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Sample records for glandular trichome transcriptome

  1. Differential transcriptome analysis of glandular and filamentous trichomes in Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The medicinal plant Artemisia annua is covered with filamentous trichomes and glandular, artemisinin producing trichomes. A high artemisinin supply is needed at a reduced cost for treating malaria. Artemisinin production in bioreactors can be facilitated if a better insight is obtained in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other metabolites. Therefore, metabolic activities of glandular and filamentous trichomes were investigated at the transcriptome level. Results By laser pressure catapulting, glandular and filamentous trichomes as well as apical and sub-apical cells from glandular trichomes were collected and their transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq. A de novo transcriptome was assembled (Trinity) and studied with a differential expression analysis (edgeR). A comparison of the transcriptome from glandular and filamentous trichomes shows that MEP, MVA, most terpene and lipid biosynthesis pathways are significantly upregulated in glandular trichomes. Conversely, some transcripts coding for specific sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid enzymes such as 8-epi-cedrol synthase and an uncharacterized oxidosqualene cyclase were significantly upregulated in filamentous trichomes. All known artemisinin biosynthesis genes are upregulated in glandular trichomes and were detected in both the apical and sub-apical cells of the glandular trichomes. No significant differential expression could be observed between the apical and sub-apical cells. Conclusions Our results underscore the vast metabolic capacities of A. annua glandular trichomes but nonetheless point to the existence of specific terpene metabolic pathways in the filamentous trichomes. Candidate genes that might be involved in artemisinin biosynthesis are proposed based on their putative function and their differential expression level. PMID:24359620

  2. Global characterization of Artemisia annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yejun; Zhang, Qing; Qi, Yan; Guo, Dianjing

    2009-01-01

    Background Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of commercially important secondary metabolites in many plant species. The most prominent anti-malarial drug artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, only limited genomic information is currently available in this non-model plant species. Results We present a global characterization of A. annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. Sequencing runs using two normalized cDNA collections from glandular trichomes yielded 406,044 expressed sequence tags (average length = 210 nucleotides), which assembled into 42,678 contigs and 147,699 singletons. Performing a second sequencing run only increased the number of genes identified by ~30%, indicating that massively parallel pyrosequencing provides deep coverage of the A. annua trichome transcriptome. By BLAST search against the NCBI non-redundant protein database, putative functions were assigned to over 28,573 unigenes, including previously undescribed enzymes likely involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Comparison with ESTs derived from trichome collections of other plant species revealed expressed genes in common functional categories across different plant species. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of selected unigenes and novel transcripts in A. annua glandular trichomes. Conclusion The presence of contigs corresponding to enzymes for terpenoids and flavonoids biosynthesis suggests important metabolic activity in A. annua glandular trichomes. Our comprehensive survey of genes expressed in glandular trichome will facilitate new gene discovery and shed light on the regulatory mechanism of artemisinin metabolism and trichome function in A. annua. PMID:19818120

  3. Combined metabolome and transcriptome profiling provides new insights into diterpene biosynthesis in S. pomifera glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Trikka, Fotini A; Nikolaidis, Alexandros; Ignea, Codruta; Tsaballa, Aphrodite; Tziveleka, Leto-Aikaterini; Ioannou, Efstathia; Roussis, Vassilios; Stea, Eleni A; Božić, Dragana; Argiriou, Anagnostis; Kanellis, Angelos K; Kampranis, Sotirios C; Makris, Antonios M

    2015-11-14

    Salvia diterpenes have been found to have health promoting properties. Among them, carnosic acid and carnosol, tanshinones and sclareol are well known for their cardiovascular, antitumor, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, many of these compounds are not available at a constant supply and developing biotechnological methods for their production could provide a sustainable alternative. The transcriptome of S.pomifera glandular trichomes was analysed aiming to identify genes that could be used in the engineering of synthetic microbial systems. In the present study, a thorough metabolite analysis of S. pomifera leaves led to the isolation and structure elucidation of carnosic acid-family metabolites including one new natural product. These labdane diterpenes seem to be synthesized through miltiradiene and ferruginol. Transcriptomic analysis of the glandular trichomes from the S. pomifera leaves revealed two genes likely involved in miltiradiene synthesis. Their products were identified and the corresponding enzymes were characterized as copalyl diphosphate synthase (SpCDS) and miltiradiene synthase (SpMilS). In addition, several CYP-encoding transcripts were identified providing a valuable resource for the identification of the biosynthetic mechanism responsible for the production of carnosic acid-family metabolites in S. pomifera. Our work has uncovered the key enzymes involved in miltiradiene biosynthesis in S. pomifera leaf glandular trichomes. The transcriptomic dataset obtained provides a valuable tool for the identification of the CYPs involved in the synthesis of carnosic acid-family metabolites.

  4. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-02-11

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome was carried out. In addition to the MVA and MEP pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPS) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (3 from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. Abbreviations - AACT, acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase; CMK, 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase; DGE, digital gene expression; DXR, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase; DXS, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase; FPPS, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase; GC, gas chromatography; GPPS, geranyl pyrophosphate synthase; GT, glandular trichome; HDR, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase; HDS, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate synthase; HMGR, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase; HMGS, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase; IDI, isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase; IPD, isopiperitenol dehydrogenase; IPI

  5. Next generation sequencing unravels the biosynthetic ability of spearmint (Mentha spicata) peltate glandular trichomes through comparative transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jingjing; Panicker, Deepa; Wang, Qian; Kim, Mi Jung; Liu, Jun; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2014-11-01

    Plant glandular trichomes are chemical factories with specialized metabolic capabilities to produce diverse compounds. Aromatic mint plants produce valuable essential oil in specialised glandular trichomes known as peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Here, we performed next generation transcriptome sequencing of different tissues of Mentha spicata (spearmint) to identify differentially expressed transcripts specific to PGT. Our results provide a comprehensive overview of PGT's dynamic metabolic activities which will help towards pathway engineering. Spearmint RNAs from 3 different tissues: PGT, leaf and leaf stripped of PGTs (leaf-PGT) were sequenced by Illumina paired end sequencing. The sequences were assembled de novo into 40,587 non-redundant unigenes; spanning a total of 101 Mb. Functions could be assigned to 27,025 (67%) unigenes and among these 3,919 unigenes were differentially expressed in PGT relative to leaf - PGT. Lack of photosynthetic transcripts in PGT transcriptome indicated the high levels of purity of isolated PGT, as mint PGT are non-photosynthetic. A significant number of these unigenes remained unannotated or encoded hypothetical proteins. We found 16 terpene synthases (TPS), 18 cytochrome P450s, 5 lipid transfer proteins and several transcription factors that were preferentially expressed in PGT. Among the 16 TPSs, two were characterized biochemically and found to be sesquiterpene synthases. The extensive transcriptome data set renders a complete description of genes differentially expressed in spearmint PGT. This will facilitate the metabolic engineering of mint terpene pathway to increase yield and also enable the development of strategies for sustainable production of novel or altered valuable compounds in mint.

  6. Comparative functional genomic analysis of Solanum glandular trichome types.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Eric T; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors.

  7. Secreting glandular trichomes: more than just hairs.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G J

    1991-07-01

    Secreting glandular plant trichome types which accumulate large quantities of metabolic products in the space between their gland cell walls and cuticle permit the plant to amass secretions in a compartment that is virtually outside the plant body. These structures not only accumulate and store what are often phytotoxic oils but they position these compounds as an apparent first line of defense at the surface of the plant. Recent advances in methods for isolation and study of trichome glands have allowed more precise analysis of gland cell metabolism and enzymology. Isolation of mutants with altered trichome phenotypes provides new systems for probing the genetic basis of trichome development. These advances and their continuation can pave the way for future attempts at modification of trichome secretion. The biochemical capability of glandular secreting trichomes and the potential for its future manipulation to exploit this external storage compartment is the focus of this review.

  8. Secreting Glandular Trichomes: More than Just Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Secreting glandular plant trichome types which accumulate large quantities of metabolic products in the space between their gland cell walls and cuticle permit the plant to amass secretions in a compartment that is virtually outside the plant body. These structures not only accumulate and store what are often phytotoxic oils but they position these compounds as an apparent first line of defense at the surface of the plant. Recent advances in methods for isolation and study of trichome glands have allowed more precise analysis of gland cell metabolism and enzymology. Isolation of mutants with altered trichome phenotypes provides new systems for probing the genetic basis of trichome development. These advances and their continuation can pave the way for future attempts at modification of trichome secretion. The biochemical capability of glandular secreting trichomes and the potential for its future manipulation to exploit this external storage compartment is the focus of this review. PMID:16668241

  9. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis of Solanum Glandular Trichome Types1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Eric T.; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors. PMID:21098679

  10. Terpene biosynthesis in glandular trichomes of hop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Tian, Li; Aziz, Naveed; Broun, Pierre; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; King, Andrew; Zhao, Patrick X; Dixon, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L. Cannabaceae) is an economically important crop for the brewing industry, where it is used to impart flavor and aroma to beer, and has also drawn attention in recent years due to its potential pharmaceutical applications. Essential oils (mono- and sesquiterpenes), bitter acids (prenylated polyketides), and prenylflavonoids are the primary phytochemical components that account for these traits, and all accumulate at high concentrations in glandular trichomes of hop cones. To understand the molecular basis for terpene accumulation in hop trichomes, a trichome cDNA library was constructed and 9,816 cleansed expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were obtained from random sequencing of 16,152 cDNA clones. The ESTs were assembled into 3,619 unigenes (1,101 contigs and 2,518 singletons). Putative functions were assigned to the unigenes based on their homology to annotated sequences in the GenBank database. Two mono- and two sesquiterpene synthases identified from the EST collection were expressed in Escherichia coli. Hop MONOTERPENE SYNTHASE2 formed the linear monterpene myrcene from geranyl pyrophosphate, whereas hop SESQUITERPENE SYNTHASE1 (HlSTS1) formed both caryophyllene and humulene from farnesyl pyrophosphate. Together, these enzymes account for the production of the major terpene constituents of the hop trichomes. HlSTS2 formed the minor sesquiterpene constituent germacrene A, which was converted to beta-elemene on chromatography at elevated temperature. We discuss potential functions for other genes expressed at high levels in developing hop trichomes.

  11. Development of peltate glandular trichomes of peppermint.

    PubMed

    Turner, G W; Gershenzon, J; Croteau, R B

    2000-10-01

    Cryofixation and conventional chemical fixation methods were employed to examine the ultrastructure of developing peltate glandular trichomes of peppermint (Mentha x piperita). Our results are discussed in relation to monoterpene production and the mechanism of essential oil secretion. Peltate glands arise as epidermal protuberances (initials) that divide asymmetrically to produce a vacuolate basal cell, a stalk cell, and a cytoplasmically dense apical cell. Further divisions of the apical cell produce a peltate trichome with one basal cell, one stalk cell, and eight glandular (secretory) disc cells. Presecretory gland cells resemble meristematic cells because they contain proplastids, small vacuoles, and large nuclei. The secretory phase coincides with the separation and filling of the sub-cuticular oil storage space, the maturation of glandular disc cell leucoplasts in which monoterpene biosynthesis is known to be initiated, and the formation of extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum at which hydroxylation steps of the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway occur. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the secretory cells appears to form associations with both the leucoplasts and the plasma membrane bordering the sub-cuticular oil storage cavity, often contains densely staining material, and may be involved with the transport of the monoterpene-rich secretion product. Associated changes in the ultrastructure of the secretory stage stalk cell are also described, as is the ultrastructure of the fragile post-secretory gland for which cryofixation methods are particularly well suited for the preservation of organizational integrity.

  12. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool. PMID:24250266

  13. Glandular trichomes and essential oil of Thymus quinquecostatus.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ping; Liu, Hanzhu; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1-2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  14. Multi-Omics of Tomato Glandular Trichomes Reveals Distinct Features of Central Carbon Metabolism Supporting High Productivity of Specialized Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Balcke, Gerd U; Bennewitz, Stefan; Bergau, Nick; Athmer, Benedikt; Henning, Anja; Majovsky, Petra; Jiménez-Gómez, José M; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Tissier, Alain

    2017-05-01

    Glandular trichomes are metabolic cell factories with the capacity to produce large quantities of secondary metabolites. Little is known about the connection between central carbon metabolism and metabolic productivity for secondary metabolites in glandular trichomes. To address this gap in our knowledge, we performed comparative metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and (13)C-labeling of type VI glandular trichomes and leaves from a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum LA4024) and a wild (Solanum habrochaites LA1777) tomato accession. Specific features of glandular trichomes that drive the formation of secondary metabolites could be identified. Tomato type VI trichomes are photosynthetic but acquire their carbon essentially from leaf sucrose. The energy and reducing power from photosynthesis are used to support the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, while the comparatively reduced Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle activity may be involved in recycling metabolic CO2 Glandular trichomes cope with oxidative stress by producing high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, oxylipins, and glutathione. Finally, distinct mechanisms are present in glandular trichomes to increase the supply of precursors for the isoprenoid pathways. Particularly, the citrate-malate shuttle supplies cytosolic acetyl-CoA and plastidic glycolysis and malic enzyme support the formation of plastidic pyruvate. A model is proposed on how glandular trichomes achieve high metabolic productivity. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Control of Peltate Glandular Trichome Formation in Perilla frutescens.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, A; Honda, G; Kobayashi, Y; Tabata, M

    1992-04-01

    The inheritance of peltate glandular trichome (PGT) formation in PERILLA FRUTESCENS leaves was investigated by crossing a normal strain with a variant strain with sparse PGT formation. The F (1) and F (2) data suggested that the sparse trichome is a dominant character that is controlled by a major gene and a few modifying genes which specifically inhibit the development of trichomes of the peltate type. Tracer experiments using [ (14)C]-sucrose showed that the quantity of essential oil components synthesized in the leaf was positively correlated with the number of PGTs, suggesting that the PGT is the main site for the biosynthesis of essential oil.

  16. Localization of Salvinorin A and Related Compounds in Glandular Trichomes of the Psychoactive Sage, Salvia divinorum

    PubMed Central

    SIEBERT, DANIEL J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution. • Methods Chemical analyses were performed using thin layer chromatographic and histochemical techniques. Trichomes were examined using conventional light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. • Key Results It was found that neoclerodane diterpenes are secreted as components of a resin that accumulates in peltate glandular trichomes, specifically in the subcuticular space that exists between the trichome head cells and the cuticle that encloses them. Four main types of trichomes were observed: peltate glandular trichomes, short‐stalked capitate glandular trichomes, long‐stalked capitate glandular trichomes and non‐glandular trichomes. Their morphology and distribution is described. Peltate glandular trichomes were only found on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves, stems, rachises, bracts, pedicles and calyces. This was consistent with chemical analyses, which showed the presence of neoclerodane diterpenes in these organs, but not in parts of the plant where peltate glandular trichomes are absent. • Conclusions Salvinorin A and related compounds are secreted as components of a complex resin that accumulates in the subcuticular space of peltate glandular trichomes. PMID:15087301

  17. Development of Peltate Glandular Trichomes of Peppermint1

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Glenn W.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2000-01-01

    Cryofixation and conventional chemical fixation methods were employed to examine the ultrastructure of developing peltate glandular trichomes of peppermint (Mentha × piperita). Our results are discussed in relation to monoterpene production and the mechanism of essential oil secretion. Peltate glands arise as epidermal protuberances (initials) that divide asymmetrically to produce a vacuolate basal cell, a stalk cell, and a cytoplasmically dense apical cell. Further divisions of the apical cell produce a peltate trichome with one basal cell, one stalk cell, and eight glandular (secretory) disc cells. Presecretory gland cells resemble meristematic cells because they contain proplastids, small vacuoles, and large nuclei. The secretory phase coincides with the separation and filling of the sub-cuticular oil storage space, the maturation of glandular disc cell leucoplasts in which monoterpene biosynthesis is known to be initiated, and the formation of extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum at which hydroxylation steps of the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway occur. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the secretory cells appears to form associations with both the leucoplasts and the plasma membrane bordering the sub-cuticular oil storage cavity, often contains densely staining material, and may be involved with the transport of the monoterpene-rich secretion product. Associated changes in the ultrastructure of the secretory stage stalk cell are also described, as is the ultrastructure of the fragile post-secretory gland for which cryofixation methods are particularly well suited for the preservation of organizational integrity. PMID:11027716

  18. Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Bergau, Nick; Navarette Santos, Alexander; Henning, Anja; Balcke, Gerd U.; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. PMID:27446176

  19. Transcriptional profiling unravels potential metabolic activities of the olive leaf non-glandular trichome

    PubMed Central

    Koudounas, Konstantinos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Kourti, Anna; Banilas, Georgios; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2015-01-01

    The olive leaf trichomes are multicellular peltate hairs densely distributed mainly at the lower leaf epidermis. Although, non-glandular, they have gained much attention since they significantly contribute to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of olive leaves. The exact mechanisms by which olive trichomes achieve these goals are not fully understood. They could act as mechanical barrier but they also accumulate high amounts of flavonoids among other secondary metabolites. However, little is currently known about the exact compounds they produce and the respective metabolic pathways. Here we present the first EST analysis from olive leaf trichomes by using 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 5368 unigenes were identified out of 7258 high quality reads with an average length of 262 bp. Blast search revealed that 27.5% of them had high homologies to known proteins. By using Blast2GO, 1079 unigenes (20.1%) were assigned at least one Gene Ontology (GO) term. Most of the genes were involved in cellular and metabolic processes and in binding functions followed by catalytic activity. A total of 521 transcripts were mapped to 67 KEGG pathways. Olive trichomes represent a tissue of highly unique transcriptome as per the genes involved in developmental processes and the secondary metabolism. The results indicate that mature olive trichomes are trancriptionally active, mainly through the potential production of enzymes that contribute to phenolic compounds with important roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26322070

  20. Tobacco NtLTP1, a glandular-specific lipid transfer protein, is required for lipid secretion from glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Eui; Lim, Soon; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Han, Jung Yeon; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Yang, Yanyan; Kim, Ji-Ah; Kim, Yun-Soo

    2012-05-01

    Glandular trichomes are the phytochemical factories of plants, and they secrete a wide range of commercially important natural products such as lipids, terpenes and flavonoids. Herein, we report that the Nicotiana tabacum LTP1 (NtLTP1) gene, which is specifically expressed in long glandular trichomes, plays a role in lipid secretion from trichome heads. NtLTP1 mRNA is abundantly transcribed in trichomes, but NtLTP3, NtLTP4 and NtLTP5 are not. In situ hybridization revealed that NtLTP1 mRNAs accumulate specifically in long trichomes and not in short trichomes or epidermal cells. X-gluc staining of leaves from a transgenic plant expressing the NtLTP1 promoter fused to a GUS gene revealed that NtLTP1 protein accumulated preferentially on the tops of long glandular trichomes. GFP fluorescence from transgenic tobacco plants expressing an NtLTP1-GFP fusion protein was localized at the periphery of cells and in the excreted liquid droplets from the glandular trichome heads. In vitro assays using a fluorescent 2-p-toluidinonaphthalene-6-sulfonate probe indicated that recombinant NtLTP1 had lipid-binding activity. The overexpression of NtLTP1 in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in the increased secretion of trichome exudates, including epicuticular wax. In transgenic NtLTP1-RNAi lines, liquid secretion from trichomes was strongly reduced, but epicuticular wax secretion was not altered. Moreover, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing NtLTP1 showed increased protection against aphids. Taken together, these data suggest that NtLTP1 is abundantly expressed in long glandular trichomes, and may play a role in lipid secretion from long glandular trichomes. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Variation in the number of capitate glandular trichomes in wild and cultivated sunflower germplasm and potential for use in host plant resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Capitate glandular trichomes of wild sunflower (Helianthus spp.) are considered an effective defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst), but cultivated sunflowers are reportedly deficient in glandular trichomes. To investigate whether glandular trichomes have a role in protect...

  2. Genetic basis for glandular trichome formation in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Hu, Yan; Yang, Changqing; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Wan, Qun; Liang, Wenhua; Mei, Gaofu; Wang, Lingjian; Wang, Haiping; Ding, Linyun; Dong, Chenguang; Pan, Mengqiao; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Shuqi; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Guan, Xueying; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes originate from epidermal cells and can be classified as either glandular or non-glandular. Gossypium species are characterized by the presence of small and darkly pigmented lysigenous glands that contain large amounts of gossypol. Here, using a dominant glandless mutant, we characterize GoPGF, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor, that we propose is a positive regulator of gland formation. Silencing GoPGF leads to a completely glandless phenotype. A single nucleotide insertion in GoPGF, introducing a premature stop codon is found in the duplicate recessive glandless mutant (gl2gl3). The characterization of GoPGF helps to unravel the regulatory network of glandular structure biogenesis, and has implications for understanding the production of secondary metabolites in glands. It also provides a potential molecular basis to generate glandless seed and glanded cotton to not only supply fibre and oil but also provide a source of protein for human consumption. PMID:26795254

  3. Engineering of Tomato Glandular Trichomes for the Production of Specialized Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kortbeek, R W J; Xu, J; Ramirez, A; Spyropoulou, E; Diergaarde, P; Otten-Bruggeman, I; de Both, M; Nagel, R; Schmidt, A; Schuurink, R C; Bleeker, P M

    2016-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized tissues on the epidermis of many plant species. On tomato they synthesize, store, and emit a variety of metabolites such as terpenoids, which play a role in the interaction with insects. Glandular trichomes are excellent tissues for studying the biosynthesis of specialized plant metabolites and are especially suitable targets for metabolic engineering. Here we describe the strategy for engineering tomato glandular trichomes, first with a transient expression system to provide proof of trichome specificity of selected promoters. Using microparticle bombardment, the trichome specificity of a terpene-synthase promoter could be validated in a relatively fast way. Second, we describe a method for stable expression of genes of interest in trichomes. Trichome-specific expression of another terpene-synthase promoter driving the yellow-fluorescence protein-gene is presented. Finally, we describe a case of the overexpression of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS), specifically in tomato glandular trichomes, providing an important precursor in the biosynthetic pathway of sesquiterpenoids. FPS was targeted to the plastid aiming to engineer sesquiterpenoid production, but interestingly leading to a loss of monoterpenoid production in the transgenic tomato trichomes. With this example we show that trichomes are amenable to engineering though, even with knowledge of a biochemical pathway, the result of such engineering can be unexpected. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution of peltate glandular trichomes on developing leaves of peppermint.

    PubMed

    Turner, G W; Gershenzon, J; Croteau, R B

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of peltate glandular trichome initiation and ontogeny on expanding peppermint (Mentha x piperita) leaves was defined by surveying the populations of peltate glands in each of seven developmental stages within sampling areas of leaf apical, mid-, and basal zones for both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. It was shown that new peltate glands continue to form until leaf expansion ceases and that regions of active gland initiation are unevenly distributed. The distribution of gland initiation reflects the basipetal pattern of leaf maturation, with relatively immature regions at the leaf base continuing to produce oil glands long after gland production has stopped at the leaf apex. The proportion of glands in the secretory stage as a function of leaf development and the direct observations of living glands over a period of 33 h indicate that a period of only 20 to 30 h of secretory activity is required for filling of the gland storage compartment with essential oil. These findings are discussed in relation to earlier literature describing age-related changes in glandular essential oil content.

  5. Bidirectional Secretions from Glandular Trichomes of Pyrethrum Enable Immunization of Seedlings[W

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Aldana M.; Stoopen, Geert; Menzel, Tila R.; Gols, Rieta; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are currently known only to store mono- and sesquiterpene compounds in the subcuticular cavity just above the apical cells of trichomes or emit them into the headspace. We demonstrate that basipetal secretions can also occur, by addressing the organization of the biosynthesis and storage of pyrethrins in pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) flowers. Pyrethrum produces a diverse array of pyrethrins and sesquiterpene lactones for plant defense. The highest concentrations accumulate in the flower achenes, which are densely covered by glandular trichomes. The trichomes of mature achenes contain sesquiterpene lactones and other secondary metabolites, but no pyrethrins. However, during achene maturation, the key pyrethrin biosynthetic pathway enzyme chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase is expressed only in glandular trichomes. We show evidence that chrysanthemic acid is translocated from trichomes to pericarp, where it is esterified into pyrethrins that accumulate in intercellular spaces. During seed maturation, pyrethrins are then absorbed by the embryo, and during seed germination, the embryo-stored pyrethrins are recruited by seedling tissues, which, for lack of trichomes, cannot produce pyrethrins themselves. The findings demonstrate that plant glandular trichomes can selectively secrete in a basipetal direction monoterpenoids, which can reach distant tissues, participate in chemical conversions, and immunize seedlings against insects and fungi. PMID:23104830

  6. Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Glandular Trichomes of Solanum berthaultii.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, S P; Eannetta, N T; Hirzel, A T; Steffens, J C

    1992-10-01

    Type A glandular trichomes of the wild potato (Solanum berthaultii Hawkes) entrap insects by rapidly polymerizing the trichome contents after breakage by insect contact. Polymerization of trichome exudate appears to be driven by a soluble polyphenol oxidase (PPO). PPO constitutes up to 70% of the protein in individually collected trichomes and reaches a concentration approaching 200 mum in these organs. Trichome PPO has been purified and shown to be a monomeric copper metalloprotein with an isoelectric point of 5.5, possessing only o-diphenol oxygen oxido-reductase activity, and is larger than most other reported PPOs, with relative molecular weight of 59,000. Chlorogenic and caffeic acid were the most readily oxidized of 14 phenolic substrates tested. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the relative molecular weight 59,000 S. berthaultii trichome PPO were used to show that S. tuberosum L. trichomes express low levels of a cross-reactive protein that lacks detectable PPO activity.

  7. Influence of Environment on Glandular Trichomes and Composition of Essential Oil of Perovskia abrotanoides Karel.

    PubMed

    Oreizi, Elaheh; Rahiminejad, Mohammad Reza; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2014-11-01

    Perovskia abrotanoides Karel. is a medicinal plant used in Iranian folk medicine as a pain killer. Forty-one components have been identified in P. abrotanoides samples collected from Baluchistan Province, and 29 components have been recognized in samples collected from Khorasan Province. The leaves of P. abrotanoides have glandular trichomes (capitates and peltate) on both sides of the lamina. This study aimed to evaluate the variation of oil constituents of the plant and illustrate the glandular trichomes types and then show the influence of environment on oil constituents and glandular trichomes. The essential oil of the plant was obtained using hydrodistillation and the analysis of oils carried out using GC-MS. The anatomical analysis of leaves was done by fixing, coloring, and photoing the sections. Glandular trichomes composed of capitates and peltate trichomes. The essential oil composition differs. Viridiflora and neryl acetate were not identified in yellow glandular trichomes. It seems that there is no relation between anatomical characteristics of the plant leaves and its essential oil composition.

  8. Plant glandular trichomes as targets for breeding or engineering of resistance to herbivores.

    PubMed

    Glas, Joris J; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Alba, Juan M; Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2012-12-12

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant's secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant's resistance to pests.

  9. Influence of Environment on Glandular Trichomes and Composition of Essential Oil of Perovskia abrotanoides Karel.

    PubMed Central

    Oreizi, Elaheh; Rahiminejad, Mohammad Reza; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perovskia abrotanoides Karel. is a medicinal plant used in Iranian folk medicine as a pain killer. Forty-one components have been identified in P. abrotanoides samples collected from Baluchistan Province, and 29 components have been recognized in samples collected from Khorasan Province. The leaves of P. abrotanoides have glandular trichomes (capitates and peltate) on both sides of the lamina. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the variation of oil constituents of the plant and illustrate the glandular trichomes types and then show the influence of environment on oil constituents and glandular trichomes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the plant was obtained using hydrodistillation and the analysis of oils carried out using GC-MS. The anatomical analysis of leaves was done by fixing, coloring, and photoing the sections. Results: Glandular trichomes composed of capitates and peltate trichomes. The essential oil composition differs. Viridiflora and neryl acetate were not identified in yellow glandular trichomes. Conclusions: It seems that there is no relation between anatomical characteristics of the plant leaves and its essential oil composition. PMID:25625046

  10. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Joris J.; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Alba, Juan M.; Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Schuurink, Robert C.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. PMID:23235331

  11. A glandular trichome-specific monoterpene alcohol dehydrogenase from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Polichuk, Devin R; Zhang, Yansheng; Reed, Darwin W; Schmidt, Janice F; Covello, Patrick S

    2010-08-01

    The major components of the isoprenoid-rich essential oil of Artemisia annua L. accumulate in the subcuticular sac of glandular secretory trichomes. As part of an effort to understand isoprenoid biosynthesis in A. annua, an expressed sequence tag (EST) collection was investigated for evidence of genes encoding trichome-specific enzymes. This analysis established that a gene denoted Adh2, encodes an alcohol dehydrogenase and shows a high expression level in glandular trichomes relative to other tissues. The gene product, ADH2, has up to 61% amino acid identity to members of the short chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, including Forsythia x intermedia secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (49.8% identity). Through in vitro biochemical analysis, ADH2 was found to show a strong preference for monoterpenoid secondary alcohols including carveol, borneol and artemisia alcohol. These results indicate a role for ADH2 in monoterpenoid ketone biosynthesis in A. annua glandular trichomes. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of polyphenol oxidase expression in glandular trichomes of solanum and lycopersicon species.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Kowalski, S P; Steffens, J C

    1992-12-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble M(r) 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the M(r) 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the M(r) 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiM(r) 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed.

  13. Comparison of Polyphenol Oxidase Expression in Glandular Trichomes of Solanum and Lycopersicon Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haifeng; Kowalski, Stanley P.; Steffens, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble Mr 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the Mr 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the Mr 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiMr 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16653213

  14. Plant Glandular Trichomes: Natural Cell Factories of High Biotechnological Interest1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Multicellular glandular trichomes are epidermal outgrowths characterized by the presence of a head made of cells that have the ability to secrete or store large quantities of specialized metabolites. Our understanding of the transcriptional control of glandular trichome initiation and development is still in its infancy. This review points to some central questions that need to be addressed to better understand how such specialized cell structures arise from the plant protodermis. A key and unique feature of glandular trichomes is their ability to synthesize and secrete large amounts, relative to their size, of a limited number of metabolites. As such, they qualify as true cell factories, making them interesting targets for metabolic engineering. In this review, recent advances regarding terpene metabolic engineering are highlighted, with a special focus on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In particular, the choice of transcriptional promoters to drive transgene expression and the best ways to sink existing pools of terpene precursors are discussed. The bioavailability of existing pools of natural precursor molecules is a key parameter and is controlled by so-called cross talk between different biosynthetic pathways. As highlighted in this review, the exact nature and extent of such cross talk are only partially understood at present. In the future, awareness of, and detailed knowledge on, the biology of plant glandular trichome development and metabolism will generate new leads to tap the largely unexploited potential of glandular trichomes in plant resistance to pests and lead to the improved production of specialized metabolites with high industrial or pharmacological value. PMID:28724619

  15. Changes in structure and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Thymus quinquecostatus Celak.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ping; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

    2012-01-01

    The types, morphology, distribution, structure, and development process of the glandular trichomes on the leaves of Thymus quinquecostatus Celak had been investigated in this study. Two different types of glandular trichomes were determined in detail, namely, capitate trichomes and peltate ones. Besides, there were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, structure, and development process between the two kinds of trichomes. As the peltate trichome stepping into senium stage, it caved in the epidermis integrally, which was different from the capitate one. The secretion of the capitate trichome contained essential oil, polyphenols, and flavonoids, while, in addition to these three components, the secretion of the peltate one also contained acid polysaccharides. A distinctive difference was also seen in the secretory pathway of the secretion between the two types of trichomes. The secretion of capitate one was extruded through the cuticle of the head cell, but the secretion of the peltate one kept accumulating in the subcuticular space of the head cells until it was released by cuticle rupture.

  16. Changes in Structure and Histochemistry of Glandular Trichomes of Thymus quinquecostatus Celak

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ping; Gao, Ting; Xin, Hua

    2012-01-01

    The types, morphology, distribution, structure, and development process of the glandular trichomes on the leaves of Thymus quinquecostatus Celak had been investigated in this study. Two different types of glandular trichomes were determined in detail, namely, capitate trichomes and peltate ones. Besides, there were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, structure, and development process between the two kinds of trichomes. As the peltate trichome stepping into senium stage, it caved in the epidermis integrally, which was different from the capitate one. The secretion of the capitate trichome contained essential oil, polyphenols, and flavonoids, while, in addition to these three components, the secretion of the peltate one also contained acid polysaccharides. A distinctive difference was also seen in the secretory pathway of the secretion between the two types of trichomes. The secretion of capitate one was extruded through the cuticle of the head cell, but the secretion of the peltate one kept accumulating in the subcuticular space of the head cells until it was released by cuticle rupture. PMID:22545009

  17. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Göpfert, Jens C; MacNevin, Gillian; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2009-01-01

    Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae) which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes as well. Conclusion This

  18. Biochemical and Histochemical Localization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) 12

    PubMed Central

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo; Croteau, Rodney

    1989-01-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (−)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C10 isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (−)-limonene, hydroxylation to (−)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666709

  19. Biochemical and histochemical localization of monoterpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    SciTech Connect

    Gershenzon, J.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R. )

    1989-04-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (-)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C{sub 10} isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (-)-limonene, hydroxylation to (-)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates.

  20. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  1. Phytotoxicity of Constituents of Glandular Trichomes and the Leaf Surface of Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby has a camphor-like odor, and its leaf surfaces contain glandular trichomes of the type shown to contain high levels of isoprenoids in other species. Phytotoxic calamenene-type sesquiterpenes (1-4, 8-10), borneol (11) and methylated flavone...

  2. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  3. Bioenergetics of Monoterpenoid Essential Oil Biosynthesis in Non-Photosynthetic Glandular Trichomes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean R; Lange, Iris; Srividya, Narayanan; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2017-08-24

    The commercially important essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and its relatives in the mint family (Lamiaceae) are accumulated in specialized anatomical structures called glandular trichomes (GTs). A genome-scale stoichiometric model of secretory phase metabolism in peppermint GTs was constructed based on current biochemical and physiological knowledge. Fluxes through the network were predicted based on metabolomic and transcriptomic data. Using simulated reaction deletions, this model predicted that two processes, the regeneration of ATP and ferredoxin (in its reduced form), exert substantial control over flux toward monoterpenes. Follow-up biochemical assays with isolated GTs indicated that oxidative phosphorylation and ethanolic fermentation were active, and that cooperation to provide ATP depended on the concentration of the carbon source. We also report that GTs with high flux toward monoterpenes express, at very high levels, genes coding for a unique pair of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase isoforms. This study provides the first evidence how bioenergetic processes determine flux through monoterpene biosynthesis in GTs. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioenergetics of Monoterpenoid Essential Oil Biosynthesis in Nonphotosynthetic Glandular Trichomes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Iris

    2017-01-01

    The commercially important essential oils of peppermint (Mentha × piperita) and its relatives in the mint family (Lamiaceae) are accumulated in specialized anatomical structures called glandular trichomes (GTs). A genome-scale stoichiometric model of secretory phase metabolism in peppermint GTs was constructed based on current biochemical and physiological knowledge. Fluxes through the network were predicted based on metabolomic and transcriptomic data. Using simulated reaction deletions, this model predicted that two processes, the regeneration of ATP and ferredoxin (in its reduced form), exert substantial control over flux toward monoterpenes. Follow-up biochemical assays with isolated GTs indicated that oxidative phosphorylation and ethanolic fermentation were active and that cooperation to provide ATP depended on the concentration of the carbon source. We also report that GTs with high flux toward monoterpenes express, at very high levels, genes coding for a unique pair of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase isoforms. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of how bioenergetic processes determine flux through monoterpene biosynthesis in GTs. PMID:28838953

  5. Constituents of glandular trichomes of Tithonia diversifolia: relationships to herbivory and antifeedant activity.

    PubMed

    Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Oki, Yumi; Heleno, Vladimir Constantino Gomes; Chaves, Juliana Siqueira; Nascimento, Paulo Gustavo Barboni Dantas; Lichston, Juliana Espada; Constantino, Mauricio Gomes; Varanda, Elenice Mouro; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

    2008-07-01

    The herbivory activity of the bordered patch larvae (Chlosyne lacinia, Lepidoptera) on leaves of a Brazilian population of Tithonia diversifolia and the antifeedant potential of its leaf rinse extract were investigated. The caterpillars fed only on the adaxial face, where the density of glandular trichomes is very low, and avoided the abaxial face, which contains high levels of trichomes. Deterrent activity against the larvae was observed in leaf discs treated with leaf rinse extract at concentrations of 1-5% of fresh leaf weight. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that sesquiterpene lactones are the main constituents of the glandular trichomes. Dichloromethane rinse extracts of the leaves and inflorescences were chemically investigated, and 16 compounds were isolated and identified: 14 sesquiterpene lactones, a flavonoid and a diterpenoid. In this study, five sesquiterpene lactones are described for the first time in the genus, including two lactones, one of which has an unusual seco-guaianolide skeleton. Our findings indicate that the caterpillars avoid the sesquiterpene-lactone-rich glandular trichomes, and provide evidence for the antifeedant activity of the dichloromethane leaf rinse extract. In addition, a study of the seasonal variation of the main constituents from the leaf surface throughout a year demonstrated that a very low qualitative but a very high quantitative variation occurs. The highest level of the main metabolite tagitinin C was observed between September and October and the lowest was from March to June, the later corresponding to the period of highest infestation by the larvae.

  6. Plants on early alert: glandular trichomes as sensors for insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2009-11-01

    The ability of caterpillar or moth 'footsteps' to elicit defenses in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plant was examined. Although touch responses frequently have been observed in plants, the role of herbivore 'touch' in eliciting antiherbivore defenses has not been adequately examined. A combination of methods, including in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was used to determine the role of trichomes in mediating these touch responses. Mutants compromised in jasmonic acid and glandular trichomes were used to test whether both of these were required for these touch responses. We demonstrated that the rupture of foliar glandular trichomes by caterpillar or moth contact induced the expression of defense transcripts (e.g. proteinase inhibitor 2, or PIN2) regulated by jasmonic acid. Neither chewing nor the release of salivary components was required to initiate this induced response. Jasmonic acid and the genes encoding proteins involved in its biosynthesis were identified in the trichomes. Using mutants, we showed that both jasmonic acid and trichomes were required for the contact-induced expression of PIN2. In addition, hydrogen peroxide, formed on the leaf surface, was required for PIN2 expression. Because these defenses would be activated before egg hatch, this early detection system for herbivores may be of considerable ecological significance.

  7. Biological activity of acyl glucose esters from Datura wrightii glandular trichomes against three native insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hare, J Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Datura wrightii is dimorphic for leaf trichome type in southern California. "Sticky" plants produce glandular trichomes that secrete acylsugars, whereas velvety plants produce nonglandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes confer resistance to some potential insect herbivores and are associated with reduced feeding in the field by two native coleopteran herbivores: the tobacco flea beetle, Epitrix hirtipennis, and a weevil, Trichobaris compacta. In contrast, another native beetle, Lema daturaphila, damages sticky and velvety plants similarly in the field. A series of choice and no-choice "ester removal" and "ester addition" feeding experiments were performed in the laboratory to evaluate the role of acylsugars in feeding by all three insect species. Consumption of sticky leaves after their esters were removed by washing was compared to consumption of unwashed sticky leaves and velvety leaves in ester removal experiments. Consumption of velvety leaves was measured after acylsugars were applied to those leaves in controlled amounts in the ester addition experiments. Consumption by E. hirtipennis was reduced by acylsugars in all experiments. Consumption by T. compacta was reduced by acylsugars in the ester removal experiments, but not in the ester addition experiments. The location of the acylsugars at the tip of a long trichome, rather than simply on the leaf surface, may be an important component of the biological activity of acylsugars against T. compacta in nature. Consumption by L. daturaphila was not significantly reduced by acylsugars in any experiment. The acylsugars caused no significant mortality of any of the three insect species.

  8. Linear glandular trichomes of Helianthus (Asteraceae): morphology, localization, metabolite activity and occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Horakh, Silke; Spring, Otmar

    2013-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes of sunflower are well investigated, but detailed studies are lacking for the linear glandular trichomes (LGT), a second type of physiologically active plant hair present on the surface of sunflowers. Light, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy as well as histochemical staining were used to investigate the structure and metabolite deposition of LGT. Consisting of 6–11 linearly arranged cells, LGT were found on the surface of most plant organs of Helianthus annuus. They were associated with the leaf vascular system, and also occurred along petioles, stems and the abaxial surface of chaffy bracts, ray and disc florets. The highest density was found on the abaxial surface of phyllaries. Phenotypically similar LGT were common in all species of the genus, but also occurred in most other genera of the Helianthinae so far screened. Brownish and fluorescent metabolites of an as yet unknown chemical structure, together with terpenoids, were produced and stored in apical cells of LGT. The deposition of compounds gradually progressed from the tip cell to the basal cells of older trichomes. This process was accompanied by nucleus degradation in metabolite-accumulating cells. The localization of these trichomes on prominent plant parts of the apical bud and the capitulum combined with the accumulation of terpenoids and other as yet unknown compounds suggests a chemo-ecological function of the LGT in plant–insect or plant–herbivore interaction.

  9. Biosynthesis and localization of parthenolide in glandular trichomes of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. Schulz Bip.).

    PubMed

    Majdi, Mohammad; Liu, Qing; Karimzadeh, Ghasem; Malboobi, Mohammad Ali; Beekwilder, Jules; Cankar, Katarina; Vos, Ric de; Todorović, Sladjana; Simonović, Ana; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2011-10-01

    Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a perennial medicinal herb and is a rich source of sesquiterpene lactones. Parthenolide is the main sesquiterpene lactone in feverfew and has attracted attention because of its medicinal potential for treatment of migraine and cancer. In the present work the parthenolide content in different tissues and developmental stages of feverfew was analyzed to study the timing and localization of parthenolide biosynthesis. The strongest accumulating tissue was subsequently used to isolate sesquiterpene synthases with the goal to isolate the gene encoding the first dedicated step in parthenolide biosynthesis. This led to the isolation and charachterization of a germacrene A synthase (TpGAS) and an (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase (TpCarS). Transcript level patterns of both sesquiterpene synthases were analyzed in different tissues and glandular trichomes. Although TpGAS was expressed in all aerial tissues, the highest expression was observed in tissues that contain high concentrations of parthenolide and in flowers the highest expression was observed in the biosynthetically most active stages of flower development. The high expression of TpGAS in glandular trichomes which also contain the highest concentration of parthenolide, suggests that glandular trichomes are the secretory tissues where parthenolide biosynthesis and accumulation occur. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Terpene Biosynthesis in Glandular Trichomes of Hop12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guodong; Tian, Li; Aziz, Naveed; Broun, Pierre; Dai, Xinbin; He, Ji; King, Andrew; Zhao, Patrick X.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L. Cannabaceae) is an economically important crop for the brewing industry, where it is used to impart flavor and aroma to beer, and has also drawn attention in recent years due to its potential pharmaceutical applications. Essential oils (mono- and sesquiterpenes), bitter acids (prenylated polyketides), and prenylflavonoids are the primary phytochemical components that account for these traits, and all accumulate at high concentrations in glandular trichomes of hop cones. To understand the molecular basis for terpene accumulation in hop trichomes, a trichome cDNA library was constructed and 9,816 cleansed expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were obtained from random sequencing of 16,152 cDNA clones. The ESTs were assembled into 3,619 unigenes (1,101 contigs and 2,518 singletons). Putative functions were assigned to the unigenes based on their homology to annotated sequences in the GenBank database. Two mono- and two sesquiterpene synthases identified from the EST collection were expressed in Escherichia coli. Hop MONOTERPENE SYNTHASE2 formed the linear monterpene myrcene from geranyl pyrophosphate, whereas hop SESQUITERPENE SYNTHASE1 (HlSTS1) formed both caryophyllene and humulene from farnesyl pyrophosphate. Together, these enzymes account for the production of the major terpene constituents of the hop trichomes. HlSTS2 formed the minor sesquiterpene constituent germacrene A, which was converted to β-elemene on chromatography at elevated temperature. We discuss potential functions for other genes expressed at high levels in developing hop trichomes. PMID:18775972

  11. Transcriptome profiling of trichome-less reveals genes associated with multicellular trichome development in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Yun-Li; Yao, Dan-Qing; Zhu, Wen-Ying; Chen, Long; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2015-10-01

    Trichomes on plants, similar to fine hairs on animal and human bodies, play important roles in plant survival and development. They also represent a useful model for the study of cell differentiation. Although the regulatory gene network of unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana has been well studied, the genes that regulate multicellular trichome development remain unclear. We confirmed that Cucumis sativus (cucumber) trichomes are multicellular and unbranched, but identified a spontaneous mutant, trichome-less (tril), which presented a completely glabrous phenotype. We compared the transcriptome profilings of the tril mutant and wild type using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. A total of 991 genes exhibited differential expression: 518 were up-regulated and 473 were down-regulated. We further identified 62 differentially expressed genes that encoded crucial transcription factors and were subdivided into seven categories: homeodomain, MADS, MYB, and WRKY domains, ethylene-responsive, zinc finger, and other transcription factor genes. We further analyzed the tissue-expression profiles of two candidate genes, GLABRA2-like and ATHB51-like, using qRT-PCR and found that these two genes were specifically expressed in the epidermis and trichomes, respectively. These results and the tril mutant provide useful tools to study the molecular networks associated with multicellular trichome development.

  12. Genetic elaborations of glandular and non-glandular trichomes in Mentha arvensis genotypes: assessing genotypic and phenotypic correlations along with gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anand; Lal, R K; Chanotiya, C S; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2017-03-01

    Mentha arvensis (corn mint) is well known for the production of menthol, a widely used commodity in pharma and flavoring industries and provides natural fragrances and products. Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the aerial surface of vascular plants species producing specific secondary metabolite chemistry. Correlations were established among trichomes, oil yield, and major secondary metabolites. Nine improved, elite cultivars representing different M. arvensis genotypes were used for analysis. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were estimated; results indicated the presence of considerable amount of genetic variability, thereby emphasizing wide scope of selection. Positive and significant associations were found among glandular trichomes, oil yield, essential oil constituents, and leaf morphology itself, whereas morphological parameters of leaf show positive and negative correlations to average number of trichome and essential oil constituents. Average number of glandular, non-glandular trichomes, their ratios, menthol content, and trichome number showed a good heritability. Trichomes were studied microscopically in leaf parts in all varieties for analyzing their distribution pattern. The trichome number variations showed significant correlation throughout the genotypes with essential oil yield and monoterpenoid constituents. Differential changes were analyzed for Glutathione S-transferases, Glutathione reductase, Malondialdehyde, phenolics, and chlorophyll content. Gene expressions were analyzed for biosynthesis genes and selected transcription factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1), ENOLASE 1, GLABRA 3, GTL 1, NUCLEAR TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Y SUBUNIT B-6, WRKY transcription factor 22, putative WRKY 33, WRKY 17, WRKY 1, and WRKY 65-like for harnessing their relation with trichome development in M. arvensis genotypes.

  13. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, the enzyme controlling marijuana psychoactivity, is secreted into the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Taura, Futoshi; Tanaka, Yumi; Ishikawa, Yu; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2005-09-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is the enzyme responsible for the production of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.). We suggest herein that THCA is biosynthesized in the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes based on the following observations. (i) The exclusive expression of THCA synthase was confirmed in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. (ii) THCA synthase activity was detected in the storage cavity content. (iii) Transgenic tobacco expressing THCA synthase fused to green fluorescent protein showed fluorescence in the trichome head corresponding to the storage cavity. These results also showed that secretory cells of the glandular trichomes secrete not only metabolites but also biosynthetic enzyme.

  14. The Key Role of Peltate Glandular Trichomes in Symbiota Comprising Clavicipitaceous Fungi of the Genus Periglandula and Their Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A.; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant. PMID:25894995

  15. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  16. Morphology and Histochemistry of the Glandular Trichomes of Lippia scaberrima (Verbenaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Combrinck, S.; Du Plooy, G. W.; McCrindle, R. I.; Botha, B. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Lippia scaberrima, an aromatic indigenous South African plant, with medicinal application, potentially has economic value. The production of essential oil from this plant has not been optimized, and this study of the chemico-morphological characteristics was aimed at determining the location of oil production within the plant. Furthermore, the locality of other secondary metabolites important in medicinal applications needed to be ascertained. This information would be useful in deciding the protocol required for isolation of such compounds. Methods The morphology of the glandular trichomes was investigated using a combination of scanning electron and light microscopy. Concurrently, the chemical content was studied by applying various chemical reagents and fluorescence microscopy. Key Results Three types of trichomes were distinguished on the material investigated. Large, bulbous peltate glands containing compounds of terpenoid nature are probably the main site of essential oil accumulation. Small glands were found to be both peltate and capitate and fluorescent stain indicated the possible presence of phenolic compounds. The third type was a slender tapered seta with an ornamented surface and uniseriate base, and evidently secretory in nature. Conclusions This study linking the chemical content and morphology of the glandular trichomes of L. scaberrima has contributed to the knowledge and understanding of secretory structures of Lippia spp. in general. PMID:17468110

  17. Morphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes of Lippia scaberrima (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Combrinck, S; Du Plooy, G W; McCrindle, R I; Botha, B M

    2007-06-01

    Lippia scaberrima, an aromatic indigenous South African plant, with medicinal application, potentially has economic value. The production of essential oil from this plant has not been optimized, and this study of the chemico-morphological characteristics was aimed at determining the location of oil production within the plant. Furthermore, the locality of other secondary metabolites important in medicinal applications needed to be ascertained. This information would be useful in deciding the protocol required for isolation of such compounds. The morphology of the glandular trichomes was investigated using a combination of scanning electron and light microscopy. Concurrently, the chemical content was studied by applying various chemical reagents and fluorescence microscopy. Three types of trichomes were distinguished on the material investigated. Large, bulbous peltate glands containing compounds of terpenoid nature are probably the main site of essential oil accumulation. Small glands were found to be both peltate and capitate and fluorescent stain indicated the possible presence of phenolic compounds. The third type was a slender tapered seta with an ornamented surface and uniseriate base, and evidently secretory in nature. This study linking the chemical content and morphology of the glandular trichomes of L. scaberrima has contributed to the knowledge and understanding of secretory structures of Lippia spp. in general.

  18. The flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase modulates terpenoid production in glandular trichomes of tomato.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E; Jones, A Daniel; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-03-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments.

  19. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  20. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21–24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26406988

  1. Phytotoxicity of constituents of glandular trichomes and the leaf surface of camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Masanori; Cantrell, Charles L; Libous-Bailey, Lynn; Duke, Stephen O

    2009-01-01

    Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby, has a camphor-like odor, and its leaf surfaces contain glandular trichomes of the type shown to contain high levels of isoprenoids in other species. Borneol (1), the phytotoxic calamenene-type sesquiterpenes (2-5, 9-11), and methylated flavones (12-15) were isolated from the dichloromethane rinsate of camphorweed aerial tissues. The strongest plant growth inhibitor against Agrostis stolonifera and Lactuca sativa seedlings, as well as duckweed (Lemna pausicostata), was 2-methoxy-calamenene-14-carboxylic acid (2). Esterification of calamenene carboxylic acids decreased their biological activity.

  2. Transcriptome profiling reveals roles of meristem regulators and polarity genes during fruit trichome development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jianyu; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-09-01

    Trichomes are epidermal hair-like structures that function in plant defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive studies have been performed on foliar trichomes development in Arabidopsis and tomato, but the molecular mechanism of fruit trichome formation remains elusive. Cucumber fruit is covered with trichomes (spines) that directly affect the appearance and quality of cucumber products. Here, we characterized the fruit spine development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, tiny branched hair (tbh). Our data showed that the cucumber trichome was multicellular and non-glandular, with malformed organelles and no endoreduplication. Fruit spine development was generally homogenous and marked by a rapid base expansion stage. Trichomes in the tbh mutant were tiny and branched, with increased density and aberrant cell shape. Transcriptome profiling indicated that meristem-related genes were highly enriched in the upregulated genes in the tbh versus the WT, as well as in WT spines after versus before base expansion, and that polarity regulators were greatly induced during spine base expansion. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) during spine development. Therefore, cucumber trichomes are morphologically different from those of Arabidopsis and tomato, and their development may be regulated by a distinct pathway involving meristem genes and polarity regulators.

  3. Light, Conventional and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Trichomes of Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. styriaca and Histochemistry of Glandular Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    KOLB, DAGMAR; MÜLLER, MARIA

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In the present study, the differences between glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the secretory process and the method of secretion were studied. Previous studies on leaves of Styrian oil pumpkin (Cucurbia pepo var. styriaca) plants have shown that four morphologically and ontogenetically independent glandular and non-glandular trichome types and one bristle hair type can be distinguished. The four types of trichomes can be categorized into three glandular trichome types: type I, a short-stalked trichome with four head cells including a ‘middle-cell’, two stalk cells and one basal cell; type II, a long-stalked trichome with two head cells, a ‘neck-cell’ region and a long stalk area; type IV, a ‘stipitate-capitate’ trichome with a mesophyll cell basement, a short stalk and a multicellular head; type III, a non-glandular ‘columnar-digit’ trichome, which consists of two head cells continuous with three-celled stalk, and the basal cell. • Methods The histochemical studies (the main classes of metabolite in secreted material of glandular trichomes) were conducted in fresh and fixed hand sections, using the following tests: Sudan black B, Nile blue A, osmium tetroxide, neutral red, Naturstoffreagent A, FSA (fuchsin–safranin–astra blue), NADI (naphthol + dimethylparaphenylenediamine) and ruthenium red. Each suggested differences in the intercalations during the ontogenetical development of each trichome during the development stage. • Key Results The histochemical reactions revealed the main components of the materials secreted by all types of trichomes, which include lipids, flavones and terpenes and the different cell wall compositions. Glandular secretions were observed during environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and the trichomes compared with those seen by conventional scanning electron microscopy (CSEM). • Conclusions Scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analysis demonstrated that each of

  4. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  5. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  6. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering.

  7. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore. PMID:27556560

  8. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore.

  9. Capitate glandular trichomes of Paragutzlaffia henryi harbor new phytotoxic labdane diterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Xiao-Nian; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2015-11-18

    The morphology and chemical profile of the capitate glandular trichomes (CGTs) of Paragutzlaffia henryi (Acanthaceae) were investigated. Four new labdane diterpenoids named paraguhenryisins A-D (1-4), together with the known physacoztomatin (5), were localized to the CGTs using laser microdissection coupled with cryogenic (1)H NMR and HPLC analyses and were traced and isolated from the CGT extract of inflorescences. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Bioassays indicated significant inhibitory effect for these diterpenoids on Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and seedling root elongation. The most potent inhibitor, paraguhenryisin C (3), was interestingly detected in both the rhizosphere soil and water rinsed inflorescences extract of P. henryi but not the roots, with average contents in the rhizosphere soil relevant to its phytotoxic EC50 values. These results suggested that phytotoxic labdane diterpenoids in the CGTs might be released into the environment as a defensive measure for P. henryi against other competitive plants.

  10. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid.

  11. Capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae): ultrastructure and cytological development.

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, produce sesquiterpene lactones (STL) and flavonoids, which are sequestered and accumulated between the apical cuticle and the wall of the tip cells. To explore the cellular structures required and putatively involved in the STL biosynthesis and secretion, the present study was focused on the development of CGT and the comparison of the ultrastructure of its different cell types. Gradual maturation of flowers in the capitulum of the sunflower provided the possibility to study the simultaneous differentiation from the primordial to the secretory stage of CGT located by light microscopy (bright field, differential interference contrast and fluorescence) as well as transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the CGT of sunflower anthers had a biseriate structure with up to 14 cell pairs. In mature trichomes, the apical cells called secretory cells were covered entirely by a large cuticle globe, which enclosed the resinous terpenoids and was specialised in thickness and structure. The secretory cells lacked chloroplasts and contained mainly smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER). Conspicuous cell wall protuberances and an accumulation of mitochondria nearby occurred in the horizontally oriented cell walls. The cytological differences between stalk cells and secretory cells indicate a different function. The dominance of sER suggests its involvement in STL biosynthesis and cell wall protuberances enlarge the surface of the plasmamembrane of secretory cells and may be involved in the secretion processes of STL into the subcuticular space.

  12. AtGIS, a C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor from Arabidopsis regulates glandular trichome development through GA signaling in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihua; Liu, Dongdong; Hu, Rui; Hua, Changmei; Ali, Imran; Zhang, Aidong; Liu, Bohan; Wu, Minjie; Huang, Linli; Gan, Yinbo

    2017-01-29

    Glandular trichome is specialized multicellular structures that have capability to synthesize and secrete secondary metabolites and protect plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. Our previous results revealed that the C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factors (GIS) acts upstream of GL3/EGL3-GL1-TTG1transcriptional activator complex to regulate trichome initiation through GA signal in Arabidopsis. In the present study, we are reporting that ectopic expression of AtGIS could regulate glandular trichome development through GA signaling in tobacco. X-gluc staining of various organs from transgenic plants showed that AtGIS expressed mainly in the glandular trichomes. Statistical analysis demonstrated that over expression of GIS increased significantly glandular trichome production on the leaf, stem, branch, and sepal in tobacco. After PAC treatment, reduction of glandular trichome production in transgenic plants was more severe with compared to wild type plants. Furthermore, GA treatment could induce expression of AtGIS. More importantly, our results also demonstrated that overexpressed AtGIS significantly affect the main components of trichome exudates, such as significantly increase the content of nicotine, Cembratriene-4, 6-diol. Taken together, these results suggest that ectopic expression of AtGIS regulates glandular trichome development and may play a key role in compounds secretion in tobacco. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-glandular trichomes of Solanum carolinense deter feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars and cause damage to the gut peritrophic matrix.

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Smith, Jason D; Stephenson, Andrew G; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2017-02-22

    Plant trichomes constitute a first line of defence against insect herbivores. The pre- and post-ingestive defensive functions of glandular trichomes are well documented and include direct toxicity, adhesion, antinutrition and defence gene induction. By contrast, the defensive functions of non-glandular trichomes are less well characterized, although these structures are thought to serve as physical barriers that impede herbivore feeding and movement. We experimentally varied the density of stellate non-glandular trichomes in several ways to explore their pre- and post-ingestive effects on herbivores. Larvae of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) initiated feeding faster and gained more weight on Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae) leaves having lower trichome densities (or experimentally removed trichomes) than on leaves having higher trichome densities. Adding trichomes to artificial diet also deterred feeding and adversely affected caterpillar growth relative to controls. Scanning electron and light microscopy revealed that the ingestion of stellate trichomes by M. sexta caterpillars caused extensive damage to the peritrophic membrane, a gut lining that is essential to digestion and pathogen isolation. These findings suggest that, in addition to acting as a physical barrier to deter feeding, trichomes can inhibit caterpillar growth and development via post-ingestive effects.

  14. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants. PMID:26340695

  15. Developmental Regulation of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Peppermint1

    PubMed Central

    McConkey, Marie E.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2000-01-01

    Monoterpene production in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) glandular trichomes is determined by the rate of biosynthesis, as determined by 14CO2 incorporation, and is restricted to leaves 12 to 20 d of age. Using oil glands isolated from peppermint leaves of different ages, in vitro assay of the eight sequential enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the principal monoterpene (−)-menthol indicated that all but one biosynthetic enzyme had a very similar developmental profile. Activities were highest in leaves 12 to 20 d of age, with a sharp peak centered at 15 d. The exception, (−)-menthone reductase, the last enzyme of the pathway, exhibited a later peak of activity, which was centered at approximately 21 d. The correlation between in vitro enzyme activity and the rate of biosynthesis measured in vivo suggests that monoterpene formation is controlled mainly by the coordinately regulated activity of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes. Developmental immunoblotting of limonene synthase, which catalyzes the committed step of the pathway, demonstrated a direct correlation between enzyme activity and enzyme protein, suggesting that the dynamic time course for the remaining pathway enzyme activities also reflects the corresponding protein levels. RNA-blot analyses indicated that the genes encoding enzymes of the early pathway steps are transcriptionally activated in a coordinated fashion, with a time course superimposible with activity measurements and immunoblot data. These results demonstrating coincidental temporal changes in enzyme activities, enzyme protein level, and steady-state transcript abundances indicate that most of the monoterpene biosynthetic enzymes in peppermint are developmentally regulated at the level of gene expression. PMID:10631265

  16. Glandular trichomes and essential oil characteristics of in vitro propagated Micromeria pulegium (Rochel) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Stojičić, Dragana; Tošić, Svetlana; Slavkovska, Violeta; Zlatković, Bojan; Budimir, Snežana; Janošević, Dušica; Uzelac, Branka

    2016-08-01

    In vitro conditions and benzyladenine influenced both content and composition of micropropagated Micromeria pulegium essential oils, with pulegone and menthone being the main essential oil components. The content and chemical composition of Micromeria pulegium (Rochel) Benth. essential oils were studied in native plant material at vegetative stage and in micropropagated plants, obtained from nodal segments cultured on solid MS medium supplemented with N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin at different concentrations, alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid. Shoot proliferation was achieved in all treatments, but the highest biomass production was obtained after treatment with 10 μM BA. Phytochemical analysis identified up to 21 compounds in the essential oils of wild-growing and in vitro cultivated plants, both showing very high percentages of total monoterpenoids dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes of the menthane type. Pulegone and menthone were the main essential oil components detected in both wild-growing plants (60.07 and 26.85 %, respectively) and micropropagated plants grown on either plant growth regulator-free medium (44.57 and 29.14 %, respectively) or BA-supplemented medium (50.77 and 14.45 %, respectively). The percentage of total sesquiterpenoids increased in vitro, particularly owing to sesquiterpene hydrocarbons that were not found in wild-growing plants. Differences in both content and the composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples indicated that in vitro culture conditions and plant growth regulators significantly influence the essential oils properties. In addition, the morphology and structure of M. pulegium glandular trichomes in relation to the secretory process were characterized for the first time using SEM and light microscopy, and their secretion was histochemically analyzed.

  17. EST Analysis of Hop Glandular Trichomes Identifies an O-Methyltransferase That Catalyzes the Biosynthesis of Xanthohumol[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Jana; Culley, Lana K.; Lu, Yuping; Liu, Enwu; Matthews, Paul D.; Stevens, Jan F.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    The glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) of hop (Humulus lupulus) synthesize essential oils and terpenophenolic resins, including the bioactive prenylflavonoid xanthohumol. To dissect the biosynthetic processes occurring in lupulin glands, we sequenced 10,581 ESTs from four trichome-derived cDNA libraries. ESTs representing enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis, including all of the steps of the methyl 4-erythritol phosphate pathway, were abundant in the EST data set, as were ESTs for the known type III polyketide synthases of bitter acid and xanthohumol biosynthesis. The xanthohumol biosynthetic pathway involves a key O-methylation step. Four S-adenosyl-l-methionine–dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) with similarity to known flavonoid-methylating enzymes were present in the EST data set. OMT1, which was the most highly expressed OMT based on EST abundance and RT-PCR analysis, performs the final reaction in xanthohumol biosynthesis by methylating desmethylxanthohumol to form xanthohumol. OMT2 accepted a broad range of substrates, including desmethylxanthohumol, but did not form xanthohumol. Mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed it methylated xanthohumol to 4-O-methylxanthohumol, which is not known from hop. OMT3 was inactive with all substrates tested. The lupulin gland-specific EST data set expands the genomic resources for H. lupulus and provides further insight into the metabolic specialization of glandular trichomes. PMID:18223037

  18. EST analysis of hop glandular trichomes identifies an O-methyltransferase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of xanthohumol.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jana; Culley, Lana K; Lu, Yuping; Liu, Enwu; Matthews, Paul D; Stevens, Jan F; Page, Jonathan E

    2008-01-01

    The glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) of hop (Humulus lupulus) synthesize essential oils and terpenophenolic resins, including the bioactive prenylflavonoid xanthohumol. To dissect the biosynthetic processes occurring in lupulin glands, we sequenced 10,581 ESTs from four trichome-derived cDNA libraries. ESTs representing enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis, including all of the steps of the methyl 4-erythritol phosphate pathway, were abundant in the EST data set, as were ESTs for the known type III polyketide synthases of bitter acid and xanthohumol biosynthesis. The xanthohumol biosynthetic pathway involves a key O-methylation step. Four S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) with similarity to known flavonoid-methylating enzymes were present in the EST data set. OMT1, which was the most highly expressed OMT based on EST abundance and RT-PCR analysis, performs the final reaction in xanthohumol biosynthesis by methylating desmethylxanthohumol to form xanthohumol. OMT2 accepted a broad range of substrates, including desmethylxanthohumol, but did not form xanthohumol. Mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed it methylated xanthohumol to 4-O-methylxanthohumol, which is not known from hop. OMT3 was inactive with all substrates tested. The lupulin gland-specific EST data set expands the genomic resources for H. lupulus and provides further insight into the metabolic specialization of glandular trichomes.

  19. Effect of prolonged water stress on specialized secondary metabolites, peltate glandular trichomes, and pathway gene expression in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ritesh K; Sangwan, Rajender S; Sabir, Farzana; Srivastava, Awadesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. accumulates substantial quantities of unique sesquiternoid artemisinin and related phytomolecules and characteristic essential oil in glandular trichomes, present on its leaves and inflorescence. Water stress is a major concern in controlling plant growth and productivity. In this study, our aim was to find out the modulation of artemisinin and essential oil constituents in plants grown under prolonged water stress conditions. A. annua CIM-Arogya plants grown in pots were subjected to mild (60% ± 5) and moderate (40% ± 5) water stress treatment and continued during entire developmental period. Results revealed that artemisinin, arteannuin-B, artemisinic acid, dihydroartemisinic acid and essential oil content were positively controlled by the growth and development however negatively modulated by water deficit stress. Interestingly, some of minor monoterpenes, all sesquiterpenes and other low molecular weight volatiles of essential oil components were induced by water deficit treatment. Camphor which is the major essential oil constituents did not alter much while 1, 8 cineole was modulated during development of plant as well as under water stress conditions. Water deficit stress induces a decrease in glandular trichome density and size as well. The dynamics of various secondary metabolites is discussed in the light of growth responses, trichomes and pathway gene expression in plants grown under two levels of prolonged water stress conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The Flavonoid Biosynthetic Enzyme Chalcone Isomerase Modulates Terpenoid Production in Glandular Trichomes of Tomato1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E.; Jones, A. Daniel; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments. PMID:24424324

  1. Glandular trichomes and essential oil composition of endemic Sideritis italica (Mill.) Greuter et Burdet from central Italy.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Claudia; Bini, Laura Maleci; Papa, Fabrizio; Cristalli, Gloria; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Lucarini, Domenico; Maggi, Filippo

    2011-12-01

    Sideritis italica (Mill.) Greuter et Burdet belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is endemic to Italy. The glandular trichomes (morphology, distribution, histochemistry, and ultrastructure) of the plant were studied for the first time, along with the chemical composition of the essential oils. Abundant non-glandular hairs and peltate (type A) and capitate (types B, C(1), and C(x)) glandular trichomes were observed both on the vegetative and reproductive organs. The histochemical procedures and the ultrastructural investigation enabled specific location of the main site of essential oil production mainly in type-A peltate hairs. Particular emphasis is given to the release mechanism of the secreted material in all of the types of glands, and the potential taxonomic value of the indumentum in the Lamiaceae family is briefly discussed. Essential oils were hydrodistilled from flowering aerial parts of S. italica, and 136 compounds (112 in flowerheads, 79 in vegetative parts) were identified. The quantitative prevalence of diterpenoids (43.4% in flowerheads and 22.3% in vegetative parts) was the most significant characteristic of the essential oil of S. italica that could be classified as a diterpene-rich essential oil according to the classification of Kirimer. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase.

  3. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of the labdane diterpene Z-abienol in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Sallaud, Christophe; Giacalone, Cécile; Töpfer, Romy; Goepfert, Simon; Bakaher, Nicolas; Rösti, Sandrine; Tissier, Alain

    2012-10-01

    Leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) are covered with glandular trichomes that produce sucrose esters and diterpenoids in varying quantities, depending on cultivar type. The bicyclic diterpene Z-abienol is the major labdanoid present in some oriental tobacco cultivars, where it constitutes a precursor of important flavours and aromas. We describe here the identification and characterization of two genes governing the biosynthesis of Z-abienol in N. tabacum. As for other angiosperm labdanoid diterpenes, the biosynthesis of Z-abienol proceeds in two steps. NtCPS2 encodes a class-II terpene synthase that synthesizes 8-hydroxy-copalyl diphosphate, and NtABS encodes a kaurene synthase-like (KSL) protein that uses 8-hydroxy-copalyl diphosphate to produce Z-abienol. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that NtABS belongs to a distinct clade of KSL proteins that comprises the recently identified tomato (Solanum habrochaites) santalene and bergamotene synthase. RT-PCR results show that both genes are preferentially expressed in trichomes. Moreover, microscopy of NtCPS2 promoter-GUS fusion transgenics demonstrated a high specificity of expression to trichome glandular cells. Ectopic expression of both genes, but not of either one alone, driven by a trichome-specific promoter in transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris conferred Z-abienol formation to this species, which does not normally produce it. Furthermore, sequence analysis of over 100 tobacco cultivars revealed polymorphisms in NtCPS2 that lead to a prematurely truncated protein in cultivars lacking Z-abienol, thus establishing NtCPS2 as a major gene controlling Z-abienol biosynthesis in tobacco. These results offer new perspectives for tobacco breeding and the metabolic engineering of labdanoid diterpenes, as well as for structure-function relationship studies of terpene synthases. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis wild-type and gl3-sst sim trichomes identifies four additional genes required for trichome development.

    PubMed

    Marks, M David; Wenger, Jonathan P; Gilding, Edward; Jilk, Ross; Dixon, Richard A

    2009-07-01

    Transcriptome analyses have been performed on mature trichomes isolated from wild-type Arabidopsis leaves and on leaf trichomes isolated from the gl3-sst sim double mutant, which exhibit many attributes of immature trichomes. The mature trichome profile contained many highly expressed genes involved in cell wall synthesis, protein turnover, and abiotic stress response. The most highly expressed genes in the gl3-sst sim profile encoded ribosomal proteins and other proteins involved in translation. Comparative analyses showed that all but one of the genes encoding transcription factors previously found to be important for trichome formation, and many other trichome-important genes, were preferentially expressed in gl3-sst sim trichomes. The analysis of genes preferentially expressed in gl3-sst sim led to the identification of four additional genes required for normal trichome development. One of these was the HDG2 gene, which is a member of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor gene family. Mutations in this gene did not alter trichome expansion, but did alter mature trichome cell walls. Mutations in BLT resulted in a loss of trichome branch formation. The relationship between blt and the phenotypically identical mutant, sti, was explored. Mutations in PEL3, which was previously shown to be required for development of the leaf cuticle, resulted in the occasional tangling of expanding trichomes. Mutations in another gene encoding a protein with an unknown function altered trichome branch formation.

  5. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  6. Microbe-based technology ameliorates glandular trichomes, secondary metabolites and antioxidants in Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    Despite the vast exploration of microbes for plant health, there is a lack of knowledge about the synergistic effects of specific microorganisms in sustainable agriculture, especially in medicinal plants such as Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. The aim of this study was to evaluate how synergistic microbes Trichoderma harzianum ThU, Glomus intraradices and Bacillus subtilis CIM affected crop productivity, secondary metabolites and glandular trichome number in P. graveolens. The results demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plant growth, secondary metabolites, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, free radical-scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity of P. graveolens treated with synergistic bioinoculants as compared with the control. Most interestingly, an increase in essential oil by 32% in the treatment with all three microbes was observed. Furthermore, the principal aroma compounds citronellol and geraniol also increased in the same treatment. A positive and direct correlation was observed between essential oil content and number of glandular trichomes in all treatments. The present study highlights an explicit amalgamation of prospective microbes showing potential for synergism that act as biostimulants in enhancing plant production and improving the antioxidant and aroma profile of P. graveolens. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of heat shock on ultrastructure and calcium distribution in Lavandula pinnata L. glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, S S; Kirchoff, B K; Liao, J P

    2013-02-01

    The effects of heat shock (HS) on the ultrastructure and calcium distribution of Lavandula pinnata secretory trichomes are examined using transmission electron microscopy and potassium antimonate precipitation. After 48-h HS at 40°C, plastids become distorted and lack stroma and osmiophilic deposits, the cristae of the mitochondria become indistinct, the endoplasmic reticulum acquires a chain-like appearance with ribosomes prominently attached to the lamellae, and the plasma and organelle membranes become distorted. Heat shock is associated with a decrease in calcium precipitates in the trichomes, while the number of precipitates increases in the mesophyll cells. Prolonged exposure to elevated calcium levels may be toxic to the mesophyll cells, while the lack of calcium in the glands cell may deprive them of the normal protective advantages of elevated calcium levels. The inequality in calcium distribution may result not only from uptake from the transpiration stream, but also from redistribution of calcium from the trichomes to the mesophyll cells.

  8. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality.

  9. Transcriptome analysis in Cucumis sativus identifies genes involved in multicellular trichome development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Pan, Jun-Song; Guan, Yuan; Nie, Jing-Tao; Yang, Jun-Jun; Qu, Mei-Ling; He, Huan-Le; Cai, Run

    2015-05-01

    The regulatory gene network of unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana has been studied intensively, but that of multicellular remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized cucumber trichomes as representative multicellular and unbranched structures, but in a spontaneous mutant, mict (micro-trichome), all trichomes showed a micro-size and stunted morphologies. We revealed the transcriptome profile using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology, and determined that a total of 1391 genes exhibited differential expression. We further validated the accuracy of the transcriptome data by RT-qPCR and found that 43 genes encoding critical transcription factors were likely involved in multicellular trichome development. These 43 candidate genes were subdivided into seven groups: homeodomain, MYB-domain, WRKY-domain, bHLH-domain, ethylene-responsive, zinc finger and other transcription factor genes. Our findings also serve as a powerful tool to further study the relevant molecular networks, and provide a new perspective for investigating this complex and species-specific developmental process.

  10. Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; May, Bianca; Lankes, Christa; Wüst, Matthias

    2014-03-19

    The biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol glycosides rebaudioside A and stevioside in nonrooted cuttings of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated by feeding experiments using the labeled key precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). Labeled glycosides were extracted from the leaves and stems and were directly analyzed by LC-(-ESI)-MS/MS and by GC-MS after hydrolysis and derivatization of the resulting isosteviol to the corresponding TMS-ester. Additionally, the incorporation of the proffered d2-MVL and d2-DOX into volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes on leaves and stems was investigated by headspace-solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Incorporation of the labeled precursors indicated that diterpenes in leaves and monoterpenes and diterpenes in glandular trichomes are predominately biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas both the MEP and mevalonate (MVA) pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes at equal rates in glandular trichomes. These findings give evidence for a transport of MEP pathway derived farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol. Contrarily, the transport of MVA pathway derived geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursors from the cytosol to the plastid is limited.

  11. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L.; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L.; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-01-01

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce β-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the “universal” substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes. PMID:19487664

  12. Structural re-arrangement of depolymerized sodium alginate enriches peltate glandular trichomes and essential oil production of spearmint.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Yawar; Khan, M Masroor A; Shabbir, Asfia; Ahmad, Bilal; Jaleel, Hassan; Uddin, Moin; Varshney, Lalit

    2017-07-25

    Over the past decade, radiation-degraded polysaccharides have been used as regulators of growth and development in several crop plants. In quest of the possible reasons of previously established growth-promotion activity of irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), structural parameters of irradiated and un-irradiated sodium alginate were analysed using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) studies to develop an understanding of structure-property relationship. Using foliar application, response to graded concentrations of ISA was tested in terms of yield and quality attributes of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). Among different concentrations of ISA [0 (control), 40, 80, 120 and 160mgL(-1)], 80mgL(-1) proved to be the optimum foliar-spray treatment for most of the parameters studied including peltate glandular-trichomes density, which was increased from 20 to 44mm(-2). Measurements made at 150days after planting revealed that foliar application of ISA at 80mgL(-1) increased the content and yield of spearmint essential oil (EO) by 36.0 and 122.6%, respectively, in comparison to the control. Compared to the control, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed an increase of 18.7% in the carvone content and a decrease of 15.7% in limonene content of the spearmint EO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, K; Croteau, R

    1996-05-01

    Solubilized NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes by dye-ligand interaction chromatography on Matrex-Gel Red A and affinity chromatography on 2', 5'-adenosine diphosphate agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme preparation revealed the presence of two similar proteins with masses of 82 kDa (major) and 77 kDa (minor) that crossreacted on immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies directed against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke and from mung bean. Complete immunoinhibition of reductase activity was observed with both types of polyclonal antibodies, while only partial inhibition of activity resulted using a family of monoclonal antibodies directed against the Jerusalem artichoke cytochrome P450 reductase. Inhibition of the spearmint oil gland cytochrome c reductase was also observed with the diphenyliodonium ion. The K(m) values for the cosubstrates NADPH and cytochrome c were 6.2 and 3.7 microM, respectively, and the pH optimum for activity was at 8.5. The NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reconstituted NADPH-dependent (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase activity in the presence of cytochrome P450, purified from the microsomal fraction of spearmint oil gland cells and dilauroyl phosphatidyl choline. These characteristics establish the identity of the purified enzyme as a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  14. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-06-30

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.

  15. Secondary Metabolites, Glandular Trichomes and Biological Activity of Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Frezza, Claudio; Serafini, Mauro; Giacomello, Ginevra; Giuliani, Claudia; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Lupidi, Giulio; Lucarini, Domenico; Papa, Fabrizio; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Sideritis montana subsp. montana is a small annual herb occurring in countries bordering the Mediterranean and Balkan regions. The secondary metabolism of this plant has not been fully explored so far. The aim of the present study was to understand the complex mixture of secondary metabolites and the type of secretory structures. The polar constituents were isolated by column chromatography from the ethanolic extract, and their structure was elucidated by NMR and MS. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC/MS. The plant indumentum was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. To complete the work, the essential oil antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on tumor cells were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and MTT methods. Four different classes of secondary metabolites were isolated, namely flavonoids, caffeoylquinic derivatives, glycosidic hydroquinones and iridoids. The essential oil was mainly characterized by sesquiterpenene hydrocarbons. Peltate and long-capitate hairs were the main sites where terpenes and polar constituents are produced. The secondary metabolites found in S. montana subsp. montana are of chemotaxonomic interest, some of them being typical of the genus Sideritis. The trichomes types observed partially differ from those described in other members of the genus Sideritis. The essential oil showed noteworthy inhibition on tumor cells. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  16. Characterization of the formation of branched short-chain fatty acid:CoAs for bitter acid biosynthesis in hop glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyang; Zhang, Fengxia; Liu, Baoxiu; Huhman, David V; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A; Wang, Guodong

    2013-07-01

    Bitter acids, known for their use as beer flavoring and for their diverse biological activities, are predominantly formed in hop (Humulus lupulus) glandular trichomes. Branched short-chain acyl-CoAs (e.g. isobutyryl-CoA, isovaleryl-CoA and 2-methylbutyryl-CoA), derived from the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are essential building blocks for the biosynthesis of bitter acids in hops. However, little is known regarding what components are needed to produce and maintain the pool of branched short-chain acyl-CoAs in hop trichomes. Here, we present several lines of evidence that both CoA ligases and thioesterases are likely involved in bitter acid biosynthesis. Recombinant HlCCL2 (carboxyl CoA ligase) protein had high specific activity for isovaleric acid as a substrate (K cat /K m = 4100 s(-1) M(-1)), whereas recombinant HlCCL4 specifically utilized isobutyric acid (Kcat/K m = 1800 s(-1) M(-1)) and 2-methylbutyric acid (Kcat/K m = 6900 s(-1) M(-1)) as substrates. Both HlCCLs, like hop valerophenone synthase (HlVPS), were expressed strongly in glandular trichomes and localized to the cytoplasm. Co-expression of HlCCL2 and HlCCL4 with HlVPS in yeast led to significant production of acylphloroglucinols (the direct precursors for bitter acid biosynthesis), which further confirmed the biochemical function of these two HlCCLs in vivo. Functional identification of a thioesterase that catalyzed the reverse reaction of CCLs in mitochondria, together with the comprehensive analysis of genes involved BCAA catabolism, supported the idea that cytosolic CoA ligases are required for linking BCAA degradation and bitter acid biosynthesis in glandular trichomes. The evolution and other possible physiological roles of branched short-chain fatty acid:CoA ligases in planta are also discussed.

  17. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Pateraki, Irini; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric C H; Kanellis, Angelos K; Tissier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of TPS20-related terpene synthases influences chemical diversity in the glandular trichomes of the wild tomato relative Solanum habrochaites

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Hufnagel, David E; Kim, Jeongwoon; Last, Robert L; Barry, Cornelius S

    2012-01-01

    A systematic screen of volatile terpene production in the glandular trichomes of 79 accessions of Solanum habrochaites was conducted and revealed the presence of 21 mono- and sesquiterpenes that exhibit a range of qualitative and quantitative variation. Hierarchical clustering identified distinct terpene phenotypic modules with shared patterns of terpene accumulation across accessions. Several terpene modules could be assigned to previously identified terpene synthase (TPS) activities that included members of the TPS-e/f subfamily that utilize the unusual cis-prenyl diphosphate substrates neryl diphosphate and 2z,6z-farnesyl diphosphate. DNA sequencing and in vitro enzyme activity analysis of TPS-e/f members from S. habrochaites identified three previously unassigned enzyme activities that utilize these cisoid substrates. These produce either the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene, or the sesquiterpene 7-epizingiberene, with the in vitro analyses that recapitulated the trichome chemistry found in planta. Comparison of the distribution of S. habrochaites accessions with terpene content revealed a strong preference for the presence of particular TPS20 alleles at distinct geographic locations. This study reveals that the unusually high intra-specific variation of volatile terpene synthesis in glandular trichomes of S. habrochaites is due at least in part to evolution at the TPS20 locus. PMID:22563774

  19. Striking Natural Diversity in Glandular Trichome Acylsugar Composition Is Shaped by Variation at the Acyltransferase2 Locus in the Wild Tomato Solanum habrochaites1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Kang, Kiyoon; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Shi, Feng; Jones, A. Daniel; Barry, Cornelius S.; Last, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Acylsugars are polyesters of short- to medium-length acyl chains on sucrose or glucose backbones that are produced in secretory glandular trichomes of many solanaceous plants, including cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Despite their roles in biotic stress adaptation and their wide taxonomic distribution, there is relatively little information about the diversity of these compounds and the genes responsible for their biosynthesis. In this study, acylsugar diversity was assessed for 80 accessions of the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites from throughout the Andes Mountains. Trichome metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry, revealing the presence of at least 34 structurally diverse acylsucroses and two acylglucoses. Distinct phenotypic classes were discovered that varied based on the presence of glucose or sucrose, the numbers and lengths of acyl chains, and the relative total amounts of acylsugars. The presence or absence of an acetyl chain on the acylsucrose hexose ring caused clustering of the accessions into two main groups. Analysis of the Acyltransferase2 gene (the apparent ortholog of Solyc01g105580) revealed differences in enzyme activity and gene expression correlated with polymorphism in S. habrochaites accessions that varied in acylsucrose acetylation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that glandular trichome acylsugar acetylation is under selective pressure in some populations of S. habrochaites and that the gene mutates to inactivity in the absence of selection. PMID:23054567

  20. Characterization of secondary metabolites, biological activity and glandular trichomes of Stachys tymphaea Hausskn. from the Monti Sibillini National Park (Central Apennines, Italy).

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Nicoletti, Marcello; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Vitali, Luca Agostino; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Petrelli, Dezemona; Maleci Bini, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo

    2014-02-01

    Stachys tymphaea (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb growing in forest openings and dry meadows of central and southern Italy. It was investigated for the first time here, determining the content of secondary metabolites, the micromorphology of glandular trichomes, the histochemical localization of secretion, and the biological activity of the volatile oil, namely, the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. The plant showed a peculiar molecular pattern, being rich of biophenolic compounds as flavonoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, but poor of iridoids, which are known as marker compounds of the genus Stachys. The essential oil was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, revealing a high percentage of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (54.6%), with germacrene D (30.0%) and (E)-β-farnesene (12.4%) as the most abundant compounds, while other main components were representatives of the diterpenes (19.2%), represented mainly by (E)-phytol (11.9%). This composition supported the taxonomic relationships in the genus Stachys, which comprises oil-poor species producing essential oils rich in hydrocarbons, with germacrene D as one of the predominant components. The micromorphological study revealed three types of glandular hairs, i.e., Type A peltate trichomes, being the primary sites of essential oil biosynthesis, Type B short-stalked trichomes, typical mucopolysaccharide producers, and Type C long capitate trichomes, secreting a complex mixture of both lipophilic and hydrophilic substances, with a major phenolic fraction. Moreover, the MTT assay revealed the potential of the volatile oil to inhibit A375, HCT116, and MDA-MB 231 tumor cells lines (IC50 values of 23.9-34.4 μg/ml). Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. Quantitative determination of enhydrin in leaf rinse extracts and in glandular trichomes of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Karin; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2005-01-01

    A simple, reliable and rapid reversed-phase HPLC-PAD procedure for the characterisation and quantitative determination of the anti-diabetic sesquiterpene lactone enhydrin (1) from Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón) has been evaluated and validated. The approach focused on the analysis of various leaf rinse extracts, as well as the glandular trichomes of intact leaves, in which 1 was the major compound detected. The best sample preparation of a rinse extract yielded 0.67 mg/mL of 1, whilst a rapid rinse of a small piece of one dried leaf gave 0.09 mg/mL of 1; the highest concentration obtained from a glandular extract was 0.07 mg/mL. The dried leaves of S. sonchifolius were found to contain a total of 0.97% of 1.

  2. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Sun, Gui-Ling; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan

    2016-01-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms. PMID:26941091

  3. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Wang, Guo-Dong; Sun, Gui-Ling; Grant, Marcus; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Lilian A.; Korndörfer, Gaspar H.; Lana, Regina M. Q.; Rossi, Monica L.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Silva, Deise A.O.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  5. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth.

    PubMed

    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M; Oliveira, Taísa C; Santiago, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Lilian A; Korndörfer, Gaspar H; Lana, Regina M Q; Rossi, Monica L; Nogueira, Neusa L; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W P; Silva, Deise A O; Mineo, José R

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha(-1)). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha(-1) of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha(-1) doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha(-1) of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha(-1) has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin

  6. Sucrose esters of carboxylic acids in glandular trichomes ofSolanum berthaultii deter settling and probing by green peach aphid.

    PubMed

    Neal, J J; Tingey, W M; Steffens, J C

    1990-02-01

    Removal of type B trichome exudate fromSolanum berthaultii leaflets leads to a decrease in tarsal gumming and mortality and an increase in feeding by the green peach aphid,Myzus persicae. Type B trichome exudate of theS. berthaultii accession PI 473331 is composed of a complex of 3',3,4,6-tetra-O-acyl sucroses containing primarily short-chain branched carboxylic acids. The acyl constituents are primarily derived from 2-methylpropanoic, 2-methylbutyric, and 8-methylnonanoic acids but constituents derived fromn-decanoic and dodecanoic acids are also present. Sucrose esters inhibit settling and probing by aphids in glass feeding cages.

  7. Effect of external stress on density and size of glandular trichomes in full-grown Artemisia annua, the source of anti-malarial artemisinin

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Anders; Grevsen, Kai; Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Glandular trichomes (GT) of Artemisia annua produce valuable compounds for pharmaceutical and industrial uses, most notably the anti-malarial artemisinin. Our aim was to find out whether the density, number and size of GT can be manipulated to advantage by environmental stress. A range of external stress treatments, including stress response regulators, was therefore given to fully grown plants under field and greenhouse conditions. Methodology In a field experiment (Ex1), seed-grown plants were subjected to chemical or physical stress and plants analysed after 5 weeks. In a greenhouse experiment (Ex2), three groups of clonally derived plants were stressed at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. Stress treatments included sandblasting, leaf cutting and spraying with jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), H2O2 (HP) and NaCl (SC)at different concentrations. Leaves from an upper and a lower position on the plants were analysed by fluorescence microscopy to determine the density and size of GT. Principal results Densities of GT on upper leaves of full-grown A. annua plants generally showed no response to external stress and only plants from one clone of Ex2 supported the hypothesis that increased density of GT was inducible in upper leaves by stress (significant for SC, HP and COS). The density of GT on lower leaves was not affected by stress in any experiment. Glandular trichomes were significantly smaller on the lower leaves in response to stress in Ex2, and a similar non-significant trend was observed in Ex1. Conclusions The results indicate a dynamic system in which stress treatments of large A. annua plants had a minor promoting effect on the initiation of GT in developing leaves, and a maturing effect of GT later in the lifetime of the individual GT. The hypothesis that applying stress can induce larger GT or more numerous GT was rejected. PMID:22833781

  8. Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum) Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyu; Li, Huapeng; Xia, Kuai-Fei; Cai, Yinpeng; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2009-01-01

    In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:19468345

  9. Transcriptome analysis approaches for the isolation of trichome-specific genes from the medicinal plant Cistus creticus subsp. creticus.

    PubMed

    Falara, Vasiliki; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Margaritis, Thanasis; Anastasaki, Thalia; Pateraki, Irene; Bosabalidis, Artemios M; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Demetzos, Costas; Pichersky, Eran; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2008-12-01

    Cistus creticus subsp. creticus is a plant of intrinsic scientific interest due to the distinctive pharmaceutical properties of its resin. Labdane-type diterpenes, the main constituents of the resin, exhibit considerable antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. In this study chemical analysis of isolated trichomes from different developmental stages revealed that young leaves of 1-2 cm length displayed the highest content of labdane-type diterpenes (80 mg/g fresh weight) whereas trichomes from older leaves (2-3 or 3-4 cm) exhibited gradual decreased concentrations. A cDNA library was constructed enriched in transcripts from trichomes isolated from young leaves, which are characterized by high levels of labdane-type diterpenes. Functional annotation of 2,022 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the trichome cDNA library based on homology to A. thaliana genes suggested that 8% of the putative identified sequences were secondary metabolism-related and involved primarily in flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis. A significant proportion of the ESTs (38%) displayed no significant similarity to any other DNA deposited in databases, indicating a yet unknown function. Custom DNA microarrays constructed with 1,248 individual clones from the cDNA library facilitated transcriptome comparisons between trichomes and trichome-free tissues. In addition, gene expression studies in various Cistus tissues and organs for one of the genes highlighted as the most differentially expressed by the microarray experiments revealed a putative sesquiterpene synthase with a trichome-specific expression pattern. Full length cDNA isolation and heterologous expression in E. coli followed by biochemical analysis, led to the characterization of the produced protein as germacrene B synthase.

  10. A comprehensive proteome map of glandular trichomes of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) female cones: Identification of biosynthetic pathways of the major terpenoid-related compounds and possible transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2017-02-15

    Female flowers of hop (Humulus lupulus) are an essential source of terpenoid-related compounds, which are mainly used as flavoring in the beer brewing process. The compounds involved are bitter acids, terpenophenolics, as well as mono- and sesquiterpenoids. In this work, we analyzed the proteome of purified glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) from female flowers, which produce and accumulate these compounds. An extensive 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis identified 1,015 proteins. Of these, most correspond to housekeeping and primary metabolism-related proteins, albeit predominantly including amino acid and lipid metabolism, which feeds the specialized (secondary) metabolism. Indeed, 75 proteins belong to the specialized metabolism. No less than 40 enzymes are involved in the synthesis of terpenoid-derived compounds and 21 are predicted transporters, some of which might be involved in the transport of specialized metabolites. We discuss the possible routes involved in the intra- and intercellular translocation of terpenoids and their precursors. This comprehensive proteomic map of the glandular trichomes of hop female flowers represents a valuable resource to improve our knowledge on the function of glandular trichomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential Production of meta Hydroxylated Phenylpropanoids in Sweet Basil Peltate Glandular Trichomes and Leaves Is Controlled by the Activities of Specific Acyltransferases and Hydroxylases1

    PubMed Central

    Gang, David R.; Beuerle, Till; Ullmann, Pascaline; Werck-Reichhart, Daniéle; Pichersky, Eran

    2002-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) peltate glandular trichomes produce a variety of small molecular weight phenylpropanoids, such as eugenol, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid, that result from meta hydroxylation reactions. Some basil lines do not synthesize eugenol but instead synthesize chavicol, a phenylpropanoid that does not contain a meta hydroxyl group. Two distinct acyltransferases, p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A:shikimic acid p-coumaroyl transferase and p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A:4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid p-coumaroyl transferase, responsible for the production of p-coumaroyl shikimate and of p-coumaroyl 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, respectively, were partially purified and shown to be specific for their substrates. p-Coumaroyl-coenzyme A:shikimic acid p-coumaroyl transferase is expressed in basil peltate glands that are actively producing eugenol and is not active in glands of noneugenol-producing basil plants, suggesting that the levels of this activity determine the levels of synthesis of some meta-hydroxylated phenylpropanoids in these glands such as eugenol. Two basil cDNAs encoding isozymes of cytochrome P450 CYP98A13, which meta hydroxylates p-coumaroyl shikimate, were isolated and found to be highly similar (90% identity) to the Arabidopsis homolog, CYP98A3. Like the Arabidopsis enzyme, the basil enzymes were found to be very specific for p-coumaroyl shikimate. Finally, additional hydroxylase activities were identified in basil peltate glands that convert p-coumaroyl 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid to its caffeoyl derivative and p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid. PMID:12428018

  12. Trichome structure and evolution in Neotropical lianas

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Anselmo; El Ottra, Juliana Hanna Leite; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths generally associated with protection against herbivores and/or desiccation that are widely distributed from ferns to angiosperms. Patterns of topological variation and morphological evolution of trichomes are still scarce in the literature, preventing valid comparisons across taxa. This study integrates detailed morphoanatomical data and the evolutionary history of the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae) in order to gain a better understanding of current diversity and evolution of trichome types. Methods Two sampling schemes were used to characterize trichome types: (1) macromorphological characterization of all 105 species currently included in Bignonieae; and (2) micromorphological characterization of 16 selected species. Individual trichome morphotypes were coded as binary in each vegetative plant part, and trichome density and size were coded as multistate. Ancestral character state reconstructions were conducted using maximum likelihood (ML) assumptions. Key Results Two main functional trichome categories were found: non-glandular and glandular. In glandular trichomes, three morphotypes were recognized: peltate (Pg), stipitate (Sg) and patelliform/cupular (P/Cg) trichomes. Non-glandular trichomes were uniseriate, uni- or multicellular and simple or branched. Pg and P/Cg trichomes were multicellular and non-vascularized with three clearly distinct cell layers. Sg trichomes were multicellular, uniseriate and long-stalked. ML ancestral character state reconstructions suggested that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular, Pg and P/Cg trichomes, with each trichome type presenting alternative histories of appearance on the different plant parts. For example, the MRCA of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular trichomes on the stems, prophylls, petiole, petiolule and leaflet veins while P/Cg trichomes were restricted to leaflet blades. Sg trichomes were not present in the MRCA

  13. Trichome structure and evolution in Neotropical lianas.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Anselmo; Ottra, Juliana Hanna Leite El; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2013-11-01

    Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths generally associated with protection against herbivores and/or desiccation that are widely distributed from ferns to angiosperms. Patterns of topological variation and morphological evolution of trichomes are still scarce in the literature, preventing valid comparisons across taxa. This study integrates detailed morphoanatomical data and the evolutionary history of the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae) in order to gain a better understanding of current diversity and evolution of trichome types. Two sampling schemes were used to characterize trichome types: (1) macromorphological characterization of all 105 species currently included in Bignonieae; and (2) micromorphological characterization of 16 selected species. Individual trichome morphotypes were coded as binary in each vegetative plant part, and trichome density and size were coded as multistate. Ancestral character state reconstructions were conducted using maximum likelihood (ML) assumptions. Two main functional trichome categories were found: non-glandular and glandular. In glandular trichomes, three morphotypes were recognized: peltate (Pg), stipitate (Sg) and patelliform/cupular (P/Cg) trichomes. Non-glandular trichomes were uniseriate, uni- or multicellular and simple or branched. Pg and P/Cg trichomes were multicellular and non-vascularized with three clearly distinct cell layers. Sg trichomes were multicellular, uniseriate and long-stalked. ML ancestral character state reconstructions suggested that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular, Pg and P/Cg trichomes, with each trichome type presenting alternative histories of appearance on the different plant parts. For example, the MRCA of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular trichomes on the stems, prophylls, petiole, petiolule and leaflet veins while P/Cg trichomes were restricted to leaflet blades. Sg trichomes were not present in the MRCA of Bignonieae independently of the

  14. Morphology and biochemistry of non-glandular trichomes in Cistus salvifolius L. leaves growing in extreme habitats of the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Tattini, M; Matteini, P; Saracini, E; Traversi, M L; Giordano, C; Agati, G

    2007-05-01

    Here the functional roles of stellate and dendritic trichomes in Cistus salvifolius L leaves were studied by analysing i) both leaf surface and trichome morphology using scanning electron and light microscopy; and ii) the composition and localisation of polyphenols by coupling liquid chromatography with fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microimaging. Red-coloured compounds were detected in the stalk cells and the channel in the trichome arm, and appeared to be released at the tip end of the trichome branch. We identified such metabolites as ellagitannins, namely punicalagin and two galloyl derivatives of punicalagin. These ellagitannins accounted for 4.3 % of leaf dry weight and their concentration in the leaf leachate averaged 289.4 mg L (-1). The trichome arms exhibited an appreciable orange-red autofluorescence (centred at 620 nm) when excited with UV light (at 365 nm) or emitted in the yellow waveband (peak centred at 566 nm) when stained with the Naturstoff reagent, and excited at 488 nm. The fluorescence signatures of the trichome arms were consistent with the presence of mono-hydroxy B-ring substituted flavonoids, which were identified as the mono- and di-coumaroyl derivative of a kaempferol 3-O-glycoside. Our data may provide some insights on the functional roles of stellate and dendritic trichomes in the response mechanisms of C. salvifolius to Mediterranean-type climate, based upon (i) the potential effect of released ellagitannins on the soil nitrogen dynamic and (ii) the ability of acylated kaempferol 3-O-glycosides to effectively absorb both the UV-B and UV-A wavelengths.

  15. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Cotton Fuzz Fiber Development Having a Similar Molecular Model as Arabidopsis Trichome

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qun; Zhang, Hua; Ye, Wenxue; Wu, Huaitong; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    The cotton fiber, as a single-celled trichome, is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of gene expression and regulation in the fiber complicates genetic research. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and five naked seed or fuzzless mutants (three dominant and two recessive) during the fuzz initial development stage. More than three million clean tags were generated from each sample representing the expression data for 27,325 genes, which account for 72.8% of the annotated Gossypium raimondii primary transcript genes. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between TM-1 and the mutants. Based on functional enrichment analysis, the DEGs downregulated in the mutants were enriched in protein synthesis-related genes and transcription factors, while DEGs upregulated in the mutants were enriched in DNA/chromatin structure-related genes and transcription factors. Pathway analysis showed that ATP synthesis, and sugar and lipid metabolism-related pathways play important roles in fuzz initial development. Also, we identified a large number of transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, HB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, bZIP and C2H2 zinc finger families that were differently expressed between TM-1 and the mutants, and were also related to trichome development in Arabidopsis. PMID:24823367

  16. Morphology, Structure, and Ontogeny of Trichomes of the Grape Genus (Vitis, Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-Yao; Wen, Jun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Xiu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  17. Morphology, Structure, and Ontogeny of Trichomes of the Grape Genus (Vitis, Vitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhi-Yao; Wen, Jun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M.; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Xiu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions. PMID:27252720

  18. Dissection of the phytohormonal regulation of trichome formation and biosynthesis of the antimalarial compound artemisinin in Artemisia annua plants.

    PubMed

    Maes, Lies; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip C W; Zhang, Yansheng; Reed, Darwin W; Pollier, Jacob; Vande Casteele, Sofie R F; Inzé, Dirk; Covello, Patrick S; Deforce, Dieter L D; Goossens, Alain

    2011-01-01

    • Biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene lactone and potent antimalarial drug artemisinin occurs in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua plants and is subjected to a strict network of developmental and other regulatory cues. • The effects of three hormones, jasmonate, gibberellin and cytokinin, were studied at the structural and molecular levels in two different A. annua chemotypes by microscopic analysis of gland development, and by targeted metabolite and transcript profiling. Furthermore, a genome-wide cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based transcriptome profiling was carried out of jasmonate-elicited leaves at different developmental stages. • Although cytokinin and gibberellin positively affected at least one aspect of gland formation, these two hormones did not stimulate artemisinin biosynthesis. Only jasmonate simultaneously promoted gland formation and coordinated transcriptional activation of biosynthetic gene expression, which ultimately led to increased sesquiterpenoid accumulation with chemotype-dependent effects on the distinct pathway branches. Transcriptome profiling revealed a trichome-specific fatty acyl- coenzyme A reductase, trichome-specific fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (TFAR1), the expression of which correlates with trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis. • TFAR1 is potentially involved in cuticular wax formation during glandular trichome expansion in leaves and flowers of A. annua plants. Analysis of phytohormone-modulated transcriptional regulons provides clues to dissect the concerted regulation of metabolism and development of plant trichomes. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  19. New Approaches for Studying and Exploiting an Old Protuberance, the Plant Trichome

    PubMed Central

    WAGNER, G. J.; WANG, E.; SHEPHERD, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims Much recent study of plant trichomes has focused on various aspects of glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs) and differentiation of simple trichomes. This Botanical Briefing will highlight: ‐ research on various aspects of, and manipulation of glandular secreting trichomes; ‐ molecular aspects of the differentiation and development of simple trichomes of arabidopsis and cotton; ‐ how methods for manipulation of model systems used in the above work can be applied to expand our understanding of less studied surface structures of plants. • Scope The Briefing will cover: ‐ established and suggested roles of simple and glandular secreting trichomes; ‐ recent results regarding solute and ion movement in trichomes; ‐ methods for isolating trichomes; ‐ recent studies of trichome differentiation and development; ‐ attempts to modify metabolism in secreting trichomes; ‐ efforts to exploit trichomes for commercial and agronomic purposes. PMID:14678941

  20. Multicellular Secretory Trichome Development on Soybean and Related Glycine Gynoecia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multicellular glandular trichomes form on gynoecia of wild Glycine annual species, annual soybean cultivars, and wild perennial species. These trichomes occur on gynoecia of annual taxa from ovary base to style base, and along style of perennial species. Trichomes form at least two days prior to ant...

  1. Multiple biochemical and morphological factors underlie the production of methylketones in tomato trichomes.

    PubMed

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Yu, Geng; Austin, Michael B; Bhuiyan, Nazmul; Auldridge, Michele; Nguyen, Thuong; Schauvinhold, Ines; Noel, Joseph P; Pichersky, Eran; Fridman, Eyal

    2009-12-01

    Genetic analysis of interspecific populations derived from crosses between the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites f. sp. glabratum, which synthesizes and accumulates insecticidal methylketones (MK), mostly 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in glandular trichomes, and cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which does not, demonstrated that several genetic loci contribute to MK metabolism in the wild species. A strong correlation was found between the shape of the glandular trichomes and their MK content, and significant associations were seen between allelic states of three genes and the amount of MK produced by the plant. Two genes belong to the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, and the third is the previously identified Methylketone Synthase1 (MKS1) that mediates conversion to MK of beta-ketoacyl intermediates. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichomes of F2 progeny grouped into low- and high-MK-containing plants identified several additional genes whose transcripts were either more or less abundant in the high-MK bulk. In particular, a wild species-specific transcript for a gene that we named MKS2, encoding a protein with some similarity to a well-characterized bacterial thioesterase, was approximately 300-fold more highly expressed in F2 plants with high MK content than in those with low MK content. Genetic analysis in the segregating population showed that MKS2's significant contribution to MK accumulation is mediated by an epistatic relationship with MKS1. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MKS2 in Escherichia coli resulted in the production of methylketones in this host.

  2. The foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata (Vahl) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult var aristata (Acanthaceae) a widespread medicinal plant species in tropical sub-Saharan Africa: with comments on its possible phylogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, A; Naidoo, Y; Nicholas, A

    2010-01-01

    The micromorphology of foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata var. aristata was studied using stereo, light and scanning microscopy (SEM). This genus belongs to the advanced angiosperm family Acanthaceae, for which few micromorphological leaf studies exist. Results revealed both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the latter being more abundant on leaf veins, particularly on the abaxial surface of very young leaves. With leaf maturity, the density of non-glandular trichomes decreased. Glandular trichomes were rare and of two types: long-stalked capitate and globose-like peltate trichomes. Capitate trichomes were observed only on the abaxial leaf surface, while peltate trichomes were distributed on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  3. Trichomes as sensors: detecting activity on the leaf surface.

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; Peiffer, Michelle; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2010-01-01

    The dramatic movements of some carnivorous plants species are triggered by sensory structures derived from trichomes. While unusual plant species such as the Venus fly trap and sundews may be expected to have elaborate sensors to capture their insect prey, more modest plant species might not be expected to have similar sensory capabilities. Our recent work, however, has revealed that glandular trichomes on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) appear to have a function similar to trigger hairs of carnivorous species, acting as "early warning" sensors. Using a combination of behavioral, molecular, and biochemical techniques, we determined that caterpillars, moths and mechanical disruption upregulate signaling molecules and defensive genes found in glandular trichomes. Importantly, we discovered that plants whose trichomes have been broken respond more vigorously when their defenses were induced. Taken together, our results suggest that glandular trichomes can act as sensors that detect activity on the leaf surface, and ready plants for herbivore attack.

  4. Trichome differentiation on leaf primordia of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae): morphology, gene expression and metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Amrehn, Evelyn; Bechtel, Lisa; Spring, Otmar

    2015-04-01

    Sunflower trichomes fully develop on embryonic plumula within 3 days after start of germination. Toxic sesquiterpene lactones are produced immediately thereafter thus protecting the apical bud of the seedling against herbivory. Helianthus annuus harbors non-glandular and two different types of multicellular glandular trichomes, namely the biseriate capitate glandular trichomes and the uniseriate linear glandular trichomes. The development of capitate glandular trichomes is well known from anther tips on sunflower disk florets, but not from leaves and no information is yet available on the development of the linear glandular trichomes. Scanning electron microscopy of sunflower seedlings unravelled that within the first 40 h of seed germination all three types of trichomes started to emerge on primordia of the first true leaves. Within the following 20-30 h trichomes developed from trichoblasts to fully differentiated hairs. Gene expression studies showed that genes involved in the trichome-based sesquiterpene lactone formation were up-regulated between 72 and 96 h after start of germination. Metabolite profiling with HPLC confirmed the synthesis of sesquiterpene lactones which may contribute to protect the germinating seedlings from herbivory. The study has shown that sunflower leaf primordia can serve as a fast and easy to handle model system for the investigation of trichome development in Asteraceae.

  5. Multiple Biochemical and Morphological Factors Underlie the Production of Methylketones in Tomato Trichomes1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Yu, Geng; Austin, Michael B.; Bhuiyan, Nazmul; Auldridge, Michele; Nguyen, Thuong; Schauvinhold, Ines; Noel, Joseph P.; Pichersky, Eran; Fridman, Eyal

    2009-01-01

    Genetic analysis of interspecific populations derived from crosses between the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites f. sp. glabratum, which synthesizes and accumulates insecticidal methylketones (MK), mostly 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in glandular trichomes, and cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which does not, demonstrated that several genetic loci contribute to MK metabolism in the wild species. A strong correlation was found between the shape of the glandular trichomes and their MK content, and significant associations were seen between allelic states of three genes and the amount of MK produced by the plant. Two genes belong to the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, and the third is the previously identified Methylketone Synthase1 (MKS1) that mediates conversion to MK of β-ketoacyl intermediates. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichomes of F2 progeny grouped into low- and high-MK-containing plants identified several additional genes whose transcripts were either more or less abundant in the high-MK bulk. In particular, a wild species-specific transcript for a gene that we named MKS2, encoding a protein with some similarity to a well-characterized bacterial thioesterase, was approximately 300-fold more highly expressed in F2 plants with high MK content than in those with low MK content. Genetic analysis in the segregating population showed that MKS2's significant contribution to MK accumulation is mediated by an epistatic relationship with MKS1. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MKS2 in Escherichia coli resulted in the production of methylketones in this host. PMID:19801397

  6. Trichoderma species form endophytic associations within Theobroma cacao trichomes.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Bryan A; Strem, Mary D; Wood, Delilah

    2009-12-01

    Trichoderma species are usually considered soil organisms that colonize plant roots, sometimes forming a symbiotic relationship. Recent studies demonstrate that Trichoderma species are also capable of colonizing the above ground tissues of Theobroma cacao (cacao) in what has been characterized as an endophytic relationship. Trichoderma species can be re-isolated from surface sterilized cacao stem tissue, including the bark and xylem, the apical meristem, and to a lesser degree from leaves. SEM analysis of cacao stems colonized by strains of four Trichoderma species (Trichoderma ovalisporum-DIS 70a, Trichoderma hamatum-DIS 219b, Trichoderma koningiopsis-DIS 172ai, or Trichoderma harzianum-DIS 219f) showed a preference for surface colonization of glandular trichomes versus non-glandular trichomes. The Trichoderma strains colonized the glandular trichome tips and formed swellings resembling appresoria. Hyphae were observed emerging from the glandular trichomes on surface sterilized stems from cacao seedlings that had been inoculated with each of the four Trichoderma strains. Fungal hyphae were observed under the microscope emerging from the trichomes as soon as 6h after their isolation from surface sterilized cacao seedling stems. Hyphae were also observed, in some cases, emerging from stalk cells opposite the trichome head. Repeated single trichome/hyphae isolations verified that the emerging hyphae were the Trichoderma strains with which the cacao seedlings had been inoculated. Strains of four Trichoderma species were able to enter glandular trichomes during the colonization of cacao stems where they survived surface sterilization and could be re-isolated. The penetration of cacao trichomes may provide the entry point for Trichoderma species into the cacao stem allowing systemic colonization of this tissue.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanjun; Gou, Junbo; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especially their downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes, which were derived from the young leaves of two different cultivars and the purified glandular trichomes from one of the cultivars, were constructed in this study. In total, 157 million clean reads were generated and assembled into 91,861 unigenes, of which 59,858 unigenes were successfully annotated. All the genes coding for known enzymes in the upstream pathway to the biosynthesis of xanthanolides were present in the X. strumarium transcriptomes. From a comparative analysis of the X. strumarium transcriptomes, this study identified a number of gene candidates that are putatively involved in the downstream pathway to the synthesis of xanthanolides, such as four unigenes encoding CYP71 P450s, 50 unigenes for dehydrogenases, and 27 genes for acetyltransferases. The possible functions of these four CYP71 candidates are extensively discussed. In addition, 116 transcription factors that are highly expressed in X. strumarium glandular trichomes were also identified. Their possible regulatory roles in the biosynthesis of STLs are discussed. The global transcriptomic data for X. strumarium should provide a valuable resource for further research into the biosynthesis of xanthanolides. PMID:27625674

  8. The hexanoyl-CoA precursor for cannabinoid biosynthesis is formed by an acyl-activating enzyme in Cannabis sativa trichomes.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jake M; Boubakir, Zakia; Ambrose, Stephen J; Purves, Randy W; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-08-01

    The psychoactive and analgesic cannabinoids (e.g. Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) in Cannabis sativa are formed from the short-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) precursor hexanoyl-CoA. Cannabinoids are synthesized in glandular trichomes present mainly on female flowers. We quantified hexanoyl-CoA using LC-MS/MS and found levels of 15.5 pmol g(-1) fresh weight in female hemp flowers with lower amounts in leaves, stems and roots. This pattern parallels the accumulation of the end-product cannabinoid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). To search for the acyl-activating enzyme (AAE) that synthesizes hexanoyl-CoA from hexanoate, we analyzed the transcriptome of isolated glandular trichomes. We identified 11 unigenes that encoded putative AAEs including CsAAE1, which shows high transcript abundance in glandular trichomes. In vitro assays showed that recombinant CsAAE1 activates hexanoate and other short- and medium-chained fatty acids. This activity and the trichome-specific expression of CsAAE1 suggest that it is the hexanoyl-CoA synthetase that supplies the cannabinoid pathway. CsAAE3 encodes a peroxisomal enzyme that activates a variety of fatty acid substrates including hexanoate. Although phylogenetic analysis showed that CsAAE1 groups with peroxisomal AAEs, it lacked a peroxisome targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) and localized to the cytoplasm. We suggest that CsAAE1 may have been recruited to the cannabinoid pathway through the loss of its PTS1, thereby redirecting it to the cytoplasm. To probe the origin of hexanoate, we analyzed the trichome expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. The high abundance of transcripts that encode desaturases and a lipoxygenase suggests that hexanoate may be formed through a pathway that involves the oxygenation and breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids.

  9. EST analysis and annotation of transcripts derived from a trichome-specific cDNA library from Salvia fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Chatzopoulou, Fani M; Makris, Antonios M; Argiriou, Anagnostis; Degenhardt, Jörg; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2010-05-01

    Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa Mill., Syn. Salvia triloba L.) is appreciated for its essential oil which is used as an aromatic spice and active against a wide range of microorganisms and viruses. The essential oil is dominated by terpenoids and flavonoids which are produced and stored in glandular trichomes on the plant surface. The present study aims to give insights into the metabolic activities of S. fruticosa trichomes on a transcriptome level. A total of 2,304 clones were sequenced from a cDNA library from leaves' trichomes of S. fruticosa. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 1,615 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 592 bp. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 197 contigs (908 clones) and 707 singletons, generating a total of 904 unique sequences. Of the 904 unique ESTs, 628 (69.5%) had significant hits in the non-redundant protein database and were annotated. A total of 517 (82.3%) sequences were functionally classified using the gene ontologies (GO) and established pathway associations to 220 (24.3%) sequences in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). In addition, 52 (5.8%) of the unique ESTs revealed a GO biological term with relation to terpenoid (78 ESTs), phenylpropanoid (43 ESTs), flavonoid (18 ESTs) or alkaloid (10 ESTs) biosynthesis or to P450s (26 ESTs). Expression analysis of a selected set of genes known to be involved in the pathways of secondary metabolite synthesis showed higher expression levels in trichomes, validating the tissue specificity of the analyzed glandular trichome library.

  10. Mining the mouse transcriptome of receptive endometrium reveals distinct molecular signatures for the luminal and glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Niklaus, Andrea L; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2006-07-01

    Epithelia coat most tissues where they sense and respond to the environment and participate in innate immune responses. In the adult mouse uterus, columnar epithelium lines the central lumen and the glands that penetrate the underlying stroma. A nidatory surge of estrogen causes differentiation of the luminal epithelium to the receptive state that permits blastocyst attachment and allows subsequent implantation. Here, using laser-capture microdissection to isolate the luminal and glandular epithelia separately, we have profiled gene expression 2 h before embryo attachment to determine whether there are unique roles for these two epithelial structures in this process. Although most genes were expressed in both compartments, there was greater expression of 153 and 118 genes in the lumen and glands, respectively. In the luminal epithelium, there is enrichment in lipid, metal-ion binding, and carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, whereas in the glands, immune response genes are emphasized. In situ hybridization to uterine sections obtained from mice during the preimplantation period validated these data and indicated an array of previously undocumented genes expressed with unique patterns in these epithelia. The data show that each epithelial compartment has a distinct molecular signature and that they act differentially and synergistically to permit blastocyst implantation.

  11. Micro-trichome as a class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene regulates multicellular trichome development in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Pan, Jun-Song; Guan, Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Bie, Bei-Bei; Wang, Yun-Li; He, Huan-Le; Lian, Hong-Li; Cai, Run

    2015-11-01

    Plant trichomes serve as a highly suitable model for investigating cell differentiation at the single-cell level. The regulatory genes involved in unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana have been intensively studied, but genes regulating multicellular trichome development in plants remain unclear. Here, we characterized Cucumis sativus (cucumber) trichomes as representative multicellular and unbranched structures, and identified Micro-trichome (Mict), using map-based cloning in an F2 segregating population of 7,936 individuals generated from a spontaneous mict mutant. In mict plants, trichomes in both leaves and fruits, are small, poorly developed, and denser than in the wild type. Sequence analysis revealed that a 2,649-bp genomic deletion, spanning the first and second exons, occurred in a plant-specific class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that Mict is strongly expressed in the trichome cells. Transcriptome profiling identified potential targets of Mict including putative homologs of genes known in other systems to regulate trichome development, meristem determinacy, and hormone responsiveness. Phylogenic analysis charted the relationships among putative homologs in angiosperms. Our paper represents initial steps toward understanding the development of multicellular trichomes.

  12. Trichomes related to an unusual method of water retention and protection of the stem apex in an arid zone perennial species

    PubMed Central

    Lusa, Makeli Garibotti; Cardoso, Elaine Cristina; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that trichomes protect plant organs, and several studies have investigated their role in the adaptation of plants to harsh environments. Recent studies have shown that the production of hydrophilic substances by glandular trichomes and the deposition of this secretion on young organs may facilitate water retention, thus preventing desiccation and favouring organ growth until the plant develops other protective mechanisms. Lychnophora diamantinana is a species endemic to the Brazilian ‘campos rupestres’ (rocky fields), a region characterized by intense solar radiation and water deficits. This study sought to investigate trichomes and the origin of the substances observed on the stem apices of L. diamantinana. Samples of stem apices, young and expanded leaves were studied using standard techniques, including light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical tests were used to identify the major groups of metabolites present in the trichomes and the hyaline material deposited on the apices. Non-glandular trichomes and glandular trichomes were observed. The material deposited on the stem apices was hyaline, highly hydrophilic and viscous. This hyaline material primarily consists of carbohydrates that result from the partial degradation of the cell wall of uniseriate trichomes. This degradation occurs at the same time that glandular trichomes secrete terpenoids, phenolic compounds and proteins. These results suggest that the non-glandular trichomes on the leaves of L. diamantinana help protect the young organ, particularly against desiccation, by deposition of highly hydrated substances on the apices. Furthermore, the secretion of glandular trichomes probably repels herbivore and pathogen attacks. PMID:25527474

  13. Morphology of foliar trichomes of the Chinese cork oak Quercus variabilis by electron microscopy and three-dimensional surface profiling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Cho, Do-Hyun; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2011-06-01

    Morphology of foliar trichomes was analyzed in Quercus variabilis by electron microscopy and three-dimensional surface profiling. Leaves from suppressed or dominant sprouts of the oak species were collected after a forest fire to unravel the effects of the disturbance factor on sprouting of the oak species. Scanning electron microscopy revealed two types of trichomes depending on the leaf surface. The trichomes on the adaxial surface were branched and constricted, and possessed a single row of thin-walled cells with a collapsed morphology (glandular branched uniseriate trichomes). Meanwhile, the trichomes on the abaxial surface were star-shaped, unfused with each other, and had 6 to 10 rays (nonglandular simple stellate trichomes). An apparent proliferation of trichomes was evident on the adaxial surface of the dominant sprouts. Uniseriate trichomes could be discernable as an elevation from the surface by white light scanning interferometry. By transmission electron microscopy, thin and convoluted cell wall, degenerated cytoplasm, and a single row of cells were characteristic of the trichomes on the adaxial surface. The thick cell walls of the mature trichomes on the abaxial surface represented the nonglandular nature. This is the first report on the morphological and ultrastructural characterization of foliar trichomes of the oak species.

  14. Histochemical detection of hemp trichomes and their correlation with the THC content.

    PubMed

    Petri, G; Oroszlán, P; Fridvalszky, L

    1988-01-01

    Authors investigated some fiber and some hashish hemp sorts concerning their trichomes on the leaves. Histochemical reactions were developed using the Fast Blue Salt (FBB) reagent applied so far only thin layer chromatography. Glandular hairs were found giving positive reactions due to cannabinoids contained by the cells. The electron microscopic features were studied and the cannabinoid content was measured with GC. A correlation was found between the number of typical glandular hairs and cannabinoid content.

  15. Distortion of trichome morphology by the hairless mutation of tomato affects leaf surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Shi, Feng; Jones, A Daniel; Marks, M David; Howe, Gregg A

    2010-02-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal structures that function as physical and chemical deterrents against arthropod herbivores. Aerial tissues of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are populated by several morphologically distinct trichome types, the most abundant of which is the type VI glandular trichome that produces various specialized metabolites. Here, the effect of the hairless (hl) mutation on trichome density and morphology, chemical composition, and resistance to a natural insect herbivore of tomato was investigated. The results show that the major effect of hl on pubescence results from structural distortion (bending and swelling) of all trichome types in aerial tissues. Leaf surface extracts and isolated type VI glands from hl plants contained wild-type levels of monoterpenes, glycoalkaloids, and acyl sugars, but were deficient in sesquiterpene and polyphenolic compounds implicated in anti-insect defence. No-choice bioassays showed that hl plants are compromised in resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. These results establish a link between the morphology and chemical composition of glandular trichomes in cultivated tomato, and show that hl-mediated changes in these leaf surface traits correlate with decreased resistance to insect herbivory.

  16. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  17. Polymethylated Myricetin in Trichomes of the Wild Tomato Species Solanum habrochaites and Characterization of Trichome-Specific 3′/5′- and 7/4′-Myricetin O-Methyltransferases1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Shi, Feng; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids are a class of metabolites found in many plant species. They have been reported to serve several physiological roles, such as in defense against herbivores and pathogens and in protection against harmful ultraviolet radiation. They also serve as precursors of pigment compounds found in flowers, leaves, and seeds. Highly methylated, nonglycosylated derivatives of the flavonoid myricetin flavonoid, have been previously reported from a variety of plants, but O-methyltransferases responsible for their synthesis have not yet been identified. Here, we show that secreting glandular trichomes (designated types 1 and 4) and storage glandular trichomes (type 6) on the leaf surface of wild tomato (Solanum habrochaites accession LA1777) plants contain 3,7,3′-trimethyl myricetin, 3,7,3′,5′-tetramethyl myricetin, and 3,7,3′,4′,5′-pentamethyl myricetin, with gland types 1 and 4 containing severalfold more of these compounds than type 6 glands and with the tetramethylated compound predominating in all three gland types. We have also identified transcripts of two genes expressed in the glandular trichomes and showed that they encode enzymes capable of methylating myricetin at the 3′ and 5′ and the 7 and 4′ positions, respectively. Both genes are preferentially expressed in secreting glandular trichome types 1 and 4 and to a lesser degree in storage trichome type 6, and the levels of the proteins they encode are correspondingly higher in types 1 and 4 glands compared with type 6 glands. PMID:21343428

  18. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR.

    PubMed

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L. trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period (8 weeks) by laser microdissection (LMD) and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS. Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of 25-143 collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland (head) and the stem of the latter. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA (1)], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA (2)], and cannabigerolic acid [CBGA (3)] were identified as most-abundant compounds in all analyzed samples while their decarboxylated derivatives, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC (4)], cannabidiol [CBD (5)], and cannabigerol [CBG (6)], co-detected in all samples, were present at significantly lower levels. Cannabichromene [CBC (8)] along with cannabinol (CBN (9)) were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants. Cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to confirm the occurrence of major cannabinoids, THCA (1) and CBDA (2), in capitate-stalked and capitate-sessile trichomes. Cryogenic NMR enabled the additional identification of cannabichromenic acid [CBCA (7)] in the dissected trichomes, which was not possible by LCMS as standard was not available. The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Within and between generation phenotypic plasticity in trichome density of Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Holeski, L M

    2007-11-01

    Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower) frequently produce glandular trichomes, a trait that may resist herbivory. Constitutive production of trichomes is variable both within and among populations of M. guttatus and most of this variation is genetic. This study demonstrates that damage on early leaves can induce increased trichome production on later leaves, a plastic response that is likely adaptive. Moreover, this study shows that this induction can be maternally transmitted, increasing trichome density in progeny before they experience herbivory. This transgenerational response must involve a yet undescribed epigenetic mechanism. These experiments also show genetic variation among plants in the capacity for both within and between plant generation induction. Despite the clear evolutionary importance of variation in constitutive and induced herbivory-resistance traits, few other studies have noted genetic variation in both within a plant species.

  20. Trichome-derived O-acyl sugars are a first meal for caterpillars that tags them for predation

    PubMed Central

    Weinhold, Alexander; Baldwin, Ian Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Plant glandular trichomes exude secondary metabolites with defensive functions, but these epidermal protuberances are surprisingly the first meal of Lepidopteran herbivores on Nicotiana attenuata. O-acyl sugars, the most abundant metabolite of glandular trichomes, impart a distinct volatile profile to the body and frass of larvae that feed on them. The headspace composition of Manduca sexta larvae is dominated by the branched chain aliphatic acids hydrolyzed from ingested O-acyl sugars, which waxes and wanes rapidly with trichome ingestion. In native habitats a ground-hunting predator, the omnivorous ant Pogonomyrmex rugosus, but not the big-eyed bug Geocoris spp., use these volatile aliphatic acids to locate their prey. PMID:21518882

  1. Trichomes as dangerous lollipops

    PubMed Central

    Stork, William F. J.; Weinhold, Alexander; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2011-01-01

    When attacked by herbivores, plants produce toxic secondary metabolites that function as direct defenses, as well as indirect defenses that attract and reward predators of the offending herbivores. These indirect defenses include both nutritive rewards such as extra floral nectar, as well as informational rewards, such as the production and release of volatile compounds that betray the location of feeding herbivores to predators. Herbivory of Nicotiana attenuata by the tobacco hornworm (Manduca larvae) alters the volatile profiles of both the plant and larval headspace. Herbivory-elicited specific changes in the volatile profiles are detected by arthropod predators of Manduca larvae. The known predators that perceive volatile cues induced by Manduca herbivory of N. attenuata are insects that target Manduca at early developmental stages, when the larvae are still small; large, late-instar larvae may have outgrown these predation risks. However, here we offer evidence that branched chain aliphatic acids derived from the digestion of plant O-acyl sugars from trichomes may betray Manduca larvae to lizard predators during late developmental stages as well. PMID:22095147

  2. Adaptional evolution of trichome in Caragana korshinskii to natural drought stress on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Ning, Pengbo; Wang, Junhui; Zhou, Yulu; Gao, Lifang; Wang, Jun; Gong, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Caragana korshinskii is commonly employed to improve drought ecosystems on the Loess Plateau, although the molecular mechanism at work is poorly understood, particularly in terms of the plant's ability to tolerate drought stress. Water is the most severe limiting factor for plant growth on the Loess Plateau. The trichome is known to play an efficient role in reducing water loss through decreasing the rate of transpiration, so in this study, we focused on the trichome-related gene expression of ecological adaptation in C. korshinskii under low precipitation conditions. In order to explore the responses of trichomes to drought, we selected two experimental sites from wet to dry along the Loess Plateau latitude gradient for observation. Micro-phenomena through which trichomes grew denser and larger under reduced precipitation were observed using a scanning electron microscope; de novo transcriptomes and quantitative PCR were then used to explore and verify gene expression patterns of C. korshinskii trichomes. Results showed that GIS2,TTG1, and GL2 were upregulated (as key positive-regulated genes on trichome development), while CPC was downregulated (negative-regulated gene). Taken together, our data indicate that downstream genes of gibberellin and cytokinin signaling pathways, alongside several cytoskeleton-related genes, contribute to modulating trichome development to enhance transpiration resistance ability and increase the resistance to drought stress in C. korshinskii.

  3. Photosynthetic Trichomes Contain a Specific Rubisco with a Modified pH-Dependent Activity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Laterre, Raphaëlle; Remacle, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the most abundant enzyme in plants and is responsible for CO2 fixation during photosynthesis. This enzyme is assembled from eight large subunits (RbcL) encoded by a single chloroplast gene and eight small subunits (RbcS) encoded by a nuclear gene family. Rubisco is primarily found in the chloroplasts of mesophyll (C3 plants), bundle-sheath (C4 plants), and guard cells. In certain species, photosynthesis also takes place in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes, which are epidermal outgrowths (hairs) involved in the secretion of specialized metabolites. However, photosynthesis and, in particular, Rubisco have not been characterized in trichomes. Here, we show that tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) trichomes contain a specific Rubisco small subunit, NtRbcS-T, which belongs to an uncharacterized phylogenetic cluster (T). This cluster contains RbcS from at least 33 species, including monocots, many of which are known to possess glandular trichomes. Cluster T is distinct from the cluster M, which includes the abundant, functionally characterized RbcS isoforms expressed in mesophyll or bundle-sheath cells. Expression of NtRbcS-T in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and purification of the full Rubisco complex showed that this isoform conferred higher Vmax and Km values as well as higher acidic pH-dependent activity than NtRbcS-M, an isoform expressed in the mesophyll. This observation was confirmed with trichome extracts. These data show that an ancient divergence allowed for the emergence of a so-far-uncharacterized RbcS cluster. We propose that secretory trichomes have a particular Rubisco uniquely adapted to secretory cells where CO2 is released by the active specialized metabolism. PMID:28250069

  4. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  5. Evolution of oil-producing trichomes in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): insights from the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Chauveau, Olivier; Eggers, Lilian; Raquin, Christian; Silvério, Adriano; Brown, Spencer; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corine; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Yockteng, Roxana; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Nadot, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae: Iridoideae: Sisyrinchieae) is one of the largest, most widespread and most taxonomically complex genera in Iridaceae, with all species except one native to the American continent. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were investigated and the evolution of oil-producing structures related to specialized oil-bee pollination examined. Methods Phylogenetic analyses based on eight molecular markers obtained from 101 Sisyrinchium accessions representing 85 species were conducted in the first extensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus. Total evidence analyses confirmed the monophyly of the genus and retrieved nine major clades weakly connected to the subdivisions previously recognized. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis was used to reconstruct biogeographical patterns, and to trace the evolutionary origin of glandular trichomes present in the flowers of several species. Key Results and Conclusions Glandular trichomes evolved three times independently in the genus. In two cases, these glandular trichomes are oil-secreting, suggesting that the corresponding flowers might be pollinated by oil-bees. Biogeographical patterns indicate expansions from Central America and the northern Andes to the subandean ranges between Chile and Argentina and to the extended area of the Paraná river basin. The distribution of oil-flower species across the phylogenetic trees suggests that oil-producing trichomes may have played a key role in the diversification of the genus, a hypothesis that requires future testing. PMID:21527419

  6. Ecological distribution of leaf stomata and trichomes among tree species in a Malaysian lowland tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Ichie, Tomoaki; Inoue, Yuta; Takahashi, Narumi; Kamiya, Koichi; Kenzo, Tanaka

    2016-07-01

    The vertical structure of a tropical rain forest is complex and multilayered, with strong variation of micro-environment with height up to the canopy. We investigated the relation between morphological traits of leaf surfaces and tree ecological characteristics in a Malaysian tropical rain forest. The shapes and densities of stomata and trichomes on the abaxial leaf surfaces and their relation with leaf characteristics such as leaf area and leaf mass per area (LMA) were studied in 136 tree species in 35 families with different growth forms in the tropical moist forest. Leaf physiological properties were also measured in 50 canopy and emergent species. Most tree species had flat type (40.4 %) or mound type (39.7 %) stomata. In addition, 84 species (61.76 %) in 22 families had trichomes, including those with glandular (17.65 %) and non-glandular trichomes (44.11 %). Most leaf characteristics significantly varied among the growth form types: species in canopy and emergent layers and canopy gap conditions had higher stomatal density, stomatal pore index (SPI), trichome density and LMA than species in understory and subcanopy layers, though the relation of phylogenetically independent contrasts to each characteristic was not statistically significant, except for leaf stomatal density, SPI and LMA. Intrinsic water use efficiency in canopy and emergent tree species with higher trichome densities was greater than in species with lower trichome densities. These results suggest that tree species in tropical rain forests adapt to a spatial difference in their growth forms, which are considerably affected by phylogenetic context, by having different stomatal and trichome shapes and/or densities.

  7. Molecular cloning of the tomato Hairless gene implicates actin dynamics in trichome-mediated defense and mechanical properties of stem tissue.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Campos, Marcelo L; Zemelis-Durfee, Starla; Al-Haddad, Jameel M; Jones, A Daniel; Telewski, Frank W; Brandizzi, Federica; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-10-01

    Trichomes are epidermal structures that provide a first line of defense against arthropod herbivores. The recessive hairless (hl) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) causes severe distortion of trichomes on all aerial tissues, impairs the accumulation of sesquiterpene and polyphenolic compounds in glandular trichomes, and compromises resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta Here, we demonstrate that the tomato Hl gene encodes a subunit (SRA1) of the highly conserved WAVE regulatory complex that controls nucleation of actin filaments in a wide range of eukaryotic cells. The tomato SRA1 gene spans a 42-kb region containing both Solyc11g013280 and Solyc11g013290 The hl mutation corresponds to a complex 3-kb deletion that removes the last exon of the gene. Expression of a wild-type SRA1 cDNA in the hl mutant background restored normal trichome development, accumulation of glandular trichome-derived metabolites, and resistance to insect herbivory. These findings establish a role for SRA1 in the development of tomato trichomes and also implicate the actin-cytoskeleton network in cytosolic control of specialized metabolism for plant defense. We also show that the brittleness of hl mutant stems is associated with altered mechanical and cell morphological properties of stem tissue, and demonstrate that this defect is directly linked to the mutation in SRA1.

  8. Molecular cloning of the tomato Hairless gene implicates actin dynamics in trichome-mediated defense and mechanical properties of stem tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Campos, Marcelo L.; Zemelis-Durfee, Starla; Al-Haddad, Jameel M.; Jones, A. Daniel; Telewski, Frank W.; Brandizzi, Federica; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are epidermal structures that provide a first line of defense against arthropod herbivores. The recessive hairless (hl) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) causes severe distortion of trichomes on all aerial tissues, impairs the accumulation of sesquiterpene and polyphenolic compounds in glandular trichomes, and compromises resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. Here, we demonstrate that the tomato Hl gene encodes a subunit (SRA1) of the highly conserved WAVE regulatory complex that controls nucleation of actin filaments in a wide range of eukaryotic cells. The tomato SRA1 gene spans a 42-kb region containing both Solyc11g013280 and Solyc11g013290. The hl mutation corresponds to a complex 3-kb deletion that removes the last exon of the gene. Expression of a wild-type SRA1 cDNA in the hl mutant background restored normal trichome development, accumulation of glandular trichome-derived metabolites, and resistance to insect herbivory. These findings establish a role for SRA1 in the development of tomato trichomes and also implicate the actin-cytoskeleton network in cytosolic control of specialized metabolism for plant defense. We also show that the brittleness of hl mutant stems is associated with altered mechanical and cell morphological properties of stem tissue, and demonstrate that this defect is directly linked to the mutation in SRA1. PMID:27481446

  9. The Tomato odorless-2 Mutant Is Defective in Trichome-Based Production of Diverse Specialized Metabolites and Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Insect Herbivores1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Liu, Guanghui; Shi, Feng; Jones, A. Daniel; Beaudry, Randolph M.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2010-01-01

    Glandular secreting trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) produce a wide array of volatile and nonvolatile specialized metabolites. Many of these compounds contribute to the characteristic aroma of tomato foliage and constitute a key part of the language by which plants communicate with other organisms in natural environments. Here, we describe a novel recessive mutation called odorless-2 (od-2) that was identified on the basis of an altered leaf-aroma phenotype. od-2 plants exhibit pleiotrophic phenotypes, including alterations in the morphology, density, and chemical composition of glandular trichomes. Type VI glandular trichomes isolated from od-2 leaves accumulate only trace levels of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and flavonoids. Other foliar defensive compounds, including acyl sugars, glycoalkaloids, and jasmonate-regulated proteinase inhibitors, are produced in od-2 leaves. Growth of od-2 plants under natural field conditions showed that the mutant is highly susceptible to attack by an indigenous flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris, and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The increased susceptibility of od-2 plants to Colorado potato beetle larvae and to the solanaceous specialist Manduca sexta was verified in no-choice bioassays. These findings indicate that Od-2 is essential for the synthesis of diverse trichome-borne compounds and further suggest that these compounds influence host plant selection and herbivore community composition under natural conditions. PMID:20668059

  10. The tomato odorless-2 mutant is defective in trichome-based production of diverse specialized metabolites and broad-spectrum resistance to insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Liu, Guanghui; Shi, Feng; Jones, A Daniel; Beaudry, Randolph M; Howe, Gregg A

    2010-09-01

    Glandular secreting trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) produce a wide array of volatile and nonvolatile specialized metabolites. Many of these compounds contribute to the characteristic aroma of tomato foliage and constitute a key part of the language by which plants communicate with other organisms in natural environments. Here, we describe a novel recessive mutation called odorless-2 (od-2) that was identified on the basis of an altered leaf-aroma phenotype. od-2 plants exhibit pleiotrophic phenotypes, including alterations in the morphology, density, and chemical composition of glandular trichomes. Type VI glandular trichomes isolated from od-2 leaves accumulate only trace levels of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and flavonoids. Other foliar defensive compounds, including acyl sugars, glycoalkaloids, and jasmonate-regulated proteinase inhibitors, are produced in od-2 leaves. Growth of od-2 plants under natural field conditions showed that the mutant is highly susceptible to attack by an indigenous flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris, and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The increased susceptibility of od-2 plants to Colorado potato beetle larvae and to the solanaceous specialist Manduca sexta was verified in no-choice bioassays. These findings indicate that Od-2 is essential for the synthesis of diverse trichome-borne compounds and further suggest that these compounds influence host plant selection and herbivore community composition under natural conditions.

  11. Hydathode trichomes actively secreting water from leaves play a key role in the physiology and evolution of root-parasitic rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae

    PubMed Central

    Světlíková, Petra; Hájek, Tomáš; Těšitel, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Root hemiparasites from the rhinanthoid clade of Orobanchaceae possess metabolically active glandular trichomes that have been suggested to function as hydathode trichomes actively secreting water, a process that may facilitate resource acquisition from the host plant’s root xylem. However, no direct evidence relating the trichomes to water secretion exists, and carbon budgets associated with this energy-demanding process have not been determined. Methods Macro- and microscopic observations of the leaves of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus were conducted and night-time gas exchange was measured. Correlations were examined among the intensity of guttation, respiration and transpiration, and analysis of these correlations allowed the carbon budget of the trichome activity to be quantified. We examined the intensity of guttation, respiration and transpiration, correlations among which indicate active water secretion. Key Results Guttation was observed on the leaves of 50 % of the young, non-flowering plants that were examined, and microscopic observations revealed water secretion from the glandular trichomes present on the abaxial leaf side. Night-time rates of respiration and transpiration and the presence of guttation drops were positively correlated, which is a clear indicator of hydathode trichome activity. Subsequent physiological measurements on older, flowering plants indicated neither intense guttation nor the presence of correlations, which suggests that the peak activity of hydathodes is in the juvenile stage. Conclusions This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for the physiological role of the hydathode trichomes in active water secretion in the rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae. Depending on the concentration of organic elements calculated to be in the host xylem sap, the direct effect of water secretion on carbon balance ranges from close to neutral to positive. However, it is likely to be positive in the xylem-only feeding

  12. Glandular Hairs of Sigesbeckia jorullensis Kunth (Asteraceae): Morphology, Histochemistry and Composition of Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    HEINRICH, G.; PFEIFHOFER, H. W.; STABENTHEINER, E.; SAWIDIS, T.

    2002-01-01

    Long‐stalked glandular hairs of outer and inner involucral bracts of Sigesbeckia jorullensis, which are important for epizoic fruit propagation, were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The essential oil secreted by the hairs was analysed by chromatographic methods including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and with a laser microprobe mass analyser. The glandular hairs consisted of a large multicellular stalk and a multicellular secreting head. The apical layer of glandular head cells was characterized by leucoplasts and calcium oxalate crystals. Below the apical cells there were up to six layers of cells containing many chloroplasts around the nucleus and surrounded by vacuoles filled with flavonoids and tannins. The essential oil originating in the head cells was secreted into the subcuticular space and may be liberated by rupture of the cuticle. It was mainly composed of sesqui‐ and diterpenes, with the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene‐d as the main component. Monoterpenes, n‐alkanes and their derivatives as well as flavonoid aglycones were also detected. The stickiness of the essential oil is probably associated with the high content of oxygenated sesqui‐ and diterpenes. In addition to long‐stalked trichomes, small biseriate trichomes occurred, secreting small quantities of essential oil into a subcuticular space. PMID:12096807

  13. Glandular hairs of Sigesbeckia jorullensis Kunth (Asteraceae): morphology, histochemistry and composition of essential oil.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, G; Pfeifhofer, H W; Stabentheiner, E; Sawidis, T

    2002-04-01

    Long-stalked glandular hairs of outer and inner involucral bracts of Sigesbeckia jorullensis, which are important for epizoic fruit propagation, were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The essential oil secreted by the hairs was analysed by chromatographic methods including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and with a laser microprobe mass analyser. The glandular hairs consisted of a large multicellular stalk and a multicellular secreting head. The apical layer of glandular head cells was characterized by leucoplasts and calcium oxalate crystals. Below the apical cells there were up to six layers of cells containing many chloroplasts around the nucleus and surrounded by vacuoles filled with flavonoids and tannins. The essential oil originating in the head cells was secreted into the subcuticular space and may be liberated by rupture of the cuticle. It was mainly composed of sesqui- and diterpenes, with the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene-D as the main component. Monoterpenes, n-alkanes and their derivatives as well as flavonoid aglycones were also detected. The stickiness of the essential oil is probably associated with the high content of oxygenated sesqui- and diterpenes. In addition to long-stalked trichomes, small biseriate trichomes occurred, secreting small quantities of essential oil into a subcuticular space.

  14. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    PubMed Central

    Greese, Bettina; Hülskamp, Martin; Fleck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to, e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches toward characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability. PMID:25431575

  15. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns.

    PubMed

    Greese, Bettina; Hülskamp, Martin; Fleck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to, e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches toward characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  16. Secretory trichomes, a substitutive floral nectar source in Lundia A. DC. (Bignoniaceae), a genus lacking a functional disc.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Vogel, Stefan; Machado, Isabel Cristina

    2002-08-01

    This is the first report of corolla-borne secretory trichomes that substitute in role for a non-functional disc in a species of the neotropical genus Lundia A. DC. (Bignoniaceae). The floral biology and flowering phenology of Lundia cordata were investigated at two remnants of tropical rainforest in northeastern Brazil. This species is a typically omithophilous liana, with reddish, tubular, scentless flowers. The flowers are resupinate, protandrous and last for 2 d. There is a vestigial non-functional perigynous disc and nectar is secreted by glandular trichomes distributed along the internal surface of the corolla. The nectar is stored at the base of the corolla tube, thus showing secondary nectar presentation. The nectariferous trichomes are multi-cellular, uniseriate, with a basal foot cell rooting in the epidermis, one neck cell, and a glandular head with 13 cells on average. Three species of hummingbirds (Amazilia fimbriata, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei) serve as pollinators. Phaethornis ruber, Xylocopa bees, wasps and diurnal moths are considered nectar thieves.

  17. TRICHOME AND ARTEMISININ REGULATOR 1 Is Required for Trichome Development and Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ling; Gao, Shouhong; Li, Qing; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ji, Qian; Chen, Ruibing; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Trichomes, small protrusions on the surface of many plant species, can produce and store various secondary metabolic products. Artemisinin, the most famous and potent medicine for malaria, is synthesized, stored, and secreted by Artemisia annua trichomes. However, the molecular basis regulating the biosynthesis of artemisinin and the development of trichomes in A. annua remains poorly understood. Here, we report that an AP2 transcription factor, TRICHOME AND ARTEMISININ REGULATOR 1 (TAR1), plays crucial roles in regulating the development of trichomes and the biosynthesis of artemisinin in A. annua. TAR1, which encodes a protein specially located in the nucleus, is mainly expressed in young leaves, flower buds, and some trichomes. In TAR1-RNAi lines, the morphology of trichomes and the composition of cuticular wax were altered, and the artemisinin content was dramatically reduced, which could be significantly increased by TAR1 oeverexpression. Expression levels of several key genes that are involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were altered when TAR1 was silenced or overexpressed. By the electrophoretic mobility shift, yeast one-hybrid and transient transformation β-glucuronidase assays, we showed that ADS and CYP71AV1, two key genes in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin, are likely the direct targets of TAR1. Taken together, our results indicate that TAR1 is a key component of the molecular network regulating trichome development and artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leaf trichome density may explain herbivory patterns of Actinote sp. (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in a montane humid forest (Nor Yungas, Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Ávila, Pamela; Hurtado, Rosember; Valdivia, Alejandra I.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2006-09-01

    Increasing evidence shows that most insect herbivores of tropical forests show specific associations with their hosts. Environmental factors as well as foliar characters can modify insect preference. In the present work, we evaluated in a montane humid forest the preference and herbivory rate of Actinote sp. caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on mature and young leaves of their specific host plant Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in two contrasting sites. Additionally, the density of non-glandular trichomes in young and mature leaves of plant at each site was evaluated. Analysis of variance of herbivory showed significant effects of site, leaf age, and the interaction of these factors. Higher herbivory levels were found on leaves from the site with lower levels of radiation and on mature leaves. On the other hand, trichome density was significantly higher in leaves from the site with higher levels of radiation and in young leaves. This suggests trichomes may explain the observed pattern of herbivory.

  19. Are leaf glandular trichomes of oregano hospitable habitats for bacterial growth?

    PubMed

    Karamanoli, K; Thalassinos, G; Karpouzas, D; Bosabalidis, A M; Vokou, D; Constantinidou, H-I

    2012-05-01

    Phyllospheric bacteria were isolated from microsites around essential-oil-containing glands of two oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) lines. These bacteria, 20 isolates in total, were subjected to bioassays to examine their growth potential in the presence of essential oils at different concentrations. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil composition between the two oregano lines, no differences were recorded in their antibacterial activity. In disk diffusion bioassays, four of the isolated strains could grow almost unrestrained in the presence of oregano oil, another five proved very sensitive, and the remaining 11 showed intermediate sensitivity. The strain least inhibited by oregano essential oil was further identified by complete16s rRNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas putida. It was capable of forming biofilms even in the presence of oregano oil at high concentrations. Resistance of P. putida to oregano oil was further elaborated by microwell dilution bioassays, and its topology on oregano leaves was studied by electron microscopy. When inoculated on intact oregano plants, P. putida was able not only to colonize sites adjacent to essential oil-containing glands, but even to grow intracellularly. This is the first time that such prolific bacterial growth inside the glands has been visually observed. Results of this study further revealed that several bacteria can be established on oregano leaves, suggesting that these bacteria have attributes that allow them to tolerate or benefit from oregano secondary metabolites.

  20. Divergent regulation of terpenoid metabolism in the trichomes of wild and cultivated tomato species.

    PubMed

    Besser, Katrin; Harper, Andrea; Welsby, Nicholas; Schauvinhold, Ines; Slocombe, Stephen; Li, Yi; Dixon, Richard A; Broun, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The diversification of chemical production in glandular trichomes is important in the development of resistance against pathogens and pests in two species of tomato. We have used genetic and genomic approaches to uncover some of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that underlie the divergence in trichome metabolism between the wild species Solanum habrochaites LA1777 and its cultivated relative, Solanum lycopersicum. LA1777 produces high amounts of insecticidal sesquiterpene carboxylic acids (SCAs), whereas cultivated tomatoes lack SCAs and are more susceptible to pests. We show that trichomes of the two species have nearly opposite terpenoid profiles, consisting mainly of monoterpenes and low levels of sesquiterpenes in S. lycopersicum and mainly of SCAs and very low monoterpene levels in LA1777. The accumulation patterns of these terpenoids are different during development, in contrast to the developmental expression profiles of terpenoid pathway genes, which are similar in the two species, but they do not correlate in either case with terpenoid accumulation. However, our data suggest that the accumulation of monoterpenes in S. lycopersicum and major sesquiterpenes in LA1777 are linked both genetically and biochemically. Metabolite analyses after targeted gene silencing, inhibitor treatments, and precursor feeding all show that sesquiterpene biosynthesis relies mainly on products from the plastidic 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in LA1777 but less so in the cultivated species. Furthermore, two classes of sesquiterpenes produced by the wild species may be synthesized from distinct pools of precursors via cytosolic and plastidial cyclases. However, highly trichome-expressed sesquiterpene cyclase-like enzymes were ruled out as being involved in the production of major LA1777 sesquiterpenes.

  1. The effect of roots and media constituents on trichomes and artemisinin production in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanhvan T; Towler, Melissa J; Weathers, Pamela J

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Rooting of Artemisia annua increases trichome size on leaves and helps drive the final steps of the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene antimalarial drug, artemisinin. Artemisia annua produces the antimalarial drug, artemisinin (AN), which is synthesized and stored in glandular trichomes (GLTs). In vitro-grown A. annua shoots produce more AN when they form roots. This may be a function not of the roots, but rather media components such as the phytohormones, α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), or salts and sucrose used to maintain either rooted or unrooted shoot cultures. We investigated how three main media components altered artemisinic metabolite production, pathway gene transcripts, and GLT formation in both mature and developing leaves in rooted and unrooted cultures. Although transcript levels of AN biosynthetic genes were not altered, AN levels were significantly different, and there were major differences in both artemisinic metabolite levels and trichomes in mature versus developing leaves. For example, NAA induced higher AN production in rooted shoots, but only in mature leaves. In developing leaves, BAP increased GLT density on the leaf surface. When both phytohormones were present, GLTs were larger on young developing leaves, but smaller on mature leaves. Furthermore, although other media components increased GLT density, their size decreased on young leaves, but there was no effect on mature leaves. Roots also appeared to drive conversion of artemisinic precursors towards end products. These results suggest that, while the presence of roots affects AN and trichome production, phytohormones and other media constituents used for in vitro culture of A. annua also exert an influence.

  2. Gradient Mechanical Properties Facilitate Arabidopsis Trichome as Mechanosensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Zhou, Li Hong; Jiao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Shaobao; Zhang, Zhanming; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2016-04-20

    It has been reported that Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichome can act as a mechanosensory switch, transducing mechanical stimuli into physiological signals, mainly through a buckling instability to focus external force (e.g., exerted by insects) on the base of trichome. The material and structural properties of trichomes remain largely unknown in this buckling instability. In this report, we mainly focused on material standpoint to explore the possible mechanism facilitating the buckling instability. We observed that the Young's modulus of trichome cell wall decreased gradually from branch to the base region of trichome. Interestingly, we also found a corresponding decline of calcium concentration on the trichome cell wall. Results of finite element method (FEM) simulation suggested that such a gradient distribution of Young's modulus significantly promotes force focusing and buckling instability on the base of trichome. It is indicated that Arabidopsis trichome has developed into an active mechanosensor benefiting from gradient cell wall mechanical properties.

  3. Gene expression profile analysis of tobacco leaf trichomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Leaf trichomes of Nicotiana tabacum are distinguished by their large size, high density, and superior secretion ability. They contribute to plant defense response against biotic and abiotic stress, and also influence leaf aroma and smoke flavor. However, there is limited genomic information about trichomes of this non-model plant species. Results We have characterized Nicotiana tabacum leaf trichome gene expression using two approaches. In the first, a trichome cDNA library was randomly sequenced, and 2831 unique genes were obtained. The most highly abundant transcript was ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO). Among the related sequences, most encoded enzymes involved in primary metabolism. Secondary metabolism related genes, such as isoprenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis-related, were also identified. In the second approach, a cDNA microarray prepared from these 2831 clones was used to compare gene expression levels in trichome and leaf. There were 438 differentially expressed genes between trichome and leaves-minus-trichomes. Of these, 207 highly expressed genes in tobacco trichomes were enriched in second metabolic processes, defense responses, and the metabolism regulation categories. The expression of selected unigenes was confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, some of which were specifically expressed in trichomes. Conclusion The expression feature of leaf trichomes in Nicotiana tabacum indicates their metabolic activity and potential importance in stress resistance. Sequences predominantly expressed in trichomes will facilitate gene-mining and metabolism control of plant trichome. PMID:21548994

  4. Ultrastructure of hydathode trichomes of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and Odontites vernus: how important is their role in physiology and evolution of parasitism in Orobanchaceae?

    PubMed

    Těšitel, J; Tesařová, M

    2013-01-01

    The Rhinanthoid clade of the family Orobanchaceae comprises plants displaying a hemiparasitic or holoparasitic strategy of resource acquisition. Some of its species (mainly Rhinanthus spp.) are often used as models for studies of hemiparasite physiology. Although there is a well-developed concept covering their physiological processes, most recent studies have neglected the existence of hydathode trichomes present on leaves of these hemiparasitic plants. As a first step for the proposed integration of these structures in the theory of physiological processes of the hemiparasites, we described the outer micromorphology and ultrastructure of the hydathode trichomes on leaves of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and Odontites vernus with scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively). The TEM inspections of both types of trichome revealed typical ultrastructural features: labyrinthine cell wall, high content of cytoplasm in cells with numerous mitochondria and presence of plasmodesmata. All these features indicate high metabolic activity complying with their function as glandular trichomes actively secreting water. The active secretion of water by the hydathode trichomes (evidence for which is summarised here) also presents a possible mechanism explaining results of previous gas exchange measurements detecting high dark respiration and transpiration rates and a tight inter-correlation between them in hemiparasitic Orobanchaceae. In addition, this process is hypothesised to have allowed multiple evolutionary transitions from facultative to obligate hemiparasitism and unique xylem-feeding holoparasitism of Lathraea with a long-lived underground stage featuring a rhizome covered by scales of leaf origin.

  5. Monitoring Metabolite Profiles of Cannabis sativa L. Trichomes during Flowering Period Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics and Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Happyana, Nizar; Kayser, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis sativa trichomes are glandular structures predominantly responsible for the biosynthesis of cannabinoids, the biologically active compounds unique to this plant. To the best of our knowledge, most metabolomic works on C. sativa that have been reported previously focused their investigations on the flowers and leaves of this plant. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR analysis were applied for monitoring the metabolite profiles of C. sativa trichomes, variety Bediol, during the last 4 weeks of the flowering period. Partial least squares discriminant analysis models successfully classified metabolites of the trichomes based on the harvest time. Δ (9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (1) and cannabidiolic acid (2) constituted the vital differential components of the organic preparations, while asparagine, glutamine, fructose, and glucose proved to be their water-extracted counterparts. According to RT-PCR analysis, gene expression levels of olivetol synthase and olivetolic acid cyclase influenced the accumulation of cannabinoids in the Cannabis trichomes during the monitoring time. Moreover, quantitative (1)H NMR and RT-PCR analysis of the Cannabis trichomes suggested that the gene regulation of cannabinoid biosynthesis in the C. sativa variety Bediol is unique when compared with other C. sativa varieties. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Trichomes as models for studying plant cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changxian; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-06-01

    Trichomes, originating from epidermal cells, are present on nearly all terrestrial plants. They exist in diverse forms, are readily accessible, and serve as an excellent model system for analyzing the molecular mechanisms in plant cell differentiation, including cell fate choices, cell cycle control, and cell morphogenesis. In Arabidopsis, two regulatory models have been identified that function in parallel in trichome formation; the activator-inhibitor model and the activator-depletion model. Cotton fiber, a similar unicellular structure, is controlled by some functional homologues of Arabidopsis trichome-patterning genes. Multicellular trichomes, as in tobacco and tomato, may form through a distinct pathway from unicellular trichomes. Recent research has shown that cell cycle control participates in trichome formation. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of unicellular and multicellular trichomes, and discuss the integration of the cell cycle in its initiation and morphogenesis.

  7. Identification and mapping of Tril, a homeodomain-leucine zipper gene involved in multicellular trichome initiation in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Li; Nie, Jing-tao; Chen, Hui-Ming; Guo, Chun-li; Pan, Jian; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-02-01

    Using map-based cloning of Tril gene, we identified a homeodomain-leucine zipper gene involved in the initiation of multicellular trichomes (including the spines of fruit) in cucumber. Fruit spines are a special type of trichome that impacts the quality and appearance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the trichome-less (tril) mutant originating from European greenhouse cucumber has a completely glabrous phenotype on cotyledons, hypocotyls, young leaves, fruits, and fruit stalks. Genetic analysis revealed that tril was inherited as a recessive allele at a single locus. Using 1058 F2 individuals derived from a cross between cucumber tril mutant CGN19839 and the micro-trichome (mict) mutant 06-2, tril was mapped to chromosome 6, and narrowed down to a 37.4 kb genomic region which carries seven predicted genes. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that gene Cucsa.045360 is a possible candidate gene for the differentiation of epidermal cells to trichomes. It is a member of the class IV homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip IV) family and encodes homeodomain and START domain, sharing 66.7% predicted amino acid sequence identity to PROTODERMAL FACTOR2 (PDF2) and 35.0% to GLABRA2 (GL2) of Arabidopsis. The homeobox domain had changed amino acid sequence because of an insertion in tril mutant. The results of genetic analysis and transcriptome profiling indicated that the Tril gene had an epistatic effect on the Mict gene in trichome development. Phenotypes of the tril mutant such as glabrous fruits and female flowers at every node could be used in developing new cultivars.

  8. Antimicrobial activity, essential oil composition and micromorphology of trichomes of Satureja laxiflora C. Koch from Iran.

    PubMed

    Sonboli, Ali; Fakhari, Alireza; Kanani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefzadi, Morteza

    2004-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity, essential oil composition and micromorphology of trichomes of Satureja laxiflora C. Koch, a native plant from Iran, were studied. The essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts at the flowering stage by hydrodistillation, and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-three compounds representing 99.1% of the total oil were characterized. The major compounds were thymol (63.9%) and gamma-terpinene (11.9%) followed by carvacrol (4.8%), p-cymene (3.9%), geraniol (3.2%) and geranyl acetate (3.1%). Furthermore, the essential oil and its three main components were tested against two bacteria and three fungi. The result of the bioassays has been shown that the oil possesses potent antimicrobial property. Chemical studies confirmed that a major portion of this antimicrobial activity is due to thymol present in the oil. Micromorphological analysis by SEM of both vegetative and reproductive organs revealed the presence of abundant sessile capitate and sparse short-stalked glandular trichomes along with retrorse eglandular hairs, giving useful diagnostic characters for identification of this medicinal plant.

  9. Proteomic snapshot of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaf trichomes: a genuine terpenoid factory.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Peltate glandular trichomes from Mentha spicata were purified on a Percoll gradient and soluble and membrane proteins were trypsinized and the peptides were separated by nano-LC fractionation and analyzed by MALDI-MS/MS. The vast majority of the 1666 proteins identified were housekeeping proteins or involved in the primary metabolism. However, 57 were predicted to be involved in the secondary metabolism. Of these, 21 were involved in the synthesis of phenylpropanoids and phenolics and 32 in terpenoid synthesis. Of the 14 membrane transporters identified, the 11 ATP-binding cassette transporters provide good material for assessing whether active transport is required for the transfer of monoterpenoid intermediates between cellular compartments and for the secretion of the final products into the subcuticular storage cavity. In conclusion, this proteome analysis of M. spicata peltate trichomes has identified several candidate proteins that might be involved in terpenoid synthesis and transport. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000352 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000352). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  11. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  12. Studies of a Biochemical Factory: Tomato Trichome Deep Expressed Sequence Tag Sequencing and Proteomics1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Miner, Dennis P.; Larson, Matthew; McDowell, Eric; Gang, David R.; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics analysis allows hundreds of proteins to be identified and quantified from a single sample at relatively low cost. Extensive DNA sequence information is a prerequisite for shotgun proteomics, and it is ideal to have sequence for the organism being studied rather than from related species or accessions. While this requirement has limited the set of organisms that are candidates for this approach, next generation sequencing technologies make it feasible to obtain deep DNA sequence coverage from any organism. As part of our studies of specialized (secondary) metabolism in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) trichomes, 454 sequencing of cDNA was combined with shotgun proteomics analyses to obtain in-depth profiles of genes and proteins expressed in leaf and stem glandular trichomes of 3-week-old plants. The expressed sequence tag and proteomics data sets combined with metabolite analysis led to the discovery and characterization of a sesquiterpene synthase that produces β-caryophyllene and α-humulene from E,E-farnesyl diphosphate in trichomes of leaf but not of stem. This analysis demonstrates the utility of combining high-throughput cDNA sequencing with proteomics experiments in a target tissue. These data can be used for dissection of other biochemical processes in these specialized epidermal cells. PMID:20431087

  13. AaMYB1 and its orthologue AtMYB61 affect terpene metabolism and trichome development in Artemisia annua and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Matías-Hernández, Luis; Jiang, Weimin; Yang, Ke; Tang, Kexuan; Brodelius, Peter E; Pelaz, Soraya

    2017-05-01

    The effective anti-malarial drug artemisinin (AN) isolated from Artemisia annua is relatively expensive due to the low AN content in the plant as AN is only synthesized within the glandular trichomes. Therefore, genetic engineering of A. annua is one of the most promising approaches for improving the yield of AN. In this work, the AaMYB1 transcription factor has been identified and characterized. When AaMYB1 is overexpressed in A. annua, either exclusively in trichomes or in the whole plant, essential AN biosynthetic genes are also overexpressed and consequently the amount of AN is significantly increased. Artemisia AaMYB1 constitutively overexpressing plants displayed a greater number of trichomes. In order to study the role of AaMYB1 on trichome development and other possibly connected biological processes, AaMYB1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. To support our findings in Arabidopsis thaliana, an AaMYB1 orthologue from this model plant, AtMYB61, was identified and atmyb61 mutants characterized. Both AaMYB1 and AtMYB61 affected trichome initiation, root development and stomatal aperture in A. thaliana. Molecular analyses indicated that two crucial trichome activator genes are misexpressed in atmyb61 mutant plants and in plants overexpressing AaMYB1. Furthermore, AaMYB1 and AtMYB61 are also essential for gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and degradation in both species by positively affecting the expression of the enzymes that convert GA9 into the bioactive GA4 as well as the enzymes involved in the degradation of GA4 . Overall, these results identify AaMYB1/AtMYB61 as a key component of the molecular network that connects important biosynthetic processes, and reveal its potential value for AN production through genetic engineering. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hydathode trichomes actively secreting water from leaves play a key role in the physiology and evolution of root-parasitic rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae.

    PubMed

    Světlíková, Petra; Hájek, Tomáš; Těšitel, Jakub

    2015-07-01

    Root hemiparasites from the rhinanthoid clade of Orobanchaceae possess metabolically active glandular trichomes that have been suggested to function as hydathode trichomes actively secreting water, a process that may facilitate resource acquisition from the host plant's root xylem. However, no direct evidence relating the trichomes to water secretion exists, and carbon budgets associated with this energy-demanding process have not been determined. Macro- and microscopic observations of the leaves of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus were conducted and night-time gas exchange was measured. Correlations were examined among the intensity of guttation, respiration and transpiration, and analysis of these correlations allowed the carbon budget of the trichome activity to be quantified. We examined the intensity of guttation, respiration and transpiration, correlations among which indicate active water secretion. Guttation was observed on the leaves of 50 % of the young, non-flowering plants that were examined, and microscopic observations revealed water secretion from the glandular trichomes present on the abaxial leaf side. Night-time rates of respiration and transpiration and the presence of guttation drops were positively correlated, which is a clear indicator of hydathode trichome activity. Subsequent physiological measurements on older, flowering plants indicated neither intense guttation nor the presence of correlations, which suggests that the peak activity of hydathodes is in the juvenile stage. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for the physiological role of the hydathode trichomes in active water secretion in the rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae. Depending on the concentration of organic elements calculated to be in the host xylem sap, the direct effect of water secretion on carbon balance ranges from close to neutral to positive. However, it is likely to be positive in the xylem-only feeding holoparasites of the genus Lathraea, which is closely

  15. Influence of plant ontogeny and abiotic factors on resistance of glandular-haired alfalfa to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Ranger, Christopher M; Backus, Elaine A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Johnson, David W

    2006-04-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterize the trichome-based defense of glandular-haired alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., against the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris). Within-plant variability in leafhopper resistance was examined by caging adult leafhoppers to either basal or apical stem internodes of the leafhopper-resistant, glandular-haired M. sativa genotype G98A or the susceptible, nonglandular-haired M. sativa 'Ranger'. Young, actively secreting glandular trichomes are located on apical internodes of G98A, whereas senesced gland heads are found on older, basal internodes of G98A. After 96 h, the highest cumulative leafhopper mortality and lowest number of excretory droplets were associated with apical internodes of G98A. No difference was detected in mortality and feeding levels among insects caged to basal internodes of G98A and basal and apical internodes of Ranger. The influence of abiotic factors on leafhopper resistance was evaluated by caging adult leafhoppers to either G98A or Ranger under four combinations of low and high light (250 and 1,000 micromol s(-1) m(-2)) and temperature regimes (17 and 30 degrees C). After 96 h, the highest cumulative mortality was associated with leafhoppers confined to G98A under high light and high temperature conditions. Temperature level and plant type also had an effect on the production of excretory droplets, resulting in the highest number of excretory droplets being associated with Ranger under the high temperature regime. These results indicate that certain regions of M. sativa G98A are better protected against the potato leafhopper than others and that temperature influences resistance levels of glandular-haired alfalfa.

  16. Induction of Jasmonic Acid-Associated Defenses by Thrips Alters Host Suitability for Conspecifics and Correlates with Increased Trichome Densities in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.; Leiss, Kirsten A.

    2017-01-01

    Plant defenses inducible by herbivorous arthropods can determine performance of subsequent feeding herbivores. We investigated how infestation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) alters host plant suitability and foraging decisions of their conspecifics. We explored the role of delayed-induced jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated plant defense responses in thrips preference by using the tomato mutant def-1, impaired in JA biosynthesis. In particular, we investigated the effect of thrips infestation on trichome-associated tomato defenses. The results showed that when offered a choice, thrips preferred non-infested plants over infested wild-type plants, while no differences were observed in def-1. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate restored the repellency effect in def-1. Gene expression analysis showed induction of the JA defense signaling pathway in wild-type plants, while activating the ethylene signaling pathway in both genotypes. Activation of JA defenses led to increases in type-VI leaf glandular trichome densities in the wild type, augmenting the production of trichome-associated volatiles, i.e. terpenes. Our study revealed that plant-mediated intraspecific interactions between thrips are determined by JA-mediated defenses in tomato. We report that insects can alter not only trichome densities but also the allelochemicals produced therein, and that this response might depend on the magnitude and/or type of the induction. PMID:28158865

  17. Induction of Jasmonic Acid-Associated Defenses by Thrips Alters Host Suitability for Conspecifics and Correlates with Increased Trichome Densities in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Leiss, Kirsten A

    2017-03-01

    Plant defenses inducible by herbivorous arthropods can determine performance of subsequent feeding herbivores. We investigated how infestation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) alters host plant suitability and foraging decisions of their conspecifics. We explored the role of delayed-induced jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated plant defense responses in thrips preference by using the tomato mutant def-1, impaired in JA biosynthesis. In particular, we investigated the effect of thrips infestation on trichome-associated tomato defenses. The results showed that when offered a choice, thrips preferred non-infested plants over infested wild-type plants, while no differences were observed in def-1. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate restored the repellency effect in def-1. Gene expression analysis showed induction of the JA defense signaling pathway in wild-type plants, while activating the ethylene signaling pathway in both genotypes. Activation of JA defenses led to increases in type-VI leaf glandular trichome densities in the wild type, augmenting the production of trichome-associated volatiles, i.e. terpenes. Our study revealed that plant-mediated intraspecific interactions between thrips are determined by JA-mediated defenses in tomato. We report that insects can alter not only trichome densities but also the allelochemicals produced therein, and that this response might depend on the magnitude and/or type of the induction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  18. Arabidopsis GLASSY HAIR genes promote trichome papillae development

    PubMed Central

    Kirik, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Specialized plant cells form cell walls with distinct composition and properties pertinent to their function. Leaf trichomes in Arabidopsis form thick cell walls that support the upright growth of these large cells and, curiously, have strong light-reflective properties. To understand the process of trichome cell-wall maturation and the molecular origins of this optical property, mutants affected in trichome light reflection were isolated and characterized. It was found that GLASSY HAIR (GLH) genes are required for the formation of surface papillae structures at late stages of trichome development. Trichomes in these mutants appeared transparent due to unobstructed light transmission. Genetic analysis of the isolated mutants revealed seven different gene loci. Two—TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE (TBR) and NOK (Noeck)—have been reported previously to have the glassy trichome mutant phenotype. The other five glh mutants were analysed for cell-wall-related phenotypes. A significant reduction was found in cellulose content in glh2 and glh4 mutant trichomes. In addition to the glassy trichome phenotype, the glh6 mutants showed defects in leaf cuticular wax, and glh6 was found to represent a new allele of the eceriferum 10 (cer10) mutation. Trichomes of the glh1 and glh3 mutants did not show any other phenotypes beside reduced papillae formation. These data suggest that the GLH1 and GLH3 genes may have specific functions in trichome papillae formation, whereas GLH2, GLH4, and GLH6 genes are also involved in deposition of other cell-wall components. PMID:24014871

  19. Divergent Regulation of Terpenoid Metabolism in the Trichomes of Wild and Cultivated Tomato Species1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Katrin; Harper, Andrea; Welsby, Nicholas; Schauvinhold, Ines; Slocombe, Stephen; Li, Yi; Dixon, Richard A.; Broun, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The diversification of chemical production in glandular trichomes is important in the development of resistance against pathogens and pests in two species of tomato. We have used genetic and genomic approaches to uncover some of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that underlie the divergence in trichome metabolism between the wild species Solanum habrochaites LA1777 and its cultivated relative, Solanum lycopersicum. LA1777 produces high amounts of insecticidal sesquiterpene carboxylic acids (SCAs), whereas cultivated tomatoes lack SCAs and are more susceptible to pests. We show that trichomes of the two species have nearly opposite terpenoid profiles, consisting mainly of monoterpenes and low levels of sesquiterpenes in S. lycopersicum and mainly of SCAs and very low monoterpene levels in LA1777. The accumulation patterns of these terpenoids are different during development, in contrast to the developmental expression profiles of terpenoid pathway genes, which are similar in the two species, but they do not correlate in either case with terpenoid accumulation. However, our data suggest that the accumulation of monoterpenes in S. lycopersicum and major sesquiterpenes in LA1777 are linked both genetically and biochemically. Metabolite analyses after targeted gene silencing, inhibitor treatments, and precursor feeding all show that sesquiterpene biosynthesis relies mainly on products from the plastidic 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in LA1777 but less so in the cultivated species. Furthermore, two classes of sesquiterpenes produced by the wild species may be synthesized from distinct pools of precursors via cytosolic and plastidial cyclases. However, highly trichome-expressed sesquiterpene cyclase-like enzymes were ruled out as being involved in the production of major LA1777 sesquiterpenes. PMID:18997116

  20. Trichome-Related Mutants Provide a New Perspective on Multicellular Trichome Initiation and Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingwang; Bartholomew, Ezra; Cai, Yanling; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located in aerial parts of plants that function in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study the molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. Loss-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana have suggested that the core genes GL1 (which encodes a MYB transcription factor) and TTG1 (which encodes a WD40 repeat-containing protein) are important for the initiation and spacing of leaf trichomes, while for normal trichome initiation, the genes GL3, and EGL3 (which encode a bHLH protein) are needed. However, the positive regulatory genes involved in multicellular trichrome development in cucumber remain unclear. This review focuses on the phenotype of mutants (csgl3, tril, tbh, mict, and csgl1) with disturbed trichomes in cucumber and then infers which gene(s) play key roles in trichome initiation and development in those mutants. Evidence indicates that MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are allelic with alternative splicing. CsGL3 and TRIL are allelic and override the effect of TBH, MICT, and CsGL1 on the regulation of multicellular trichome development; and affect trichome initiation. CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 encode HD-Zip proteins with different subfamilies. Genetic and molecular analyses have revealed that CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are responsible for the differentiation of epidermal cells and the development of trichomes. Based on current knowledge, a positive regulator pathway model for trichome development in cucumber was proposed and compared to a model in Arabidopsis. These data suggest that trichome development in cucumber may differ from that in Arabidopsis. PMID:27559338

  1. Are plant trichomes harmful to predatory insects and mites?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants may use epidermal hairs (trichomes) to defend themselves from attack by herbivores. Predatory arthropods may serve as biocontrol agents against herbivores. Whether or not plant trichomes work in concert with predators is undocumented in many cases. We reviewed the peer-reviewed literature ...

  2. Plant trichomes have mixed impacts on predatory insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In response to our review article on the role of plant trichomes on insect predators (Riddick & Simmons 2014), Krimmel (2014) acknowledged the challenges that are faced in bringing together the varied publications on the subject of impact of plant trichomes on predatory insects. He also suggested t...

  3. Glandular prediction: the pride and the prejudice.

    PubMed

    Waddell, C

    2004-08-01

    For the cytologist and clinician alike, glandular lesions pose possibly the greatest challenge in cervical screening. Worldwide, with increasing confidence in cytological prediction, terminology is evolving. In the UK, with the adoption of liquid based methods, the technical aspects of cervical cytology are being addressed, it is now time to standardise our terminology in glandular reporting. Consideration of the cytological complexity, clinical needs and international protocols is essential in this endeavour.

  4. Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

  5. Microtubule Stabilization Leads to Growth Reorientation in Arabidopsis Trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Jaideep; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2000-01-01

    The single-cell trichomes in wild-type Arabidopsis are either unbranched or have two to five branches. Using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a green fluorescent protein–microtubule-associated protein4 fusion protein, which decorates the microtubular cytoskeleton, we observed that during trichome branching, microtubules reorient with respect to the longitudinal growth axis. Considering branching to be a localized microtubule-dependent growth reorientation event, we investigated the effects of microtubule-interacting drugs on branch induction in trichomes. In unbranched trichomes of the mutant stichel, a change in growth directionality, closely simulating branch initiation, could be elicited by a short treatment with paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, but not with microtubule-disrupting drugs. The growth reorientation appeared to be linked to increased microtubule stabilization and to aster formation in the treated trichomes. Taxol-induced microtubule stabilization also led to the initiation of new branch points in the zwichel mutant of Arabidopsis, which is defective in a kinesin-like microtubule motor protein and possesses trichomes that are less branched. Our observations suggest that trichome cell branching in Arabidopsis might be mediated by transiently stabilized microtubular structures, which may form a component of a multiprotein complex required to reorient freshly polymerizing microtubules into new growth directions. PMID:10760237

  6. Hydrophobic trichome layers and epicuticular wax powders in Bromeliaceae.

    PubMed

    Pierce, S; Maxwell, K; Griffiths, H; Winter, K

    2001-08-01

    The distinctive foliar trichome of Bromeliaceae has promoted the evolution of an epiphytic habit in certain taxa by allowing the shoot to assume a significant role in the uptake of water and mineral nutrients. Despite the profound ecophysiological and taxonomic importance of this epidermal structure, the functions of nonabsorbent trichomes in remaining Bromeliaceae are not fully understood. The hypothesis that light reflection from these trichome layers provides photoprotection was not supported by spectroradiometry and fluorimetry in the present study; the mean reflectance of visible light from trichome layers did not exceed 6.4% on the adaxial surfaces of species representing a range of ecophysiological types nor was significant photoprotection provided by their presence. Several reports suggesting water repellency in some terrestrial Bromeliaceae were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a new technique-fluorographic dimensional imaging (FDI)-were used to assess the interaction between aqueous droplets and the leaf surfaces of 86 species from 25 genera. In the majority of cases a dense layer of overlapping, stellate or peltate trichomes held water off the leaf epidermis proper. In the case of hydrophobic tank-forming tillandsioideae, a powdery epicuticular wax layer provided water repellency. The irregular architecture of these indumenta resulted in relatively little contact with water droplets. Most mesic terrestrial Pitcairnioideae examined either possessed glabrous leaf blades or hydrophobic layers of confluent trichomes on the abaxial surface. Thus, the present study indicates that an important ancestral function of the foliar trichome in Bromeliaceae was water repellency. The ecophysiological consequences of hydrophobia are discussed.

  7. Acylsugar Acylhydrolases: Carboxylesterase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Acylsugars in Tomato Trichomes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gilgallon, Karin; Ghosh, Banibrata

    2016-01-01

    Glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and many other species throughout the Solanaceae produce and secrete mixtures of sugar esters (acylsugars) on the plant aerial surfaces. In wild and cultivated tomato, these metabolites consist of a sugar backbone, typically glucose or sucrose, and two to five acyl chains esterified to various positions on the sugar core. The aliphatic acyl chains vary in length and branching and are transferred to the sugar by a series of reactions catalyzed by acylsugar acyltransferases. A phenotypic screen of a set of S. lycopersicum M82 × Solanum pennellii LA0716 introgression lines identified a dominant genetic locus on chromosome 5 from the wild relative that affected total acylsugar levels. Genetic mapping revealed that the reduction in acylsugar levels was consistent with the presence and increased expression of two S. pennellii genes (Sopen05g030120 and Sopen05g030130) encoding putative carboxylesterase enzymes of the α/β-hydrolase superfamily. These two enzymes, named ACYLSUGAR ACYLHYDROLASE1 (ASH1) and ASH2, were shown to remove acyl chains from specific positions of certain types of acylsugars in vitro. A survey of related genes in M82 and LA0716 identified another trichome-expressed ASH gene on chromosome 9 (M82, Solyc09g075710; LA0716, Sopen09g030520) encoding a protein with similar activity. Characterization of the in vitro activities of the SpASH enzymes showed reduced activities with acylsugars produced by LA0716, presumably contributing to the high-level production of acylsugars in the presence of highly expressed SpASH genes. PMID:26811191

  8. New developments in endocervical glandular lesions.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn

    2013-01-01

    McCluggage W G (2012) Histopathology New developments in endocervical glandular lesions There is evidence that the prevalence of premalignant and malignant endocervical glandular lesions is increasing in real as well as in apparent terms. In this review, new developments and selected controversial aspects of endocervical glandular lesions are covered, concentrating mainly on premalignant and malignant lesions. The terminology of premalignant endocervical glandular lesions is discussed with a comparison of the World Health Organization classification and the cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) system, which is in widespread use in the United Kingdom. Primary cervical adenocarcinomas comprise a heterogeneous group of different morphological types, and while it is known that the majority of these are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), it has become clear in recent years that most of the more uncommon morphological types are unassociated with HPV, although they may sometimes be p16-positive. A spectrum of benign, premalignant and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation is now recognized; these include type A tunnel clusters, typical and atypical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, adenoma malignum and gastric-type adenocarcinoma. The latter is a recently described variant of primary cervical adenocarcinoma which has a different morphological appearance to the usual endocervical type and which is probably associated with different patterns of spread and a worse prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that 'early invasive' cervical adenocarcinomas have an excellent prognosis and are suitable for conservative management. Immunohistochemical markers of value in the distinction between a primary cervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma are discussed. While it is well known that a panel of markers comprising oestrogen receptor (ER), vimentin, p16 and monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is

  9. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-06-20

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6).

  10. The Arabidopsis trichome is an active mechanosensory switch.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li Hong; Liu, Shao Bao; Wang, Peng Fei; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Genin, Guy M; Pickard, Barbara G

    2017-05-01

    Trichomes ('hair cells') on Arabidopsis thaliana stem and leaf surfaces provide a range of benefits arising from their shape and disposition. These include tempting herbivores to sample constitutive toxins before they reach the bulk of the tissue. We asked whether, in addition, small mechanical disturbances such as an insect can make elicit signals that might help the plant respond to herbivory. We imaged, pressed and brushed trichomes in several ways, most notably with confocal microscopy of trichomes transgenically provided with apoplastic pH reporter apo-pHusion and cytosolic Ca(2+) reporter cameleon. In parallel, we modelled trichome wall mechanics with finite element analysis. The stimulated trichome focuses force on a pliant zone and the adjoining podium of the stalk. A buckling instability can further focus force on a skirt of cells surrounding the podium, eliciting oscillations of cytosolic Ca(2+) and shifts in apoplastic pH. These observations represent active physiological response. Modelling establishes that the effectiveness of force focusing and buckling is due to the peculiar tapering wall structure of the trichome. Hypothetically, these active mechanosensing functions enhance toxin synthesis above constitutive levels, probably via a priming process, thus minimizing the costly accumulation of toxins in the absence of herbivore attack but assuring rapid build-up when needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Functionally Divergent Alleles and Duplicated Loci Encoding an Acyltransferase Contribute to Acylsugar Metabolite Diversity in Solanum Trichomes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Moghe, Gaurav D.; Fan, Pengxiang; Ghosh, Banibrata; Ning, Jing; Jones, A. Daniel; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Glandular trichomes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and other species in the Solanaceae produce and secrete a mixture of O-acylsugars (aliphatic esters of sucrose and glucose) that contribute to insect defense. Despite their phylogenetic distribution and diversity, relatively little is known about how these specialized metabolites are synthesized. Mass spectrometric profiling of acylsugars in the S. lycopersicum x Solanum pennellii introgression lines identified a chromosome 11 locus containing a cluster of BAHD acyltransferases with one gene (named Sl-ASAT3) expressed in tip cells of type I trichomes where acylsugars are made. Sl-ASAT3 was shown to encode an acyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of short (four to five carbons) branched acyl chains to the furanose ring of di-acylsucrose acceptors to produce tri-acylsucroses, which can be further acetylated by Sl-ASAT4 (previously Sl-AT2). Among the wild tomatoes, diversity in furanose ring acyl chains on acylsucroses was most striking in Solanum habrochaites. S. habrochaites accessions from Ecuador and northern Peru produced acylsucroses with short (≤C5) or no acyl chains on the furanose ring. Accessions from central and southern Peru had the ability to add short or long (up to C12) acyl chains to the furanose ring. Multiple ASAT3-like sequences were found in most accessions, and their in vitro activities correlated with observed geographical diversity in acylsugar profiles. PMID:25862303

  12. Complex patterns of multiple biomineralization in single-celled plant trichomes of the Loasaceae.

    PubMed

    Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen; Mustafa, Adeel; Weigend, Maximilian

    2017-02-01

    Plants of the family Loasaceae are characterized by a usually dense indument of various trichome types, including two basically different types of mineralized, unicellular trichomes (stinging hairs or setae and scabrid-glochidiate trichomes). Mineralized trichomes have long been known to have silicified or calcified walls, but recent studies demonstrated that trichomes of Loasaceae may also contain calcium phosphate. The current study investigates the distribution of different biominerals in the mineralized trichomes across several different taxa. Plants from cultivation were studied with scanning electron microscopy including energy dispersive x-ray analyses and element mapping. The vast majority of the 31 species investigated had at least two different biominerals in their trichomes, and 22 had three different biominerals in their trichomes. Thirty of the species had calcium phosphate in their trichomes. Loasa was mostly free of silica, but contained calcium phosphate in trichome tips and barbs, whereas calcium phosphate and silica were found in representatives of other genera of the family (Blumenbachia, Caiophora, Nasa). Biomineralization is remarkably diversified between species, different trichome types and parts of the same trichome. Individual genera largely had different patterns of biomineralization. The presence of three biominerals in the trichomes of the basally branching Eucnide urens indicates either an early evolution and subsequent loss or several independent origins of multiple biomineralization. Differential biomineralization of the parts of individual, unicellular trichomes clearly indicates an extraordinary degree of physiological control over this process. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Probing essential oil biosynthesis and secretion by functional evaluation of expressed sequence tags from mint glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Lange, B M; Wildung, M R; Stauber, E J; Sanchez, C; Pouchnik, D; Croteau, R

    2000-03-14

    Functional genomics approaches, which use combined computational and expression-based analyses of large amounts of sequence information, are emerging as powerful tools to accelerate the comprehensive understanding of cellular metabolism in specialized tissues and whole organisms. As part of an ongoing effort to identify genes of essential oil (monoterpene) biosynthesis, we have obtained sequence information from 1,316 randomly selected cDNA clones, or expressed sequence tags (ESTs), from a peppermint (Mentha x piperita) oil gland secretory cell cDNA library. After bioinformatic selection, candidate genes putatively involved in essential oil biosynthesis and secretion have been subcloned into suitable expression vectors for functional evaluation in Escherichia coli. On the basis of published and preliminary data on the functional properties of these clones, it is estimated that the ESTs involved in essential oil metabolism represent about 25% of the described sequences. An additional 7% of the recognized genes code for proteins involved in transport processes, and a subset of these is likely involved in the secretion of essential oil terpenes from the site of synthesis to the storage cavity of the oil glands. The integrated approaches reported here represent an essential step toward the development of a metabolic map of oil glands and provide a valuable resource for defining molecular targets for the genetic engineering of essential oil formation.

  14. Malignant glandular lesions and glandular differentiation in invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Although the lumen of the urinary bladder is covered with only urothelial epithelium, malign glandular lesions (eg, nonurachal adenocarcinoma) and benign lesions (eg, cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis) can also rarely occur in this site due to its characteristic embryologic development. Glandular differentiation is uncommon in urothelial carcinomas and is even less common in noninvasive urothelial cancers. In addition, in situ urothelial carcinomas are more likely to progress in the presence of glandular differentiation toward high-grade urothelial carcinomas and/or aggressive urothelial carcinomas. Pure nonurachal adenocarcinomas and mixed carcinomas (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) are very rare, and their pathogenesis is not clear. Most of the nonurachal adenocarcinomas are thought to arise on the grounds of cystitis glandularus with intestinal metaplasia. Here, I present 2 cases with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with substantial glandular differentiation showing progression to signet ring cell carcinoma and invasive urothelial carcinoma, one case with mixed carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) and another case with pure adenocarcinoma developing from cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia, and discuss malign glandular lesions in the bladder and invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation.

  15. Micromorphology of glandular hairs, biological activity and composition of the essential oil of Tanacetum fisherae (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Peyman; Nejadsattari, Taher; Maassoumi, Ali Asghar; Mozaffarian, Valiollah; Sonboli, Ali

    2011-02-01

    The essential oil was obtained from the aerial flowering parts of Tanacetum fisherae, a new record from Iran, by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Eleven components representing 99.9% of the total oil were identified. 1,8-Cineole (79.9%) was characterized as the principal compound. The essential oil and its main component were tested against nine microbial strains. The result of the bioassays revealed that the oil possess potent antimicrobial property. This may be associated due to the presence of 1,8-cineole in the oil which tested individually and its high activity was observed. Micromorphological studies of hairs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibited the presence of abundant sessile capitate glandular and medifixed T-shaped eglandular trichomes on the leaves, flowers and achene, giving useful diagnostic characters for identification of this medicinal plant.

  16. Proteomics - The key to understanding systems biology of Arabidopsis trichomes.

    PubMed

    Kryvych, Sergiy; Kleessen, Sabrina; Ebert, Berit; Kersten, Birgit; Fisahn, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    Every multicellular organism consists of numerous organs, tissues and specific cell types. To gain detailed knowledge about the morphogenesis of these complex structures, it is inevitable to advance biochemical analyses to ultimate spatial and temporal resolution since individual cell types contribute differently to the overall performance of living objects. Single cell sampling combined with systems biological approaches was recently applied to investigations of Arabidopsis thaliana trichomes (leaf hairs). These are single celled structures that provide ideal model systems to address various aspects of plant cell development and differentiation at the level of individual cells. A previously suggested function of trichomes in plant stress responses could thus be confirmed. Furthermore, trichome-specific "omics" data collected in several laboratories are mutually conclusive which demonstrates the applicability of systems biological approaches at the single cell level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. One, two, three...models for trichome patterning in Arabidopsis?

    PubMed

    Pesch, Marina; Hülskamp, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Trichome patterning in Arabidopsis rosette leaves serves as a model system to study how individual cells are determined in a regular spacing pattern from initially equivalent cells. A conserved gene cassette regulates this spacing pattern. bHLH, MYB, and WD40 factors are positive regulators of trichome development that are inhibited by R3 single-repeat MYB proteins. One positive regulator, the WD40-protein, and the negative regulators are mobile and are transported in opposite directions: the WD40 factor moves to the negative regulators away from trichome initials. This movement behavior and the genetic and molecular interactions between the contributing genes and proteins make it very difficult to derive the mechanistic core behind pattern formation. Attempts to develop mathematical models toward this end are critically discussed.

  18. Differential expression of trichomes on the leaves of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated and quantified trichome diversity on various cotton lines. Leaf trichomes were evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopy on fixed and live samples. Observations indicated that trichome complexity and quantity increased on the mainstem leaves as sampling progressed ...

  19. Foliar trichomes, boundary layers, and gas exchange in 12 species of epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Martin, Craig E

    2006-04-01

    We examined the relationships between H2O and CO2 gas exchange parameters and leaf trichome cover in 12 species of Tillandsia that exhibit a wide range in trichome size and trichome cover. Previous investigations have hypothesized that trichomes function to enhance boundary layers around Tillandsioid leaves thereby buffering the evaporative demand of the atmosphere and retarding transpirational water loss. Data presented herein suggest that trichome-enhanced boundary layers have negligible effects on Tillandsia gas exchange, as indicated by the lack of statistically significant relationships in regression analyses of gas exchange parameters and trichome cover. We calculated trichome and leaf boundary layer components, and their associated effects on H2O and CO2 gas exchange. The results further indicate trichome-enhanced boundary layers do not significantly reduce transpirational water loss. We conclude that although the trichomes undoubtedly increase the thickness of the boundary layer, the increase due to Tillandsioid trichomes is inconsequential in terms of whole leaf boundary layers, and any associated reduction in transpirational water loss is also negligible within the whole plant gas exchange pathway.

  20. Low Reynolds number flow near tiny leaves, stems, and trichomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Christopher; Pasour, Virginia; Miller, Laura

    2016-11-01

    In terrestrial and aquatic environments such as forest canopies, grass fields, and seagrass beds, the density and shape of trunks, branches, stems, leaves and trichomes (the hairs or fine outgrowths on plants) can drastically alter both the average wind speed and profile through these environments and near each plant. While many studies of flow in these environments have focused on bulk properties of the flow at scales on the order of meters, the low Reynolds number flow close to vegetative structures is especially complex and relevant to nutrient exchange. Using three-dimensional immersed boundary simulations, we resolve the flow around trichomes and small leaves and quantify velocities, shear stresses, and mixing while varying the height and density of idealized structures. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1127914 to the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute, and the Army Research Office.

  1. T-shaped trichome-specific expression of monoterpene synthase ADH2 using promoter-β-GUS fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueqing; Shi, Pu; Shen, Qian; Jiang, Weimin; Tang, Yueli; Lv, Zongyou; Yan, Tingxiang; Li, Ling; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-11-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood), is extensively used in the treatment of malaria. In order to better understand the metabolism of terpenes in A. annua and the influence of terpene synthases on artemisinin yield, the expression pattern of a monoterpene alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion. ADH2 played a major role in monoterpenoid biosynthesis including carveol, borneol, and artemisia ketone through in vitro biochemical analysis. In this study, the ADH2 promoter was cloned by the genome walking method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted in promoter region, suggesting that the ADH2 is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. ADH2 gene was highly expressed in old leaves, whereas the artemisinin biosynthetic genes were mainly expressed in bud and young leaves. The expression of ADH2 gene increased quickly during leaf development, revealed by qRT-PCR. GUS expression analysis in different tissues of transgenic A. annua demonstrates that ADH2 expression is exclusively located to T-shaped trichome, not glandular secretory trichome. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    PubMed

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Roles of the GLABROUS1 and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA Genes in Arabidopsis Trichome Development.

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, J. C.; Oppenheimer, D. G.; Lloyd, A. M.; Paparozzi, E. T.; Marks, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Arabidopsis trichomes are branched, single-celled epidermal hairs. These specialized cells provide a convenient model for investigating the specification of cell fate in plants. Two key genes regulating the initiation of trichome development are GLABROUS1 (GL1) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA (TTG). GL1 is a member of the myb gene family. The maize R gene, which can functionally complement the Arabidopsis ttg mutation, encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein. We used constitutively expressed copies of the GL1 and R genes to test hypotheses about the roles of GL1 and TTG in trichome development. The results support the hypothesis that TTG and GL1 cooperate at the same point in the trichome developmental pathway. Furthermore, the constitutive expression of both GL1 and R in the same plant caused trichomes to develop on all shoot epidermal surfaces. Results were also obtained indicating that TTG plays an additional role in inhibiting neighboring cells from becoming trichomes. PMID:12244266

  4. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  5. Roles of trichomes with silica particles on the surface of leaves in Aphananthe aspera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Fuyu; Yamanaka, Shigeru; Takiyama, Naoyuki; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2013-03-01

    There exist many trichomes with silica particles on the surface of leaves in Aphananthe aspera (Muku tree). The size of the trichomes is on the order of some tens to hundreds of micrometers. Investigating the electric-field local densities of the states and distributions of electromagnetic wave propagation, we theoretically revealed that while trichomes play a role as waveguides for the far-infrared, silica particles help incident far-infrared light efficiently propagate inside the trichomes and leaves. These properties would be useful for efficiently warming plants, since absorbed far-infrared light is converted to heat.

  6. The genetics of phenotypic plasticity in plant defense: trichome production in Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Holeski, Liza M; Chase-Alone, Ronnette; Kelly, John K

    2010-04-01

    Insect herbivory is a major driving force of plant evolution. Phenotypic plasticity and developmental variation provide a means for plants to cope with variable herbivory. We characterized the genetics of developmental variation and phenotypic plasticity in trichome density, a putative defensive trait of Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower). Our results are evaluated in relation to the optimal defense theory, which provides testable predictions for plastic and developmental patterns in defense traits. We found that both developmental stage and simulated insect damage affected trichome production, but in different ways. Plants were more likely to produce at least some trichomes on later leaves than on earlier leaves, regardless of damage. Damage did not affect the average probability of producing trichomes, but it did increase the density of hairs on trichome-positive plants. We mapped trichome quantitative trait loci (QTL) by selectively genotyping a large panel of recombinant inbred lines derived from two highly divergent populations. Several highly pleiotropic QTL influenced multiple aspects of the trichome phenotype (constitutive, developmental, and/or plastic responses). Only one of the QTL influenced trichome induction following damage. In a result that is consistent with a central prediction of optimal defense theory, the high allele at this location was from the ancestral population with low constitutive trichome production.

  7. TEMPRANILLO Reveals the Mesophyll as Crucial for Epidermal Trichome Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Jaramillo, Andrea E.; Osnato, Michela; Shani, Eilon

    2016-01-01

    Plant trichomes are defensive specialized epidermal cells. In all accepted models, the epidermis is the layer involved in trichome formation, a process controlled by gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis rosette leaves. Indeed, GA activates a genetic cascade in the epidermis for trichome initiation. Here we report that TEMPRANILLO (TEM) genes negatively control trichome initiation not only from the epidermis but also from the leaf layer underneath the epidermis, the mesophyll. Plants over-expressing or reducing TEM specifically in the mesophyll, display lower or higher trichome numbers, respectively. We surprisingly found that fluorescently labeled GA3 accumulates exclusively in the mesophyll of leaves, but not in the epidermis, and that TEM reduces its accumulation and the expression of several newly identified GA transporters. This strongly suggests that TEM plays an essential role, not only in GA biosynthesis, but also in regulating GA distribution in the mesophyll, which in turn directs epidermal trichome formation. Moreover, we show that TEM also acts as a link between GA and cytokinin signaling in the epidermis by negatively regulating downstream genes of both trichome formation pathways. Overall, these results call for a re-evaluation of the present theories of trichome formation as they reveal mesophyll essential during epidermal trichome initiation. PMID:26802039

  8. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  9. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%.

  10. Fast neutron induced structural rearrangements at a soybean NAP1 locus result in gnarled trichomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) gnarled trichome mutant, exhibiting stunted trichomes compared to wild-type, was identified in a fast neutron mutant population. Genetic mapping using whole genome sequence-based bulked segregant analysis identified a 26.6 megabase interval on chromosome 20 that ...

  11. Relationship of leaf and bract trichomes to trash content of ginned lint

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spinning efficiency and yarn quality are improved for bales with reduced trash content. Some cotton varieties have been characterized as having smoother leaves (low trichome density) and fewer bract trichomes, and it has been shown that cottons harvested from these varieties is picked with lower tr...

  12. Effects of leaf and bract trichomes on trash content and quality of ginned lint

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spinning efficiency and yarn quality is improved for bales with reduced trash content. Some cotton varieties have been characterized as having smoother leaves (low trichome density) and fewer bract trichomes, and it has been shown that cotton harvested from these varieties are picked with lower tra...

  13. Correlated evolution of leaf shape and trichomes in Begonia dregei (Begoniaceae).

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tracy

    2005-10-01

    Structural features of leaves, including size, shape, and surfaces, vary greatly throughout the plant kingdom. In both functional and phylogenetic analyses of leaves, the various morphological aspects are often considered independently of each other, although it is likely that many combinations of features do not occur at random due to either functional constraint or genetic correlation. The distribution of variation in leaf morphology in the highly variable Begonia dregei species complex was examined in natural populations and in F(2) offspring from a cross between plants from two populations. Leaf shape was quantified using several morphometric measures, and trichomes on leaves were counted and measured. Correlations between leaf shape and the numbers and size of trichomes were examined. There were significant correlations between the shapes of leaves and the presence, number, and size of trichomes among populations and in hybrid plants. Deeply incised leaves had larger numbers of longer trichomes at the sinuses. Higher numbers of trichomes on upper leaf surfaces occurred together with trichomes at the petiole and on the abaxial surface. The potential for independent evolution of leaf shape and trichomes in this group is limited. Hypotheses to explain the correlated development of leaf shape and trichomes are discussed.

  14. Do plant trichomes cause more harm than good to predatory insects?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants may use epidermal hairs (trichomes) as a morphological defense against attacks from some herbivores. Predatory arthropods can serve plants as biocontrol agents against herbivores. Whether or not plant trichomes work in concert with predators is equivocal. We reviewed the scientific literat...

  15. Monte Carlo simulation for correlation analysis of average glandular dose by breast thickness and glandular ratio in breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Tae; Cho, Jung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    A glandular breast tissue is a radio-sensitive tissue. So during the evaluation of an X-ray mammography device, Average Glandular Dose (AGD) measurement is a very important part. In reality, it is difficult to measure AGD directly, Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the correlation between the AGD and breast thickness. As a result, AGDs calculated through the Monte Carlo simulation were 1.64, 1.41 and 0.88 mGy. The simulated AGDs mainly depend on the glandular ratio of the breast. With the increase of glandular breast tissue, absorption of low photon-energy increased so that the AGDs increased, too. In addition, the thicker the breast was, the more the AGD became. Consequently, this study will be used as basic data for establishing the diagnostic reference levels of mammography.

  16. Tomato linalool synthase is induced in trichomes by jasmonic acid

    PubMed Central

    van Schie, Chris C. N.; Haring, Michel A.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants emit a blend of volatile organic compounds, which mainly consists of terpenes. Upon herbivory or wounding, the emission of several terpenes increases. We have identified and characterized the first two tomato monoterpene synthases, LeMTS1 and LeMTS2. Although these proteins were highly homologous, recombinant LeMTS1 protein produced (R)-linalool from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and (E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), while recombinant LeMTS2 produced β-phellandrene, β-myrcene, and sabinene from GPP. In addition, these genes were expressed in different tissues: LeMTS1 was expressed in flowers, young leaves, stems, and petioles, while LeMTS2 was strongest expressed in stems and roots. LeMTS1 expression in leaves was induced by spider mite-infestation, wounding and jasmonic acid (JA)-treatment, while LeMTS2 did not respond to these stimuli. The expression of LeMTS1 in stems and petioles was predominantly detected in trichomes and could be induced by JA. Because JA treatment strongly induced emission of linalool and overexpression of LeMTS1 in tomato resulted in increased production of linalool, we propose that LeMTS1 is a genuine linalool synthase. Our results underline the importance of trichomes in JA-induced terpene emission in tomato. PMID:17440821

  17. Effects of three AM fungi on growth, distribution of glandular hairs, and essential oil production in Ocimum basilicum L. var. Genovese.

    PubMed

    Copetta, Andrea; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2006-10-01

    The essential oils of basil are widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food, and flavoring industries. Little is known about the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to affect their production in this aromatic plant. The effects of colonization by three AM fungi, Glomus mosseae BEG 12, Gigaspora margarita BEG 34, and Gigaspora rosea BEG 9 on shoot and root biomass, abundance of glandular hairs, and essential oil yield of Ocimum basilicum L. var. Genovese were studied. Plant P content was analyzed in the various treatments and no differences were observed. The AM fungi induced various modifications in the considered parameters, but only Gi. rosea significantly affected all of them in comparison to control plants or the other fungal treatments. It significantly increased biomass, root branching and length, and the total amount of essential oil (especially alpha-terpineol). Increased oil yield was associated to a significantly larger number of peltate glandular trichomes (main sites of essential oil synthesis) in the basal and central leaf zones. Furthermore, Gi. margarita and Gi. rosea increased the percentage of eugenol and reduced linalool yield. Results showed that different fungi can induce different effects in the same plant and that the essential oil yield can be modulated according to the colonizing AM fungus.

  18. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS3 (GIS3) regulates trichome initiation and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Zhang, Aidong; Zhou, Zhongjing; Zhao, Yongqin; Yan, An; Bao, Shengjie; Yu, Hao; Gan, Yinbo

    2015-04-01

    Arabidopsis trichome formation is an excellent model for studying various aspects of plant cell development and cell differentiation. Our previous works have demonstrated that several C2H2 zinc finger proteins, including GIS, GIS2, ZFP5, ZFP6 and ZFP8, control trichome cell development through GA and cytokinin signalling in Arabidopsis. We identified a novel C2H2 zinc finger protein, GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS 3 (GIS3), which is a key factor in regulating trichome development in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild-type plants, loss-of-function of GIS3 mutants exhibited a significantly decreased number of trichomes in cauline leaves, lateral branches, sepals of flowers, and main stems. Overexpression of GIS3 resulted in increased trichome densities in sepal, cauline leaves, lateral branches, main inflorescence stems and in the appearance of ectopic trichomes on carpels. The molecular and genetic analyses show that GIS3 acts upstream of GIS, GIS2, ZFP8 and the key trichome initiation factors, GL1 and GL3. Steroid-inducible gene expression analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments suggest that GIS and GIS2 are the direct target genes of GIS3. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    An, Lijun; Zhou, Zhongjing; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-02-01

    Cell differentiation generally corresponds to the cell cycle, typically forming a non-dividing cell with a unique differentiated morphology, and Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model system to study all aspects of cell differentiation. Although gibberellic acid is reported to be involved in trichome branching in Arabidopsis, the mechanism for such signaling is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for the control of trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling. The phenotypes of a loss-of-function gis mutant and an overexpressor showed that GIS acted as a repressor to control trichome branching. Our results also show that GIS is not required for cell endoreduplication, and our molecular and genetic study results have shown that GIS functions downstream of the key regulator of trichome branching, STICHEL (STI), to control trichome branching through the endoreduplication-independent pathway. Furthermore, our results also suggest that GIS controls trichome branching in Arabidopsis through two different pathways and acts either upstream or downstream of the negative regulator of gibbellic acid signaling SPINDLY (SPY).

  20. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  1. Quantitative analysis of heterogeneous spatial distribution of Arabidopsis leaf trichomes using micro X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kaminuma, Eli; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Wada, Takuji; Matsui, Minami; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2008-11-01

    Quantitative morphological traits may be defined based on the 3D anatomy reconstructed from micro X-ray computed tomography (microCT) images. In this study, the heterogeneous spatial distribution of trichomes (hairs) on the adaxial leaf blade surface in Arabidopsis was evaluated in terms of 3D quantitative traits, including trichome number, average nearest-neighbour distance between trichomes, and proportion of large trichomes. The data reflect spatial heterogeneity in the radial direction, in that a greater number of trichomes were observed on the leaf blade margins relative to the non-margins, a distribution effect caused by the CAPRICE (CPC) and GLABRA3 (GL3) genes, which have previously been shown to affect trichome density. We further determined that the proportion of large trichomes on the blade mid-rib increases from the proximal end to the distal leaf tip in both wild-type plants and GL3 mutants. Our results indicate that the CPC [corrected] gene affects trichome distribution, rather than trichome growth, causing trichome initiation at the proximal base rather than the distal tip. On the other hand, CPC does affect trichome growth and developmental progression. Hence, quantitative phenotyping based on microCT enables precise phenotypic description for elucidation of gene control in morphological mutants.

  2. Endometriosis mimicking glandular atypia in a cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez–Urrego, Paula A; Dulcey–Hormiga, Isabel C; Barrera–Herrera, Luis E; Suarez–Zamora, David A; Palau–Lazaro, Mauricio A; Buritica–Cifuentes, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis involving the uterine cervix is a rare condition that can lead to diagnostic errors in the interpretation of Pap smear. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient in whom the initial Pap smear revealed three-dimensional clusters of glandular cells with elongated nuclei, occasional mitosis, and atypia, which was interpreted as atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified (NOS). The patient was taken to colposcopy and endocervical biopsy. Colposcopy was normal and the biopsy presented glands with elongated nuclei and surrounded by endometrial stroma admixed with normal endocervical glands. Immunohistochemical studies were reactive for CD10 in the stromal cells and vimentin in endometrioid glands. The findings were consistent with cervical endometriosis. Endometriosis in the cervix is an uncommon pathology that mimics malignancy and may be interpreted as atypical or glandular neoplasia in the cytology. PMID:28182083

  3. Boomeranging in structural defense: phytophagous insect uses cycad trichomes to defend against entomophagy.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2012-11-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known.

  4. Foliar trichome-aided formaldehyde uptake in the epiphytic Tillandsia velutina and its response to formaldehyde pollution.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Pemberton, Robert; Zheng, Guiling

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) species have been found to be efficient biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, but have not been used to monitor or remove the primary indoor atmospheric pollutant formaldehyde (FA). The absorptive capacity of Tillandsia trichomes is well-established, but potential secondary effects of foliar trichomes on gas exchange remain unclear. Our study investigated whether Tillandsia species can absorb FA efficiently and if the leaf trichomes function to improve FA uptake, using Tillandsia velutina. Plants with intact trichomes, decreased FA concentration by 48.42% in 12 h from 1060 μg m(-3) to 546.67 μg m(-3), while FA concentration decreased only by 22.51% in the plants without trichomes. Moreover, the more trichomes removed from the leaves, the lower the capability of FA uptake per unit leaf area, which suggested that T. velutina was capable of absorbing a large amount of FA via the leaves and specialized trichomes facilitated the whole leaf tissue FA absorption. In addition, all plants exposed to FA were chloric, had a reduction in measured leaf chlorophyll, and an increment in permeability of plasma membranes. However, plants in which trichomes had been removed declined or increased more quickly than plants with intact trichomes, indicating Tillandsia leaf trichomes also give the leaves some protection against this toxin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Herbivore handling of a Plants trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Márcio Z

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plants defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes.

  6. Clinical considerations of the glandular branch of the lacrimal artery.

    PubMed

    Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Balsiger, Heather; Scott, Gabriel; Gest, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The lacrimal artery is classically described as a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplied by the internal carotid. In this study, 25 orbits were dissected to identify variations in glandular branching and to compare them to previously published accounts. The glandular branching patterns of the lacrimal artery fall into two categories, those that branch (56%) and those that do not branch (44%). We found the medial and lateral glandular branches to be equal in diameter with a divergence of 2.67-40.58 mm proximal to the gland parenchyma. The long glandular branches run alongside the superolateral aspect of the orbit. The lateral branch runs lateral to the lateral rectus muscle. The medial branch runs superomedial to the lateral rectus muscle and lateral to the superior rectus muscle. In relation to the lacrimal gland, the medial branch enters the superior aspect of the gland parenchyma and the lateral branch enters its inferior aspect. The average branch lengths were 17.88 mm (medial) and 13.51 mm (lateral) as measured with a Mitutoyo Absolute 1/100 mm caliper. We could not confirm the existence of a third branch supplying the lacrimal gland, as posited by other authors. The key finding in this study is that the lacrimal gland is predominantly supplied by two significant arterial branches, both of which must be identified during procedures involving the lateral orbit.

  7. Glandular dose in breast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettivier, G.; Fedon, C.; Di Lillo, F.; Longo, R.; Sarno, A.; Tromba, G.; Russo, P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide an evaluation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for breast computed tomography (CT) with synchrotron radiation in an axial scanning configuration with a partial or total organ volume irradiation, for the in vivo program of breast CT ongoing at the ELETTRA facility (Trieste, Italy). A Geant4 Monte Carlo code was implemented, simulating the photon irradiation from a synchrotron radiation source in the energetic range from 8 to 50 keV with 1 keV intervals, to evaluate the MGD. The code was validated with literature data, in terms of mammographic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) and with ad hoc experimental data, in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI). Simulated cylindrical phantoms of different sizes (diameter at phantom base 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16 cm, axial length 1.5 times the radius) and glandular fraction by weight (0%, 14.3%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were implemented into the code. The validation of the code shows an excellent agreement both with previously published work and in terms of DgN and CDTI measurements. The implemented simulations show a dependence of the glandular dose estimate on the vertical dimension of the irradiated zone when a partial organ irradiation was implemented. Specific normalized coefficients for calculating the MGD to the whole breast or to the single irradiated slice were reported.

  8. Glandular dose in breast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Mettivier, G; Fedon, C; Di Lillo, F; Longo, R; Sarno, A; Tromba, G; Russo, P

    2016-01-21

    The purpose of this work is to provide an evaluation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for breast computed tomography (CT) with synchrotron radiation in an axial scanning configuration with a partial or total organ volume irradiation, for the in vivo program of breast CT ongoing at the ELETTRA facility (Trieste, Italy). A Geant4 Monte Carlo code was implemented, simulating the photon irradiation from a synchrotron radiation source in the energetic range from 8 to 50 keV with 1 keV intervals, to evaluate the MGD. The code was validated with literature data, in terms of mammographic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) and with ad hoc experimental data, in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI). Simulated cylindrical phantoms of different sizes (diameter at phantom base 8, 10, 12, 14 or 16 cm, axial length 1.5 times the radius) and glandular fraction by weight (0%, 14.3%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were implemented into the code. The validation of the code shows an excellent agreement both with previously published work and in terms of DgN and CDTI measurements. The implemented simulations show a dependence of the glandular dose estimate on the vertical dimension of the irradiated zone when a partial organ irradiation was implemented. Specific normalized coefficients for calculating the MGD to the whole breast or to the single irradiated slice were reported.

  9. Gibberellins Promote Trichome Formation by Up-Regulating GLABROUS1 in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Perazza, Daniel; Vachon, Gilles; Herzog, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Trichome development is dependent on gibberellin (GA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the GA-deficient mutant ga1–3, the GA-response mutant spy-5, and uniconazol (a GA-biosynthesis inhibitor), we show that the GA level response correlates positively with both trichome number and trichome branch number. Two genes, GL1 and TTG, are required for trichome initiation. In ga1–3, coexpression of GL1 and R, the maize TTG functional homolog, under control of the constitutive 35S promoter, restored trichome development, whereas overexpression of neither GL1 nor R alone was sufficient to significantly suppress the glabrous phenotype. We next focused on GL1 regulation by GAs. In the double mutant the gl1–1 glabrous phenotype is epistatic to the spy-5 phenotype, suggesting that GL1 acts downstream of the GA signal transduction pathway. The activity of a β-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the GL1 promoter was decreased in the wild type grown on uniconazol and showed a clear GA-dependent activation in ga1–3. Finally, quantification of GL1 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that relative to wild type, ga1–3 plants contained less transcript. These data support the hypothesis that GAs induce trichome development through up-regulation of GL1 and possibly TTG genes. PMID:9625690

  10. Modeling Filamentous Cyanobacteria Reveals the Advantages of Long and Fast Trichomes for Optimizing Light Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Tamulonis, Carlos; Postma, Marten; Kaandorp, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display photomovement, by which a trichome modulates its gliding according to the incident light. The latter has been found to play an important role in guiding the trichomes to optimal lighting conditions, which can either inhibit the cells if the incident light is too weak, or damage the cells if too strong. We have developed a computational model for gliding filamentous photophobic cyanobacteria that allows us to perform simulations on the scale of a Petri dish using over 105 individual trichomes. Using the model, we quantify the effectiveness of one commonly observed photomovement strategy—photophobic responses—in distributing large populations of trichomes optimally over a light field. The model predicts that the typical observed length and gliding speeds of filamentous cyanobacteria are optimal for the photophobic strategy. Therefore, our results suggest that not just photomovement but also the trichome shape itself improves the ability of the cyanobacteria to optimize their light exposure. PMID:21789215

  11. Semi-automated 3D leaf reconstruction and analysis of trichome patterning from light microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Failmezger, Henrik; Jaegle, Benjamin; Schrader, Andrea; Hülskamp, Martin; Tresch, Achim

    2013-04-01

    Trichomes are leaf hairs that are formed by single cells on the leaf surface. They are known to be involved in pathogen resistance. Their patterning is considered to emerge from a field of initially equivalent cells through the action of a gene regulatory network involving trichome fate promoting and inhibiting factors. For a quantitative analysis of single and double mutants or the phenotypic variation of patterns in different ecotypes, it is imperative to statistically evaluate the pattern reliably on a large number of leaves. Here we present a method that enables the analysis of trichome patterns at early developmental leaf stages and the automatic analysis of various spatial parameters. We focus on the most challenging young leaf stages that require the analysis in three dimensions, as the leaves are typically not flat. Our software TrichEratops reconstructs 3D surface models from 2D stacks of conventional light-microscope pictures. It allows the GUI-based annotation of different stages of trichome development, which can be analyzed with respect to their spatial distribution to capture trichome patterning events. We show that 3D modeling removes biases of simpler 2D models and that novel trichome patterning features increase the sensitivity for inter-accession comparisons.

  12. Semi-automated 3D Leaf Reconstruction and Analysis of Trichome Patterning from Light Microscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Andrea; Hülskamp, Martin; Tresch, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes are leaf hairs that are formed by single cells on the leaf surface. They are known to be involved in pathogen resistance. Their patterning is considered to emerge from a field of initially equivalent cells through the action of a gene regulatory network involving trichome fate promoting and inhibiting factors. For a quantitative analysis of single and double mutants or the phenotypic variation of patterns in different ecotypes, it is imperative to statistically evaluate the pattern reliably on a large number of leaves. Here we present a method that enables the analysis of trichome patterns at early developmental leaf stages and the automatic analysis of various spatial parameters. We focus on the most challenging young leaf stages that require the analysis in three dimensions, as the leaves are typically not flat. Our software TrichEratops reconstructs 3D surface models from 2D stacks of conventional light-microscope pictures. It allows the GUI-based annotation of different stages of trichome development, which can be analyzed with respect to their spatial distribution to capture trichome patterning events. We show that 3D modeling removes biases of simpler 2D models and that novel trichome patterning features increase the sensitivity for inter-accession comparisons. PMID:23637587

  13. AaORA, a trichome-specific AP2/ERF transcription factor of Artemisia annua, is a positive regulator in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway and in disease resistance to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xu; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Fangyuan; Jiang, Weimin; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Lida; Lv, Zongyou; Wang, Guofeng; Tang, Kexuan

    2013-06-01

    · Six transcription factors of APETALA2/ethylene-response factor (AP2/ERF) family were cloned and analyzed in Artemisia annua. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-Q-PCR) showed that AaORA exhibited similar expression patterns to those of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene (ADS), cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylase gene (CYP71AV1) and double bond reductase 2 gene (DBR2) in different tissues of A. annua. · AaORA is a trichome-specific transcription factor, which is expressed in both glandular secretory trichomes (GSTs) and nonglandular T-shaped trichomes (TSTs) of A. annua. The result of subcellular localization shows that AaORA is targeted to the nuclei and the cytoplasm. · Overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) of AaORA in A. annua regulated, positively and significantly, the expression levels of ADS, CYP71AV1, DBR2 and AaERF1. The up-regulated or down-regulated expression levels of these genes resulted in a significant increase or decrease in artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid. The results demonstrate that AaORA is a positive regulator in the biosynthesis of artemisinin. · Overexpression of AaORA in Arabidopsis thaliana increased greatly the transcript levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2), HEVEIN-LIKE PROTEIN (HEL) and BASIC CHITINASE (B-CHI). After inoculation with Botrytis cinerea, the phenotypes of AaORA overexpression in A. thaliana and AaORA RNAi in A. annua demonstrate that AaORA is a positive regulator of disease resistance to B. cinerea. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Comparative Transcriptomics Unravel Biochemical Specialization of Leaf Tissues of Stevia for Diterpenoid Production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jung; Jin, Jingjing; Zheng, Junshi; Wong, Limsoon; Chua, Nam-Hai; Jang, In-Cheol

    2015-12-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) produces not only a group of diterpenoid glycosides known as steviol glycosides (SGs), but also other labdane-type diterpenoids that may be spatially separated from SGs. However, their biosynthetic routes and spatial distribution in leaf tissues have not yet been elucidated. Here, we integrate metabolome and transcriptome analyses of Stevia to explore the biosynthetic capacity of leaf tissues for diterpenoid metabolism. Tissue-specific chemical analyses confirmed that SGs were accumulated in leaf cells but not in trichomes. On the other hand, Stevia leaf trichomes stored other labdane-type diterpenoids such as oxomanoyl oxide and agatholic acid. RNA sequencing analyses from two different tissues of Stevia provided a comprehensive overview of dynamic metabolic activities in trichomes and leaf without trichomes. These metabolite-guided transcriptomics and phylogenetic and gene expression analyses clearly identified specific gene members encoding enzymes involved in the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway and the biosynthesis of steviol or other labdane-type diterpenoids. Additionally, our RNA sequencing analysis uncovered copalyl diphosphate synthase (SrCPS) and kaurene synthase1 (SrKS1) homologs, SrCPS2 and KS-like (SrKSL), which were specifically expressed in trichomes. In vitro and in planta assays showed that unlike SrCPS and SrKS1, SrCPS2 synthesized labda-13-en-8-ol diphosphate and successively catalyzed the formation of manoyl oxide and epi-manoyl oxide in combination with SrKSL. Our findings suggest that Stevia may have evolved to use distinct metabolic pathways to avoid metabolic interferences in leaf tissues for efficient production of diverse secondary metabolites. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Comparative Transcriptomics Unravel Biochemical Specialization of Leaf Tissues of Stevia for Diterpenoid Production1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jung; Jin, Jingjing; Zheng, Junshi

    2015-01-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) produces not only a group of diterpenoid glycosides known as steviol glycosides (SGs), but also other labdane-type diterpenoids that may be spatially separated from SGs. However, their biosynthetic routes and spatial distribution in leaf tissues have not yet been elucidated. Here, we integrate metabolome and transcriptome analyses of Stevia to explore the biosynthetic capacity of leaf tissues for diterpenoid metabolism. Tissue-specific chemical analyses confirmed that SGs were accumulated in leaf cells but not in trichomes. On the other hand, Stevia leaf trichomes stored other labdane-type diterpenoids such as oxomanoyl oxide and agatholic acid. RNA sequencing analyses from two different tissues of Stevia provided a comprehensive overview of dynamic metabolic activities in trichomes and leaf without trichomes. These metabolite-guided transcriptomics and phylogenetic and gene expression analyses clearly identified specific gene members encoding enzymes involved in the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway and the biosynthesis of steviol or other labdane-type diterpenoids. Additionally, our RNA sequencing analysis uncovered copalyl diphosphate synthase (SrCPS) and kaurene synthase1 (SrKS1) homologs, SrCPS2 and KS-like (SrKSL), which were specifically expressed in trichomes. In vitro and in planta assays showed that unlike SrCPS and SrKS1, SrCPS2 synthesized labda-13-en-8-ol diphosphate and successively catalyzed the formation of manoyl oxide and epi-manoyl oxide in combination with SrKSL. Our findings suggest that Stevia may have evolved to use distinct metabolic pathways to avoid metabolic interferences in leaf tissues for efficient production of diverse secondary metabolites. PMID:26438788

  16. A novel texture descriptor for detection of glandular structures in colon histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Snead, David R.; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    The first step prior to most analyses on most histopathology images is the detection of area of interest. In this work, we present a superpixel-based approach for glandular structure detection in colon histology images. An image is first segmented into superpixels with the constraint on the presence of glandular boundaries. Texture and color information is then extracted from each superpixel to calculate the probability of that superpixel belonging to glandular regions, resulting in a glandular probability map. In addition, we present a novel texture descriptor derived from a region covariance matrix of scattering coefficients. Our approach shows encouraging results for the detection of glandular structures in colon tissue samples.

  17. Intrusive trichome bases in the leaves of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium; Solanaceae) do not facilitate fluorescent tracer uptake.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Geoffrey E; White, Rosemary G; Harper, John D I; Heady, Roger D; Stanton, Rex A; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Wu, Hanwen; Lemerle, Deirdre

    2013-12-01

    Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade), having originated in the Americas, is now a serious summer-growing, perennial weed in many countries, including Australia. Most surfaces of the plants have a dense covering of trichomes, giving them a silvery-white appearance, hence the common name. We aimed to identify structural and functional properties of its leaves, especially the trichomes, that may affect the uptake of foliar-applied tracer dyes. The structure of leaves of Solanum elaeagnifolium was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The potential for transport of materials between trichomes and veins was studied with symplastic (carboxyfluorescein diacetate) and apoplastic (lucifer yellow) tracer dyes. Mature leaves had a dense covering of complex, stellate trichomes on both surfaces, particularly the abaxial. The basal cells of Solanum elaeagnifolium trichomes penetrated into the underlying palisade mesophyll layers. The innermost lobes of these basal cells sometimes contacted the bundle sheath of the veins, but were not observed to directly contact the xylem or phloem. We found that neither symplastic nor apoplastic dyes were transferred between the basal cells of the trichomes and the vascular tissues. The trichome layer repelled water-based tracer dyes, while one of four adjuvants tested facilitated entry of both symplastic and apoplastic dyes. Our results did not support a transport function for the trichomes. The trichomes may protect the mesophytic leaves from invertebrate herbivory, while also probably decreasing radiation absorbed resulting in cooler leaves in this summer-growing species.

  18. Evidence for estrogen-dependent uterine serpin (SERPINA14) expression during estrus in the bovine endometrial glandular epithelium and lumen.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Frohlich, Thomas; Schulke, Katy; Englberger, Eva; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Uterine secretions have a dominant impact on the environment in which embryo development takes place. The uterine serpins (SERPINA14, previously known as UTMP) are found most abundantly during pregnancy in the uterus of ruminants. Although progesterone is currently assumed to be the major regulator of SERPINA14 expression, our recent study of transcriptome changes in bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle unexpectedly detected a marked upregulation of SERPINA14 mRNA levels at estrus. The present study describes the full-length mRNA sequence, genomic organization, and putative promoter elements of the SERPINA14 gene. The SERPINA14 mRNA abundance was quantified by real-time RT-PCR in intercaruncular endometrium at several time points during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Highest levels were found at estrus, followed by a dramatic decrease and a moderate expression during the luteal phase. Transcript levels were higher in pregnant endometrium compared with controls at Day 18. At estrus, immunoreactive protein was localized in deep glandular epithelium, and Western blotting concomitantly showed the 52-kDa form in uterine flushings. SERPINA14 mRNA was significantly upregulated in glandular endometrial cells in vitro after stimulation with estradiol-17beta and progesterone, but not after interferon-tau treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that SERPINA14 appears distinctly in bovine endometrium during the estrus phase. A supporting role toward providing a well-prepared endometrial environment for passing gametes, especially sperm, is assumed.

  19. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y.

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  20. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: The Value of Intraepithelial Hemosiderin.

    PubMed

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Koilelat, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a relatively rare but well-described clinicopathologic entity. Its rarity and unpredictable clinical behavior are challenging to managing clinicians. Its variable and overlapping histomorphologic features are also diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Other odontogenic cysts and oral cystic neoplasms can simulate GOC. There are specific histologic criteria that help distinguish GOC from other mimickers. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of hemosiderin pigments deposition within the lining glandular epithelium of GOC has not been covered in detail or specifically reported so far in the literature. We report a case of nontraumatized anterior mandibular GOC in a middle-aged male, which histologically showed hemosiderin pigments within the lining epithelium without stromal siderophages. This finding might reflect a nonspecific spontaneous intraluminal hemorrhage. However, intraepithelial hemosiderin in GOC may be an additional helpful diagnostic clue of GOC in challenging cases since this phenomenon has not been reported in other mimicker cystic lesions.

  1. Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marisa R

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the cervix continue to be diagnostically challenging for the surgical pathologist. This review covers a select number of these lesions that may be misinterpreted as premalignant or malignant, with an emphasis on those about which Dr Scully has advanced our knowledge. The topics covered include microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric hyperplasia, diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, and endocervical adenomyoma. The first listed entity has a greater diversity of morphology than the name might imply including, but not limited to solid growth and prominent hyaline stroma. The second entity may be remarkably diffuse within the cervical wall and reasonably result in consideration of diagnoses such as minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum), but has nonmucinous epithelium and bland cytology. The third entity, one of the least common of those considered, represents a peculiar form of reactive hyperplasia of the endocervical epithelium. The fourth entity is the one about which knowledge is still fast advancing. In pure form with no atypia it is almost certainly a clinically benign process, but a subset of cases show cytologic atypia and an occasional association with adenocarcinoma is seen. Finally, adenomyomas of the uterus in general have received much attention in recent years, mostly in the corpus, but the less common endocervical variant may be particularly problematic because mucinous epithelium in abundant myogenic stroma may be potentially confused with an infiltrating differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Although immunohistochemistry may play a role on occasion in evaluating benign endocervical glandular proliferations the mainstay of their interpretation remains conventional morphologic analysis of routinely stained slides.

  2. Bone metastasis of glandular cardiac myxoma mimicking a metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Uppin, Shantveer G; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Puri, Ajay; Kumar, Rajiv; Agarwal, Manish; Sanghvi, Darshana

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis from a cardiac myxoma is rare. We describe an extremely unusual case of a cardiac myxoma metastasing to the femur in a 46-year-old female presenting with pain in the right hip. Radiographs showed an expansile lytic lesion with pathological fracture involving the neck and proximal shaft of the right femur. Histology revealed features of cardiac myxoma with heterologous glandular elements, which was initially mistaken for a metastatic mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma.

  3. Keratin 17 Is a Prognostic Biomarker in Endocervical Glandular Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Mockler, Daniel; Escobar-Hoyos, Luisa F; Akalin, Ali; Romeiser, Jamie; Shroyer, A Laurie; Shroyer, Kenneth R

    2017-09-01

    Previous work in our laboratory identified keratin 17 (K17) as a specific and sensitive biomarker for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). K17, however, has not been previously evaluated in endocervical glandular neoplasia. Based on the similar pathogenesis of squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix, we hypothesized that K17 overexpression could also be a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker for endocervical neoplasia. Cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma (n = 90), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n = 32), benign glandular lesions (n = 36), and normal endocervical mucosa (n = 5) were selected from Stony Brook Medicine and the University of Massachusetts from 2002 to 2013. Immunohistochemical staining for K17 was performed by an indirect immunoperoxidase method and was scored based on the proportion of cells that showed strong (2+) staining. K17 was highly expressed in 21 (65.6%) of 32 AIS and in 75 (83.0%) of 90 adenocarcinoma cases. In adenocarcinomas, K17 staining was detected in a mean of 33.9% of malignant cells. Staining tended to be strongest at the periphery of pseudoglandular groups and at the invasive front of tumors. K17 was not detected in the epithelial cells of benign glandular lesions, but groups of cuboidal cells, residing beneath the epithelial layer of benign glands, were frequently positive for K17, especially in cases of microglandular hyperplasia. High levels of K17 expression were significantly associated with decreased patient survival. K17 is highly expressed in most cases of both invasive adenocarcinoma and in AIS and is a powerful, negative prognostic marker for patient survival.

  4. Metabolic engineering of terpene biosynthesis in plants using a trichome-specific transcription factor MsYABBY5 from spearmint (Mentha spicata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Panicker, Deepa; Mao, Hui-Zhu; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Rajan, Chakravarthy; Venkatesh, Prasanna Nori; Chua, Nam-Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2016-07-01

    In many aromatic plants including spearmint (Mentha spicata), the sites of secondary metabolite production are tiny specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Having high commercial values, these secondary metabolites are exploited largely as flavours, fragrances and pharmaceuticals. But, knowledge about transcription factors (TFs) that regulate secondary metabolism in PGT remains elusive. Understanding the role of TFs in secondary metabolism pathway will aid in metabolic engineering for increased yield of secondary metabolites and also the development of new production techniques for valuable metabolites. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized a novel MsYABBY5 gene that is preferentially expressed in PGT of spearmint. We generated transgenic plants in which MsYABBY5 was either overexpressed or silenced using RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the transgenic lines showed that the reduced expression of MsYABBY5 led to increased levels of terpenes and that overexpression decreased terpene levels. Additionally, ectopic expression of MsYABBY5 in Ocimum basilicum and Nicotiana sylvestris decreased secondary metabolite production in them, suggesting that the encoded transcription factor is probably a repressor of secondary metabolism. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Collecting and paramuscular venules in glandular mucosa of rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Moskalewski, Stanislaw; Biernacka-Wawrzonek, Dorota; Klimkiewicz, Justyna; Zdun, Rafal

    2002-03-01

    Blood from the rat gastric mucosa is drained by collecting venules running from the subepithelial layer towards the lamina muscularis mucosae. Details of their structure were studied in translucent, flat strips of the glandular stomach, in thick sections of glandular mucosa cleared in mineral oil and in semi-thin plastic sections. The number and dimensions of collecting venule outlets revealed in flat strips of gastric mucosa increased after administration of atropine and papaverine and intravital ligation of the portal vein in comparison with that of intact animals or animals with intravitally ligated portal vein but without administration of relaxing agents. In hyperemic mucosa short venules running parallel to the lamina muscularis mucosae (paramuscular venules) and draining collecting venules were distinctly visible. Saccular outlets equipped with triangular protrusions usually intervened between these vessels, probably directing blood flow. Collecting venules were straight, curved, extended or two-armed. Furthermore, numerous collecting venules contained circumscribed dilatations (sacculi) connected with the lumen of the collecting venule. Connection of paramuscular and submucosal veins occurred within the muscularis mucosae. Thus, contraction of the muscularis mucosae might control the outflow of venous blood from the gastric mucosa. Conceivably, alternate contraction and relaxation of muscularis mucosae could cause expansion and collapse of collecting venules which, in turn, would facilitate the movement of glandular content to the surface of the stomach and/or movement of interstitial fluid between cells.

  6. The genetic architecture of constitutive and induced trichome density in two new recombinant inbred line populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: phenotypic plasticity, epistasis, and bidirectional leaf damage response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbivory imposes an important selective pressure on plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichomes provide a key defense against insect herbivory; however, trichome production incurs a fitness cost in the absence of herbivory. Previous work on A. thaliana has shown an increase in trichome density in response to leaf damage, suggesting a mechanism by which the cost associated with constitutively high trichome density might be mitigated; however, the genetic basis of trichome density induction has not been studied. Results Here, we describe the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for constitutive and damage induced trichome density in two new recombinant inbred line populations of A. thaliana; mapping for constitutive and induced trichome density also allowed for the investigation of damage response (plasticity) QTL. Both novel and previously identified QTL for constitutive trichome density and the first QTL for induced trichome density and response are identified. Interestingly, two of the four parental accessions and multiple RILs in each population exhibited lower trichome density following leaf damage, a response not previously described in A. thaliana. Importantly, a single QTL was mapped for the response phenotype and allelic variation at this locus appears to determine response trajectory in RILs. The data also show that epistatic interactions are a significant component of the genetic architecture of trichome density. Conclusions Together, our results provide further insights into the genetic architecture of constitutive trichome density and new insights into induced trichome density in A. thaliana specifically and to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of natural variation generally. PMID:24885520

  7. Intercellular transfer along the trichomes of the invasive terminal heterocyst forming cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CS-505.

    PubMed

    Plominsky, Álvaro M; Delherbe, Nathalie; Mandakovic, Dinka; Riquelme, Brenda; González, Karen; Bergman, Birgitta; Mariscal, Vicente; Vásquez, Mónica

    2015-03-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CS-505 is an invasive freshwater filamentous cyanobacterium that when grown diazotrophically may develop trichomes of up to 100 vegetative cells while differentiating only two end heterocysts, the sole sites for their N2-fixation process. We examined the diazotrophic growth and intercellular transfer mechanisms in C. raciborskii CS-505. Subjecting cultures to a combined-nitrogen-free medium to elicit N2 fixation, the trichome length remained unaffected while growth rates decreased. The structures and proteins for intercellular communication showed that while a continuous periplasmic space was apparent along the trichomes, the putative septal junction sepJ gene is divided into two open reading frames and lacks several transmembrane domains unlike the situation in Anabaena, differentiating a 5-fold higher frequency of heterocysts. FRAP analyses also showed that the dyes calcein and 5-CFDA were taken up by heterocysts and vegetative cells, and that the transfer from heterocysts and 'terminal' vegetative cells showed considerably higher transfer rates than that from vegetative cells located in the middle of the trichomes. The data suggest that C. raciborskii CS-505 compensates its low-frequency heterocyst phenotype by a highly efficient transfer of the fixed nitrogen towards cells in distal parts of the trichomes (growing rapidly) while cells in central parts suffers (slow growth).

  8. Entrapment of bed bugs by leaf trichomes inspires microfabrication of biomimetic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Szyndler, Megan W; Haynes, Kenneth F; Potter, Michael F; Corn, Robert M; Loudon, Catherine

    2013-06-06

    Resurgence in bed bug infestations and widespread pesticide resistance have greatly renewed interest in the development of more sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to manage bed bugs. Historically, in Eastern Europe, bed bugs were entrapped by leaves from bean plants, which were then destroyed; this purely physical entrapment was related to microscopic hooked hairs (trichomes) on the leaf surfaces. Using scanning electron microscopy and videography, we documented the capture mechanism: the physical impaling of bed bug feet (tarsi) by these trichomes. This is distinct from a Velcro-like mechanism of non-piercing entanglement, which only momentarily holds the bug without sustained capture. Struggling, trapped bed bugs are impaled by trichomes on several legs and are unable to free themselves. Only specific, mechanically vulnerable locations on the bug tarsi are pierced by the trichomes, which are located at effective heights and orientations for bed bug entrapment despite a lack of any evolutionary association. Using bean leaves as templates, we microfabricated surfaces indistinguishable in geometry from the real leaves, including the trichomes, using polymers with material properties similar to plant cell walls. These synthetic surfaces snag the bed bugs temporarily but do not hinder their locomotion as effectively as real leaves.

  9. Fine-mapping of the woolly gene controlling multicellular trichome formation and embryonic development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changxian; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Taotao; Ye, Zhibiao

    2011-08-01

    Trichomes are small hairs that originate from the epidermal cells of nearly all land plants, and they exist in unicellular and multicellular forms. The regulatory pathway of unicellular trichomes in Arabidopsis is well characterized. However, little is known about the multicellular trichome formation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The woolly (Wo) gene controls multicellular trichome initiation and leads to embryonic lethality when homozygous in tomato. To clone and characterize Wo, the gene was fine-mapped to a DNA fragment of ~200 kb using the map-based cloning strategy. A series of sequence-based molecular markers, including simple sequence repeat, sequence characterized amplified region, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence were utilized in this study. Analysis of the sequence indicated that this region carries 19 putative open reading frames. These results will provide not only the important information for the isolation and characterization of Wo but also the starting point for studying the regulatory pathway responsible for trichome formation and embryonic lethality in tomato.

  10. A contradictory GLABRA3 allele helps define gene interactions controlling trichome development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Esch, Jeffrey J; Chen, Margaret; Sanders, Mark; Hillestad, Matthew; Ndkium, Sampson; Idelkope, Brian; Neizer, James; Marks, M David

    2003-12-01

    Previously characterized Arabidopsis gl3 mutants have trichomes that are smaller, less branched and undergo fewer rounds of endoreplication than wild-type trichomes. A new gl3 mutant, called gl3-sst, has oddly shaped trichomes that over expand during early development, undergo more endoreduplication and that have a striking nuclear morphology. The mutant nuclei consist of many interconnected lobes; however, only a single set of polytene-like chromosomes reside in the mutant nuclei. The predicted gl3-sst polypeptide has a Leu to Phe substitution (codon 78) within a region responsible for protein-protein interaction. Yeast interaction assays comparing GL3 with gl3-sst proteins show that the mutant protein interaction with GL1 and TTG1 is decreased by 75% and 50%, respectively, but there is no difference in its interaction with TRY. Furthermore, TRY has the ability to prevent the GL1 GL3 interaction and the GL1 gl3-sst interaction is even more sensitive to TRY. Analysis of plants expressing functional GFP-tagged versions of GL1, GL3 and TRY show that the proteins are localized in trichome nuclei. These results have been used to model trichome initiation in terms of protein interactions and threshold levels of activator complex.

  11. Entrapment of bed bugs by leaf trichomes inspires microfabrication of biomimetic surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Szyndler, Megan W.; Haynes, Kenneth F.; Potter, Michael F.; Corn, Robert M.; Loudon, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Resurgence in bed bug infestations and widespread pesticide resistance have greatly renewed interest in the development of more sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to manage bed bugs. Historically, in Eastern Europe, bed bugs were entrapped by leaves from bean plants, which were then destroyed; this purely physical entrapment was related to microscopic hooked hairs (trichomes) on the leaf surfaces. Using scanning electron microscopy and videography, we documented the capture mechanism: the physical impaling of bed bug feet (tarsi) by these trichomes. This is distinct from a Velcro-like mechanism of non-piercing entanglement, which only momentarily holds the bug without sustained capture. Struggling, trapped bed bugs are impaled by trichomes on several legs and are unable to free themselves. Only specific, mechanically vulnerable locations on the bug tarsi are pierced by the trichomes, which are located at effective heights and orientations for bed bug entrapment despite a lack of any evolutionary association. Using bean leaves as templates, we microfabricated surfaces indistinguishable in geometry from the real leaves, including the trichomes, using polymers with material properties similar to plant cell walls. These synthetic surfaces snag the bed bugs temporarily but do not hinder their locomotion as effectively as real leaves. PMID:23576783

  12. Effect of trichome density on soybean pod feeding by adult bean leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Lam, W K; Pedigo, L P

    2001-12-01

    The role of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, pod trichomes on feeding by adult bean leaf beetles. Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions during 1997 and 1998. Three Clark isolines and 'Corsoy 79' were used to compare the feeding preference of the beetle on pods with different trichome densities. The three Clark isolines, including densely pubescent, sparsely pubescent, and glabrous, were isogenic except for trichome density. The trichome densities on the pods of Clark densely pubescent, Clark sparsely pubescent, and Corsoy 79 were significantly different. In no-choice tests, under both laboratory and field conditions, the feeding on pods of Clark densely pubescent was significantly lower than that on the other isolines. In the choice test of Corsoy 79 conducted in the laboratory and field, when the trichomes on one of the two pods were shaven off, the feeding on the shaven pods was significantly higher than that of the intact ones. In the choice test among Clark isolines under laboratory condition, the result was significant, with the lowest feeding on the densely pubescent pods. This study demonstrates that densely pubescent soybean has the potential to resist bean leaf beetle feeding on pods.

  13. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) based on trichomes.

    PubMed

    Stefano, Mosti; Papini, Alessio; Brighigna, Luigi

    2008-03-01

    Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means) produced a pure number (T) that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands) and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands). Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible.

  14. Cell wall maturation of Arabidopsis trichomes is dependent on exocyst subunit EXO70H4 and involves callose deposition.

    PubMed

    Kulich, Ivan; Vojtíková, Zdeňka; Glanc, Matouš; Ortmannová, Jitka; Rasmann, Sergio; Žárský, Viktor

    2015-05-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf trichomes are single-cell structures with a well-studied development, but little is understood about their function. Developmental studies focused mainly on the early shaping stages, and little attention has been paid to the maturation stage. We focused on the EXO70H4 exocyst subunit, one of the most up-regulated genes in the mature trichome. We uncovered EXO70H4-dependent development of the secondary cell wall layer, highly autofluorescent and callose rich, deposited only in the upper part of the trichome. The boundary is formed between the apical and the basal parts of mature trichome by a callose ring that is also deposited in an EXO70H4-dependent manner. We call this structure the Ortmannian ring (OR). Both the secondary cell wall layer and the OR are absent in the exo70H4 mutants. Ecophysiological aspects of the trichome cell wall thickening include interference with antiherbivore defense and heavy metal accumulation. Ultraviolet B light induces EXO70H4 transcription in a CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1-dependent way, resulting in stimulation of trichome cell wall thickening and the OR biogenesis. EXO70H4-dependent trichome cell wall hardening is a unique phenomenon, which may be conserved among a variety of the land plants. Our analyses support a concept that Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model to study molecular mechanisms of secondary cell wall deposition.

  15. An overlooked source of fungal diversity: novel hyphomycete genera on trichomes of cerrado plants.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C; Sepúlveda-Chavera, German; Armando, Eliane A S; Inácio, Carlos A; Dianese, José C

    2009-02-01

    Eight monotypic hyphomycete genera new to science are described from the trichomes of native plants growing in the cerrado of Brazil: Trichomatoclava cerradensis, Echinoconidiophorum cerradense, Globoconidiopsis cerradensis, Globoconidium cerradense, Helminthosporiomyces cerradensis, Trichomatosphaera [corrected] cerradensis , Phragmoconidium cerradense, and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis gens. spp. nov. Two of the new genera were found on hosts belonging in Myrtaceae, and one of each of the following families: Icacinaceae, Malphigiaceae, Fabaceae, Dilleniaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, and Caryocaraceae. These discoveries suggest that the trichomes of neotropical plants are an unexplored source of novel fungal diversity, and merit more attention in biodiversity surveys.

  16. Clearance and metabolism of glandular kallikrein in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabito, S.F.; Seto, M.; Maitra, S.R.; Carretero, O.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the clearance of circulating rat glandular kallikrein and to determine the contribution of various organs and the urinary excretion to the removal of glandular kallikrein from the bloodstream. The authors injected either active /sup 125/I-kallikrein or kallikrein inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (/sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein) intravenously into intact or nephrectomized rats and then studied the disappearance rate of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable radioactivity from the circulation. Inactivation by PMSF markedly reduced the binding of kallikrein to plasma protease inhibitors. The removal rate of the acid-precipitable radioactivity fit a biexponential curve for both active and inactive kallikrein. In the intact rats approximately 50% of the radioactivity was removed from the circulation 30 min after the injection of active /sup 125/I-kallikrein. Removal of the kidneys did not significantly affect the clearance of active kallikrein. On the other hand, inactive /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein was removed from blood faster than active /sup 125/I-kallikrein in normal animals. Approximately 50% of the radioactivity was removed from the circulation 8 min after the injection, and the half-life of inactive /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein was markedly prolonged by bilateral nephrectomy. Active /sup 125/I-kallikrein was taken up by tissues, particularly the liver and the kidney. In urine, less than 2% of the radioactivity was excreted in 60 min as TCA-precipitable material. The authors concluded that glandular kallikrein is cleared rapidly from the circulation of the rat, probably in the form of a complex with a plasma protease inhibitor.

  17. New method for generating breast models featuring glandular tissue spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paixão, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Oliveira, M. A.; Teixeira, M. H. A.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mammography is the main radiographic technique used for breast imaging. A major concern with mammographic imaging is the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer due to the high sensitivity of breast tissue. The mean glandular dose (DG) is the dosimetric quantity widely accepted to characterize the risk of radiation induced cancer. Previous studies have concluded that DG depends not only on the breast glandular content but also on the spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. In this work, a new method for generating computational breast models featuring skin composition and glandular tissue distribution from patients undergoing digital mammography is proposed. Such models allow a more accurate way of calculating individualized breast glandular doses taking into consideration the glandular tissue fraction. Sixteen breast models of four patients with different glandularity breasts were simulated and the results were compared with those obtained from recommended DG conversion factors. The results show that the internationally recommended conversion factors may be overestimating the mean glandular dose to less dense breasts and underestimating the mean glandular dose for denser breasts. The methodology described in this work constitutes a powerful tool for breast dosimetry, especially for risk studies.

  18. Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung in a 64-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-02-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopathological diagnosis was mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma.

  19. Population Responses of Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to Insecticide in Glandular-Haired and Non-glandular-Haired Alfalfa Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sulc, R Mark; McCormick, John S; Hammond, Ronald B; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of glandular-haired alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to reduce potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, population abundance in field environments. We measured potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance and yield responses in a cultivar selected for high potato leafhopper resistance ('54H91') and in a non-glandular-haired susceptible cultivar ('54V54') with and without insecticide treatment across 3 yr. Treatments included no insecticide and insecticide applied either early or late in each summer growth cycle. Date × cultivar × treatment interactions were found for potato leafhopper population abundance. In the absence of insecticides, total potato leafhopper abundance (adults + nymphs per sweep) was lower in 54H91 than in 54V54 on 85% of sampling dates; cultivar differences were especially evident as potato leafhopper abundance peaked. Insecticide treatment reduced potato leafhopper populations in both cultivars, but populations recovered and often exceeded the normal action threshold in both cultivars within 2-3 wk of insecticide application. Yield gain from early insecticide treatment of 54V54 was >400 kg/ha in 11 of 14 summer harvests, whereas in 54H91 the yield gain was <250 kg/ha in 10 of 14 summer harvests. We conclude that glandular-haired alfalfa cultivars with high levels of potato leafhopper resistance significantly suppress potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance, reduce yield losses in the absence of insecticides, and have potential within an integrated pest management strategy to reduce insecticide use in alfalfa production systems.

  20. Lima bean – lady beetle interactions: hooked trichomes affect survival of Stethorus punctillum larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We tested the hypothesis that Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. (Henderson cultivar) trichome density affects the survival of the acariphagous lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise. When isolated throughout larval development, 10% or less of S. punctillum larvae reared on two-spotted spider mite Tetr...

  1. Genome-Wide Survey Reveals Transcriptional Differences Underlying the Contrasting Trichome Phenotypes of Two Sister Desert Poplars

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianchao; He, Xiaodong; Bai, Xiaotao; Niu, Zhimin; Duan, Bingbing; Chen, Ningning; Shao, Xuemin; Wan, Dongshi

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes, which are widely used as an important diagnostic characteristic in plant species delimitation, play important roles in plant defense and adaptation to adverse environments. In this study, we used two sister poplar species, Populus pruinosa and Populus euphratica—which have, respectively, dense and sparse trichomes—to examine the genetic differences associated with these contrasting phenotypes. The results showed that 42 and 45 genes could be identified as candidate genes related to trichomes in P. pruinosa and P. euphratica, respectively; most of these genes possessed high degrees of diversification in their coding sequences, but they were similar in intron/exon structure in the two species. We also found that most of the candidate trichome genes were expressed at higher levels in P. pruinosa, which has dense trichomes, than in P. euphratica, where there are few trichomes. Based on analyses of transcriptional profiles, a total of 195 genes, including many transcription factors, were found to show distinct differences in expression. The results of gene function annotation suggested that the genes identified as having contrasting levels of expression level are mainly associated with trichome elongation, ATPase activity, and hormone transduction. Changes in the expression of these and other related genes with high sequence diversification may have contributed to the contrast in the pattern of trichome phenotypes between the two species. PMID:27916935

  2. Differential regulation of a MYB transcription factor is correlated with transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of trichome density in Mimulus guttatus

    PubMed Central

    Scoville, Alison G.; Barnett, Laryssa L.; Bodbyl-Roels, Sarah; Kelly, John K.; Hileman, Lena C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Epigenetic inheritance, transgenerational transmission of traits not proximally determined by DNA sequence, has been linked to transmission of chromatin modifications and gene regulation, which are known to be sensitive to environmental factors. Mimulus guttatus increases trichome (plant hair) density in response to simulated herbivore damage. Increased density is expressed in progeny even if progeny do not experience damage. To better understand epigenetic inheritance of trichome production, we tested the hypothesis that candidate gene expression states are inherited in response to parental damage.Using M. guttatus recombinant inbred lines, offspring of leaf-damaged and control plants were raised without damage. Relative expression of candidate trichome development genes was measured in offspring. Line and parental damage effects on trichome density were measured. Associations between gene expression, trichome density, and response to parental damage were determined.We identified M. guttatus MYB MIXTA-like 8 as a possible negative regulator of trichome development. We found that parental leaf damage induces down-regulation of MYB MIXTA-like 8 in progeny, which is associated with epigenetically inherited increased trichome density.Our results link epigenetic transmission of an ecologically important trait with differential gene expression states – providing insight into a mechanism underlying environmentally induced ‘soft inheritance’. PMID:21352232

  3. Differential regulation of a MYB transcription factor is correlated with transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of trichome density in Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Scoville, Alison G; Barnett, Laryssa L; Bodbyl-Roels, Sarah; Kelly, John K; Hileman, Lena C

    2011-07-01

    • Epigenetic inheritance, transgenerational transmission of traits not proximally determined by DNA sequence, has been linked to transmission of chromatin modifications and gene regulation, which are known to be sensitive to environmental factors. Mimulus guttatus increases trichome (plant hair) density in response to simulated herbivore damage. Increased density is expressed in progeny even if progeny do not experience damage. To better understand epigenetic inheritance of trichome production, we tested the hypothesis that candidate gene expression states are inherited in response to parental damage. • Using M. guttatus recombinant inbred lines, offspring of leaf-damaged and control plants were raised without damage. Relative expression of candidate trichome development genes was measured in offspring. Line and parental damage effects on trichome density were measured. Associations between gene expression, trichome density, and response to parental damage were determined. • We identified M. guttatus MYB MIXTA-like 8 as a possible negative regulator of trichome development. We found that parental leaf damage induces down-regulation of MYB MIXTA-like 8 in progeny, which is associated with epigenetically inherited increased trichome density. • Our results link epigenetic transmission of an ecologically important trait with differential gene expression states - providing insight into a mechanism underlying environmentally induced 'soft inheritance'. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Continuous UV-B irradiation induces endoreduplication and peroxidase activity in epidermal cells surrounding trichomes on cucumber cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Seiji; Shimada, Eri; Kuwano, Tomoe; Kawano, Tae; Noguchi, Naoto

    2010-01-01

    Most trichomes on the surface of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons consist of three cells. We previously showed that continuous UV-B (290-320 nm) irradiation induces rapid cellular expansion and the accumulation of polyphenolic compounds, possibly stress lignin, in epidermal cells around these trichomes.(1)) To examine the mechanism of the UV-B-induced cellular expansion and to determine which step is stimulated by UV-B irradiation in the lignin synthesis pathway, we investigated relative DNA contents in epidermal cells, including trichomes, and enzyme activity and gene expression in the phenylpropanoid pathway. UV-B irradiation increased the ploidy level over 15 days, specifically in the epidermal cells surrounding trichomes, but not in the other epidermal cells or trichomes. In epidermal cells surrounding trichomes, UV-B irradiation induced peroxidase (POX) activity from days 7 to 15. In cotyledons, UV-B exposure induced CS-POX1 and CS-POX3 gene expression within 2 days, and it also induced two other enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase and coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase, from days 9 to 11. Thus, exposure to UV-B induces expansion, endoreduplication, POX activity, and the accumulation of polyphenolic compounds in epidermal cells surrounding the trichomes of cucumber cotyledons. Because polyphenolic compounds such as lignin absorb UV-B, our data indicate a physiological protective mechanism against UV-B irradiation in cucumber.

  5. Comparison of TRY and the closely related At1g01380 gene in controlling Arabidopsis trichome patterning.

    PubMed

    Esch, Jeffrey J; Chen, Margaret A; Hillestad, Matthew; Marks, M David

    2004-12-01

    A screen of activation-tagged Arabidopsis lines resulted in the identification of At1g01380, which encodes a small R3 single repeat MYB gene, as a negative regulator of trichome initiation. Plants that overexpress this gene have fewer trichomes. The gene is closely related to the previously identified negative regulator TRY, and has a similar pattern of expression as TRY in developing leaves. As previously shown for TRY, At1g01380 protein can inhibit the interaction between the positive trichome regulators GL1 and GL3, and likely limits trichome initiation via this inhibition. While TRY and At1g01380 are closely related, they are not completely functionally equivalent. When placed under the transcriptional control of the TRY promoter, At1g01380 can only partially rescue the try mutant. Interestingly, Atg01380 is highly expressed in gl3-sst trichomes, while TRY expression is greatly reduced. The mutation in gl3-sst causes a reduced interaction between the GL1 and GL3 proteins and results in fewer leaf trichomes that develop in clusters. The differential expression of TRY and At1g01380 in this mutant can be used to explain how its altered trichome pattern in gl3-sst [corrected] is generated.

  6. Flat urothelial carcinoma in situ of the bladder with glandular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Jimenez, Rafael E; Montironi, Rodolfo; Patriarca, Carlo; Blanca, Ana; Menendez, Carmen L; Algaba, Ferran; Cheng, Liang

    2011-11-01

    We present the clinicopathologic and immunonohistochemical features of 25 cases of flat urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation. Previously, cases on this category have been reported as in situ adenocarcinoma (a term not currently preferred). Fourteen of 25 cases had concurrent conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ. Five of the cases were primary carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation; twenty cases of secondary carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation were associated with urothelial carcinoma alone (n = 11) or with glandular differentiation (n = 7), discohesive (n = 1) or micropapillary carcinoma (n = 1). The individual tumor cells were columnar. The architectural pattern of the carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation consisted of 1 or more papillary, flat or cribriform glandular patterns. Univariate statistical analysis showed no survival differences between urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation and conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ (log-rank 0.810; P = .368). Carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation showed high ki-67 index and p53 accumulation, high nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression and diffuse PTEN expression, a phenotype that also characterized concurrent conventional carcinoma in situ. MUC5A, MUC2, CK20, and c-erbB2 were positive in all 25 cases of urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation, and CDX-2 was present in 19 cases; MUC1, CK7, or 34βE12 was focally present in 21, 19, and 18 cases, respectively. MUC1core was negative in all cases. We concluded that urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation is a variant of carcinoma in situ that follows the natural history of conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ. The immunophenotype suggests urothelial origin with the expression of MUC5A and CDX2 as signature for glandular differentiation.

  7. Natural allelic variation defines a role for ATMYC1: trichome cell fate determination.

    PubMed

    Symonds, V Vaughan; Hatlestad, Greg; Lloyd, Alan M

    2011-06-01

    The molecular nature of biological variation is not well understood. Indeed, many questions persist regarding the types of molecular changes and the classes of genes that underlie morphological variation within and among species. Here we have taken a candidate gene approach based on previous mapping results to identify the gene and ultimately a polymorphism that underlies a trichome density QTL in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that natural allelic variation in the transcription factor ATMYC1 alters trichome density in A. thaliana; this is the first reported function for ATMYC1. Using site-directed mutagenesis and yeast two-hybrid experiments, we demonstrate that a single amino acid replacement in ATMYC1, discovered in four ecotypes, eliminates known protein-protein interactions in the trichome initiation pathway. Additionally, in a broad screen for molecular variation at ATMYC1, including 72 A. thaliana ecotypes, a high-frequency block of variation was detected that results in >10% amino acid replacement within one of the eight exons of the gene. This sequence variation harbors a strong signal of divergent selection but has no measurable effect on trichome density. Homologs of ATMYC1 are pleiotropic, however, so this block of variation may be the result of natural selection having acted on another trait, while maintaining the trichome density role of the gene. These results show that ATMYC1 is an important source of variation for epidermal traits in A. thaliana and indicate that the transcription factors that make up the TTG1 genetic pathway generally may be important sources of epidermal variation in plants.

  8. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  9. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The costs of anti-herbivore defense traits in agricultural crop plants: a case study involving leafhoppers and trichomes.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ian; Dively, Galen P; Denno, Robert F

    2009-06-01

    The expression of plant defenses is thought to entail costs (e.g., the allocation of resources away from growth or reproduction) that constrain the evolution of plant genotypes maximally defended against herbivores. Although central to the ecological theory underlying plant-insect interactions at large, the concept of defense costs is particularly evident in agricultural crops where plants may be under simultaneous selection for enhanced growth and/or reproduction (i.e., yield) and anti-herbivore resistance traits that deter pests. In this study we investigate the role of trichomes as a resistance mechanism against a sap-feeding insect (the leafhopper, Empoasca fabae) on potato. Natural variation in trichome density among 17 potato cultivars was used to test for the role of trichomes as a putative defense against leafhoppers, and evidence of costs in trichome expression. Two different types of costs were explored: (1) allocation costs (i.e., the relationship between trichomes and yield), and (2) costs involving trade-offs with alternative defense strategies (e.g., tolerance). Although leafhopper abundance did not decrease as trichome density increased, leafhopper injury to potato plants (foliar necrosis) was negatively correlated with trichome density. As a result, the per capita effect of leafhopper adults and nymphs on foliar damage was lower on plants with high trichome densities. We found no evidence, however, for costs of expressing this resistance trait; trichomes were not correlated with either potato yield or tolerance to herbivory. Thus, selection for multiple plant defenses to alleviate the impact of pests in agronomic crops may indeed be possible without inherent losses in plant yield.

  11. Human bronchial epithelial cells differentiate to 3D glandular acini on basement membrane matrix.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Peters-Hall, Jennifer R; Bose, Sumit; Peña, Maria T; Rose, Mary C

    2011-06-01

    To create a model system that investigates mechanisms resulting in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of respiratory tract submucosal glands, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) system wherein normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells differentiated into glandular acini when grown on a basement membrane matrix. The differentiation of primary HBE cells into glandular acini was monitored temporally by light microscopy. Apoptosis-induced lumen formation was observed by immunofluorescence analysis. The acinar cells expressed and secreted MUC5B mucin (marker for glandular mucous cells) and lysozyme, lactoferrin, and zinc-α2-glycoprotein (markers for glandular serous cells) at Day 22. β-Tubulin IV, a marker for ciliated cells, was not detected. Expression of mucous and serous cell markers in HBE glandular acini demonstrated that HBE cells grown on a basement membrane matrix differentiated into acini that exhibit molecular characteristics of respiratory tract glandular acinar cells. Inhibition studies with neutralizing antibodies resulted in a marked decrease in size of the spheroids at Day 7, demonstrating that laminin (a major component of the basement membrane matrix), the cell surface receptor integrin α6, and the cell junction marker E-cadherin have functional roles in HBE acinar morphogenesis. No significant variability was detected in the average size of glandular acini formed by HBE cells from two normal individuals. These results demonstrated that this in vitro model system is reproducible, stable, and potentially useful for studies of glandular differentiation and hyperplasia.

  12. Glandular odontogenic cyst: absence of PTCH gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Barreto, D C; De Marco, L; Castro, W H; Gomez, R S

    2001-02-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare jawbone cyst of odontogenic origin. Human patched (PTCH) is a tumour suppressor gene that has been recently associated with signalling pathways during odontogenesis. Recently alterations of this gene were found on sporadic odontogenic keratocysts. This evidence, together with the biological behaviour similarities of both lesions, and the absence of reports on molecular analysis of GOC, led us to hypothesize that PTCH gene mutations may underlie the tumorigenesis of GOC. Therefore the aim of this study was to report one additional case of GOC and investigate the PTCH gene of the cyst. No mutations were found in the splicing and coding regions of the PTCH gene. In conclusion, the PTCH gene does not seem to be involved in GOC pathogenesis.

  13. Glandular odontogenic cyst: report of an unusual bilateral occurrence.

    PubMed

    Amberkar, Vikram S; Jahagirdar, Abhishek; Ahmed Mujib, B R

    2011-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a recently recognized rare developmental odontogenic cyst having an aggressive behavior and accounting for 0.012% to 1.3% of all jaw cysts. GOC usually presents as a painless, slow-growing swelling that tends to affect the anterior part of the jaws. It chiefly occurs in the fourth and fifth decades of life and presents as an expansion of jaws with or without pain or paresthesia. Aggressive nature of the lesion has been reported, as supported by the fact that 25 to 55% of cases recur following curettage. So far only just over 113 cases of GOC have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of bilateral GOC in the posterior region of the maxilla, in a 29-year-old male patient, which is unique, being the first case of bilateral GOC to be reported in the literature.

  14. [Morphogenetic bases and parametric system of trichome evolution in plants of the genus Draba L].

    PubMed

    Chersantsev, V G; Grigor'eva, O G

    2010-01-01

    Using quantitative morphological analysis of light microscopy data, the normal variation of trichome morphogenesis is studied in six whitlow grass species (Draba L.) and the morphological variation of adult trichomes in 11 species. The evolution consists in the transition from a radial morphogenesis pattern to bilateral and replacement of complex (branched) trichome rays with simple (unbranched) rays. A parametric system is constructed for classification of the ray morphology; this system includes two parameters-the ratio of the numbers of complex to simple rays, characterizing the probability of secondary branching of primary buds, and the number of primary buds, characterizing the probability of primary branching on the surface of the trichome cell. In this parametric space, all of the studied species fit well a third-order curve consisting of two ascending branches displaying a positive correlation between the primary and secondary branchings and a descending branch, located between them, where the primary and secondary branches are negatively correlated. The deduced evolutionary direction is almost independent of the size of the trichome cells and is explained exclusively by the mechanics of morphogenesis: acceleration in the development of the primary bud of the ray decreases the probability of its own branching and creates additional elastic extension of the cell surface, preventing other buds from branching. The morphogenesis itself appears to be a mechanically nonholonomic system, filtering in a selective manner the fluctuations of the same sign, which explains the directed pattern of its evolution. In the evolutionarily initial state, trichome ontogenesis is absent because its modules (primary buds) are formed by a mirror duplication. The ontogenesis commences when mirror symmetry in the formation of modules is lost and replaced with an axial pattern; thus, the change in the morphological type of buds is a direct consequence of the emergence of ontogenesis

  15. Biosynthesis of a new tobacco alkaloid, hydroxy-N-acylnornicotine in the trichomes of Nicotiana stocktonii. [Manduca sexta

    SciTech Connect

    Zador, E.; Jones, D.

    1986-04-01

    A new tobacco alkaloid from section Repandae is highly toxic to an insect (Manduca sexta) unsusceptible to previously described nicotine alkaloids (1). They have localized the alkaloid, HO-N-acylnornicotine (HO-NAN) nearly entirely to the exudate secreted by the epidermal trichomes of N. stocktonii. Only the nicotine and nornicotine were found in abundance inside the trichomes, while primarily nicotine was present inside the aerial vegetative parts and root. These results suggest that the HO-NAN is synthesized by the trichomes. When unlabelled nicotine was fed to isolated leaves there was an increase in internal nicotine, nornicotine and secretion of HO-NAN. Feeding leaves with 2'-C/sup 14/ nicotine resulted in labelling of both nornicotine and HO-NAN. These data strongly suggest synthesis of HO-NAN from nicotine via nornicotine in the trichomes, followed by rapid secretion. The possible evolutionary significance of this pathway of synthesis and secretion is discussed.

  16. Effect of plant trichomes on the vertical migration of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae on five tropical forages.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aruaque L F; Costa, Ciniro; Rodella, Roberto A; Silva, Bruna F; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2009-06-01

    The influence of trichomes on vertical migration and survival of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) on different forages was investigated. Four different forages showing different distributions of trichomes (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Andropogon gayanus, and Stylosanthes spp.), and one forage species without trichomes (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), were used. Forages cut at the post-grazing height were contaminated with faeces containing L3. Samples of different grass strata (0-10, 10-20, >20 cm) and faeces were collected for L3 quantification once per week over four weeks. In all forages studied, the highest L3 recovery occurred seven days after contamination, with the lowest recovery on A. gayanus. In general, larvae were found on all forages' strata. However, most of the larvae were at the lower stratum. There was no influence of trichomes on migration and survival of H. contortus L3 on the forages.

  17. Structure and biomechanics of trapping flower trichomes and their role in the pollination biology of Aristolochia plants (Aristolochiaceae).

    PubMed

    Oelschlägel, Birgit; Gorb, Stanislav; Wanke, Stefan; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    *Catching insects to ensure pollination is one of the most elaborate and specialized mechanisms of insect-plant interactions. Phylogenetically, Aristolochiaceae represent the first angiosperm lineage that developed trap flowers. Here we report the structure and function of specific trichomes contributing to the highly specialized trapping devices. *Investigations were carried out on six Mediterranean Aristolochia species. The morphology and arrangement of the trapping trichomes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cryo-SEM. To demonstrate frictional anisotropy of the trapping trichome array, a microtribological approach was used. *The results of our experiments support a hypothesis long proposed, but never tested, regarding the trapping mechanism in proterogynous Aristolochia flowers: that an array of highly specialized trichomes arranged eccentrically to the underlying surface is responsible for the easy entrance of insects into flowers but impedes their escape. As they enter the male stage of anthesis, flowers significantly modify their inner surface characteristics, allowing insects to leave. *We have demonstrated the substantial contribution of trapping trichomes to the capture, retention and release of pollinators, an important prerequisite for making cross-pollination possible in most Aristolochia species. Finally, we compare trapping trichomes of Aristolochia with similar structures found in other trapping flowers as well as in pitchers of carnivorous plants not optimized for insect release.

  18. Control of endoreduplication of trichome by RPT2a, a subunit of the 19S proteasome in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sako, Kaori; Maki, Yuko; Aoyama, Takashi; Goto, Derek B; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2010-09-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway plays a central role in the degradation of short-lived regulatory proteins to control many cellular events. The Arabidopsis knockout mutant rpt2a, which contains a defect in the AtRPT2a subunit of the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, showed enlarged leaves caused by increased cell size that correlated with increased ploidy caused by extended endoreduplication. To clarify the role of RPT2a in endoreduplication control, trichome development was genetically examined in further detail. RHL1 and GL3 encode proteins that have a role in the positive regulation of endocycle progression in trichomes. The rhl1 mutants are stalled at 8C and have trichomes with only a single branch. The rpt2a mutation did not alter the rhl1 mutant phenotype, and trichomes of double rpt2a rhl1 mutants resembled that of single rhl1 mutants. On the other hand, the rpt2a mutation suppressed the gl3 phenotype (stalled at 16C, two trichome branches), and trichomes of the double rpt2a gl3 mutant resembled those of the wild type (WT) plants. Together, these data suggest that RPT2a functions to negatively regulate endocycle progression following completion of the third endoreduplication step mediated by RHL1 (8C-16C).

  19. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong; Mao, Tonglin; Yuan, Ming; Li, Yunhai

    2016-01-01

    How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1) mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules. PMID:27768706

  20. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangliang; Peng, Yuancheng; Tian, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong; Kong, Zhaosheng; Mao, Tonglin; Yuan, Ming; Li, Yunhai

    2016-10-01

    How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1) mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  1. Is nectar reabsorption restricted by the stalk cells of floral and extrafloral nectary trichomes?

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Gustavson, P; Davis, A R

    2015-01-01

    Reabsorption is a phase of nectar dynamics that occurs concurrently with secretion; it has been described in floral nectaries that exude nectar through stomata or unicellular trichomes, but has not yet been recorded in extrafloral glands. Apparently, nectar reabsorption does not occur in multicellular secretory trichomes (MST) due to the presence of lipophilic impregnations - which resemble Casparian strips - in the anticlinal walls of the stalk cells. It has been assumed that these impregnations restrict solute movement within MST to occur unidirectionally and exclusively by the symplast, thereby preventing nectar reflux toward the underlying nectary tissues. We hypothesised that reabsorption is absent in nectaries possessing MST. The fluorochrome lucifer yellow (LYCH) was applied to standing nectar of two floral and extrafloral glands of distantly related species, and then emission spectra from nectary sections were systematically analysed using confocal microscopy. Passive uptake of LYCH via the stalk cells to the nectary tissues occurred in all MST examined. Moreover, we present evidence of nectar reabsorption in extrafloral nectaries, demonstrating that LYCH passed the stalk cells of MST, although it did not reach the deepest nectary tissues. Identical (control) experiments performed with neutral red (NR) demonstrated no uptake of this stain by actively secreting MST, whereas diffusion of NR did occur in plasmolysed MST of floral nectaries at the post-secretory phase, indicating that nectar reabsorption by MST is governed by stalk cell physiology. Interestingly, non-secretory trichomes failed to reabsorb nectar. The role of various nectary components is discussed in relation to the control of nectar reabsorption by secretory trichomes. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calciumcarbonate and other zinc-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sarret, G.; Harada, E.; Choi, Y-E.; Isaure, M.-P.; Geoffroy, N.; Fakra, S.; Marcus, M.A.; Birschwilks, M.; Clemens, S.; Manceau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants.

  3. Simultaneous hyperaccumulation of nickel, manganese, and calcium in Alyssum leaf trichomes.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Angle, J Scott; Maugel, Timothy K; Erbe, Eric F; Murphy, Charles A

    2004-11-01

    We have developed commercially viable phytoremediation/phytomining technologies employing Alyssum Ni-hyperaccumulator species to quantitatively extract Ni from soils. The majority of Ni is stored either in Alyssum leaf epidermal cell vacuoles or in the basal portions only of the numerous stellate trichomes. Here, we report simultaneous and region-specific localization of high levels of Ni, Mn, and Ca within Alyssum trichomes as determined by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). Plants were grown in high Ni soil, achieving up to 48 400 microg g(-1) Ni in total leaf concentration; however, Ca and Mn were not enriched in the experimental soils. The region-specific localization of hyperaccumulated Ca, Mn, and Ni occurred in three soil types, five Alyssum species/ecotypes, and over a wide range of soil Ni concentrations. The metal concentration in the trichome basal compartment was approximately 15-20% dry weight, the highest ever reported for healthy vascular plant tissue.

  4. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past.

  5. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Andrew M; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

    2015-11-01

    Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose "DgN(E)" values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgNhetero) and homogeneous (pDgNhomo) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. The pDgNhetero coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgNhomo coefficients for the Mo-Mo and W-Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgNhetero relative to pDgNhomo of 23.6%-27.4% for a W-Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the compressed breast width in the superior and inferior directions, resulted in a 37

  6. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Andrew M.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgNhetero) and homogeneous (pDgNhomo) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgNhetero coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgNhomo coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgNhetero relative to pDgNhomo of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the compressed breast width in the superior and

  7. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Andrew M.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  8. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  9. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-05

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  10. [Study on characteristics of non-glandular hairs of cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-shan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-02-01

    We collected 22 cultivated population of Lonicera japonica from 17 areas. The characteristics of non-glandular hairs were observed and measured by the scanning electron microscopy. The principal components analysis and correlation analysis were conduct based on length and density of L. japonica. The results showed a significant negative correlation between length and density of non-glandular hairs, and the characteristics of non-glandular was not corrrelated significantly with latitude. The correlation results indicated that the density was a key to separate "Damaohua" and "Jizhuahua". The contribution of climate and soil was important to the cultivated population. This reminded that the characteristics of non-glandular hairs were affected by environmental and genetic interaction.

  11. Pulmonary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma mimicking adenocarcinoma: a case study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dongliang; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Jigang; Ding, Li; Xin, Fangjie; Zhao, Han; Li, Yujun

    2013-08-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. Here we present another case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma in a 64-year-old female nonsmoker. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly papillary structures covered with squamous, glandular and transitional epithelium. Some glandular structures extending into adjacent bronchiolar and alveolar spaces with mucus were similar to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the different kinds of epithelia had similar immunophenotype. The different components were positive for cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, CAM5.2, CK5/6, CK34βE12, and TTF-1, but negative for CK20. The transitional morphology and immunohistochemistry indicate the different components likely come from a same kind of progenitor in the bronchiolar wall.

  12. Rapidly growing glandular papilloma associated with mucus production: a case report.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shigeki; Goto, Taichiro; Emoto, Katsura; Hayashi, Yuichiro

    2014-05-22

    Pulmonary glandular papillomas are rare neoplasms, and their very slow or absent growth over time generally facilitates establishing the diagnosis. In an 84-year-old woman who underwent surgery for sigmoid colon cancer, a growing solitary pulmonary nodule was identified on postoperative follow-up computed tomography. A computer tomography-guided needle biopsy was performed under suspicion that the nodule was malignant. The histopathological findings suggested a glandular papilloma. Right basilar segmentectomy was carried out, and the lesion was completely resected. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed a benign glandular papilloma accompanied by mucus retention in the surrounding alveolar region. A malignant neoplasm is usually suspected when a pulmonary tumor shows rapid growth. However, glandular papillomas associated with mucus retention also tend to grow in some cases, and should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  13. Rapidly growing glandular papilloma associated with mucus production: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary glandular papillomas are rare neoplasms, and their very slow or absent growth over time generally facilitates establishing the diagnosis. Case presentation In an 84-year-old woman who underwent surgery for sigmoid colon cancer, a growing solitary pulmonary nodule was identified on postoperative follow-up computed tomography. A computer tomography-guided needle biopsy was performed under suspicion that the nodule was malignant. The histopathological findings suggested a glandular papilloma. Right basilar segmentectomy was carried out, and the lesion was completely resected. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed a benign glandular papilloma accompanied by mucus retention in the surrounding alveolar region. Conclusions A malignant neoplasm is usually suspected when a pulmonary tumor shows rapid growth. However, glandular papillomas associated with mucus retention also tend to grow in some cases, and should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24886616

  14. Treatment of Maxillary Glandular Odontogenic Cyst Involving the Same Place of Previously Treated Traumatic Bone Cyst.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Emel; Baş, Burcu; Dinçer, Duygu; Günhan, Ömer

    2016-03-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare developmental odontogenic cysts of the jaws having an aggressive behavior. The most common site of occurrence is the anterior mandible, and it is widely seen in middle-aged people. It is suggested that trauma could be a precipitating factor for its occurrence. This article presents the diagnosis and treatment of a case of glandular odontogenic cyst at anterior maxilla that occurred at the same localization of a traumatic bone cyst, 5 years after its management.

  15. Computation of the glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Vedantham, Srinivasan; D’Orsi, Carl; Karellas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Tomosynthesis of the breast is currently a topic of intense interest as a logical next step in the evolution of digital mammography. This study reports on the computation of glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast. Previously, glandular dose estimations in tomosynthesis have been performed using data from studies of radiation dose in conventional planar mammography. This study evaluates, using Monte Carlo methods, the normalized glandular dose (DgN) to the breast during a tomosynthesis study, and characterizes its dependence on breast size, tissue composition, and x-ray spectrum. The conditions during digital tomosynthesis imaging of the breast were simulated using a computer program based on the Geant4 toolkit. With the use of simulated breasts of varying size, thickness and tissue composition, the DgN to the breast tissue was computed for varying x-ray spectra and tomosynthesis projection angle. Tomosynthesis projections centered about both the cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated. For each projection angle, the ratio of the glandular dose for that projection to the glandular dose for the zero degree projection was computed. This ratio was denoted the relative glandular dose (RGD) coefficient, and its variation under different imaging parameters was analyzed. Within mammographic energies, the RGD was found to have a weak dependence on glandular fraction and x-ray spectrum for both views. A substantial dependence on breast size and thickness was found for the MLO view, and to a lesser extent for the CC view. Although RGD values deviate substantially from unity as a function of projection angle, the RGD averaged over all projections in a complete tomosynthesis study varies from 0.91 to 1.01. The RGD results were fit to mathematical functions and the resulting equations are provided. PMID:17278508

  16. Glandular epithelial AR inactivation enhances PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion induces uterine pathology, whereas androgen actions via androgen receptor (AR) support uterine growth and therefore may modify uterine cancer risk. We hypothesized that the androgen actions mediated via uterine glandular epithelial AR could modify PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology. To test our hypothesis, we developed uterine glandular epithelium-specific PTEN and/or AR knockout mouse models comparing the uterine pathology among wild-type (WT), glandular epithelium-specific AR inactivation (ugeARKO), PTEN deletion (ugePTENKO), and the combined PTEN and AR knockout (ugePTENARKO) female mice. The double knockout restricted to glandular epithelium showed that AR inactivation enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology with development of intraepithelial neoplasia by 20 weeks of age. In ugePTENARKO, 6/10 (60%) developed intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas 3/10 (30%) developed only glandular hyperplasia in ugePTENKO uterus. No uterine pathology was observed in WT (n=8) and ugeARKO (n=7) uteri. Uterine weight was significantly (P=0.002) increased in ugePTENARKO (374±97 mg (mean±s.e.)) compared with WT (97±6 mg), ugeARKO (94±12 mg), and ugePTENKO (205±33 mg). Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and P-AKT expression was modified by uterine pathology but did not differ between ugePTENKO and ugePTENARKO, suggesting that its expressions are not directly affected by androgens. However, progesterone receptor (PR) expression was reduced in ugePTENARKO compared to ugePTENKO uterus, suggesting that PR expression could be regulated by glandular epithelial AR inactivation. In conclusion, glandular epithelial AR inactivation (with persistent stromal AR action) enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology possibly by downregulating PR expression in the uterus. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Average glandular dose and phantom image quality in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M.; Nogueira, M. S.; Guedes, E.; Andrade, M. C.; Peixoto, J. E.; Joana, G. S.; Castro, J. G.

    2007-09-01

    Doses in mammography should be maintained as low as possible without reducing the high image quality needed for early detection of the breast cancer. The breast is composed of tissues with very close composition and densities. It increases the difficulty to detect small changes in the normal anatomical structures which may be associated with breast cancer. To achieve the standards of definition and contrast for mammography, the quality and intensity of the X-ray beam, the breast positioning and compression, the film-screen system, and the film processing have to be in optimal operational conditions. This study sought to evaluate average glandular dose (AGD) and image quality on a standard phantom in 134 mammography units in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between December 2004 and May 2006. AGDs were obtained by means of entrance kerma measured with TL LiF100 dosimeters on phantom surface. Phantom images were obtained with automatic exposure technique, fixed 28 kV and molybdenum anode-filter combination. The phantom used contained structures simulating tumoral masses, microcalcifications, fibers and low contrast areas. High-resolution metallic meshes to assess image definition and a stepwedge to measure image contrast index were also inserted in the phantom. The visualization of simulated structures, the mean optical density and the contrast index allowed to classify the phantom image quality in a seven-point scale. The results showed that 54.5% of the facilities did not achieve the minimum performance level for image quality. It is mainly due to insufficient film processing observed in 61.2% of the units. AGD varied from 0.41 to 2.73 mGy with a mean value of 1.32±0.44 mGy. In all optimal quality phantom images, AGDs were in this range. Additionally, in 7.3% of the mammography units, the AGD constraint of 2 mGy was exceeded. One may conclude that dose level to patient and image quality are not in conformity to regulations in most of the facilities. This

  18. Establishing epithelial glandular polarity: interlinked roles for ARF6, Rac1, and the matrix microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Monteleon, Christine L; Sedgwick, Alanna; Hartsell, Alyssa; Dai, Michael; Whittington, Catherine; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial cysts comprise the structural units of the glandular epithelium. Although glandular inversion in epithelial tumors is thought to be a potential mechanism for the establishment of metastatic disease, little is known about the morphogenic cues and signaling pathways that govern glandular polarity and organization. Using organotypic cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in reconstituted basement membrane, we show that cellular depletion of the small GTP-binding protein ARF6 promotes the formation of inverted cysts, wherein the apical cell membrane faces the cyst exterior, and the basal domain faces the central lumen, while individual cell polarity is maintained. These cysts are also defective in interactions with laminin at the cyst-matrix interface. This inversion of glandular orientation is accompanied by Rac1 inactivation during early cystogenesis, and temporal activation of Rac1 is sufficient to recover the normal cyst phenotype. In an unnatural collagen I microenvironment, ARF6-depleted, inverted epithelial cysts exhibit some loss of cell polarity, a marked increase in Rho activation and Rac1 inactivation, and striking rearrangement of the surrounding collagen I matrix. These studies demonstrate the importance of ARF6 as a critical determinant of glandular orientation and the matrix environment in dictating structural organization of epithelial cysts.

  19. Aquaporins are upregulated in glandular epithelium at the time of implantation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Laura A; Murphy, Christopher R

    2007-03-01

    Regulation of luminal fluid is essential for blastocyst implantation. While it has been known for quite some time that there is a reduction in the amount of luminal fluid at the time of implantation, the mechanisms regulating this process are only just emerging. Previous studies have shown an upregulation of aquaporin (AQP) 5 channels in luminal epithelial cells at the time of implantation providing a mechanism for fluid reabsorption across the surface epithelium. However to date the contribution of fluid reabsorption by glandular epithelial cells has not been established. This study using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrates the presence of several AQP isoforms in the rat uterus at the time of implantation while immunofluorescence data demonstrates an apical distribution of AQPs5 and 9 in the glandular epithelium at the time of implantation. The presence of AQPs5 and 9 in the apical plasma membrane of the glandular epithelium seen in this study provides a mechanism for transcellular fluid transport across these glandular epithelial cells similar to that seen in luminal epithelial cells. The reabsorption of glandular fluid via AQP channels may also regulate luminal fluid volume and be involved in the reduction in luminal fluid seen at the time of implantation.

  20. Filamentous Trichomic Prokaryotes in Carbonaceous Meteorites: Indigenous Microfossils, Minerals, or Modern Bio-Contaminants?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.

    2011-01-01

    Large complex filaments have been detected in freshly fractured interior surfaces of a variety of carbonaceous meteorites. Many exhibit the detailed morphological and morphometric characteristics of known filamentous trichomic prokaryotic microorganisms. In this paper we review prior studies of filamentous microstructures encountered in the meteorites along with the elemental compositions and characteristics of the, fibrous evaporite minerals and filamentous cyanobacteria and homologous trichomic sulfur bacteria. The meteorite images and elemental compositions will compared with data obtained with the same instruments for abiotic microstructures and living and fossil microorganisms in order to evaluate the relative merits of the alternate hypotheses that have been advanced to explain the nature and characteristics of the meteorite filaments. The possibiility that the filaments found in the meteorites may be comprise modern bio-contaminants will be evaluated in light of their observed elemental compositions and data by other researchers on the detection of indigenous complex organic biosignatures, and extraterrestrial amino acids and nucleobases found in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites.

  1. Leaf trichome responses to herbivory in willows: induction, relaxation and costs.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Christer; Dalin, Peter; Ahrné, Karin

    2008-01-01

    To circumvent the inherent problem of discriminating between the cost of losing photosynthetic tissue and the cost of producing an inducible defence, the growth response of herbivore-damaged plants was compared with plants damaged mechanically to the same extent but without eliciting the defence. Two experiments were conducted, studying the response of willows (Salix cinerea) to damage by adult leaf beetles (Phratora vulgatissima). In the first experiment, willows produced new leaves with an enhanced leaf trichome density 10-20 d after damage, coinciding in time with the feeding of beetle offspring. The response was relaxed in foliage produced 30-40 d after damage. In the second experiment, which also included mechanical damage, willows exposed to beetle feeding showed an increase in leaf trichome density of the same magnitude (> 70%) as in the first experiment. The cost of producing the defence was a 20% reduction in shoot length growth and biomass production. Willows exposed to mechanical damage had an 8% reduction in shoot length growth compared with control plants, that is, a cost of leaf area removal. The results are the first quantitative estimates of the cost of a plant defence induced by natural and low amounts (3.3%) of herbivory.

  2. Mesothelial glandular structures within pseudosarcomatous proliferative funiculitis--a diagnostic pitfall: report of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2008-01-01

    We describe 17 cases of distinct benign pseudomalignant mesothelial proliferations, involving the spermatic cord. All cases revealed necrosis. The areas adjacent to the necrotic tissue comprised a cellular spindle cell proliferation with a haphazard arrangement of the myofibroblasts that in many areas revealed transitions into plump oval epithelioid cells and into cells with genuine epithelial appearances arranged in linear cords and often luminized into small microcysts. These epithelial cells formed isolated groups with glandular structures arising on the myofibroblastic background. Glandular structures were often situated deeply in the stroma of the spermatic cords. All cellular elements were strongly positive with AE1/AE3 antibody. All myofibroblasts stained with SM-actin antibody. Ultrastructurally, the spindle cells displayed features of myofibroblasts including actin microfilaments, as did the plump epithelioid cells that, additionally, had desmosomes, and the cords of the epithelial cells including those forming glandular structures had characteristics of mesothelias including the characteristic microvilli.

  3. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past. PMID:28292079

  4. Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma: a radioimmunoassay for its determination

    SciTech Connect

    Rabito, S.F.; Scicli, A.G.; Kher, V.; Carretero, O.A.

    1982-04-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma. To prevent the binding of radioactive kallikrein to plasma inhibitors, /sup 125/I-kallikrein was inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a procedure that maintained /sup 125/I-kallikrein immunoreactivity. Different volumes of plasma displaced /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein in a parallel fashion to the kallikrein standard curve. The sensitivity of the RIA was 200 pg, and the recovery of nonradioactive active kallikrein added to plasma was 58.7%. The concentration of immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in normal rat plasma averaged 47.1 +/- 1.7 (SE) ng/ml. Bilateral nephrectomy caused a threefold increase in circulating glandular kallikrein (50 +/- 2.7 to 167 +/- 7 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Removal of the submandibular and sublingual glands signficantly decreased its concentration from 52 +/- 2.3 to 34 +/- 1.6 ng/ml (P < 0.001). Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein was higher in the submandibular gland vein than in arterial blood (venous; 94 +/- 10.5; arterial: 64 +/- 6.3 ng/ml; P < 0.05) and was lower in the renal venous blood (venous: 44 +/- 2.2; arterial: 53 +/- 2.6 ng/ml; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that the use of /sup 125/I-PMSF-kallikrein as tracer prevents the interference in the RIA caused by plasma protease inhibitors. It also indicates that the submandibular gland is an important source of the immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma and that the kidney probably participates in its metabolism. Glandular kallikrein released by the submandibular gland into the circulation may participate in regulating local blood flow before it is inactivated by plasma inhibitors.

  5. Terrific Trichomes (and Other Specialised Cells) in African Violets: How to Get a Lot from One Plant in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Vicki M.

    2013-01-01

    African violet (genus "Saintpaulia") was identified as a particularly suitable genus for the study of specialised plant cells in the classroom using microscopes. The techniques described here involve simple preparation without staining. The cells and structures that can be investigated include: trichomes (hairs); stomata; guard cells and…

  6. Terrific Trichomes (and Other Specialised Cells) in African Violets: How to Get a Lot from One Plant in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Vicki M.

    2013-01-01

    African violet (genus "Saintpaulia") was identified as a particularly suitable genus for the study of specialised plant cells in the classroom using microscopes. The techniques described here involve simple preparation without staining. The cells and structures that can be investigated include: trichomes (hairs); stomata; guard cells and…

  7. The European wool-carder bee (Anthidium manicatum) eavesdrops on plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during trichome collection.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kelsey K; Brown, Steve; Clarke, Stephanie; Röse, Ursula S R; Starks, Philip T

    2017-08-19

    The plant-pollinator relationship is generally considered mutualistic. This relationship is less clear, however, when pollinators also cause tissue damage. Some Megachilidae bees collect plant material for nests from the plants they pollinate. In this study, we examined the relationship between Anthidium manicatum, the European wool-carder bee, and the source of its preferred nesting material - Stachys byzantina, lamb's ear. Female A. manicatum use their mandibles to trim trichomes from plants for nesting material (a behaviour dubbed "carding"). Using volatile organic compound (VOC) headspace analysis and behavioural observations, we explored (a) how carding effects S. byzantina and (b) how A. manicatum may choose specific S. byzantina plants. We found that removal of trichomes leads to a dissimilar VOC bouquet compared to intact leaves, with a significant increase in VOC detection following damage. A. manicatum also visit S. byzantina plants with trichomes removed at a greater frequency compared to plants with trichomes intact. Our data suggest that A. manicatum eavesdrop on VOCs produced by damaged plants, leading to more carding damage for individual plants due to increased detectability by A. manicatum. Accordingly, visitation by A. manicatum to S. byzantina may incur both a benefit (pollination) and cost (tissue damage) to the plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Epifluorescence and stereomicroscopy of trichomes associated with resistant and susceptible host plant genotypes of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epifluorescence, light and stereo-microscopy were used to characterize foliar trichomes associated with young flush leaves and stems of six plant genotypes that are hosts of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of the economically important citrus greening disease. These genotypes incl...

  9. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Ying; Miao, Han; Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth

  10. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C.; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth

  11. Zinc Finger Protein5 Is Required for the Control of Trichome Initiation by Acting Upstream of Zinc Finger Protein8 in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongjing; An, Lijun; Sun, Lili; Zhu, Shuijin; Xi, Wanyan; Broun, Pierre; Yu, Hao; Gan, Yinbo

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) trichome development is a model system for studying cell development, cell differentiation, and the cell cycle. Our previous studies have shown that the GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) family genes, GIS, GIS2, and ZINC FINGER PROTEIN8 (ZFP8), control shoot maturation and epidermal cell fate by integrating gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that a new C2H2 zinc finger protein, ZFP5, plays an important role in controlling trichome cell development through GA signaling. Overexpression of ZFP5 results in the formation of ectopic trichomes on carpels and other inflorescence organs. zfp5 loss-of-function mutants exhibit a reduced number of trichomes on sepals, cauline leaves, paraclades, and main inflorescence stems in comparison with wild-type plants. More importantly, it is found that ZFP5 mediates the regulation of trichome initiation by GAs. These results are consistent with ZFP5 expression patterns and the regional influence of GA on trichome initiation. The molecular analyses suggest that ZFP5 functions upstream of GIS, GIS2, ZFP8, and the key trichome initiation regulators GLABROUS1 (GL1) and GL3. Using a steroid-inducible activation of ZFP5 and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we further demonstrate that ZFP8 is the direct target of ZFP5 in controlling epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:21803862

  12. Annular floral nectary with oil-producing trichomes in Salvia farinacea (Lamiaceae): Anatomy, histochemistry, ultrastructure, and significance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Sawhney, Vipen K; Davis, Arthur R

    2014-11-01

    Many angiosperms produce nectar that entices pollinator visits. Each floral nectary tends to embody a singular form, such as the receptacular ring arising beneath the ovary in mint flowers (Lamiaceae). Exceptionally, the annular floral nectary in Salvia farinacea possesses modified stomata plus secretory trichomes. This first study of nectary ultrastructure within the largest genus of Lamiaceae examined this unusual condition. Nectary anatomy, histochemistry, and ultrastructure were investigated from fresh and fixed material using light microscopy and scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The annular nectary encircled the ovary plus extended ventrally as a projection. Modified stomata occurred only in the projection's abaxial epidermis. Conversely, peltate trichomes with a basal cell, a stalk cell, and 4-7 head cells were interspersed among the ovary lobes and covered the projection's adaxial surface. Phloem and xylem supplied the nectary interior, where parenchyma cells had numerous mitochondria and plastids with little starch, but few dictyosomes and little endoplasmic reticulum. Nectar accumulated as a drop opposite the projection's abaxial surface, escaping through stomatal pores and probably the cuticle. However, the annular nectary's glistening trichomes secreted a Sudan-positive product largely retained below the distended cuticle, but not nectar. This first ultrastructural study of co-occurring secretory trichomes and modified stomata on a mint nectary suggests multiple interactive functions for this atypical structure. These trichomes-possibly generating a substance informative to pollinators or as an ovarian defense against phytophagy-produced oil in an aqueous milieu, rather than contributing fluid to nectar. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Cardiac myxoma with glandular elements: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of five new cases with an emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghui; Ding, Li; Liu, Yanhui; Xue, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper reported five new cases of cardiac myxoma with glandular components, known as glandular cardiac myxoma. The goals of this study were to analyze the clinicopathological features of this disease and to explore new features for differential diagnosis. The patient series included three women and two men. All tumors were located in the left atrium without invasion of the adjacent myocardium. Patients presented with cardiac-related or embolization symptoms. Histologically, neoplasms consisted of well-formed glandular structures and typical myxoma areas. No nuclear atypia, mitosis, or necrosis was identified in the glandular structures. Glandular lining cells were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CAM5.2 and cytokeratin 7, but were negative for some organ-specific markers, such as thyroid transcription factor-1, calretinin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, gross cystic disease fluid protein, prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeobox 2. In conclusion, glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare disease which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma. Because of its rarity, glandular cardiac myxoma must be distinguished from adenocarcinoma metastatic to the heart. The combination of histopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles should improve the diagnostic accuracy of glandular cardiac myxoma.

  14. Transcriptional Profiling of Mature Arabidopsis Trichomes Reveals That NOECK Encodes the MIXTA-Like Transcriptional Regulator MYB1061[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jakoby, Marc J.; Falkenhan, Doris; Mader, Michael T.; Brininstool, Ginger; Wischnitzki, Elisabeth; Platz, Nicole; Hudson, Andrew; Hülskamp, Martin; Larkin, John; Schnittger, Arp

    2008-01-01

    Leaf hairs (trichomes) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been extensively used as a model to address general questions in cell and developmental biology. Here, we lay the foundation for a systems-level understanding of the biology of this model cell type by performing genome-wide gene expression analyses. We have identified 3,231 genes that are up-regulated in mature trichomes relative to leaves without trichomes, and we compared wild-type trichomes with two mutants, glabra3 and triptychon, that affect trichome morphology and physiology in contrasting ways. We found that cell wall-related transcripts were particularly overrepresented in trichomes, consistent with their highly elaborated structure. In addition, trichome expression maps revealed high activities of anthocyanin, flavonoid, and glucosinolate pathways, indicative of the roles of trichomes in the biosynthesis of secondary compounds and defense. Interspecies comparisons revealed that Arabidopsis trichomes share many expressed genes with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, making them an attractive model to study industrially important fibers. In addition to identifying physiological processes involved in the development of a specific cell type, we also demonstrated the utility of transcript profiling for identifying and analyzing regulatory gene function. One of the genes that are differentially expressed in fibers is the MYB transcription factor GhMYB25. A combination of transcript profiling and map-based cloning revealed that the NOECK gene of Arabidopsis encodes AtMYB106, a MIXTA-like transcription factor and homolog of cotton GhMYB25. However, in contrast to Antirrhinum, in which MIXTA promotes epidermal cell outgrowth, AtMYB106 appears to function as a repressor of cell outgrowth in Arabidopsis. PMID:18805951

  15. [Computerized estimation of a percent glandular tissue composition in computed radiography mammography].

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Naoko; Goto, Sachiko; Azuma, Yoshiharu; Shiraishi, Junji

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of a percent glandular tissue composition (%GTC) is important in terms of the estimation of individual patient exposure dose and the prediction of malignancy, and thus a number of reports for estimating %GTC by use of a mammogram have been published. In this study, we propose a method for estimating individual %GTC by use of computed radiography (CR) mammograms. By employing breast-equivalent phantoms that are able to create breast phantom images with various combinations of fat and glandular tissue, as well as the thickness of whole breast, we determined a reference table for converting an each pixel value on CR mammography to the glandular tissue ratio. Therefore, the %GTC for individual breast was estimated by averaging glandular tissue ratio for a whole region. The clinical image data set that consisted of 49 CR mammograms were used for estimating %GTC. A paired comparison method for determining subjective ranking of the degree of breast density was employed in order to demonstrate the validity of our method. The results indicate that the average estimated %GTC was 35.0% (ranged from 12.0% to 67.0%) and they had a increased correlation with the ranking of those obtained by observer test. Therefore, it was suggested that our proposed method would be utilized for estimating the %GTC in objective manner.

  16. Glandular diphallus with urethral duplication: Conventional technique for a rare congenital anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Aihole, Jayalaxmi S.; Babu, Narendra; Shankar, Gauri

    2015-01-01

    Diphallus is a rare anomaly and its association with urethral duplication is extremely rare. Numerous associated genitourinary and gastrointestinal anomalies have been reported with this condition. Challenges in the management are incorporation of the glans and the dominant urethra during reconstruction. We report the successful management of a case of glandular diphallus with complete urethral duplication retaining the dorsal urethra. PMID:26604454

  17. Effect of anode/filter combination on average glandular dose in mammography.

    PubMed

    Biegała, Michał; Jakubowska, Teresa; Markowska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the mean glandular doses was conducted in 100 female patients who underwent screening mammography in 2011 and 2013. Siemens Mammomat Novation with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination was used in 2011, whereas in 2013 anode/filter combination was Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh. The functioning of mammography was checked and the effectiveness of the automatic exposure control (AEC) system was verified by measuring compensation of changes in the phantom thickness and measuring tube voltage. On the base of exposure parameters, an average glandular dose for each of 100 female patients was estimated. The images obtained by using AEC system had the acceptable threshold contrast visibility irrespective of the applied anode/filter combination. Mean glandular doses in the females, examined with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination, were on average 23.6% lower than that of the Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh anode/filter combinations. It is recommended to use a combination of the W/Rh anode /filter which exhibited lower mean glandular doses.

  18. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  19. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  20. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  1. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations. 201.300 Section 201.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling...

  2. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2006-04-15

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT.

  3. Progress in prokaryotic transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Filiatrault, Melanie J

    2011-10-01

    Genome-wide expression studies transformed the field of transcriptomics and made it feasible to study global gene expression in extraordinary detail. These new methods have revealed an enhanced view of the transcriptional landscape and have yielded many biological insights. It is increasingly clear that the prokaryotic transcriptome is much more complex than once thought. Recent advances in microbial transcriptome analyses are highlighted in this review. Areas of progress include the development of optimized techniques that minimize the abundance of ribosomal RNAs in RNA samples as well as the development of novel methods to create transcriptome libraries. Advances such as these have led to a new emphasis in areas such as metatranscriptomics and single cell gene expression studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Endocervical glandular neoplasia associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia is HPV-independent and correlates with carbonic anhydrase-IX expression: a Gynaecological Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, S Y; Rodgers, W H; Kauderer, J; Darcy, K M; Carter, R; Susumu, N; Nagao, S; Walker, J L; Hatae, M; Stanbridge, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) is a rare lesion of the uterine cervix. It has been proposed that LEGH may represent a precursor lesion to a group of mucinous adenocarcinoma with gastric phenotype (GA) that is independent of high-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) is highly expressed in conventional glandular lesions (CGLs). However, expression of CA-IX in LEGH or GA has not been studied. Methods: In all, 12 CGLs, 7 LEGHs, 6 LEGHs with coexisting adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 3) and GA (3) were identified from Japanese women with a cytological diagnosis of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance. Immunostaining was used to detect CA-IX and p16INK4a (hereafter termed p16) protein expression in the tissues and CA-IX protein expression in the Papanicolaou smears (PSs). Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect H-HPV DNA in liquid-based cytology. Results: Out of 12 (83%) CGLs, 10 were positive with H-HPV and high levels of CA-IX expression were seen in all (100%) cases. P16 protein expression was observed in 11 out of 12 (92%) cases. None of the LEGHs, LEGHs with AIS or GA were positive for H-HPV and only 8 out of 13 (62%) showed focal weak (1+) p16 expression. In contrast, all cases (100%) exhibited strong CA-IX protein expression. Conclusion: Our study suggests that there are different molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis resulting in CGLs vs LEGHs associated with AIS or GA. There is also a possible link between LEGHs and GAs. Furthermore, CA-IX expression may serve as a useful biomarker for the detection of GAs in the absence of H-HPV infection. PMID:23299542

  5. Mineral nutrient uptake from prey and glandular phosphatase activity as a dual test of carnivory in semi-desert plants with glandular leaves suspected of carnivory

    PubMed Central

    Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Adamec, Lubomír; Huet, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea parviflora are two American semi-desert species of glandular sticky plants that are suspected of carnivory as they can catch small insects. The same characteristics might also hold for two semi-desert plants with glandular sticky leaves from Israel, namely Cleome droserifolia and Hyoscyamus desertorum. The presence of proteases on foliar hairs, either secreted by the plant or commensals, detected using a simple test, has long been considered proof of carnivory. However, this test does not prove whether nutrients are really absorbed from insects by the plant. To determine the extent to which these four species are potentially carnivorous, hair secretion of phosphatases and uptake of N, P, K and Mg from fruit flies as model prey were studied in these species and in Roridula gorgonias and Drosophyllum lusitanicum for comparison. All species examined possess morphological and anatomical adaptations (hairs or emergences secreting sticky substances) to catch and kill small insects. Methods The presence of phosphatases on foliar hairs was tested using the enzyme-labelled fluorescence method. Dead fruit flies were applied to glandular sticky leaves of experimental plants and, after 10–15 d, mineral nutrient content in their spent carcasses was compared with initial values in intact flies after mineralization. Key Results Phosphatase activity was totally absent on Hyoscyamus foliar hairs, a certain level of activity was usually found in Ibicella, Proboscidea and Cleome, and a strong response was found in Drosophyllum. Roridula exhibited only epidermal activity. However, only Roridula and Drosophyllum took up nutrients (N, P, K and Mg) from applied fruit flies. Conclusions Digestion of prey and absorption of their nutrients are the major features of carnivory in plants. Accordingly, Roridula and Drosophyllum appeared to be fully carnivorous; by contrast, all other species examined are non-carnivorous as they did not meet

  6. Transcriptome 2002 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenbush, John

    2002-01-01

    The Transcriptome 2002 meeting was held March 11-13, 2002 in Seattle, Washington with attendance by more than 300 scientists representing the international community. The scientific program was developed by an international organizing committee. In association with the main meeting, an Image Consortium invitational meeting was organized by Charles Auffray of CNRS and held with approximately 40 participants immediately following the conclusion of the Transcriptome meeting.

  7. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of Brtri1, a gene controlling trichome development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Ye, X L; Hu, F Y; Ren, J; Huang, S N; Liu, W J; Feng, H; Liu, Z Y

    2016-12-02

    Trichomes are derived from the epidermis and constitute an ideal system for studying cell division in plants. Here, a Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) line (FT) without trichomes was crossed with another DH line (PurDH-1) with trichomes to develop an F2 population for fine mapping of trichome control genes. Genetic analysis showed that the trichome phenotype was controlled by a single dominant gene, Brtri1. Using 1226 glabrous individuals in the F2 segregation population, Brtri1 was localized to a 16.84 kb region between markers Pur6-31 and Pur6-39 on chromosome A06. One of the four complete open reading frames within the mapping region, Bra025311, encodes a MYB transcription factor and is highly homologous to the trichome regulatory gene GL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was thus regarded as a candidate gene for Brtri1. Comparative sequencing showed a 5-bp deletion in the third exon of Bra025311 in FT, resulting in a frame-shift mutation. No expression of Bra025311 was detected in FT. A co-dominant indel marker close to this mutation site was developed for marker-assisted selection in Chinese cabbage breeding.

  8. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Transcriptomics studies often rely on partial reference transcriptomes that fail to capture the full catalog of transcripts and their variations. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and assembly algorithms have facilitated the reconstruction of the entire transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), even without a reference genome. However, transcriptome assembly from billions of RNA-seq reads, which are often very short, poses a significant informatics challenge. This Review summarizes the recent developments in transcriptome assembly approaches - reference-based, de novo and combined strategies-along with some perspectives on transcriptome assembly in the near future.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of the glandular breast dose for a digital breast tomosynthesis system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Leonardo; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre Goncalves; Braz, Delson

    2015-12-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a screening and diagnostic modality that acquires images of the breast at multiple angles during a short scan. The Selenia Dimensions (Hologic, Bedford, Mass) DBT system can perform both full-field digital mammography and DBT. The system acquires 15 projections over a 15° angular range (from -7.5° to +7.5°). An important factor in determining the optimal imaging technique for breast tomosynthesis is the radiation dose. In breast imaging, the radiation dose of concern is that deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast because this is the tissue that has a risk of developing cancer. The concept of the normalised mean glandular dose (DgN) has been introduced as the metric for the dose in breast imaging. The DgN is difficult to measure. The Monte Carlo techniques offer an alternative method for a realistic estimation of the radiation dose. The purpose of this work was to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX technique to generate monoenergetic glandular dose data for estimating the breast tissue dose in tomosynthesis for arbitrary spectra as well as to observe the deposited radiation dose by projection on the glandular portion of the breast in a Selenia Dimensions DBT system. A Monte Carlo simulation of the system was developed to compute the DgN in a craniocaudal view. Monoenergetic X-ray beams from 10 to 49 keV in 1-keV increments were used. The simulation utilised the assumption of a homogeneous breast composition and three compositions (0 % glandular, 50 % glandular and 100 % glandular). The glandular and adipose tissue compositions were specified according ICRU Report 44. A skin layer of 4 mm was assumed to encapsulate the breast on all surfaces. The breast size was varied using the chest wall-to-nipple distance (CND) and compressed breast thickness (t). In this work, the authors assumed a CND of 5 cm and the thicknesses ranged from 2 to 8 cm, in steps of 2 cm. The fractional energy absorption increases (up to 44.35 % between

  10. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calcium carbonate and other zinc-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Sarret, Géraldine; Harada, Emiko; Choi, Yong-Eui; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Fakra, Sirine; Marcus, Matthew A; Birschwilks, Mandy; Clemens, Stephan; Manceau, Alain

    2006-07-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants.

  11. Trichomes of Tobacco Excrete Zinc as Zinc-Substituted Calcium Carbonate and Other Zinc-Containing Compounds1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sarret, Géraldine; Harada, Emiko; Choi, Yong-Eui; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Fakra, Sirine; Marcus, Matthew A.; Birschwilks, Mandy; Clemens, Stephan; Manceau, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants. PMID:16731580

  12. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    PubMed

    Oidovsambuu, Odgerel; Nyamsuren, Gunsmaa; Liu, Shuai; Göring, Wolfgang; Engel, Wolfgang; Adham, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Although Vsig1(-/Y) ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y) cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  13. Mayolenes: labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae).

    PubMed

    Smedley, Scott R; Schroeder, Frank C; Weibel, Douglas B; Meinwald, Jerrold; Lafleur, Katie A; Renwick, J Alan; Rutowski, Ronald; Eisner, Thomas

    2002-05-14

    Larvae of the European cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion at their tip. The fluid consists primarily of a series of chemically labile, unsaturated lipids, the mayolenes, which are derived from 11-hydroxylinolenic acid. In bioassays with the ant Crematogaster lineolata, the secretion was shown to be potently deterrent, indicating that the fluid plays a defensive role in nature.

  14. Thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2013-08-01

    Twelve cases of thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation are presented. The patients were 7 men and 5 women aged between 45 and 68 years (average, 56.5 years). Clinically, the patients presented with nonspecific symptoms of chest pain, cough, and fatigue. None of the patients had a history of myasthenia gravis or other autoimmune syndrome. Thymectomy was performed in all patients. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 7 cm in greatest diameter. Macroscopically, the tumors were described as firm and light tan without areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, or cystic change. Histologically, 7 tumors were classified as spindle cell (World Health Organization type A), 2 as mixed spindle cell and conventional (A+B1), 2 as conventional (B1), and 1 as atypical thymoma (B3). In 4 cases, the tumors showed invasion into periadipose thymic tissue. All cases showed the typical growth patterns of their particular subtypes. In addition, a distinct glandular component was present in all cases showing mucinous differentiation in 4 of them. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, and Pax8 and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor 1, and epithelial membrane antigen. Calretinin showed focal weak staining in the nonmucinous glandular components in 3 cases. Follow-up information obtained in 8 patients showed that all were alive and well in a period ranging from 2 to 5 years. The possibility of a glandular component in thymomas should be kept in mind in the assessment of mediastinoscopic biopsies to avoid misdiagnosis for other neoplasms that may require different treatment modalities.

  15. Comparison of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beraldo Oliveira, Bruno; Paixão, Lucas; Donato da Silva, Sabrina; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-06-01

    Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) procedures. Mean glandular dose (DG) values were derived from the incident air kerma (Ki) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients. Ki values were obtained through an ionization chamber positioned in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using appropriate exposure parameters. This work contributes to determine the reliable radiation dose received by the patients and compare DG values provided by this DBT system images.

  16. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    PubMed

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Estimation of the Average Glandular Dose Using the Mammary Gland Image Analysis in Mammography].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomoko; Teramoto, Atsushi; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Satoru; Anno, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Currently, the glandular dose is evaluated quantitatively on the basis of the measured data using phantom, and not in a dose based on the mammary gland structure of an individual patient. However, mammary gland structures of the patients are different from each other and mammary gland dose of an individual patient cannot be obtained by the existing methods. In this study, we present an automated estimation method of mammary gland dose by means of mammary structure which is measured automatically using mammogram. In this method, mammary gland structure is extracted by Gabor filter; mammary region is segmented by the automated thresholding. For the evaluation, mammograms of 100 patients diagnosed with category 1 were collected. Using these mammograms we compared the mammary gland ratio measured by proposed method and visual evaluation. As a result, 78% of the total cases were matched. Furthermore, the mammary gland ratio and average glandular dose among the patients with same breast thickness was matched well. These results show that the proposed method may be useful for the estimation of average glandular dose for the individual patients.

  18. Benign müllerian glandular inclusions in men undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Gallan, Alexander J; Antic, Tatjana

    2016-11-01

    Benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in lymph nodes are commonly seen in women, but to our knowledge, there have only been 4 reported cases in men. Distinction of these glandular structures from metastatic adenocarcinoma is crucial for proper staging, prognosis, and treatment of the patient. We report 3 cases of benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in men undergoing either prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy with lymph node dissection for treatment of prostatic adenocarcinoma and/or urothelial carcinoma. None of the patients were receiving hormonal therapy. All 3 cases showed benign glands with ciliated cuboidal to columnar cells and rare secretory cells, morphologically comparable with endosalpingiosis in women. These glands were diffusely positive for PAX-8, WT-1, estrogen receptor, and progesteron receptor consistent with müllerian origin. Our study is the first to confirm müllerian origin of these glands by PAX-8 and WT-1 positivity. This finding of müllerian glands in men identical to endosalpingiosis in women supports the theory that this entity can result from müllerian metaplasia of the peritoneal mesothelium rather than displacement of tubal-type epithelium. Pathologists should also be aware that müllerian-type glands can rarely occur in men to prevent the incorrect diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma involving a lymph node.

  19. Solitary glandular papilloma of the peripheral lung: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Solitary papilloma of the lung is thought to be a rare benign epithelial tumor, and complete surgical resection is currently the standard treatment for this pathology. However, some cases of papilloma have reportedly shown malignant potential. We report two cases of solitary glandular papilloma of the peripheral lung that were treated by thoracoscopic partial resection. The first patient presented with a nodular lesion in the lower lobe of the left lung that was detected on a follow-up chest computed tomography (CT) scan after treatment for laryngeal cancer. Partial lung resection was performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. In the second patient, a nodular lesion was incidentally identified in the lower lobe of the left lung during a health check-up. Partial lung resection was again performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The postoperative course in both cases was uneventful, and no recurrences have been observed as of 44 months and 41 months postoperatively, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, malignant transformation has been reported both with the squamous type and the mixed type of solitary papilloma of the lung. The glandular variant has shown no tendency toward local recurrence after local excision and has no apparent malignant potential. Local excision is thus recommended for solitary glandular papilloma in order to preserve pulmonary function. PMID:24885310

  20. Solitary glandular papilloma of the peripheral lung: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kaseda, Kaoru; Horio, Hirotoshi; Harada, Masahiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2014-05-19

    Solitary papilloma of the lung is thought to be a rare benign epithelial tumor, and complete surgical resection is currently the standard treatment for this pathology. However, some cases of papilloma have reportedly shown malignant potential. We report two cases of solitary glandular papilloma of the peripheral lung that were treated by thoracoscopic partial resection. The first patient presented with a nodular lesion in the lower lobe of the left lung that was detected on a follow-up chest computed tomography (CT) scan after treatment for laryngeal cancer. Partial lung resection was performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. In the second patient, a nodular lesion was incidentally identified in the lower lobe of the left lung during a health check-up. Partial lung resection was again performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The postoperative course in both cases was uneventful, and no recurrences have been observed as of 44 months and 41 months postoperatively, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, malignant transformation has been reported both with the squamous type and the mixed type of solitary papilloma of the lung. The glandular variant has shown no tendency toward local recurrence after local excision and has no apparent malignant potential. Local excision is thus recommended for solitary glandular papilloma in order to preserve pulmonary function.

  1. Identification of glandular (preputial and clitoral) proteins in house rat (Rattus rattus) involved in pheromonal communication.

    PubMed

    Archunan, G; Kamalakkannan, S; Achiraman, S; Rajkumar, R

    2004-10-01

    Proteins (18-20 kDa) belonging to lipocalin family have been reported to act as carriers for ligands binding to pheromones in mouse urine, pig saliva, hamster vaginal fluid and human sweat, that are involved in pheromonal communication. As the preputial gland is a major pheromonal source, the present study was aimed to detect the specific protein bands (around 18-20 kDa) in the preputial and clitoral glands of the house rat, R. rattus. The amount of protein was higher in preputial gland of the male than that of female (clitoral) gland. A 20 kDa protein was noted in male and female glands; however, the intensity of the band was much higher in male than in female. In addition, 70, 60, 35 kDa bands, identified in male preputial gland, were absent in females. The presence of higher concentration of glandular proteins in the male preputial gland suggests that male rats may depend more on these glandular proteins for the maintenance of reproductive and dominance behaviours. The results further suggest that these glandular proteins (20 kDa) may act as a carrier for ligand binding.

  2. Transcriptomics in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Kristin; Fischer, Beat B; Madureira, Danielle J; Pillai, Smitha

    2010-06-01

    The emergence of analytical tools for high-throughput screening of biomolecules has revolutionized the way in which toxicologists explore the impact of chemicals or other stressors on organisms. One of the most developed and routinely applied high-throughput analysis approaches is transcriptomics, also often referred to as gene expression profiling. The transcriptome represents all RNA molecules, including the messenger RNA (mRNA), which constitutes the building blocks for translating DNA into amino acids to form proteins. The entirety of mRNA is a mirror of the genes that are actively expressed in a cell or an organism at a given time. This in turn allows one to deduce how organisms respond to changes in the external environment. In this article we explore how transcriptomics is currently applied in ecotoxicology and highlight challenges and trends.

  3. Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Shigeto; Kusuda, Tomoko; Liu, Xu-Ping; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Mikami, Yoshiki; Takeshita, Morishige; Nakao, Motonao; Chochi, Yasuyo; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2008-12-01

    Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix. In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurrent chromosomal imbalances, that is, gains of chromosome 3q and a loss of 1p, which were common to MDA and MAC, in 3 of 14 LEGHs analyzed (21%). LEGHs with chromosomal imbalances showed a degree of cellular atypia in the hyperplastic glandular epithelium. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions. HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined. Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions. Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.

  4. Transcriptomics in ecotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Beat B.; Madureira, Danielle J.; Pillai, Smitha

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of analytical tools for high-throughput screening of biomolecules has revolutionized the way in which toxicologists explore the impact of chemicals or other stressors on organisms. One of the most developed and routinely applied high-throughput analysis approaches is transcriptomics, also often referred to as gene expression profiling. The transcriptome represents all RNA molecules, including the messenger RNA (mRNA), which constitutes the building blocks for translating DNA into amino acids to form proteins. The entirety of mRNA is a mirror of the genes that are actively expressed in a cell or an organism at a given time. This in turn allows one to deduce how organisms respond to changes in the external environment. In this article we explore how transcriptomics is currently applied in ecotoxicology and highlight challenges and trends. Figure The transcriptome (RNA) is a mirror of the genes that are actively expressed in a cell or organism at a given time, providing information on how organisms respond to chemicals or other stressors in the environment PMID:20369230

  5. Progress in prokaryotic transcriptomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome-wide expression studies transformed the field of transcriptomics and made it feasible to study global gene expression in extraordinary detail. These studies have revealed an enhanced view of the transcriptional landscape and have yielded many biological insights. Particularly, we are now rea...

  6. The ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 gene acts redundantly with TRIPTYCHON and CAPRICE in trichome and root hair cell patterning in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kirik, Victor; Simon, Marissa; Huelskamp, Martin; Schiefelbein, John

    2004-04-15

    The development of trichomes and root hairs in Arabidopsis provide useful models for the study of cell fate determination in plants. A common network of putative transcriptional regulators, including the small MYB proteins TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC), is known to influence the patterning of both cell types. Here, we used an activation tagging strategy to identify a new regulator, ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 1 (ETC1). The ETC1 sequence is similar to TRY and CPC, and ETC1 overexpression causes a reduction in trichome formation and excessive root hair production. The etc1 single mutant has no significant phenotype, but it enhances the effect of cpc and try on trichome and root hair development, which shows that ETC1 function is partially redundant with TRY and CPC. In addition, the etc1 try cpc triple mutant has novel phenotypes, revealing previously unrecognized roles for these regulators in epidermis development. An ETC1 promoter-reporter gene fusion is expressed in the developing trichome and non-hair cells, similar to the expression of TRY and CPC. These results suggest that ETC1, TRY, and CPC act in concert to repress the trichome cell fate in the shoot epidermis and the non-hair cell fate in the root epidermis.

  7. Evaluation of effective detective quantum efficiency considering breast thickness and glandularity in prototype digital breast tomosynthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Lee, Donghoon; Choi, Young-Wook; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system is a novel imaging modality which is strongly depended on the performance of a detector. Recently, effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) has been introduced to solve the disadvantages of conventional DQE evaluations which do not consider clinical operating conditions. For eDQE evaluation, the variety of patient breast, especially the glandularity and thickness needs to be studied to consider different races of patient. For these reasons, eDQE in a prototype DBT system considering different breast thickness and glandularity was evaluated. In this study, we used the prototype DBT system with CsI(Tl) scintillator/CMOS flat panel digital detector developed by Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI). A scatter fraction, a transmission factor, an effective modulation transfer function (eMTF) and an effective normalized noise power spectrum (eNNPS) were measured in different thickness and glandularity of breast equivalent phantom. As results, scatter fraction increased and transmission fraction decreased by a factor of 2.09 and 6.25, respectively, as increasing glandularity and thickness. We also found that the breast phantom with small thickness presented high eMTF and low eNNPS. As results, eDQE from 4 cm thick breast phantom with 30% and 70% glandularity showed small changes from 0.20 to 0.19 at 0.1 mm-1, whereas eDQE from 50% glandularity of 3 cm and 5 cm presented relatively significant increase from 0.16 to 0.20 at 0.1 mm-1 spatial frequency. These indicated that eDQE was strongly affected by phantom thickness, but the effect of glandularity seemed to be trivial. According to our study, the whole system evaluation considering the races of patients from standard to abnormal cases is needed to be studied in future works.

  8. Foliar trichome- and aquaporin-aided water uptake in a drought-resistant epiphyte Tillandsia ionantha Planchon.

    PubMed

    Ohrui, T; Nobira, H; Sakata, Y; Taji, T; Yamamoto, C; Nishida, K; Yamakawa, T; Sasuga, Y; Yaguchi, Y; Takenaga, H; Tanaka, Shigeo

    2007-12-01

    The atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia ionantha is capable of surviving drought stress for 6 months or more without any exogenous water supply via an as of yet to be determined mechanism. When plants were soaked in water for 3 h, leaves absorbed a remarkably large amount of water (30-40% on the basis of fresh weight), exhibiting a bimodal absorption pattern. Radiolabeled water was taken up by the leaves by capillary action of the epidermal trichomes within 1 min (phase 1) and then transported intracellularly to leaf tissues over 3 h (phase 2). The removal of epidermal trichome wings from leaves as well as rinsing leaves with water significantly lowered the extracellular accumulation of water on leaf surfaces. The intracellular transport of water was inhibited by mercuric chloride, implicating the involvement of a water channel aquaporin in second-phase water absorption. Four cDNA clones (TiPIP1a, TiPIP1b, TiPIP1c, and TiPIP2a) homologous to PIP family aquaporins were isolated from the leaves, and RT-PCR showed that soaking plants in water stimulated the expression of TiPIP2a mRNA, suggesting the reinforcement in ability to rapidly absorb a large amount of water. The expression of TiPIP2a complementary RNA in Xenopus oocytes enhanced permeability, and treatment with inhibitors suggested that the water channel activity of TiPIP2a protein was regulated by phosphorylation. Thus, the high water uptake capability of T. ionantha leaves surviving drought is attributable to a bimodal trichome- and aquaporin-aided water uptake system based on rapid physical collection of water and subsequent, sustained chemical absorption.

  9. Rescue of glandular dysmorphogenesis in PTEN-deficient colorectal cancer epithelium by PPARγ-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Jagan, I; Fatehullah, A; Deevi, R K; Bingham, V; Campbell, F C

    2013-03-07

    Disruption of glandular architecture associates with poor clinical outcome in high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) regulates morphogenic growth of benign MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cells through effects on the Rho-like GTPase cdc42 (cell division cycle 42). This study investigates PTEN-dependent morphogenesis in a CRC model. Stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of PTEN in Caco-2 cells influenced expression or localization of cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors and inhibited cdc42 activation. Parental Caco-2 cells formed regular hollow gland-like structures (glands) with a single central lumen, in three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Conversely, PTEN-deficient Caco-2 ShPTEN cells formed irregular glands with multiple abnormal lumens as well as intra- and/or intercellular vacuoles evocative of the high-grade CRC phenotype. Effects of targeted treatment were investigated. Phosphatidinylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) modulating treatment did not affect gland morphogenesis but did influence gland number, gland size and/or cell size within glands. As PTEN may be regulated by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), cultures were treated with the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone. This treatment enhanced PTEN expression, cdc42 activation and rescued dysmorphogenesis by restoring single lumen formation in Caco-2 ShPTEN glands. Rosiglitazone effects on cdc42 activation and Caco-2 ShPTEN gland development were attenuated by cotreatment with GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist. Taken together, these studies show PTEN-cdc42 regulation of lumen formation in a 3D model of human CRC glandular morphogenesis. Treatment by the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone, but not PI3K modulators, rescued colorectal glandular dysmorphogenesis of PTEN deficiency.

  10. Validation of a transendoscopic glandular and nonglandular gastric biopsy technique in horses.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N L F; Doré, M; Doucet, M Y

    2009-09-01

    In order to study the evolution of histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the gastric mucosa of horses with EGUS (equine gastric ulcer syndrome), a feasible, useful, valid and safe in vivo gastric biopsy technique is required. To determine the average gastric mucosal healing time following endoscopic gastric biopsy sampling, and evaluate the feasibility, safety and usefulness of samples obtained by this method for histopathological analysis. Six mature mares from the Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire research herd were used. Transendoscopic gastric biopsy was performed on Days 0 and 9 using a flexible forceps with oval and fenestrated jaws to obtain gastric mucosal samples from 4 different sites: cardia (C), fundus (F), margo plicatus (MP) and glandular mucosa (GL). A maximum of 4 samples per site was taken and processed routinely for histopathology, evaluated by a pathologist. On Days 1-4 and 9-11 the lesions created by the biopsies were evaluated by gastroscopy. Lesions were evaluated over time based on a score from 0-4, where 4 was the most severe. Biopsy samples could be obtained from all targeted sites except C. No abnormal clinical signs were observed up to 7 days post biopsy. The average biopsy lesion scores decreased significantly with time for all sites. The average lesion score was significantly higher for the MP compared to the other sites at Days 1 and 2. Samples taken from the nonglandular portion of the stomach were considered inadequate for histopathology, while those taken from the glandular mucosa were adequate. The transendoscopic gastric biopsy technique described here is a feasible, safe and useful technique for obtaining samples from the equine gastric glandular mucosa. Although biopsy samples could be obtained from several areas in the nonglandular mucosa, these were very small, took longer to heal and were not considered adequate for histopathological evaluation, and another technique should therefore be validated.

  11. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels in glandular stomach of restrained rats.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, M R; Sharghi, G; Gerayesh-Nejad, S; Djahanguiri, B

    1977-10-01

    Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP were measured in glandular stomach of rats subjected to saline administration, cold (4 degrees C), restraint and restraint+cold after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. All animals subjected to restraint+cold had gastric ulceration after 2 hours. A significant but transient decrease in cAMP was observed 15 minutes after restraint+cold. A marked, sustained and significant decrease of cGMP was observed in the same group of animals. It is concluded that it seems unlikely to be a correlation between cAMP and cGMP changes of the stomach and the restraint-induced gastric ulceration.

  12. Uncertainties involved in the estimation of mean glandular dose for women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP).

    PubMed

    Hauge, I H R; Olerud, H M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to reflect on the estimation of the mean glandular dose for women in Norway aged 50-69 y. Estimation of mean glandular dose (MGD) has been conducted by applying the method of Dance et al. (1990, 2000, 2009). Uncertainties in the thickness of approximately ±10 mm adds uncertainties in the MGD of approximately ±10 %, and uncertainty in the glandularity of ±0 % will lead to an uncertainty in the MGD of ±4 %. However, the inherent uncertainty in the air kerma, given by the European protocol on dosimetry, will add an uncertainty of 12 %. The total uncertainty in the MGD is estimated to be ∼20 %, taking into consideration uncertainties in compressed breast thickness (±10 %), the air kerma (12 %), change in HVL by -0.05 mm (-9.0 %), uncertainty in the s-factor of ±2.1 % and changing the glandularity to an age-dependent glandularity distribution (+8.4 %).

  13. Human papillomavirus-specific genotypes in cervical lesions of women referred for smears with atypical glandular cells or adenocarcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Villa, Luísa Lina; Costa, Maria Cecília; Sarian, Luis Otávio Zanatta; do Amaral Westin, Maria Cristina; Kornegay, Janet; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2009-05-01

    This study was designed to analyze whether specific human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes may predict histologic outcomes in women with glandular abnormalities in their cervical smears. Of the 160 women included, 111 were diagnosed with atypical glandular cells, 35 had both atypical glandular cells and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, whereas 14 women had AIS, in 1 case associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. All women underwent colposcopic examinations and biopsy was performed in 129/160 (80.6%). Thirty-one women (19.3%) were considered negative for neoplasia and scheduled for follow-up. All specimens were tested for 27 HPV genotypes by Roche's polymerase chain reaction-reverse line blot assay. Histologic diagnoses were either cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or invasive carcinoma in 75 (58%) women, and negative for neoplasia in 54 (42%). The overall prevalence of HPV was 43%. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type followed by HPV 18. HPV 16 was significantly associated with squamous and glandular neoplasia and HPV 18 with glandular neoplasia. In women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or 3, 11 different HPV genotypes were found, whereas in those who had invasive glandular or invasive carcinoma HPV 16 and HPV 18 were found predominantly. The detection of HPV 16 in women with glandular abnormalities in cervical smears did not help differentiating squamous from glandular lesions. However, the detection of HPV 53 in abnormal smears can predict squamous neoplasia, whereas HPV 18 can predict glandular neoplasia as histologic diagnoses.

  14. Transcriptomics using axolotls.

    PubMed

    Voss, S Randal; Athippozhy, Antony; Woodcock, M Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Microarray and RNA-sequencing technology now exists for the characterization of the Ambystoma mexicanum transcriptome. With sufficient replication, these tools give the opportunity to truly investigate gene expression in a variety of experimental paradigms. Analysis of data from the Amby002 array and RNA-sequencing technology can identify genes that change expression levels in concert with each other, which in turn may reveal mechanisms associated with biological processes and molecular functions.

  15. [Investigation of quality control and average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography in Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Kurowarabi, Kunio; Abe, Hiroko; Horita, Hiroshi; Kaneta, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire survey about mammography in Hokkaido was mailed to 121 facilities from August to September 2009. We surveyed the conditions of digital mammography with regard to quality control (QC) and average glandular dose at 79 facilities in Hokkaido in 2009, and the results of the survey were compared with those of 2004. We found that digital mammography techniques were widely used across Hokkaido and that computed radiography (CR) systems were quite widespread, with 70% of facilities having them. The average glandular dose ranged from 1.04 to 2.3 mGy (mean: 1.73 mGy) for digital equipment. The results revealed several problems. Although the use of 1-, 2-, and 3-megapixel (MP) liquid crystal displays (LCDs) was not uncommon, 5-MP LCDs were used in most cases when reading digital mammograms. Facilities that have mammography equipment are unlikely to have quality control instruments for mammography. Although daily QC is performed in most facilities, further quality control for digital mammography should be developed, including that for monitors. In a second study, we evaluated the 1 Shot Phantom M Plus (1 Shot Phantom), which enables objective evaluation by providing for one physical measurement rather than a subjective visual analysis. The results indicated that the 1 Shot Phantom was very useful for digital mammography systems in daily QC testing because it enabled objectivity.

  16. Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens

    PubMed Central

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed. PMID:20419093

  17. Benign intestinal glandular lesions in the vagina: a possible correlation with implantation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Lu, Bingjian

    2016-06-17

    Enteric-type glandular lesions are extremely rare in the vagina. Their histological origin remains a matter of speculation at present. We review two rectal mucosal prolapse-like polyps and one intestinal-type adenosis in the vagina. Case 1, a 64-year-old woman, presented with a vaginal polypoid lesion with a size of 4 × 3 × 3 cm. Case 2, an 8-year-old girl, had a 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.8-cm pedunculated polyp in the vaginal navicular fossa and a clinically suspected rectovaginal fistula. Case 1 and 3 had an obsolete severe perineal laceration. On histopathological examination, cases 1 and 2 resembled rectal mucosal prolapse or inflammatory cloacogenic polyp (rectal mucosal prolapse-like polyp). Case 3 had an incidental intestinal-type adenosis in the removed vaginal wall. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the intestinal differentiation in all 3 lesions by showing diffuse CDX2-positive, CK20-positive, and scattered chromogranin A-positive neuroendocrinal cells in the lower compartment of the crypt. In summary, we report herein three unusual cases of benign intestinal-type glandular lesions in the vagina including two rectal mucosal prolapse-like polyps and one case of intestinal-type adenosis, and discuss possibilities for their histogenetic basis.

  18. Glandular epithelium as a possible source of a fertility signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    PubMed

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-04-19

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed.

  19. Cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. A comparative morphological analysis of the entire glandular tree of the breast.

    PubMed

    Sarnelli, R; Squartini, F

    1989-01-01

    Cancerous and clinically normal autopsy obtained breasts were collected in order to compare the physiopathological profile of both types of glandular tree. Each breast was visualized by whole thin sections and observed under a stereomicroscope with removal of the more interesting changes for histology. The comparison was made between 67 atrophic cancerous breasts and 88 atrophic control breasts. The results were as follows: 25% of the cancerous breasts versus 47% of control breasts showed no changes, atypical lobules, microfoci of "in situ" and/or infiltrating cancer were present in 46% of cancerous breasts and in 16% of control breasts, showing a significant correlation with clinical cancer. All other types of functional and proliferative changes, variously associated each other, were found in 29% of cancerous and in 37% of control breasts. Our morphological data agree completely with the statements in follow-up studies carried out on benign breast biopsies. The significant differences in the physiopathological profile of the glandular tree between "normal" and cancerous breasts, confirms that some changes are causally related to clinical cancer.

  20. PTEN controls glandular morphogenesis through a juxtamembrane β-Arrestin1/ARHGAP21 scaffolding complex

    PubMed Central

    Evergren, Emma; Blondel-Tepaz, Elodie; Baillie, George S; Scott, Mark GH

    2017-01-01

    PTEN controls three-dimensional (3D) glandular morphogenesis by coupling juxtamembrane signaling to mitotic spindle machinery. While molecular mechanisms remain unclear, PTEN interacts through its C2 membrane-binding domain with the scaffold protein β-Arrestin1. Because β-Arrestin1 binds and suppresses the Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP21, we hypothesize that PTEN controls Cdc42 -dependent morphogenic processes through a β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 complex. Here, we show that PTEN knockdown (KD) impairs β-Arrestin1 membrane localization, β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 interactions, Cdc42 activation, mitotic spindle orientation and 3D glandular morphogenesis. Effects of PTEN deficiency were phenocopied by β-Arrestin1 KD or inhibition of β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 interactions. Conversely, silencing of ARHGAP21 enhanced Cdc42 activation and rescued aberrant morphogenic processes of PTEN-deficient cultures. Expression of the PTEN C2 domain mimicked effects of full-length PTEN but a membrane-binding defective mutant of the C2 domain abrogated these properties. Our results show that PTEN controls multicellular assembly through a membrane-associated regulatory protein complex composed of β-Arrestin1, ARHGAP21 and Cdc42. PMID:28749339

  1. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Tan, C. K.; Hashimi, Saeed M.; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Wei, Ming Q.

    2014-01-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini) which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies. PMID:24734105

  2. Immunohistochemical evidence: testicular and scented glandular androgen synthesis in muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Weng, J; Zhang, H; Lu, L; Ma, X; Wang, Q; Cao, H; Liu, S; Xu, M; Weng, Q; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    2011-10-19

    In order to elucidate the relationship between androgens and the function of the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) scented glands during the breeding season, we investigated immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 in the muskrat testes and scented glands. Nine adult muskrats were obtained in March (n=3), May (n=3) and July (n=3) 2010. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal P450scc, human placental 3βHSD and porcine testicular P450c17. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature-phase spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules were observed in all testes. Glandular cells, interstitial cells, epithelial cells and excretory tubules were identified in scented glands during the breeding season. P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 were only identified in Leydig cells during the breeding season; P450scc and P450c17 were observed in glandular cells of scented glands, however, 3βHSD was not found in scented glands during the breeding season. These novel findings provide the first evidence showing that scented glands of the muskrats are capable of locally synthesizing androgens and androgens acting via an endocrine, autocrine or paracrine manner may play an important role in scented gland function during the breeding season.

  3. Air kerma calculation in Monte Carlo simulations for deriving normalized glandular dose coefficients in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Russo, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The estimation of the mean glandular dose in mammography using Monte Carlo simulations requires the calculation of the incident air kerma evaluated on the breast surface. In such a calculation, caution should be applied in considering explicitly the presence of the top compression paddle, since Compton scattering in this slab may produce a large spread of the incidence angles of x-ray photons on the scoring surface. Then, the calculation of the incident air kerma should contain the ‘effective’ area of the scoring surface, which takes into account the angle of incidence of photons on such a surface. Using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations with a code previously validated according to the Task Group 195 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, we show that for typical x-ray spectra and energy range adopted in mammography, the resulting discrepancy in the calculation of the incident air kerma may lead to an overestimation from a minimum of 10% up to 12% of normalized dose coefficients and, hence, of the corresponding mean glandular dose if this contribution is not considered.

  4. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and extent of the disease are features of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Güdücü, Nilgün; Sidar, Güliz; Başsüllü, Nuray; Türkmen, Ilknur; Dünder, Ilkkan

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the rate of endocervical glandular involvement, positive surgical margins, multicentricity, and disease extent between low-grade and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Pathology medical records of patients who underwent LEEP were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with negative LEEP results were excluded. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure reports of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, 2, and 3 were compared. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with CIN 1 (n=24), CIN 2 (n=27), and CIN 3 (n=64) when age and surgical margin positivity were considered. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and disease extent were higher in patients with CIN 3 (P=.001, P=.002, and P=.001, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend that patients with endocervical glandular involvement, lesions involving more than two-thirds of the LEEP specimen, and multicentricity be followed up more closely. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Orchestration of microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton in trichome cell shape determination by a plant-unique kinesin.

    PubMed

    Tian, Juan; Han, Libo; Feng, Zhidi; Wang, Guangda; Liu, Weiwei; Ma, Yinping; Yu, Yanjun; Kong, Zhaosheng

    2015-08-19

    Microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (F-actin) function cooperatively to regulate plant cell morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between these two cytoskeletal systems, particularly in cell shape control, remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that introduction of the MyTH4-FERM tandem into KCBP (kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein) during evolution conferred novel functions. The MyTH4 domain and the FERM domain in the N-terminal tail of KCBP physically bind to MTs and F-actin, respectively. During trichome morphogenesis, KCBP distributes in a specific cortical gradient and concentrates at the branching sites and the apexes of elongating branches, which lack MTs but have cortical F-actin. Further, live-cell imaging and genetic analyses revealed that KCBP acts as a hub integrating MTs and actin filaments to assemble the required cytoskeletal configuration for the unique, polarized diffuse growth pattern during trichome cell morphogenesis. Our findings provide significant insights into the mechanisms underlying cytoskeletal regulation of cell shape determination.

  6. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  7. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Porras-Chaverri, M; Galavis, P; Bakic, P; Vetter, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8{sup −}+0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9{sup −}105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses

  8. Effects of induced water stress on leaf trichome density and foliar nutrients of three elm (Ulmus) species: implications for resistance to the elm leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Bosu, Paul P; Wagner, Michael R

    2007-06-01

    Seedlings of three elm species with variable susceptibility to the elm leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola Müller) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were subjected to three water stress treatments (no stress, low stress, and high stress) in a greenhouse experiment. The species tested were Ulmus pumila L. (Siberian elm = highly susceptible), U. parvifolia Jacq. (Chinese elm = resistant), and U. americana L. (American elm = intermediate). The seedlings were analyzed for changes in the levels of selected host traits (trichome density, foliar concentration of nitrogen [N], phosphorus [P], potassium [K], calcium [Ca], magnesium [Mg], iron [Fe], and manganese [Mn]), some of which had previously been implicated in resistance to the elm leaf beetle. Density of leaf abaxial surface trichomes (simple, bulbous, and total trichomes) and foliar Fe and Mg concentrations increased significantly in the highly susceptible Siberian elms under water stress. In contrast, stress reduced trichome density in the moderately susceptible American elms, but it had no effect on levels of foliar mineral nutrients. The stress treatments had no influence on host traits in the resistant Chinese elms. The results suggest that environmental stress can alter plant traits that are likely involved in determining resistance of elms to the elm leaf beetle.

  9. Resistance to the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) by acylsucroses of wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium) trichomes studied in a recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Alba, Juan Manuel; Montserrat, Marta; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Trichome-based host plant resistance is a complex mechanism that could be used in tomato breeding to control arthropod pests. The aims of this work were to evaluate the plant traits (density of trichomes and acylsucrose production) and the functional relationships of these traits with mortality, repellence, and oviposition of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We used a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the wild tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium L. 'TO-937', and the cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. Multiple regression analyses showed that high acylsucrose content and high type-IV trichome density increased mortality and repellence, and reduced oviposition of T. urticae. Single regression analyses showed that a logistic model best explained the relationship between mortality or repellence and acylsucrose content, whereas a negative-exponential model best described the relationship between oviposition and acylsucrose content. Linear models were the best-fits for the three resistance variables with trichome IV density. Probit analysis was used to estimate acylsucrose effective doses, and revealed that 31 and 10% of the RILs produced acylsucrose above the effective doses for 90% mortality or repellence, respectively. Altogether, these results indicate that S. pimpinellifolium may be a suitable genetic source of resistance to spider mites to be used in cultivated tomato.

  10. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Streuli, Charles H

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a crucial role in determining the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and the formation of lumens in glandular tissues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. By using Cre–Lox deletion we show that β1 integrins are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and lumen formation, both in vivo and in a three-dimensional primary culture model in which epithelial cells directly contact a basement membrane. Downstream of basement membrane β1 integrins, Rac1 is not involved; however, ILK is needed to polarize microtubule plus ends at the basolateral membrane and disrupting each of these components prevents lumen formation. The integrin–microtubule axis is necessary for the endocytic removal of apical proteins from the basement-membrane–cell interface and for internal Golgi positioning. We propose that this integrin signalling network controls the delivery of apical components to the correct surface and thereby governs the orientation of polarity and development of lumens.

  11. Endometrial stromal sarcoma with smooth muscle and glandular differentiation of the feline uterus.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Maeda, H; Suzuki, A; Shibuya, H; Sakata, A; Shirai, W

    2007-05-01

    The intra-abdominal tumor developing in the uterus and lung of a domestic Shorthair cat was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The tumor showed a proliferation of both endometrial stromal and smooth muscle cells accompanied by prominent vasculature. There were well-differentiated endometrial glands, and tubuli made up a monolayer of eosinophilic cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, the spindle-shaped cells and half of the stromal-like cells reacted to caldesmon and desmin antibodies. The neoplastic epithelium expressed AE1/AE3 cytokeratin. Feline endometrial stromal tumor has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported previously and has smooth muscle and glandular components that are a unique variant to the human counterpart.

  12. Glandular odontogenic cyst: a rare entity revealed and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Anchlia, Sonal; Bahl, Sumit; Shah, Vandana; Vyas, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    A glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a developmental cyst that is a clinically rare and histopathologically unusual type of odontogenic cyst. GOCs are now relatively well-known entities; their importance relates to the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence rates from 21% to 55%, similar to odontogenic keratocysts, and may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Furthermore, some microscopic features of GOCs may also be found in dentigerous, botryoid, radicular and surgical ciliated cysts. The present case report aims to describe a typical case of GOC, throwing light on its epidemiology and origin, as well as on its clinical, radiographic and microscopic features, which may be helpful for diagnosis in problematic cases, long-term follow-up and to determine the most appropriate treatment. PMID:26297768

  13. Chemistry of fruit flies: Glandular secretion ofBactrocera (Polistomimetes) visenda (Hardy).

    PubMed

    Krohn, S; Fletcher, M T; Kitching, W; Moore, C J; Drew, R A; Francke, W

    1992-12-01

    The major component (>90% of volatiles) of the male rectal glandular extract of the nonpest speciesBactrocera visenda (Hardy) is 3-methyl2-butenyl acetate, with minor components being the isomeric 3-methyl-3-butenyl acetate, the homologous esters, 3-methyl-2-butenyl propanoate and 3-methyl-2-butenyl formate, along with 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butenal, and 3-methylbutyl acetate. None of these compounds has been identified previously from aBactrocera species, supporting the view thatBactrocera visenda is taxonomically distant from otherBactrocera species identified from the Australian mainland. This collection of compounds adds to the known types utilized by dipteran species and emphasizes their extensive biosynthetic capability.

  14. Conformance of mean glandular dose from phantom and patient data in mammography.

    PubMed

    Kelaranta, A; Toroi, P; Timonen, M; Komssi, S; Kortesniemi, M

    2015-04-01

    In mammography dosimetry, phantoms are often used to represent breast tissue. The conformance of phantom- and patient-based mean glandular dose (MGD) estimates was evaluated mainly from the aspect of diagnostic reference levels. Patient and phantom exposure data were collected for eight diagnostic and three screening mammography devices. More extensive assessments were performed for two devices. The average breast thickness was close to the nationally used reference of 50 mm in diagnostic (50 mm, SD = 13 mm, n = 5342) and screening (47 mm, SD = 13 mm, n = 395) examinations. The average MGD for all breasts differed by 2% from the MGD determined for breasts in the limited compressed thickness range of 40-60 mm. The difference between phantom- and patient-based MGD estimations was up to 30%. Therefore, phantom measurements cannot replace patient dose data in MGD determination.

  15. Effect of filter on average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songsaeng, C.; Krisanachinda, A.; Theerakul, K.

    2016-03-01

    To determine the average glandular dose and entrance surface air kerma in both phantoms and patients to assess image quality for different target-filters (W/Rh and W/Ag) in digital mammography system. The compressed breast thickness, compression force, average glandular dose, entrance surface air kerma, peak kilovoltage and tube current time were recorded and compared between W/Rh and W/Ag target filter. The CNR and the figure of merit were used to determine the effect of target filter on image quality. The mean AGD of the W/Rh target filter was 1.75 mGy, the mean ESAK was 6.67 mGy, the mean CBT was 54.1 mm, the mean CF was 14 1bs. The mean AGD of W/Ag target filter was 2.7 mGy, the mean ESAK was 12.6 mGy, the mean CBT was 75.5 mm, the mean CF was 15 1bs. In phantom study, the AGD was 1.2 mGy at 4 cm, 3.3 mGy at 6 cm and 3.83 mGy at 7 cm thickness. The FOM was 24.6, CNR was 9.02 at thickness 6 cm. The FOM was 18.4, CNR was 8.6 at thickness 7 cm. The AGD from Digital Mammogram system with W/Rh of thinner CBT was lower than the AGD from W/Ag target filter.

  16. Glandular Proteome Identifies Antiprotease Cystatin C as a Critical Modulator of Airway Hydration and Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T. Idil Apak; Joo, Nam Soo; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Yan, Ziying; Tyler, Scott R.; Xie, Weiliang; Zhang, Yulong; Hsiao, Jordy J.; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Wright, Michael E.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel lead to viscous secretions from submucosal glands that cannot be properly hydrated and cleared by beating cilia in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. The mechanisms by which CFTR, and the predominant epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), control the hydration and clearance of glandular secretions remain unclear. We used a proteomics approach to characterize the proteins contained in CF and non-CF submucosal gland fluid droplets and found that differentially regulated proteases (cathepsin S and H) and their antiprotease (cystatin C) influenced the equilibration of fluid on the airway surface and tracheal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Contrary to prevailing models of airway hydration and clearance, cystatin C, or raising the airway surface liquid (ASL) pH, inhibited cathepsin-dependent ENaC-mediated fluid absorption and raised the height of ASL, and yet decreased MCC velocity. Importantly, coupling of both CFTR and ENaC activities were required for effective MCC and for effective ASL height equilibration after volume challenge. Cystatin C–inhibitable cathepsins controlled initial phases of ENaC-mediated fluid absorption, whereas CFTR activity was required to prevent ASL dehydration. Interestingly, CF airway epithelia absorbed fluid more slowly owing to reduced cysteine protease activity in the ASL but became abnormally dehydrated with time. Our findings demonstrate that, after volume challenge, pH-dependent protease-mediated coupling of CFTR and ENaC activities are required for rapid fluid equilibration at the airway surface and for effective MCC. These findings provide new insights into how glandular fluid secretions may be equilibrated at the airway surface and how this process may be impaired in CF. PMID:26334941

  17. Estimation of mean glandular dose for patients who undergo mammography and studying the factors affecting it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzanje, Sana L. N. H.; Harki, Edrees M. Tahir Nury

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine mean glandular dose (MGD) during diagnostic mammography. This study was done in two hospitals in Hawler city in Kurdistan -region /Iraq, the exposure parameters kVp and mAs was recorded for 40 patients under go mammography. The MGD estimated by multiplied ESD with normalized glandular dose (Dn). The ESD measured indirectly by measuring output radiation mGy/mAs by using PalmRAD 907 as a suitable detector (Gigger detector).the results; shown that the mean and its standard deviation of MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography are (0.95±0.18)mGy and (0.99±0.26)mGy, respectively. And there is a significant difference between MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography views (p≤0. 05). Also the mean value and its standard deviation of MGD for screen film mammography is (0.96±0.21) for CC projection and (1.03±0.3) mGy for MLO projection, but mean value and its standard deviation evaluated of MGD for digital mammography is (0.92±0.17) mGy for CC projection and (0.98±0.2) mGy for MLO projection. As well as, the effect of kVp and mAs in MGD were studied, shows that in general as kVp and mAs increased the MGD increased accordingly in both of mammography systems.

  18. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    PubMed

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  19. The genetics of extreme microgeographic adaptation: an integrated approach identifies a major gene underlying leaf trichome divergence in Yellowstone Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Margaret F; Finseth, Findley R; Mathiasson, Minna E; Palmer, Kristen A; Broder, Emma M; Breigenzer, Peter; Fishman, Lila

    2016-11-01

    Microgeographic adaptation provides a particularly interesting context for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic divergence and may also present unique empirical challenges. In particular, plant adaptation to extreme soil mosaics may generate barriers to gene flow or shifts in mating system that confound simple genomic scans for adaptive loci. Here, we combine three approaches - quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of candidate intervals in controlled crosses, population resequencing (PoolSeq) and analyses of wild recombinant individuals - to investigate one trait associated with Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower) adaptation to geothermal soils in Yellowstone National Park. We mapped a major QTL causing dense leaf trichomes in thermally adapted plants to a <50-kb region of linkage Group 14 (Tr14) previously implicated in trichome divergence between independent M. guttatus populations. A PoolSeq scan of Tr14 region revealed a cluster of six genes, coincident with the inferred QTL peak, with high allele frequency differences sufficient to explain observed phenotypic differentiation. One of these, the R2R3 MYB transcription factor Migut.N02661, is a plausible functional candidate and was also strongly associated (r(2)  = 0.27) with trichome phenotype in analyses of wild-collected admixed individuals. Although functional analyses will be necessary to definitively link molecular variants in Tr14 with trichome divergence, our analyses are a major step in that direction. They point to a simple, and parallel, genetic basis for one axis of Mimulus guttatus adaptation to an extreme habitat, suggest a broadly conserved genetic basis for trichome variation across flowering plants and pave the way for further investigations of this challenging case of microgeographic incipient speciation.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation studies for the determination of microcalcification thickness and glandular ratio through dual-energy mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Lama, L. S.; Godeli, J.; Poletti, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of breast carcinomas can be associated to the presence of calcifications before the development of a mass. However, the overlapping tissues can obscure the visualization of microcalcification clusters due to the reduced contrast-noise ratio (CNR). In order to overcome this complication, one potential solution is the use of the dual-energy (DE) technique, in which two different images are acquired at low (LE) and high (HE) energies or kVp to highlight specific lesions or cancel out tissue background. In this work, the DE features were computationally studied considering simulated acquisitions from a modified PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. The employed irradiation geometry considered typical distances used in digital mammography, a CsI detection system and an updated breast model composed of skin, microcalcifications and glandular and adipose tissues. The breast thickness ranged from 2 to 6 cm with glandularities of 25%, 50% and 75%, where microcalcifications with dimensions from 100 up to 600 μm were positioned. In general, results pointed an efficiency index better than 87% for the microcalcification thicknesses and better than 95% for the glandular ratio. The simulations evaluated in this work can be used to optimize the elements from the DE imaging chain, in order to become a complementary tool for the conventional single-exposure images, especially for the visualization and estimation of calcification thicknesses and glandular ratios.

  1. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F. |; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Castillon, N.; Terryn, C.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E. , E-Mail: edith.puchelle@univ-reims.fr; Balossier, G.

    2005-10-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na{sup +} absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, P, S and Cl{sup -}) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR{sub inh}-172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF.

  2. Dual-energy digital mammography: calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio.

    PubMed

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C

    2003-06-01

    Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were approximately 50 microm for the aluminum thickness and approximately 0.05 for the glandular ratio.

  3. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Izdihar; Chelliah, Kanaga K; Mustafa, Nawal

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD) of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50) and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80) commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA) with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy) for two dimension (2D) and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D) images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error.

  4. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Izdihar; Chelliah, Kanaga K.; Mustafa, Nawal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD) of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50) and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80) commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA) with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy) for two dimension (2D) and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D) images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error. PMID:26052465

  5. Inside the granulosa transcriptome.

    PubMed

    D'Aurora, Marco; Sperduti, Samantha; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Stuppia, Liborio; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-12-01

    The somatic component of follicular structure is a mixture of different cell types, represented by Granulosa cells (GCs) that are the paracrine regulators of the oocyte growth. GCs finely support this process by a continuous bidirectional talk with oocyte, which ensure oocyte quality and competence. Specific pathways are involved in the cross-talk and in both GCs and oocyte development. This review summarizes data from GCs gene expression analysis concerning both their physiological role and their interaction with oocyte. We also explore the CGs transcriptome modifications induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) or pathological conditions and their impact in reproduction. The transcriptome analysis of GCs could be a powerful tool to improve our knowledge about the pathways involved in oocyte development. This approach, associated with new technologies as RNA-seq could allow the identifications of new noninvasive biological markers of oocyte quality to increase the efficiency of clinical IVF. Moreover, GCs expression analysis could be useful to shed light on new therapeutic targets by providing new options for the treatment of infertility.

  6. Gastrointestinal immunophenotype in adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix and related glandular lesions: a possible link between lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia/pyloric gland metaplasia and 'adenoma malignum'.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshiki; Kiyokawa, Takako; Hata, Sakae; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Moriya, Takuya; Sasano, Hironobu; Manabe, Toshiaki; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Tase, Toru; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Sato, Ikuro; Tateno, Hiroo; Naganuma, Hiroshi

    2004-08-01

    Gastrointestinal phenotype in cervical adenocarcinomas was examined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with morphologic features. Antibody panels included anti-MUC2, MUC6, CD10, chromogranin A (CGA) and HIK1083. In addition, expression of p16INK4, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor which is expressed in a variety of high-risk HPV-related conditions, was studied. A total of 94 invasive adenocarcinomas including 20 minimal deviation adenocarcinomas (MDAs) and 72 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS) were examined. MDAs were most frequently positive for HIK1083 and/or MUC6, two representative gastric markers, with a rate of 95%, followed by intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (IAs) with a rate of 85% whereas only 27% of 56 usual endocervical-type adenocarcinomas (UEAs) were positive. MUC2, a goblet cell marker, was positive in 85% and 25% of IAs and MDAs, respectively, while in only 14% of UEAs. CD10 was positive in 15% of IAs, indicating incomplete intestinal differentiation without a brush border in most of the cases. CGA-positive cells were frequently seen in MDAs and IAs with rates of 60% and 62%, respectively. Nuclear and cytoplasmic p16INK4 positivity was identified in 93% of UEAs, whereas 30% of MDAs were positive for p16INK4. Results in AISs were comparable to their invasive counterparts, but morphologically usual-type AISs identified in eight cases of MDA were frequently positive for HIK1083 (75%) and MUC6 (63%), and p16INK4. Of note was the existence of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) with atypical features including cytologic abnormalities, and/or papillary projection, which were identified in this study in pure form (n=3) or in association with MDAs (n=6), but not in cases of other types of adenocarcinomas. These observations indicate that gastrointestinal phenotype is frequently expressed in MDAs and IAs, and there seems to be a possible link between MDA, and LEGH and morphologically usual-type AIS with gastric immunophenotype in histogenesis

  7. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    PubMed

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Chondrocyte channel transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Rebecca; May, Hannah; Mobasheri, Ali; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To date, a range of ion channels have been identified in chondrocytes using a number of different techniques, predominantly electrophysiological and/or biomolecular; each of these has its advantages and disadvantages. Here we aim to compare and contrast the data available from biophysical and microarray experiments. This letter analyses recent transcriptomics datasets from chondrocytes, accessible from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). We discuss whether such bioinformatic analysis of microarray datasets can potentially accelerate identification and discovery of ion channels in chondrocytes. The ion channels which appear most frequently across these microarray datasets are discussed, along with their possible functions. We discuss whether functional or protein data exist which support the microarray data. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression in osteoarthritis and healthy cartilage is also discussed and we verify the differential expression of 2 of these genes, namely the genes encoding large calcium-activated potassium (BK) and aquaporin channels. PMID:23995703

  9. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  10. Advances in Swine Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Tuggle, Christopher K.; Wang, Yanfang; Couture, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    The past five years have seen a tremendous rise in porcine transcriptomic data. Available porcine Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) have expanded greatly, with over 623,000 ESTs deposited in Genbank. ESTs have been used to expand the pig-human comparative maps, but such data has also been used in many ways to understand pig gene expression. Several methods have been used to identify genes differentially expressed (DE) in specific tissues or cell types under different treatments. These include open screening methods such as suppression subtractive hybridization, differential display, serial analysis of gene expression, and EST sequence frequency, as well as closed methods that measure expression of a defined set of sequences such as hybridization to membrane arrays and microarrays. The use of microarrays to begin large-scale transcriptome analysis has been recently reported, using either specialized or broad-coverage arrays. This review covers published results using the above techniques in the pig, as well as unpublished data provided by the research community, and reports on unpublished Affymetrix data from our group. Published and unpublished bioinformatics efforts are discussed, including recent work by our group to integrate two broad-coverage microarray platforms. We conclude by predicting experiments that will become possible with new anticipated tools and data, including the porcine genome sequence. We emphasize that the need for bioinformatics infrastructure to efficiently store and analyze the expanding amounts of gene expression data is critical, and that this deficit has emerged as a limiting factor for acceleration of genomic understanding in the pig. PMID:17384733

  11. Anguillid Herpesvirus 1 Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    van Beurden, Steven J.; Gatherer, Derek; Kerr, Karen; Galbraith, Julie; Herzyk, Pawel; Peeters, Ben P. H.; Rottier, Peter J. M.; Engelsma, Marc Y.

    2012-01-01

    We used deep sequencing of poly(A) RNA to characterize the transcriptome of an economically important eel virus, anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV1), at a stage during the lytic life cycle when infectious virus was being produced. In contrast to the transcription of mammalian herpesviruses, the overall level of antisense transcription from the 248,526-bp genome was low, amounting to only 1.5% of transcription in predicted protein-coding regions, and no abundant, nonoverlapping, noncoding RNAs were identified. RNA splicing was found to be more common than had been anticipated previously. Counting the 10,634-bp terminal direct repeat once, 100 splice junctions were identified, of which 58 were considered likely to be involved in the expression of functional proteins because they represent splicing between protein-coding exons or between 5′ untranslated regions and protein-coding exons. Each of the 30 most highly represented of these 58 splice junctions was confirmed by RT-PCR. We also used deep sequencing to identify numerous putative 5′ and 3′ ends of AngHV1 transcripts, confirming some and adding others by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The findings prompted a revision of the AngHV1 genome map to include a total of 129 protein-coding genes, 5 of which are duplicated in the terminal direct repeat. Not counting duplicates, 11 genes contain integral, spliced protein-coding exons, and 9 contain 5′ untranslated exons or, because of alternative splicing, 5′ untranslated and 5′ translated exons. The results of this study sharpen our understanding of AngHV1 genomics and provide the first detailed view of a fish herpesvirus transcriptome. PMID:22787220

  12. Variants of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18: histological findings in women referred for atypical glandular cells or adenocarcinoma in situ in cervical smear.

    PubMed

    Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena; Villa, Luísa Lina; Derchain, Sophie Françoise; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sarian, Luis Otávio Zanatta; Angelo-Andrade, Liliana Aparecida Lucci; do Amaral Westin, Maria Cristina; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2006-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes cannot fully explain the histological diagnosis of women with glandular abnormalities detected by cervical smear. Thus, this study was designed to analyze the distribution of HPV-16 and HPV-18 variants in women referred because of atypical glandular cells and adenocarcinoma in situ in their cervical smears and its association with histological results. Twenty-four women with HPV-16 and 6 with HPV-18, selected from 160 women with cervical smears suggestive of glandular abnormalities, were included. Histological results showed cervicitis (1 case), squamous neoplasia (18 cases), glandular neoplasia (7 cases), and glandular neoplasia associated with a squamous component (4 cases). Among the 24 cases presenting HPV-16, the European variant was detected in 15 (62%) and the Asian American in 9 (38%). Among the 15 cases associated with the European variant, 14 (93%) presented squamous neoplasia and 1 (7%) invasive adenocarcinoma. Asian-American HPV-16 variants were significantly associated with histological diagnosis of glandular neoplasia alone (odds ratio, 9.3 [1.4-60.2]) or associated with squamous neoplasia (odds ratio, 18.7 [1.5-232.3]). Adenocarcinomas were detected in 4 of 6 HPV-18-positive cases, being 2 cases had the European variant, 1 had the Asian Amerindian variant, and 1 had the African variant. The association of HPV-16 with squamous or glandular neoplasia is explained by its variants. In this study, squamous neoplasia was related to the European variant of HPV-16, whereas glandular neoplasia was related to the Asian-American variant. Glandular neoplasia is associated with HPV-18, but the results of our analysis of its variants were inconclusive.

  13. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code.

    PubMed

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. "Midi-future" digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD.

  14. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code

    PubMed Central

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Background X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. Materials and Methods We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. “Midi-future” digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. Results MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. Conclusion By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD. PMID:27895876

  15. Value of HPV-DNA test in women with cytological diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC).

    PubMed

    Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena; Villa, Luísa Lina; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Costa, Maria Cecília; do Amaral Westin, Maria Cristina; de Ângelo-Andrade, Liliana Aparecida Lucci; Derchain, Sophie

    2011-11-01

    This study analyzed whether HPV (human papillomavirus) testing contributes towards defining histological abnormalities in women with atypical glandular cells (AGC) diagnosed at cervical cytology. One hundred and eight women with conventional cervical cancer screening smears suggestive of AGC not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS) and favor neoplastic (AGC-FN) were consecutively enrolled. All women underwent colposcopic examinations and biopsy was performed according to the cytopathologic and/or colposcopic abnormalities present. All specimens were tested for high risk HPV genotypes by Roche's polymerase chain reaction reverse line blot assay. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between HPV findings and a diagnosis of high-grade pre-invasive or invasive disease (CIN 2 or worse) taking negative tests or CIN 1 as a reference. Odds ratios (OR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used to evaluate the magnitude of the association between HPV testing and CIN 2 or worse. Sensitivity, specificity and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were also calculated. Final diagnosis revealed a negative outcome in 80 cases (74%), cervical epithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1) in 13 cases (12%), CIN 2 or worse in 12 cases (11%) and glandular neoplasia in 3 (3%) cases. The overall detection rate of HPV was 21% (23/108). Neoplasia was significantly associated with positive HPV-DNA in women with AGC-NOS (OR=15.21; 95%CI: 2.64-87.50); however, there was no significant association between a histological diagnosis of neoplasia and HPV positivity in women with AGC-FN (OR=3.00; 95%CI: 0.36-24.92). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of HPV-DNA testing for the detection of CIN 2 or worse in women with AGC-NOS were 71%, 86%, 29% and 97%, respectively. In women with AGC-FN, these values were 50%, 75%, 66% and 60%, respectively. HPV

  16. A Monte Carlo model for mean glandular dose evaluation in spot compression mammography.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Antonio; Dance, David R; van Engen, Ruben E; Young, Kenneth C; Russo, Paolo; Di Lillo, Francesca; Mettivier, Giovanni; Bliznakova, Kristina; Fei, Baowei; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the dependence of normalized glandular dose (DgN) on various breast model and image acquisition parameters during spot compression mammography and other partial breast irradiation conditions, and evaluate alternative previously proposed dose-related metrics for this breast imaging modality. Using Monte Carlo simulations with both simple homogeneous breast models and patient-specific breasts, three different dose-related metrics for spot compression mammography were compared: the standard DgN, the normalized glandular dose to only the directly irradiated portion of the breast (DgNv), and the DgN obtained by the product of the DgN for full field irradiation and the ratio of the mid-height area of the irradiated breast to the entire breast area (DgNM ). How these metrics vary with field-of-view size, spot area thickness, x-ray energy, spot area and position, breast shape and size, and system geometry was characterized for the simple breast model and a comparison of the simple model results to those with patient-specific breasts was also performed. The DgN in spot compression mammography can vary considerably with breast area. However, the difference in breast thickness between the spot compressed area and the uncompressed area does not introduce a variation in DgN. As long as the spot compressed area is completely within the breast area and only the compressed breast portion is directly irradiated, its position and size does not introduce a variation in DgN for the homogeneous breast model. As expected, DgN is lower than DgNv for all partial breast irradiation areas, especially when considering spot compression areas within the clinically used range. DgNM underestimates DgN by 6.7% for a W/Rh spectrum at 28 kVp and for a 9 × 9 cm(2) compression paddle. As part of the development of a new breast dosimetry model, a task undertaken by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the European Federation of Organizations of Medical Physics

  17. Observations on aggregated lymphoid nodules in the cardiac glandular areas of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Hui

    2003-09-01

    Aggregated lymphoid nodules are an important part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). They are mainly distributed in the ileum and appendix of animals and humans but their distribution in the cardiac glandular area has not been reported. A study of stomach histology in the Bactrian camel has revealed that the nodules are distributed as a band-like region along the ventral wall of the stomach neck, at the beginning of the cranial enlargement and on the lesser curvature. The mucous folds are thicker in these regions than where there are no aggregated lymphoid nodules. The nodules appeared similar to ileal aggregated lymphoid nodules found in other animals and consisted of typical polymorphological lymphatic nodules arranged in a single continuous row occupying the submucosa and forming mucosal folds together with the mucous membrane. The whole mucous membrane with cardiac glands, diffuse lymphatic tissue and solitary lymphoid nodules in the lamina propria were found to cover the aggregated lymphoid nodule regions, but some nodules with a typical corona extended into the lamina propria and were covered with follicle-associated epithelium devoid of cardiac glands. These findings indicate that the stomach of the Bactrian camel possesses not only a special structure of digestion but also has characteristic immunological morphology.

  18. 20-year Follow-up of Recurrent Glandular Odontogenic Cyst Mimicking a Periapical Lesion.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; Yamamoto-Silva, Fernanda Paula; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; Silva Sant'Ana, Simone Sousa; Mariano-Júnior, Wilson José; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-07-29

    Periapical lesions usually are caused by root canal infection; nevertheless, other pathologies may eventually involve the tooth apex, making the correct diagnosis more difficult. Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are uncommon and, despite their cystic nature, may present an aggressive behavior and a high recurrence rate. This report describes a recurrent GOC mimicking a periapical lesion that was followed up for 20 years. A 45-year-old woman described tooth discomfort for several years in the anterior region of the mandible that was not exacerbated during eating or occlusion. Clinical examination revealed no signs of swelling, redness, or inflammation in the gingival or surrounding soft tissue. Nevertheless, periapical radiography showed a well-defined large radiolucent lesion in the periapical region of teeth #22, #23, #24, and #25. The pulp test confirmed that all these teeth were vital. An incisional biopsy was performed, and with the histopathological diagnosis of an odontogenic cyst, the lesion was enucleated surgically. After recurrence, the extensive periapical multilocular lesions were again surgically removed. Based on the microscopic findings, the final diagnosis was GOC. One year later, there were no signs of recurrence. GOCs associated with the root apex may mimic periapical inflammatory diseases. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are essential for the diagnosis of inconclusive radiolucent findings in the periapical region. Biopsy specimens should be sent to a specialized oral pathology laboratory. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, suggesting glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research.

  20. A solitary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Kozu, Yoshiki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (mixed papilloma) of the lung is exceedingly rare, with only 18 cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of mixed papilloma and its associated immunohistochemical and positron emission tomographic (PET) findings. A 60-year-old Japanese male with a smoking history of 40 pack-years presented with a smooth-edged pulmonary lesion in the right S5 segment on computed tomography (CT). F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET revealed abnormally increased FDG uptake in the mass (maximum standardized uptake value, 3.4). We performed right middle lobectomy and combined partial resection of the S8 segment. The 1.8-cm tumor that filled the enlarged lumen of the B5b was histologically diagnosed as mixed papilloma. Immunohistochemically, the pseudostratified columnar epithelium was positive for cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and CK7. p40 positivity was predominant in the basal and squamous cells. Thyroid transcription factor-1 and carcinoembryonic antigen were negative on immunostaining. Malignant features were absent. The postoperative course has been uneventful for 3 months after the surgery. No recurrences were reported after the surgical resection of the mixed papilloma. Therefore, surgical resection may be considered the mainstay of curative treatment.

  1. Glandular odontogenic cyst: review of literature and report of a new case with cytokeratin-19 expression.

    PubMed

    Mascitti, Marco; Santarelli, Andrea; Sabatucci, Antonio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Zizzi, Antonio; Rubini, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) was a rare jawbone cyst described in 1988 as a distinct entity. This lesion can involve either jaw, and the anterior region of the mandible was the most commonly affected area. Clinical and radiographic findings were not specific, and the diagnosis of GOC can be extremely difficult due to the rarity of this lesion. The cyst presented a wall constituted by fibrous connective tissue and was lined by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of variable thickness. Large areas of the lining epithelium presented cylinder cells, sometimes ciliated. A variable amount of mucina was occasionally noted. Due to the strong similarities, this cyst can be easily misdiag-nosed as a central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). Immunohistochemistry may be an aid in diagnosis; in fact has been demonstrated that there were differences in the expression of cytokeratins (CK) in GOC and CMEC. In this study, we reported a new case of GOC in a 38 year female patient. In addition, we carried out a review of 110 previous cases reported in literature.

  2. Single-cell analysis of glandular T cell receptors in Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Christina; Pelikan, Richard C.; Moore, Jacen S.; Pan, Zijian; Radfar, Lida; Lewis, David M.; Grundahl, Kiely M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Wiley, Graham B.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Stone, Donald U.; Scofield, R. Hal; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Thompson, Linda F.; Farris, A. Darise

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells predominate in salivary gland (SG) inflammatory lesions in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). However, their antigen specificity, degree of clonal expansion, and relationship to clinical disease features remain unknown. We used multiplex reverse-transcriptase PCR to amplify paired T cell receptor α (TCRα) and β transcripts of single CD4+CD45RA– T cells from SG and peripheral blood (PB) of 10 individuals with primary SS, 9 of whom shared the HLA DR3/DQ2 risk haplotype. TCRα and β sequences were obtained from a median of 91 SG and 107 PB cells per subject. The degree of clonal expansion and frequency of cells expressing two productively rearranged α genes were increased in SG versus PB. Expanded clones from SG exhibited complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequence similarity both within and among subjects, suggesting antigenic selection and shared antigen recognition. CDR3 similarities were shared among expanded clones from individuals discordant for canonical Ro and La autoantibodies, suggesting recognition of alternative SG antigen(s). The extent of SG clonal expansion correlated with reduced saliva production and increased SG fibrosis, linking expanded SG T cells with glandular dysfunction. Knowledge of paired TCRα and β sequences enables further work toward identification of target antigens and development of novel therapies. PMID:27358913

  3. Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung: a case study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Inamura, Kentaro; Kumasaka, Toshio; Furuta, Reiko; Shimada, Kei; Hiyama, Noriko; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Isao; Takemura, Tamiko

    2011-04-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (mixed papilloma) of the lung is an extremely rare neoplasm, with only 10 cases reported so far in the English literature. We present a case study of endobronchial mixed papilloma with immunohistochemical and etiological investigations. A 49-year-old male with a smoking history complained of hemoptysis, presented with a lung mass closely adjacent to large vessels in the computed tomography findings, and underwent lobectomy. The 3.0-cm sized polypoid tumor was histologically diagnosed as endobronchial mixed papilloma. Immunohistochemically, intracellular mucin was positive for MUC5AC, which is expressed in tracheobronchial goblet cells. CAM5.2 and CK19 were diffusely positive, indicating that the tumor originated from the columnar epithelium by squamous metaplasia. CEA and CA19-9 were focally positive. A human papillomavirus (HPV) investigation with in situ hybridization using a wide spectrum probe and a newly-developed PCR system did not detect any HPV infection. Including this case with a detailed HPV investigation, all of the reported cases of mixed papilloma were HPV-negative, and a literature review including newly-reported cases indicated a high frequency of smoking in such cases. Endobronchial mixed papillomas might have a smoking-related etiology. © 2011 The Authors. Pathology International © 2011 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Coherent angular motion in the establishment of multicellular architecture of glandular tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Kandice; Mori, Hidetoshi; Mroue, Rana; Bruni-Cardoso, Alexandre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular tissues form ducts (tubes) and acini (spheres) in multicellular organisms. This process is best demonstrated in the organization of the ductal tree of the mammary gland and in 3D models of morphogenesis in culture. Here, we asked a fundamental question: How do single adult epithelial cells generate polarized acini when placed in a surrogate basement membrane 3D gel? Using human breast epithelial cells from either reduction mammoplasty or nonmalignant breast cell lines, we observed a unique cellular movement where single cells undergo multiple rotations and then maintain it cohesively as they divide to assemble into acini. This coherent angular motion (CAMo) was observed in both primary cells and breast cell lines. If CAMo was disrupted, the final geometry was not a sphere. The malignant counterparts of the human breast cell lines in 3D were randomly motile, did not display CAMo, and did not form spheres. Upon “phenotypic reversion” of malignant cells, both CAMo and spherical architecture were restored. We show that cell-cell adhesion and tissue polarity are essential for the formation of acini and link the functional relevance of CAMo to the establishment of spherical architecture rather than to multicellular aggregation or growth. We propose that CAMo is an integral step in the formation of the tissue architecture and that its disruption is involved in malignant transformation. PMID:22308439

  5. Clinical picture of primary HIV infection presenting as a glandular-fever-like illness.

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, H.; von Sydow, M.; Pehrson, P. O.; Lundbegh, P.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical symptoms and signs were assessed in 20 consecutive patients developing infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All were male homosexuals and all presented with a glandular-fever-like illness. Changes in laboratory values were compared with findings in 40 HIV negative male homosexual controls. In the 10 patients for whom date of exposure to the virus could be established the incubation period was 11-28 days (median 14). One or two days after the sudden onset of fever patients developed sore throat, lymphadenopathy, rash, lethargy, coated tongue, tonsillar hypertrophy, dry cough, headache, myalgia, conjunctivitis, vomiting, night sweats, nausea, diarrhoea, and palatal enanthema. Twelve patients had painful, shallow ulcers in the mouth or on the genitals or anus or as manifested by oesophageal symptoms; these ulcers may have been the site of entry of the virus. During the first week after the onset of symptoms mild leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased numbers of banded neutrophils were detected (p less than 0.0005). The mean duration of acute illness was 12.7 days (range 5-44). All patients remained healthy during a mean follow up period of 2.5 years. Heightened awareness of the typical clinical picture in patients developing primary HIV infection will alert the physician at an early stage and so aid prompt diagnosis and help contain the epidemic spread of AIDS. PMID:3146367

  6. Parotid sialosis: morphometrical analysis of the glandular parenchyme and stroma among diabetic and alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Carolina; Bohl, Luciana; Carda, Carmen; Gómez de Ferraris, María Elsa; Carranza, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Among the agents that cause parotid sialosis, diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic alcoholism are included. In this study, the morphometrical modifications in the diabetic parotid sialosis were determined to compare them with the histopathological characteristics of alcoholic parotid sialosis. Five parotid biopsy samples obtained from patients with diabetic sialosis, 12 samples from patients with alcoholic sialosis and seven from individuals without these pathologies (control group) were analyzed. A morphometrical study of parotid parenchyme and stroma, using a digital image analyzer attached to an optical microscope, was carried out. Dimensions of serous acini and striated ducts, the area occupied by the fatty tissue, and the number of ducts were recorded. Mean values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test (P glandular hypertrophy in the diabetic parotid sialosis is not directly associated with the ductal and acinar size, amount of fatty tissue and ductal hyperplasy. Nevertheless, these findings show that the ductal dimensions and the proportion of adipose tissue are variables that allow us to establish histopathological differences between diabetic and alcoholic sialosis.

  7. Identification of cholinergic chemosensory cells in mouse tracheal and laryngeal glandular ducts.

    PubMed

    Krasteva-Christ, G; Soultanova, A; Schütz, B; Papadakis, T; Weiss, C; Deckmann, K; Chubanov, V; Gudermann, T; Voigt, A; Meyerhof, W; Boehm, U; Weihe, E; Kummer, W

    2015-11-01

    Specialized epithelial cells in the respiratory tract such as solitary chemosensory cells and brush cells sense the luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to the detection of potentially harmful substances. The majority of these cells are cholinergic and utilize the canonical taste signal transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Utilizing two different mouse strains reporting expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme of acetylcholine (ACh), we detected cholinergic cells in the submucosal glands of the murine larynx and trachea. These cells were localized in the ciliated glandular ducts and were neither found in the collecting ducts nor in alveolar or tubular segments of the glands. ChAT expression in tracheal gland ducts was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The cholinergic duct cells expressed the brush cell marker proteins, villin and cytokeratin-18, and were immunoreactive for components of the taste signal transduction cascade (Gα-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel = TRPM5, phospholipase C(β2)), but not for carbonic anhydrase IV. Furthermore, these cells expressed the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131, as demonstrated utilizing an appropriate reporter mouse strain. Our study identified a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensory cell type in the duct of the airway submucosal glands that likely utilizes ACh for paracrine signaling. We propose that these cells participate in infection-sensing mechanisms and initiate responses assisting bacterial clearance from the lower airways.

  8. Glacial acetic acid treatment and atypical endocervical glandular cells: an analysis of 92 cases.

    PubMed

    Cohen, David; Shorie, Julie; Biscotti, Charles

    2010-05-01

    Glacial acetic acid (GAA) treatment minimizes the risk that bloody ThinPrep (Hologic, Marlborough, MA) Papanicolaou (Pap) test samples will be unsatisfactory for diagnosis. In our experience, GAA treatment also adversely affects the morphologic appearance of endocervical glandular cells. We analyzed a series of 92 consecutive GAA-treated Pap tests interpreted as atypical endocervical cells (AECs) and compared these with a control group of 130 samples with AECs in Pap tests that had not been treated with GAA to determine if GAA treatment increases the false-positive diagnosis of AECs. By using search data, the rates of AEC interpretations in the GAA-treated and GAA-untreated samples were calculated. Follow-up data, including human papillomavirus results and follow-up cytology and surgical pathology results, were collected. The GAA group had significantly fewer lesions on follow-up surgical pathology examinations than did the control group (6/69 [9%] vs 28/110 [25.5%]; P < or = .01). In our experience, GAA treatment increases the false-positive diagnosis of AECs.

  9. Mean glandular dose in six digital mammography services in Santiago, Chile: preliminary reference levels.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Do Socorro; Dantas, Marcelino; Duran, Maria Paz; Ubeda, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate mean glandular dose levels (DG) in six digital mammography systems in Santiago, Chile, and to propose preliminary reference levels to execute mammography in Chile. The study was carried out assessing two direct digital systems and four computer-based radiography (CR) systems. Estimates of DG were calculated for different thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate according to the quality control protocol in digital mammography of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. DG values ranged between 0.64 and 7.26 mGy for a range of 20- to 70-mm thickness, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of DG was higher than the acceptable dose level and 100 % of DG was higher than the desirable level. It is therefore necessary to optimise doses. The initial proposal to establish dose reference levels for DG would range between 0.90 and 6.40 mGy for a thickness range of 20 to 70 mm.

  10. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS: Second-harmonic generation as a DNA malignancy indicator of prostate glandular epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zheng-Fei; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Zhuo, Shuang-Mu; Yu, Bi-Ying; Deng, Xiao-Yuan

    2010-04-01

    This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a scanning region of 2.7 μm×2.7 μm in cell nuclei, SHG signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been investigated. Statistical analyses (t test) of a total of 405 measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference (p < 0.05), suggesting a potential optical method of revealing very early malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA.

  11. Large functional benign endometroid cystadenofibroma of the ovary leading to endometrial cystic glandular hyperplasia and postmenopausal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nilanchali; Tripathi, Reva; Mala, Yedla Manikya; Khurana, Neeta; Khan, Mumtaz

    2013-01-01

    Benign endometroid cystadenofibroma of the ovary is a rare tumour with few reported cases. The association of endometroid cystadenofibroma with endometrial cystic glandular hyperplasia has not been previously reported to authors’ knowledge. We are reporting a 75-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with a large abdominopelvic mass corresponding to 30 weeks size gravid uterus and postmenopausal bleeding. She has a well-oestrogenised vagina. Ultrasound pelvis revealed a large cystic mass extending from pelvis to epigastrium with no solid component and few incomplete septations and no internal echoes. MRI findings showed mainly cystic component with few moderately enhancing, fine, incomplete septa. Endometrial aspiration reported histopathology of cystic glandular hyperplasia without atypia. Serum oestrogen level reported to be high (210 pg/mL). Hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathology of the specimen revealed benign endometroid cystadenofibroma. She remained asymptomatic and disease free during her 6-month follow-up. PMID:23761571

  12. Weeding atypical glandular cell look-alikes from the true atypical lesions in liquid-based Pap tests: a review.

    PubMed

    Wood, Moira D; Horst, Julie A; Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify features that separate atypical glandular cells (AGC) associated with glandular neoplasia from its mimickers, both benign and neoplastic. We reviewed cases of AGC diagnosed on liquid-based Pap tests (LBP) for which corresponding histological follow-up was available. A review of the literature for similar studies in LBP tests was also conducted. We find that certain benign mimics can be reliably separated from AGC, but recommend caution in attempting to increase specificity at the risk of losing sensitivity. Although accounting for only a small percentage of diagnoses AGC require a thorough clinical evaluation, including colposcopy. Most cases are ultimately found to be benign. When evaluating smears suspicious for AGC, it is important to examine the subtle features which make truly atypical cells discernible from their numerous benign mimickers.

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor 10-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2b Mediated Signaling Is Not Required for Adult Glandular Stomach Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Frederic G.; Ford, Henri R.; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis. PMID:23133671

  14. Glandular sources of pheromones used to control host workers (Apis mellifera scutellata) by socially parasitic workers of Apis mellifera capensis.

    PubMed

    Okosun, Olabimpe O; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Yusuf, Abdullahi A

    2017-10-01

    Pheromonal control by the honey bee queen is achieved through the use of secretions from diverse glandular sources, but the use of pheromones from a variety of glandular sources by reproductively dominant workers, has not previously been explored. Using the social parasite, Apis mellifera capensis clonal worker we studied the diversity of glandular sources used for pheromonal control of reproductively subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. To determine whether pheromones from different glandular sources are used by reproductively active workers to achieve dominance and evaluate the degree of pheromonal competition between workers of the two sub-species, we housed groups of workers of the two sub-species together in cages and analysed mandibular and tergal gland secretions as well as, ovarian activation status of each worker after 21days. The results showed that A. m. capensis invasive clones used both mandibular and tergal gland secretions to achieve reproductive dominance and suppress ovarian activation in their A. m. scutellata host workers. The reproductively dominant workers (false queens) produced more queen-like pheromones and inhibited ovarian activation in subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. These results show that tergal gland pheromones working in synergy with pheromones from other glands allow individual workers (false queens) to establish reproductive dominance within these social groups and to act in a manner similar to that of queens. Thus suggesting that, the evolution of reproductively dominant individuals (queens or false queens) and subordinate individuals (workers) in social insects like the honey bee is the result of a complex interplay of pheromonal signals from different exocrine glands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Speer, Allison L; Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Ford, Henri R; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  16. Different proliferative activity of the glandular and myoepithelial lineages in benign proliferative and early malignant breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Bánkfalvi, Agnes; Ludwig, Andreas; De-Hesselle, Bettina; Buerger, Horst; Buchwalow, Igor B; Boecker, Werner

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore cell biological characteristics of normal breast, benign proliferative breast diseases and noninvasive breast malignancies based on the recently published adult progenitor cell concept from our group. Here, we investigated the proliferative activity of CK5/14(+), CK8/18/19(+) and alpha-smooth muscle actin(+) cellular phenotypes encountered in normal mammary gland, in a series of usual ductal hyperplasias and early malignant breast diseases, such as atypical ductal and lobular hyperplasias, as well as ductal and lobular in situ carcinomas. Immunohistochemical double labeling was performed on frozen sections from diagnostic breast biopsies by using antibodies to basal cytokeratins (CK5/14), glandular cytokeratins (CK8/18/19), smooth muscle actin and the Ki-67 antigen (MIB1). Normal breast tissues and usual ductal hyperplasias were characterized by a heterogeneous cellular composition of the growth fraction. The proliferative cell compartment consisted of CK8/18/19(+) glandular and, in a variable proportion, CK5/14(+) progenitor phenotypes. In contrast, noninvasive breast malignancies were composed of a monotonous proliferation of CK 8/18/19(+) neoplastic glandular cells. These findings indicate a significant role of progenitor cells in the development of benign proliferative breast diseases and lend support to the view that malignant transformation in the human breast usually occurs in a cell committed to the glandular lineage. Our results provide cell kinetic support to the functional progenitor cell hypothesis, and we propose this concept as an operative model for understanding benign proliferative and malignant breast diseases.

  17. Cloning and characterization of trichome-specific promoter of cpr71av1 gene involved in artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueyue; Yang, Ke; Jing, Fuyuan; Li, Meiya; Deng, Ting; Huang, Runze; Wang, Boshi; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Ke-Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae), is the most effective antimalarial drug. We used two methods: genome walking and thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction, to isolate the unknown 5'-flanking sequence of the cyp71av1 gene. The subsequent sequence analysis using bioinformatics software revealed that there are several cis-acting elements inside the cyp71av1 promoter. The 5'-rapid amplification of the cDNA ends method was used to determine the transcription start site of the cyp71av1 gene. We then mapped it at the 18 base upstream of the ATG initiation codon. For simple functional characterization, we built fusion vectors between the 5'-deletion promoter and the gas reporter gene. The expression levels of the transferred vectors into A. annua L. were analyzed by the transient expression way. The beta-glucuronidase assay results indicated that deletion of the region to -1551 bp did not lead to much damage in the GUS activity, whereas further deletion, to -1155 bp, resulted in a 5.5-fold reduction of GUS activity. In stabilized transgenic A. annua L. seedlings we observed that GUS expression was restricted to trichomes, which means that the promoter of the cyp71av1 gene is trichome-specific. Compared with the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, which can express genes throughout the plant, influence on the trichome system through the trichome-specific expression promoter merely imperils plant growth. In addition, the promoter of the cyp71av1 gene contains several binding sites for transcription factors, which implies that the cyp71av1 promoter responds to more than one form of stimulation.

  18. Disruption of the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene results in albino, dwarf and defects in trichome initiation and stomata closure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shufan; Miao, Jin; Li, Shuang; Qin, Genji; Tang, Si; Li, Haoni; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2010-06-01

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) is an important enzyme involved in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway which provides the basic five-carbon units for isoprenoid biosynthesis. To investigate the role of the MEP pathway in plant development and metabolism, we carried out detailed analyses on a dxr mutant (GK_215C01) and two DXR transgenic co-suppression lines, OX-DXR-L2 and OX-DXR-L7. We found that the dxr mutant was albino and dwarf. It never bolted, had significantly reduced number of trichomes and most of the stomata could not close normally in the leaves. The two co-suppression lines produced more yellow inflorescences and albino sepals with no trichomes. The transcription levels of genes involved in trichome initiation were found to be strongly affected, including GLABRA1, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABROUS 1, TRIPTYCHON and SPINDLY, expression of which is regulated by gibberellic acids (GAs). Exogenous application of GA(3) could partially rescue the dwarf phenotype and the trichome initiation of dxr, whereas exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) could rescue the stomata closure defect, suggesting that lower levels of both GA and ABA contribute to the phenotype in the dxr mutants. We further found that genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways of GA and ABA were coordinately regulated. These results indicate that disruption of the plastidial MEP pathway leads to biosynthetic deficiency of photosynthetic pigments, GAs and ABA, and thus the developmental abnormalities, and that the flux from the cytoplasmic mevalonate pathway is not sufficient to rescue the deficiency caused by the blockage of the plastidial MEP pathway. These results reveal a critical role for the MEP biosynthetic pathway in controlling the biosynthesis of isoprenoids.

  19. Atypical glandular cells and adenocarcinoma in situ according to the Bethesda 2001 classification: cytohistological correlation and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Westin, Maria C; Derchain, Sophie F; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia H; Angelo-Andrade, Liliana A; Sarian, Luis O; Oliveira, Eliane; Zeferino, Luiz C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the 2001 Bethesda classification of endocervical glandular abnormalities and histological diagnosis. A series of 155 women with endocervical glandular abnormalities on cervical smears were included: 91 with atypical glandular cells (AGC) not otherwise specified (NOS), 15 with AGC-favor neoplastic (FN); 35 with AGC associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) as combined diagnosis and 14 with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Histological outcome of squamous neoplasias (CIN 2 or worse) and adenocarcinoma were significantly associated with AGC-FN and AIS, taking as reference AGC-NOS, and more associated with AIS than AGC-FN. Similar associations were observed for histological outcome of adenocarcinoma, but no association was observed for only squamous neoplasia. Histological outcome of CIN2 or worse was strongly associated with AGC when HSIL was also present, but no association was observed with only for adenocarcinoma histological outcome. AGC-NOS, AGC-FN and AIS cytological diagnosis represent a progressively increasing association with neoplastic diagnosis, due to progressively increasing association with adenocarcinoma. Histological outcome of squamous neoplasia is frequent but does not differ with these cytological interpretations. The presence of HSIL associated with AGC represents greater probability of squamous neoplasia but not adenocarcinoma.

  20. New animal model of glandular stomach carcinogenesis in Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori and treated with a chemical carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, N; Inada, K I; Tsukamoto, T; Nakanishi, H; Ikehara, Y; Yoshikawa, A; Kaminishi, M; Kuramoto, S; Tatematsu, M

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 WHO/IARC concluded that "Helicobacter pylori is a definite carcinogen" based on epidemiological studies, but there have been few reports demonstrating a relation between H. pylori and stomach cancer in animal models. We have succeeded in producing adenocarcinomas in the glandular stomachs of Mongolian gerbils with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea as carcinogens and hope to establish an experimental stomach carcinogenesis model using H. pylori. Male Mongolian gerbils, 7 weeks old, were infected with H. pylori followed by MNNG administration at a concentration of 100ppm administration or treated with MNNG at a concentration of 300ppm in their drinking water followed by inoculation with H. pylori. They were then killed sequentially, and their excised stomachs underwent microbiological and histopathological examinations. H. pylori were detected in all infected gerbils. Hyperplastic change of pyloric mucosa was observed with high 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in affected animals. H. pylori infection persists on administration of MMNG and enhances glandular stomach proliferation in Mongolian gerbils. Whether long-term colonization promotes carcinogenesis in the glandular stomach of Mongolian gerbils is a matter of great interest.

  1. Can glandular hair density be a breeding marker for Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum with high essential oil content?

    PubMed

    Szabó, Krisztina; Sárosi, Szilvia; Cserháti, Beatrix; Ferenczy, Antal

    2010-09-01

    Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart is an essential oil rich plant traditionally used as oregano. Based on the interest of the essential oil producing sector, in 2000 we have started a breeding program of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. Plant material for our breeding work consists of 6 progeny. Individual evaluation of the plant material was carried out in 2008-2009 with the primary aim of finding mother plants with appropriate morphological features, high essential oil content (> 7%) and with carvacrol as the main essential oil component. Among the survey of morphological characteristics special attention was given to glandular hair density in order to test the usability of it as a morphological marker for screening progeny for high essential oil content. The characteristics of the progeny can be described with high variability ensuring the possibility of a good selection base. Evaluating the morphology, essential oil content and constitution of the individuals, 20 plants were selected on the grounds of their high (7-8.6%) essential oil content, high ratio (70-93%) of carvacrol in the essential oil and typical morphological features of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. From the results of glandular hair density it can be stated that the correlation between glandular hair density of the upper, middle and lower leaves either on vegetative or generative shoots and essential oil content was never strong enough (correlation coefficient < or = 0.5) to use it exclusively as a morphological marker for individual selection.

  2. Expression of p16(Ink4a) in mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ryo; Menju, Toshi; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Date, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (mixed papilloma) of the lung is an extremely rare neoplasm, with only 21 cases reported in the English literature. Although the expression of p16(Ink4a) has been analyzed in only two cases of mixed papilloma, they were negative for p16(Ink4a) . Therefore, the significance of p16(Ink4a) overexpression in mixed papilloma remains unclear. This is the first case of mixed papilloma with positive p16(Ink4a) expression in a 72-year-old male smoker. The 20 mm sized tumor was histologically diagnosed as mixed papilloma following right upper lobectomy. Immunohistochemically, cytokeratin 5 and p40 positivity was predominant in basal cells of the glandular component and squamous cells, while thyroid transcription factor-1, p53, and Ki-67 were focally positive. Both glandular and squamous components were diffusely positive for p16(Ink4a) . This finding could be important to clarify the pathogenesis and biology of mixed papilloma. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  4. Notch signaling functions as a binary switch for the determination of glandular and luminal fates of endodermal epithelium during chicken stomach development.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Kohyama, Jun; Okano, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Kimiko; Yasugi, Sadao

    2005-06-01

    During development of the chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), gut endoderm differentiates into glandular and luminal epithelium. We found that Delta1-expressing cells, undifferentiated cells and Notch-activated cells colocalize within the endodermal epithelium during early gland formation. Inhibition of Notch signaling using Numb or dominant-negative form of Su(H) resulted in a luminal differentiation, while forced activation of Notch signaling promoted the specification of immature glandular cells, but prevented the subsequent differentiation and the invagination of the glands. These results suggest that Delta1-mediated Notch signaling among endodermal cells functions as a binary switch for determination of glandular and luminal fates, and regulates patterned differentiation of glands in the chicken proventriculus.

  5. ‘And then there were three’: highly efficient uptake of potassium by foliar trichomes of epiphytic bromeliads

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Uwe; Zotz, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Vascular epiphytes have to acquire nutrients from atmospheric wash out, stem-flow, canopy soils and trapped litter. Physiological studies on the adaptations to nutrient acquisition and plant utilization of nutrients have focused on phosphorus and nitrogen; potassium, as a third highly abundant nutrient element, has received minor attention. In the present study, potassium uptake kinetics by leaves, within-plant distribution and nutrient accumulation were analysed to gain an improved understanding of physiological adaptations to non-terrestrial nutrient supply of plants. Methods Radioactively labelled 86RbCl was used as an analogue to study uptake kinetics of potassium absorbed from tanks of epiphytes, its plant distribution and the correlation between uptake efficiency and abundance of trichomes, functioning as uptake organs of leaves. Potassium in leaves was additionally analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy to assess plant responses to potassium deficiency. Key Results Labelled rubidium was taken up from tanks over a wide range of concentrations, 0·01–90 mm, which was achieved by two uptake systems. In four tank epiphytes, the high-affinity transporters had average Km values of 41·2 µm, and the low-affinity transporters average Km values of 44·8 mm. Further analysis in Vriesea splenriet showed that high-affinity uptake of rubidium was an ATP-dependent process, while low-affinity uptake was mediated by a K+-channel. The kinetic properties of both types of transporters are comparable with those of potassium transporters in roots of terrestrial plants. Specific differences in uptake velocities of epiphytes are correlated with the abundance of trichomes on their leaf surfaces. The main sinks for potassium were fully grown leaves. These leaves thus function as internal potassium sources, which allow growth to be maintained during periods of low external potassium availability. Conclusions Vascular epiphytes possess effective mechanisms

  6. Arabidopsis CAPRICE-LIKE MYB 3 (CPL3) controls endoreduplication and flowering development in addition to trichome and root hair formation.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Rumi; Iwata, Mineko; Sano, Ryosuke; Inoue, Kayoko; Okada, Kiyotaka; Wada, Takuji

    2008-04-01

    CAPRICE (CPC) encodes a small protein with an R3 MYB motif and promotes root hair cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Three additional CPC-like MYB genes, TRY (TRIPTYCHON), ETC1 (ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 1) and ETC2 (ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 2) act in a redundant manner with CPC in trichome and root hair patterning. In this study, we identified an additional homolog, CPC-LIKE MYB 3 (CPL3), which has high sequence similarity to CPC, TRY, ETC1 and ETC2. Overexpression of CPL3 results in the suppression of trichomes and overproduction of root hairs, as has been observed for CPC, TRY, ETC1 and ETC2. Morphological studies with double, triple and quadruple homolog mutants indicate that the CPL3 gene cooperatively regulates epidermal cell differentiation with other CPC homologs. Promoter-GUS analyses indicate that CPL3 is specifically expressed in leaf epidermal cells, including stomate guard cells. Notably, the CPL3 gene has pleiotropic effects on flowering development, epidermal cell size and trichome branching through the regulation of endoreduplication.

  7. TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE and Its Homolog AT5G01360 Encode Plant-Specific DUF231 Proteins Required for Cellulose Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Volker; Nita, Silvia; Neumetzler, Lutz; Schindelasch, Dana; Urbain, Aurélie; Eshed, Ravit; Persson, Staffan; Delmer, Deborah; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) trichome birefringence (tbr) mutant has severely reduced crystalline cellulose in trichomes, but the molecular nature of TBR was unknown. We determined TBR to belong to the plant-specific DUF231 domain gene family comprising 46 members of unknown function in Arabidopsis. The genes harbor another plant-specific domain, called the TBL domain, which contains a conserved GDSL motif known from some esterases/lipases. TBR and TBR-like3 (TBL3) are transcriptionally coordinated with primary and secondary CELLULOSE SYNTHASE (CESA) genes, respectively. The tbr and tbl3 mutants hold lower levels of crystalline cellulose and have altered pectin composition in trichomes and stems, respectively, tissues generally thought to contain mainly secondary wall crystalline cellulose. In contrast, primary wall cellulose levels remain unchanged in both mutants as measured in etiolated tbr and tbl3 hypocotyls, while the amount of esterified pectins is reduced and pectin methylesterase activity is increased in this tissue. Furthermore, etiolated tbr hypocotyls have reduced length with swollen epidermal cells, a phenotype characteristic for primary cesa mutants or the wild type treated with cellulose synthesis inhibitors. Taken together, we show that two TBL genes contribute to the synthesis and deposition of secondary wall cellulose, presumably by influencing the esterification state of pectic polymers. PMID:20388664

  8. Administration of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine does not improve healing of glandular gastric ulceration in horses receiving omeprazole: a randomised, blinded, clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS) has recently increased in part due to a growing awareness of the differences between squamous and glandular disease. The pathophysiology and epidemiology of squamous and glandular disease are different and recently it has been shown that the response of glandular gastric ulceration to monotherapy with omeprazole is poor. Given these differences it has been recommended that specific treatment guidelines be formulated for equine glandular disease and that adjunctive therapies be investigated. Along these lines it has been suggested that the addition of antimicrobials may enhance healing. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the addition of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine to omeprazole therapy would result in superior healing of naturally occurring equine glandular ulceration compared with omeprazole monotherapy. Results Combination therapy of omeprazole plus trimethoprim-sulphadimidine could not be demonstrated to be superior to omeprazole monotherapy. Healing of the glandular mucosa was observed in 7/15 (47%; 95% CI 24 to 71%) and 3/13 (23%; 95% CI 7% to 50%) of horses in the TMPS and OMEP groups, respectively (OR?=?1.8; 95% CI 0.32 to 10.0; p?=?0.67). Improvement of the glandular mucosa was observed in 12/15 (80%; 95% CI 56 to 94%) and 9/13 (69%; 95% CI 42 to 89%) of horses in the TMPS and OMEP groups, respectively (OR?=?2.9; 95% CI 0.6 to 15.0; p?=?0.25). Conclusions The results of the present study do not support the addition of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine to therapeutic protocols for equine glandular ulceration. Several limitations were present in the study and the use of antimicrobials as an adjunctive treatment warrants further investigation. However, given the potential deleterious consequences associated with the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, the inclusion of antimicrobials in treatment regimes for EGUS is not justified until their efficacy is further validated. PMID:25927827

  9. Annual changes in the number, testosterone content and ultrastructure of glandular tissue cells of the testis in the marbled newt Triturus marmoratus.

    PubMed Central

    Fraile, B; Paniagua, R; Rodríguez, M C; Sáez, F J; Jimenez, A

    1989-01-01

    The testes of 8 specimens of Triturus marmoratus were collected during each month of 1987 and processed for electron microscopy and light microscopy demonstration of testosterone (T) following the ABC (avidin-biotin peroxidase complex) method. According to their staining affinity for anti-T antibodies, the glandular tissue cells were classified as T-, T+, T++, and T and the annual changes in the numbers of these cell populations, as well as in the volume occupied by the glandular tissue, were calculated. The volume occupied by the glandular tissue increases from September to December; it begins to decrease in April and disappears from June to August. The glandular tissue is formed from the interstitial cells that surround the lobules containing differentiating germ cells. During the spermatogenic process, the interstitial cells do not show staining affinity for anti-T antibodies. In August-September, the interstitial cells around the lobules that have completed spermatogenesis become positively stained (T+) and form the glandular tissue when the spermatozoa leave the testis. The numbers of intensely stained cells in the glandular tissue (T++ and T ) increase from September to November; begin to decrease in December; disappear in January-February; increase again in March and decrease again in April until they disappear in June-September. The interstitial cells, before their transformation in glandular tissue, are ultrastructurally similar to fibroblasts. After their transformation these cells increase in size and develop abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with tubular cristae and lipid droplets. This morphological pattern is maintained in the glandular tissue from September to April in spite of the changes in staining affinity during this period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2630543

  10. Valuable lessons-learned in transcriptomics experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Oskar; Rauwerda, Han; Dekker, Rob J; de Leeuw, Wim C; Wackers, Paul F K; Ensink, Wim A; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M

    2015-01-01

    We have collected several valuable lessons that will help improve transcriptomics experimentation. These lessons relate to experiment design, execution, and analysis. The cautions, but also the pointers, may help biologists avoid common pitfalls in transcriptomics experimentation and achieve better results with their transcriptome studies. PMID:26098945

  11. Valuable lessons-learned in transcriptomics experimentation.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Oskar; Rauwerda, Han; Dekker, Rob J; de Leeuw, Wim C; Wackers, Paul F K; Ensink, Wim A; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M

    2015-01-01

    We have collected several valuable lessons that will help improve transcriptomics experimentation. These lessons relate to experiment design, execution, and analysis. The cautions, but also the pointers, may help biologists avoid common pitfalls in transcriptomics experimentation and achieve better results with their transcriptome studies.

  12. Dense white trichome production by plants as possible mimicry of arthropod silk or fungal hyphae that deter herbivory.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-07

    Some spiders are well-known to mimic flowers or other plant surfaces in order to be cryptic to both their prey and their predators. We propose that dense, thread-like white trichomes of some plants from Estonia, Greece, Israel and Japan visually mimic spider webs, lepidopteran and spider-mite web nests and plant-pathogenic fungi, and that it may result in reduced herbivory, since various herbivores avoid spider- or other arthropod webs to circumvent predation or toxic attacks, or refrain from colonizing plants that have already been occupied by other herbivores and pathogens. Spiders and other web-forming arthropods are also the prey of certain vertebrate predators and wasps, and therefore such predators may be attracted to these web-like plant structures and prey on the invertebrate herbivores occupying them. We do not dismiss the possibility that these web-like structures may also have other defensive or physiological functions or that they are not classic mimics but rather exploit the herbivore׳s perceptual state concerning the avoidance of potentially risky objects.

  13. Trichomes as dangerous lollipops: do lizards also use caterpillar body and frass odor to optimize their foraging?

    PubMed

    Stork, William F J; Weinhold, Alexander; Baldwin, Ian T

    2011-12-01

    When attacked by herbivores, plants produce toxic secondary metabolites that function as direct defenses, as well as indirect defenses that attract and reward predators of the offending herbivores. These indirect defenses include both nutritive rewards such as extra floral nectar, as well as informational rewards, such as the production and release of volatile compounds that betray the location of feeding herbivores to predators. Herbivory of Nicotiana attenuata by the tobacco hornworm (Manduca larvae) alters the volatile profiles of both the plant and larval headspace. Herbivory-elicited specific changes in the volatile profiles are detected by arthropod predators of Manduca larvae. The known predators that perceive volatile cues induced by Manduca herbivory of N. attenuata are insects that target Manduca at early developmental stages, when the larvae are still small; large, late-instar larvae may have outgrown these predation risks. However, here we offer evidence that branched chain aliphatic acids derived from the digestion of plant O-acyl sugars from trichomes may betray Manduca larvae to lizard predators during late developmental stages as well.

  14. Ultramicroscopy reveals a layer of multiply folded membranes around the tannin-accumulating vacuole in honeysuckle petal trichomes.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shengnan; Chapman, Navid; Xia, Zhengyan; Feng, Mingxiao; Feng, Shangcai; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to reveal a layer of multiply folded membranes that closely surrounded the tannin-accumulating vacuole in cells of honeysuckle petal trichomes. A huge amount of tannins were deposited in the peripheral region and the center of the vacuole. The prolific membranes extended to the tannins deposited along the vacuole periphery. It was difficult to distinguish the vacuole membrane, and it seemed as if it was the layer of multiply folded membranes that separated the vacuole lumen from the cytoplasm. In addition, there were also membrane assemblies in the cytoplasm away from the vacuole, which were continuous with the proliferated membranes bordering the vacuole. Therefore, the tannin-accumulating vacuole was in close association with a very large network of proliferated membranes. The occurrence of such a layer of multiply folded membranes around the tannin-accumulating vacuole might be a structural strategy for improvement of the efficiency of vacuolar accumulation of tannins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The characterization of SaPIN2b, a plant trichome-localized proteinase inhibitor from Solanum americanum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Ding, Ling-Wen; Ge, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Bo-Lun; Yang, Xiao-Bei; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2012-11-16

    Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) family. The recombinant SaPIN2b (rSaPIN2b), which was expressed in Escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin A, chymotrypsin and trypsin. Moreover, rSaPIN2b also effectively inhibited the proteinase activities of midgut trypsin-like proteinases that were extracted from the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. Furthermore, the overexpression of SaPIN2b in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in enhanced resistance against H. armigera. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SaPIN2b is a potent serine proteinase inhibitor that may act as a protective protein in plant defense against insect attacks.

  16. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangrong; Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-02-11

    To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Nationwide population based cohort study. Cancer and population registries in Sweden. 3,054,328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2,899,968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment within six months, much less than after HSIL (86%). Among women with histology

  17. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  18. Human glandular kallikrein in breast milk, amniotic fluid, and breast cyst fluid.

    PubMed

    Magklara, A; Scorilas, A; López-Otín, C; Vizoso, F; Ruibal, A; Diamandis, E P

    1999-10-01

    Human glandular kallikrein (hK2) belongs to the serine protease family of enzymes and has high sequence homology with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The physiological role of hK2 has not as yet been determined, but there is evidence that it can regulate the proteolytic activity of PSA through processing and activating pro-PSA, an inactive precursor. Thus, it is conceivable that these two secreted proteins may coexist in biological fluids. Currently, hK2 is considered an androgen-regulated and prostate-specific protein. Recently, it has been demonstrated that hK2 is expressed in the breast cancer cell line T-47D after stimulation by steroid hormones, and we reported that hK2 can be detected in a subset of breast tumor extracts. These data suggest that hK2 may be expressed in tissues other than the prostate, such as those in which PSA has already been detected. Because hK2 is a secreted protein, it may be present in various biological fluids. We analyzed milk samples from lactating women, amniotic fluid from pregnant women, and breast cyst fluid from patients with gross breast cystic disease, using a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for hK2. hK2 was present in all three biological fluids. We suggest that the female breast may produce hK2 and provide evidence that hK2 may have value as an additional marker for the discrimination between type I and type II breast cysts. The female breast produces hK2 in addition to PSA. More studies are necessary to establish the role of this kallikrein in nondiseased breast, gross breast cystic disease, and breast cancer.

  19. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  20. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  1. Highly sensitive automated chemiluminometric assay for measuring free human glandular kallikrein-2.

    PubMed

    Klee, G G; Goodmanson, M K; Jacobsen, S J; Young, C Y; Finlay, J A; Rittenhouse, H G; Wolfert, R L; Tindall, D J

    1999-06-01

    Human glandular kallikrein (hK2) is a serine protease that has 79% amino acid identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Both free hK2 and hK2 complexed to alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) are present in the blood in low concentrations. We wished to measure hK2 in serum with limited contribution from hK2-ACT for the results. We developed an automated assay for hK2 with use of a select pair of monoclonal antibodies. The prototype assay was implemented on a Beckman Coulter ACCESS(R) analyzer. The detection limit of the assay was 1.5 ng/L, the "functional sensitivity" (day-to-day CV <15%) was <4 ng/L, cross-reactivity with PSA and PSA-ACT was negligible, and cross-reactivity with hK2-ACT was 2%. After surgical removal of prostate glands, serum hK2 was <7 ng/L and was <15 ng/L in most healthy women. The median serum concentration of hK2 in healthy men without prostate cancer was 26 ng/L. The median concentration of hK2 was 72 ng/L for men having prostate cancer with lower Gleason scores compared with 116 ng/L for men with more advanced cancer. The concentration of hK2 correlated weakly with PSA, with the mean hK2 concentrations generally 30- to 80-fold lower than PSA concentrations. The availability of a robust, high sensitivity automated assay for hK2 should facilitate further investigations of the role of hK2 measurements in the management of patients with prostate disease.

  2. Predominant Glandular Cholinergic Dysautonomia in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, Richard; Alevizos, Ilias; Bebris, Lolita; Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Illei, Gabor G.; Nikolov, Nikolay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates exocrine gland function. Available data show poor correlation between the degree of exocrine gland function and destruction in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) suggesting other mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction may be important in these patients. We performed a comprehensive analysis of sympathoneural and sympathetic cholinergic function in well-characterized patients with pSS. Methods 21 pSS patients (mean±SE age 44±3 years) and in 13 healthy controls (51±2 years) were assessed during orthostasis and intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg). The postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic system was evaluated by assessing sweat production by the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Gastric empting testing assessed the gastro-intestinal ANS in pSS patients. Results Velocity index and acceleration index were significantly higher (p<0.05) in pSS compared to controls before and during the orthostatic and edrophonium tests. Other hemodynamic and neurochemical parameters did not differ between pSS patients and controls during the orthostasis and edrophonium test, however, edrophonium-induced saliva increment was lower in pSS (p=0.002). Abnormally low sweat production was found in four (N=4) pSS patients but in none of the controls in the QSART. Gastric empting was delayed in 53 % of pSS patients. Conclusion We observed subtle differences in several ANS domains, including gastrointestinal and sympathocholinergic system suggesting a complex ANS dysfunction in pSS. The impact was the largest on the exocrine glands with subtle differences in the cardiac parasympathetic function independent of glandular inflammation and atrophy, suggesting an alternative pathogenesis mechanism of the disease in pSS. PMID:25622919

  3. Hairy Canola (Brasssica napus) re-visited: Down-regulating TTG1 in an AtGL3-enhanced hairy leaf background improves growth, leaf trichome coverage, and metabolite gene expression diversity.

    PubMed

    Alahakoon, Ushan I; Taheri, Ali; Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Epp, Delwin; Yu, Min; Parkin, Isobel; Hegedus, Dwayne; Bonham-Smith, Peta; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2016-01-06

    Through evolution, some plants have developed natural resistance to insects by having hairs (trichomes) on leaves and other tissues. The hairy trait has been neglected in Brassica breeding programs, which mainly focus on disease resistance, yield, and overall crop productivity. In Arabidopsis, a network of three classes of proteins consisting of TTG1 (a WD40 repeat protein), GL3 (a bHLH factor) and GL1 (a MYB transcription factor), activates trichome initiation and patterning. Introduction of a trichome regulatory gene AtGL3 from Arabidopsis into semi-glabrous Brassica napus resulted in hairy canola plants which showed tolerance to flea beetles and diamondback moths; however plant growth was negatively affected. In addition, the role of BnTTG1 transcription in the new germplasm was not understood. Here, we show that two ultra-hairy lines (K-5-8 and K-6-3) with BnTTG1 knock-down in the hairy AtGL3+ B. napus background showed stable enhancement of trichome coverage, density, and length and restored wild type growth similar to growth of the semi-glabrous Westar plant. In contrast, over-expression of BnTTG1 in the hairy AtGL3+ B. napus background gave consistently glabrous plants of very low fertility and poor stability, with only one glabrous plant (O-3-7) surviving to the T3 generation. Q-PCR trichome gene expression data in leaf samples combining several leaf stages for these lines suggested that BnGL2 controlled B. napus trichome length and out-growth and that strong BnTTG1 transcription together with strong GL3 expression inhibited this process. Weak expression of BnTRY in both glabrous and trichome-bearing leaves of B. napus in the latter Q-PCR experiment suggested that TRY may have functions other than as an inhibitor of trichome initiation in the Brassicas. A role for BnTTG1 in the lateral inhibition of trichome formation in neighbouring cells was also proposed for B. napus. RNA sequencing of first leaves identified a much larger array of genes with altered

  4. Rat retinal transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Kozhevnikova, Oyuna S.; Korbolina, Elena E.; Ershov, Nikita I.; Kolosova, Natalia G.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly, remains poorly understood due to the paucity of animal models that fully replicate the human disease. Recently, we showed that senescence-accelerated OXYS rats develop a retinopathy similar to human AMD. To identify alterations in response to normal aging and progression of AMD-like retinopathy, we compared gene expression profiles of retina from 3- and 18-mo-old OXYS and control Wistar rats by means of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We identified 160 and 146 age-regulated genes in Wistar and OXYS retinas, respectively. The majority of them are related to the immune system and extracellular matrix turnover. Only 24 age-regulated genes were common for the two strains, suggestive of different rates and mechanisms of aging. Over 600 genes showed significant differences in expression between the two strains. These genes are involved in disease-associated pathways such as immune response, inflammation, apoptosis, Ca2+ homeostasis and oxidative stress. The altered expression for selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. To our knowledge, this study represents the first analysis of retinal transcriptome from young and old rats with biologic replicates generated by RNA-Seq technology. We can conclude that the development of AMD-like retinopathy in OXYS rats is associated with an imbalance in immune and inflammatory responses. Aging alters the expression profile of numerous genes in the retina, and the genetic background of OXYS rats has a profound impact on the development of AMD-like retinopathy. PMID:23656783

  5. Transcriptomic Approaches to Neural Repair

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Martins, Ana; Chandran, Vijayendran; Costigan, Michael; Lerch, Jessica K.; Willis, Dianna E.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding why adult CNS neurons fail to regenerate their axons following injury remains a central challenge of neuroscience research. A more complete appreciation of the biological mechanisms shaping the injured nervous system is a crucial prerequisite for the development of robust therapies to promote neural repair. Historically, the identification of regeneration associated signaling pathways has been impeded by the limitations of available genetic and molecular tools. As we progress into an era in which the high-throughput interrogation of gene expression is commonplace and our knowledge base of interactome data is rapidly expanding, we can now begin to assemble a more comprehensive view of the complex biology governing axon regeneration. Here, we highlight current and ongoing work featuring transcriptomic approaches toward the discovery of novel molecular mechanisms that can be manipulated to promote neural repair. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Transcriptional profiling is a powerful technique with broad applications in the field of neuroscience. Recent advances such as single-cell transcriptomics, CNS cell type-specific and developmental stage-specific expression libraries are rapidly enhancing the power of transcriptomics for neuroscience applications. However, extracting biologically meaningful information from large transcriptomic datasets remains a formidable challenge. This mini-symposium will highlight current work using transcriptomic approaches to identify regulatory networks in the injured nervous system. We will discuss analytical strategies for transcriptomics data, the significance of noncoding RNA networks, and the utility of multiomic data integration. Though the studies featured here specifically focus on neural repair, the approaches highlighted in this mini-symposium will be of broad interest and utility to neuroscientists working in diverse areas of the field. PMID:26468186

  6. High Throughput Transcriptomics @ USEPA (Toxicology ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ideal chemical testing approach will provide complete coverage of all relevant toxicological responses. It should be sensitive and specific It should identify the mechanism/mode-of-action (with dose-dependence). It should identify responses relevant to the species of interest. Responses should ideally be translated into tissue-, organ-, and organism-level effects. It must be economical and scalable. Using a High Throughput Transcriptomics platform within US EPA provides broader coverage of biological activity space and toxicological MOAs and helps fill the toxicological data gap. Slide presentation at the 2016 ToxForum on using High Throughput Transcriptomics at US EPA for broader coverage biological activity space and toxicological MOAs.

  7. Human mast cell transcriptome project.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Nakajima, T; Matsumoto, K

    2001-05-01

    After draft reading of the human genome sequence, systemic analysis of the transcriptome (the whole transcripts present in a cell) is progressing especially in commonly available cell types. Until recently, human mast cells were not commonly available. We have succeeded to generate a substantial number of human mast cells from umbilical cord blood and from adult peripheral blood progenitors. Then, we have examined messenger RNA selectively transcribed in these mast cells using high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays. Many unexpected but important transcripts were selectively expressed in human mast cells. We discuss the results obtained from transcriptome screening by introducing our data regarding mast-cell-specific genes.

  8. Transcriptome-enabled marker discovery and mapping of plastochron-related genes in Petunia spp.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yufang; Wiegert-Rininger, Krystle E; Vallejo, Veronica A; Barry, Cornelius S; Warner, Ryan M

    2015-09-24

    Petunia (Petunia × hybrida), derived from a hybrid between P. axillaris and P. integrifolia, is one of the most economically important bedding plant crops and Petunia spp. serve as model systems for investigating the mechanisms underlying diverse mating systems and pollination syndromes. In addition, we have previously described genetic variation and quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to petunia development rate and morphology, which represent important breeding targets for the floriculture industry to improve crop production and performance. Despite the importance of petunia as a crop, the floriculture industry has been slow to adopt marker assisted selection to facilitate breeding strategies and there remains a limited availability of sequences and molecular markers from the genus compared to other economically important members of the Solanaceae family such as tomato, potato and pepper. Here we report the de novo assembly, annotation and characterization of transcriptomes from P. axillaris, P. exserta and P. integrifolia. Each transcriptome assembly was derived from five tissue libraries (callus, 3-week old seedlings, shoot apices, flowers of mixed developmental stages, and trichomes). A total of 74,573, 54,913, and 104,739 assembled transcripts were recovered from P. axillaris, P. exserta and P. integrifolia, respectively and following removal of multiple isoforms, 32,994 P. axillaris, 30,225 P. exserta, and 33,540 P. integrifolia high quality representative transcripts were extracted for annotation and expression analysis. The transcriptome data was mined for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, yielding 89,007 high quality SNPs and 2949 SSRs, respectively. 15,701 SNPs were computationally converted into user-friendly cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers and a subset of SNP and CAPS markers were experimentally verified. CAPS markers developed from plastochron-related homologous transcripts

  9. The Human Pancreas Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Uhlén, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects. PMID:25546435

  10. The human pancreas proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Angelika; Pontén, Fredrik; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Schwenk, Jochen M; Uhlén, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects.

  11. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-09-21

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in

  12. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubiak,