroid as well as about related structures in the neck, including the presence or absence of cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, or extension of thyroid disease into adjacent soft tissues or the mediastinum. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland and addresses issues related to diseases affecting the thyroid gland, with an emphasis on neoplasms and the role of cross-sectional MR and CT imaging in the assessment of thyroid neoplasia.

  7. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described. PMID:27757344

  8. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue.

    PubMed

    Grome, Luke; Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described.

  9. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  10. Giant submandibular gland duct sialolith mimicking an impacted canine tooth

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Bhullar, Kanwalpreet; Malhotra, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease affecting the salivary glands and accounts for 80% of salivary gland disorders. Chronic sialolithiasis promotes stone formation. Size of the salivary stones may range from 0.1 mm to 30 mm or be even bigger. Those salivary stones, the size of which exceeds 15 mm in any one dimension or 1 g in weight are classified as giant sialoliths. Giant sialoliths of the submandibular gland duct are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a giant sialolith of the submandibular gland duct mimicking an impacted mandibular canine tooth on routine radiographic examination and its surgical management through an intraoral approach. PMID:26668461

  11. Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls. Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls). Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59). While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required. There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Ranjan, Kumar Rajiv; Chakrabortty, Debasis; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) typically occurs in long or flat bones, the chest wall, extra-skeletal soft tissue, and rarely in solid organs. Incidence of adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare. Here we report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the right adrenal gland in an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abdominal mass. The huge tumor was managed by preoperative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. She died due to metastasis after five months of surgery.

  13. Update on Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Michiel P J; Brenn, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Malignant sweat gland tumors are rare cutaneous neoplasms, traditionally separated according to their behavior into low- and high-grade malignant. There is significant morphologic overlap, and outright malignant tumors may show relatively bland histologic features. They may, therefore, be mistaken easily for benign neoplasms. Recognition of these tumors and accurate diagnosis is important for early treatment to prevent aggressive behavior and adverse outcome. This article provides an overview of 4 important entities with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls, differential diagnosis and recent developments. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma, and spiradenocarcinoma are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Malignant salivary gland tumors in Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, L; Domeisen, H; Narvaez, M; Tixi, R; Vivar, N

    2000-01-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGT) are uncommon. Age-standardized incidence rates are 0.5 and 0.3 per 100,000 in Quito, Ecuador; and 1.0 and 0.7 per 100,000 in the USA (SEER Program), for males and females, respectively. The goal of this study was to review a 16-year experience of a major general hospital in the treatment of these lesions. From 1982 to 1998, 308 salivary gland tumors were surgically treated at the Hospital 'Carlos Andrade Marin' of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security in Quito, Ecuador, an Andean city of approximately 2 million inhabitants. Malignant lesions were found in 58 cases (19%): 37 out of 194 parotid gland tumors (19%), 7 out of 86 submandibular tumors (8%) and 14 out of 28 minor salivary gland tumors (50%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common histologic types. Twenty-two cases were classified as stage I, 13 as stage II, 1 as stage III and 20 as stage IV (UICC TNM staging classification). Thirty-one (53%) patients were treated by surgery alone; postoperative radiation therapy was additionally given to 22 (38%), and surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were applied in 5 cases (9%). Local (LR) and/or regional recurrences were detected in 13 patients (22%). Twelve patients (21%) developed distant metastasis (DM; 2 in more than one site): 7 in the lungs, 2 in the brain, 2 in the bone and 1 each in the liver, subcutaneous tissue and pleura. Thirty-five patients are alive, 33 disease free. Twenty-three patients are deceased: 6 with LR, 7 with DM, 3 with both LR and DM, 1 with locoregional recurrence and DM, 2 with a second neoplasm, 3 with intercurrent disease and 1 from unknown causes. Five- and 10-year overall survival rates were 75 and 68%, respectively. There were no significant differences in mortality according to the site of the primary tumor or histologic type, but stage and involved surgical margins were important prognostic factors (p = 0.006 and 0.003). The surgical or multimodality

  15. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Debraj; Arora, Vijinder

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies – the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases. PMID:27081236

  16. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tracy S; Ocal, Idris Tolgay; Oxley, Keri; Sosa, Julie Ann

    2008-04-01

    Primary leiomyosarcomas of the thyroid gland are rare. We present the case of a 65-year-old woman with a rapidly enlarging neck mass for 2 months. The preoperative differential diagnosis included medullary thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer, and primary versus metastatic sarcoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, bilateral central neck dissections, and cervical thymectomy; she is currently being treated with ifosfamide and adriamycin. We review the literature on leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid, including the differential diagnoses, pathology, and alternative treatment strategies, including surgery and adjuvant therapy.

  17. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to review the data on thyroid ultrasound elastography. PMID:27103947

  18. Primary cavernous hemangioma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Markogiannakis, Haridimos; Kekis, Panagiotis B; Papadima, Artemisia; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Manouras, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    A 78-year-old euthyroid patient presented for evaluation of a symptomatic, slowly growing neck mass. Ultrasound scan revealed a multinodular goiter and a hypoechoic nodule of the right thyroid lobe. Total thyroidectomy was performed and the lesion was completely excised. Definite diagnosis was obtained after histological examination of the surgical specimen. Cavernous hemangiomas of the thyroid gland are infrequent lesions which may escape diagnosis preoperatively. An effort should be made not to rupture these lesions in order to ensure a bloodless procedure.

  19. Aortopulmonary ectopic parathyroid gland and concurrent thymolipoma.

    PubMed

    Abu Abeeleh, Mahmoud; Bani Hani, Amjad; Ghaith, Ata; Alodwan, Tareq; Bani Ismail, Zuhair; Alshehabat, Musa

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic parathyroid adenomas are considered the main cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. However, concurrent parathyroid and thymic pathologies are rarely diagnosed in the same patient. A 47-year-old man with history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and myasthenia gravis presented with persistent hypercalcemia. Laboratory investigations, computed tomography, and technetium-99 m sestamibi scintigraphy revealed ectopic parathyroid glands, a mediastinal mass, and an enlarged thymus. The patient underwent thymectomy and mass excision via a median sternotomy. Histopathology was consistent with ectopic parathyroid adenoma and thymolipoma. The serum calcium and parathormone concentrations normalized within 48 hours after surgery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Circadian regulation of pineal gland rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

    2012-02-05

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity.

  1. Bovine mammary gland X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Couldrey, C; Johnson, T; Lopdell, T; Zhang, I L; Littlejohn, M D; Keehan, M; Sherlock, R G; Tiplady, K; Scott, A; Davis, S R; Spelman, R J

    2017-07-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a process by which 1 of the 2 copies of the X chromosomes present in female mammals is inactivated. The transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome achieves dosage compensation between XX females and XY males and ensures equal expression of X-linked genes in both sexes. Although all mammals use this form of dosage compensation, the complex mechanisms that regulate XCI vary between species, tissues, and development. These mechanisms include not only varying levels of inactivation, but also the nature of inactivation, which can range from being random in nature to driven by parent of origin. To date, no data describing XCI in calves or adult cattle have been reported and we are reliant on data from mice to infer potential mechanisms and timings for this process. In the context of dairy cattle breeding and genomic prediction, the implications of X chromosome inheritance and XCI in the mammary gland are particularly important where a relatively small number of bulls pass their single X chromosome on to all of their daughters. We describe here the use of RNA-seq, whole genome sequencing and Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) genotypes to assess XCI in lactating mammary glands of dairy cattle. At a population level, maternally and paternally inherited copies of the X chromosome are expressed equally in the lactating mammary gland consistent with random inactivation of the X chromosome. However, average expression of the paternal chromosome ranged from 10 to 90% depending on the individual animal. These results suggest that either the mammary gland arises from 1 or 2 stem cells, or a nongenetic mechanism that skews XCI exists. Although a considerable amount of future work is required to fully understand XCI in cattle, the data reported here represent an initial step in ensuring that X chromosome variation is captured and used in an appropriate manner for future genomic selection. The Authors. Published by the

  2. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. PMID:27602340

  3. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  4. Intense pulsed light treatment and meibomian gland expression for moderate to advanced meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Albietz, Julie M; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-06-06

    The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of periocular intense pulsed light therapy combined with meibomian gland expression for chronic dry eye due to moderate to advanced meibomian gland dysfunction. This single-institution, open-label prospective study involved 26 participants who received bilateral treatments using a proprietary intense pulsed light device (E > Eye, E-Swin, Paris, France) combined with therapeutic meibomian gland expression at baseline, Week 2 and Week 6. Clinical evaluations performed at baseline, Week 4, Week 8 and Week 12 were symptom scores (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI], Ocular Comfort Index [OCI], daily lubricant use, tear break-up time and ocular surface staining). Tear secretion, tear osmolarity, InflammaDry tear immunoassay, corneal sensation, meibomian secretion quality and expressibility, bulbar conjunctival, limbal and lid margin redness and eyelid margin bacterial swab for cultures and colony counts were performed at baseline and Week 8 only. Significant improvements occurred at Week 8 in meibomian gland expressibility (p = 0.002), meibum quality (p = 0.006), tear break-up time (p = 0.002), corneal staining (p = 0.001), lid margin redness (p = 0.001), bulbar redness (p = 0.05) and limbal redness (p = 0.001). Symptom survey outcomes, eyelid margin bacteria colony counts, Schirmer I test, tear osmolarity, corneal sensitivity and daily lubricant use were unchanged. At Week 12, significant improvements in symptoms (OSDI p = 0.025; OCI p = 0.003), tear break-up time (p = 0.001) and corneal staining (p = 0.001) occurred. Improvement in OSDI score was correlated to the improvement in ocular surface staining (R = 0.43, p = 0.03) and associated with baseline meibomian gland expressibility (Kendall tau: the distributions are ordered the same, p = 0.1). There were no adverse effects of treatment. Serial intense pulsed light therapy combined with meibomian gland expression

  5. Assessment of salivary gland function in patients after successful kidney transplantation using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Orsal, Ebru; Seven, Bedri; Keles, Mustafa; Ayan, Arif Kursad; Cankaya, Erdem; Ozkan, Ozalkan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic renal failure and its treatment can induce oral health problems and salivary glands dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess salivary glands function in patients with kidney transplantation using technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) salivary glands scintigraphy. We prospectively studied 34 patients with kidney transplantation (30 males and 4 females,mean age 39.76±11.6 years) and 28 healthy controls (12 males and 16 females, mean age 36.1±9.5 years). Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed nearly 4.4±2.9 years after successful kidney transplantation. Dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy was performed during 25min after the intravenous administration of 185MBq of (99m)Tc-P. Time-activity curves and glands functional parameters were calculated for the parotid and submandibular salivary glands: uptake ratio, maximum accumulation of the radionuclide, and excretion fraction. Statistical analysis of the functional parameters showed no significant differences between patients with kidney transplantation and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that using (99m)Tc-P salivary gland scintigraphy, salivary glands function of patients with successful kidney transplantation do not differ statistically from those in healthy controls.

  6. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in < 5 % of cases. Cervical lymphadenopathy may be the first symptom particularly of (micro) PTC. In contrast follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  7. Alkaline secretion by frog gastric glands measured with pH microelectrodes in the gland lumen.

    PubMed

    Debellis, L; Caroppo, R; Fromter, E; Curci, S

    1998-11-15

    1. In the present work we have measured the pH of the secreted fluid within the gland lumen of isolated but intact gastric mucosa of Rana esculenta. Tissues were mounted in a double chamber allowing continuous perfusion of the mucosal and serosal compartment, and the measurements were made with double-barrelled pH glass microelectrodes inserted into the glands from the serosal surface under microscopic inspection. 2. During inhibition of H+ secretion by cimetidine (100 microM) the luminal gland pH (pHgl) averaged 7.60 +/- 0.05 pH units (mean +/- s.e.m.; n = 35), a value significantly higher than bath solution pH (7.45 +/- 0.02; P < 0.001) and also higher than intracellular pH of oxyntopeptic cells (pHi), which averaged 7.53 +/- 0.06 (n = 18). 3. Stimulation of acid secretion with histamine (500 microM) reversibly decreased pHgl to values which could be as low as 2.5. Together with electrophysiological criteria this response was routinely used to verify the proper location of the microelectrode tip within the gland lumen. 4. Stimulation with carbachol (100 microM) or pentagastrin (50 microM) in the presence of cimetidine rapidly and reversibly increased pHgl by 0.10 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 24; P < 0.001) and 0.09 +/- 0.02 pH units (n = 6; P < 0.05), respectively. 5. The observation that gastric gland fluid is more alkaline than the bath solutions and that carbachol or pentagastrin further alkalinize it strongly suggests that oxyntopeptic cells participate in gastric alkaline secretion at least under cholinergic stimulation.

  8. The process of apoptosis in a holocrine gland as shown by the avian uropygial gland.

    PubMed

    Liman, Narin; Alan, Emel

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the presence of apoptosis and the localization of apoptosis-related Bax and survivin proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) within the chicken uropygial gland, a specialized holocrine secretory gland. In day-old chicks, survivin and Bax immunoreactivities were observed in the cell cytoplasm of the germinative and secretory layers of the luminal epithelium and tubules. During this period, the TUNEL reaction, an indication of apoptosis, was only sporadically positive in the tubules. From the 7th day to the 150th day of posthatching, survivin was detected in the cytoplasm of cells in the germinative layer and in the nuclei of some cells in the secretory layers of the gland. The germinative layer cells showed weak homogeneous cytoplasmic staining for Bax, whereas the cells of the secretory and intermediate layers of luminal epithelium and tubules exhibited granular cytoplasmic staining. After day 7, TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the secretory and degenerative layers of the luminal epithelium and central tubules. After day 12, some TUNEL-positive cells were also seen in the peripheral tubules. At all posthatch ages, the cytoplasm and nucleus of the germinative layers of luminal epithelium and tubules reacted with PCNA, whereas only a small number of cell nuclei in the secretory layers were immunopositive. These results support the theory that specific PCNA/Bax/survivin expression patterns could reflect particular cell differentiation states in the uropygial gland and that holocrine secretion in the gland is realized mainly by way of apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of the salivary glands of an invasive whitefly.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly

  10. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  11. Pineal gland cysts--an overview.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Jelena; Budisić, Mislav; Azman, Drazen; Strineka, Maja; Crnjaković, Miljenko; Demarin, Vida

    2009-09-01

    Pineal cysts occur in all ages, predominantly in adults in the fourth decade of life. In series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, the prevalence of pineal cysts ranged between 1.3% and 4.3% of patients examined for various neurologic reasons and up to 10.8% of asymptomatic healthy volunteers. The diagnosis of pineal cyst is usually established by MRI with defined radiological criteria to distinguish benign pineal cyst from tumors of this area. A recent study demonstrated the findings obtained by transcranial sonography to correspond to those obtained by MRI in the detection of both pineal gland cyst and pineal gland itself, and could be used in the future mainly as follow up examination. Pineal cysts usually have no clinical implications and remain asymptomatic for years. The most common symptoms include headache, vertigo, visual and oculomotor disturbances, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Less frequently, patients present with ataxia, motor and sensory impairment, mental and emotional disturbances, epilepsy, circadian rhythm disturbances, hypothalamic dysfunction of precocious puberty, and recently described occurrence of secondary parkinsonism. Symptomatic cysts vary in size from 7 mm to 45 mm, whereas asymptomatic cysts are usually less than 10 mm in diameter, although a relationship between the cyst size and the onset of symptoms has been proved to be irrelevant in many cases. There is agreement that surgical intervention should be undertaken in patients presenting with hydrocephalus, progression of neurologic symptoms, or cyst enlargement. Tissue sample of the pineal lesion can be obtained by open surgery, stereotaxy and neuroendoscopy.

  12. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia.

  13. Thymus and adrenal glands in elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahito; Bunai, Yasuo; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Ogata, Mamoru

    2011-12-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoid-induced thymic involution is generally considered to be an important finding for determining child abuse. The present study investigated the weight of the thymus and the adrenal glands in elder abuse cases to identify a potential marker for elder abuse. There was no significant difference in the thymus and the adrenal weight between elder abuse and control cases. However, the elder abuse cases in which the duration of abuse was less than 3 months showed a significant increase in the adrenal weight in comparison to control cases. In such cases, histopathological findings showed a loss of intracellular light granules from the zona fasciculata, which might indicate a loss of cholesterol due to the overproduction of glucocorticoid. These results might imply that the elderly, who were maltreated for less than 3 months, were in the early phase of a long-term stress state during which stress-induced overproduction of glucocorticoid was observed in adrenal glands as indicated by Selye. Our results suggest that an increase in adrenal weight may be a potential marker for elder abuse of relatively short periods, especially less than a few months.

  14. The anterior pituitary gland: lessons from livestock.

    PubMed

    Scanes, C G; Jeftinija, S; Glavaski-Joksimovic, A; Proudman, J; Arámburo, C; Anderson, L L

    2005-07-01

    There has been extensive research of the anterior pituitary gland of livestock and poultry due to the economic (agricultural) importance of physiological processes controlled by it including reproduction, growth, lactation and stress. Moreover, farm animals can be biomedical models or useful in evolutionary/ecological research. There are for multiple sites of control of the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. These include the potential for independent control of proliferation, differentiation, de-differentiation and/or inter-conversion cell death, expression and translation, post-translational modification (potentially generating multiple isoforms with potentially different biological activities), release with or without a specific binding protein and intra-cellular catabolism (proteolysis) of pituitary hormones. Multiple hypothalamic hypophysiotropic peptides (which may also be produced peripherally, e.g. ghrelin) influence the secretion of the anterior pituitary hormones. There is also feedback for hormones from the target endocrine glands. These control mechanisms show broadly a consistency across species and life stages; however, there are some marked differences. Examples from growth hormone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone will be considered. In addition, attention will be focused on areas that have been neglected including the role of stellate cells, multiple sub-types of the major adenohypophyseal cells, functional zonation within the anterior pituitary and the role of multiple secretagogues for single hormones.

  15. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES ON SALIVARY GLAND CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, J.; Sirlin, J. L.

    1963-01-01

    Salivary glands were fixed in cold 1 per cent osmium tetroxide in veronal-acetate buffer containing sucrose and embedded in methacrylate mixture or Araldite. The salivary gland nuclei of sciarids show a continuous production of nucleoli, which remain multiple and not consolidated into a single structure. The earliest recognizable nucleoli, which we call "elementary nucleoli," are aggregations of a few paired 40 A fibrils and a few 150 A particles, at many points within chromosome bands. Further development consists of the detachment of the elementary nucleoli from their points of origin and their subsequent mutual coalescence. As a result, dense patches of nucleolar material are formed which become large nucleoli at the surface of chromosomes, either attached to the band or free. The fully formed nucleoli have a characteristic dual structure with a narrow dense periphery and a broader less dense internum. Fibrils and particles are present in both regions, and the difference in density reflects differences in the packing of the two structural elements. The duality in structure is lost in later stages. The nucleolar fibrils appear to be similar to the chromosomal fibrils. The 150 A particles in nucleoli, chromosomes, and nuclear sap seem identical. The significance of these observations is discussed for nucleologenesis in general. PMID:13964284

  16. Developmental abnormalities of the posterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    di Iorgi, Natascia; Secco, Andrea; Napoli, Flavia; Calandra, Erika; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2009-01-01

    While the molecular mechanisms of anterior pituitary development are now better understood than in the past, both in animals and in humans, little is known about the mechanisms regulating posterior pituitary development. The posterior pituitary gland is formed by the evagination of neural tissue from the floor of the third ventricle. It consists of the distal axons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurones that shape the neurohypophysis. After its downward migration, it is encapsulated together with the ascending ectodermal cells of Rathke's pouch which form the anterior pituitary. By the end of the first trimester, this development is completed and vasopressin and oxytocin can be detected in neurohypophyseal tissue. Abnormal posterior pituitary migration such as the ectopic posterior pituitary lobe appearing at the level of median eminence or along the pituitary stalk have been reported in idiopathic GH deficiency or in subjects with HESX1, LHX4 and SOX3 gene mutations. Another intriguing feature of abnormal posterior pituitary development involves genetic forms of posterior pituitary neurodegeneration that have been reported in autosomal-dominant central diabetes insipidus and Wolfram disease. Defining the phenotype of the posterior pituitary gland can have significant clinical implications for management and counseling, as well as providing considerable insight into normal and abnormal mechanisms of posterior pituitary development in humans.

  17. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed. PMID:28286865

  18. [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland].

    PubMed

    Holz, F G; Tetz, M; Born, I A; Völcker, H E

    1992-07-01

    A 38-year-old female presented with a left-sided peripheral N. VI-paresis and negative neuroradiologic work-up. After one year she developed an incomplete N. III paresis, numbness of her face correlating to N. V1 and V2, reduced lacrimal secretion as well as a palpable mass at the lateral orbital rim. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an orbital tumor extending into the cavernous sinus. Biopsy disclosed an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland with basaloid, cribriform and tubular pattern. Therefore, an exenteration with postoperative radiation therapy was performed. Immunohistochemical findings included positive reactions for keratin (KL-1 and AE 1 + 3), Vimentin and Egp 34. By determination of Ki 67 the proliferative activity of the tumor was found to be 15%. Our case report demonstrates that even in absence of an exophthalmus or pain a malignant orbital tumor may be assumed as the underlying cause for a combined monolateral oculomotor and trigeminal paresis. Immunohistochemical results support the notion, that the adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland may arise from precursor cells of the terminal duct system.

  19. Endometrial glands are required for preimplantation conceptus elongation and survival.

    PubMed

    Gray, C A; Taylor, K M; Ramsey, W S; Hill, J R; Bazer, F W; Bartol, F F; Spencer, T E

    2001-06-01

    Endometrial glands secrete molecules hypothesized to support conceptus growth and development. In sheep, endometrial gland morphogenesis occurs postnatally and can be epigenetically ablated by neonatal progestin exposure. The resulting stable adult uterine gland knockout (UGKO) phenotype was used here to test the hypothesis that endometrial glands are required for successful pregnancy. Mature UGKO ewes were bred repeatedly to fertile rams, but no pregnancies were detected by ultrasound on Day 25. Day 7 blastocysts from normal superovulated ewes were then transferred synchronously into Day 7 control or UGKO ewes. Ultrasonography on Days 25-65 postmating indicated that pregnancy was established in control, but not in UGKO ewes. To examine early uterine-embryo interactions, four control and eight UGKO ewes were bred to fertile rams. On Day 14, their uteri were flushed. The uterus of each control ewe contained two filamentous conceptuses of normal length. Uteri from four UGKO ewes contained no conceptus. Uteri of three UGKO ewes contained a single severely growth-retarded tubular conceptus, whereas the remaining ewe contained a single filamentous conceptus. Histological analyses of these uteri revealed that endometrial gland density was directly related to conceptus survival and developmental state. Day 14 UGKO uteri that were devoid of endometrial glands did not support normal conceptus development and contained either no conceptuses or growth-retarded tubular conceptuses. The Day 14 UGKO uterus with moderate gland development contained a filamentous conceptus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that endometrial glands and, by inference, their secretions are required for periimplantation conceptus survival and development.

  20. HIV-associated cystic lesions of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Noriko; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Hajime; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Iwao; Himi, Tetsuo

    2017-02-01

    We present two cases of an HIV-associated parotid gland cyst. One case was a 36-year-old HIV infected woman. She was diagnosed with HIV infection and presented with slowly enlarged parotid gland cysts together with elevation of HIV viral RNA copies/mL in her serum. She was performed parotid gland biopsy under the general anesthesia. The histopathologic analysis revealed negative HIV p24-antigen in her parotid gland tissue. The other case was a 43-year-old man found his parotid gland swelling shortly after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). He was diagnosed with HIV infection 2 years previously. He had started HAART several days before. He showed exceeding elevation of IgE in his serum. We treated him with medication using anti-histamic drugs for his cyst. A computed tomography scan revealed a complete response of his parotid gland cyst 4 weeks after the medication. His serum IgE level was decreased to half of the level before the medication. These findings suggested that the parotid gland swelling associated with HIV was due to various factors including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In case such a parotid gland swelling, we could avoid invasive treatments.

  1. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  2. Raloxifene effects on thyroid gland morphology in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Luiz Felipe Bittencourt; Grozovsky, Renata; de Campos Pinheiro, Mônica; de Carvalho, Jorge José; Vaisman, Mário; Carvalho, Denise P

    2008-10-01

    We aimed to analyze the effects of raloxifene and estrogen on thyroid gland morphology of ovariectomized rats. Raloxifene treatment led to effects similar to those of estrogen on thyroid glands from ovariectomized rats, so that both were able to normalize the changes detected after ovariectomy.

  3. 13C NMR of Nephila clavipes major ampullate silk gland.

    PubMed

    Hijirida, D H; Do, K G; Michal, C; Wong, S; Zax, D; Jelinski, L W

    1996-12-01

    The major ampullate glands of the spider Nephila clavipes contain approximately 0.2 microliter each of a highly concentrated (approximately 50%) solution of silk fibroin. Therefore, the reservoir of silk in these glands presents an ideal opportunity to observe prefolded conformations of a protein in its native state. To this end, the structure and conformation of major ampullate gland silk fibroin within the glands of the spider N. clavipes were examined by 13C NMR spectroscopy. These results were compared to those from silk protein first drawn from the spinneret and then denatured. The 13C NMR chemical shifts, along with infrared and circular dichroism data, suggest that the silk fibroin in the glands exists in dynamically averaged helical conformations. Furthermore, there is no evidence of proline residues in U-(13)C-D-glucose-labeled silk. This transient prefolded "molten fibril" state may correspond to the silk I form found in Bombyx mori silk. There is no evidence of the final beta-sheet structure in the ampullate gland silk fibroin before final silk processing. However, the conformation of silk in the glands appears to be in a highly metastable state, as plasticization with water produces the beta-sheet structure. Therefore, the ducts connecting the ampullate glands to the spinnerets play a larger role in silk processing than previously thought.

  4. [The hemodynamics of the parotid glands in children consuming carbohydrates].

    PubMed

    Sigal, Z M; Redinova, T L

    1989-01-01

    The rate of sweets consumption was shown to determine, to a large extent, the salivary glands function. In children rarely consuming sweets the parotid blood flow and salivation increased after intake of a 10% sucrose solution. In children abusing sweets even crystal sugar failed to change the parotid glands blood filling with salivation virtually unaltered.

  5. Perspectives on the convergent evolution of tetrapod salt glands.

    PubMed

    Babonis, Leslie S; Brischoux, François

    2012-08-01

    Since their discovery in 1958, the function of specialized salt-secreting glands in tetrapods has been studied in great detail, and such studies continue to contribute to a general understanding of transport mechanisms of epithelial water and ions. Interestingly, during that same time period, there have been only few attempts to understand the convergent evolution of this tissue, likely as a result of the paucity of taxonomic, embryological, and molecular data available. In this review, we synthesize the available data regarding the distribution of salt glands across extant and extinct tetrapod lineages and the anatomical position of the salt gland in each taxon. Further, we use these data to develop hypotheses about the various factors that have influenced the convergent evolution of salt glands across taxa with special focus on the variation in the anatomical position of the glands and on the molecular mechanisms that may have facilitated the development of a salt gland by co-option of a nonsalt-secreting ancestral gland. It is our hope that this review will stimulate renewed interest in the topic of the convergent evolution of salt glands and inspire future empirical studies aimed at evaluating the hypotheses we lay out herein.

  6. [Morphometry in Development of Red Deer's Adrenal Glands].

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, N D; Gribanova, O G; Bondyreva, L A

    2015-01-01

    Histological structures and morphometric and some histochemical indicators of elk's adrenal gland development as subspecies of red deer in prenatal and postnatal ontogenies stages was studied. It was found that the growth of the fetus adrenal glands weight and the thickness of the structures adrenal glands fragments continue throughout the prenatal period of ontogeny. The cells of androgenic zone with single wandering sympathogoniae are differentiated in the adrenal glands in the second month of development. The androgenic and definite zone and the adrenal medulla are differentiated by the third month of development. At the 4 months, adrenal gland cortex zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculate-reticularis are differentiated; zona reticularis is differentiated only by the seventh month. By the eighth month, the structure of adrenal glands corresponds to the adrenal glands of a newborn. Full structural formation of the adrenal glands takes place in young animals by age 1.5. Obvious structural changes were not found late in the postnatal stages of development.

  7. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Kelleher Davis, Robin; Doane, Marshall G; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R; Colitz, Carmen M H; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A

    2013-07-01

    The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for the analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared with typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size.

  9. Testosterone metabolism in the uropygial gland of the quail.

    PubMed

    Floch, J Y; Morfin, R; Picart, D; Daniel, J Y; Floch, H H

    1985-05-01

    The metabolism of testosterone in the uropygial gland of the quail principally results in the production of 17 alpha, 5 beta derivatives. Moreover, an unusually small amount of testosterone is converted to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. These results question the role played by intracellular 5 alpha-reduction in the response of the gland to testosterone stimulation.

  10. Dynamic OCT of sweat glands of human finger tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ohmi, Masato; Fuji, Toshie

    2006-02-01

    Dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated for dynamic study of sweat glands of human finger tip using the all-optical-fiber imaging system. Stress-induced and physical activation of sweat glands can be observed clearly in time-sequential OCT images. The method for image data acquisition is presented as well as the experimental results.

  11. The presence of minor salivary glands in the peritonsillar space.

    PubMed

    Kaltiainen, Enni; Wikstén, Johanna; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Ilmarinen, Taru; Hagström, Jaana; Blomgren, Karin

    2017-09-12

    Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is traditionally considered only a purulent complication of acute tonsillitis (AT), but may be related to infection of minor salivary glands. We analysed the presence of peritonsillar minor salivary glands and inflammation patterns in 114 adult tonsils representing three patient groups: recurrent AT, chronic tonsillitis (CT), and PTA. Samples acquired from elective tonsillectomies were stored in formalin, and after preparation were microscopically examined for inflammation and fibrotic changes. Clinical features and histological characteristics were compared between the groups. Of all tonsils, the minor salivary glands were present in 77 (67.5%). Glands located near the tonsillar tissue showed signs of infection in 73 (94.8%), while only 3 (15.0%) of 20 glands located deeper in the peritonsillar space were infected. Compared to patients with recurrent AT and CT, those with PTA more often presented with periductal inflammation, p < 0.011 (PTA 82.1%, AT 42.9%, and CT 63.6%). The majority of our 114 tonsillectomy specimens, collected from patients with AT, CT, or PTA, presented with infected minor salivary glands, and inflammation of the peritonsillar space glands was evident. To further elucidate the association between these glands and PTA, tonsillar samples should be collected and analysed from patients during the acute phase of infection.

  12. Human eccrine sweat gland cells can reconstitute a stratified epidermis.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Thomas; Pontiggia, Luca; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Tharakan, Sasha; Braziulis, Erik; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2010-08-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are generally considered to be a possible epidermal stem cell source. Here we compared the multilayered epithelia formed by epidermal keratinocytes and those formed by eccrine sweat gland cells. We demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo the capability of human eccrine sweat gland cells to form a stratified interfollicular epidermis substitute on collagen hydrogels. This is substantiated by the following findings: (1) a stratified epidermis consisting of 10-12 cell layers is formed by sweat gland cells; (2) a distinct stratum corneum develops and is maintained after transplantation onto immuno-incompetent rats; (3) proteins such as filaggrin, loricrin, involucrin, envoplakin, periplakin, and transglutaminases I and III match with the pattern of the normal human skin; (4) junctional complexes and hemidesmosomes are readily and regularly established; (5) cell proliferation in the basal layer reaches homeostatic levels; (6) the sweat gland-derived epidermis is anchored by hemidesmosomes within a well-developed basal lamina; and (7) palmo-plantar or mucosal markers are not expressed in the sweat gland-derived epidermis. These data suggest that human eccrine sweat glands are an additional source of keratinocytes that can generate a stratified epidermis. Our findings raise the question of the extent to which the human skin is repaired and/or permanently renewed by eccrine sweat gland cells.

  13. Pituitary gland trauma in fatal nonsurgical closed traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Idowu, Olufemi Emmanuel; Obafunwa, John O; Soyemi, Sunday O

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic injury to pituitary gland can lead to significant endocrine dysfunctions. The aim of this study is to define the frequency of pituitary gland injury in patients with fatal nonsurgical closed traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to correlate if any, the type of craniocerebral injury associated with the pituitary gland injury. The study is a prospective autopsy review of 30 adult patients with fatal closed TBI. Patients who had any form of neurosurgical intervention were excluded from the study. The harvested pituitary glands were assessed morphologically and histologically with haematoxylin-eosin stains. There were 25 males and five females (median age: 35 years). Fatal closed TBI was associated with at least pituitary stalk rupture or pituitary gland haemorrhage in 13 patients (43.3%). There was significant relationship between subdural haemorrhage (SH) and either pituitary gland haemorrhage or pituitary stalk rupture. Odds ratio (OR) of a patient with SH having accompanying glandular pituitary haemorrhage was 21 while the OR of a patient with SH having pituitary stalk rupture was 12. Pituitary gland haemorrhage and stalk rupture frequency are fairly common in fatal closed TBI that do not require surgical intervention. Injury to both structures probably plays substantial roles in closed TBI outcome. We suggest routine assessment of pituitary gland function test in patients with closed TBI associated with SH.

  14. Lacrimal gland development: From signaling interactions to regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ankur; Zhang, Xin

    2017-07-14

    The lacrimal gland plays a pivotal role in keeping the ocular surface lubricated, and protecting it from environmental exposure and insult. Dysfunction of the lacrimal gland results in deficiency of the aqueous component of the tear film, which can cause dryness of the ocular surface, also known as the aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. Left untreated, this disease can lead to significant morbidity, including frequent eye infections, corneal ulcerations, and vision loss. Current therapies do not treat the underlying deficiency of the lacrimal gland, but merely provide symptomatic relief. To develop more sustainable and physiological therapies, such as in vivo lacrimal gland regeneration or bioengineered lacrimal gland implants, a thorough understanding of lacrimal gland development at the molecular level is of paramount importance. Based on the structural and functional similarities between rodent and human eye development, extensive studies have been undertaken to investigate the signaling and transcriptional mechanisms of lacrimal gland development using mouse as a model system. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the extrinsic signaling interactions and the intrinsic transcriptional network governing lacrimal gland morphogenesis, as well as recent advances in the field of regenerative medicine aimed at treating dry eye disease. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

  16. [Computed tomographic anatomy of the salivary glands in the cat].

    PubMed

    Fromme, V; Köhler, C; Piesnack, S; Oechtering, G; Ludewig, E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define anatomical characteristics of the feline salivary glands in cross-sectional images obtained by unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and to describe landmarks for a reliable identification. Heads of adult normocephalic cats without indications of cephalic disease were examined. Cats were included in the prospective part of the study when examined no later than 1 hour post mortem (n = 16). In the retrospective part of the study, previous CT-studies were evaluated (n = 25). The results of both groups were evaluated separately. Initially, the possibility of identifying and delineating the salivary glands from the surrounding tissue was assessed. Anatomical structures of the head were then defined as landmarks. Dimensions and density (Hounsfield units, HU) of the salivary glands were determined based on transversal and reconstructed sagittal images. In total, 94.3% of the parotid glands, 90.7% of the mandibular glands and 96.8% of the zygomatic glands could be delineated. The remaining salivary glands could not be identified. Anatomical landmarks, including the external ear canal, the musculus (M.) masseter, the M. pterygoideus medialis and the bulbus oculi facilitated the identification. Comparing the size of the salivary glands of both groups revealed differences (measured lateromedially and rostrocaudally) in size of ≤   2 mm. The definable salivary glands varied significantly in their density. The mean density of the glandula (Gl.) parotis was 65 HU, of the Gl. mandibularis 62 HU and of the Gl. zygomatica 57 HU. The comparisons of densities of both sides of the glands did not show statistically significant differences. The large salivary glands (Gl. parotis and Gl. mandibularis) and the Gl. zygomatica of the cat can be reliably identified in CT-images. CT landmarks and data regarding the size and density of each gland could be gathered. The remaining minor salivary glands could not be delineated accurately. The difference in

  17. Papillary Cystadenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Job, Anjana Juanita; Manipadam, Marie Therese

    2016-06-01

    Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland, characterized by noticeable cystic and solid areas with papillary endophytic projections. These tumours lack features that characterize cystic variants of several more common salivary gland carcinomas. It was first described in 1991 by World Health Organization as a separate entity and cystadenocarcinoma with or without papillary component in the AFIP classification. Most of these tumours occurred in the major salivary glands followed by minor salivary glands. Cystadenocarcinoma is the malignant counterpart of cystadenoma. We report a case of papillary cystadenocarcinoma of parotid. A 40-year-old lady presented with gradually progressive swelling below the right ear associated with occasional pain. Clinical and radiological features suggested benign neoplasm. Right lobe superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary cystadenocarinoma of the parotid gland. Histologic confirmation of stromal invasion is required to differentiate it from the benign lesion. Conservative wide local surgical excision is the treatment of choice.

  18. Papillary Cystadenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Job, Anjana Juanita; Manipadam, Marie Therese

    2016-01-01

    Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland, characterized by noticeable cystic and solid areas with papillary endophytic projections. These tumours lack features that characterize cystic variants of several more common salivary gland carcinomas. It was first described in 1991 by World Health Organization as a separate entity and cystadenocarcinoma with or without papillary component in the AFIP classification. Most of these tumours occurred in the major salivary glands followed by minor salivary glands. Cystadenocarcinoma is the malignant counterpart of cystadenoma. We report a case of papillary cystadenocarcinoma of parotid. A 40-year-old lady presented with gradually progressive swelling below the right ear associated with occasional pain. Clinical and radiological features suggested benign neoplasm. Right lobe superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary cystadenocarinoma of the parotid gland. Histologic confirmation of stromal invasion is required to differentiate it from the benign lesion. Conservative wide local surgical excision is the treatment of choice. PMID:27504297

  19. Comparative aspects of mammary gland development and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Capuco, Anthony V; Ellis, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Mammary glands are crucial to the reproductive strategy of mammals, and the milk of domesticated ruminants serves as an important source of nutrients for the human population. The majority of mammary gland development occurs postnatally, and the mammary gland undergoes cyclical periods of growth, differentiation, lactation, and regression that are coordinated to provide nutrients for offspring or are driven by strategies to manage reproduction and milk production of domesticated species. Growth and maintenance of the mammary epithelium depends on the function of mammary stem cells and progenitor cells. In this review, we provide an overview of postnatal mammary gland development, cyclical phases of mammary gland regression (regression during lactation and between successive lactations), and mammary stem cells and progenitor cells. Where possible, these processes are related to animal production and compared across species, particularly bovine, porcine, murine, and human.

  20. Chondrosarcoma metastasis in the thyroid gland: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chondrosarcoma metastases in the thyroid gland are exceptional. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases have been previously reported in the literature. Here we report the third case. Case presentation We report the case of a 51-year-old Arab woman who presented in 2011 with a diaphyseal chondrosarcoma of her right tibia treated by surgery. In the last quarter of 2013, she presented a hard mass in her thyroid gland with dyspnea and a right laryngeal paresis. She underwent a debulking surgery with tracheostomy in order to prevent difficulty in respiration. The final pathology revealed the diagnosis of a chondrosarcoma metastasis within her thyroid gland. She died several days later. Conclusions Even if primary and metastatic chondrosarcomas of the thyroid gland are exceptional, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of thyroid gland masses. The prognosis is poor but surgery may help preserve quality of life. PMID:24886665

  1. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland.

  2. Plk2 regulates mitotic spindle orientation and mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Elizabeth; Kabotyanski, Elena B; Shore, Amy N; Creighton, Chad J; Westbrook, Thomas F; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2014-04-01

    Disruptions in polarity and mitotic spindle orientation contribute to the progression and evolution of tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating these processes in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Polo-like kinase 2 (Plk2) regulates mitotic spindle orientation in the mammary gland and that this might account for its suggested role as a tumor suppressor. Plk2 is highly expressed in the mammary gland and is required for proper mammary gland development. Loss of Plk2 leads to increased mammary epithelial cell proliferation and ductal hyperbranching. Additionally, a novel role for Plk2 in regulating the orientation of the mitotic spindle and maintaining proper cell polarity in the ductal epithelium was discovered. In support of a tumor suppressor function for Plk2, loss of Plk2 increased the formation of lesions in multiparous glands. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel role for Plk2 in regulating mammary gland development.

  3. [Atypical presentation of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma with necrotic foci].

    PubMed

    Casado, A; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, V; Barrancos, C; Albandea, A

    2015-09-01

    The case is presented of 48 year-old male complaining of a painful left upper eyelid and swelling of the lacrimal gland, with a suspicion of dacryoadenitis. Removal was decided after dacriops suspicion. Histopathology diagnosed a pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland, with areas of necrosis. Lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma usually presents as a slowly progressive painless mass. However, painful presentation in this case might be related with necrotic foci found in the histopathological examination. Although not described in lacrimal glands, pleomorphic adenomas have already been reported in the major and minor salivary glands, and these patients also presented with a painful mass. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Vaginal myofibroblastoma with glands expressing mammary and prostatic antigens.

    PubMed

    Wallenfels, I; Chlumská, A

    2012-01-01

    A case of unusual vaginal myofibroblastoma containing glands which expressed mammary and prostatic markers is described. The tumor occurred in 70-year-old woman in the proximal third of the vagina. It showed morphology and immunophenotype typical of so-called cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma. The peripheral zone of the lesion contained a few groups of glands suggesting vaginal adenosis or prostatic-type glands on initial examination. The glands showed a surprising simultaneous expression of mammary markers mammaglobin and GCDFP-15 and prostatic markers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). Immunostains for alpha-smooth muscle actin, p63 and CD10 highlighted the myoepithelial cell layer of the glands. The finding indicates that simultaneous use of both mammary and prostatic markers for examination of unusual glandular lesions in the vulvovaginal location can be helpful for an exact diagnosis, and can contribute to better understanding of prostatic and mammary differentiations in the female lower genital tract.

  5. Image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, H.; Tominaga, Y.; Uchida, K.; Yamada, N.; Morimoto, T.; Yasue, M.

    1983-07-01

    Twenty-two out of 31 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy before operation underwent non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands by computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy with /sup 201/TlCl and /sup 99m/TcO/sup 4 +/, and/or ultrasonography. CT visualized 39 of 45 parathyroid glands (86.7%), weighing more than 500 mg. Scintigraphy with a subtraction method using a computer performed the diagnosis in 19 of 27 glands (70.4%). Ultrasonography detected 21 of 27 glands (77.8%). Image diagnosis was also useful in the postoperative follow-up study. The non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with chronic renal failure is thus valuable for 1) definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism, 2) localization, and 3) diagnosis for effectiveness of conservative treatment.

  6. Accessory parotid gland lesions: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Stenner, M; Preuss, S F; Hüttenbrink, K-B; Klussmann, J P

    2008-09-01

    There are numerous causes for chronic cheek swelling, including masseteric hypertrophy, lymphadenopathy, diffuse inflammatory changes and neoplasia. We report an unusual case of a recurrent swelling as the result of sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland, which lay isolated from the main parotid gland along the Stensen's duct. The calculi developed in the accessory salivary tissue whereas all major salivary glands presented without sialolithiasis. Clinical findings as well as imaging results are shown and surgical management and histopathology are discussed. Hereby, for the first time we report a case with multiple calculi in an accessory parotid gland removed via a standard parotid incision. Further to this, we give a comprehensive review of literature on accessory parotid gland lesions.

  7. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren’s Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  8. Biomaterials-Based Strategies for Salivary Gland Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Fowler, Eric W.; Hao, Ying; Ravikrishan, Anitha; Harrington, Daniel A.; Witt, Robert L.; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-01-01

    The salivary gland is a complex, secretory tissue that produces saliva and maintains oral homeostasis. Radiation induced salivary gland atrophy, manifested as “dry mouth” or xerostomia, poses a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering recently has emerged as an alternative, long-term treatment strategy for xerostomia. In this review, we summarize recent efforts towards the development of functional and implantable salivary glands utilizing designed polymeric substrates or synthetic matrices/scaffolds. Although the in vitro engineering of a complex implantable salivary gland is technically challenging, opportunities exist for multidisciplinary teams to harvest the regenerative potential of stem/progenitor cells found in the adult glands and combine them with biomimetic and cell-instructive materials to assemble implantable tissue modules. PMID:26878077

  9. Oversized submandibular gland sialolith: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K V; Garg, Nitin; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-03-01

    Sialolithiasis is a very common reason in causing obstructive salivary gland disease. Its incidence in males is more than females and children. They usually occur in submandibular ducts or gland and are 1 mm to less than 1 cm and rarely more than 1 cm. If they are more than 15 mm then, are termed as sialoliths of unusual size or giant sialoliths. The literatures have reports of up to 3.5 to 7 cm stones and are rare. The management includes removal of stone and re-channelizing the secretions in a functional gland or excision of gland in atrophied glands along with stone.

  10. [Transoral approach to thyroid gland in the experiment].

    PubMed

    Shulutko, A M; Semikov, V I; Gryaznov, S E; Gorbacheva, A V; Patalova, A R; Mansurova, G T; Boblak, Yu A

    To develop minimally invasive and safe endoscopic access to thyroid gland. Transoral pre-mandibular video-assisted gas-free access to thyroid gland was developed in experimental study that included 19 human cadavers. Stereometric modeling defined the evaluation criteria including the form of basal arch of lower jaw and its height. There was no conflict of instruments in working chamber under platysma. Additional trocar was deployed to resolve the conflict between working parts of instruments during thyroid gland mobilization. The angle of operative action between the instruments is close to 90°. Trocar hole is used for drainage. The access provides good visualization of recurrent laryngeal nerve, upper and lower thyroid arteries and parathyroid gland. It is less traumatic compared with other extra-cervical accesses to thyroid glands.

  11. Computed tomography diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Veverková, Lucia; Bakaj-Zbrožková, Lenka; Hallamová, Lucie; Heřman, Miroslav

    2013-10-01

    Fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland is the most common interventional procedure used to diagnose thyroid diseases. Serious complications are rare in this procedure. They comprise an infection with abscess formation and hemorrhage. To date, only a few case reports have described an ultrasound diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland. We established such a diagnosis using computed tomography (CT). A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our hospital with complications after fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound revealed a large hematoma surrounding the gland. A subsequent CT scan confirmed the presence of hematoma and, moreover, showed active bleeding. This finding prompted rapid surgical intervention. CT has the capability to show active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

  12. [Lectin histochemical studies on the musk gland in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus)].

    PubMed

    Aoki-Komori, S; Saito, T R; Umeda, M; Sugiyama, M; Takahashi, K W; Taniguchi, K

    1993-07-01

    The musk gland of the adult house musk shrews (Suncus murinus) of both sexes was studied lectin histochemically. The musk gland was a kind of scent gland, consisted of congregation of branched or unbranched simple tubuloalveolar gland holocrine in nature and was attached by an apocrine gland-like structure (sweat gland) in the deeper layer of its periphery. Acinar cells of the musk gland were distinguishable into three type from basal to luminal parts of the acinus; immature cells, mature cells and degenerating cells. There was no histological difference between both sexes. Lectin-binding pattern of the musk gland was examined in comparison with that of the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland by histochemical staining techniques using seven lectins: ConA, RCA I, PNA, SBA, UEA-I, DBA, WGA, WGA and PNA labelled the duct of the musk gland more intense than the acinus. Several lectins showed a tendency to label the cells situated near the luminal surface more intense than those near the basement membrane in both the acinus and duct of the musk gland. In the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland, the lectin-binding pattern was different with each other and from that in the musk gland. These findings suggest that the musk gland, sweat gland, and ordinary sebaceous gland are different to each other in nature of cells and the secretion.

  13. GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2013-12-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast

  14. Objective image analysis of the meibomian gland area.

    PubMed

    Arita, Reiko; Suehiro, Jun; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Shirakawa, Rika; Tokoro, Hideaki; Amano, Shiro

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate objectively the meibomian gland area using newly developed software for non-invasive meibography. Eighty eyelids of 42 patients without meibomian gland loss (meiboscore=0), 105 eyelids of 57 patients with loss of less than one-third total meibomian gland area (meiboscore=1), 13 eyelids of 11 patients with between one-third and two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=2) and 20 eyelids of 14 patients with two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=3) were studied. Lid borders were automatically determined. The software evaluated the distribution of the luminance and, by enhancing the contrast and reducing image noise, the meibomian gland area was automatically discriminated. The software calculated the ratio of the total meibomian gland area relative to the total analysis area in all subjects. Repeatability of the software was also evaluated. The mean ratio of the meibomian gland area to the total analysis area in the upper/lower eyelids was 51.9±5.7%/54.7±5.4% in subjects with a meiboscore of 0, 47.7±6.0%/51.5±5.4% in those with a meiboscore of 1, 32.0±4.4%/37.2±3.5% in those with a meiboscore of 2 and 16.7±6.4%/19.5±5.8% in subjects with a meiboscore of 3. The meibomian gland area was objectively evaluated using the developed software. This system could be useful for objectively evaluating the effect of treatment on meibomian gland dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Wide excision of accessory parotid gland with anterior approach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Young Man; Kim, Jun Hyuk; Tark, Min Seong; Lee, Jang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland tissue has been described as salivary tissue adjacent to the Stensen duct that is distinctly separate from the main body of the parotid gland. Of all parotid gland tumors, 1% to 8% arise from the accessory parotid gland. Little is known about the accessory parotid gland, and it is seldom mentioned in the literature. Between 1999 and 2010, we have treated and followed 8 patients with tumors of the accessory parotid gland. There were 5 males and 3 females with a mean age of 35 years. They all presented with an asymptomatic cheek mass, and 4 of them underwent fine-needle aspiration. Ultrasound or computed tomographic scan was used in all patients. All the patients underwent surgical intervention with standard parotidectomy incision and anterior extension. The mean follow-up time was 44 months (range, 6-120 months). Seven patients had benign disease. Four cases were pleomorphic adenoma, and the remaining 3 benign cases were parotid cyst, basal cell adenoma, and hemangioma. Only 1 patient had a malignant tumor that was a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma. In 7 cases, wide excision (excision of mass and accessory lobe of the parotid gland) was done because of the intra-accessory parotid gland lesion. One patient had concomitant superficial parotidectomy because the tumor was located very close to and has involved the parotid gland proper. There was no serious postoperative complication and recurrence. Prudent preoperative diagnostic evaluation and meticulous surgical approach are the keys to successful management of midcheek lesions. A wide excision of the accessory lobe of the parotid gland can be a definitive surgery in case of solitary tumor with an intact parotid fascia, and wide excision with anterior approach through a standard parotidectomy incision is preferred to a direct incision over the mass.

  16. Sectional anatomy of the adrenal gland in the coronal plane.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gang; Liu, Shu Wei; Zhao, Zhen Mei; Lin, Xiang Tao; Lou, Li; Li, Zhen Ping; Tang, Yu Chun; Zhong, Shi Zhen

    2008-05-01

    To provide practical anatomic data for the imaging diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal disease, we investigated the anatomy of the adrenal gland and its relationships to regional structures using 31 sets of serial coronal sections of upper abdomen of Chinese adult cadavers and correlated coronal magnetic resonance (MR) images of ten upper abdomens of adult healthy volunteers and coronal reconstructed multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) images of five patients without lesions in the adrenal gland. The adrenal glands were visualized mainly on the successive coronal sections between 18 mm anterior to the posterior margin of inferior vena cava and 24 mm posterior to the posterior margin of inferior vena cava. In general, the left adrenal gland was visualized two sections earlier than the right adrenal gland. On the plane through the anterior parts of bilateral renal hili (A18), the appearance rate of bilateral adrenal glands was 100%, and the maximal measurements of bilateral adrenal glands were visualized. The length, width, thickness of right adrenal body, thickness of medial limb and lateral limb were, respectively, 34.02 +/- 2.12 mm, 10.91 +/- 0.89 mm, 5.82 +/- 0.26 mm, 2.78 +/- 0.08 mm, 2.62 +/- 0.06 mm, whereas the measurements of left adrenal gland were 28.31 +/- 2.46 mm, 18.40 +/- 1.06 mm, 6.84 +/- 0.24 mm, 3.02 +/- 0.08 mm, 2.86 +/- 0.07 mm, respectively. The coronal plane has superior advantage in showing the bilateral adrenal glands. The shapes of adrenal glands are various, whereas the range of adrenal thickness is quite narrow. The thickness of adrenal medial and lateral limbs, especially the thickness of lateral limb are useful for the diagnosis of the bilateral adrenocortical disease.

  17. Functional genetic characterization of salivary gland development in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the devastating global impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on human health, very little is known about mosquito developmental biology. In this investigation, functional genetic analysis of embryonic salivary gland development was performed in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever vector and an emerging model for vector mosquito development. Although embryonic salivary gland development has been well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about this process in mosquitoes or other arthropods. Results Mosquitoes possess orthologs of many genes that regulate Drosophila melanogaster embryonic salivary gland development. The expression patterns of a large subset of these genes were assessed during Ae. aegypti development. These studies identified a set of molecular genetic markers for the developing mosquito salivary gland. Analysis of marker expression allowed for tracking of the progression of Ae. aegypti salivary gland development in embryos. In Drosophila, the salivary glands develop from placodes located in the ventral neuroectoderm. However, in Ae. aegypti, salivary marker genes are not expressed in placode-like patterns in the ventral neuroectoderm. Instead, marker gene expression is detected in salivary gland rudiments adjacent to the proventriculus. These observations highlighted the need for functional genetic characterization of mosquito salivary gland development. An siRNA- mediated knockdown strategy was therefore employed to investigate the role of one of the marker genes, cyclic-AMP response element binding protein A (Aae crebA), during Ae. aegypti salivary gland development. These experiments revealed that Aae crebA encodes a key transcriptional regulator of the secretory pathway in the developing Ae. aegypti salivary gland. Conclusions The results of this investigation indicated that the initiation of salivary gland development in Ae. aegypti significantly differs from that of D. melanogaster. Despite these differences

  18. Uneven Meibomian Gland Dropout Over the Tarsal Plate and its Correlation With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue; Gong, Lan

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distribution of meibomian gland dropout and analyze the correlation between dropout and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). A total of 161 eyes of 85 patients with MGD were recruited as the MGD group; 88 eyes of 46 health volunteers were enrolled as the control group (2:1 matched for age and sex). Examinations included the Schirmer I test, breakup time, symptom questionnaire, corneal fluorescein staining, meibum quality, meibomian gland expressibility, and meibomian gland dropout. (1) The incidences of chalazion and eyelid surgery were significantly higher in patients with MGD. (2) All clinical indexes were better in healthy volunteers (all P < 0.05). (3) The dropout in the upper eyelid was statistically lower (P < 0.01) in both groups. The nasal and/or temporal part had higher dropout than did the middle part, except in the lower eyelid of the control group. (4) The entire or partial dropout was positively related to MGD occurrence. Both additive dropout of the entire 2 eyelids and that of the 2 nasal parts had the strongest correlation (r = 0.792, P < 0.01). (5) In the MGD group, breakup time was most negatively related to upper nasal dropout (r = -0.229, P < 0.05). The corneal staining score was positively related only to the dropout of additive (r = 0.185, P < 0.05) and lower (r = 0.258, P < 0.05) middle parts. (1) Uneven dropouts exist in different or single eyelids. (2) Dropout evaluation is better when covering the entire area of both upper and lower meibomians. (3) Nasal part dropout plays a more essential role than the other dropouts in MGD occurrence.

  19. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Sánchez, Gracia M; Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J; Ruiz-Masera, Juan José; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco M; García de Marcos, José A; Calderón-Bohórquez, José M

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a term that refers to a reactive pseudoneoplastic disorder that can appear in different locations of the human body. The lung is the most frequently affected organ. The etiology is still unknown. It affects individuals of both sexes and of a wide range of ages. The diagnosis is still difficult and it is based on the histological examination of the lesions composed of four cell-types: histiocytes, myofibroblasts, plasma cells and lymphocytes. With regard to the treatment regimes there is no agreement. Treatment ranges from surgical excision to radiotherapy, chemotherapy or steroids. The purpose of this article is to report one case of inflammatory pseudotumor located in the parotid gland and to make a special point of the difficulty in arriving at a correct diagnosis in order to achieve the most adequate treatment.

  20. Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: cytologists' enigma.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Kafil; Sen Ray, Prasenjit; Ahmad, S Shamhsad; Sherwani, Rana K

    2013-05-22

    Paraganglioma is a neuroendocrine tumour derived from extra-adrenal cells of the neural crest paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system. These rare neoplasms comprise of around 0.012% of head and neck tumours. Paraganglioma arising in the thyroid gland is exceptionally uncommon and can present as a diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We report a case of primary thyroid paraganglioma in a 19-year-old woman who presented with a solitary thyroid nodule without palpable cervical lymphadenopathy. FNAC from the lesion caused diagnostic dilemma by mimicking follicular neoplasm and C-cell-derived thyroid tumours; final diagnosis was established by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The main purpose of this case report is to discuss the differential diagnosis and emphasise on the need of immune markers in the diagnosis of thyroid paraganglioma. In view of the uncertain malignant potential of these tumours, a long-term follow-up is recommended.

  1. [Intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Synoracki, S; Ting, S; Siebolts, U; Dralle, H; Koperek, O; Schmid, K W

    2015-07-01

    The goal of evaluation of intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland is to achieve a definitive diagnosis which determines the subsequent surgical management as fast as possible; however, due to the specific methodological situation of thyroid frozen sections evaluation a conclusive diagnosis can be made in only some of the cases. If no conclusive histological diagnosis is possible during the operation, subsequent privileged processing of the specimen allows a final diagnosis at the latest within 48 h in almost all remaining cases. Applying this strategy, both pathologists and surgeons require a high level of communication and knowledge regarding the specific diagnostic and therapeutic peculiarities of thyroid malignancies because different surgical strategies must be employed depending on the histological tumor subtype.

  2. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  3. Primary orbital plasmacytoma mimicking lacrimal gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Madhu; Ranjan, Pratyush; Mishra, Deepak

    2014-08-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare plasma cell malignancy, comprising 3% of the whole group. The involvement of orbit is even rarer since 80% of extramedullary plasmacytoma have been reported from upper respiratory tract, followed by gastrointestinal tract. The disease is thrice more common in males than females and is more common in 6th to 7th decade of life, but we are reporting a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma presenting as lacrimal gland tumor in a 59-year-old female. The correct diagnosis is essential since the disease is highly radiosensitive and responds well to radiotherapy unlike other malignancy in this region. A high index of suspicion with imaging and careful use of fine needle aspiration cytology helps in diagnosis and prompt treatment.

  4. [Estrogen receptors and the mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Barrón, A; Bermejo, L; Castro, I

    1997-01-01

    For several decades it has been known that steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, regulate some genes involved in the growth, proliferation and differentiation of the mammary-gland in animals and humans. In the last years, the presence or absence of the nuclear estrogen receptor has been used by clinicians as a marker for tumor malignancy, as a prognostic index or as an important parameter for hormonal therapy with anti-estrogenic compounds of some hormone-dependent breast cancers. This review shows some advances in the knowledge of the structure, function, molecular mechanisms of estrogenic activity, and interaction with proteins like protooncogenes and growth factors. Also, we refer to the role of the estrogen receptor in the physiophatology of breast cancer.

  5. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alert odor from skin gland in deer.

    PubMed

    Müller-Schwarze, D; Altieri, R; Porter, N

    1984-12-01

    Black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) discharge an odor from the metatarsal (MT) gland, located on the hindleg, when disturbed or alarmed. Freely moving, captive deer were exposed to the MT odor by means of a remote-release apparatus. Responses by males and females to MT odor from both sexes were recorded with a coding system and a video camera. When the odor was present, females became more alert and left the site more often than in the presence of control odors, odorless air, or deer urine. It is concluded that the MT secretion provides an alert signal, placing the odor into the class of alarm pheromones. There is no evidence that the closely related white-tailed deer,O. virginianus, possesses this alert (or alarm) odor system to the same degree.

  7. [Development of the human adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Folligan, K; Bouvier, R; Targe, F; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2005-09-01

    The human adrenal is an endocrine gland located at the superior part of the kidney. Composed of the adrenal cortex of mesoblastic origin and the adrenal medulla of neuroectoblastic origin, the human fetal adrenal grows considerably during the first three months of development. From 12 to 18 weeks of development (WD), the weight of the adrenals increases seven-fold. The gland's weight doubles from 18 to 28 WD and from 28 to 36 WD. At birth, the two adrenals weigh on average 10 g. At the 8th week, two zones are individualized in the adrenal cortex: the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. At the second trimester, according to ultrastructural and biochemical studies, a third zone, called the transition zone, is individualized between the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. The definitive zone persists, but the origin of the three zones (glomerular, fascicular and reticular) of adult adrenal cortex is not known. The fetal inner zone regresses from the 5th month of gestation and disappears totally one year after birth. At the 8th week, the immature neuroblasts migrate to the definitive zone, then to the fetal inner zone to compose the adrenal medulla, which develops essentially after birth and during the first year. Before the 10th week, the human fetal adrenal is able to produce steroid hormones, in particular dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S); the secretion of cortisol remains discussed. The development of the human fetal adrenal is complex and is under the control of hormones (ACTH, LH and betaHCG), growth factors (ACTH essentially) and transcription factors (essentially SF1 and DAX-1). Knowledge of morphological and molecular phenomena of this development permits to understand the pathophisiology of congenital adrenal deficiencies.

  8. [Sweat gland tumors in Niger. Anatomopathology].

    PubMed

    Warter, A; Diolombi, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors report 15 cases of sweat gland tumour observed over 2 years in Niger where their pathology was never studied. These tumours accounted for 0.38 p. 100 of all examinations performed during the same period at the pathological laboratory of the University of Niamey. They ranked sixth among the diagnoses of skin pathology. Only routine histological techniques were used. The diagnoses obtained could be divided into 5 groups. Eight women presented with partly solid cystic tumours located on the legs in 5 cases; their structure was typical of nodular hidradenoma. Two male patients had cyst-pitted tumours the superficial portion of which showed a structure of papillary eccrine adenoma, while the deep portion contained a multitude of cysts with atrophic walls; the authors consider this type of tumour as a variant of papillary eccrine adenoma. One patient had a syringocystadenoma which also included a large cyst. Finally, one patient presented with a chondroid syringoma in the axillary region, and 3 patients had histologically aggressive carcinomas located on the sole, forehead and axillary region respectively. Clinical and paraclinical investigations failed to detect any deep malignancy in these three patients, and their tumours were regarded as compatible with sweat gland carcinomas. In this series, two lesions were unusually numerous: carcinomas and nodular hydradenomas. The first named probably are a consequence of the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the population of Niger: poverty prevents patients from consulting for diseases which produce no symptoms, which artificially increases the apparent incidence of aggressive lesions. As for nodular hydradenomas, they are large owing to the presence of cysts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril labeling of ACE. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. (/sup 3/H)Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, (/sup 3/H)captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor (/sup 3/H)GEMSA.

  10. Abnormal sebaceous gland differentiation in 10 kittens ('sebaceous gland dysplasia') associated with generalized hypotrichosis and scaling.

    PubMed

    Yager, Julie A; Gross, Thelma Lee; Shearer, David; Rothstein, Emily; Power, Helen; Sinke, Jacqueline D; Kraus, Hans; Gram, Dunbar; Cowper, Ellie; Foster, Aiden; Welle, Monika

    2012-04-01

    A rare congenital dermatosis, characterized by progressive hypotrichosis with variable scaling and crusting, occurred in 10 short-haired kittens in North America and Europe. Lesions appeared at between 4 and 12 weeks of age, commencing on the head and becoming generalized. The tail was spared in two kittens. Generalized scaling was mild to moderate, often with prominent follicular casts. Periocular, perioral, pinnal and ear canal crusting was occasionally severe. The skin was thick and wrinkled in two kittens. Histologically, the main lesion was abnormal sebaceous gland morphology. Instead of regular differentiation from basal cells to mature sebocytes, the glands were composed of a haphazard collection of undifferentiated basaloid cells, some partly vacuolated and a few containing eosinophilic globules. Mitotic figures and apoptotic cells were present in an irregularly thickened follicular isthmus. Lymphocytic mural folliculitis and mild sebaceous adenitis were rare. Orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and follicular casts were present. Hair follicles were of normal density and were mostly in anagen, but some contained malacic hair shafts. Perforating folliculitis, leading to dermal trichogranuloma formation, occurred occasionally. Further biopsy samples taken at 2 years and at 3 and 4 years, respectively, from two kittens revealed similar but often more severe sebaceous gland lesions. Hair follicles were smaller, with many in telogen. The young age of onset suggests a genetic defect interfering with sebaceous and, possibly, follicular development. These lesions are discussed with reference to studies of mouse mutants in which genetic defects in sebaceous differentiation cause a similar phenotype of hyperkeratosis and progressive alopecia.

  11. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-11-15

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland.

  12. The frontal gland in workers of Neotropical soldierless termites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dussès, David; Weyda, František; Dejean, Alain; Roisin, Yves; Hanus, Robert; Bourguignon, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The presence of the frontal gland is well established in termite soldiers of Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae, and Termitidae. It is one of their main defensive adaptations or even an exclusive weapon. The gland was also occasionally reported in alate imagoes, but never in the worker caste. Here, we report the first observation of a frontal gland in workers of several Neotropical and one African species of Apicotermitinae. The ultrastructure of Aparatermes cingulatus and Anoplotermes nr. subterraneus is described in detail. In these two species, the gland is well-developed, functional and consists of class 1 secretory cells. The presence of envelope cells, wrapping the gland, is an unusual feature, as well as the presence of several zonulae adherens, connecting neighbouring glandular cells. The frontal gland of workers is homologous to this organ in soldiers and imagoes, as evidenced by the same position in the head and its connection to the same muscle. However, the defensive role of the frontal gland in workers remains to be confirmed.

  13. Patterns of innervation of the lacrimal gland with clinical application.

    PubMed

    Scott, Gabriel; Balsiger, Heather; Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Gest, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Parasympathetic stimulation of the lacrimal gland is responsible for tear production, and this innervation originates from fibers conveyed in the facial nerve. After synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion, postsynaptic parasympathetic fibers travel within the zygomatic and zygomaticotemporal nerves (ZTN) into the orbit. As described in most anatomy texts, ZTN communicates with the lacrimal nerve (LN) posterior to the gland and then secretomotor fibers enter the gland. This study was performed to gain a better understanding of the innervation of the lacrimal gland. Seventeen cadaver heads were bisected for a total of 34 sides, which then underwent dissection of the superolateral orbital region to observe the course for the LN and ZTN. Three variations of the course of the LN and ZTN were found. In 20 (60.6%) dissections it was documented that the ZTN entered directly into the lacrimal gland with no communication with the LN. In 12 (36.4%) of the bisected heads, ZTN had both a direct connection into the gland and a communicating branch with the LN. In only one (3.0%) bisected head, ZTN communicated with the LN before entering the gland as it is commonly described in anatomy texts. Our study reveals that the ZTN usually takes a different course than is classically described in most anatomy textbooks. A greater understanding of the typical course these nerves take may help surgeons identify them more easily and avoid damaging them.

  14. [Age-dependent morphology of human pineal gland: supravital study].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S V

    2007-01-01

    On the base of analysis of 5784 events of diagnostic magnetic-resonance tomography studies of the head of patients in radio diagnosis departments the database is formed. Only events (n=411) without cerebral, oncology, endocrine and other pathology are taken in database. The material was grouped to time and date of the study, sex and age in accordance with generally accepted categorization. Maximum linear sizes of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri in sagittal, axial and coronar projection were measured in all events; volumes of the organs were calculated on the formula of a ball. It is defined that the volume of pineal gland increases from birth till 17-21 year age, gradually falls till the second mature age and is getting stable in old age. The normative factors of the volume of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri for 8 age groups are determined. "Brain sand" and false cysts in pineal gland can be observed in all age groups. The petrification degree of pineal gland, as of computer tomography, varies from 30 to 277 ed. HV. For the factor of pineal gland volume and factor of cysts frequency in pineal gland a puberty "collapse" is typical, mainly in men.

  15. The cylindrical or tubiliform glands of Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Candelas, G C; Ortiz, A; Molina, C

    1986-02-01

    The cylindrical or tubiliform glands of the spider Nephila clavipes have been studied and compared to the large ampullates on which we have previously reported. The three pairs of cylindrical or tubiliform glands secrete the fibroin for the organism's egg case. Their solubilized luminar contents migrate as a homogeneous band in Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and turn out to be a larger protein than that produced by the large ampullates. The excised cylindrical glands remain metabolically active for several hours in a simple culture medium, where fibroin synthesis can be monitored through the incorporation of 14C alanine. The glands' response to a fibroin production stimulus does not reach the magnitude displayed by the large ampullates, but this is to be expected since their products supply different functions in this organism. This fibroin also seems to be elongated discontinuously. Translational pauses have been detected in the secretory epithelium of cylindrical and large ampullate glands of Nephila as well as in the silk glands of Bombyx mori. Since these glands produce the fibroin for the females egg case, they should prove to be an interesting model system.

  16. Salivary Gland NK Cells Are Phenotypically and Functionally Unique

    PubMed Central

    Brossay, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or Treg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells. PMID:21249177

  17. Adrenal Gland Infection by Serotype 5 Adenovirus Requires Coagulation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Philippe R.; Darcourt, Jacques; Cornilleau, Gaétan; Benihoud, Karim; Vassaux, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin) as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney) could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting. PMID:23638001

  18. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  19. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  20. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David A.; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Hatton, Mark P.; Liu, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. Results. Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. Conclusions. Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland. PMID:24867579

  1. Congenital Absence of Salivary Glands in Fetuses with Trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Marwan; Bronshtein, Moshe; Bornstein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The congenital absence of salivary glands has been reported in children but never in fetuses with trisomy 21. To determine whether the congenital absence of salivary glands can be detected prenatally between 13 and 16 weeks of gestation in normal and trisomy 21 fetuses using transvaginal ultrasound. We performed a retrospective analysis of recordings of normal and trisomy 21 fetuses. Inclusion criteria were a single viable fetus and good visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands on both sides of the fetal face. All videos were reviewed by one examiner who reported the presence or absence of one or more salivary glands and was blinded to the fetal karyotype. Of the 45 videos reviewed, 4 were excluded from the study: namely, a non-viable fetus, twin pregnancy, and in 2 there was unsatisfactory visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands. Of the remaining 41 fetuses, 24 had trisomy 21 and 17 were normal. In the trisomy 21 fetuses, 8 (33.3%) had congenital absence of one or more salivary glands compared to 1 of 17 normal fetuses (5.9%) (P < 0.05). Congenital absence of the salivary glands has a high specificity but low sensitivity for detecting trisomy 21 fetuses.

  2. Electromyography monitoring of patients with salivary gland diseases.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Nahlieli, Oded; Segal, Samuel; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2005-12-01

    To provide a description of surface electromyography (sEMG) of spontaneous saliva swallowing (SSS) and monitoring of swallow rate in patients with salivary gland diseases. Numbers of SSS obtained during 2 hours of sEMG monitoring were compared with sialometry data for healthy volunteers (n = 100), patients with Sjögren syndrome (n = 10), and patients after parotid gland (n = 15) and submandibular gland (n = 16) surgery. Normative: 1 SSS every 2 minutes and 15 seconds; Sjögren: 1 SSS every 13 minutes (P < 0.001); parotid gland surgery: 1 SSS every 3 minutes and 24 seconds (P = 0.26); submandibular gland surgery: 1 SSS every 5 minutes and 04 seconds (P < 0.05). Sjögren patients and patients after submandibular surgery had hyposalivation correlated with less SSS. The established normal rate of SSS makes this modality applicable for evaluating salivary flow for potentially identifying and ruling out abnormalities. Parotid gland surgery does not significantly affect salivary flow rate. Sialometry combined with sEMG monitoring give a clinician more reliable data to evaluate salivary gland disorders than sialometry alone.

  3. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Utility in Salivary Gland Tumor Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Aniruddha; Sharma, Nishi; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of tumors by using immunocytochemistry (IHC) on destained smears to correlate the cytological findings with histopathology and/or IHC for final evaluation of results. We have done a randomized and prospective double-blind study. Forty-six clinically suspected patients of salivary gland tumor were enrolled for study. Those with non-neoplastic\\ inflammatory salivary gland pathologies and swellings other than salivary gland origin were excluded from the study. The Fine needle aspiration cytological (FNAC) diagnosis of all the patients was compared with the corresponding histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in diagnosing malignancy were 91.3 and 100 %. Diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant tumors was 95.65 %. In our study kappa value came out to be 0.88 (p value <0.00), which indicated an excellent agreement between histological and cytological typing of salivary gland tumors. FNAC is a highly sensitive and specific technique for diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. Histopathology however is the gold standard for diagnosis, classification and grading of tumors. Immuno-cytochemistry can act as adjuvant in diagnosing salivary gland tumors, however it did not help in improving the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in our study. Considering an excellent agreement between cytology and histology, a type specific diagnosis can be reached on FNAC of salivary gland tumors.

  4. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation.

    PubMed

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-03-27

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands.

  5. Ultrasonographic measurements of adrenal glands in cats with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Peremans, Kathelijne; Daminet, Sylvie; Saunders, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Feline hyperthyroidism is potentially associated with exaggerated responsiveness of the adrenal gland cortex. The adrenal glands of 23 hyperthyroid cats were examined ultrasonographically and compared to the adrenal glands of 30 control cats. Ten hyperthyroid cats had received antithyroid drugs until 2 weeks before sonography, the other 13 were untreated. There was no difference in adrenal gland shape between healthy and hyperthyroid cats: bean-shaped, well-defined, hypoechoic structures surrounded by a hyperechoic halo in 43/60 (71.6%) healthy cats and 34/46 (73.9%) hyperthyroid cats; more ovoid in 13/60 (21.6%) healthy cats and 9/46 (19.6%) hyperthyroid cats while more elongated in 4/60 (6.7%) healthy cats, 3/46 (6.5%) hyperthyroid cats. Hyperechoic foci were present in 9/23 (39.1%) hyperthyroid cats and 2/30 (6.7%) healthy cats. The adrenal glands were significantly larger in hyperthyroid cats, although there was overlap in size range. The mean difference between hyperthyroid cats and healthy cats was 1.6 and 1.7 mm in left and right adrenal gland length, 0.8 and 0.9 mm in left and right cranial adrenal gland height, and 0.4 and 0.9 mm in left and right caudal adrenal gland height. There was no significant difference between the adrenal gland measurements in treated and untreated hyperthyroid cats. The adrenomegaly was most likely associated with the hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex documented in hyperthyroid cats. Hyperthyroidism should be an alternative to hyperadrenocorticism, hyperaldosteronism, and acromegaly in cats with bilateral moderate adrenomegaly.

  6. Tissue-specific ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, J L; Shimizu, N; Gitlin, J D

    1991-01-01

    Using a ceruloplasmin cDNA clone in RNA blot analysis, a single 3.7 kb ceruloplasmin-specific transcript was detected in rat mammary gland tissue from pregnant and lactating animals. Ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland was tissue-specific, with no evidence of expression in brain, heart or other extrahepatic tissues. Ceruloplasmin mRNA was also detected in mammary gland tissue from male, virgin female and non-pregnant/multiparous animals, and the abundance of ceruloplasmin-specific transcripts in virgin female rats was independent of their stage of oestrus. In virgin female mammary gland the content of ceruloplasmin mRNA was 20% of that in hepatic tissue from these animals and approx. 2-3-fold greater than that found in mammary gland tissue of pregnant or lactating animals. Development studies revealed ceruloplasmin gene expression in male and female mammary gland by only 2 weeks of age, prior to the onset of puberty. Biosynthetic studies indicated that the ceruloplasmin mRNA in mammary gland tissue was translated into a 132 kDa protein qualitatively similar to that synthesized in liver. By in situ hybridization, ceruloplasmin gene expression was localized to the epithelium lining the mammary gland alveolar ducts, without evidence of expression in the surrounding mesenchyme. Ceruloplasmin gene expression was also detected in a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line and in biopsy tissue from women with invasive ductal carcinoma. Taken together, these data indicate that the mammary gland is a prominent site of extrahepatic ceruloplasmin gene expression and add to the evidence that ceruloplasmin biosynthesis is associated with growth and differentiation in non-hepatic tissues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1764031

  7. Descartes and the pineal gland in animals: a frequent misinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Finger, S

    1995-01-01

    René Descartes presented a number of reasons for his choice of the pineal gland as a logical place for the soul to interact with the physical machinery of the body. It is often stated that one of his reasons was that he believed animals do not have pineal glands, whereas humans alone possess a soul and this small structure. This is a misinterpretation of Descartes. The philosopher knew that barnyard and other animals possess pineal glands, having seen this with his own eyes. His point was that the pineal is unique in humans only because of a special function - acting as the seat for the rational soul.

  8. Submandibular ectopic thyroid with normally located thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Aytürk, Semra; Güven, Mehmet; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland which is defined as the presence of thyroid tissue at a site other than the pretracheal area. Nearly 1 to 3% of all ectopic thyroids are located in the lateral neck. Simultaneous submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. In this article, we report a 37-year-old female case admitted to our clinic with a complaint of swollen neck in whom ultrasonography revealed submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with an orthotopic thyroid gland.

  9. Peculiarities of the antioxidant status of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Nadolnik, L I; Valentyukevich, O I

    2007-10-01

    The intensity of lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant system in the thyroid gland were compared with those in the liver, kidney, heart, and frontal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres in euthyroid male Wistar rats. The thyroid gland was characterized by low activity of first-line antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, considerable concentration of reduced glutathione, and high activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Our results suggest that the system of glutathione metabolism determines antioxidant status of the thyroid gland.

  10. [Characteristics of the pineal gland and thymus relationship in aging].

    PubMed

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N

    2011-01-01

    The review presents the interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution. The research data of thymus peptides influence on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus are summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (Epithalamin, Epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (Thymalin, Thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  11. Frequency of varicella zoster virus DNA in human adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Badani, Hussain; White, Teresa; Schulick, Nicole; Raeburn, Christopher D; Topkaya, Ibrahim; Gilden, Don; Nagel, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in ganglionic neurons derived from neural crest cells. Because the adrenal gland also contains medullary chromaffin cells of neural crest origin, we examined human adrenal glands and medullary chromaffin cell tumors (pheochromocytomas) for VZV and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We found VZV, but not HSV-1, DNA in 4/63 (6 %) normal adrenal glands. No VZV transcripts or antigens were detected in the 4 VZV DNA-positive samples. No VZV or HSV-1 DNA was found in 21 pheochromocytomas.

  12. beta-Glucuronidase activity in the developing uropygial gland.

    PubMed

    Uva, B M; Mandich, A; Deplano, S; Vallarino, M; Isola, G

    1979-01-01

    The presence of sterolic compounds and beta-glucuronidase activity have been studied in the uropygial glands of chick embryos (18th day of inc.), chickens (3 weeks after hatching) and young fowls (5 months old). Sterols are histochemically detectable only after hatching and beta-glucuronidase activity, very faint before hatching, reaches its maximum in chicken glands with a peculiar inner localization coincident with sterolic localization. It is suggested that beta-glucuronidase has in uropygial gland a double functional significance: a certain amount of activity is developed to cell proliferation whereas a more strong activity is involved in the hydrolysis of sterol glucuronides.

  13. Treatment of Bartholin gland cyst with CO2 laser

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Boechat, Karol Pereira Ruela; dos Santos, Georgia Mouzinho Lima; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the results of treatment with CO2 laser for Bartholin gland cysts. Methods Thirty-one women with Bartholin gland cysts were treated with CO2 laser at an outpatient´s setting. Skin incision was performed with focused laser beam, the capsule was opened to drain mucoid content, followed by internal vaporization of impaired capsule. Results There were no complications. Five patients had recurrence of the cyst and were submitted to a second and successful session. Conclusion CO2 laser surgery was effective to treat Bartholin gland cysts with minimal or no complications, and can be performed at an outpatient´s setting. PMID:27074230

  14. [Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the feline salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Fromme, Vivian; Köhler, Claudia; Piesnack, Susann; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2016-12-05

    The aim of the study was to define anatomical characteristics of feline salivary glands using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to describe landmarks for their reliable identification. Heads of 37 adult cats without signs of diseased salivary glands on clinical examination or history were examined. In cats included in the prospective part of the study, the MRI study was completed within one hour after euthanasia (n = 16). In the retrospective part, previously performed MRI studies were evaluated (n = 21). The prospective part of the study included the following standardized sequences: T2-weighted (T2W) turbo spin echo (TSE), T2W fat-suppressed TSE and proton density weighted (PDW) TSE images in a transverse plane as well as T1-weighted (T1W) fast field echo (FFE) in the transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes. In the retrospective part, T2W TSE and T1W TSE transverse images pre- and post-contrast were analyzed. Initially, identification and delineation of the salivary glands from surrounding tissue was assessed. Anatomical structures of the head were then identified and defined as landmarks. The dimensions of the glands were measured on T2W TSE images and the signal intensity in relation to that of fat and muscle was described using all sequences. In total, 95.9% of the parotid glands and 100% of the mandibular glands could be visualized on T1W TSE and FFE images and on T2W TSE images. Additionally, 93.3% of the zygomatic glands were identified on T2W TSE sequences and 82.5% on T1W TSE and FFE images. The ventral buccal glands could be demarcated in some sequences (T2W TSE: 51.4%, T1W TSE and FFE: 18.9%). Anatomical landmarks facilitated gland identification. Comparing the size of the salivary glands of both groups revealed differences of up to 2 mm. Both the large salivary glands (Glandula [Gl.]. parotis and Gl. mandibularis) and the small salivary glands (Gl. zygomatica and Gl. buccalis ventralis) of the cat can be reliably identified on MRI images.

  15. Gland-preserving robotic surgery for benign submandibular gland tumours: a comparison between robotic and open techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Benign tumours of the submandibular gland are usually treated surgically. Gland-preserving techniques, which can be used to completely remove the tumour, preserve the function of the gland and reduce complications, but conventional open operations result in obvious scars on the neck. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of gland-preserving robotic surgery using a hairline approach. We compared robotic with open techniques for gland-preserving operations to remove benign tumours of the submandibular gland. Patients were matched for age and sex (4 in each group). All patients in the robotic surgery group had their tumours removed successfully through hairline approaches. No patient had operative complications or postoperative functional nerve deficit, and an aesthetically pleasing outcome was achieved by concealing the scars within the hairline. Robotic operations took longer than open operations. No recurrence was noted during follow-up. Gland-preserving robotic surgery is a feasible alternative to conventional techniques and has potential advantages for safety and aesthetic outcome. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. )

    1991-02-01

    Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

  17. A Comparison of the Effects of Estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the Lacrimal Gland and Submandibular Gland in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Da, Yunmeng; Niu, Kaiyu; Wang, Ke; Cui, Guangxia; Wang, Wenjuan; Jin, Biao; Sun, Yu; Jia, Jing; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups—a sham-operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX) group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E), and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR). The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase). The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms. PMID:25793872

  18. The Esophageal Glands of Pratylenchus Filipjev and Apratylenchoides belli n. gen. n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Sher, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The esophageal glands in the genus Pratylenchus occur in a large, single ventral lobe except for four populations in which a few specimens had the glands located dorsally. Apratylenchoides belli n. gen. n. sp. in the subfamily Radopholinae is proposed for a species having two esophageal glands in a large dorsal lobe and one gland in a smaller, shorter ventral lobe. PMID:19319335

  19. Immune cell location and function during post-natal mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Reed, Johanna R; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L

    2010-09-01

    Post-natal mammary gland development requires complex interactions between the epithelial cells and various cell types within the stroma. Recent studies have illustrated the importance of immune cells and their mediators during the various stages of mammary gland development. However, the mechanisms by which these immune cells functionally contribute to mammary gland development are only beginning to be understood. This review provides an overview of the localization of immune cells within the mammary gland during the various stages of post-natal mammary gland development. Furthermore, recent studies are summarized that illustrate the mechanisms by which these cells are recruited to the mammary gland and their functional roles in mammary gland development.

  20. Pleomorphic adenoma--unusual presentation of a salivary gland tumor in the neck of a child.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K V; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bansal, Vishal; Saxena, Susmita; Elhence, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic salivary gland tumors are rare in children. When salivary gland tumors do develop, they preferentially affect major salivary glands and then minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma, also referred to as a benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. Approximately 90% of these tumors occur in the parotid gland, while the remaining 10% affect the minor salivary glands. However, it is uncommon to find them elsewhere in the head and neck region. We report a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma in the upper neck, an unusual site in an 8-year-old boy.

  1. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  2. Comparative study of the labial gland secretion in termites (Isoptera).

    PubMed

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cvačka, Josef; Kutalová, Kateřina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers.

  3. Stem cells in normal mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Yin, Xin; Ma, Tao; Lu, Jun

    2010-04-01

    The mammary gland is a structurally dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic alterations with age, menstrual cycle, and reproductive status. Mammary gland stem cells, the minor cell population within the mature organ, are thought to have multiple functions in regulating mammary gland development, tissue maintenance, major growth, and structural remodeling. In addition, accumulative evidence suggests that breast cancers are initiated and maintained by a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell features (called cancer stem cells). A variety of methods have been developed to identify and characterize mammary stem cells, and several signal transduction pathways have been identified to be essential for the self-renewal and differentiation of mammary gland stem cells. Understanding the origin of breast cancer stem cells, their relationship to breast cancer development, and the differences between normal and cancer stem cells may lead to novel approaches to breast cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  4. Mammary gland tumors in irradiated and untreated guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Liebelt, A.G.; Congdon, C.C.; Stewart, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of mammary gland tumors from 62 guinea pigs. The tumors arose in the terminal ductal-lobular units as either lobular acinar carcinoma or cystadenocarcinoma or as papillary carcinomas within large ducts near the mammilla. About half the number of the males had terminal ductal-lobular carcinomas and all but 2 of the papillary duct carcinomas also arose in males. Large tumors frequently exhibited squamous, chondromatous, osseous, fatty and myoepitheliomatous types of tissues. In 2 irradiated males and 1 female the tumors metastasized. Whole-body irradiation did not produce significant changes in the number or sex distribution or in the morphology of mammary gland tumors in inbred or outbred guinea pigs. All females had cystic ovaries without increase in granulosa cells, 24 (66.6%) had uterine tumors and 13 (34.2%) had adrenal gland tumors; all males had atrophic testes, 5 (16.5%) had testicular and 6 (22.2%) had adrenal gland tumors.

  5. FDOPA Patterns in Adrenal Glands: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Aurélie; Giraudet, Anne Laure; Kryza, David; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Bournaud-Salinas, Claire; Mognetti, Thomas; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Combemale, Patrick; Giammarile, Francesco; Houzard, Claire

    2017-05-01

    F-FDOPA is a well-established tool to explore pheochromocytomas. It tends to replace I-MIBG scan in metastatic pheochromocytomas, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-related tumors, succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit-negative tumors, and succinate dehydrogenase[ZERO WIDTH SPACE]-positive lesions. To our knowledge, no study has characterized physiological and pathological adrenal glands with F-FDOPA from a quantitative point of view. We report the features of different normal and pathological adrenal glands with F-FDOPA. Within our series, only pheochromocytomas present a significantly increased uptake reflecting the high specificity of this tracer. Tumors such as adenomas or myelolipomas present no F-FDOPA significant accumulation. Interestingly, adrenal gland hyperplasia and solitary glands do not demonstrate compensatory uptake.

  6. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor of the parotid gland: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Alexandre A.; Souto, Giovanna R.; Sousa, Isabela A.; Mesquita, Ricardo A.; Gomez, Ricardo S.

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm that usually develops in the pleura and peritoneum. The head and neck region is involved in only 6% of the cases. Involvement of the parotid gland is a rare phenomenon, with only 24 cases reported in the literature. The aim of this study is to report an additional case of SFT affecting the parotid gland, and to review the literature on previously reported cases. The patient was a 42-year-old male with a 4-cm, fibro-elastic, movable, painless nodule in the inferior lobe of the parotid gland. The lesion was surgically excised and, following histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, a diagnosis of SFT was rendered. The patient has been followed-up for ten months, with no signs of recurrence. Clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and treatment aspects of the tumor are discussed. Key words:Solitary fibrous tumor, parotid gland, case report. PMID:24455083

  8. Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cvačka, Josef; Kutalová, Kateřina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers. PMID:23071569

  9. Combined development of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign diseases.

    PubMed

    Makaridze, T; Mardaleishvili, K

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study is to establish the role of endocrine disturbances in development of malignant tumors in patients with thyroid gland and reproductive system pathology. We studied 207 patients with synchronic and metachronic development of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign tumors. The patients' average age was 35-58 years. According to study the following aspects were determined: clinical and hormonal aspect of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign tumor disease coincidence, analyses of thyroid gland and reproductive system pre-cancer disease pathogenesis, neuroendocrine relations-like increased thyrotrophic hormone secretion causes strengthening of prolactin secretion, which depresses luteinizing hormone release and increases production of follicular stimulating hormone. It has been proved that fibromyomas absolute hyperestrogenemia which develops during hypersecretion of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a role in etiology of uterine Gonadoliberin hypersecretion, especially follicular stimulating hormone FSH and corpus luteum deficiency is very important in development of ovarian pre-cancer and cancer diseases.

  10. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement.

  12. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma. The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement. The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma. This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement. PMID:27149501

  13. Histoplasmosis of the adrenal glands studied by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.A.; Muchmore, H.G.; Tisdal, R.G.; Fahmy, A.; Pitha, J.V.

    1984-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands was performed on seven patients who had histologically proved disseminated histoplasmosis. All seven patients showed some degree of adrenal gland abnormality. The range of CT findings included minimal enlargement with faint flecks of calcium, moderate enlargement with focal low attenuation nodules, and massive enlargement with large areas of necrosis or dense calcification. The changes in each patient were bilateral and symmetrical. Adrenal gland shape was usually preserved. Finding of percutaneous adrenal biopsy, which was performed under CT guidance, made the diagnosis in one patient. Five of seven patients had adrenal insufficiency. It is concluded that the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered in any patient who has bilateral adrenal gland enlargement and who resides in an endemic area, especially if there is evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

  14. Recessive inherited doubling of the chicken's uropygial gland papilla.

    PubMed

    Somes, R G

    1991-01-01

    A new mutation that causes doubling of the uropygial gland (oil gland) papilla is described, and data that demonstrate its inherited basis are presented. This condition, which has been given the name "double oil gland papilla," varies in its expression: some individuals show only an indention of the papilla tip, while others exhibit a complete cleavage of the papilla such that two completely separate papillae project from a single oil gland. The data presented show that a single autosomal recessive gene, dgp, is the main determinant of this trait, but that its expression may also be influenced by background genetic factors as well as sex. Males more frequently are of the extreme doubling expression while females more frequently express the milder indented phenotype. Approximately 4% of mutant females are classified as normal. A linkage test with the rose comb gene showed independent segregation.

  15. Intra-Operative Indocyanine Green Angiography of the Parathyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Vidal Fortuny, Jordi; Karenovics, Wolfram; Triponez, Frederic; Sadowski, Samira M

    2016-10-01

    Major complications of thyroid and parathyroid surgery are recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries and definitive hypoparathyroidism. The use of intra-operative Indocyanine Green Angiography for confirmation of vascular status of the parathyroid gland is reported here.

  16. [Minor salivary gland tumours: a 10-year study].

    PubMed

    Targa-Stramandinoli, Roberta; Torres-Pereira, Cassius; Piazzetta, Cleto M; Giovanini, Allan F; Amenábar, José M

    2009-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours represent between 2 % and 6.5 %, approximately, of all head and neck tumours. The aim of this paper was to identify the frequency of minor salivary gland tumours among patients in the Oral Medicine Clinic of the Federal University of Paraná during the period from 1997 to 2007. A retrospective study was conducted on 1,923 histopathological analyses of oral lesions. Fourteen cases of salivary gland tumours were found, of which 7 were benign and 7 malignant. The lesions were localized mainly in the palate (71.5 %). By histological type, 50 % of the lesions were characterized as pleomorphic adenoma, 28.6 % mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 14.3 % cystic adenoid carcinoma and 7.1 % as polymorphous adenocarcinoma. These findings suggest that salivary gland tumours have a low incidence in the population and that the pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of tumour, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

  17. Parathyroid gland of the freshwater snake Natrix piscator Schneider.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Kar, I

    1983-07-01

    The structure and function of the parathyroid glands of freshwater snake, Natrix piscator, were studied. N. piscator has two pairs of parathyroid glands which are composed of cell cords of typical endocrine appearance, and follicles are absent. Parathyroidectomy was followed by significant (P less than 0.001) hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia throughout the 5th week of experimental period. Following parathyroidectomy, calcium and phosphate concentrations in bone were significantly (P less than 0.05) increased after 5 weeks; however, these values in muscle were not significantly changed. Tetany was also observed in parathyroidectomized snakes. Histological structure and function of the glands do not appear to vary seasonally. Administration of parathyroid gland extract of this ophidian reptile into rats caused significant (P less than 0.05) elevation of serum calcium.

  18. Developmental biology: cell fate in the mammary gland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most breast cancers have their origin in the luminal epithelial cells of the mammary gland. Defining how a master regulator controls the development of this cell lineage could provide important hints about why this should be. ...

  19. Detection of meibomian glands and classification of meibography images.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yang Wei; Celik, Turgay; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Petznick, Andrea; Tong, Louis

    2012-08-01

    Computational methods are presented that can automatically detect the length and width of meibomian glands imaged by infrared meibography without requiring any input from the user. The images are then automatically classified. The length of the glands are detected by first normalizing the pixel intensity, extracting stationary points, and then applying morphological operations. Gland widths are detected using scale invariant feature transform and analyzed using Shannon entropy. Features based on the gland lengths and widths are then used to train a linear classifier to accurately differentiate between healthy (specificity 96.1%) and unhealthy (sensitivity 97.9%) meibography images. The user-free computational method is fast, does not suffer from inter-observer variability, and can be useful in clinical studies where large number of images needs to be analyzed efficiently.

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor of the parotid gland: Case report.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alexandre A; Souto, Giovanna R; Sousa, Isabela A; Mesquita, Ricardo A; Gomez, Ricardo S; Jham, Bruno C

    2013-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm that usually develops in the pleura and peritoneum. The head and neck region is involved in only 6% of the cases. Involvement of the parotid gland is a rare phenomenon, with only 24 cases reported in the literature. The aim of this study is to report an additional case of SFT affecting the parotid gland, and to review the literature on previously reported cases. The patient was a 42-year-old male with a 4-cm, fibro-elastic, movable, painless nodule in the inferior lobe of the parotid gland. The lesion was surgically excised and, following histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, a diagnosis of SFT was rendered. The patient has been followed-up for ten months, with no signs of recurrence. Clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and treatment aspects of the tumor are discussed. Key words:Solitary fibrous tumor, parotid gland, case report.

  1. Spectrum of Salivary Gland Lesions in a Tertiary Level Hospital.

    PubMed

    Begum, A; Baten, M A; Alam, M M; Huq, M H; Ahsan, M M; Khan, M K; Saleh, F M; Talukder, S I

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively infrequent and account for less than 2% of all human tumors. This study was conducted to see the prevalence of patterns of non neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of salivary glands in greater Mymensingh. It was a retrospective study carried out in the department of Pathology, Community Based Medical College Bangladesh from January 2010 to December 2012. Heamatoxylin and eosin stained sections were studied in all cases. Total 98 cases of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Out of them 55 cases were female and 43 were male. Mean age of the cases were 42 years. Among the salivary gland lesions non-neoplastic lesions 24.48% and neoplastic lesions 75.51%. Among neoplastic lesions benign tumor comprises 91.89% and malignant tumor comprises 8.10%.

  2. Keratin 6 is not essential for mammary gland development

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Sandra L; Bu, Wen; Longley, Mary Ann; Roop, Dennis R; Li, Yi; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Keratin 6 (K6) has previously been identified as a marker of early mammary gland development and has also been proposed to be a marker of mammary gland progenitor cells. However, the function of K6 in the mammary gland was not known, so we examined the expression pattern of the protein during both embryonic and postnatal mammary development, as well as the mammary gland phenotype of mice that were null for both K6a and K6b isoforms. Method Immunostaining was performed to determine the expression pattern of K6a throughout mammary gland development, from the embryonic mammary bud to lactation. Double immunofluorescence was used to co-localize K6 with known markers of mammary gland development. Wild-type and K6ab-null mammary tissues were transplanted into the cleared fat pads of nude mice and the outgrowths were analyzed for morphology by whole-mount staining and for markers of mammary epithelium by immunostaining. Finally, progesterone receptor (PR) and bromodeoxyuridine co-localization was quantified by double immunofluorescence in wild-type and K6ab-null mammary outgrowths. Results Here we report that K6 is expressed earlier than described previously, by embryonic day 16.5. K6a is the predominant isoform expressed in the mammary gland, localized in the body cells and luminal epithelial cells but not in the cap cells or myoepithelial cells. Co-localization studies showed that most K6a-positive cells express steroid receptors but do not proliferate. When both the K6a and K6b genes are deleted, mammary gland development appears normal, with similar expression of most molecular markers examined in both the pubertal gland and the mature gland. Loss of K6a and K6b, however, leads to an increase in the number of steroid-receptor-positive cells, and increased co-localization of steroid receptor expression and proliferation was observed. Conclusion Although K6a was not essential for mammary gland development, loss of both K6a and K6b resulted in an increase in

  3. [2 cases of adenolymphoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Andreini, A; Avogadro, M; Trassini, R

    1979-01-01

    Starting from two cases of adenolymphoma of the parotid gland they had under observation, the Authors underline their doubts regarding the histogenesis, discuss the clinical approach and show their attitude towards the therapy. It consists of an enucleation or nucleoresection of the tumour in case only the superficial part of the gland is affected; a total parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation and without any radiotherapy, in case of a radical operation; with complementary radiotherapy if the operation has not been radical for certain.

  4. Hippo pathway in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peiguo; Feng, Jing; Chen, Ceshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that the Hippo signaling pathway plays crucial roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. Key components of the Hippo pathway regulate breast epithelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and stemness. Additionally, the Hippo pathway regulates breast tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. It is expected that the Hippo pathway will provide novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. This review will discuss and summarize the roles of several core components of the Hippo pathway in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

  5. The originality of Descartes' theory about the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Lokhorst, G J; Kaitaro, T T

    2001-03-01

    René Descartes thought that the pineal gland is the part of the body with which the soul is most immediately associated. Several prominent historians (such as Soury, Thorndike and Sherrington) have claimed that this idea was not very original. We re-examine the evidence and conclude that their assessment was wrong. We pay special attention to the thesis about the pineal gland which Jean Cousin defended in January, 1641.

  6. [The wound drainage after operation on thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Nechay, A P; Smolyar, V A; Voytenko, V V; Sichinava, R M; Larin, A S; Cherenko, S M

    2015-03-01

    Efficacy of active draining, promoting the most rapid reconvalescence and rehabilitation of the patients, in comparison to passive wound draining was studied up in various diseases of thyroid gland and operative intervention volume. The autors have had concluded, that suturing of operative wound without draining after hemithyroidectomy conduction is possible, as well as a thyroidectomy for nodular and multinodular goiter, if the excised volume of the lobe/gland do not exceed 15 cm3 and in nonapplication of anticoagulants.

  7. Biosynthesis of putrescine in the prostate gland of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pegg, A. E.; Williams-Ashman, H. G.

    1968-01-01

    In the rat ventral prostate gland the biosynthesis of putrescine, a precursor of spermidine and spermine, is shown to occur by the direct decarboxylation of l-ornithine. Some properties of a soluble pyridoxal phosphate-dependent l-ornithine decarboxylase are described. The findings are discussed in relation to other enzymic reactions involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines by the prostate gland. PMID:5667265

  8. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  9. [Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Guérin, Maxime; Diedhiou, Abdoulaye; Nallet, Emmanuel; Duflo, Suzy; Laé, Marick; Wassef, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the parotid gland is a rare and recently described lesion. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with a tumor of the parotid gland which was carried to the diagnosis of MASC. Diagnostic was confirmed by highlighting the ETV6-NTRK3 gene translocation. However, some morphologic and immunohistochemical features are suggestive of this entity. This carcinoma should be distinguished from its main differential diagnoses: acinic cell carcinoma and low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma.

  10. Function of salivary glands and sialochemistry in sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Arglebe, C

    1983-01-01

    Human sialadenosis is a non-inflammatory disease affecting the cephalic salivary glands, mainly the parotid, characterized by a mostly bilateral, painless swelling due to a substantial increase of the glandular parenchyma. After the presentation of clinical, cytological and biochemical data the probable etiology of this disease is discussed. It is concluded that sialadenosis is not a disease of the salivary glands themselves but of their sympathetic innervation.

  11. USF-1 as an Inhibitor of Mammary Gland Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    was targeted to the mammary gland under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (mmtv) long terminal repeat. Of eight lines of transgenic mice ...be explored by testing the hypothesis that targeted overexpression of USF-2 in the mammary glands of MMTV-myc transgenic mice will cause withdrawal...USF-2 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat. Once in hand this new line of transgenic mice would be crossed with a

  12. USF-1 as an Inhibitor of Mammary Gland Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    The hypothesis tested in this proposal is that overexpression of USF in the mammary glands of transgenic mice will inhibit myc-dependent...tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, a transgene was constructed to target the overexpression of FLAG-tagged USF-2 to the mammary glands of transgenic mice ...under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (mmtv) long terminal repeat. A total of eight lines of transgenic mice were generated. Of these, one

  13. Increased myoepithelial cells of bronchial submucosal glands in fatal asthma.

    PubMed

    Green, F H Y; Williams, D J; James, A; McPhee, L J; Mitchell, I; Mauad, T

    2010-01-01

    Fatal asthma is characterised by enlargement of bronchial mucous glands and tenacious plugs of mucus in the airway lumen. Myoepithelial cells, located within the mucous glands, contain contractile proteins which provide structural support to mucous cells and actively facilitate glandular secretion. To determine if myoepithelial cells are increased in the bronchial submucosal glands of patients with fatal asthma. Autopsied lungs from 12 patients with fatal asthma (FA), 12 patients with asthma dying of non-respiratory causes (NFA) and 12 non-asthma control cases (NAC) were obtained through the Prairie Provinces Asthma Study. Transverse sections of segmental bronchi from three lobes were stained for mucus and smooth muscle actin and the area fractions of mucous plugs, mucous glands and myoepithelial cells determined by point counting. The fine structure of the myoepithelial cells was examined by electron microscopy. FA was characterised by significant increases in mucous gland (p = 0.003), mucous plug (p = 0.004) and myoepithelial cell areas (p = 0.017) compared with NAC. When the ratio of myoepithelial cell area to total gland area was examined, there was a disproportionate and significant increase in FA compared with NAC (p = 0.014). Electron microscopy of FA cases revealed hypertrophy of the myoepithelial cells with increased intracellular myofilaments. The NFA group showed changes in these features that were intermediate between the FA and NAC groups but the differences were not significant. Bronchial mucous glands and mucous gland myoepithelial cell smooth muscle actin are increased in fatal asthma and may contribute to asphyxia due to mucous plugging.

  14. Neuropilin-2 promotes branching morphogenesis in the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Bae, Donggoo; Pursell, Bryan; Gouvin, Lindsey M; Lu, Shaolei; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2011-07-01

    Although the neuropilins were characterized as semaphorin receptors that regulate axon guidance, they also function as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and contribute to the development of other tissues. Here, we assessed the role of NRP2 in mouse mammary gland development based on our observation that NRP2 is expressed preferentially in the terminal end buds of developing glands. A floxed NRP2 mouse was bred with an MMTV-Cre strain to generate a mammary gland-specific knockout of NRP2. MMTV-Cre;NRP2(loxP/loxP) mice exhibited significant defects in branching morphogenesis and ductal outgrowth compared with either littermate MMTV-Cre;NRP2(+/loxP) or MMTV-Cre mice. Mechanistic insight into this morphological defect was obtained from a mouse mammary cell line in which we observed that VEGF(165), an NRP2 ligand, induces branching morphogenesis in 3D cultures and that branching is dependent upon NRP2 as shown using shRNAs and a function-blocking antibody. Epithelial cells in the mouse mammary gland express VEGF, supporting the hypothesis that this NRP2 ligand contributes to mammary gland morphogenesis. Importantly, we demonstrate that VEGF and NRP2 activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and promote FAK-dependent branching morphogenesis in vitro. The significance of this mechanism is substantiated by our finding that FAK activation is diminished significantly in developing MMTV-Cre;NRP2(loxP/loxP) mammary glands compared with control glands. Together, our data reveal a VEGF/NRP2/FAK signaling axis that is important for branching morphogenesis and mammary gland development. In a broader context, our data support an emerging hypothesis that directional outgrowth and branching morphogenesis in a variety of tissues are influenced by signals that were identified initially for their role in axon guidance.

  15. [Ectopic parathyroid glands. Imaging methods and surgical access].

    PubMed

    Fialová, M; Adámková, J; Adámek, S; Libánský, P; Kubinyi, J

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the benefits of imaging methods in localizing ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The ectopic localizations are discussed within the context of the orthotopic norm. In the sample of 123 patients, a 23% rate of ectopic parathyroid glands was detected. Three selected case studies are presented, supporting the benefit of SPECT/CT imaging in terms of surgical access strategy selection.

  16. Minor salivary gland carcinoma: a review of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Haymerle, Georg; Schneider, Sven; Harris, Luke; Häupl, Theresia; Schopper, Christian; Pammer, Johannes; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

    2016-09-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with broad variation in clinical appearance and histopathology. Clinical data of patients with small salivary gland malignancies were collected from the medical records. Tissue microarray was constructed to determine the expression pattern of 24 proteins in 35 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. The choice of markers was based on involvement in neoangiogenesis, cell-to-cell contact, cell-cycle regulation and carcinogenesis. Protein expression data were correlated to patients' clinical data. Overexpression of patched (p = 0.046) and Smo (p = 0.032) was linked to a better overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase π overexpression was linked to prolonged disease-free survival (p = 0.005). Cox-1 (p = 0.035) and VEGFR2 (p = 0.009) were significantly linked to decreased survival for recurrent disease. Bcl-x (84 %), β-catenin (87 %) and Cox-2 (87 %) were significantly overexpressed in minor salivary gland carcinomas. We have shown that Smo resulted in a better overall survival, whereas Gstπ in improved disease-free survival. VEGFR2 was a prognostic factor for survival after recurrence in patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and anti-Wnt-1 antibodies might be a potential therapeutic option in an adjuvant setting or for patients with unresectable tumors of the minor salivary glands.

  17. STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Haricharan, S; Li, Y

    2014-01-25

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, programmed cell death and stromal reorganization to clear the differentiated milk-producing cells. Not surprisingly, the signaling pathways responsible for bringing about these changes in breast cells are often subverted during the process of tumorigenesis. The STAT family of proteins is involved in every stage of mammary gland development, and is also frequently implicated in breast tumorigenesis. While the roles of STAT3 and STAT5 during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis are well studied, others members, e.g. STAT1 and STAT6, have only recently been observed to play a role in mammary gland biology. Continued investigation into the STAT protein network in the mammary gland will likely yield new biomarkers and risk factors for breast cancer, and may also lead to novel prophylactic or therapeutic strategies against breast cancer.

  18. Aquaporins in the adult mouse submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Aure, Marit H; Ruus, Ann-Kristin; Galtung, Hilde K

    2014-02-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) is a family of membrane bound water channels found in most tissues. In addition to contribute to transepithelial water movement, AQPs are shown to be involved in a variety of processes such as proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. In salivary glands, it is well known that AQP5 plays an important role in fluid secretion. In recent years, several AQPs that demonstrate specific expression trends during development have been found in the mouse submandibular gland (SMG). In this study, we wanted to further investigate the presence and localization of the AQP family in the adult mouse SMG in addition to the less studied sublingual gland. Real time PCR and Western blot demonstrated the presence of AQP3, 4, 8, 9, and 11 transcripts and proteins. AQP1 and AQP7 were shown to be localized in endothelial cells, while AQP4 was found in the satellite cells of the parasympathetic ganglia in both glands. The result from this study shows that AQPs are found in defined subpopulations of cells in salivary glands, providing novel insights to their specific roles in salivary glands.

  19. Fusion oncogenes in salivary gland tumors: molecular and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon diseases that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. However, the recent discovery of a translocation-generated gene fusion network in salivary gland carcinomas as well in benign salivary gland tumors opens up new avenues for improved diagnosis, prognostication, and development of specific targeted therapies. The gene fusions encode novel fusion oncoproteins or ectopically expressed normal or truncated oncoproteins. The major targets of the translocations are transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and transcription factors involved in growth factor signaling and cell cycle regulation. Notably, several of these targets or pathways activated by these targets are druggable. Examples of clinically significant gene fusions in salivary gland cancers are the MYB-NFIB fusion specific for adenoid cystic carcinoma, the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion typical of low/intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and the recently identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Similarly, gene fusions involving the PLAG1 and HMGA2 oncogenes are specific for benign pleomorphic adenomas. Continued studies of the molecular consequences of these fusion oncoproteins and their down-stream targets will ultimately lead to the identification of novel driver genes in salivary gland neoplasms and will also form the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for salivary gland cancers and, perhaps, other neoplasms.

  20. Neoplasms of the salivary glands in a Turkish adult population.

    PubMed

    Kara, Muhammed Isa; Göze, Fahrettin; Ezirganli, Seref; Polat, Serkan; Muderris, Suphi; Elagoz, Sahende

    2010-11-01

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the types and distribution of neoplasm of salivary glands in a Turkish population. The histological diagnosis records of the Department of Pathology at Cumhuriyet University were reevaluated for 125 patients who were treated for salivary gland tumors from 1987 to 2008. The neoplasms were analyzed for histological diagnosis, age, sex, and site. The histological diagnoses were analyzed according to the 2005 WHO classification. A total of 125 primary salivary gland neoplasms, consisting of 95 (76%) benign and 30 (24%) malignant groups were recorded. The most common major and minor salivary gland sites were the parotid (61.6%) and palatal glands (9.6%), respectively. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent benign tumor followed by Warthin's tumor. Among the malignant group, adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most prevalent. Age for all cases ranged from 16-80 years; mean age was 41.97 years, with a female to male ratio of 1:1.15. Although there were some discrepancies, the characteristics of salivary gland tumors of Turkish patients are in line with those of patients from other countries according to tumor type, tumor site distribution, and age and sex of patients.

  1. Macroevolutionary diversification of glands for chemical communication in squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    García-Roa, Roberto; Jara, Manuel; Baeckens, Simon; López, Pilar; Van Damme, Raoul; Martín, José; Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel

    2017-08-24

    Chemical communication plays a central role in social, sexual and ecological interactions among animals. However, the macroevolutionary diversification of traits responsible for chemical signaling remains fundamentally unknown. Most research investigating evolutionary diversification of glands responsible for the production of chemical signals has focused on arthropods, while its study among vertebrates remains neglected. Using a global-scale dataset covering > 80% (7,904 species) of the living diversity of lizards and snakes (squamates), we investigate rates, trajectories and phylogenetic patterns of diversification of their follicular glands for chemical communication. We observed these glands in 13.66% of species, that their expression has varying phylogenetic signal among lineages, and that the crown squamate ancestor lacked follicular glands, which therefore originated and diversified subsequently during their evolutionary history. Additionally, our findings challenge the longstanding view that within squamates the Iguania are visually oriented while Scleroglossa are chemically-oriented, given that Iguania doubles Scleroglossa in the frequency of glands. Our phylogenetic analyses identified stabilizing selection as the best model describing follicular gland diversification, and revealed high rates of disparity. We provide the first global-scale analysis investigating the diversification of one of the main forms of communication among reptiles, presenting a macroevolutionary angle to questions traditionally explored at microevolutionary scale.

  2. STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haricharan, S; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, programed cell death and stromal reorganization to clear the differentiated milk-producing cells. Not surprisingly, the signaling pathways responsible for bringing about these changes in breast cells are often subverted during the process of tumorigenesis. The STAT family of proteins is involved in every stage of mammary gland development, and is also frequently implicated in breast tumorigenesis. While the roles of STAT3 and STAT5 during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis are well studied, others members, e.g. STAT1 and STAT6, have only recently been observed to play a role in mammary gland biology. Continued investigation into the STAT protein network in the mammary gland will likely yield new biomarkers and risk factors for breast cancer, and may also lead to novel prophylactic or therapeutic strategies against breast cancer. PMID:23541951

  3. Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

  4. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  5. Uropygial gland and bib colouration in the house sparrow

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Birds frequently signal different qualities by plumage colouration, mainly during mating. However, plumage colouration is determined during the moult, and therefore it would indicate the quality of individual birds during the moult, not its current quality. Recent studies, however, suggest that birds could modify plumage colouration by using cosmetic preen oil produced by the uropygial gland. In this study, I show that bib colouration is related to uropygial gland size and body condition in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Moreover, I conducted an experiment in which a group of sparrows were inoculated with an antigen, mimicking an illness. In control birds, short-term changes in bib colouration were related to both body condition and change in uropygial gland size. Therefore, birds that reduced uropygial gland size showed a greater colouration change. However, bib colouration did not change with the change in uropygial gland size in experimental birds inoculated with the antigen. Given that the experiment did not affect preen oil production or consumption, this finding tentatively suggests that the immune challenge provoked a change in the composition of preen oil, affecting its cosmetic properties. In short, the results of this study suggest that (1) male house sparrows produce cosmetic preen oil that alters the colouration of their bibs; (2) the more change in uropygial gland size, the more change in bib colouration; and (3) in this way, bib colouration has the potential to signal current health status, since less healthy birds showed less capacity to change bib colouration. PMID:27280079

  6. Pineal gland calcification and defective sense of direction.

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, C R; Bishop, N L; Fowler, R C

    1985-01-01

    Calcification of the pineal gland is shown to be closely related to defective sense of direction. In a tricentre prospective study of 750 patients lateral skull radiographs showed that 394 had calcified pineal glands. Sense of direction was assessed by subjective questioning and objective testing and the results noted on a scale of 0-10 (where 10 equals perfect sense of direction). The average score for the 394 patients with pineal gland calcification was 3.7 (range 0-8), whereas the 356 patients without pineal gland calcification had an average score of 7.6 (range 2-10). This difference was highly significant (p less than 0.01). A smaller parallel study in pigeons showed that pineal calcification also leads to a reduction in homing abilities. The findings suggested that the pineal gland plays an important part in directional sense and that damage to the gland, as indicated by calcification, causes defective sense of direction - perhaps by altering the intrinsic intracranial electromagnetic environment and thus affecting the magnetite response mechanism. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3936572

  7. Pineal gland calcification and defective sense of direction.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, C R; Bishop, N L; Fowler, R C

    Calcification of the pineal gland is shown to be closely related to defective sense of direction. In a tricentre prospective study of 750 patients lateral skull radiographs showed that 394 had calcified pineal glands. Sense of direction was assessed by subjective questioning and objective testing and the results noted on a scale of 0-10 (where 10 equals perfect sense of direction). The average score for the 394 patients with pineal gland calcification was 3.7 (range 0-8), whereas the 356 patients without pineal gland calcification had an average score of 7.6 (range 2-10). This difference was highly significant (p less than 0.01). A smaller parallel study in pigeons showed that pineal calcification also leads to a reduction in homing abilities. The findings suggested that the pineal gland plays an important part in directional sense and that damage to the gland, as indicated by calcification, causes defective sense of direction - perhaps by altering the intrinsic intracranial electromagnetic environment and thus affecting the magnetite response mechanism.

  8. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-06-25

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  9. Neurotransmitter Influence on Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Wendy R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. A striking characteristic of the human meibomian gland is its rich sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic innervation, yet the functional relevance of these nerve fibers remains unknown. Acting on the hypothesis that neurotransmitters are released in the vicinity of the gland, act on glandular receptors, and influence the production, secretion, and/or delivery of meibomian gland secretions to the ocular surface, the goal in this study was to begin to determine whether neurotransmitters influence the meibomian gland. Methods. Immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial (SLHMG) cells were examined for the presence of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor transcripts and proteins. Cells were also exposed to VIP, carbachol, forskolin, and/or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to determine whether these agents, alone or in combination, modulate the adenylyl cyclase pathway, the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), or cell proliferation. Results. Results demonstrate that SLHMG cells transcribe and translate VIP and mACh receptors; VIP, with either IBMX or forskolin, activates the adenylyl cyclase pathway, and the effect of VIP and forskolin together is synergistic; both VIP and carbachol increase intracellular [Ca2+] in SLHMG cells; and VIP with forskolin stimulates SLHMG cell proliferation. Conclusions. This study shows that parasympathetic neurotransmitters and their agonists influence the function of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. It remains to be determined whether this action alters the production, secretion, and/or delivery of meibum to the ocular surface. PMID:21969302

  10. Excretory transport of xenobiotics by dogfish shark rectal gland tubules.

    PubMed

    Miller, D S; Masereeuw, R; Henson, J; Karnaky, K J

    1998-09-01

    Marine elasmobranch rectal gland is a specialized, osmoregulatory organ composed of numerous blind-ended, branched tubules emptying into a central duct. To date, NaCl excretion has been its only described function. Here we use isolated rectal gland tubule fragments from dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), fluorescent xenobiotics, and confocal microscopy to describe a second function, xenobiotic excretion. Isolated rectal gland tubules rapidly transported the fluorescent organic anion sulforhodamine 101 from bath to lumen. Luminal accumulation was concentrative, saturable, and inhibited by cyclosporin A (CSA), chlorodinitrobenzene, leukotriene C4, and KCN. Inhibitors of renal organic anion transport (probenecid, p-aminohippurate), organic cation transport (tetraethylammonium and verapamil), and P-glycoprotein (verapamil) were without effect. Cellular accumulation of sulforhodamine 101 was not concentrative, saturable, or inhibitable. Rectal gland tubules did not secrete fluorescein, daunomycin, or a fluorescent CSA derivative. Finally, frozen rectal gland sections stained with an antibody to a hepatic canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT or MRP2) showed heavy and specific staining on the luminal membrane of the epithelial cells. We conclude that rectal gland is capable of active and specific excretion of xenobiotics and that such transport is mediated by a shark analog of MRP2, an ATP-driven xenobiotic transporter, but not by P-glycoprotein.

  11. Gland Instance Segmentation Using Deep Multichannel Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Li, Yang; Wang, Yipei; Liu, Mingyuan; Fan, Yubo; Lai, Maode; Chang, Eric

    2017-03-23

    A new image instance segmentation method is proposed to segment individual glands (instances) in colon histology images. This process is challenging since the glands not only need to be segmented from a complex background, they must also be individually identified. We leverage the idea of image-to-image prediction in recent deep learning by designing an algorithm that automatically exploits and fuses complex multichannel information - regional, location and boundary cues - in gland histology images. Our proposed algorithm, a deep multichannel framework, alleviates heavy feature design due to the use of convolutional neural networks and is able to meet multifarious requirements by altering channels. Compared to methods reported in the 2015 MICCAI Gland Segmentation Challenge and other currently prevalent instance segmentation methods, we observe state-ofthe- art results based on the evaluation metrics. The proposed deep multichannel algorithm is an effective method for gland instance segmentation. The generalization ability of our model not only enable the algorithm to solve gland instance segmentation problems, but the channel is also alternative that can be replaced for a specific task.

  12. Uropygial gland and bib colouration in the house sparrow.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Birds frequently signal different qualities by plumage colouration, mainly during mating. However, plumage colouration is determined during the moult, and therefore it would indicate the quality of individual birds during the moult, not its current quality. Recent studies, however, suggest that birds could modify plumage colouration by using cosmetic preen oil produced by the uropygial gland. In this study, I show that bib colouration is related to uropygial gland size and body condition in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Moreover, I conducted an experiment in which a group of sparrows were inoculated with an antigen, mimicking an illness. In control birds, short-term changes in bib colouration were related to both body condition and change in uropygial gland size. Therefore, birds that reduced uropygial gland size showed a greater colouration change. However, bib colouration did not change with the change in uropygial gland size in experimental birds inoculated with the antigen. Given that the experiment did not affect preen oil production or consumption, this finding tentatively suggests that the immune challenge provoked a change in the composition of preen oil, affecting its cosmetic properties. In short, the results of this study suggest that (1) male house sparrows produce cosmetic preen oil that alters the colouration of their bibs; (2) the more change in uropygial gland size, the more change in bib colouration; and (3) in this way, bib colouration has the potential to signal current health status, since less healthy birds showed less capacity to change bib colouration.

  13. [Regeneration of the parathyroid glands after partial resection].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, A V

    1986-09-01

    By means of morphometrical methods, as well as by the method of volumetric reconstruction of the organs in 33 rats during 1-30 days regeneration of parathyroid glands have been studied after a simultaneous resection of the whole left and a half of the right gland. Total calcium content in blood serum in the experimental animals decreases on the 1st-2d day and normalizes by the 3d day. Regeneration of the remained part of the gland is realized at the expense of increasing mitotic activity and hypertrophy of parathyrocytes along the whole organ from the 3d up to the 13th day. There are no signs of the glandular parenchyma growth from the wound surface. On the 3d-5th day dividing parathyrocytes predominate in the half of the gland that adjoins the wound. This promotes a predominant longitudinal growth of the gland remnant and restoration of the organ's ellipsoid form on the 20th-30th day. The main pattern of the parathyroid gland restoration after its partial resection is regenerative hypertrophy.

  14. Adrenal gland hemorrhage in patients with fatal bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Paddock, Christopher D; Bartlett, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R

    2008-09-01

    A wide spectrum of adrenal gland pathology is seen during bacterial infections. Hemorrhage is particularly associated with meningococcemia, while abscesses have been described with several neonatal infections. We studied adrenal gland histopathology of 65 patients with bacterial infections documented in a variety of tissues by using immunohistochemistry. The infections diagnosed included Neisseria meningitidies, group A streptococcus, Rickettsia rickettsii, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Ehrlichia sp., Bacillus anthracis, Leptospira sp., Clostridium sp., Klebsiella sp., Legionella sp., Yersinia pestis, and Treponema pallidum. Bacteria were detected in the adrenal of 40 (61%) cases. Adrenal hemorrhage was present in 39 (60%) cases. Bacteria or bacterial antigens were observed in 31 (79%) of the cases with adrenal hemorrhage including 14 with N. meningitidis, four with R. rickettsii, four with S. pneumoniae, three with group A streptococcus, two with S. aureus, two with B. anthracis, one with T. pallidum, and one with Legionella sp. Bacterial antigens were observed in nine of 26 non-hemorrhagic adrenal glands that showed inflammatory foci (four cases), edema (two cases), congestion (two cases), or necrosis (one case). Hemorrhage is the most frequent adrenal gland pathology observed in fatal bacterial infections. Bacteria and bacterial antigens are frequently seen in adrenal glands with hemorrhage and may play a pathogenic role. Although N. meningitidis is the most frequent bacteria associated with adrenal gland pathology, a broad collection of bacteria can also cause adrenal lesions.

  15. Removal of the submandibular gland by a retroauricular approach.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the benefit of a retroauricular approach by comparing it with a conventional transcervical approach for removal of the submandibular gland. Prospective clinical study. Academic center. Thirty patients with benign submandibular gland disorders. Patients were divided into 2 surgical groups to undergo retroauricular (n = 15) and conventional (n = 15) procedures matched by age, sex, marital status, and pathologic condition. The retroauricular approach used an incision along the postauricular sulcus and hairline and subcutaneous tunneling to the gland; the conventional approach used an incision along a natural skin crease overlying the gland. The operation time, complications, hospital stay, and subjective satisfaction of incision scar checked by visual analog scale were compared between groups. The submandibular gland disorders were comparable between groups: pleomorphic adenoma (n = 15), chronic sialadenitis with sialolithiasis in the gland (n = 5) or hilum (n = 8), and Küttner (n = 1) or Kimura (n = 1) disease. Mean +/- SD operation times were 49 +/- 17 minutes in the retroauricular group and 38 +/- 15 minutes in the controls (P = .08). Mean +/- SD hospital stay and complication rates were comparable between groups. The mean +/- SD score of patient satisfaction was 8.9 +/- 0.9 in the retroauricular group and 4.2 +/- 2.9 in the conventional group (P<.001). The incision scar was commonly less visible in the retroauricular group because of hiding by the auricle and natural hair when comparing with the control group. The retroauricular approach can provide better cosmetic outcome than the conventional transcervical approach and without significant complications.

  16. Persistent renal hyperparathyroidism caused by intrathyroidal parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Li; Lin, Shih-Hua; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shih, Ming-Lang

    2014-09-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism usually occurs in chronic renal failure patients on regular dialysis. However, renal hyperparathyroidism resulting from intrathyroidal parathyroid glands is an uncommon condition. We herein present the case of a 35-year-old woman who has been on hemodialysis for 20 years. She had renal hyperparathyroidism with generalized weakness and bone pain for 2 years. The patient initially underwent parathyroidectomy at a local institution, during which two large parathyroid glands were resected from the right side (no parathyroid glands were found on the left side); however, the surgical procedure was unsuccessful, and the patient had persistent renal hyperparathyroidism after the operation. She was then transferred to our hospital and ectopic intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were localized by neck ultrasonography and technetium-99m sestamibi scans with single-photon emission computed tomography imaging preoperatively. A left thyroid lobectomy was performed and two intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were found. The patient recovered uneventfully and her symptoms resolved. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of renal hyperparathyroidism resulting from intrathyroidal parathyroid glands in cases where the renal hyperparathyroidism persists after parathyroidectomy.

  17. Intraoperative near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, Roland; Sommerey, Sandra; Arabi, Nora Al; Hallfeldt, Klaus K J; Stepp, Herbert; Gallwas, Julia K S

    2017-08-01

    To identify parathyroid glands intraoperatively by exposing their autofluorescence using near-infrared light. Fluorescence imaging was carried out during minimally invasive and open parathyroid and thyroid surgery. After identification, the parathyroid glands as well as the surrounding tissue were exposed to near-infrared (NIR) light with a wavelength of 690-770 nm using a modified Karl Storz near-infrared/indocyanine green (NIR/ICG) endoscopic system. Parathyroid tissue was expected to show near-infrared autofluorescence, captured in the blue channel of the camera. Whenever possible the visual identification of parathyroid tissue was confirmed histologically. In preliminary investigations, using the original NIR/ICG endoscopic system we noticed considerable interference of light in the blue channel overlying the autofluorescence. Therefore, we modified the light source by interposing additional filters. In a second series, we investigated 35 parathyroid glands from 25 patients. Twenty-seven glands were identified correctly based on NIR autofluorescence. Regarding the extent of autofluorescence, there were no noticeable differences between parathyroid adenomas, hyperplasia and normal parathyroid glands. In contrast, thyroid tissue, lymph nodes and adipose tissue revealed no substantial autofluorescence. Parathyroid tissue is characterized by showing autofluorescence in the near-infrared spectrum. This effect can be used to distinguish parathyroid glands from other cervical tissue entities.

  18. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Binbin; Zheng, Yuxi; Coursey, Terry G.; Zhao, Yinying; Li, Junhua; Fu, Yana; Chen, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate meibomian gland and tear film function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This prospective study compared changes in meibomian gland and tear film function in type 2 diabetic patients with nondiabetic patients. Meibomian gland function was evaluated by measuring lipid layer thickness (LLT), grading of meibomian gland loss, lid margin abnormalities, and expression of meibum. Tear film function was assessed by measuring tear breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer I test, noninvasive breakup time (NIBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), and corneal fluorescein staining. Results Meibography scores were significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with the nondiabetic group (p = 0.004). The number of expressible glands was significantly lower in the diabetic group in temporal, central, and nasal third of the lower eyelid (nasal: p = 0.002; central: p = 0.040; and temporal: p = 0.039). The lid margin abnormality score was significantly higher in the diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (p = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in the tear film function parameters between the two groups. Conclusions Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in type 2 diabetic patients is more severe compared with nondiabetic patients. Overall, most of the diabetic patients manifest as having asymptomatic MGD. PMID:28593054

  19. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaolei; Xu, Binbin; Zheng, Yuxi; Coursey, Terry G; Zhao, Yinying; Li, Junhua; Fu, Yana; Chen, Xuewen; Zhao, Yun-E

    2017-01-01

    To investigate meibomian gland and tear film function in patients with type 2 diabetes. This prospective study compared changes in meibomian gland and tear film function in type 2 diabetic patients with nondiabetic patients. Meibomian gland function was evaluated by measuring lipid layer thickness (LLT), grading of meibomian gland loss, lid margin abnormalities, and expression of meibum. Tear film function was assessed by measuring tear breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer I test, noninvasive breakup time (NIBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), and corneal fluorescein staining. Meibography scores were significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with the nondiabetic group (p = 0.004). The number of expressible glands was significantly lower in the diabetic group in temporal, central, and nasal third of the lower eyelid (nasal: p = 0.002; central: p = 0.040; and temporal: p = 0.039). The lid margin abnormality score was significantly higher in the diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (p = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in the tear film function parameters between the two groups. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in type 2 diabetic patients is more severe compared with nondiabetic patients. Overall, most of the diabetic patients manifest as having asymptomatic MGD.

  20. Thyroid storm induced by blunt thyroid gland trauma.

    PubMed

    Delikoukos, Stylianos; Mantzos, Fotios

    2007-12-01

    Isolated thyroid gland injury due to blunt neck trauma is uncommon and rarely complicated by thyroid storm in patients without known hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to report our experience on blunt thyroid gland injury followed by massive gland hemorrhage, acute airway obstruction, and symptoms of thyroid storm. Among 231 patients with neck trauma, four patients appeared with isolated thyroid gland injury. In two of them, the diagnosis of simultaneous thyrotoxic crisis was made on the basis of clinical findings and confirmed on emergency laboratory tests. The diagnosis of thyroid gland injury was supposed by the history and physical examination and established after neck exploration. Therapy was directed at stabilizing the patients by correcting the hyperthyroid state, followed by operative treatment. Left lobectomy and total thyroidectomy were performed and, along with postoperative medical measures, led to uneventful recovery. This study demonstrates that thyroid gland injury due to blunt neck trauma, although uncommon, may result in potentially life-threatening thyroid storm due to rupture of acini and liberation of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. This may occur in patients without known hyperthyroidism.