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Sample records for glasgow prognostic score

  1. The preoperative sensitive-modified Glasgow prognostic score is superior to the modified Glasgow prognostic score in predicting long-term survival for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Rui; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Peng; Wu, Jing; Yan, Hong; Wu, Ai-Ran; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Yu-Lu; Lu, Yan-Hong; Xu, Qiu-Yan; Zhan, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Qian, Li-Ting; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of the preoperative sensitive-modified Glasgow prognostic score (S-mGPS) and its superiority in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Clinicopathologic characteristics, preoperative albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were retrospectively collected in 442 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy. The S-mGPS was calculated before surgery based on optimal cutoff values of 45.6 g/L for albumin and 10.0 mg/L for CRP. 360, 74 and 8 cases were assigned an mGPS of 0, 1 and 2, respectively. In contrast, the S-mGPS was 0 in 114, 1 in 258 and 2 in 70 patients. Of the 360 patients with an mGPS of 0, 246 migrated to the S-mGPS-1 group. Both mGPS and S-mGPS were significantly correlated with tumor length, depth of invasion, pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) stage and adjuvant treatment. In addition, they were significantly associated with disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis. Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis identified S-mGPS as an independent prognostic indicator for both DFS [hazard ratio (HR), 1.577; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.149-2.163; P = 0.005] and OS (HR, 1.762; 95% CI, 1.250-2.484; P = 0.001), but not mGPS (HR, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.692-1.323; P = 0.790 for DFS and HR, 1.089; 95% CI, 0.781-1.517; P = 0.615 for OS, respectively). Moreover, subgroup analysis revealed that the prognostic impact of the S-mGPS was especially striking in pTNM stage II patients. The preoperative S-mGPS is superior to the mGPS as a prognostic predictor in patients with resectable ESCC. PMID:27528228

  2. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) is a novel prognostic indicator in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiayu; Wang, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Lu, Yue; Tang, Hailin

    2016-11-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score systems composed of C-reactive protein and albumin, has been reported to be predictive of survival in several types of malignancies. The prognostic significance of GPS in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. We conducted this study to assess the prognostic value of GPS in a cohort of patients with advanced EOC receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by debulking surgery. Six hundred and seventy-two patients newly diagnosed with advanced EOC were retrospectively analyzed. High GPS was significantly related to Eastern Cooperative Group performance status, histological type, histological grade and the size of residual tumor after the debulking surgery. In addition, patients with higher GPS at diagnosis achieved lower complete remission rates after NAC (P < 0.05) and had shorter progression-free survival (PFS; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed high GPS was independent adverse predictors of PFS and OS. Our data demonstrated that GPS at diagnosis is a powerful independent prognostic factor for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. However, further studies are needed to prospectively validate this prognostic model and investigate the mechanisms underlying the correlation between high GPS and poor prognosis in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  3. The Glasgow Prognostic Score Predicts Response to Chemotherapy in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexing; Duan, Li; Tu, Zhiquan; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Cuicui; Li, Xu; Cao, Yuzhu; Wen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death in women worldwide. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), a cumulative prognostic score based on C-reactive protein and albumin, indicates the presence of a systemic inflammatory response. The GPS has been adopted as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with various types of malignant tumors, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the value of the GPS in predicting the response and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Patients with metastatic breast cancers in a progressive stage for consideration of chemotherapy were eligible. The clinical characteristics and demographics were recorded. The GPS was calculated before the onset of chemotherapy. Data on the response to chemotherapy and progression-free survival (PFS) were also collected. Objective tumor responses were evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Toxicities were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTC) version 3.0 throughout therapy. In total, 106 breast cancer patients were recruited. The GPS was associated with the response rate (p = 0.05), the clinical benefit rate (p = 0.03), and PFS (p = 0.005). The GPS was the only independent predictor of PFS (p = 0.005). The GPS was significantly associated with neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and mucositis (p = 0.05-0.001). Our data demonstrate that GPS assessment is associated with poor clinical outcomes and severe chemotherapy-related toxicities in patients with metastatic breast cancer who have undergone chemotherapy, without any specific indication regarding the type of chemotherapy applied. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Relationship between nutritional status and the Glasgow Prognostic Score in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Maurício, Sílvia Fernandes; da Silva, Jacqueline Braga; Bering, Tatiana; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson

    2013-04-01

    The association between nutritional status and inflammation was assessed in patients with colorectal cancer and to verify their association with complications during anticancer treatment. The agreement between the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and different nutritional assessment methods was also evaluated. A cross-sectional, prospective, and descriptive study was performed. The nutritional status was defined by the SGA and the severity of inflammation was defined by the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS). The complications were classified using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3. Anthropometric measurements such as body mass index, triceps skinfold, midarm circumference, midarm muscle area, and adductor pollicis muscle thickness were also performed, as were handgrip strength and phase angle. The chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Spearman correlation coefficient, independent t test, analysis of variance, Gabriel test, and κ index were used for the statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Seventy patients with colorectal cancer (60.4 ± 14.3 y old) were included. The nutritional status according to the SGA was associated with the GPS (P < 0.05), but the SGA and GPS were not related to the presence of complications. When comparing the different nutritional assessment methods with the SGA, there were statistically significant differences. Malnutrition is highly prevalent in patients with colorectal cancer. The nutritional status was associated with the GPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The prognostic value and pathobiological significance of Glasgow microenvironment score in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Ji, Cheng-Dong; Zhu, Jiang; Xiao, Hua-Liang; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Cui, You-Hong; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value and pathobiological significance of Glasgow microenvironment score (GMS), a parameter based on tumor stroma percentage and inflammatory cell infiltration, in gastric cancer. A total of 225 cases of gastric cancer were histologically reviewed, and GMS was evaluated for each case. The association between GMS and patients' survival was investigated. Then the relationship between GMS and mismatch repair (MMR) status, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization, and the expression of PD1/PD-L1 was examined. Furthermore, the amount of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the content and maturity of collagen components were detected using IHC, Picrosirius Red staining and second harmonic generation imaging. GMS was significantly associated with clinical outcomes of gastric cancer, and multivariate analysis indicated that GMS was an independent factor (HR 1.725, P = 0.002). Low GMS was a manifestation of better prognosis and inflammatory tumor microenvironment, which was related to MMR deficiency (P = 0.042) and EBV infection (P = 0.032), and within this microenvironment, expression of PD-L1 in carcinoma cells (P = 0.030) or in inflammatory cells (P = 0.029) was significantly higher. In contrast, high GMS linked to a poorer survival and desmoplastic stroma, in which there existed markedly increased CAFs and collagen deposition. GMS can serve as a useful prognostic factor for gastric cancer, and according to GMS, the tumor microenvironment in this cancer type may be partially classified as inflammatory or desmoplastic microenvironment that possesses different pathobiological features.

  6. Evaluation of Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score for Pancreatic Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Yogi, Tatsuji; Tsutsumi, Hideharu; Fujiyoshi, Toshihisa; Sato, Takamitsu; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yamao, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    The modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) is known to be useful in determining the prognosis of cancers. However, the utility of mGPS for pancreatic cancer (PC) has been examined based primarily on a surgical series of early-stage cancers. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of mGPS for PC of all stages using a retrospective cohort design. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from a computerized database. A total of 807 patients with pathologically confirmed PC were analyzed (mGPS-0, n = 620; mGPS-1, n = 153; mGPS-2, n = 34). Median overall survival (OS) was significantly worse for the mGPS-1 group than for the mGPS-0 group (5.8 vs 15.8 months, respectively) but was comparable between the mGPS-2 and mGPS-1 groups (4.8 vs 5.8 months, respectively). After adjustment, both mGPS-1 and mGPS-2 were independent predictive factors of OS (mGPS-1: hazard ratio, 1.772; 95% confidence interval, 1.417-2.215; mGPS-2: hazard ratio, 2.033; 95% confidence interval, 1.284-3.219). Subgroup analysis showed that OS was significantly worse in the mGPS-1 and mGPS-2 groups than in the mGPS-0 group for all except the following 2 subgroups: localized disease and curative resection. The present results show that the mGPS is an independent prognostic factor in patients with PC, especially for advanced-stage disease.

  7. Impact of the pretreatment Glasgow prognostic score on treatment tolerance, toxicities, and survival in patients with advanced head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Hung; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao; Yang, Shih-Wei; Huang, Jen-Seng; Chou, Wen-Chi; Hsieh, Jason Chia-Hsun

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the pretreatment Glasgow prognostic score on treatment-related toxicities, tolerance, and survival in patients with advanced head and neck cancers undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical characteristics, toxicities, and survival of 143 patients with stages III, IVA, and IVB head and neck cancer treated with concurrent CRT according to their Glasgow prognostic score between 2007 and 2010. The Glasgow prognostic score was correlated with advanced tumor stage and T/N classification. Patients with a higher Glasgow prognostic score were less likely to tolerate concurrent CRT, experienced more weight loss, required tube feeding support more frequently, and had higher percentage of grade ≥3 hematological toxicities, sepsis, and toxic death. Patients with a Glasgow prognostic score of 0 had better overall and recurrence-free survival than those with a Glasgow prognostic score of 1 or 2. Pretreatment Glasgow prognostic score predicts treatment tolerance, toxicity, and survival in patients with advanced head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent CRT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The predictive and prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score in metastatic colorectal carcinoma patients receiving bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Marianne; Dréanic, Johann; Dhooge, Marion; Mir, Olivier; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2014-11-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), based on C-reactive protein and albumin levels, has shown its prognostic value in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) patients receiving conventional cytotoxic therapy. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular epidermal growth factor, improves the overall survival in mCRC. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of GPS in mCRC patients receiving antivascular epidermal growth factor therapy. From August 2005 to August 2012, consecutive patients with mCRC who received chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were eligible for the present analysis. The clinical stage, C-reactive protein, albumin and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were recorded at the time of initiation of bevacizumab. Patients received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in accordance with the digestive oncology multidisciplinary staff proposal and in line with the French recommendations for the treatment of mCRC. Eighty patients were eligible (colon n = 59, rectum n = 21), with a median follow-up of 14 months (range 1-58 months). Chemotherapy given with bevacizumab and 5-fluorouracil was oxaliplatin (n = 41, 51%) or irinotecan (n = 27, 34%). At baseline, 56, 31 and 13% of patients had a GPS of 0 (n = 45), 1 (n = 25) and 2 (n = 10), respectively. The median progression-free survival in these groups was 10.1, 6.5 and 5.6 months (P = 0.16), respectively. The median overall survival was 20.1, 11.4 and 6.5 months, respectively (P = 0.004). Our study confirmed the prognostic value of GPS in mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. Given the poor survival observed in patients with an GPS of 2, studies dedicated to these patients could identify optimal treatment modalities.

  9. Prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score in metastatic colorectal cancer in the era of anti-EGFR therapies.

    PubMed

    Dréanic, Johann; Maillet, Marianne; Dhooge, Marion; Mir, Olivier; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2013-01-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), combination of C-reactive protein and albumin, has proven its prognostic value in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients receiving conventional cytotoxic therapy. More recently, anti-EGFR therapies have been validated in mCRC and roll forward the patients' overall survival (OS). We aimed to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the GPS in patients receiving anti-EGFR therapy in addition to conventional chemotherapy. From January 2007 to February 2012, consecutive mCRC patients who received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab were included in the present analysis. Patients were eligible for the study if they met the following criteria: advanced pathologically proven MCRC, age >18 years, adequate renal function (creatinine clearance >40 ml/min), C-reactive protein and albumin and performance status evaluation before treatment initiation. A total of 49 patients received cetuximab plus 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy (colon, n = 34; rectum, n = 15) and were treated with a median follow-up of 35 months (16.5-74.7). Median age was 48 years old. In addition to cetuximab, patients received oxaliplatin- (n = 34, 60%) or irinotecan (n = 15, 30%)-based chemotherapy. At time of diagnosis, 55, 29 and 16% of patients had a GPS of 0 (n = 27), 1 (n = 14) and 2 (n = 8), respectively. Fifty-five, 29 and 14 % of patients add one, two or ≥3 metastatic sites, respectively. Considering two groups (GPS = 0 and GPS ≥1), median progression-free survivals were significantly different (p = 0.0084). Median OS in the GPS 0, 1 and 2 groups were 38.2, 14 and 12.1 months, respectively (p = 0.0093). The results of the present study confirm that the GPS is still a simple and effective prognostic factor in the era of cetuximab therapy in mCRC patients.

  10. Evaluation of the Glasgow Prognostic Score in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for stage III and IV esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kimura, J; Kunisaki, C; Makino, H; Oshima, T; Ota, M; Oba, M; Takagawa, R; Kosaka, T; Ono, H A; Akiyama, H; Endo, I

    2016-11-01

    High Glasgow Prognostic scores (GPSs) have been associated with poor outcomes in various tumors, but the values of GPS and modified GPS (mGPS) in patients with advanced esophageal cancer receiving chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has not yet been reported. We have evaluated these with respect to predicting responsiveness to CRT and long-term survival. Between January 2002 and December 2011, tumor responses in 142 esophageal cancer patients (131 men and 11 women) with stage III (A, B and C) and IV receiving CRT were assessed. We assessed the value of the GPS as a predictor of a response to definitive CRT and also as a prognostic indicator in patients with esophageal cancer receiving CRT. We found that independent predictors of CRT responsiveness were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, GPS and cTNM stage. Independent prognostic factors were ECOG performance status and GPS for progression-free survival and ECOG performance status, GPS and cTNM stage IV for disease-specific survival. GPS may be a novel predictor of CRT responsiveness and a prognostic indicator for progression-free and disease-specific survival in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. However, a multicenter study as same regime with large number of patients will be needed to confirm these outcomes. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) can be a useful indicator to determine prognosis of patients with colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nozoe, Tadahiro; Matono, Rumi; Ijichi, Hideki; Ohga, Takefumi; Ezaki, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based score, has been used to predict the biologic behavior of malignant tumors. The aim of the current study was to elucidate a further significance of GPS in colorectal carcinoma. Correlation of GPS and modified GPS (mGPS), which are composed of combined score provided for serum elevation of C-reactive protein and hypoalbuminemia examined before surgical treatment, with clinicopathologic features was investigated in 272 patients with colorectal carcinoma. Survival of GPS 1 patients was significantly worse than that of GPS 0 patients (P= 0.009), and survival of GPS 2 patients was significantly worse than that of GPS 1 patients (P < 0.0001). Similarly, survival of mGPS 1 patients was significantly worse than that of mGPS 0 patients (P = 0.009), and survival of mGPS 2 patients was significantly worse than that of mGPS 1 patients (P = 0.0006). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that GPS (P < 0.0001) as well as tumor stage (P= 0.004) and venous invasion (P = 0.011) were factors independently associated with worse prognosis. Both GPS and mGPS could classify outcome of patients with a clear stratification, and could be applied as prognostic indicators in colorectal carcinoma.

  12. The relationship between nutritional status and the Glasgow prognostic score in patients with cancer of the esophagus and stomach.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jacqueline Braga; Maurício, Sílvia Fernandes; Bering, Tatiana; Correia, Maria Isabel T D

    2013-01-01

    A relationship between weight loss and inflammation has been described in patients with cancer. In the present study, the relationship between subjective global assessment (SGA) and the severity of inflammation, as defined by Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), as well as the relationship of both of these measures with the presence of complications and survival time, was assessed. In addition, we compared the diagnosis given by SGA with parameters of nutritional assessment, such as body mass index, triceps skinfold, midarm circumference (MAC), midarm muscle circumference (MAMC), phase angle (PA), adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT), and handgrip strength (HGS). According to the SGA, the nutritional status was associated with the GPS (P < 0.05), and both the SGA and GPS were associated with the presence of complications. However, the GPS [area under the curve (AUC): 0.77, P < 0.05, confidence interval (CI) = 0.580, 0.956] seems to be more accurate in identifying complications than the SGA (AUC: 0.679, P < 0.05, CI = 0.426, 0.931). Only GPS was associated with survival time. Comparing the different nutritional assessment methods with the SGA suggested that the MAC, MAMC, APMT, PA, and HGS parameters may be helpful in differentiating between nourished and malnourished patients, if new cutoffs are adopted.

  13. The modified Glasgow prognostic score in patients undergoing surgery for bone and soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Morhij, Rossel; Mahendra, Ashish; Jane, Mike; McMillan, Donald C

    2017-05-01

    The prognostic significance of markers of the systemic inflammatory response in patients with soft tissue and bone sarcomas remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the prognostic value of markers of the systemic inflammatory response in patients undergoing surgery for primary soft tissue and bone sarcoma. Patients who underwent resection of primary soft tissue/bone sarcoma between 2008 and 2012 and had pre-operative measurements of the systemic inflammatory response [C-reactive protein, albumin, white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, and the combination of C-reactive protein and albumin (mGPS)] were included in the study (n = 111). The majority of the patients were ≤50 years old (84%), were female (63%), had soft tissue sarcoma (62%), and had tumours >10 cm (52%), mostly of high grade (85%). The median follow-up of survivors was 50 months (range 34-78); 24 (21%) developed local recurrence, 35 (31%) developed distant metastases and 30 (30%) died of their cancer. On univariate analysis, tumour size (P < 0.001), tumour grade (P < 0.001), C-reactive protein level (P < 0.001), albumin level (P < 0.001) and mGPS (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with distant recurrence-free survival. On a multivariate analysis, only tumour size [hazard ratios (HR) 2.57, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.14-5.32, P < 0.05], tumour grade (HR 7.01, 95% CI 0.94-52.17, P < 0.10) and mGPS (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.31-2.83, P < 0.01) were independently associated with distant recurrence-free survival. On a multivariate analysis, only tumour size (HR 2.85, 95% CI 1.10-7.39, P < 0.05) and the mGPS (HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.31-3.16, P < 0.01) were independently associated with cancer-specific survival. The systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by the mGPS, was an important independent predictor of recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival in patients undergoing surgery for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. Copyright © 2017

  14. Association between pretreatment Glasgow prognostic score and gastric cancer survival and clinicopathological features: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Shu-Yi; Chen, Shuang-Qian; Yang, Shuai-Long; Wan, Lu; Xiong, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) is widely known as a systemic inflammatory-based marker. The relationship between pretreatment GPS and gastric cancer (GC) survival and clinicopathological features remains controversial. The aim of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the association between pretreatment GPS and survival and clinicopathological features in GC patients. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and BioMed databases for relevant studies. Combined analyses were used to assess the association between pretreatment GPS and overall survival, disease-free survival, and clinicopathological parameters by Stata Version 12.0. Results A total of 14 studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 5,579 GC patients. The results indicated that pretreatment high GPS (HGPS) predicted poor overall survival (hazard ratio =1.51, 95% CI: 1.37–1.66, P<0.01) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio =1.45, 95% CI: 1.26–1.68, P<0.01) in GC patients. Pretreatment HGPS was also significantly associated with advanced tumor–node–metastasis stage (odds ratio [OR] =3.09, 95% CI: 2.11–4.53, P<0.01), lymph node metastasis (OR =4.60, 95% CI: 3.23–6.56, P<0.01), lymphatic invasion (OR =3.04, 95% CI: 2.00–4.62, P<0.01), and venous invasion (OR =3.56, 95% CI: 1.81–6.99, P<0.01). Conclusion Our meta-analysis indicated that pretreatment HGPS could be a predicative factor of poor survival outcome and clinicopathological features for GC patients. PMID:27390529

  15. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) as a novel and significant predictor of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score including C-reactive protein and albumin, shows significant prognostic value in several types of solid tumors. The prognostic value of GPS in lymphoma remains unclear. We performed this study to evaluate the prognostic significance of GPS in extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL). We retrospectively analyzed 164 patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. The prognostic value of GPS was evaluated and compared with that of International Prognostic Index (IPI), Prognostic Index for Peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (PIT), and Korean Prognostic Index (KPI). Patients with higher GPS tended to have more adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (P < 0.001), inferior progression-free survival (PFS, P < 0.001), and inferior overall survival (OS, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high GPS, age > 60 years, and elevated LDH were independent adverse predictors of OS. GPS was found superior to IPI, PIT, and KPI in discriminating patients with different outcomes in low-risk groups (all P < 0.05). GPS is an independent predictor of survival outcomes in ENKL. Inflammatory response might play an important role in the progression of ENKL and survival of patients with ENKL.

  16. The Glasgow Prognostic Score and its variants predict mortality in living donor but not in deceased donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: A double-center validation study.

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, Alexander; Schrem, Harald; Reichert, Benedikt; Braun, Felix; Emmanouilidis, Nikos; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Becker, Thomas; Heits, Nils

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and its variants are able to predict mortality in live donor and deceased donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Data of 29 live donor and 319 deceased donor transplantations from two German transplant centers was analyzed. The GPS, modified GPS, hepatic GPS, and Abe score were investigated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and overall model correctness of the investigated scores as a predictive model. Study end-points were 1-year, 3-year, and long-term mortality. A 1-year mortality of 19.1% (n = 61), 3-year mortality of 26.3% (n = 84), and overall mortality of 37.3% (n = 119) was observed. All investigated scores failed to predict outcome in deceased donor liver transplantation (areas under ROC curves <0.700), whereas GPS, hepatic GPS, modified GPS, and the Abe score reached areas under ROC curves >0.700 for the prediction of 1-year mortality in live donor transplantation. The GPS and Abe score were also able to predict 3-year mortality. None of the investigated scores was a reliable predictor of long-term mortality. Systemic inflammation-based scores have great prognostic potential in live donor transplantation. Abe score could be successfully externally validated in the current study for the first time. In deceased donor transplantation, none of the analyzed scores was able to allow reliable prediction for the investigated study end-points. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  17. Pretreatment Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score Predicts Clinical Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Takahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori Ueki, Nami; Iizuka, Yusuke; Nakamura, Akira; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Data from 165 patients who underwent SBRT for stage I NSCLC with histologic confirmation from January 1999 to September 2010 were collected retrospectively. Factors, including age, performance status, histology, Charlson comorbidity index, mGPS, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class based on sex and T stage, were evaluated with regard to overall survival (OS) using the Cox proportional hazards model. The impact of the mGPS on cause of death and failure patterns was also analyzed. Results: The 3-year OS was 57.9%, with a median follow-up time of 3.5 years. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with poor OS (P<.001). The 3-year OS of lower mGPS patients was 66.4%, whereas that of higher mGPS patients was 44.5%. On multivariate analysis, mGPS and RPA class were significant factors for OS. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with lung cancer death (P=.019) and distant metastasis (P=.013). Conclusions: The mGPS was a significant predictor of clinical outcomes for SBRT in NSCLC patients.

  18. Anti-epidermal or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor as first-line metastatic colorectal cancer in modified Glasgow prognostic score 2' patients

    PubMed Central

    Dréanic, Johann; Dhooge, Marion; Barret, Maximilien; Brezault, Catherine; Mir, Olivier; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Background In metastatic colorectal cancer, the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) has been approved as an independent prognostic indicator of survival. No data existed on poor prognosis patients treated with molecular-targeted agents. Methods From January 2007 to February 2012, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and poor predictive survival score (mGPS = 2), treated with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in addition to an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anti-vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) therapy, were included to assess the interest of targeted therapy within mGPS = 2' patients. Results A total of 27 mGPS = 2' patients were included and received a 5-fluorouracil-based systemic chemotherapy in addition to an anti-EGFR treatment (cetuximab; n = 18) or an anti-VEGF treatment (bevacizumab; n = 9). Median follow-up was 12.1 months (interquartile range 4.9–22). Patients were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status 1, 2, and 3 in 66% (n = 18), 26% (n = 7), and 8% (n = 2), respectively. Comparing anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF groups, median progression-free survival was 3.9 and 15.4 months, respectively, and was significantly different (P = 0.046). Conversely, the median overall survival was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.15). Conclusion Our study confirmed the poor survival of patients with mGPS = 2 despite the use of targeted therapy and identified the superiority of an anti-VEGF treatment in progression-free survival, without a significant benefit in the overall survival compared with the anti-EGFR therapy. Our results deserved confirmation by a prospective clinical trial. PMID:26401469

  19. Modified glasgow prognostic score predicting high conversion ratio in opioid switching from oral oxycodone to transdermal fentanyl in patients with cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shu-Shan; Shang, Li; Li, Ming-E; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Wen-Hua; Wang, Yao-Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for higher conversion ratio in opioid switching from oral oxycodone to transdermal fentanyl (TDF) in patients with cancer pain. The participants of this study were 156 hospitalized cancer patients who underwent opioid switching from oral oxycodone to TDF at the Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University between January 1st, 2010 and March 31st, 2014. Patient characteristics, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), daily oxycodone dose, and reasons for opioid switching were retrospectively collected. The effect of variables on the conversion ratio was analyzed by multiple regression analysis to identify the predictive factors for higher conversion ratio in opioid switching from oral oxycodone to TDF. The results showed that the mGPS (odds ratio [OR], 2.358; 95% CI 1.379-4.031; P = 0.002), the reason for opioid switching (OR, 0.497; 95% CI, 0.298-0.828; P = 0.007) and equivalent oral morphine dose (OR, 1.700; 95% CI, 1.008-2.867; P = 0.046) were found to be significant predictors requiring higher conversion ratio in opioid switching. This study indicates that higher mGPS, poor pain control before switching and higher equivalent oral morphine dose are significant predictors of a need for higher conversion ratio in opioid switching from oral oxycodone to TDF. These results could contribute to the establishment of evidence-based medicine in cancer pain relief. PMID:26221306

  20. The relation between Glasgow Coma Scale score and later cerebral atrophy in paediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Alokananda; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Hunter, Jill V; Bigler, Erin D; Chu, Zili; Li, Xiaoqi; Vasquez, Ana C; Menefee, Deleene; Yallampalli, Ragini; Levin, Harvey S

    2009-03-01

    To examine initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and its relationship with later cerebral atrophy in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) using Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (QMRI) at 4 months post-injury. It was hypothesized that a lower GCS score would predict later generalized atrophy. As a guide in assessing paediatric TBI patients, the probability of developing chronic cerebral atrophy was determined based on the initial GCS score. The probability model used data from 45 paediatric patients (mean age = 13.6) with mild-to-severe TBI and 41 paediatric (mean age = 12.4) orthopaedically-injured children. This study found a 24% increase in the odds of developing an abnormal ventricle-to-brain ratio (VBR) and a 27% increase in the odds of developing reduced white matter percentage on neuroimaging with each numerical drop in GCS score. Logistic regression models with cut-offs determined by normative QMRI data confirmed that a lower initial GCS score predicts later atrophy. GCS is a commonly used measure of injury severity. It has proven to be a prognostic indicator of cognitive recovery and functional outcome and is also predictive of later parenchymal change.

  1. Comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting mortality in critically ill patients*.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Kramer, Andrew A; Rohs, Thomas; Hanna, Susan; Sadaka, Farid; O'Brien, Jacklyn; Bible, Shonna; Dickess, Stacy M; Foss, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness has been incorporated in prediction models that are used in the ICU. The Glasgow Coma Scale has value but is incomplete and cannot be assessed in intubated patients accurately. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score may be a better predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. Thirteen ICUs at five U.S. hospitals. One thousand six hundred ninety-five consecutive unselected ICU admissions during a six-month period in 2012. Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score were recorded within 1 hour of admission. Baseline characteristics and physiologic components of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system, as well as mortality were linked to Glasgow Coma Scale/Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score information. None. We recruited 1,695 critically ill patients, of which 1,645 with complete data could be linked to data in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of predicting ICU mortality using the Glasgow Coma Scale was 0.715 (95% CI, 0.663-0.768) and using the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was 0.742 (95% CI, 0.694-0.790), statistically different (p = 0.001). A similar but nonsignificant difference was found for predicting hospital mortality (p = 0.078). The respiratory and brainstem reflex components of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score showed a much wider range of mortality than the verbal component of Glasgow Coma Scale. In multivariable models, the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was more useful than the Glasgow Coma Scale for predicting mortality. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score might be a better prognostic tool of ICU mortality than the Glasgow Coma Scale in critically ill patients, most likely a result of incorporating brainstem reflexes and respiration into the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score.

  2. [How do physicians code the motoric variable of the Glasgow-Coma-Score?].

    PubMed

    Woischneck, D; Stah, W; Kapapa, T

    2015-06-01

    A mere 14% gave the right answer according the guidelines: Code the "best motoric answer" of the "upper limb". 86% coded the Glasgow-Coma-Score for the motoric variable falsely and inconsistently. Additionally, the rate of correct answers were higher in physicians in training (37.5%) than in qualified and certified emergency doctors (5%). Emergency doctors post training stated in 68% instances that the variable should be coded according to the neurological results at the upper or lower extremity. Furthermore, they stated that the worst neurological result should be coded (43%). From our data, it appears that the coding of the motoric variable is not done according to the guidelines or is done inconsistently. There are compelling reasons for coding the worst result. However, this procedure is contrary to the guidelines presented by literature. These guideline have never been withdrawn. Emergency doctors obviously code the motoric variable of the Glasgow-Coma-Score with knowledge about the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injuries. The Glasgow-Coma-Score is used for coding the level of consciousness at the site of accident, on admission, for prognosis, in clinical studies and in forensic controversies. Its sensitivity for depth of coma depends on the quality of coding the motoric answer. We interviewed 165 emergency doctors (in training and post training) about the guidelines for coding the motoric variable of the Glasgow-Coma-Score.

  3. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  4. Thai venous stroke prognostic score: TV-SPSS.

    PubMed

    Poungvarin, Niphon; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Ratanakorn, Disya; Towanabut, Somchai; Tantirittisak, Tassanee; Suwanwela, Nijasri; Phanthumchinda, Kamman; Tiamkoa, Somsak; Chankrachang, Siwaporn; Nidhinandana, Samart; Laptikultham, Somsak; Limsoontarakul, Sansern; Udomphanthuruk, Suthipol

    2009-11-01

    Prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has never been studied in Thailand. A simple prognostic score to predict poor prognosis of CVST has also never been reported. The authors are aiming to establish a simple and reliable prognostic score for this condition. The medical records of CVST patients from eight neurological training centers in Thailand who received between April 1993 and September 2005 were reviewed as part of this retrospective study. Clinical features included headache, seizure, stroke risk factors, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood pressure on arrival, papilledema, hemiparesis, meningeal irritation sign, location of occluded venous sinuses, hemorrhagic infarction, cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure, treatment options, length of stay, and other complications were analyzed to determine the outcome using modified Rankin scale (mRS). Poor prognosis (defined as mRS of 3-6) was determined on the discharge date. One hundred ninety four patients' records, 127 females (65.5%) and mean age of 36.6 +/- 14.4 years, were analyzed Fifty-one patients (26.3%) were in the poor outcome group (mRS 3-6). Overall mortality was 8.4%. Univariate analysis and then multivariate analysis using SPSS version 11.5 revealed only four statistically significant predictors influencing outcome of CVST They were underlying malignancy, low GCS, presence of hemorrhagic infarction (for poor outcome), and involvement of lateral sinus (for good outcome). Thai venous stroke prognostic score (TV-SPSS) was derived from these four factors using a multiple logistic model. A simple and pragmatic prognostic score for CVST outcome has been developed with high sensitivity (93%), yet low specificity (33%). The next study should focus on the validation of this score in other prospective populations.

  5. Whole-brain apparent diffusion coefficient in traumatic brain injury: correlation with Glasgow Coma Scale score.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Gullapalli, Rao P; Mirvis, Stuart E; Roys, Steven; Murthy, Prasad

    2004-04-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and low Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores may have severe injury associated with cellular disruption that can be studied with whole-brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histograms. We retrospectively studied this hypothesis and correlated ADC with GCS. Twenty-one patients (37.81 +/- 41.3 years) with TBI were enrolled: Group A had normal MR imaging findings but low GCS scores (n = 6). Group B had brain stem injury with low GCS scores (n = 6). Group C had cortical lesions with normal GCS scores (n = 5), and group D had cortical lesions with low GCS scores (n = 4). Eleven control subjects were enrolled (32.7 +/- 19.2 years). Whole-brain ADC maps and histograms were generated and normalized for each subject. Mean and peak ADCs were determined. A one-sided t test was performed for each parameter. Average GCS scores and corresponding peak and mean ADCs were correlated. Peak histogram values significantly differed between controls and groups A, B, and D (P <.0019, P <.00129, and P <.0148, respectively). In groups A and D, values were significantly skewed compared with control values. Mean ADC was significantly different between the control ADC and group A (P <.013) but not group C. In each group, peak ADC and GCS score were strongly correlated (R(2) = 0.67). Whole-brain peak ADCs and GCS scores are significantly correlated in patients with TBI. Although conventional MR images were normal, ADC independently indicated TBI and better represents the degree of neurologic dysfunction.

  6. Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in prediction of pediatric coma

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Atahar; Sankhyan, Naveen; Jayashree, Murlidharan; Singhi, Sunit; Singhi, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was done to compare the admission Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as predictors of outcome in children with impaired consciousness. METHODS: In this observational study, children (5–12 years) with impaired consciousness of <7 days were included. Children with traumatic brain injury, on sedatives or neuromuscular blockade; with pre-existing cerebral palsy, mental retardation, degenerative brain disease, vision/hearing impairment; and seizure within last 1 hour were excluded. Primary outcomes: comparison of area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes: comparison of AUC of ROC curve for mortality and poor outcome on Pediatric Overall Performance Category Scale at 3 months. RESULTS: Of the 63 children, 20 died during hospital stay. AUC for in-hospital mortality for GCS was 0.83 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) and FOUR score was 0.8 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) [difference between areas –0.0250 (95%CI 0.0192 to 0.0692), Z statistic 1.109, P=0.2674]. AUC for mortality at 3 months for GCS was 0.78 (CI 0.67 to 0.90) and FOUR score was 0.74 (CI 0.62 to 0.87) (P=0.1102) and AUC for poor functional outcome for GCS was 0.82 (CI 0.72 to 0.93) and FOUR score was 0.79 (CI 0.68 to 0.9) (P=0.2377), which were also comparable. Inter-rater reliability for GCS was 0.96 and for FOUR score 0.98. CONCLUSION: FOUR score was as good as GCS in prediction of in-hospital and 3-month mortality and functional outcome at 3 months. FOUR score had a good inter-rater reliability. PMID:28123622

  7. C-reactive protein/albumin ratio as prognostic score in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have examined histopathological factors and various prognostic scores related to inflammation to predict outcomes. Here, we examined the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/alb) ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 40 patients with OSCC. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we focused on the correlation of the CRP/alb ratio with clinicopathological characteristics and with overall survival. We then compared five inflammation-based prognostic scores, CRP/alb ratio, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The optimal cut-off value for the CRP/alb ratio was 0.085. The group with a high CRP/alb ratio had a high TNM clinical stage (P=0.002) and larger primary tumors (P=0.029), with statistically significant differences in lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. In addition, when the CRP/alb ratio was high, multivariate analysis showed a lower survival rate (P=0.002; hazard ratio=6.078), and the ROC curve showed more outstanding discriminatory ability regarding overall survival compared to other inflammation-based prognostic scores. Conclusion The CRP/alb ratio can be an independent prognostic factor when predicting prognosis in OSCC and has good prognostic ability. PMID:27847731

  8. Inaccuracy and misjudged factors of Glasgow Coma Scale scores when assessed by inexperienced physicians.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Jun; Yamazaki, Motoyasu; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Hori, Shingo

    2011-06-01

    Appropriate triage of a large number of patients with head injury is crucial in the emergency department (ED) as well as in the field. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is primarily assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to evaluate consciousness. However, GCS score assignment is far from sufficiently reliable for correct assessment, especially with inexperienced users. The purpose of this study was to reveal what factors are misjudged when assessed by inexperienced medical personnel. We analyzed GCS eye, verbal, and motor response (EVM) scoring profiles conducted by postgraduate year 1 junior residents (n=94) before they began residency in specific departments. GCS assessment was tested using a video simulation that portrayed mock patients with eight different levels of consciousness that are frequently encountered in trauma patients. On average, 26±18% of examinees failed to provide the correct EVM profiles for the eight selected consciousness levels. Primary misjudged GCS factors belonged to two categories: the assessment of "confused conversation (V4)", and the assessment of "withdrawal motor response (M4)". Additional instruction regarding the specific misjudged factors identified in this study may help inexperienced medical personnel improve the reliability of GCS score assignment to casualties with TBI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prehospital Glasgow Coma Score Predicts Emergent Intervention following Helicopter Transfer for Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jennifer; Rubino, Sebastian; Lollis, Stuart Scott

    2016-03-01

    Helicopter transport may shorten transport time to neurosurgical intervention; however, there are few data regarding its utility for nontraumatic emergencies. Prehospital and hospital records of all patients transferred via helicopter to Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center for spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage between January 2007 and December 2011 were reviewed. Primary outcome measure was emergent tertiary-level care intervention, defined as ventriculostomy, conventional angiography, endovascular treatment, or craniotomy within 3 hours of arrival. Fifty-one patients met inclusion criteria. Median helicopter transport time, defined as time from telephone referral to arrival, was 97 minutes (range, 61-214 minutes). Fifteen patients underwent intervention within 3 hours of arrival (29%), 19 patients underwent intervention between 3 and 6 hours (37%), 9 patients underwent intervention between 6 to 12 hours (18%), and 11 patients underwent intervention greater than 12 hours after arrival (16%). Univariate analysis of pretransfer clinical and radiographic findings showed significant correlations between Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 15 (odds ratio [OR], 22.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2-122.5), World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons (WFNS) scale greater than 2 (OR, 46.75; 95% CI, 7.511-290.99), presence of intraparenchymal hemorrhage (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.3-17.5), and intubation (OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 2.9-51.8) with emergent intervention. On logistic multivariate regression analysis, GCS score less than 15 and WFNS scale score greater than 2 independently predicted emergent intervention. A majority of patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage who were transferred by interfacility helicopter ambulance did not require emergent intervention. GCS score less than 15 at an outside hospital was independently associated with emergent intervention on multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heart rate variability for assessing comatose patients with different Glasgow Coma Scale scores.

    PubMed

    Machado-Ferrer, Yazmina; Estévez, Mario; Machado, Calixto; Hernández-Cruz, Adrián; Carrick, Frederick R; Leisman, Gerry; Melillo, Robert; Defina, Phillip; Chinchilla, Mauricio; Machado, Yanín

    2013-03-01

    To assess the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in coma by heart rate variability (HRV). Sixteen comatose patients and 22 normal subjects with comparable ages and genders were studied. Patients were classified in two subgroups according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Time, frequency, and informational HRV domain indices were calculated. A notable reduction of HRV was found in patients. Regarding the time domain indices, the triangular index, and the Delta_RRs, were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Absolute power for the whole frequency spectrum decreased whenever GCS scores were lower. A significant decrement was found for absolute power of the VLF and LF bands in the subgroup of GCS=3, and although it was lower for the HF band in these patients, those changes were not statistically significantly different. The LF/HF ratio and the Shannon´s entropy indices were significantly reduced in the subgroup with GCS=3. Our results are discussed regarding the progressive dysfunction the ANS networks when coma deepens. The HRV procedure is a powerful tool to assess the ANS in comatose patients. HRV is a minimally invasive, low-cost methodology, suitable for assessing the ANS in coma. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Poisoning severity score, Glasgow coma scale, corrected QT interval in acute organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Akdur, Okhan; Durukan, Polat; Ozkan, Seda; Avsarogullari, Levent; Vardar, Alper; Kavalci, Cemil; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effectiveness of the poisoning severity score (PSS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and corrected QT (QTc) interval in predicting outcomes in acute organophosphates (OP) poisoning. Over a period of 2 years, 62 patients with OP poisoning were admitted to emergency department (ED) of Erciyes University Medical School Hospital. The age, sex, cause of contact, compound involved, time elapsed between exposure and admission to the ED, duration of hospital stay, and cardiac manifestations at the time of presentation were recorded. GCS and poisoning severity score (PSS) was calculated for each patient. Electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis included the rate, rhythm, ST-T abnormalities, conduction defects, and measurement of PR and QT intervals. Sixty-two patients with OP poisoning presented to our ED from January 2007 to December 2008 from which 54 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 34.1 +/- 14.8 years. Of the cases, 53.7% were female. Twenty-six patients had a prolonged QTc interval. Mean PSS of men and women was 1.8 +/- 1.0. No statistically significant correlation was found between the PSS and QTc intervals of the cases. A significant correlation was determined between the GCS and PSS of grade 3 and grade 4 cases. GCS is a parameter that helps clinician to identify advanced grade OP poisoning patients in the initial assessment in the ED. However, ECG findings, such as prolonged QTc interval, are not effective in determination of short-term prognosis and show no relationship with PSS.

  12. Prognostic value of time-related Glasgow coma scale components in severe traumatic brain injury: a prospective evaluation with respect to 1-year survival and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Kouloulas, Efthimios J; Papadeas, Alexandros G; Michail, Xanthi; Sakas, Damianos E; Boviatsis, Efstathios J

    2013-09-01

    The severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is determined by many variables, the complexity of which has made prediction of functional outcome an elusive target. To evaluate whether the three components of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and their alterations over time can serve as predictors of functional outcome after a severe TBI at 12 months after the TBI insult, we carried out a prospective study of patients with severe TBI. Seventy patients were initially enrolled. Data were retrieved from the emergency department records and the patients' intensive care unit, neurosurgical, and rehabilitation unit records. All patients underwent follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. GCS components were evaluated on the day of injury and 2 weeks after injury. Functional outcome was estimated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Functional Independence Measure motor scale. It was evaluated during rehabilitation and at 12 months after injury. Fifty-one patients were alive and followed up until 12 months. Logistic regression and receiver-operator characteristic curve analyses were carried out. In terms of functional outcome at 12 months, only GCS on day 15 was found to be a prognostic factor, with all its subscales being related to outcome 12 months later, whereas a higher GCS score on day 15 was also related to survival. A higher motor and verbal response on day 15 was strongly associated with a patient's functional independence, whereby the motor response was a better predictor. The GCS motor score 2 weeks after injury was statistically significantly associated with the 12-month functional outcome in TBI survivors. Motor response was the most useful predictor among the GCS components with respect to the long-term functional outcome in patients with severe TBI.

  13. Fuzzy logic-based prognostic score for outcome prediction in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Yu; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Fang, Chun-Hsiung; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2012-11-01

    Given the poor prognosis of esophageal cancer and the invasiveness of combined modality treatment, improved prognostic scoring systems are needed. We developed a fuzzy logic-based system to improve the predictive performance of a risk score based on the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin in a cohort of 271 patients with esophageal cancer before radiotherapy. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were employed to validate the independent prognostic value of the fuzzy risk score. To further compare the predictive performance of the fuzzy risk score with other prognostic scoring systems, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used. Application of fuzzy logic to the serum values of CRP and albumin increased predictive performance for 1-year overall survival (AUC=0.773) compared with that of a single marker (AUC=0.743 and 0.700 for CRP and albumin, respectively), where the AUC denotes the area under curve. This fuzzy logic-based approach also performed consistently better than the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) (AUC=0.745). Thus, application of fuzzy logic to the analysis of serum markers can more accurately predict the outcome for patients with esophageal cancer.

  14. [Is there a place for the Glasgow-Blatchford score in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding?].

    PubMed

    Jerraya, Hichem; Bousslema, Amine; Frikha, Foued; Dziri, Chadli

    2011-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequent cause for emergency hospital admission. Most severity scores include in their computation the endoscopic findings. The Glasgow-Blatchford score is a validated score that is easy to calculate based on simple clinical and biological variables that can identify patients with a low or a high risk of needing a therapeutic (interventional endoscopy, surgery and/ or transfusions). To validate retrospectively the Glasgow-Blatchford Score (GBS). The study examined all patients admitted in both the general surgery department as of Anesthesiology of the Regional Hospital of Sidi Bouzid. There were 50 patients, which the mean age was 58 years and divided into 35 men and 15 women. In all these patients, we calculated the GBS. Series were divided into 2 groups, 26 cases received only medical treatment and 24 cases required transfusion and / or surgery. Univariate analysis was performed for comparison of these two groups then the ROC curve was used to identify the 'Cut off point' of GBS. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) with confidence interval 95% were calculated. The SGB was significantly different between the two groups (p <0.0001). Using the ROC curve, it was determined that for the threshold of GBS ³ 7, Se = 96% (88-100%), Sp = 69% (51-87%), PPV = 74% (59 -90%) and NPV = 95% (85-100%). This threshold is interesting as to its VPN. Indeed, if GBS <7, we must opt for medical treatment to the risk of being wrong in only 5% of cases. The Glasgow-Blatchford score is based on simple clinical and laboratory variables. It can recognize in the emergency department the cases that require medical treatment and those whose support could need blood transfusions and / or surgical treatment.

  15. Prognostic Scores for Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Raquel; Moores, Lisa; Jiménez, David

    2017-02-06

    Rapid and accurate risk stratification is critical in determining the optimal treatment strategy for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Early identification of patients with normal blood pressure and a favorable prognosis (low-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for outpatient treatment, which is associated with reduced cost and improved patient satisfaction, and has been shown to be effective and safe. Alternatively, identification of normotensive patients deemed as having a high risk for PE-related adverse clinical events (intermediate-high-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for close observation and consideration of escalation of therapy. Clinical prognostic scores have been gaining importance in the classification of patients into these categories. They should be derived and validated following strict methodological standards, and their use in clinical practice should be encouraged.

  16. Validation of phone interview for follow-up in clinical trials on dyspepsia: evaluation of the Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score and a Likert-scale symptoms test.

    PubMed

    Calvet, X; Bustamante, E; Montserrat, A; Roqué, M; Campo, R; Gené, E; Brullet, E

    2000-08-01

    To validate two widely used dyspepsia scores performed by phone interview. Spanish translations of the Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score and a Likert-scale symptomatic test were evaluated. Responsiveness to the treatment, validity of the tests, and reproducibility of tests performed by phone interview were assessed. Gastroenterology and endoscopy unit of a county hospital. Group I consisted of 16 ulcer patients undergoing Helicobacter pylori eradication; Group II consisted of 29 healthy volunteers; and Group III consisted of 95 patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Glasgow Severity Dyspepsia Score and Likert test. Both tests showed adequate improvement (responsiveness) after H. pylori eradication. With regard to validity, the Glasgow and Likert test were significantly higher in 95 patients undergoing endoscopy than in 29 healthy controls. Analysis of reproducibility showed that intraobserver variation was low on both the Glasgow and Likert scores. No differences were found between consecutive tests regardless of whether both were performed by phone (24 patients) or one by phone and the other by clinical interview (40 patients). Interobserver variation analysis showed that the Glasgow test remained highly reproducible even when performed by different observers using different methods (clinical interview 8.83, phone 8.44, P = 0.12). By contrast, Likert-scale tests showed significant differences between observers for all symptoms except abdominal pain. (1) The Glasgow score is highly reproducible even when performed by different observers and using different methods. (2) By contrast, Likert tests show greater variability. To be reproducible in different conditions, they need to be performed by the same observer.

  17. Prognostic markers of acute decompensated heart failure: the emerging roles of cardiac biomarkers and prognostic scores.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Solal, Alain; Laribi, Said; Ishihara, Shiro; Vergaro, Giuseppe; Baudet, Mathilde; Logeart, Damien; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Gayat, Etienne; Vodovar, Nicolas; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A; Seronde, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly assessing outcome in patients with acute decompensated heart failure is important but prognostic factors may differ from those used routinely for stable chronic heart failure. Multiple plasma biomarkers, besides the classic natriuretic peptides, have recently emerged as potential prognosticators. Furthermore, prognostic scores that combine clinical and biochemical data may also be useful. However, compared with the scores used in chronic heart failure, scores for acute decompensated heart failure have not been validated. This article reviews potential biomarkers, with a special focus on biochemical biomarkers, and possible prognostic scores that could be used by the clinician when assessing outcome in patients with acute heart failure.

  18. Which clinical variable influences health-related quality of life the most after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage? Hunt and Hess scale, Fisher score, World Federation of Neurosurgeons score, Brussels coma score, and Glasgow coma score compared.

    PubMed

    Kapapa, Thomas; Tjahjadi, Martin; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    To determine the strength of the correlation between the Hunt and Hess scale, Fisher score, Brussels coma score, World Federation of Neurosurgeons score, and Glasgow coma score and health-related quality of life. Evaluable questionnaires from 236 patients (5.6 years [± standard deviation, 2.854 years] on average after hemorrhage) were included in the analysis. Quality of life was documented using the MOS-36 item short form health survey. Because of the ordinal nature of the variables, Kendall tau was used for calculation. Significance was established as P ≤ 0.05. Weak and very weak correlations were found in general (r ≤ 0.28). The strongest correlations were found between the Glasgow coma score and quality of life (r = 0.236, P = 0.0001). In particular, the "best verbal response" achieved the strongest correlations in the comparison, at r = 0.28/P = 0.0001. The Fisher score showed very weak correlations (r = -0.148/P = 0.012). The Brussels coma score (r = -0.216/P = 0.0001), Hunt and Hess scale (r = -0.197/P = 0.0001), and the World Federation of Neurosurgeons score (r = -0.185/P = 0.0001) revealed stronger correlations, especially in terms of the physical aspects of quality of life. The Glasgow coma scale revealed the strongest, and the Fisher score showed the weakest correlations. Thus the Fisher score, as an indicator of the severity of a hemorrhage, has little significance in terms of health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunization-based scores as independent prognostic predictors in soft tissue sarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Long; Weng, De-Sheng; Li, Yuan-fang; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Tang, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the prognostic value of different immunization-based scoring systems in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study evaluating a cohort of 165 patients diagnosed with STS between July 2007 and July 2014. The relative Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) of these patients was calculated using 3 different systems: the traditional GPS system (tGPS), the modified GPS system 1 (m1GPS), and the modified GPS system 2 (m2GPS). Then, we evaluated the relationships between each GPS system and clinicopathological characteristics. The mean follow-up for survivors in the cohort was 73.7 months as of March 2015. Results: The most favorable overall survival (OS) rate was associated with the score 0 groups, and the poorest progression-free survival (PFS) rate was associated with the score 2 groups, regardless of which system was used to calculate the score. Specifically, the m1GPS provided the greatest accuracy in predicting OS and PFS. Moreover, the same effect was observed in a separate analysis restricted to patients with metastases. Remarkably, in patients with a score of 2 as measured by all 3 systems, local treatment resulted in a poorer prognosis compared to patients with a score of 2 who did not receive local treatment. Conclusion: The GPS is a valuable prognostic marker and has the capability to predict the appropriate treatment strategy for STS patients with metastases. The modified GPS systems demonstrated superior prognostic and predictive value compared with the traditional GPS system. PMID:28367240

  20. Glasgow coma scale score in the prognosis of acute carbamate insecticide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Lee, Byung Kook

    2012-11-01

    Carbamate is a widely used insecticide, and fatality due to carbamate insecticide intoxication has been reported. However, no studies have addressed the factors associated with outcome of patients poisoned by carbamate insecticide. The present study sought to identify the independent factors that could help predict the development of medical complications as a result of carbamate intoxication. Fifty two patients presenting with acute carbamate insecticide ingestion at Chonnam National University Hospital were enrolled in this retrospective observational case series. The morbidities that needed intensive treatment such as hypotension, respiratory failure, and death were regarded as complications. To identify the associated factors to these complications, objective variables that are easily assessed at presentation, such as age, initial Glasgow coma scale (GSC) and corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, were analyzed by univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses. Of the 52 patients, 35 (67.3%) had medical complications within 24 hours after carbamate insecticide intoxication and seven (13.5%) died. Respiratory failure was the most common medical complication. The significant factors determined by univariate analysis were initial GCS, elevated lactate, and QTc prolongation. However, initial GCS (≤13) was the only independent factor determined by multivariate analysis that was associated with serious complications requiring intensive medical treatment. Carbamate insecticide intoxication is not a mild disease, as previously thought, having a mortality rate of 13.8% and a morbidity rate of 67.3%. Initial GCS ≤ 13 can be used as a significant factor to identify carbamate insecticide-intoxicated patients who will experience complications.

  1. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma scale-age-systolic blood pressure scores in the assessment of nontraumatic critical patients in Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Köksal, Ö; Torun, G; Ahun, E; Sığırlı, D; Güney, S B; Aydın, M O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the discriminatory ability of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)-age-systolic blood pressure (GAP) score and modified early warning scoring system (mEWS) score for 4-week mortality, for the patients being in the triage category 1 and 2 who refer to Emergency Department (ED). Five hundred and two nontraumatic cases being in the triage category 1 and 2 who were ≥18-year-old and who referred to ED were assessed prospectively. Reason of referral, fashion of referral, age, gender, vital signs, GCS/alert/verbal/painful/unresponsive scores, consultations, diagnoses, and treatments and final outcome (hospitalization, transfer, discharge, treatment rejection, and exitus) were recorded. The mEWS and GAP scores and the mortality ratios of the cases were calculated by observing both in ED and 4-week survivals of the patients. When the mEWS and GAP scores were compared in the prediction of 4-week mortality, no statistically significant difference was found between them (P > 0.05). The power of mortality estimation was found significant for both scoring systems (for both; P< 0.001). GAP score with a simple use being a score developed for the estimation of mortality of trauma patients seems to be usable also for the nontraumatic patients with triage category 1-2 in the ED.

  2. Vitamin D status and 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale scores in patients in neurocritical care: prospective analysis of 497 patients.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jian; Karsy, Michael; Brock, Andrea A; Eli, Ilyas M; Manton, Gabrielle M; Ledyard, Holly K; Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Park, Min S

    2017-08-11

    OBJECTIVE Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a variety of negative outcomes in critically ill patients, but little focused study on the effects of hypovitaminosis D has been performed in the neurocritical care population. In this study, the authors examined the effect of vitamin D deficiency on 3-month outcomes after discharge from a neurocritical care unit (NCCU). METHODS The authors prospectively analyzed 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients admitted to the NCCU of a quaternary care center over a 6-month period. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were used to evaluate their 3-month outcome, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the effects of vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS Four hundred ninety-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. In the binomial logistic regression model, patients without vitamin D deficiency (> 20 ng/dl) were significantly more likely to have a 3-month GOS score of 4 or 5 than those who were vitamin D deficient (OR 1.768 [95% CI 1.095-2.852]). Patients with a higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) (OR 0.925 [95% CI 0.910-0.940]) and those admitted for stroke (OR 0.409 [95% CI 0.209-0.803]) or those with an "other" diagnosis (OR 0.409 [95% CI 0.217-0.772]) were significantly more likely to have a 3-month GOS score of 3 or less. CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse 3-month postdischarge GOS scores in patients admitted to an NCCU. Additional study is needed to determine the role of vitamin D supplementation in the NCCU population.

  3. Prognostic evaluation based on cortical vein score difference in stroke.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Kate, Mahesh; Rempel, Jeremy L; Liebeskind, David S; Jeerakathil, Thomas; Butcher, Kenneth S; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2013-10-01

    Multimodal imaging in acute ischemic stroke defines the extent of arterial collaterals, resultant penumbra, and associated infarct core, yet limitations abound. We identified superficial and deep venous drainage patterns that predict outcomes in patients with a proximal arterial occlusion of the anterior circulation. An observational study that used computed tomography (CT) angiography to detail venous drainage in a consecutive series of patients with a proximal anterior circulation arterial occlusion. The principal veins that drain the cortex (superficial middle cerebral, vein of Trolard, vein of Labbé, and basal vein of Rosenthal) and deep structures were scored with a categorical scale on the basis of degree of contrast enhancement. The Prognostic Evaluation based on Cortical vein score difference In Stroke score encompassing the interhemispheric difference of the composite scores of the veins draining the cortices (superficial middle cerebral+vein of Trolard+vein of Labbé+basal vein of Rosenthal) was analyzed with respect to 90-day modified Rankin Scale outcomes. Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. A Prognostic Evaluation based on Cortical vein score difference In Stroke score of 4 to 8 accurately predicted poor outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, 3-6; odds ratio, 20.53; P<0.001). On stepwise logistic regression analyses adjusted for CT Alberta stroke program early CT score, CT angiography collateral grading and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, a Prognostic Evaluation based on Cortical vein score difference In Stroke score of 4 to 8 (odds ratio, 23.598; P=0.009) and an elevated admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (odds ratio, 1.423; P=0.023) were independent predictors of poor outcome. The Prognostic Evaluation based on Cortical vein score difference In Stroke score, a novel measure of venous enhancement on CT angiography, accurately predicts clinical outcomes. Venous features on computed tomography angiography

  4. Prognostic Evaluation Based on Cortical Vein Score Difference in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Kate, Mahesh; Rempel, Jeremy L.; Liebeskind, David S.; Jeerakathil, Thomas; Butcher, Kenneth S.; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Multimodal imaging in acute ischemic stroke defines the extent of arterial collaterals, resultant penumbra, and associated infarct core, yet limitations abound. We identified superficial and deep venous drainage patterns that predict outcomes in patients with a proximal arterial occlusion of the anterior circulation. Methods An observational study that used computed tomography (CT) angiography to detail venous drainage in a consecutive series of patients with a proximal anterior circulation arterial occlusion. The principal veins that drain the cortex (superficial middle cerebral, vein of Trolard, vein of Labbé, and basal vein of Rosenthal) and deep structures were scored with a categorical scale on the basis of degree of contrast enhancement. The Prognostic Evaluation based on Cortical vein score difference In Stroke score encompassing the interhemispheric difference of the composite scores of the veins draining the cortices (superficial middle cerebral+vein of Trolard+vein of Labbé+basal vein of Rosenthal) was analyzed with respect to 90-day modified Rankin Scale outcomes. Results Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. A Prognostic Evaluation based on Cortical vein score difference In Stroke score of 4 to 8 accurately predicted poor outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, 3–6; odds ratio, 20.53; P<0.001). On stepwise logistic regression analyses adjusted for CT Alberta stroke program early CT score, CT angiography collateral grading and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, a Prognostic Evaluation based on Cortical vein score difference In Stroke score of 4 to 8 (odds ratio, 23.598; P=0.009) and an elevated admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (odds ratio, 1.423; P=0.023) were independent predictors of poor outcome. Conclusions The Prognostic Evaluation based on Cortical vein score difference In Stroke score, a novel measure of venous enhancement on CT angiography, accurately predicts clinical outcomes

  5. Prognostic value of inflammation-based scores in patients with osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bangjian; Huang, Yujing; Sun, Yuanjue; Zhang, Jianjun; Yao, Yang; Shen, Zan; Xiang, Dongxi; He, Aina

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation responses have been associated with cancer development and progression. C-reactive protein (CRP), Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), and neutrophil-platelet score (NPS) have been shown to be independent risk factors in various types of malignant tumors. This retrospective analysis of 162 osteosarcoma cases was performed to estimate their predictive value of survival in osteosarcoma. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS statistical software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was generated to set optimal thresholds; area under the curve (AUC) was used to show the discriminatory abilities of inflammation-based scores; Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to plot the survival curve; cox regression models were employed to determine the independent prognostic factors. The optimal cut-off points of NLR, PLR, and LMR were 2.57, 123.5 and 4.73, respectively. GPS and NLR had a markedly larger AUC than CRP, PLR and LMR. High levels of CRP, GPS, NLR, PLR, and low level of LMR were significantly associated with adverse prognosis (P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that GPS, NLR, and occurrence of metastasis were top risk factors associated with death of osteosarcoma patients. PMID:28008988

  6. Hematoma Shape, Hematoma Size, Glasgow Coma Scale Score and ICH Score: Which Predicts the 30-Day Mortality Better for Intracerebral Hematoma?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Yi-Jui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Yang, Fu-Chi; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Kao, Hung-Wen; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH) score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA) and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC) were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018), 0.715 (P = 0.0008) (by ABC/2) to 0.738 (P = 0.0002) (by CAVA), 0.877 (P<0.0001) (by ABC/2) to 0.882 (P<0.0001) (by CAVA), and 0.912 (P<0.0001), respectively. Conclusion Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score. PMID:25029592

  7. Antithrombotic drugs and non-variceal bleeding outcomes and risk scoring systems: comparison of Glasgow Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores.

    PubMed

    Taha, Ali S; McCloskey, Caroline; Craigen, Theresa; Angerson, Wilson J

    2016-10-01

    Antithrombotic drugs (ATDs) cause non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). Risk scoring systems have not been validated in ATD users. We compared Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores in predicting outcomes of NVUGIB in ATD users and controls. A total of 2071 patients with NVUGIB were grouped into ATD users (n=851) and controls (n=1220) in a single-centre retrospective analysis. Outcomes included duration of hospital admission, the need for blood transfusion, rebleeding requiring surgery and 30-day mortality. Duration of admission correlated with all scores in controls, but correlations were significantly weaker in ATD users. Rank correlation coefficients in control versus ATD: 0.45 vs 0.20 for Blatchford; 0.48 vs 0.32 for Rockall and 0.42 vs 0.26 for Charlson (all p<0.001). The need for transfusion was best predicted by Blatchford (p<0.001 vs Rockall and Charlson in both ATD users and controls), but all scores performed less well in ATD users. Area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) in control versus ATD: 0.90 vs 0.85 for Blatchford; 0.77 vs 0.61 for Rockall and 0.69 vs 0.56 for Charlson (all p<0.005). In predicting surgery, Rockall performed best; while mortality was best predicted by Charlson with lower AUCs in ATD patients than controls (p<0.05). Stratification showed the scores' performance to be age-dependent. Blatchford score was the strongest predictor of transfusion, Rockall's had the strongest correlation with duration of admission and with rebleeding requiring surgery and Charlson was best in predicting 30-day mortality. Modifications of these systems should be explored to improve their efficiency in ATD users.

  8. Propensity Score Matching within Prognostic Strata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelcey, Ben

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in nonexperimental studies is identifying comparable individuals to remove selection bias. One common way to address this selection bias is through propensity score (PS) matching. PS methods use a model of the treatment assignment to reduce the dimensionality of the covariate space and identify comparable individuals. parallel to…

  9. A Comparative Study of Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Scores for Predicting Long-Term Outcome After Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    McNett, Molly M; Amato, Shelly; Philippbar, Sue Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare predictive ability of hospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and scores obtained using a novel coma scoring tool (the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness [FOUR] scale) on long-term outcomes among patients with traumatic brain injury. Preliminary research of the FOUR scale suggests that it is comparable with GCS for predicting mortality and functional outcome at hospital discharge. No research has investigated relationships between coma scores and outcome 12 months postinjury. This is a prospective cohort study. Data were gathered on adult patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to urban level I trauma center. GCS and FOUR scores were assigned at 24 and 72 hours and at hospital discharge. Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were assigned at 6 and 12 months. The sample size was n = 107. Mean age was 53.5 (SD = ±21, range = 18-91) years. Spearman correlations were comparable and strongest among discharge GCS and FOUR scores and 12-month outcome (r = .73, p < .000; r = .72, p < .000). Multivariate regression models indicate that age and discharge GCS were the strongest predictors of outcome. Areas under the curve were similar for GCS and FOUR scores, with discharge scores occupying the largest areas. GCS and FOUR scores were comparable in bivariate associations with long-term outcome. Discharge coma scores performed best for both tools, with GCS discharge scores predictive in multivariate models.

  10. A scoring system for early prognostic assessment after neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Francesco; Sisti, Lisa; Seri, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to devise a scoring system that could aid in predicting neurologic outcome at the onset of neonatal seizures. A total of 106 newborns who had neonatal seizures and were consecutively admitted to the NICU of the University of Parma from January 1999 through December 2004 were prospectively followed-up, and neurologic outcome was assessed at 24 months' postconceptional age. We conducted a retrospective analysis on this cohort to identify variables that were significantly related to adverse outcome and to develop a scoring system that could provide early prognostic indications. A total of 70 (66%) of 106 infants had an adverse neurologic outcome. Six variables were identified as the most important independent risk factors for adverse outcome and were used to construct a scoring system: birth weight, Apgar score at 1 minute, neurologic examination at seizure onset, cerebral ultrasound, efficacy of anticonvulsant therapy, and presence of neonatal status epilepticus. Each variable was scored from 0 to 3 to represent the range from "normal" to "severely abnormal." A total composite score was computed by addition of the raw scores of the 6 variables. This score ranged from 0 to 12. A cutoff score of > or =4 provided the greatest sensitivity and specificity. This scoring system may offer an easy, rapid, and reliable prognostic indicator of neurologic outcome after the onset of neonatal seizures. A final assessment of the validity of this score in routine clinical practice will require independent validation in other centers.

  11. A comparison of the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based scores and TNM stage in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qun-Xiong; Su, Zi-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chong-Ren; Ke, Shao-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background People’s Republic of China is one of the countries with the highest incidence of gastric cancer, accounting for 45% of all new gastric cancer cases in the world. Therefore, strong prognostic markers are critical for the diagnosis and survival of Chinese patients suffering from gastric cancer. Recent studies have begun to unravel the mechanisms linking the host inflammatory response to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers. Based on this relationship between inflammation and cancer progression, several inflammation-based scores have been demonstrated to have prognostic value in many types of malignant solid tumors. Objective To compare the prognostic value of inflammation-based prognostic scores and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection. Methods The inflammation-based prognostic scores were calculated for 207 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery. Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and prognostic index (PI) were analyzed. Linear trend chi-square test, likelihood ratio chi-square test, and receiver operating characteristic were performed to compare the prognostic value of the selected scores and TNM stage. Results In univariate analysis, preoperative serum C-reactive protein (P<0.001), serum albumin (P<0.001), GPS (P<0.001), PLR (P=0.002), NLR (P<0.001), PI (P<0.001), PNI (P<0.001), and TNM stage (P<0.001) were significantly associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with gastric cancer. In multivariate analysis, GPS (P=0.024), NLR (P=0.012), PI (P=0.001), TNM stage (P<0.001), and degree of differentiation (P=0.002) were independent predictors of gastric cancer survival. GPS and TNM stage had a comparable prognostic value and higher linear trend chi-square value, likelihood ratio chi-square value, and larger area under the receiver operating

  12. A comparison of the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based scores and TNM stage in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qun-Xiong; Su, Zi-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chong-Ren; Ke, Shao-Ying

    2015-01-01

    People's Republic of China is one of the countries with the highest incidence of gastric cancer, accounting for 45% of all new gastric cancer cases in the world. Therefore, strong prognostic markers are critical for the diagnosis and survival of Chinese patients suffering from gastric cancer. Recent studies have begun to unravel the mechanisms linking the host inflammatory response to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers. Based on this relationship between inflammation and cancer progression, several inflammation-based scores have been demonstrated to have prognostic value in many types of malignant solid tumors. To compare the prognostic value of inflammation-based prognostic scores and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection. The inflammation-based prognostic scores were calculated for 207 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery. Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and prognostic index (PI) were analyzed. Linear trend chi-square test, likelihood ratio chi-square test, and receiver operating characteristic were performed to compare the prognostic value of the selected scores and TNM stage. In univariate analysis, preoperative serum C-reactive protein (P<0.001), serum albumin (P<0.001), GPS (P<0.001), PLR (P=0.002), NLR (P<0.001), PI (P<0.001), PNI (P<0.001), and TNM stage (P<0.001) were significantly associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with gastric cancer. In multivariate analysis, GPS (P=0.024), NLR (P=0.012), PI (P=0.001), TNM stage (P<0.001), and degree of differentiation (P=0.002) were independent predictors of gastric cancer survival. GPS and TNM stage had a comparable prognostic value and higher linear trend chi-square value, likelihood ratio chi-square value, and larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as compared to other

  13. A comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) in predictive modelling in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Burzynska, Malgorzata; Melcer, Tomasz; Kübler, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    To compare the performance of multivariate predictive models incorporating either the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score or Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) in order to test whether substituting GCS with the FOUR score in predictive models for outcome in patients after TBI is beneficial. A total of 162 TBI patients were prospectively enrolled in the study. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare the prediction of (1) in-ICU mortality and (2) unfavourable outcome at 3 months post-injury using as predictors either the FOUR score or GCS along with other factors that may affect patient outcome. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were used to compare the discriminant ability and predictive power of the models. The internal validation was performed with bootstrap technique and expressed as accuracy rate (AcR). The FOUR score, age, the CT Rotterdam score, systolic ABP and being placed on ventilator within day one (model 1: AUC: 0.906 ± 0.024; AcR: 80.3 ± 4.8%) performed equally well in predicting in-ICU mortality as the combination of GCS with the same set of predictors plus pupil reactivity (model 2: AUC: 0.913 ± 0.022; AcR: 81.1 ± 4.8%). The CT Rotterdam score, age and either the FOUR score (model 3) or GCS (model 4) equally well predicted unfavourable outcome at 3 months post-injury (AUC: 0.852 ± 0.037 vs. 0.866 ± 0.034; AcR: 72.3 ± 6.6% vs. 71.9%±6.6%, respectively). Adding the FOUR score or GCS at discharge from ICU to predictive models for unfavourable outcome increased significantly their performances (AUC: 0.895 ± 0.029, p = 0.05; AcR: 76.1 ± 6.5%; p < 0.004 when compared with model 3; and AUC: 0.918 ± 0.025, p < 0.05; AcR: 79.6 ± 7.2%, p < 0.009 when compared with model 4), but there was no benefit from substituting GCS with the FOUR score. Results showed that FOUR score and GCS perform equally well in multivariate predictive modelling in TBI.

  14. A Prognostic Model Using Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Scores in Patients With Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma Treated With Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Che; Wang, Shih-Hor; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lan, Jui; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The outcomes of patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) are poor. Recent studies have identified the prognostic impact of inflammatory response and nutritional status on survival for patients with gastric cancer. This study aims to create a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores to predict survival in patients with mGC treated with chemotherapy.After institutional review board approval, patients who had mGC and were treated with chemotherapy from 2007 to 2012 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Significantly predictive factors were identified by multivariate Cox regression analyses. Based on these variables, a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores was constructed to predict survival. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to estimate overall survival. The c-statistic values with 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated to access their predicting performances.Our study consisted of 256 patients with a median age of 60 years and a median follow-up visit of 18.5 months. Multivariate analyses showed that neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) were independently related to survival. After computing these scores, patients were classified into favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups. The median overall survival were 27.6 versus 13.2 versus 8.2 months in favorable, intermediate, and poor-risk groups, respectively. The 2-year survival rate was 52% versus 16% versus 3% in favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups, respectively. (P < 0.001). The c-statistic value of our model at 2 years is 0.8 (95% CI, 0.75-0.86).NLR, mGPS, and PG-SGA were independently related to survival. Our prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores could provide prognostic information to patients and physicians.

  15. Performance of the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale Score in the Evaluation of Children With Blunt Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Borgialli, Dominic A; Mahajan, Prashant; Hoyle, John D; Powell, Elizabeth C; Nadel, Frances M; Tunik, Michael G; Foerster, Adele; Dong, Lydia; Miskin, Michelle; Dayan, Peter S; Holmes, James F; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to compare the accuracy of the pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score in preverbal children to the standard GCS score in older children for identifying those with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) after blunt head trauma. This was a planned secondary analysis of a large prospective observational multicenter cohort study of children with blunt head trauma. Clinical data were recorded onto case report forms before computed tomography (CT) results or clinical outcomes were known. The total and component GCS scores were assigned by the physician at initial emergency department evaluation. The pediatric GCS was used for children <2 years old and the standard GCS for those ≥2 years old. Outcomes were TBI visible on CT and clinically important TBI (ciTBI), defined as death from TBI, neurosurgery, intubation for more than 24 hours for the head injury, or hospitalization for 2 or more nights for the head injury in association with TBI on CT. We compared the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves between age cohorts for the association of GCS and the TBI outcomes. We enrolled 42,041 patients, of whom 10,499 (25.0%) were <2 years old. Among patients <2 years, 313/3,329 (9.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.4% to 10.4%) of those imaged had TBIs on CT and 146/10,499 (1.4%, 95% CI = 1.2% to 1.6%) had ciTBIs. In patients ≥2 years, 773/11,977 (6.5%, 95% CI = 6.0% to 6.9%) of those imaged had TBIs on CT and 572/31,542 (1.8%, 95% CI = 1.7% to 2.0%) had ciTBIs. For the pediatric GCS in children <2 years old, the area under the ROC curve was 0.61 (95% CI = 0.59 to 0.64) for TBI on CT and 0.77 (95% CI = 0.73 to 0.81) for ciTBI. For the standard GCS in older children, the area under the ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI = 0.70 to 0.73) for TBI on CT scan and 0.81 (95% CI = 0.79 to 0.83) for ciTBI. The pediatric GCS for preverbal children was somewhat less accurate than the standard GCS for older children in identifying those with TBI on CT

  16. Cautionary case: low Glasgow Coma Scale scores, brainstem involvement, decompressive craniectomy, full recovery, and one more reason for advocacy/collaboration.

    PubMed

    Kushner, David S

    2015-02-01

    Presurgical selection criteria for decompressive craniectomy (DC) for treatment of severe traumatic brain injury remain controversial. Proposed criteria to improve outcomes include high admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores (≥7) and exclusion of patients having brainstem involvement. Neurosurgeons may be unaware of long-term functional outcomes in their DC patients. Therefore, to underscore an exceptional outcome that may have been facilitated by DC, while highlighting need for caution in development of potentially overly restrictive presurgical selection criteria, this case report of a 21-yr-old premed college student admitted with severe traumatic brain injury, Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3, left fixed dilated pupil, and brainstem signs, who had emergency DC, is presented. Nine years after the trauma, she was employed full time as a physician, and only residual symptom, an occasional headache, remained. Thus, caution is necessary in the development of DC presurgical selection guidelines, as this case had excellent long-term functional outcome that may have been facilitated by DC despite initial low Glasgow Coma Scale scores and signs of brainstem involvement. Also, this case highlights one more reason for multispecialty physician advocacy, collaboration, and comparative effectiveness research.

  17. Prealbumin/CRP Based Prognostic Score, a New Tool for Predicting Metastasis in Patients with Inoperable Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Ali; Makhdami, Nima; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Ghayour Nahand, Mousa; Ghoreishi, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is a considerable dissimilarity in the survival duration of the patients with gastric cancer. We aimed to assess the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) and nutritional status of these patients before the commencement of chemotherapy to find the appropriate prognostic factors and define a new score for predicting metastasis. Methods. SIR was assessed using Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS). Then a score was defined as prealbumin/CRP based prognostic score (PCPS) to be compared with GPS for predicting metastasis and nutritional status. Results. 71 patients with gastric cancer were recruited in the study. 87% of patients had malnutrition. There was a statistical difference between those with metastatic (n = 43) and those with nonmetastatic (n = 28) gastric cancer according to levels of prealbumin and CRP; however they were not different regarding patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and GPS. The best cut-off value for prealbumin was determined at 0.20 mg/dL and PCPS could predict metastasis with 76.5% sensitivity, 63.6% specificity, and 71.4% accuracy. Metastatic and nonmetastatic gastric cancer patients were different in terms of PCPS (P = 0.005). Conclusion. PCPS has been suggested for predicting metastasis in patients with gastric cancer. Future studies with larger sample size have been warranted. PMID:26904109

  18. Prognostic scores for use in African meningococcal epidemics.

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi-Obe, E. K.; Lodi, E.; Alkali, A. S.; Galbati, M.; Rooney, C.; Mannoni, B.; Grim, P.; Nasidi, A.; Mohammed, I.

    1998-01-01

    Current WHO guidelines for the case management of meningococcal infections during epidemics in developing countries often cannot be applied, largely because of the limited health resources in such countries. Several scoring scales based on clinical and laboratory features in numerous combinations have been developed for the management of meningococcal infections in developed countries, and these have facilitated early identification of patients with fulminant disease and thus early intervention and reduction in mortality. Unfortunately such scoring scales are not appropriate for use in developing countries. We identified hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnoea, delay in capillary refill time, coma, absence of neck stiffness and petechiae and/or purpura as simple prognostic factors of meningococcal disease. Two scores were developed: score I, which includes all seven prognostic factors, had a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 94%, respectively. Score II, which excluded hypotension, had a sensitivity and specificity of 73.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Quick and simple scoring scales are therefore not only applicable but useful for the case management of patients in meningococcal epidemics in developing countries. PMID:9648355

  19. Validation of a prognostic score for early mortality in severe head injury cases.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Pedro A; de-la-Cruz, Javier; Lora, David; Jiménez-Roldán, Luis; Rodríguez-Boto, Gregorio; Sarabia, Rosario; Sahuquillo, Juan; Lastra, Roberto; Morera, Jesus; Lazo, Eglis; Dominguez, Jaime; Ibañez, Javier; Brell, Marta; de-la-Lama, Adolfo; Lobato, Ramiro D; Lagares, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    of early death estimated with the model, 4 risk of early death groups were established: low risk, sum score 0-3 (< 1% predicted mortality); moderate risk, sum score 4-8 (predicted mortality between 1% and 10%); high risk, sum score 9-12 (probability of early death between 10% and 50%); and very high risk, sum score 13-20 (early mortality probability > 50%). This score could be used for selecting patients for clinical studies. For example, if patients with very high risk scores were excluded from our study sample, the patients included (eligibility score < 13) would represent 80% of the original sample and only 23% of the patients who died early. The combination of Glasgow Coma Scale score, CT scanning results, and secondary insult data into a prognostic score improved the prediction of early death and the classification of TBI patients.

  20. Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score is a prognostic marker for gastric cancer patients after curative resection.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Daisuke; Sawayama, Hiroshi; Kurashige, Junji; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Eto, Tsugio; Tokunaga, Ryuma; Kitano, Yuki; Yamamura, Kensuke; Ouchi, Mayuko; Nakamura, Kenichi; Baba, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Yamashita, Yoichi; Yoshida, Naoya; Chikamoto, Akira; Baba, Hideo

    2017-06-27

    Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT), as calculated from serum albumin, total cholesterol concentration, and total lymphocyte count, was previously shown to be useful for nutritional assessment. The current study investigated the potential use of CONUT as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer patients after curative resection. Preoperative CONUT was retrospectively calculated in 416 gastric cancer patients who underwent curative resection at Kumamoto University Hospital from 2005 to 2014. The patients were divided into two groups: CONUT-high (≥4) and CONUT-low (≤3), according to time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The associations of CONUT with clinicopathological factors and survival were evaluated. CONUT-high patients were significantly older (p < 0.001) and had a lower body mass index (p = 0.019), deeper invasion (p < 0.001), higher serum carcinoembryonic antigen (p = 0.037), and higher serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (p = 0.007) compared with CONUT-low patients. CONUT-high patients had significantly poorer overall survival (OS) compared with CONUT-low patients according to univariate and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio: 5.09, 95% confidence interval 3.12-8.30, p < 0.001). In time-dependent ROC analysis, CONUT had a higher area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the prediction of 5-year OS than the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, the Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, or pStage. When the time-dependent AUC curve was used to predict OS, CONUT tended to maintain its predictive accuracy for long-term survival at a significantly higher level for an extended period after surgery when compared with the other markers tested. CONUT is useful for not only estimating nutritional status but also for predicting long-term OS in gastric cancer patients after curative resection.

  1. Adjusting a prognostic score for burned children with logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Demirdjian, G

    1997-01-01

    This study was aimed at the adjustment and cross-validation of a prognostic score for burned children on hospital admission. DEMI score assesses seven risk factors related to four main topics: depth (percent of partial-thickness and full-thickness burn), extension (percent of total body surface area burned and injury to dorso-gluteal area), morbidity on admission (preexisting illness and complications caused by inadequate transfer), and presence of Inhalation syndrome. These items were selected in a previous case control study with bivariate analysis on an estimation sample of 168 children with acute burns admitted to the burn unit of the Hospital de Pediatria Juan P. Garrahan between July 1991 and October 1993. This study uses the same retrospective sample to adjust this score by means of multivariate analysis. Only four items were included in the logistic regression formula: percentage total body surface area burned, inadequate transfer, inhalation syndrome, and dorso-gluteal affection. Resulting abbreviation of DEMI score was then cross-validated on a prospective validation sample of 137 patients, yielding high correlation with the outcome (R = 0.78) and high sensitivity (80.95%), specificity (96.55%), and positive (80.95%) and negative (96.55%) predictive values. We conclude that this new DEMI score is a simple and accurate tool to predict mortality risk in burned children.

  2. Outcome Prediction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparison of the Performance of Routinely Used Severity Scores and Multivariable Prognostic Models

    PubMed Central

    Majdan, Marek; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rusnak, Martin; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Prognosis of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important in the assessment of quality of care and can help improve treatment and outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value of relatively simple injury severity scores between each other and against a gold standard model – the IMPACT-extended (IMP-E) multivariable prognostic model. Materials and Methods: For this study, 866 patients with moderate/severe TBI from Austria were analyzed. The prognostic performances of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), GCS motor (GCSM) score, abbreviated injury scale for the head region, Marshall computed tomographic (CT) classification, and Rotterdam CT score were compared side-by-side and against the IMP-E score. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and Nagelkerke's R2 were used to assess the prognostic performance. Outcomes at the Intensive Care Unit, at hospital discharge, and at 6 months (mortality and unfavorable outcome) were used as end-points. Results: Comparing AUCs and R2s of the same model across four outcomes, only little variation was apparent. A similar pattern is observed when comparing the models between each other: Variation of AUCs <±0.09 and R2s by up to ±0.17 points suggest that all scores perform similarly in predicting outcomes at various points (AUCs: 0.65–0.77; R2s: 0.09–0.27). All scores performed significantly worse than the IMP-E model (with AUC > 0.83 and R2 > 0.42 for all outcomes): AUCs were worse by 0.10–0.22 (P < 0.05) and R2s were worse by 0.22–0.39 points. Conclusions: All tested simple scores can provide reasonably valid prognosis. However, it is confirmed that well-developed multivariable prognostic models outperform these scores significantly and should be used for prognosis in patients after TBI wherever possible. PMID:28149077

  3. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. Methods In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Results Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all p<0.01). A score based on the relation HRR (bpm)+7.3×METs−10.5×ST depression (0=no; 1=yes) prognosticated 5-year cardiovascular mortality with a C-statistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77–0.79 before and 0.82–0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64–0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Conclusions Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise. PMID:26835142

  4. The prognostic value of a QRS score during exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Andreas P; Aigyprladou, Maria-Niki K; Andrikopoulos, George K; Richter, Dimitris J; Kartalis, Athanasios; Tapanlis, Evstratios; Fourlas, Christros A; Stefanadis, Christodoulos I

    2005-08-01

    Values of a QRS score have been positively related to the number of narrowed coronary arteries and to the extent of myocardial ischemia in radionuclide imaging techniques. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential prognostic information of abnormal values of this QRS score during treadmill exercise testing in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD). In all, 309 patients (258 men, 51 women, mean age 56.1 +/- 10.0 years) with documented CAD, underwent a treadmill exercise test and coronary arteriography at baseline. Subsequently, they were prospectively followed to a maximum of 36 months (mean follow-up 23 +/- 13 months, median 25 months). During the follow-up period, 20 patients (6.5%) died from acute myocardial infarction. Abnormal QRS score values were found to be significantly and independently associated with cardiac mortality (QRS < or = -4: relative risk 11.7; 95% confidence interval = 2.5-55.4; p = 0.002). Taking into consideration the importance of exercise testing in the management of ischemic heart disease, the use of this QRS score could be of clinical value in predicting the outcome of patients with documented CAD.

  5. Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Luis C. L.; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Carvalhal, Manuela; Oliveira, Ruan; Silva, André; Vasconcelos, Isis; Henri, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    Background The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death. Results The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively), as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively). Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98), similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99) - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92), well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08). This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively), differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%), which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles. PMID:25029471

  6. Analysis of blood trace elements and biochemical indexes levels in severe craniocerebral trauma adults with Glasgow Coma Scale and injury severity score.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangtao; Hu, Bo; Chen, Guiqian; Yu, Xiaojun; Luo, Jianming; Lv, Junyao; Gu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the correlation between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the injury severity score (ISS) and serum levels of trace elements (TE) in severe trauma patients to analyze alteration of the levels of trace elements and serum biochemical indexes in the period of admission from 126 adult cases of severe brain trauma with traffic accidents. Multi-trace elements for patients in the trauma-TE groups were used. The results indicated that all patients presented an acute trace elements deficiency syndrome (ATEDs) after severe trauma, and the correlation between ISS and serum levels of Fe, Zn, and Mg was significant. Compared to the normal control group, levels of the trace elements in serum were significantly decreased after trauma, suggesting that enhancement of immunity to infection and multiple organ failure (MOF) via the monitoring and supplement of trace elements will be a good strategy to severe traumatic patients in clinics.

  7. Impact of Glasgow Coma Scale score and pupil parameters on mortality rate and outcome in pediatric and adult severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective, multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Emami, Pedram; Czorlich, Patrick; Fritzsche, Friederike S; Westphal, Manfred; Rueger, Johannes M; Lefering, Rolf; Hoffmann, Michael

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Prediction of death and functional outcome is essential for determining treatment strategies and allocation of resources for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate, by using pupillary status and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, if patients with severe TBI who are ≤ 15 years old have a lower mortality rate and better outcome than adults with severe TBI. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis of patients suffering from severe TBI registered in the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery between 2002 and 2013 was undertaken. Severe TBI was defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale of the head (AIShead) score of ≥ 3 and an AIS score for any other part of the body that does not exceed the AIShead score. Only patients with complete data (GCS score, age, and pupil parameters) were included. To assess the impact of GCS score and pupil parameters, the authors also used the recently introduced Eppendorf-Cologne Scale and divided the study population into 2 groups: children (0-15 years old) and adults (16-55 years old). Each patient's outcome was measured at discharge from the trauma center by using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS A total of 9959 patients fulfilled the study inclusion criteria; 888 (8.9%) patients were ≤ 15 years old (median 10 years). The overall mortality rate and the mortality rate for patients with a GCS of 3 and bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils (19.9% and 16.3%, respectively) were higher for the adults than for the pediatric patients (85% vs 80.9%, respectively), although cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates were significantly higher in the pediatric patients (5.6% vs 8.8%, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no motor response (OR 3.490, 95% CI 2.240-5.435) and fixed pupils (OR 4.197, 95% CI 3.271-5.386) and bilateral dilated pupils (OR 2.848, 95% CI 2.282-3.556) were associated with a higher mortality rate. Patients ≤ 15 years old had a

  8. Better Glasgow outcome score, cerebral perfusion pressure and focal brain oxygenation in severely traumatized brain following direct regional brain hypothermia therapy: A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Zamzuri; Zenian, Mohd Sofan; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Hamid, Wan Zuraida Wan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induced hypothermia for treatment of traumatic brain injury is controversial. Since many pathways involved in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury are temperature dependent, regional brain hypothermia is thought capable to mitigate those processes. The objectives of this study are to assess the therapeutic effects and complications of regional brain cooling in severe head injury with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 6-7. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled pilot study involving patients with severe traumatic brain injury with GCS 6 and 7 who required decompressive craniectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups: Cooling and no cooling. For the cooling group, analysis was made by dividing the group into mild and deep cooling. Brain was cooled by irrigating the brain continuously with cold Hartmann solution for 24-48 h. Main outcome assessments were a dichotomized Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at 6 months posttrauma. Results: A total of 32 patients were recruited. The cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling. There were 63.2% of patients in cooling group attained good GOS at 6 months compared to only 15.4% in noncooling group (P = 0.007). Interestingly, the analysis at 6 months post-trauma disclosed mild-cooling-treated patients did better than no cooling (70% vs. 15.4% attained good GOS, P = 0.013) and apparently, the deep-cooling-treated patients failed to be better than either no cooling (P = 0.074) or mild cooling group (P = 0.650). Conclusion: Data from this pilot study imply direct regional brain hypothermia appears safe, feasible and maybe beneficial in treating severely head-injured patients. PMID:25685201

  9. Inclusion of hemoglobin level in prognostic score provides better prognostic stratification in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).

    PubMed

    Park, Silvia; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kihyun; Jang, Jun Ho; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Kyu Hyung; Lee, Je Hwan; Lee, Jung Hee; Kim, Dae Young; Jang, Dae-Young; Kim, Hawk; Park, Jae Hoo; Ryoo, Hun Mo; Bae, Sung Hwa; Kim, Min Kyung; Hyun, Myung Soo; Joo, Young Don; Lee, Won Sik; Lee, Sang Min; Jung, Chul Won

    2013-03-01

    The clinical outcomes of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) have improved greatly, but treatment failure still occurs. Identification of patients with poor prognosis is fundamental, and we propose a new clinical prognostic system (CBC-score) consisting of WBC, platelet count, and hemoglobin level. Between 1995 and 2009, 156 patients with APL from seven institutes in Korea were retrospectively reviewed. In the new CBC-score system, each of the following (WBC ≥ 10 × 109/L, platelet <40 × 109/L, hemoglobin <8.0 g/dL) was considered as a risk factor; the sum of each was designated as the CBC-score. With a median follow-up of 8.4 years, the complete remission (CR) rate was 81.4 % (127/156), while 24 (15.4 %) were considered as treatment failures due to early death (ED). The 5-year overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse were 73.8, 82.8, and 13.5 %, respectively. Compared to the individual CBC parameters, combined prognostic systems such as PETHEMA or CBC-score provided better prognostic stratification. Compared to PETHEMA stratification, the proposed prognostic CBC-score system showed better stratification of APL patients in terms of CR rates (p = 0.004), OS (p = 0.004), and ED (p = 0.008). This retrospective study suggests that the proposed CBC-score may provide better prognostic stratification of APL patients.

  10. Brain death epidemiology in Uruguay and utilization of the Glasgow coma score in acute brain injured patients as a predictor of brain death.

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Perez-Protto, S; Etchegaray, A; Castro, A; Lander, M; Buccino, E; Severo, L; Alvarez, I

    2009-10-01

    The knowledge of brain death (BD) epidemiology and the acute brain injury (ABI) progression profile are relevant to improve public health programs, organ procurement strategies, as well as intensive care unit (ICU) protocols aiming to increase the detection of potential donors. The aim of this study was to analyze the BD epidemiology and the ABI progression profile among subjects admitted to ICUs with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) < or = 8. This was a prospective, observational study of BD reported to the National Institute of Donation and Transplantation from 2000-2006. The patients with ABI and GCS < or = 8 who were admitted to 5 ICUs with In-hospital Transplant Coordination were analyzed over the period of 2005-2007. The BD detection increased from 28.7 in 2000 to 58.5 BD pmp in 2006. The real donor global rate increased from 10 to 24.6 pmp from 2000 to 2006. The ABI patients with GCS < or = 8 had a global mortality rate of 56%, including 23.4% who evolved to BD. This study showed a 200% increment of detected BD and 150% of real donors, although these results are still below the international figures. GCS follow-up appeared to be a good tool to predict the BD outcome. The follow-up of patients with ABI allowed us to improve our BD detection strategy.

  11. Comparison of three prognostic scoring systems in a series of 146 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): MD Anderson prognostic score (MDAPS), CMML-specific prognostic scoring system (CPSS) and Mayo prognostic model. A detailed review of prognostic factors in CMML.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Xavier; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Santacruz, Rodrigo; Martínez, Núria; Costa, Dolors; Pereira, Arturo; Estrada, Natalia; Xicoy, Blanca; Esteve, Jordi; Nomdedeu, Benet

    2015-07-23

    Although specific prognostic models for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) exist, few are based on large series of patients. MD Anderson prognostic score (MDAPS) has been the most useful for CMML risk assessment. Due to recent emergence of CMML-specific prognostic scoring system (CPSS) and Mayo prognostic model, we compared the three scores. One hundred forty-six CMML patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed to assess prognostic impact on overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) of the variables composing the scores and all items showed prognostic value on OS with the exception of the presence of circulating immature myeloid cells. Regarding LFS, only CPSS variables, bone marrow blast ≥10% and an absolute monocyte count >10×10(9)/L had an impact. When the scores were applied, all showed an impact on OS and retained their significance in multivariate analysis. By using ROC curves and C-index, CPSS showed a slightly better predictive value for mortality and leukemia transformation. Variables composing the three indexes were compared in multivariate analysis and only CPSS parameters and platelets<100×10(9)/L retained their significance. Based on these findings, by adding platelet count to CPSS, a new score was implemented (CPSS-P) showing the best risk prediction capability in our series. This study reinforces the validity of the tested scores.

  12. Prognostic score–based balance measures for propensity score methods in comparative effectiveness research

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Brian K.; Leacy, Finbarr P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Examining covariate balance is the prescribed method for determining when propensity score methods are successful at reducing bias. This study assessed the performance of various balance measures, including a proposed balance measure based on the prognostic score (also known as the disease-risk score), to determine which balance measures best correlate with bias in the treatment effect estimate. Study Design and Setting The correlations of multiple common balance measures with bias in the treatment effect estimate produced by weighting by the odds, subclassification on the propensity score, and full matching on the propensity score were calculated. Simulated data were used, based on realistic data settings. Settings included both continuous and binary covariates and continuous covariates only. Results The standardized mean difference in prognostic scores, the mean standardized mean difference, and the mean t-statistic all had high correlations with bias in the effect estimate. Overall, prognostic scores displayed the highest correlations of all the balance measures considered. Prognostic score measure performance was generally not affected by model misspecification and performed well under a variety of scenarios. Conclusion Researchers should consider using prognostic score–based balance measures for assessing the performance of propensity score methods for reducing bias in non-experimental studies. PMID:23849158

  13. Evaluation of prognostic factors and establishment of a prognostic scoring system for canine primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Fujino, Yasuhito; Setoguchi, Asuka; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2010-04-01

    Clinical courses of primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (pIMHA) in dogs are highly variable, however, limited information is available to predict their accurate prognoses. To evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical factors and to propose a scoring system to predict prognoses, the medical records of seventy-one dogs with pIMHA were reviewed. Overall mortality rate of dogs with pIMHA was 39% and most of the dogs died within 3 months from diagnosis. Sex, body weight, seasonality, packed corpuscular volume (PCV), platelet count (PLT), total plasma protein (TP), blood urea nitrogen, albumin, total bilirubin, sodium ion, prothrombin time, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products before immunosuppressive treatment can influence on survival time in dogs with pIMHA. A prognostic scoring system using a combination of sex, seasonality, PCV, PLT and TP can be statistically significant for raising the accuracy of prognostic prediction. Using the scoring system for prognostication in dogs with pIMHA may enable veterinarians to predict a prognosis easily and accurately.

  14. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in children with severe head injury. Part 1: Relation to age, Glasgow coma score, outcome, intracranial pressure, and time after injury.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, P M; Stuart, A G; Matthews, D S; Aynsley-Green, A; Eyre, J A

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the pathophysiology of paediatric head trauma is essential for rational acute management. It has been proposed that the response to severe head injury in children differs from that in adults, with increased cerebral blood flow (cerebral hyperaemia) representing the most common cause of raised intracranial pressure, but this has recently been disputed. The relation between the pathophysiological response and time after injury has not been defined in children. This paper describes 151 serial measurements of cerebral blood flow, arteriojugular venous oxygen difference (AJVDO2), and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) that were performed in 21 children with severe head injury, mean age 8 (range 2-16) years, Glasgow coma score < or = 8. Absolute cerebral hyperaemia was uncommon, only 10 (7%) of the 151 cerebral blood flow values being at or above the upper limit of the range published in normal children. There was an inverse correlation between cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure. (r = -0.24, p = 0.009). Contrary to the widespread assumption that cerebral metabolic rate in patients with head injury is always low, CMRO2 was initially within the normal range in 17/21 (81%) children. Both CMRO2 and AJVDO2 fell significantly between the first and third days after injury. There was a non-significant rise in cerebral blood flow over time. These data represent the first evidence that the temporal change in cerebral metabolic rate reported in experimental models of traumatic brain injury also occurs in patients with head injury. The changes in the pathophysiological response over time suggest that the management may need to be modified accordingly. If cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral oxygen extraction are maximal shortly after injury in children with severe head injury then the children are most likely to sustain secondary damage during this period. Images PMID:7876842

  15. A genomic score prognostic of outcome in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Warren, H Shaw; Elson, Constance M; Hayden, Douglas L; Schoenfeld, David A; Cobb, J Perren; Maier, Ronald V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Moore, Ernest E; Harbrecht, Brian G; Pelak, Kimberly; Cuschieri, Joseph; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Brownstein, Bernard H; Hennessy, Laura; Mason, Philip H; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injuries frequently lead to infection, organ failure, and death. Health care providers rely on several injury scoring systems to quantify the extent of injury and to help predict clinical outcome. Physiological, anatomical, and clinical laboratory analytic scoring systems (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE], Injury Severity Score [ISS]) are utilized, with limited success, to predict outcome following injury. The recent development of techniques for measuring the expression level of all of a person's genes simultaneously may make it possible to develop an injury scoring system based on the degree of gene activation. We hypothesized that a peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression score could predict outcome, including multiple organ failure, following severe blunt trauma. To test such a scoring system, we measured gene expression of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients within 12 h of traumatic injury. cRNA derived from whole blood leukocytes obtained within 12 h of injury provided gene expression data for the entire genome that were used to create a composite gene expression score for each patient. Total blood leukocytes were chosen because they are active during inflammation, which is reflective of poor outcome. The gene expression score combines the activation levels of all the genes into a single number which compares the patient's gene expression to the average gene expression in uninjured volunteers. Expression profiles from healthy volunteers were averaged to create a reference gene expression profile which was used to compute a difference from reference (DFR) score for each patient. This score described the overall genomic response of patients within the first 12 h following severe blunt trauma. Regression models were used to compare the association of the DFR, APACHE, and ISS scores with outcome. We hypothesized that patients with a total gene response more different from uninjured volunteers would tend to have poorer

  16. Prognostic significance of CT-emphysema score in patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Cho, Eun Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Although emphysema is a known independent risk factor of lung cancer, no study has addressed the prognostic impact of computed tomography (CT)-emphysema score in advanced stage lung cancer. Methods For 84 consecutive patients with stage IIIB and IV squamous cell lung cancer that underwent palliative chemotherapy, severity of emphysema was semi-quantitatively scored using baseline chest CT images according to the Goddard scoring system (possible scores range, 0–24). The cutoff of high CT-emphysema score was determined using the maximum chi-squared test and the prognostic significance of the high CT-emphysema score was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results The median CT-emphysema score was 5 (range, 0–22). Patients with a high CT-emphysema score (≥4) tended to have poorer overall survival (OS) (median: 6.3 vs. 13.7 months) than those with a score of <4 (P=0.071). Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher CT-emphysema score was a significant independent prognostic factor for poor OS [hazard ratio (HR) =2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24–3.41; P=0.005), along with no response to first-line therapy (P=0.009) and no second-line therapy (P<0.001). Conclusions CT-emphysema score is significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer. PMID:27621848

  17. Prognostic staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma (CLIP score): its value and limitations, and a proposal for a new staging system, the Japan Integrated Staging Score (JIS score).

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Chung, Hobyung; Osaki, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    A clinical staging system for cancer patients provides guidance for patient assessment and making therapeutic decisions. It is useful in deciding whether to treat a patient aggressively, and in avoiding the overtreatment of patients who would not tolerate the treatment or patients whose life expectancy rules out any chance of treatment. Clinical staging is also an essential tool for comparison between groups in therapeutic trials and for comparison between different studies. The current classifications most commonly used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the Okuda stages, the Child-Pugh staging system, tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging, and the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score. Among these, the CLIP score is currently the most commonly used integrated staging score, including both tumor stage and liver disease stage. Although the CLIP score has been well validated by many authors in terms of its prognostic value in HCC patients, this score has some problems and limitations when applied to currently diagnosed HCC patients, who are diagnosed in the early stage of disease. First, the CLIP score can discriminate score 0- to 3-patient populations, but it is not able to discriminate score 4- to 6-patient groups. Second, the definition of tumor morphology in the best prognostic group is too advanced, i.e., uninodular and a tumor extent of less than 50% of the liver. As a result, the prognosis of the CLIP system best prognostic group is not so good. In other words, this system cannot identify the best prognostic group who would benefit from curative and aggressive treatment. Third, nearly 80% of the patient population is classified as having a CLIP score of 0-2, as confirmed by many studies, which shows poor stratification ability. In contrast, a new staging system based on the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (LCSGJ), the Japan Integrated Staging (JIS) score is currently proposed in Japan. This staging system combines Child-Pugh grade (grade A

  18. A prognostic scoring system for locoregional control in nasopharyngeal carcinoma following conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.H.; Tsai, S.Y.; Horng, C.-F.; Yen, K.L.; Jian, James J.; Chan, Kwan-Yee; Lin, C.-Y.; Terng, S.-D.; Tsou, M.-H.; Chu, N.-M.; Chen, H.-H.; Hsieh, C.-I.; Tan, T.-D.; Chen, P.-L.; Chung, Y.L.; Huang, Andrew T. |

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: This study established a prognostic scoring system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which estimates the probability of locoregional (LR) control following definitive conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with nondisseminated NPC at initial presentation (n = 630) were enrolled in this study. All patients had magnetic resonance imaging of the head and neck and were treated with conformal radiotherapy. Among them, 93% had concurrent chemotherapy, and 76% had postradiation chemotherapy. The extent of the primary tumor, age at diagnosis, primary tumor size, tumor and nodal classification, histology, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level before treatment were included in the analysis for building a prognostic scoring system. The end point for this study was LR control. Results: The prognostic score was defined as the number of adverse prognostic factors present at diagnosis. Four factors had similarly independent prognostic effects (hazard ratio, 2.0-2.6): age >40 years, histologic WHO type I-II, serum LDH level {>=}410 U/L, and involvement of two or more sites of the following anatomic structures, i.e., sphenoid floor, clivus marrow, clivus cortex, prevertebral muscles, and petrous bone. The score predicted the 5-year probability of LR control as follows: 0 (15% of the patients), 100%; 1 (42% of the patients), 93%; 2 (29% of the patients), 83%; 3 or higher (13% of the patients), 71%. Conclusion: This scoring system is useful in the decision-making for individual patients and the design of clinical trials to improve LR control for advanced-stage NPC.

  19. Development of the Post Cardiac Surgery (POCAS) prognostic score

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The risk of mortality in cardiac surgery is generally evaluated using preoperative risk-scale models. However, intraoperative factors may change the risk factors of patients, and the organism functionality parameters determined upon ICU admittance could therefore be more relevant in deciding operative mortality. The goals of this study were to find associations between the general parameters of organism functionality upon ICU admission and the operative mortality following cardiac operations, to develop a Post Cardiac Surgery (POCAS) Scale to define operative risk categories and to validate an operative mortality risk score. Methods We conducted a prospective study, including 920 patients who had undergone cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Several parameters recorded on their ICU admission were explored, looking for a univariate and multivariate association with in-hospital mortality (90 days). In-hospital mortality was 9%. Four independent factors were included in the POCAS mortality risk model: mean arterial pressure, bicarbonate, lactate and the International Normalized Ratio (INR). The POCAS scale was compared with four other risk scores in the validation series. Results In-hospital mortality (90 days) was 9%. Four independent factors were included in the POCAS mortality risk model: mean arterial pressure, bicarbonate ratio, lactate ratio and the INR. The POCAS scale was compared with four other risk scores in the validation series. Discriminatory power (accuracy) was defined with a receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The best accuracy in predicting in-hospital mortality (90 days) was achieved by POCAS. The areas under the ROC curves of the different systems analyzed were 0.890 (POCAS), followed by 0.847 (Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAP II)), 0.825 (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)), 0.768 (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II)), 0.754 (logistic EuroSCORE), 0.714 (standard EuroSCORE

  20. Prognostic value of lymphocyte/monocyte ratio in advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: correlation with International Prognostic Score and tumor associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jakovic, Ljubomir R; Mihaljevic, Biljana S; Andjelic, Bosko M; Bogdanovic, Andrija D; Perunicic Jovanovic, Maja D; Babic, Dragan D; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir Z

    2016-08-01

    We studied the prognostic significance of the absolute lymphocyte/monocyte count ratio (ALC/AMC), its contribution to the prognostic value of the International Prognostic Score (IPS), and evaluated if ALC/AMC could serve as a proxy for the frequency of CD68 + tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in 101 patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified best cut-off values of 2.0 for ALC/AMC and 25% for CD68 + TAM. Patients with ALC/AMC < 2, IPS > 2 and > 25% CD68 + TAM had an inferior overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). Spearman's test also uncovered a significant correlation between the ALC/AMC and TAM. Multivariate analysis identified ALC/AMC < 2, IPS > 2 and > 25% CD68 + TAM as poor prognostic factors of OS and EFS. After evaluating ALC/AMC and IPS, we stratified patients into three progressively-worse-outcome groups (low-risk: 0 risk factors; intermediate: 1 risk factor; high: 2 risk factors). Our study encourages the combination of ALC/AMC with IPS, for refining risk prediction in advanced HL patients.

  1. Prognostic Value of Gai's Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuang; Yang, Shuang; Gai, Lu-Yue; Han, Zhi-Qi; Xin, Qian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Jun-Jie; Jin, Qin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 107 visually assessed significant coronary lesions in 88 patients (mean age, 59.6 ± 10.2 years; 76.14% of males) who underwent CCTA, invasive coronary angiography, and invasive FFR measurement. An FFR <0.80 indicated hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. Lesions were divided into two groups using an FFR cutoff value of 0.80. We compared Gai's plaque scores and CACS between the two groups and evaluated the correlations of these scores with FFR. The statistical methods included unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results: Coronary lesions with FFR <0.80 had higher Gai's scores than those with FFR ≥0.80. Gai's score had the strongest correlation with FFR (r = −0.48, P < 0.01) and had a greater area under the curve = 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.61–0.82; P < 0.01) than the CACS of whole arteries and a single artery. Conclusions: Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR <0.80. Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization. PMID:27900990

  2. Evaluation of prognostic scoring systems for bone metastases using single-center data.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hirofumi; Setoguchi, Takao; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Ichiro; Nagano, Satoshi; Komiya, Setsuro

    2015-11-01

    Recent progress in cancer treatment has improved patient survival, but has increased the number of patients with metastatic bone tumors. Data were collected from all bone metastasis patients at Kagoshima University, where almost all patients with metastatic bone tumors who reside in Kagoshima province are treated surgically. The scoring systems used in bone metastasis patients were then evaluated to identify those most suitable for our patients. Clinical data were collected from 145 patients with bone metastases. The patients were assigned prognostic scores based on four scoring systems, namely those described by the Ratasvuori, Mizumoto, Tokuhashi and Katagiri groups. Statistical examinations were performed to assess patient distribution regarding prognostic factors and the four data sets reported in the literature. The patient distributions for all prognostic factors were significantly different between the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group (SSG) and Kagoshima data. The distributions of patients for 3 of 5 and for 5 of 7 prognostic factors were statistically different between the Kagoshima data and the Katagiri and Tokuhashi data, respectively. Additionally, the distribution of patients in each scoring group was statistically different between the Kagoshima data and the Katagiri, Tokuhashi and Mizumoto data. The predictions of prognosis were significantly different between the results of each group and ours. The Tokuhashi scoring system detected the highest survival at 6 months (88.8%) in the Kagoshima data. Patients with a life expectancy of >6 months benefited from tumor excision and reconstruction. These findings suggest that the Tokuhashi scoring system is the most suitable for identifying patients who should be assessed for curative surgical intervention. SSG scoring, however, was suitable for identifying patients expected to survive for <6 months (91.3%). Prior to selecting a scoring system to predict prognosis, it is important to determine which scoring system is

  3. Evaluation of prognostic scoring systems for bone metastases using single-center data

    PubMed Central

    SHIMADA, HIROFUMI; SETOGUCHI, TAKAO; NAKAMURA, SHUNSUKE; YOKOUCHI, MASAHIRO; ISHIDOU, YASUHIRO; TOMINAGA, HIROYUKI; KAWAMURA, ICHIRO; NAGANO, SATOSHI; KOMIYA, SETSURO

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in cancer treatment has improved patient survival, but has increased the number of patients with metastatic bone tumors. Data were collected from all bone metastasis patients at Kagoshima University, where almost all patients with metastatic bone tumors who reside in Kagoshima province are treated surgically. The scoring systems used in bone metastasis patients were then evaluated to identify those most suitable for our patients. Clinical data were collected from 145 patients with bone metastases. The patients were assigned prognostic scores based on four scoring systems, namely those described by the Ratasvuori, Mizumoto, Tokuhashi and Katagiri groups. Statistical examinations were performed to assess patient distribution regarding prognostic factors and the four data sets reported in the literature. The patient distributions for all prognostic factors were significantly different between the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group (SSG) and Kagoshima data. The distributions of patients for 3 of 5 and for 5 of 7 prognostic factors were statistically different between the Kagoshima data and the Katagiri and Tokuhashi data, respectively. Additionally, the distribution of patients in each scoring group was statistically different between the Kagoshima data and the Katagiri, Tokuhashi and Mizumoto data. The predictions of prognosis were significantly different between the results of each group and ours. The Tokuhashi scoring system detected the highest survival at 6 months (88.8%) in the Kagoshima data. Patients with a life expectancy of >6 months benefited from tumor excision and reconstruction. These findings suggest that the Tokuhashi scoring system is the most suitable for identifying patients who should be assessed for curative surgical intervention. SSG scoring, however, was suitable for identifying patients expected to survive for <6 months (91.3%). Prior to selecting a scoring system to predict prognosis, it is important to determine which scoring system is

  4. [Radiotherapy of brain metastases according to the GPA score (Graded Prognostic Assessment)].

    PubMed

    Antoni, D; Noël, G

    2013-10-01

    The management of patients with brain metastases remains a difficult and controversial subject. For years, the standard treatment has been whole-brain radiation therapy alone, but its validity is now under question because of improvements in surgery and the development of radiosurgery or novel targeted therapies and also because whole-brain radiation therapy is responsible for long term neurocognitive toxicity. Therefore it is important to assess diagnosis-specific prognostic factors and indexes when scheduling treatments. The GPA score (Graded Prognostic Assessment), established for various histologic tumor types, includes five prognostic factors: age, Karnofsky Performance Status, presence of extracranial metastases, number of brain metastases and also genetic subtype for breast cancer. We propose an adaptation of the management of brain metastases according to the GPA score. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel gene expression-based prognostic scoring system to predict survival in gastric cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Pin; Wang, Yunshan; Hang, Bo; ...

    2016-07-11

    Analysis of gene expression patterns in gastric cancer (GC) can help to identify a comprehensive panel of gene biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes and to discover potential new therapeutic targets. Here, a multi-step bioinformatics analytic approach was developed to establish a novel prognostic scoring system for GC. We first identified 276 genes that were robustly differentially expressed between normal and GC tissues, of which, 249 were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS) by univariate Cox regression analysis. The biological functions of 249 genes are related to cell cycle, RNA/ncRNA process, acetylation and extracellular matrix organization. A networkmore » was generated for view of the gene expression architecture of 249 genes in 265 GCs. Finally, we applied a canonical discriminant analysis approach to identify a 53-gene signature and a prognostic scoring system was established based on a canonical discriminant function of 53 genes. The prognostic scores strongly predicted patients with GC to have either a poor or good OS. Our study raises the prospect that the practicality of GC patient prognosis can be assessed by this prognostic scoring system.« less

  6. A novel gene expression-based prognostic scoring system to predict survival in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pin; Wang, Yunshan; Hang, Bo; Zou, Xiaoping; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-07-11

    Analysis of gene expression patterns in gastric cancer (GC) can help to identify a comprehensive panel of gene biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes and to discover potential new therapeutic targets. Here, a multi-step bioinformatics analytic approach was developed to establish a novel prognostic scoring system for GC. We first identified 276 genes that were robustly differentially expressed between normal and GC tissues, of which, 249 were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS) by univariate Cox regression analysis. The biological functions of 249 genes are related to cell cycle, RNA/ncRNA process, acetylation and extracellular matrix organization. A network was generated for view of the gene expression architecture of 249 genes in 265 GCs. Finally, we applied a canonical discriminant analysis approach to identify a 53-gene signature and a prognostic scoring system was established based on a canonical discriminant function of 53 genes. The prognostic scores strongly predicted patients with GC to have either a poor or good OS. Our study raises the prospect that the practicality of GC patient prognosis can be assessed by this prognostic scoring system.

  7. A novel gene expression-based prognostic scoring system to predict survival in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Bo; Zou, Xiaoping; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression patterns in gastric cancer (GC) can help to identify a comprehensive panel of gene biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes and to discover potential new therapeutic targets. Here, a multi-step bioinformatics analytic approach was developed to establish a novel prognostic scoring system for GC. We first identified 276 genes that were robustly differentially expressed between normal and GC tissues, of which, 249 were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS) by univariate Cox regression analysis. The biological functions of 249 genes are related to cell cycle, RNA/ncRNA process, acetylation and extracellular matrix organization. A network was generated for view of the gene expression architecture of 249 genes in 265 GCs. Finally, we applied a canonical discriminant analysis approach to identify a 53-gene signature and a prognostic scoring system was established based on a canonical discriminant function of 53 genes. The prognostic scores strongly predicted patients with GC to have either a poor or good OS. Our study raises the prospect that the practicality of GC patient prognosis can be assessed by this prognostic scoring system. PMID:27419373

  8. Prognostic value of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (Pass score) tests to separate benign from malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zorgati, Mohamed Majdi; Bahri, Sonia; Ben Ammar, Slim; Zermani, Rachida

    2013-03-01

    Differentiating malignant from benign pheochromocytoma has been challenging when based on histologic features. This is due to the definition of malignant pheochromocytoma which are defined by the presence of metastases. A PASS score was developed and according to many authors, a PASS score> =4 identified potentially malignant tumors. To assess the prognostic value of PASS score in differentiating benign pheochromocytomas from malignant ones. The records of 11 patients with tumors diagnosed as "pheochromocytoma" were identified from 1970 to 2010 in the files of the pathology, intern medicine and biochemistry departments of the Charles Nicolle hospital and Pasteur Institute. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of PASS. The logistic model was developed using the 11 predictive variables. Its performance was evaluated by calculating the area under the ROC curve and comparing it with that of the PASS. In benign tumors, The PASS score was <4 in 3 cases and >=4 in 6 cases. In malignant tumors, the PASS score was >=4 in both cases. According to the ROC curve analysis, a PASS equal or superior to 4 identifies malignant pheochromocytoma with a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 45%. I think that PASS score, despite its low sensitivity, may help to reserve the more aggressive treatment and narrow follow up for potentially malignant tumors. Widespread of this called score with complete clinical data will help to validate these findings and to add other prognostic factors of value that could be a part of this scaled score such as immunohistochemical findings.

  9. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective • To investigate pathological and short-term outcomes since the most recent Gleason system modifications by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) in an attempt to divide the current Gleason grading system into prognostically accurate Gleason grade groups. Patients and Methods • We queried the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database (1982–2011), approved by the institutional review board, for men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) without a tertiary pattern since 2004 and identified 7869 men. • Multivariable models were created using preoperative and postoperative variables; prognostic grade group (Gleason grade ≤6; 3 + 4; 4 + 3; 8; 9–10) was among the strongest predictors of biochemical recurrence-free (BFS) survival. Results • Significant differences were noted among the Gleason grade groups at biopsy; differences were noted in the race, PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores at biopsy and the maximum percentage of positive cores among the Gleason grade groups at RP. • With a median (range) follow-up of 2 (1–7) years, 5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9–10 tumours at biopsy were 94.6, 82.7, 65.1, 63.1 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend); and 96.6, 88.1, 69.7, 63.7 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001), based on RP pathology. Conclusions • The 2005 ISUP modifications to the Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma accurately categorize patients by pathological findings and short-term biochemical outcomes but, while retaining the essence of the Gleason system, there is a need for a change in its reporting to more closely reflect tumour behaviour. • We propose reporting Gleason grades, including prognostic grade groups which accurately reflect prognosis as follows: Gleason score ≤6 (prognostic grade group I); Gleason score 3+4=7 (prognostic grade group II); Gleason score 4+3=7 (prognostic grade group III); Gleason score 4+4=8 (prognostic grade

  10. Outcome prediction in gastroschisis - The gastroschisis prognostic score (GPS) revisited.

    PubMed

    Puligandla, Pramod S; Baird, Robert; Skarsgard, Eric D; Emil, Sherif; Laberge, Jean-Martin

    2017-05-01

    The GPS enables risk stratification for gastroschisis and helps discriminate low from high morbidity groups. The purpose of this study was to revalidate GPS's characterization of a high morbidity group and to quantify relationships between the GPS and outcomes. With REB approval, complete survivor data from a national gastroschisis registry was collected. GPS bowel injury scoring was revalidated excluding the initial inception/validation cohorts (>2011). Length of stay (LOS), 1st enteral feed days (dFPO), TPN days (dTPN), and aggregate complications (COMP) were compared between low and high morbidity risk groups. Mathematical relationships between outcomes and integer increases in GPS were explored using the entire cohort (2005-present). Median (range) LOS, dPO, and dTPN for the entire cohort (n=849) was 36 (26,62), 13 (9,18), and 27 (20,46) days, respectively. High-risk patients (GPS≥2; n=80) experienced significantly worse outcomes than low risk patients (n=263). Each integer increase in GPS was associated with increases in LOS and dTPN by 16.9 and 12.7days, respectively (p<0.01). COMP rate was also increased in the high-risk cohort (46.3% vs. 22.8%; p<0.01). The GPS effectively discriminates low from high morbidity risk groups. Within the high risk group, integer increases in GPS produce quantitatively differentiated outcomes which may guide initial counseling and resource allocation. IIb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prognostic utility of CCP score in men with prostate cancer after primary external beam radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Freedland, Stephen; Gerber, Leah; Reid, Julia; Welbourn, William; Tikishvili, Eliso; Park, Jimmy; Younus, Adib; Gutin, Alexander; Sangale, Zaina; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Salama, Joseph K.; Stone, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The cell cycle progression (CCP) score, a prognostic RNA signature based on the average expression level of 31 CCP genes, has been shown to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) after prostatectomy and prostate cancer specific mortality in men undergoing observation. However, the value of the CCP score in men who received primary external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is untested. Methods and Materials The CCP score was derived retrospectively from diagnostic biopsy specimens of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1991 to 2006 (n=141). All patients were treated with definitive EBRT; approximately half of the cohort was African-American. Outcome was time from EBRT to BCR using the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up for patients without BCR was 4.8 years. Association with outcome was evaluated by CoxPH survival analysis and likelihood ratio tests. Results Of 141 patients, 19 (13%) had BCR. The median CCP score for patient samples was 0.12. In univariable analysis, CCP score significantly predicted BCR (p-value = 0.0017). The hazard ratio (HR) for BCR was 2.55 for a one-unit increase in CCP score (equivalent to a doubling of gene expression). In a multivariable analysis with Gleason score, PSA, percent positive cores, and androgen deprivation therapy, the HR for CCP remained significant (p-value = 0.034), indicating that CCP provides prognostic information that is not provided by standard clinical parameters. With 10-year censoring, the CCP score was associated with prostate cancer specific mortality (p-value = 0.013). There was no evidence for interaction between CCP and any clinical variable, including ethnicity. Conclusions Among men treated with EBRT, the CCP score significantly predicated outcome and provided greater prognostic information than was available with clinical parameters. If validated in a larger cohort, CCP score could identify high-risk men undergoing EBRT who may need more aggressive therapy. PMID:23755923

  12. Predicting survival in malignant pleural effusion: development and validation of the LENT prognostic score.

    PubMed

    Clive, Amelia O; Kahan, Brennan C; Hooper, Clare E; Bhatnagar, Rahul; Morley, Anna J; Zahan-Evans, Natalie; Bintcliffe, Oliver J; Boshuizen, Rogier C; Fysh, Edward T H; Tobin, Claire L; Medford, Andrew R L; Harvey, John E; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Lee, Y C Gary; Maskell, Nick A

    2014-12-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) causes debilitating breathlessness and predicting survival is challenging. This study aimed to obtain contemporary data on survival by underlying tumour type in patients with MPE, identify prognostic indicators of overall survival and develop and validate a prognostic scoring system. Three large international cohorts of patients with MPE were used to calculate survival by cell type (univariable Cox model). The prognostic value of 14 predefined variables was evaluated in the most complete data set (multivariable Cox model). A clinical prognostic scoring system was then developed and validated. Based on the results of the international data and the multivariable survival analysis, the LENT prognostic score (pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score (PS), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and tumour type) was developed and subsequently validated using an independent data set. Risk stratifying patients into low-risk, moderate-risk and high-risk groups gave median (IQR) survivals of 319 days (228-549; n=43), 130 days (47-467; n=129) and 44 days (22-77; n=31), respectively. Only 65% (20/31) of patients with a high-risk LENT score survived 1 month from diagnosis and just 3% (1/31) survived 6 months. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating curve revealed the LENT score to be superior at predicting survival compared with ECOG PS at 1 month (0.77 vs 0.66, p<0.01), 3 months (0.84 vs 0.75, p<0.01) and 6 months (0.85 vs 0.76, p<0.01). The LENT scoring system is the first validated prognostic score in MPE, which predicts survival with significantly better accuracy than ECOG PS alone. This may aid clinical decision making in this diverse patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. New prognostic factors and scoring system for patients with skeletal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Hirohisa; Okada, Rieko; Takagi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Murata, Hideki; Harada, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to update a previous scoring system for patients with skeletal metastases, that was proposed by Katagiri et al. in 2005, by introducing a new factor (laboratory data) and analyzing a new patient cohort. Between January 2005 and January 2008, we treated 808 patients with symptomatic skeletal metastases. They were prospectively registered regardless of their treatments, and the last follow-up evaluation was performed in 2012. There were 441 male and 367 female patients with a median age of 64 years. Of these patients, 749 were treated nonsurgically while the remaining 59 underwent surgery for skeletal metastasis. A multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model. We identified six significant prognostic factors for survival, namely, the primary lesion, visceral or cerebral metastases, abnormal laboratory data, poor performance status, previous chemotherapy, and multiple skeletal metastases. The first three factors had a larger impact than the remaining three. The prognostic score was calculated by adding together all the scores for individual factors. With a prognostic score of ≥7, the survival rate was 27% at 6 months, and only 6% at 1 year. In contrast, patients with a prognostic score of ≤3 had a survival rate of 91% at 1 year, and 78% at 2 years. Comparing the revised system with the previous one, there was a significantly lower number of wrongly predicted patients using the revised system. This revised scoring system was able to predict the survival rates of patients with skeletal metastases more accurately than the previous system and may be useful for selecting an optimal treatment. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. New prognostic factors and scoring system for patients with skeletal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Hirohisa; Okada, Rieko; Takagi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Murata, Hideki; Harada, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to update a previous scoring system for patients with skeletal metastases, that was proposed by Katagiri et al. in 2005, by introducing a new factor (laboratory data) and analyzing a new patient cohort. Between January 2005 and January 2008, we treated 808 patients with symptomatic skeletal metastases. They were prospectively registered regardless of their treatments, and the last follow-up evaluation was performed in 2012. There were 441 male and 367 female patients with a median age of 64 years. Of these patients, 749 were treated nonsurgically while the remaining 59 underwent surgery for skeletal metastasis. A multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model. We identified six significant prognostic factors for survival, namely, the primary lesion, visceral or cerebral metastases, abnormal laboratory data, poor performance status, previous chemotherapy, and multiple skeletal metastases. The first three factors had a larger impact than the remaining three. The prognostic score was calculated by adding together all the scores for individual factors. With a prognostic score of ≥7, the survival rate was 27% at 6 months, and only 6% at 1 year. In contrast, patients with a prognostic score of ≤3 had a survival rate of 91% at 1 year, and 78% at 2 years. Comparing the revised system with the previous one, there was a significantly lower number of wrongly predicted patients using the revised system. This revised scoring system was able to predict the survival rates of patients with skeletal metastases more accurately than the previous system and may be useful for selecting an optimal treatment. PMID:25044999

  15. A Simplified Mortality Score Using Delta Neutrophil Index and the Thrombotic Microangiopathy Score for Prognostication in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Goag, Eun Kyong; Lee, Jong Wook; Roh, Yun Ho; Leem, Ah Young; Kim, Song Yee; Song, Joo Han; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Chung, Kyung Soo

    2017-07-04

    This study was conducted to assess the prognostic value of a simplified mortality score (SMS) using the delta neutrophil index (DNI) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) score, both easily obtained from the complete blood count, to identify critically ill patients at high risk of death. This was a retrospective study performed in the medical ICU at Yonsei University College of Medicine from June 2015 to February 2016. The primary end-point was 28-day all-cause mortality. Participants were divided into two groups: a training (n = 232) and a test (n = 57) set. We used Cox proportional-hazards analysis, Harrell's C index, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to derive the SMS and test its internal validity. We enrolled 289 patients. The 28-day mortality rate was 31.1% (n = 90). Non-survivors had higher APACHE II, SOFA, and TMA scores, and DNI. The SMS, derived by Cox proportional-hazards analysis, consisted of age, sex, DNI, and TMA score. We assigned a weighted point to each variable in the SMS, as follows: age + 11 if male + (2 × DNI) + (61 [TMA = 1], 76 [TMA = 2], 74 [TMA = 3], 26 [TMA = 4], 99 [TMA = 5]). Non-survivors had a higher median SMS than survivors, and the Harrell's C index was 0.660. Analysis of survival by risk group according to SMS (low, intermediate, high risk) showed a significant difference among these three groups (P < 0.001). We then investigated this SMS in the test set to determine internal validity; the results were similar to those of the training set. The SMS is a more rapid, simple prognostic score for predicting 28-day mortality and stratifying risk than the APACHE II or SOFA scores. However, external validation using a larger sample is needed.

  16. Prognostic scoring system for peripheral nerve repair in the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Galanakos, Spyridon P; Zoubos, Aristides B; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Ignatiadis, Ioannis; Bot, Arjan G J; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2013-02-01

    So far, predictive models with individualized estimates of prognosis for patients with peripheral nerve injuries are lacking. Our group has previously shown the prognostic value of a standardized scoring system by examining the functional outcome after acute, sharp complete laceration and repair of median and/or ulnar nerves at various levels in the forearm. In the present study, we further explore the potential mathematical model in order to devise an effective prognostic scoring system. We retrospectively collected medical record data of 73 cases with a peripheral nerve injury in the upper extremity in order to estimate which patients would return to work, and what time was necessary to return to the pre-injury work. Postoperative assessment followed the protocol described by Rosén and Lundborg. We found that return to pre-injury work can be predicted with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (95%) using the total numerical score of the Rosén and Lundborg protocol at the third follow-up interval (TS3) as well as the difference between the TS3 and the total score at second follow-up interval (TS2). In addition, the factors age and type of injured nerve (median, ulnar, or combined) can determine the time of return to work based on a mathematical model. This prognostic protocol can be a useful tool to provide information about the functional and social prospects of the patients with these types of injuries.

  17. Change in the Multidimensional Prognostic Index Score During Hospitalization in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Daragjati, Julia; Simonato, Matteo; Fontana, Andrea; Ferrucci, Luigi; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated and describe change in the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) score between admission and discharge in 960 older patients admitted to 20 geriatric units for an acute disease or a relapse of a chronic disease. The MPI was calculated at admission and at discharge. Subjects were divided into three groups of MPI score, low risk (MPI-1 value ≤0.33), moderate risk (MPI-2 value 0.34–0.66), and severe risk of mortality (MPI-3 value ≥0.67), on the basis of previously established cutoffs. Variation of MPI values over length of hospital stay (LOS) was analyzed with a multivariable longitudinal linear model for repeated measurements. At admission, 23.5% subjects had an MPI-1 score, 33.3% had an MPI-2 score, and 43.0% had an MPI-3 score. Overall, for almost 60% of the patients, MPI score at hospital discharge was different compared with the score at admission, although the difference was not statistically significant (−0.003; p = 0.708). Patients with high and intermediate MPI scores at admission had a decrease of MPI score at discharge (delta-MPI −0.026, p < 0.001, and delta-MPI −0.066, p = 0.569, respectively), whereas patients in the MPI-low group, experienced a significant increase in MPI score (delta-MPI 0.041, p < 0.001). The evolution of MPI score as a function of LOS had a curvilinear shape because it significantly decreased for patients with short hospitalization (1–6 days) and tended to increase for those with longer LOS. The MPI, a well-established prognostic tool, is sensitive to change of patient's health status and might be used to objectively track and monitor the clinical evolution of acutely ill geriatric patients admitted to the hospital. PMID:26905632

  18. Change in the Multidimensional Prognostic Index Score During Hospitalization in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Stefano; Daragjati, Julia; Simonato, Matteo; Fontana, Andrea; Ferrucci, Luigi; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    We investigated and describe change in the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) score between admission and discharge in 960 older patients admitted to 20 geriatric units for an acute disease or a relapse of a chronic disease. The MPI was calculated at admission and at discharge. Subjects were divided into three groups of MPI score, low risk (MPI-1 value ≤0.33), moderate risk (MPI-2 value 0.34-0.66), and severe risk of mortality (MPI-3 value ≥0.67), on the basis of previously established cutoffs. Variation of MPI values over length of hospital stay (LOS) was analyzed with a multivariable longitudinal linear model for repeated measurements. At admission, 23.5% subjects had an MPI-1 score, 33.3% had an MPI-2 score, and 43.0% had an MPI-3 score. Overall, for almost 60% of the patients, MPI score at hospital discharge was different compared with the score at admission, although the difference was not statistically significant (-0.003; p = 0.708). Patients with high and intermediate MPI scores at admission had a decrease of MPI score at discharge (delta-MPI -0.026, p < 0.001, and delta-MPI -0.066, p = 0.569, respectively), whereas patients in the MPI-low group, experienced a significant increase in MPI score (delta-MPI 0.041, p < 0.001). The evolution of MPI score as a function of LOS had a curvilinear shape because it significantly decreased for patients with short hospitalization (1-6 days) and tended to increase for those with longer LOS. The MPI, a well-established prognostic tool, is sensitive to change of patient's health status and might be used to objectively track and monitor the clinical evolution of acutely ill geriatric patients admitted to the hospital.

  19. Development of a prognostic score for work disability in Romanian patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Corina; Mihai, Carina; Gherman, Despina; Milicescu, Mihaela; Ancuta, Ioan; Martin, Andrei; Bojinca, Mihai; Stoica, Victor; Ciuvica, Maria Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    To develop a prognostic score for predicting work disability (WD) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as strong indicator for poor vocational rehabilitation. A cross-sectional study was performed in a group of 170 patients with AS, 120 work disabled and 50 still employed. The variables strongly associated with WD were quantified (scored 0-30) - abnormalities of: anterior-posterior radiograph of pelvis, lateral cervical spine radiograph and lung function tests, certain work factors (occupation, physical strain and microclimate), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Mobility Index and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index tests. The eight-item score identifies WD with sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 85.7%. The scaling properties were fulfilled: internal consistency - Chronbach's alpha 0.73; reliability - intraclass correlation coefficient 0.73; redundancy weak-moderate, with coefficients ranging from 0.032 to 0.797; the discriminative capacity by the significant variations of the score according to the statute (employed or work disabled) and the degree of WD. The score is a reliable method for assessing the WD risk in patients with AS. It allows a complex evaluation by performing minimal investigations and it is easy to perform. Work disability is an important outcome in AS, determined by numerous variables but highly dependent on the national characteristics of economy, social security and healthcare system. The prognostic score for work disability in AS not only contains medical but also socio-demographic and work-related factors and is expected to be a useful tool for specialists to guide the tertiary prevention-oriented rehabilitation measures. Our study suggests the prognostic score to be comprehensive, useful and a reliable method to assess the risk of work disability in AS.

  20. Prognostication of long-term outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage: The FRESH score.

    PubMed

    Witsch, Jens; Frey, Hans-Peter; Patel, Sweta; Park, Soojin; Lahiri, Shouri; Schmidt, J Michael; Agarwal, Sachin; Falo, Maria Cristina; Velazquez, Angela; Jaja, Blessing; Macdonald, R Loch; Connolly, E Sander; Claassen, Jan

    2016-07-01

    To create a multidimensional tool to prognosticate long-term functional, cognitive, and quality of life outcomes after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using data up to 48 hours after admission. Data were prospectively collected for 1,619 consecutive patients enrolled in the SAH outcome project July 1996 to March 2014. Linear models (LMs) were applied to identify factors associated with outcome in 1,526 patients with complete data. Twelve-month functional, cognitive, and quality of life outcomes were measured using the modified Rankin scale (mRS), Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, and Sickness Impact Profile. Based on the LM residuals, we constructed the FRESH score (Functional Recovery Expected after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage). Score performance, discrimination, and internal validity were tested using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), Nagelkerke and Cox/Snell R(2) , and bootstrapping. For external validation, we used a control population of SAH patients from the CONSCIOUS-1 study (n = 413). The FRESH score was composed of Hunt & Hess and APACHE-II physiologic scores on admission, age, and aneurysmal rebleed within 48 hours. Separate scores to prognosticate 1-year cognition (FRESH-cog) and quality of life (FRESH-quol) were developed controlling for education and premorbid disability. Poor functional outcome (mRS = 4-6) for score levels 1 through 9 respectively was present in 3, 6, 12, 38, 61, 83, 92, 98, and 100% at 1-year follow-up. Performance of FRESH (AUC = 0.90), FRESH-cog (AUC = 0.80), and FRESH-quol (AUC = 0.78) was high. External validation of our cohort using mRS as endpoint showed satisfactory results (AUC = 0.77). To allow for convenient score calculation, we built a smartphone app available for free download. FRESH is the first clinical tool to prognosticate long-term outcome after spontaneous SAH in a multidimensional manner. Ann Neurol 2016;80:46-58. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  1. Prognostic impact of absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio and prognostic score in patients with nasal-type, extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Li; Song, Hao-Lan; Zhang, Jing; Weng, Hua-Wei; Zou, Li-Qun

    2017-05-01

    Nasal-type, extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma is a heterogeneous disorder with poor prognosis, requiring risk stratification in this population. The combined value of baseline absolute lymphocyte count and absolute monocyte count provided prognostic information in some malignancies. However, the evidence requires validation in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. Aiming to investigate the prognostic significance of absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio and absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score for extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, a retrospective research was carried out. A total of 264 patients with newly diagnosed extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma were analyzed in this study. The patients' absolute lymphocyte count and absolute monocyte count tested at initial diagnosis were collected. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off values for absolute lymphocyte count and absolute monocyte count were 1.0 × 10(9) and 0.5 × 10(9)L(-1), respectively, and for absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio was 2.85. After a median follow-up of 27 months (range 1-87 months), the 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival was 75.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Patients with absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio ≥ 2.85 had better 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival than those with absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio <2.85 (p < 0.001). According to absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score, significant difference has been noticed in 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival (p < 0.001) and high absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score was associated with poorer survival. The International Prognostic Index and Korean Prognostic Index were used for prognosis and showed no significant difference. When adding absolute lymphocyte count

  2. Validation of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System in treated patients with myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Asmita; Corrales-Yepez, Maria; Ali, Najla Al; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed; Padron, Eric; Zhang, Ling; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K.; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Lancet, Jeffrey E.; List, Alan F.; Komrokji, Rami S.

    2015-01-01

    The International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) was recently revised (IPSS-R) under the auspices of the MDS Foundation as a collaborative international effort to refine its prognostic power. Our purpose was to externally validate this new risk model using a large single-institution cohort, determine its prognostic power in patients receiving active treatment, and explore its utility in guiding therapeutic decisions. Data were collected retrospectively from our myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) database and verified by chart review. Of the data available for 1,088 patients, 152 (14%), 353 (32%), 237 (22%), 190 (18%), and 156 (14%) patients were classified as very low, low, intermediate, high, and very high risk, respectively, with median overall survival (OS) of 90 (95%CI 71–109), 54 (95%CI 50–59), 34 (95%CI 26–43), 21 (95%CI 17–25), and 13 months (95%CI 11– 15), respectively (P < 0.005). We found that the IPSS-R further refined prognostic discrimination in all IPSS risk categories, particularly in the intermediate 1 and 2 groups. Among high and very high IPSS-R patients receiving azacitidine, OS was significantly improved versus patients not receiving azacitidine, with corresponding median OS of 25 versus 18 months (P = 0.028) and 15 versus 9 months (P = 0.005), respectively. Similarly, patients with IPSS-R high- and very high-risk disease who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation had significantly improved OS versus nontransplant approaches (P < 0.005). High and very high IPSS-R patients derived a survival advantage from disease-modifying therapies. Our data validate the prognostic value of the proposed IPSS-R and show that its refined IPSS prognostic discrimination can be applied to actively treated patients. PMID:23605934

  3. Comparison of outcome predictions by the Glasgow coma scale and the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score in the neurological and neurosurgical patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Kishor; Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan; Shrestha, Ninadini; Acharya, Subhash Prasad; Marhatta, Moda Nath

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of level of consciousness is very important in predicting patient's outcome from neurological illness. Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is the most commonly used scale, and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score is also recently validated as an alternative to GCS in the evaluation of the level of consciousness. We carried out a prospective study in 97 patients aged above 16 years. We measured GCS and FOUR score within 24 h of Intensive Care Unit admission. The mean GCS and the FOUR scores were lower among nonsurvivors than among the survivors and were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Discrimination for GCS and FOUR score was fair with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79 and 0.82, respectively. The cutoff point with best Youden index for GCS and FOUR score was 6.5 each. Below the cutoff point, mortality was higher in both models (P < 0.001). The Hosmer-Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration with FOUR score than GCS. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.91 (P < 0.001). PMID:27630460

  4. The pretreatment Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score is an independent prognostic factor in patients with resectable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Toyokawa, Takahiro; Kubo, Naoshi; Tamura, Tatsuro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Amano, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Ohira, Masaichi

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score on survival compared with the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) in patients with resectable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). One hundred eighty-five consecutive patients who underwent subtotal esophagectomy with curative intent for resectable thoracic ESCC were retrospectively reviewed. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for 3-year overall survival (OS) as the endpoint were performed, and the maximal Youden indices were calculated to assess discrimination ability and to determine the appropriate cut-off values of CONUT, PLR, and NLR. The patients were then classified into high and low groups based on these cut-off values. Correlations between CONUT and other clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Prognostic factors predicting overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. The areas under the curve predicting 3-year OS were 0.603 for CONUT, 0.561 for PLR, 0.564 for NLR, and 0.563 for GPS. The optimal cut-off values were two for the CONUT score, 193 for PLR, and 3.612 for NLR. The high-CONUT group was significantly associated with lower BMI, high-PLR, high-NLR, and GPS1/2 groups. On univariate analysis, high-CONUT, high-PLR, high-NLR, and GPS 1/2 groups were significantly associated with poorer OS and RFS. Of these factors, multivariate analysis revealed that only the CONUT score was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 2.303, 95 % CI 1.191-4.455; p = 0.013) and RFS (HR 2.163, 95 % CI 1.139-4.109; p = 0.018). The CONUT score was an independent predictor of OS and RFS before treatment and was superior to PLR, NLR, and GPS in terms of predictive ability for prognosis in patients with resectable thoracic ESCC.

  5. Prognostic Factors for Open Globe Injuries and Correlation of Ocular Trauma Score in Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yu; Yan, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate prognostic factors that influence the final visual acuity (VA) and to correlate the ocular trauma score (OTS) with the final VA in open globe injuries. Methods. A retrospective review of 298 patients with open globe injuries admitted to Tianjin Medical University General Hospital was carried out from January 1, 2010, till December 31, 2014. Prognostic factors influencing the final VA in patients with open globe injuries and the correlation between OTS and the final VA were examined. Results. Three hundred and fourteen eyes from 298 patients with open globe injuries were analyzed. Males had a higher rate of open globe injury than females (83.56% versus 16.44%). Mean age was 45.46 ± 17.48 years (5–95 years). In a univariate analysis, prognostic factors influencing the final VA included initial VA, relative afferent papillary defect (RAPD), vitreous hemorrhage, lens injury, endophthalmitis, hyphema, retinal detachment, and the zone of injury. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, initial VA, RAPD, and the zone of injury were considered to be independent risk factors. The OTS correlated with final VA (r = 0.988, p = 0.000). Conclusion. In our study, the most important prognostic factors influencing the final VA were initial VA, RAPD, and the zone of injury. The OTS was of great importance for patients and ophthalmologists. PMID:26491549

  6. Prognostic variables and scores identifying the last year of life in COPD: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ifrah; Stone, Patrick; Smeeth, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People living with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suffer from significant morbidity, reduced quality of life and high mortality, and are likely to benefit from many aspects of a palliative care approach. Prognostic estimates are a meaningful part of decision-making and better evidence for such estimates would facilitate advance care planning. We aim to provide quality evidence on known prognostic variables and scores which predict a prognosis in COPD of <12 months for use in the community. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective longitudinal cohort and case–control studies on prognostic variables, multivariate scores or models for COPD. The search will cover the period up to April 2016. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, with data extraction using fields from the Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies (CHARMS) checklist for multivariate models, and study quality will be assessed using a modified version of the Quality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. Ethics and dissemination The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations. Systematic review registration number CRD42016033866. PMID:27633634

  7. Prognostication and intensive care unit outcome: the evolving role of scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Margaret S

    2003-12-01

    Prognostic scoring systems remain important in clinical practice. They enable us to characterize our patient populations with robust measures for predicted mortality. This allows us to audit our own experience in the context of institutional quality control measures and facilitates, albeit imperfectly, comparisons across units and patient populations. Practically, they provide an objective means to characterize case-mix and this helps to quantify resource needs when negotiating with hospital administrators for funding. Prognostic scores also help to stratify patient populations for research purposes. To be used accurately and effectively, one must have a good understanding of the limitations that are intrinsic to these prognostic systems. It is important to understand the details of their derivation and validation. The population of patients that is used to develop the models may not be relevant to your patient population. The model may have been derived several years before and may no longer reflect current practice patterns and treatment. These models may become obsolete over time. As with all scoring systems, there are potential problems with misclassification and more serious, systematic error, in data collection. One needs to rigorously adhere to guidelines about how these data are to be collected and processed; the persons who collect the data require regular updates and ongoing training. In their current form, the systems should not be used to prognosticate in individual patients, nor should they be used to define medical futility. The prognostic models should be viewed as being in evolution. Many patient and ICU characteristics that seem to have an important impact on mortality have yet to be incorporated into any of the current models. As an example, these may include the genetic characteristics of the patients and the ICU's organizational structure and process of care [51, 52]. Because the organ dysfunction measures are able to be obtained daily they give

  8. The Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography Prognostic Score for Basilar Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Fana; Shah, Darshan G; Diomedi, Marina; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Bivard, Andrew; Sharma, Gagan; Mitchell, Peter J; Dowling, Richard J; Bush, Steven; Yan, Bernard; Caltagirone, Carlo; Floris, Roberto; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher R; Davis, Stephen M; Campbell, Bruce C V

    2017-03-01

    Basilar artery occlusion is associated with high risk of disability and mortality. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of a new radiological score: the Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography (BATMAN) score. A retrospective analysis of consecutive stroke patients with basilar artery occlusion diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography was performed. BATMAN score is a 10-point computed tomographic angiography-based grading system which incorporates thrombus burden and the presence of collaterals. Reliability was assessed with intraclass coefficient correlation. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score of ≤3 at 3 months and successful reperfusion as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b-3. BATMAN score was externally validated and compared with the Posterior Circulation Collateral score. The derivation cohort included 83 patients with 41 in the validation cohort. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, BATMAN score had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9) in derivation cohort and an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.6-0.9) in validation cohort. In logistic regression adjusted for age and clinical severity, BATMAN score of <7 was associated with poor outcome in derivation cohort (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.4-21; P=0.01), in validation cohort (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% CI, 1.4-33; P=0.01), and in endovascular patients, after adjustment for recanalization and time to treatment (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2-18; P=0.01). BATMAN score of <7 was not associated with recanalization. Interrater agreement was substantial (intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9). BATMAN score had greater accuracy compared with Posterior Circulation Collateral score (P=0.04). The addition of collateral quality to clot burden in BATMAN score seems to improve prognostic accuracy in basilar artery occlusion patients. © 2017

  9. Scoring of Prognostic Parameters in Patients with Unresectable Advanced or Recurrent Colorectal Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ikeguchi, Masahide; Shimoda, Ryugo; Yamamoto, Manabu; Maeta, Yoshihiko; Ashida, Keigo; Saito, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Background Suitable chemotherapy is needed to prolong the survival of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. We scored the periodical changes of several prognostic markers during chemotherapy in patients with this type of cancer to discern the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Methods Twenty consecutive patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer were enrolled. All patients underwent combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin or irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and serum albumin (ALB) were compared between the two periods (before chemotherapy and 3 months after it was started) in each patient. The scoring system was as follows: points are added when a patient shows a decrease of NLR, CRP and CEA and an increase of ALB at 3 months after the start of chemotherapy with a possible final score of +4. On the other hand, points are reduced if a patient shows an elevation of NLR, CRP and CEA and a decrease of ALB at 3 months after the start of chemotherapy with a possible final score of −4. Results At 3 months after the start of first line chemotherapy, 13 patients showed positive scores but 7 patients showed zero or minus scores. According to our scoring system, we found the mean survival time (MST) of the 13 patients with plus scores was 34 months and this was significantly better than that of the 7 patients who showed zero or minus scores (P = 0.0008). Conclusion Our new scoring system is useful but when we find that first line chemotherapy is ineffective, we need to change it to second line chemotherapy as soon as possible. That may be the best treatment for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. PMID:24179314

  10. Prognostic factors for mortality in left colonic peritonitis: a new scoring system.

    PubMed

    Biondo, S; Ramos, E; Deiros, M; Ragué, J M; De Oca, J; Moreno, P; Farran, L; Jaurrieta, E

    2000-12-01

    Perforating lesions of the colon affect a heterogeneous group of patients, often elderly, and usually present as abdominal emergencies, with high morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to assess the prognostic value of specific factors in patients with left colonic peritonitis and to evaluate the utility of a scoring method that allows one to define groups of patients with different mortality risks. Between January 1994 and December 1999, 156 patients (77 men and 79 women), with a mean (SD) age of 63.2 years (15.5 years) (range 22 to 87 years), underwent emergency operation for a distal colonic perforation. Intraoperative colonic lavage was the first choice operation and it was performed in 74 patients (47.4%). There were three alternative procedures: the Hartmann operation was performed in 69 patients (44.2%), subtotal colectomy in 9, and colostomy in 4 patients. We analyzed specific variables for their possible relation to death including gender, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, immunocompromised status, etiology, and degree of peritonitis, preoperative organ failure, time (hours) between hospital admission and surgical intervention, and degree of temperature elevation (38 degrees C). Univariate relations between predictors and outcomes (death) were analyzed using logistic regression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of combinations of the variables. Significant factors identified in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to define a left colonic Peritonitis Severity Score (PSS). Factors that were significant only in univariate analysis scored 2 points if present and 1 if not. Variables significant in multivariate analysis were scored from 1 to 3 points. Patients were randomly split into two groups, one to calculate the scoring system and the other to validate it. Overall postoperative mortality rate was 22.4%. Septic-related mortality was observed in

  11. Prognostic value of a cell cycle progression score for men with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, Jack

    2014-01-01

    A new prognostic score called the cell cycle progression or CCP score has been evaluated for predicting outcome in men with prostate cancer. The score is based on 31 cell cycle progression genes and 15 housekeeper control genes. Results on 5 cohorts have been reported. In all cases the CCP score was strongly predictive of outcome both in univariate models and in multvariate models incorporating standard factors such as Gleason grade, PSA levels and extent of disease. Two cohorts evaluated patients managed by active surveillance where the outcome was death from prostate cancer, two cohorts examined patients treated by radical prostatectomy where biochemical recurrence was the primary endpoint, and one smaller cohort looked at patients treated with radiotherapy where again biochemical recurrence was used as the endpoint. In all cases a unit change in CCP score was associated with an approximate doubling of risk of an event. These data provide strong event to support use of the CCP score to help guide clinical management.

  12. Bicarbonate can improve the prognostic value of the MELD score for critically ill patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Yi; Pan, Chi-Feng; Wu, Chih-Jen; Chen, Han-Hsiang; Chen, Yu-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The prognosis of critically ill patients with cirrhosis is poor. Our aim was to identify an objective variable that can improve the prognostic value of the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score in patients who have cirrhosis and are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This retrospective cohort study included 177 patients who had liver cirrhosis and were admitted to the ICU. Data pertaining to arterial blood gas-related parameters and other variables were obtained on the day of ICU admission. The overall ICU mortality rate was 36.2%. The bicarbonate (HCO3) level was found to be an independent predictor of ICU mortality (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-4.8; p = 0.038). A new equation was constructed (MELD-Bicarbonate) by replacing total bilirubin by HCO3 in the original MELD score. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting ICU mortality was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69-0.84) for the MELD-Bicarbonate equation, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.65-0.81) for the MELD score, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.63-0.80) for the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. Bicarbonate level assessment, as an objective and reproducible laboratory test, has significant predictive value in critically ill patients with cirrhosis. In contrast, the predictive value of total bilirubin is not as prominent in this setting. The MELD-Bicarbonate equation, which included three variables (international normalized ratio, creatinine level, and HCO3 level), showed better prognostic value than the original MELD score in critically ill patients with cirrhosis.

  13. Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) predicts survival and leukemic evolution of myelodysplastic syndromes significantly better than IPSS and WHO Prognostic Scoring System: validation by the Gruppo Romano Mielodisplasie Italian Regional Database.

    PubMed

    Voso, Maria Teresa; Fenu, Susanna; Latagliata, Roberto; Buccisano, Francesco; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Aloe-Spiriti, Maria Antonietta; Breccia, Massimo; Criscuolo, Marianna; Andriani, Alessandro; Mancini, Stefano; Niscola, Pasquale; Naso, Virginia; Nobile, Carolina; Piccioni, Anna Lina; D'Andrea, Mariella; D'Addosio, Ada; Leone, Giuseppe; Venditti, Adriano

    2013-07-20

    The definition of disease-specific prognostic scores plays a fundamental role in the treatment decision-making process in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a group of myeloid disorders characterized by a heterogeneous clinical behavior. We applied the recently published Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) to 380 patients with MDS, registered in an Italian regional database, recruiting patients from the city of Rome (Gruppo Romano Mielodisplasie). Patients were selected based on the availability of IPSS-R prognostic factors, including complete peripheral-blood and bone marrow counts, informative cytogenetics, and follow-up data. We validated the IPSS-R score as a significant predictor of overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) in MDS (P < .001 for both). When comparing the prognostic value of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), WHO Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS), and IPSS-R, using the Cox regression model and the likelihood ratio test, a significantly higher predictive power for LFS and OS became evident for the IPSS-R, compared with the IPSS and WPSS (P < .001 for both). The multivariate analysis, including IPSS, WPSS, age, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin concentration, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, transfusion dependency, and type of therapy, confirmed the significant prognostic value of IPSS-R subgroups for LFS and OS. Treatment with lenalidomide and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents was shown to be an independent predictor of survival in the multivariate analysis. Our data confirm that the IPSS-R is an excellent prognostic tool in MDS in the era of disease-modifying treatments. The early recognition of patients at high risk of progression to aggressive disease may optimize treatment timing in MDS.

  14. Scoring System Prognostic of Outcome in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kwang Woo; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Nishihori, Taiga; Malone, Adriana K.; Valcárcel, David; Grunwald, Michael R.; Bacher, Ulrike; Hamilton, Betty; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Saad, Ayman; Cutler, Corey; Warlick, Erica; Reshef, Ran; Wirk, Baldeep Mona; Sabloff, Mitchell; Fasan, Omotayo; Gerds, Aaron; Marks, David; Olsson, Richard; Wood, William Allen; Costa, Luciano J.; Miller, Alan M.; Cortes, Jorge; Daly, Andrew; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L.; Kamble, Rammurti; Rizzieri, David A.; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Gale, Robert Peter; William, Basem; Litzow, Mark; Wiernik, Peter H.; Liesveld, Jane; Savani, Bipin N.; Vij, Ravi; Ustun, Celalettin; Copelan, Edward; Popat, Uday; Kalaycio, Matt; Maziarz, Richard; Alyea, Edwin; Sobecks, Ron; Pavletic, Steven; Tallman, Martin; Saber, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a system prognostic of outcome in those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients and Methods We examined 2,133 patients with MDS undergoing HLA-matched (n = 1,728) or -mismatched (n = 405) allo HCT from 2000 to 2012. We used a Cox multivariable model to identify factors prognostic of mortality in a training subset (n = 1,151) of the HLA-matched cohort. A weighted score using these factors was assigned to the remaining patients undergoing HLA-matched allo HCT (validation cohort; n = 577) as well as to patients undergoing HLA-mismatched allo HCT. Results Blood blasts greater than 3% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.85), platelets 50 × 109/L or less at transplantation (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.61), Karnofsky performance status less than 90% (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), comprehensive cytogenetic risk score of poor or very poor (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.80), and age 30 to 49 years (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.35) were associated with increased hazard of death and assigned 1 point in the scoring system. Monosomal karyotype (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65 to 2.45) and age 50 years or older (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.83) were assigned 2 points. The 3-year overall survival after transplantation in patients with low (0 to 1 points), intermediate (2 to 3), high (4 to 5) and very high (≥ 6) scores was 71% (95% CI, 58% to 85%), 49% (95% CI, 42% to 56%), 41% (95% CI, 31% to 51%), and 25% (95% CI, 4% to 46%), respectively (P < .001). Increasing score was predictive of increased relapse (P < .001) and treatment-related mortality (P < .001) in the HLA-matched set and relapse (P < .001) in the HLA-mismatched cohort. Conclusion The proposed system is prognostic of outcome in patients undergoing HLA-matched and -mismatched allo HCT for MDS. PMID:27044940

  15. Scoring System Prognostic of Outcome in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Brian C; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Nishihori, Taiga; Malone, Adriana K; Valcárcel, David; Grunwald, Michael R; Bacher, Ulrike; Hamilton, Betty; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Saad, Ayman; Cutler, Corey; Warlick, Erica; Reshef, Ran; Wirk, Baldeep Mona; Sabloff, Mitchell; Fasan, Omotayo; Gerds, Aaron; Marks, David; Olsson, Richard; Wood, William Allen; Costa, Luciano J; Miller, Alan M; Cortes, Jorge; Daly, Andrew; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L; Kamble, Rammurti; Rizzieri, David A; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Gale, Robert Peter; William, Basem; Litzow, Mark; Wiernik, Peter H; Liesveld, Jane; Savani, Bipin N; Vij, Ravi; Ustun, Celalettin; Copelan, Edward; Popat, Uday; Kalaycio, Matt; Maziarz, Richard; Alyea, Edwin; Sobecks, Ron; Pavletic, Steven; Tallman, Martin; Saber, Wael

    2016-06-01

    To develop a system prognostic of outcome in those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We examined 2,133 patients with MDS undergoing HLA-matched (n = 1,728) or -mismatched (n = 405) allo HCT from 2000 to 2012. We used a Cox multivariable model to identify factors prognostic of mortality in a training subset (n = 1,151) of the HLA-matched cohort. A weighted score using these factors was assigned to the remaining patients undergoing HLA-matched allo HCT (validation cohort; n = 577) as well as to patients undergoing HLA-mismatched allo HCT. Blood blasts greater than 3% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.85), platelets 50 × 10(9)/L or less at transplantation (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.61), Karnofsky performance status less than 90% (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), comprehensive cytogenetic risk score of poor or very poor (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.80), and age 30 to 49 years (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.35) were associated with increased hazard of death and assigned 1 point in the scoring system. Monosomal karyotype (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65 to 2.45) and age 50 years or older (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.83) were assigned 2 points. The 3-year overall survival after transplantation in patients with low (0 to 1 points), intermediate (2 to 3), high (4 to 5) and very high (≥ 6) scores was 71% (95% CI, 58% to 85%), 49% (95% CI, 42% to 56%), 41% (95% CI, 31% to 51%), and 25% (95% CI, 4% to 46%), respectively (P < .001). Increasing score was predictive of increased relapse (P < .001) and treatment-related mortality (P < .001) in the HLA-matched set and relapse (P < .001) in the HLA-mismatched cohort. The proposed system is prognostic of outcome in patients undergoing HLA-matched and -mismatched allo HCT for MDS. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Novel Inflammation-Based Prognostic Score for Predicting Survival in Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Li; Hsieh, Meng-Che; Chiang, Po-Hui; Sung, Ming-Tse; Lan, Jui; Luo, Hao-Lun; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Tang, Yeh; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We developed a novel inflammation-based model (NPS), which consisted of a neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet count (PC), for assessing the prognostic role in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic UC who underwent systemic chemotherapy between January 1997 and December 2014 in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The defined cutoff values for the NLR and PC were 3.0 and 400 × 103/μL, respectively. Patients were scored 1 for either an elevated NLR or PC, and 0 otherwise. The NPS was calculated by summing the scores, ranging from 0 to 2. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) by using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify the independent prognostic factors for OS. Results In total, 256 metastatic UC patients were enrolled. Univariate analysis revealed that patients with either a high NLR or PC had a significantly shorter survival rate compared with those with a low NLR (P = .001) or PC (P < .0001). The median OS in patients with NPS 0, 1, and 2 was 19.0, 12.8, and 9.3 months, respectively (P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that NPS, along with the histologic variant, liver metastasis, age, and white cell count, was an independent factor facilitating OS prediction (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.20–2.24, P = .002). Conclusion The NLR and PC are independent prognostic factors for OS in patients with metastatic UC. The NPS model has excellent discriminant ability for OS. PMID:28076369

  17. Risk factors and scoring system as a prognostic tool for epilepsy after neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Soltirovska-Salamon, Aneta; Neubauer, David; Petrovcic, Andraz; Paro-Panjan, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal seizures may cause irreversible changes to the immature brain and. A scoring system for early prognostic information could be a useful clinical tool. The aim of the study was to analyze risk factors for epilepsy after neonatal seizures, to validate Garfinkle's scoring system, and to analyze whether a new scoring system is feasible. A retrospective study of 176 newborns (59.1% boys, 40.9% girls, 70.5% term, 29.5% preterm; mean birth weight 2820 g), admitted to the Department of Neonatology, Division of Pediatrics, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, because of neonatal seizures (clinical and/or neurophysiological), was performed. Epilepsy rate between 2 and 12 years of follow-up was 18.1%. Five independent predictors from Garfinkle's study and other known predictors were entered into hierarchical binary logistic regression models and analyzed through four steps to identify independent predictors of epilepsy. We tested whether any of the predictors was an effect modifier. Of five potential predictors from Garfinkle's score, electroencephalograph background findings and etiology were predictive. Etiologies, gestation, mode of delivery, duration of seizures, and other risk factors at birth were found to be independent predictors. Duration of seizures has a different effect on prognosis depending on the gestational age. Gestational age determines the association between duration of seizures and epilepsy. Scoring systems to predict development of epilepsy after neonatal seizures need to limit interaction between important predictor variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Prognostic Scoring Tool for Cesarean Organ/Space Surgical Site Infections: Derivation and Internal Validation.

    PubMed

    Assawapalanggool, Srisuda; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Arora, Rajin; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin

    Organ/space surgical site infections (SSIs) are serious complications after cesarean delivery. However, no scoring tool to predict these complications has yet been developed. This study sought to develop and validate a prognostic scoring tool for cesarean organ/space SSIs. Data for case and non-case of cesarean organ/space SSI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 from a tertiary care hospital in Thailand were analyzed. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to select the best predictor combination and their coefficients were transformed to a risk scoring tool. The likelihood ratio of positive for each risk category and the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were analyzed on total scores. Internal validation using bootstrap re-sampling was tested for reproducibility. The predictors of 243 organ/space SSIs from 4,988 eligible cesarean delivery cases comprised the presence of foul-smelling amniotic fluid (four points), vaginal examination five or more times before incision (two points), wound class III or greater (two points), being referred from local setting (two points), hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL (one point), and ethnic minorities (one point). The likelihood ratio of cesarean organ/space SSIs with 95% confidence interval among low (total score of 0-1 point), medium (total score of 2-5 points), and high risk (total score of ≥6 points) categories were 0.11 (0.07-0.19), 1.03 (0.89-1.18), and 13.25 (10.87-16.14), respectively. Both AUROCs of the derivation and validation data were comparable (87.57% versus 86.08%; p = 0.418). This scoring tool showed a high predictive ability regarding cesarean organ/space SSIs on the derivation data and reproducibility was demonstrated on internal validation. It could assist practitioners prioritize patient care and management depending on risk category and decrease SSI rates in cesarean deliveries.

  19. Prognostic Value of Ocular Trauma Scores in Patients With Combined Open Globe Injuries and Facial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Gervasio, Kalla A; Weinstock, Brett M; Wu, Albert Y

    2015-11-01

    To assess the prognostic value of the Ocular Trauma Score in patients with combined open globe injuries and facial fractures. Retrospective cohort study. A comprehensive chart review was conducted on 25 patients (28 eyes) identified from the Elmhurst City Hospital Trauma Registry between January 1, 2000 and June 30, 2012. Elmhurst City Hospital is a level 1 trauma center located in Elmhurst, New York, USA. Average age was 52 (range 18-88) and patients were predominantly male (84%). The majority of patients had an Ocular Trauma Score of 1 (87.5%), and of these patients, 76% and 14% had final visual acuities of no light perception (NLP) and light perception/hand motion (LP/HM), respectively. These corresponded to 74% and 15% predicted by the original Ocular Trauma Score guidelines (100% sensitive and 100% specific). Ocular Trauma Score of 1 was associated with zone 3 eye wound location (P = .02). Independent of Ocular Trauma Score, initial visual acuity and frontal bone fractures were predictive of NLP (P = .006 and P = .047). Nonblindness was associated with nasal bone fractures (P = .047). This study validates the use of the Ocular Trauma Score in patients with combined facial fracture and open globe injury. The presence of facial fractures does not appear to influence visual prognosis for open globe injuries with an Ocular Trauma Score of 1. In the absence of data to calculate a full Ocular Trauma Score, initial visual acuity was the strongest predictor of final visual outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic Value of Risk Score and Urinary Markers in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hofstra, Julia M.; Wetzels, Jack F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Accurate prediction of prognosis may improve management of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. This study compared the Toronto Risk Score and urinary low-molecular weight proteins. Design, setting, participants, & measurements One hundred four patients with biopsy-proven idiopathic membranous nephropathy who presented between 1995 and 2008 with a well-preserved kidney function and nephrotic range proteinuria were included. Urinary β2-microglobulin and α1-microglobulin measurements were obtained by timed standardized measurements, and the Toronto Risk Score was calculated using data obtained from medical records. The endpoint was progression, which was defined as an increase in serum creatinine>50% or >25% with a concentration>135 μmol/L. Results Forty-nine patients showed progression. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.78 (95% confidence interval=0.69–0.88) for the risk score versus 0.80 (0.71–0.89) and 0.79 (0.71–0.88) for urinary β2- and α1-microglobulin, respectively. Differences were not significant. Persistent proteinuria did not add accuracy to the Toronto Risk Score. Conversely, its accuracy was not reduced when data from the first 6 months of follow-up were used. Furthermore, a score based on GFR estimated with the six-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, calculated in the first 6 months of follow-up, gave an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.83 (0.74–0.92), which was not statistically different from other markers. Conclusions The prognostic accuracies of the Toronto Risk Score and urinary low-molecular weight proteins were not significantly different. The risk score can be calculated within 6 months of diagnosis, and a simplified risk score using estimated GFR–Modification of Diet in Renal Disease may be sufficient. PMID:22595828

  1. Prognostic value of risk score and urinary markers in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Jan A J G; Hofstra, Julia M; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2012-08-01

    Accurate prediction of prognosis may improve management of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. This study compared the Toronto Risk Score and urinary low-molecular weight proteins. One hundred four patients with biopsy-proven idiopathic membranous nephropathy who presented between 1995 and 2008 with a well-preserved kidney function and nephrotic range proteinuria were included. Urinary β2-microglobulin and α1-microglobulin measurements were obtained by timed standardized measurements, and the Toronto Risk Score was calculated using data obtained from medical records. The endpoint was progression, which was defined as an increase in serum creatinine > 50% or > 25% with a concentration > 135 μmol/L. Forty-nine patients showed progression. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.78 (95% confidence interval = 0.69-0.88) for the risk score versus 0.80 (0.71-0.89) and 0.79 (0.71-0.88) for urinary β2- and α1-microglobulin, respectively. Differences were not significant. Persistent proteinuria did not add accuracy to the Toronto Risk Score. Conversely, its accuracy was not reduced when data from the first 6 months of follow-up were used. Furthermore, a score based on GFR estimated with the six-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, calculated in the first 6 months of follow-up, gave an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.83 (0.74-0.92), which was not statistically different from other markers. The prognostic accuracies of the Toronto Risk Score and urinary low-molecular weight proteins were not significantly different. The risk score can be calculated within 6 months of diagnosis, and a simplified risk score using estimated GFR-Modification of Diet in Renal Disease may be sufficient.

  2. A clinical prognostic scoring system for Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Koningsveld, Rinske; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Hughes, Richard A C; Swan, Anthony V; van Doorn, Pieter A; Jacobs, Bart C

    2007-07-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute post-infectious immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy with a highly variable clinical course and outcome. We aimed to develop and validate a scoring system based on clinical characteristics in the acute phase of GBS to predict outcome at 6 months. We studied patients with GBS who were unable to walk independently. A derivation set included 388 patients from two randomised controlled trials and one pilot study. Potential predictors were assessed for their association with the inability to walk independently at 6 months. A simple clinical scoring system was developed on the basis of regression coefficients of predictors in a multivariable logistic regression model. Model performance was quantified with respect to discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristics curve, AUC) and calibration (graphically). We validated our scoring system in a set of 374 patients from another randomised trial. We included three variables that were predictive of poor outcome at 6 months in our model: age, preceding diarrhoea, and GBS disability score at 2 weeks after entry. Scores ranged from 1 to 7, with three categories for age, two for diarrhoea, and five for GBS disability score at 2 weeks. Predictions corresponding to these prognostic scores ranged from 1% to 83% for the inability to walk independently at 6 months. Predictions agreed well with observed outcome frequencies (adequate calibration) and showed a very good discriminative ability (AUC 0.85) in both data sets. A simple scoring system for patients with GBS, based on three clinical characteristics, accurately predicts outcome at 6 months. The system could be used to counsel individual patients and identify high-risk groups to guide future trials.

  3. Validation of a prognostic score for mortality in elderly patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hurtado, Luis Alejandro; Ángeles-Veléz, Adrian; Tejeda-Huezo, Brigette Carmen; García-Cruz, Juan Carlos; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Context: The performance of a prognostic score must be evaluated prior to being used. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive ability of hospital mortality of Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3) score in elderly patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the SAPS 3 score predictive ability of hospital mortality in elderly patients admitted to ICU. Settings and Design: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort, in two mixed ICUs. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and eleven elderly patients were included. Interventions: None. We compared the predictive accuracy of SAPS 3 measured at the first hour at ICU and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) measured with the worst values in the first 24 h at ICU. The patients were followed until hospital discharge. Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation of discrimination through area under curve receiver operating characteristic (aROC) and calibration by Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) test. Results: The median age was 68 years. The hospital mortality rate was 35.54%. The mean value of SAPS 3 was 62.54 ± 12.51 and APACHE II was 17.46 ± 6.77. The mortality predicted by APACHE II was 24.98 ± 19.96 and for standard SAPS 3 equation 41.18 ± 22.34. The discrimination for SAPS 3 model was aROC = 0.68 (0.62–0.75) and to APACHE II aROC = 0.70 (0.63–0.78). Calibration: APACHE II with HL 10.127 P = 0.26, and standard SAPS 3 equation HL 7.204 P = 0.51. Conclusions: In this study, the prognostic model of SAPS 3 was not found to be accurate in predicting mortality in geriatric patients requiring ICU admission. PMID:28149026

  4. The prognostic value of the wuerzburg bleb classification score for the outcome of trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Klink, Thomas; Kann, Gunda; Ellinger, Patrick; Klink, Janine; Grehn, Franz; Guthoff, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    the Wuerzburg bleb classification score (WBCS) aims at an objective and standardized assessment of the developing filtering bleb after trabeculectomy, in order to detect and treat bleb scarring at the earliest possible stage of development. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the early postoperative WBCS for the long-term outcome of trabeculectomy. the WBCS is a grading system for clinical bleb morphology. It evaluates the following parameters: vascularization, corkscrew vessels, encapsulation and microcysts. The WBCS of 113 eyes of 113 consecutive patients after trabeculectomy was determined 1 day, 1 and 2 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Complete success was defined as an intra-ocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg and >20% pressure reduction without glaucoma medication after 1 year. a complete success rate of 73.9% and a qualified success rate of 82.4% were achieved 1 year after surgery. The average total bleb score during follow-up in the success group was always higher than in the failure group, but there was no statistically significant difference at any time. The bleb average score for eyes with an IOP of ≤ 12 mm Hg after 2 weeks was significantly higher (p = 0.005) than for eyes with an IOP ≥ 13 mm Hg at the end of follow-up. patients with a higher early WBCS postoperatively had a significantly lower IOP 1 year after surgery. However, the study could not reveal a certain prognostic value of the early total bleb score using the WBCS for the long-term complete success of trabeculectomy. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Analysis of long-term (median 10.5 years) outcomes in children presenting with traumatic brain injury and an initial Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 or 4.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Daniel H; White, Ian K; Rees, Jacqueline M; Baumanis, Maraya M; Smith, Jodi L; Ackerman, Laurie L; Boaz, Joel C; Luerssen, Thomas G

    2015-10-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with low presenting Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores have very high morbidity and mortality rates. Neurosurgeons may be faced with difficult decisions in managing the most severely injured (GCS scores of 3 or 4) patients. The situation may be considered hopeless, with little chance of a functional recovery. Long-term data are limited regarding the clinical outcome of children with severe head injury. The authors evaluate predictor variables and the clinical outcomes at discharge, 1 year, and long term (median 10.5 years) in a cohort of children with TBI presenting with postresuscitation GCS scores of 3 and 4. A review of a prospectively collected trauma database was performed. Patients treated at Riley Hospital for Children (Indianapolis, Indiana) from 1988 to 2004 were reviewed. All children with initial GCS (modified for pediatric patients) scores of 3 or 4 were identified. Patients with a GCS score of 3 were compared with those with a GCS score of 4. The outcomes of all patients at the time of death or discharge and at 1-year and long-term follow-up were measured with a modified Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) that included a "normal" outcome. Long-term outcomes were evaluated by contacting surviving patients. Statistical "classification trees" were formed for survival and outcome, based on predictor variables. Sixty-seven patients with a GCS score of 3 or 4 were identified in a database of 1636 patients (4.1%). Three of the presenting factors differed between the GCS 3 patients (n = 44) and the GCS 4 patients (n = 23): presence of hypoxia, single seizure, and open basilar cisterns on CT scan. The clinical outcomes were statistically similar between the 2 groups. In total, 48 (71.6%) of 67 patients died, remained vegetative, or were severely disabled by 1 year. Eight patients (11.9%) were normal at 1 year. Ten of the 22 patients with long-term follow-up were either normal or had a GOS score of 5. Multiple clinical

  6. On the joint use of propensity and prognostic scores in estimation of the Average Treatment Effect on the Treated: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Leacy, Finbarr P.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Propensity and prognostic score methods seek to improve the quality of causal inference in non-randomized or observational studies by replicating the conditions found in a controlled experiment, at least with respect to observed characteristics. Propensity scores model receipt of the treatment of interest; prognostic scores model the potential outcome under a single treatment condition. While the popularity of propensity score methods continues to grow, prognostic score methods and methods combining propensity and prognostic scores have thus far received little attention. To this end, we performed a simulation study that compared subclassification and full matching on a single estimated propensity or prognostic score with three approaches combining estimated propensity and prognostic scores: full matching on a Mahalanobis distance combining the estimated propensity and prognostic scores (FULL-MAHAL); full matching on the estimated prognostic propensity score within propensity score calipers (FULL-PGPPTY); and subclassification on an estimated propensity and prognostic score grid with 5 × 5 subclasses (SUBCLASS(5*5)). We considered settings in which one, both or neither score model was misspecified. The data generating mechanisms varied in the degree of linearity and additivity in the true treatment assignment and outcome models. FULL-MAHAL and FULL-PGPPTY exhibited strong to superior performance in root mean square error terms across all simulation settings and scenarios. Methods combining propensity and prognostic scores were no less robust to model misspecification than single-score methods even when both score models were incorrectly specified. Our findings support the joint use of propensity and prognostic scores in estimation of the average treatment effect on the treated. PMID:24151187

  7. Usefulness of staging systems and prognostic scores for hepatocellular carcinoma treatments

    PubMed Central

    Adhoute, Xavier; Penaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Le Treut, Patrice; Bollon, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Castellani, Paul; Perrier, Hervé; Bourlière, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quite complex owing to the underlying cirrhosis and portal vein hypertension. Different scores or classification systems based on liver function and tumoral stages have been published in the recent years. If none of them is currently “universally” recognized, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system has become the reference classification system in Western countries. Based on a robust treatment algorithm associated with stage stratification, it relies on a high level of evidence. However, BCLC stage B and C HCC include a broad spectrum of tumors but are only matched with a single therapeutic option. Some experts have thus suggested to extend the indications for surgery or for transarterial chemoembolization. In clinical practice, many patients are already treated beyond the scope of recommendations. Additional alternative prognostic scores that could be applied to any therapeutic modality have been recently proposed. They could represent complementary tools to the BCLC staging system and improve the stratification of HCC patients enrolled in clinical trials, as illustrated by the NIACE score. Prospective studies are needed to compare these scores and refine their role in the decision making process. PMID:27330679

  8. Survival Prediction for Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Revision of the Palliative Prognostic Score with Incorporation of Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Maltoni, Marco; Miceli, Rosalba; Mariani, Luigi; Caraceni, Augusto; Amadori, Dino; Nanni, Oriana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. An existing and validated palliative prognostic (PaP) score predicts survival in terminally ill cancer patients based on dyspnea, anorexia, Karnofsky performance status score, clinical prediction of survival, total WBC, and lymphocyte percentage. The PaP score assigns patients to three different risk groups according to a 30-day survival probability—group A, >70%; group B, 30%–70%; group C, <30%. The impact of delirium is known but was not incorporated into the PaP score. Materials and Methods. Our aim was to incorporate information on delirium into the PaP score based on a retrospective series of 361 terminally ill cancer patients. We followed the approach of “validation by calibration,” proposed by van Houwelingen and later adapted by Miceli for achieving score revision with inclusion of a new variable. The discriminating performance of the scores was estimated using the K statistic. Results. The prognostic contribution of delirium was confirmed as statistically significant (p < .001) and the variable was accordingly incorporated into the PaP score (D-PaP score). Following this revision, 30-day survival estimates in groups A, B, and C were 83%, 50%, and 9% for the D-PaP score and 87%, 51%, and 16% for the PaP score, respectively. The overall performance of the D-PaP score was better than that of the PaP score. Conclusion. The revision of the PaP score was carried out by modifying the cutoff values used for prognostic grouping without, however, affecting the partial scores of the original tool. The performance of the D-PaP score was better than that of the PaP score and its key feature of simplicity was maintained. PMID:22042788

  9. Comparison of nine prognostic scores in patients with brain metastases of breast cancer receiving radiotherapy of the brain.

    PubMed

    Laakmann, Elena; Riecke, Kerstin; Goy, Yvonne; Kersten, Jan F; Krüll, Andreas; Müller, Volkmar; Petersen, Cordula; Witzel, Isabell

    2016-01-01

    Several prognostic indices (PI) have been developed to stratify patients with brain metastases in groups with good or bad prognosis. The aim of our study was to compare nine prognostic scores for patients with brain metastases (BM) of breast cancer receiving radiotherapy. The clinical data of 139 breast cancer patients with BM were collected retrospectively. All patients were treated with cerebral radiotherapy or surgery followed by radiotherapy between January 2007 and December 2012. The prognostic value and accuracy of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), RPA II, graded prognostic assessment (GPA), basic score for BM, Breast-RPA, Breast-GPA, Rades Score 2011, Germany Score and Breast Rades Score were assessed. The median survival after BM diagnosis in our cohort was 14 months. The overall 6-month, 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 49.6, 37.4, 20.9 and 13.7 %, respectively. Most of the PI were associated with OS, but univariate analysis favored GPA regarding OS. GPA was the most accurate score to identify patients with long (longer than 12 months) and Breast-GPA patients with short (<3 months) life expectancy. GPA and Breast-GPA seem to be the most useful scores and perform better than other PI for breast cancer patients with BM receiving radiotherapy.

  10. A magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic scoring system to predict outcome in transplant-eligible patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mai, Elias K; Hielscher, Thomas; Kloth, Jost K; Merz, Maximilian; Shah, Sofia; Raab, Marc S; Hillengass, Michaela; Wagner, Barbara; Jauch, Anna; Hose, Dirk; Weber, Marc-André; Delorme, Stefan; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hillengass, Jens

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse and focal bone marrow infiltration patterns detected by magnetic resonance imaging have been shown to be of prognostic significance in all stages of monoclonal plasma cell disorders and have, therefore, been incorporated into the definition of the disease. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to develop a rapidly evaluable prognostic scoring system, incorporating the most significant information acquired from magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, the impact of bone marrow infiltration patterns on progression-free and overall survival in 161 transplant-eligible myeloma patients was evaluated. Compared to salt and pepper/minimal diffuse infiltration, moderate/severe diffuse infiltration had a negative prognostic impact on both progression-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P=0.003). More than 25 focal lesions on whole-body magnetic resonance imaging or more than seven on axial magnetic resonance imaging were associated with an adverse prognosis (progression-free survival: P=0.001/0.003 and overall survival: P=0.04/0.02). A magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic scoring system, combining grouped diffuse and focal infiltration patterns, was formulated and is applicable to whole-body as well as axial magnetic resonance imaging. The score identified high-risk patients with median progression-free and overall survival of 23.4 and 55.9 months, respectively (whole-body-based). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic score stage III (high-risk) and adverse cytogenetics are independent prognostic factors for both progression-free and overall survival (whole-body-based, progression-free survival: hazard ratio=3.65, P<0.001; overall survival: hazard ratio=5.19, P=0.005). In conclusion, we suggest a magnetic resonance imaging-based prognostic scoring system which is a robust, easy to assess and interpret parameter summarizing significant magnetic resonance imaging findings in transplant

  11. An 8-gene qRT-PCR-based gene expression score that has prognostic value in early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene expression profiling may improve prognostic accuracy in patients with early breast cancer. Our objective was to demonstrate that it is possible to develop a simple molecular signature to predict distant relapse. Methods We included 153 patients with stage I-II hormonal receptor-positive breast cancer. RNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples and qRT-PCR amplification of 83 genes was performed with gene expression assays. The genes we analyzed were those included in the 70-Gene Signature, the Recurrence Score and the Two-Gene Index. The association among gene expression, clinical variables and distant metastasis-free survival was analyzed using Cox regression models. Results An 8-gene prognostic score was defined. Distant metastasis-free survival at 5 years was 97% for patients defined as low-risk by the prognostic score versus 60% for patients defined as high-risk. The 8-gene score remained a significant factor in multivariate analysis and its performance was similar to that of two validated gene profiles: the 70-Gene Signature and the Recurrence Score. The validity of the signature was verified in independent cohorts obtained from the GEO database. Conclusions This study identifies a simple gene expression score that complements histopathological prognostic factors in breast cancer, and can be determined in paraffin-embedded samples. PMID:20584321

  12. Framingham Risk Score as a Prognostic Predictor of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Soo; Choi, Ji Eun; Ahn, Jungmin; Ryu, Nam-Gyu; Moon, Il Joon; Hong, Sung Hwa; Cho, Yang-Sun; Chung, Won-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Predicting the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) remains challenging. This investigation aimed to apply Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) to assess the combination of prognostic factors following ISSHL and investigate the predictive role of FRS in patients with multiple comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Retrospective study. Twenty-one patients presenting with unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and multiple comorbidities were surveyed. Framingham Risk Score was calculated, and patients were assigned into high-risk (FRS ≥20%) and low-risk (FRS <20%) groups. Mean pure tone audiometry (PTA) threshold of both groups and hearing outcomes following established criteria were investigated. All patients were treated with the same protocol of oral methylprednisolone. Overall successful recovery rate (complete + marked recovery) was 23.81%. The mean PTA threshold of the low-risk group showed significant improvement (mean PTA ± standard error, SE: pretreatment, 73.23 ± 11.80; posttreatment, 54.89 ± 10.25, P = .002), while the high-risk group did not show significant improvement in mean PTA threshold (mean PTA ± SE: pretreatment, 71.94 ± 11.77; posttreatment, 68.89 ± 12.81, P = .73). Framingham Risk Scores may be useful in predicting outcomes for ISSHL patients with multiple comorbidities.

  13. Conservative management of rotator cuff tears: literature review and proposal for a prognostic. Prediction Score

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Saporito, Marco; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Summary Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain and shoulder dysfunction. The prevalence of the rotator cuff tears increases with the age reaching the 80% in patients aged more than 80 year. Symptomatic shoulders usually are initially treated conservatively and then, in case of poor outcomes, with surgery. Different parameters are still used to decide between the conservative or surgical treatment in patients with rotator cuff tears. Aim of the current study is to characterize the various features used in decision making and to validate a “Prediction Score” that let us know which patients could have a good and stable outcome with non operative treatment. We enrolled 60 patients (mean age 52 years) with symptomatic rotator cuff tears who were assigned to conservative treatment and were evaluated at 6,9 and 12 months follow-up. We developed a score based on 18 clinical and radiographic parameters. 27 patients (“non conservative”) (45%) with a mean prediction score of 16.1 ± 1.7 interrupted the conservative treatment, while 33 patients (“conservative”) (55%) with an average prediction score of 11.3 ± 1.8 remained conservatively treated at last follow-up. The conservative patients were 14 years older than non conservative patients. According to the results of this study we identified a value of 13 points as a “cut-off” score to predict good results by conservative management of rotator cuff tear. These outcomes support the assumption that a predictive prognostic score may guarantee a rational approach in the management of subjects with RC tears, especially in elderly who continue to have the higher rate of recurrence and therefore could be well treated with standard conservative therapies. PMID:23738239

  14. Estimation of conditional and marginal odds ratios using the prognostic score.

    PubMed

    Hajage, David; De Rycke, Yann; Chauvet, Guillaume; Tubach, Florence

    2017-02-20

    Introduced by Hansen in 2008, the prognostic score (PGS) has been presented as 'the prognostic analogue of the propensity score' (PPS). PPS-based methods are intended to estimate marginal effects. Most previous studies evaluated the performance of existing PGS-based methods (adjustment, stratification and matching using the PGS) in situations in which the theoretical conditional and marginal effects are equal (i.e., collapsible situations). To support the use of PGS framework as an alternative to the PPS framework, applied researchers must have reliable information about the type of treatment effect estimated by each method. We propose four new PGS-based methods, each developed to estimate a specific type of treatment effect. We evaluated the ability of existing and new PGS-based methods to estimate the conditional treatment effect (CTE), the (marginal) average treatment effect on the whole population (ATE), and the (marginal) average treatment effect on the treated population (ATT), when the odds ratio (a non-collapsible estimator) is the measure of interest. The performance of PGS-based methods was assessed by Monte Carlo simulations and compared with PPS-based methods and multivariate regression analysis. Existing PGS-based methods did not allow for estimating the ATE and showed unacceptable performance when the proportion of exposed subjects was large. When estimating marginal effects, PPS-based methods were too conservative, whereas the new PGS-based methods performed better with low prevalence of exposure, and had coverages closer to the nominal value. When estimating CTE, the new PGS-based methods performed as well as traditional multivariate regression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Prognostic stratification of patients with vasospastic angina: a comprehensive clinical risk score developed by the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yusuke; Takahashi, Jun; Yasuda, Satoshi; Miyata, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Ryusuke; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Seki, Atsushi; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Matsui, Motoyuki; Goto, Toshikazu; Tanabe, Yasuhiko; Sueda, Shozo; Sato, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Kubo, Norifumi; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2013-09-24

    The present study aimed to develop a comprehensive clinical risk score for vasospastic angina (VSA) patients. Previous studies demonstrated various prognostic factors of future adverse events in VSA patients. However, to apply these prognostic factors in clinical practice, the assessment of their accumulation in individual patients is important. The patient database of the multicenter registry study by the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association (JCSA) (n = 1,429; median 66 years; median follow-up 32 months) was utilized for score derivation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model selected 7 predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The integer score was assigned to each predictors proportional to their respective adjusted hazard ratio; history of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (4 points), smoking, angina at rest alone, organic coronary stenosis, multivessel spasm (2 points each), ST-segment elevation during angina, and beta-blocker use (1 point each). According to the total score in individual patients, 3 risk strata were defined; low (score 0 to 2, n = 598), intermediate (score 3 to 5, n = 639) and high (score 6 or more, n = 192). The incidences of MACE in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients were 2.5%, 7.0%, and 13.0%, respectively (p < 0.001). The Cox model for MACE between the 3 risk strata also showed prognostic utility of the scoring system in various clinical subgroups. The average prediction rate of the scoring system in the internal training and validation sets were 86.6% and 86.5%, respectively. We developed a novel scoring system, the JCSA risk score, which may provide the comprehensive risk assessment and prognostic stratification for VSA patients. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Catestatin, vasostatin, cortisol, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale and visual analog scale for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Srithunyarat, Thanikul; Höglund, Odd V; Hagman, Ragnvi; Olsson, Ulf; Stridsberg, Mats; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Pettersson, Ann

    2016-08-02

    The stress reaction induced by surgery and associated pain may be detrimental for patient recovery and should be minimized. The neuropeptide chromogranin A (CGA) has shown promise as a sensitive biomarker for stress in humans. Little is known about CGA and its derived peptides, catestatin (CST) and vasostatin (VS), in dogs undergoing surgery. The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare concentrations of CGA epitopes CST and VS, cortisol, body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF) and visual analog scales (VAS) for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Thirty healthy privately owned female dogs admitted for elective ovariohysterectomy were included. Physical examination, CMPS-SF, pain behavior VAS, and stress behavior VAS were recorded and saliva and blood samples were collected before surgery, 3 h after extubation, and once at recall 7-15 days after surgery. Dogs were premedicated with morphine and received carprofen as analgesia for 7 days during the postoperative period. At 3 h after extubation, CMPS-SF and pain behavior VAS scores had increased (p < 0.0001) and stress behavior VAS scores, temperature, respiratory rate (p < 0.0001), plasma CST concentrations (p = 0.002) had decreased significantly compared to before surgery. No significant differences were observed in the subjective and physiological parameters between before surgery and at recall, but plasma CST (p = 0.04) and serum cortisol (p = 0.009) were significantly lower at recall. Plasma VS, saliva CST, and heart rate did not differ significantly at any observed time. Study parameters for evaluating surgery-induced stress and pain changed in dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. To further evaluate CST and VS usefulness as pain biomarkers, studies on dogs in acute painful situations are warranted.

  17. Overview of different scoring systems in Fournier’s Gangrene and assessment of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Doluoğlu, Ömer Gökhan; Karagöz, Mehmet Ali; Kılınç, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga; Yücetürk, Cem Nedim; Sarıcı, Haşmet; Özgür, Berat Cem; Eroğlu, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to evaluate prognostic factors for the survival of patients with Fournier’s gangrene (FG), and overview different validated scoring systems for outcome prediction. Material and methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of 39 patients treated for FG in our clinic. Data were collected on medical history, symptoms, physical examination findings, vital signs, laboratory parameters at admission and at the end of treatment, timing and extent of surgical debridement, and the antibiotic treatment used. The Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were used to predict outcome. The data were analyzed in relation with the survival of the patients. Mann-Whitney U test, chi -square test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Cox regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results Of 39 patients analyzed, 8 (20.5%) died and 31 (79.5%) survived. The median FGSI score on admission was 2 (0–9) for the survivors and 6 (2–14) for the non-survivors (p=0.004). The median CCI scores of the survivors and non-survivors were 2 (0–10) and 6.5 (5–11), respectively (p=0.001). Except for urea, albumin and hematocrit levels, no significant differences were found between survivors and non-survivors for other laboratory parameters on admission. Lower albumin levels and advanced age were found to be associated with mortality. Conclusion High blood urea, low albumin, and low hematocrit levels were associated with poor prognosis. High CCI and FGSI scores could be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with FG. PMID:27635295

  18. Prognostic value of number and site of calcified coronary lesions compared with the total score.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marcus; Shaw, Leslee J; Raggi, Paolo; Morris, Douglas; Vaccarino, Viola; Liu, Sandy T; Weinstein, Steven R; Mosler, Tristen P; Tseng, Philip H; Flores, Ferdinand R; Nasir, Khurram; Budoff, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of the number and sites of calcified coronary lesions and to compare the accuracy of number of calcified lesions with the extent of total calcium score. There is a strong relationship between mortality and total coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. It is not known whether the number of calcified lesions or their location influences outcome. A total of 14,759 asymptomatic patients were referred for evaluation of CAC scanning using electron beam tomography. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed to estimate time to all-cause mortality at, on average, 6.8 years (n = 281). Risk-adjusted annual mortality was 0.19% (95% confidence interval 0.18% to 0.21%) for patients without any calcified lesions. For patients with >20 lesions, annual risk-adjusted mortality exceeded 2% per year. Mortality rates were significantly higher for left main lesions as compared to other coronary arteries with annual mortality rates of 1.3%, 2.1%, 9.2%, and 13.6% for 1 to 2, 3 to 5, and > or =6 lesions, respectively (p < 0.0001). For left main CAC scores of 0 to 10, 11 to 100, 101 to 399, and 400 to 999, annual risk-adjusted mortality was 0.33%, 0.81%, 1.73%, and 7.71%, respectively (p < 0.0001). All 4 patients with a CAC score of > or =1,000 in the left main died during follow-up. However, patients with more frequent calcified lesions also had higher CAC scores. Specifically, > or =81% of patients with >10 calcified lesions also had a CAC score > or =100. With exception, for patients with CAC scores > or =1,000, annual mortality was dramatically higher at 3.0% to 4.5% for those with 1 to 5 calcified lesions as compared with 1.1% to 2.0% for those with 6 or more lesions (p < 0.0001). We report that mortality rates increased proportionally with the number of calcified lesions. Although predictive information is contained in the number of calcified lesions, its added statistical value is minimal

  19. Prognostic Tools in Patients With Advanced Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Claribel P L; McMillan, Donald C; McWilliams, Kerry; Sande, Tonje A; Fearon, Kenneth C; Tuck, Sharon; Fallon, Marie T; Laird, Barry J

    2017-05-01

    In 2005, the European Association for Palliative Care made recommendations for prognostic markers in advanced cancer. Since then, prognostic tools have been developed, evolved, and validated. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the progress in the development and validation of prognostic tools. Medline, Embase Classic and Embase were searched. Eligible studies met the following criteria: patients with incurable cancer, >18 years, original studies, population n ≥100, and published after 2003. Descriptive and quantitative statistical analyses were performed. Forty-nine studies were eligible, assessing seven prognostic tools across different care settings, primary cancer types, and statistically assessed survival prediction. The Palliative Performance Scale was the most studied (n = 21,082), comprising six parameters (six subjective), was externally validated, and predicted survival. The Palliative Prognostic Score composed of six parameters (four subjective and two objective), the Palliative Prognostic Index composed of nine parameters (nine subjective), and the Glasgow Prognostic Score composed of two parameters (two objective) and were all externally validated in more than 2000 patients with advanced cancer and predicted survival. Various prognostic tools have been validated but vary in their complexity, subjectivity, and therefore clinical utility. The Glasgow Prognostic Score would seem the most favorable as it uses only two parameters (both objective) and has prognostic value complementary to the gold standard measure, which is performance status. Further studies comparing all proved prognostic markers in a single cohort of patients with advanced cancer are needed to determine the optimal prognostic tool. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Robustness of the neurological prognostic score in brain metastasis patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Matsuda, Shinji; Aoyagi, Kyoko; Ono, Junichi; Saeki, Naokatsu; Iwadate, Yasuo; Hirai, Tatsuo; Takemoto, Shinya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-12-02

    OBJECTIVE The neurological prognostic score (NPS) was recently proposed as a means for predicting neurological outcomes, such as the preservation of neurological function and the prevention of neurological death, in brain metastasis patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). NPS consists of 2 groups: Group A patients were expected to have better neurological outcomes, and Group B patients were expected to have poorer outcomes. NPS robustness was tested in various situations. METHODS In total, 3040 patients with brain metastases that were treated with GKRS were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of the loss of neurological function independence (i.e., neurological deterioration) was estimated using competing risk analysis, and NPS was compared between Groups A and B by employing Gray's model. NPS was tested to determine if it can be applied to 5 cancer categories-non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, gastrointestinal tract cancer, breast cancer, and other cancers-as well as if it can be incorporated into the 5 major grading systems: recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), score index for stereotactic radiosurgery (SIR), basic score for brain metastases (BSBM), graded prognostic assessment (GPA), and modified-RPA (M-RPA). RESULTS There were 2263 patients in NPS Group A and 777 patients in Group B. Neurological deterioration was observed in 586 patients (19.2%). The cumulative incidences of neurological deterioration were 9.5% versus 21.0%, 14.1% versus 25.4%, and 17.6% versus 27.8% in NPS Groups A and B at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. Significant differences were detected between the NPS groups in all cancer categories. There were significant differences between NPS Groups A and B for all classes in terms of the BSBM, GPA, and M-RPA systems, but the differences failed to reach statistical significance in terms of RPA Class I and SIR Class 0 to 3. CONCLUSIONS The NPS was verified as being highly applicable to all cancer categories and

  1. Postoperative outcome after oesophagectomy for cancer: Nutritional status is the missing ring in the current prognostic scores.

    PubMed

    Filip, B; Scarpa, M; Cavallin, F; Cagol, M; Alfieri, R; Saadeh, L; Ancona, E; Castoro, C

    2015-06-01

    Several prognostic scores were designed in order to estimate the risk of postoperative adverse events. None of them includes a component directly associated to the nutritional status. The aims of the study were the evaluation of performance of risk-adjusted models for early outcomes after oesophagectomy and to develop a score for severe complication prediction with special consideration regarding nutritional status. A comparison of POSSUM and Charlson score and their derivates, ASA, Lagarde score and nutritional index (PNI) was performed on 167 patients undergoing oesophagectomy for cancer. A logistic regression model was also estimated to obtain a new prognostic score for severe morbidity prediction. Overall morbidity was 35.3% (59 cases), severe complications (grade III-V of Clavien-Dindo classification) occurred in 20 cases. Discrimination was poor for all the scores. Multivariable analysis identified pulse, connective tissue disease, PNI and potassium as independent predictors of severe morbidity. This model showed good discrimination and calibration. Internal validation using standard bootstrapping techniques confirmed the good performance. Nutrition could be an independent risk factor for major complications and a nutritional status coefficient could be included in current prognostic scores to improve risk estimation of major postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Additional prognostic role of EGFR activating mutations in lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastasis: integrating with lung specific GPA score.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Won; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Jin Wook; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Dong-Wan; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Young Whan; Heo, Dae Seog; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Se-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    While several prognostic models have been presented in NSCLC patients with brain metastasis, none of these models have included molecular markers as an index. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of EGFR mutations and to integrate these EGFR mutations into the prognostic index in NSCLC patients with brain metastasis. We analyzed retrospectively 292 lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastasis. Clinico-pathological features and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with EGFR mutations and patients with EGFR wild type. EGFR mutation status was integrated with lung specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score. Among 292 patients, EGFR mutation status was tested in 183 patients. One hundred and five patients (57.4%) had EGFR activating mutations, 14 (7.7%) had EGFR non-activating mutations and 64 (35.0%) had EGFR wild type. OS was significantly longer in patients with EGFR activating mutations than in those with EGFR wild type patients (20.4 vs. 10.1 months, p = 0.002). However, patients with EGFR non-activating mutations did not show superior OS compared with EGFR wild type patients (14.6 vs. 10.1 months, p = 0.83). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of EGFR activating mutation is an independent positive prognostic factor for OS (adjusted hazard ratio 0.56, p = 0.002). EGFR activating mutations have a prognostic role in lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastasis that is independent of other known prognostic factors. The frequency of EGFR mutation was higher than expected. The presence of EGFR activating mutations should be included as an index in the prognostic models for lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel and Validated Inflammation-Based Score (IBS) Predicts Survival in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Curative Surgical Resection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi-Peng; Ni, Xiao-Chun; Yi, Yong; Cai, Xiao-Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Xing; Lu, Zhu-Feng; Han, Xu; Cao, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Qiu, Shuang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the prognostic accuracy of a cluster of inflammatory scores, including the Glasgow Prognostic Score, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, platelet to lymphocyte ratio, Prognostic Nutritional Index, Prognostic Index, and a novel Inflammation-Based Score (IBS) integrated preoperative and postoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in 2 independent cohorts. Further, we aimed to formulate an effective prognostic nomogram for HCC after hepatectomy. Prognostic value of inflammatory scores and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage were studied in a training cohort of 772 patients with HCC underwent hepatectomy. Independent predictors of survival identified in multivariate analysis were validated in an independent set of 349 patients with an overall similar clinical feature. In both training and validation cohorts, IBS, microscopic vascular invasion, and BCLC stage emerged as independent factors of overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The predictive capacity of the IBS in both OS and RFS appeared superior to that of the other inflammatory scores in terms of C-index. Additionally, the formulated nomogram comprised IBS resulted in more accurate prognostic prediction compared with BCLC stage alone. IBS is a novel and validated prognostic indicator of HCC after curative resection, and a robust HCC nomogram including IBS was developed to predict survival for patients after hepatectomy. PMID:26886627

  4. A new Leukemia Prognostic Scoring System for refractory/relapsed adult acute myelogeneous leukaemia patients: a GOELAMS study.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, P; Labopin, M; Turlure, P; Prebet, T; Pigneux, A; Hunault, M; Filanovsky, K; Cornillet-Lefebvre, P; Luquet, I; Lode, L; Richebourg, S; Blanchet, O; Gachard, N; Vey, N; Ifrah, N; Milpied, N; Harousseau, J-L; Bene, M-C; Mohty, M; Delaunay, J

    2011-06-01

    A simplified prognostic score is presented based on the multivariate analysis of 138 refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients (median age 55 years, range: 19-70) receiving a combination of intensive chemotherapy+Gemtuzumab as salvage regimen. Overall, 2-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 29±4% and 36±4%, respectively. Disease status (relapse <12 months, including refractory patients), FLT3-ITD-positive status and high-risk cytogenetics were the three strongest independent adverse prognostic factors for OS and EFS in this series. We then defined three subgroups with striking different outcomes at 2 years: no adverse factor (favourable, N=36): OS 58%, EFS 45%; one adverse factor (intermediate, N=54): OS 37%, EFS 31%; two or three adverse factors (poor, N=43): OS 12%, EFS 12% (P<10(-4), P=0.001). This new simplified Leukemia Prognostic Scoring System was then validated on an independent cohort of 111 refractory/relapsed AML patients. This new simplified prognostic score, using three clinical and biological parameters routinely applied, allow to discriminate around two third of the patients who should benefit from a salvage intensive regimen in the setting of refractory/relapsed AML patients. The other one third of the patients should receive investigational therapy.

  5. A novel inflammation-based prognostic score for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: the c-reactive protein/prognostic nutritional index ratio

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Yang, Xun; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays a critical role in cancer prognosis. In the current study, we proposed a novel inflammation-based prognostic score, named c-reactive protein/prognostic nutritional index ratio (CRP/PNI ratio), for predicting the prognosis for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Results The optimal cut-off value was 0.10 for CRP/PNI ratio according to the ROC curve. Patients with CRP/PNI ratio ≤0.10 had a significantly better 5-year CSS compared to CRP/PNI ratio >0.10 (44.5% vs. 15.7%, P<0.001). On multivariate analyses, we revealed that CRP/PNI ratio was a significant predictive factor of CSS (P=0.009). A nomogram could be more accuracy for CSS. The Harrell's c-index for CSS prediction was 0.688. Materials and Methods A total of 308 patients with resectable ESCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. The optimal cuf-off value for CRP/PNI ratio was calculated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to analyse the cancer-specific survival (CSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were evaluated for CSS. A nomogram was also established to predict the prognosis for CSS. Conclusion The CRP/PNI ratio is a novel and useful prognostic score for CSS in patients with resectable ESCC. PMID:27557504

  6. Prognostic Utility of Cell Cycle Progression Score in Men With Prostate Cancer After Primary External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Freedland, Stephen J.; Gerber, Leah; Reid, Julia; Welbourn, William; Tikishvili, Eliso; Park, Jimmy; Younus, Adib; Gutin, Alexander; Sangale, Zaina; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Salama, Joseph K.; Stone, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic utility of the cell cycle progression (CCP) score, a RNA signature based on the average expression level of 31 CCP genes, for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) in men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as their primary curative therapy. Methods and Materials: The CCP score was derived retrospectively from diagnostic biopsy specimens of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1991 to 2006 (n=141). All patients were treated with definitive EBRT; approximately half of the cohort was African American. Outcome was time from EBRT to BCR using the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up for patients without BCR was 4.8 years. Association with outcome was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards survival analysis and likelihood ratio tests. Results: Of 141 patients, 19 (13%) had BCR. The median CCP score for patient samples was 0.12. In univariable analysis, CCP score significantly predicted BCR (P=.0017). The hazard ratio for BCR was 2.55 for 1-unit increase in CCP score (equivalent to a doubling of gene expression). In a multivariable analysis that included Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, percent positive cores, and androgen deprivation therapy, the hazard ratio for CCP changed only marginally and remained significant (P=.034), indicating that CCP provides prognostic information that is not provided by standard clinical parameters. With 10-year censoring, the CCP score was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (P=.013). There was no evidence for interaction between CCP and any clinical variable, including ethnicity. Conclusions: Among men treated with EBRT, the CCP score significantly predicted outcome and provided greater prognostic information than was available with clinical parameters. If validated in a larger cohort, CCP score could identify high-risk men undergoing EBRT who may need more aggressive therapy.

  7. Prognostic Impact of 21-Gene Recurrence Score in Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer: TBCRC 013.

    PubMed

    King, Tari A; Lyman, Jaclyn P; Gonen, Mithat; Voci, Amy; De Brot, Marina; Boafo, Camilla; Sing, Amy Pratt; Hwang, E Shelley; Alvarado, Michael D; Liu, Minetta C; Boughey, Judy C; McGuire, Kandace P; Van Poznak, Catherine H; Jacobs, Lisa K; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Krontiras, Helen; Babiera, Gildy V; Norton, Larry; Morrow, Monica; Hudis, Clifford A

    2016-07-10

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the 21-gene Recurrence Score (RS) provides clinically meaningful information in patients with de novo stage IV breast cancer enrolled in the Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium (TBCRC) 013. TBCRC 013 was a multicenter prospective registry that evaluated the role of surgery of the primary tumor in patients with de novo stage IV breast cancer. From July 2009 to April 2012, 127 patients from 14 sites were enrolled; 109 (86%) patients had pretreatment primary tumor samples suitable for 21-gene RS analysis. Clinical variables, time to first progression (TTP), and 2-year overall survival (OS) were correlated with the 21-gene RS by using log-rank, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression. Median patient age was 52 years (21 to 79 years); the majority had hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative (72 [66%]) or hormone receptor-positive/HER2-positive (20 [18%]) breast cancer. At a median follow-up of 29 months, median TTP was 20 months (95% CI, 16 to 26 months), and median survival was 49 months (95% CI, 40 months to not reached). An RS was generated for 101 (93%) primary tumor samples: 22 (23%) low risk (< 18), 29 (28%) intermediate risk (18 to 30); and 50 (49%) high risk (≥ 31). For all patients, RS was associated with TTP (P = .01) and 2-year OS (P = .04). In multivariable Cox regression models among 69 patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/HER2-negative cancer, RS was independently prognostic for TTP (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.86; P = .02) and 2-year OS (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.95; P = .013). The 21-gene RS is independently prognostic for both TTP and 2-year OS in ER-positive/HER2-negative de novo stage IV breast cancer. Prospective validation is needed to determine the potential role for this assay in the clinical management of this patient subset. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. AKI-CLIF-SOFA: a novel prognostic score for critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan-Qin; Zheng, Chen-Fei; Liu, Wen-Yue; Van Poucke, Sven; Mao, Zhi; Shi, Ke-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ji-Dong; Zheng, Ming-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are associated with high mortality rates. The aims of this study were to develop a specific prognostic score for critically ill cirrhotic patients with AKI, the acute kidney injury - Chronic Liver Failure - Sequential Organ Failure- Assessment score (AKI-CLIF-SOFA) score. This study focused on 527 cirrhotic patients with AKI admitted to intensive care unit and constructed a new scoring system, the AKI-CLIF-SOFA, which can be used to prognostically assess mortality in these patient population. Parameters included in this model were analysed by cox regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (auROC) of AKI-CLIF-SOFA scoring system was 0.74 in 30 days, 0.74 in 90 days, 0.72 in 270 days and 0.72 in 365 days. Additionally, this study demonstrated that the new model had more discriminatory power than chronic liver failure- sequential organ failure assessment score (CLIF-SOFA), SOFA, model for end stage liver disease (MELD), kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) and simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) (auROC: 0.72, 0.66, 0.64, 0.62, 0.63 and 0.65 respectively, all P < 0.05) for the prediction of the 365-days mortality. Therefore, AKI-CLIF-SOFA demonstrated a valuable discriminative ability compared with KDIGO, CLIF-SOFA, MELD, SAPS II and SOFA in critically ill cirrhotic patients with AKI. PMID:28114104

  9. Model of End-Stage Liver Disease Score and Derived Variants Lack Prognostic Ability after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, Alexander; Salinas, Ricardo; Jäger, Mark D; Lehner, Frank; Sakirow, Larissa; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Schrem, Harald

    2015-08-04

    BACKGROUND The model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is currently used for donor liver allocation in many regions. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the MELD score and its diverse variants as prognostic models for mortality after liver transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS An analysis of 454 consecutive adult liver transplants since the introduction of MELD-based donor liver allocation was conducted. Eight different MELD score variants were investigated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and overall model correctness of the investigated scores as a predictive model. The Brier score was used for the prediction of model accuracy and calculated as described before. Study endpoints were 90-day mortality and long-term patient mortality. RESULTS A 90-day mortality of 15.4% (n=69) and long-term mortality of 25% (n=112) were observed. All investigated models fail to reach relevant areas under the ROC curve greater than 0.700 for the prediction of mortality after liver transplantation. All calculated Brier scores were greater than 0.25, indicating a significant lack of model discrimination and calibration of the investigated scores. CONCLUSIONS A prognostic model for the prediction of outcome after transplantation still needs to be identified and should allow weighing urgency against utility in liver transplantation.

  10. [Prognostic value of MR in term neonates with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopath: MRI score and spectroscopy. About 26 cases].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Witte, S; Brissaud, O; Brun, M; Lamireau, D; Bordessoules, M; Chateil, J-F

    2008-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy remains a major cause of chronic disability in childhood. Early diagnosis and prognosis are necessary for the clinician to adapt the treatment. However, there is yet no reliable test to predict the patient's evolution. The aim of our study was to evaluate the predictive value of a personal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system and of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We included 26 term newborns in condition of neonatal brain suffering. MR examination was performed during the first week of life for all patients and MRI and MRS data were collected. Standardised follow-up visits were made for all patients. Finally, prognostic value of the different criteria was evaluated with statistical tests. Our MRI scoring system proved to be linked to prognosis. A high MRI score, abnormal signal in the internal capsule, white matter or basal ganglia abnormalities with diffusion imaging were associated with unfavourable outcome. These results confirmed the data of the literature concerning the MRI predictive value. Our study also confirmed prognostic interest of MR: particularly, ratios using lactate were significantly linked to prognosis in our study. Specificity of the elevation of these ratios was interesting but sensibility was less optimal. We suggest using our MRI scoring system which associates standard MRI and diffusion imaging, which is significantly related to outcome. We confirm the prognostic value of MRS in this pathological situation. MR with diffusion sequence and spectroscopy, performed three to four days after birth appears to be an essential tool to manage these patients.

  11. Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge discovery, statistical learning, and more specifically an understanding of the system evolution in time when it undergoes undesirable fault conditions, are critical for an adequate implementation of successful prognostic systems. Prognosis may be understood as the generation of long-term predictions describing the evolution in time of a particular signal of interest or fault indicator, with the purpose of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a failing component/subsystem. Predictions are made using a thorough understanding of the underlying processes and factor in the anticipated future usage.

  12. Can prognostic scoring systems for chronic myeloid leukemia as established in adults be applied to pediatric patients?

    PubMed

    Gurrea Salas, David; Glauche, Ingmar; Tauer, Josephine T; Thiede, Christian; Suttorp, Meinolf

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to adult medicine, specific scoring systems predicting the treatment response for an individual pediatric patient (pt) with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have not yet been defined. We evaluated to what extend prognostic scores as described for adults (e.g., Sokal, Hasford, EUTOS score) resulted in comparable risk group categorizations in a pediatric cohort. Parameters for score calculation were extracted from a data set of 90 patients enrolled into trial CML-PAED-II and treated by a standard dose of imatinib. At month 3 and at month 6, treatment response was analyzed based on the transcript ratio BCR-ABL1/ABL1. By the EUTOS, Hasford, and Sokal scores 81, 59, and 62 % of the patients were categorized as low risk, respectively; 19, 14, and 16 % of the patients as high risk, respectively; and by Hasford and Sokal scores 27 and 22 % of the patients, respectively, as intermediate risk. Twenty-seven out of 72 patients analyzable (38 %) exhibited a transcript ratio >10 % at month 3. We show that only the EUTOS score, but not the Sokal and Hasford score, correlates with this early outcome (p = 0.008). Analyzing the EUTOS score separately, we can demonstrate that lowering the cutoff from 87 to 48 points for categorization in low- and high-risk individuals increases the odds ratio from 2.4 (95 % CI 0.6 to 10.4) to 3.6 (95 % CI 1.3 to 10.9). Data are provided on the distribution of risk categories and resulting discrepancies when adult scores are applied on children and adolescents with CML at diagnosis. A larger number of patients and longer follow-up are still needed to develop a prognostic score specifically adapted to the pediatric and adolescent age cohorts.

  13. CLIF-SOFA score and SIRS are independent prognostic factors in patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Hee; Park, In Sung; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong Chun; Kang, Changwoo; Lee, Soo Hoon; Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Sang Bong

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication associated with worst prognosis in decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. Previous studies have identified prognostic factors for HE, and recent studies reported an association between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and liver disease. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors for 30-day mortality in alcoholic LC patients with HE who visited the emergency department (ED).This was a retrospective study of alcoholic LC patients with HE from January 1, 2010, to April 30, 2015. The baseline characteristics, complications of portal hypertension, laboratory values, Child-Pugh class, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score, and SIRS criteria were assessed. The presence of 2 or more SIRS criteria was considered SIRS. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and prognostic factors for patients with HE visiting the ED.In total, 105 patients who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Overall, the 30-day mortality rate was 6.7% (7 patients).Significant variables were hepatorenal syndrome, international normalized ratio, white blood cell count, total bilirubin level, MELD score CLIF-SOFA score, and SIRS in univariate analysis. CLIF-SOFA score and SIRS were the significant factors in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 5.56, 15.98; 95% confidence interval 1.18-26.18, 1.58-161.37; P = 0.03, P = 0.02). The mortality rates differed according to the CLIF-SOFA score (P < 0.01).The CLIF-SOFA score and SIRS in alcoholic LC patients with HE visiting the ED are independent predictors of 30-day mortality.

  14. Prognostic Utility of a Modified HEART Score in Chest Pain Patients in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    McCord, James; Cabrera, Rafael; Lindahl, Bertil; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Evans, Kaleigh; Nowak, Richard; Frisoli, Tiberio; Body, Richard; Christ, Michael; deFilippi, Christopher R; Christenson, Robert H; Jacobsen, Gordon; Alquezar, Aitor; Panteghini, Mauro; Melki, Dina; Plebani, Mario; Verschuren, Franck; French, John; Bendig, Garnet; Weiser, Silvia; Mueller, Christian

    2017-02-01

    The TRAPID-AMI trial study (High-Sensitivity Troponin-T Assay for Rapid Rule-Out of Acute Myocardial Infarction) evaluated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T (hs-cTnT) in a 1-hour acute myocardial infarction (AMI) exclusion algorithm. Our study objective was to evaluate the prognostic utility of a modified HEART score (m-HS) within this trial. Twelve centers evaluated 1282 patients in the emergency department for possible AMI from 2011 to 2013. Measurements of hs-cTnT (99th percentile, 14 ng/L) were performed at 0, 1, 2, and 4 to 14 hours. Evaluation for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) occurred at 30 days (death or AMI). Low-risk patients had an m-HS≤3 and had either hs-cTnT<14 ng/L over serial testing or had AMI excluded by the 1-hour protocol. By the 1-hour protocol, 777 (60%) patients had an AMI excluded. Of those 777 patients, 515 (66.3%) patients had an m-HS≤3, with 1 (0.2%) patient having a MACE, and 262 (33.7%) patients had an m-HS≥4, with 6 (2.3%) patients having MACEs (P=0.007). Over 4 to 14 hours, 661 patients had a hs-cTnT<14 ng/L. Of those 661 patients, 413 (62.5%) patients had an m-HS≤3, with 1 (0.2%) patient having a MACE, and 248 (37.5%) patients had an m-HS≥4, with 5 (2.0%) patients having MACEs (P=0.03). Serial testing of hs-cTnT over 1 hour along with application of an m-HS identified a low-risk population that might be able to be directly discharged from the emergency department. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Traumatic open globe injury in young pediatric patients: characterization of a novel prognostic score.

    PubMed

    Read, Sarah P; Cavuoto, Kara M

    2016-04-01

    Open globe injury is a common cause of monocular blindness in children. Current formulas to predict outcomes of open globe injury often rely heavily on visual acuity and presence of an afferent pupillary defect, examination elements that are difficult to assess in young children. We aimed to analyze the features of open globe injuries in children aged 0-6 years to facilitate development of a novel algorithm for predicting visual outcomes in this age group. The medical records of patients 0-6 years of age presenting at a single institution with open globe injury from 2000 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Epidemiology, physical examination, and intervention data were used to develop a prognostic algorithm. A total of 28 patients were included. Mean age at presentation was 4.2 years (range, 1.9-6.7). Glass was the most common mechanism of injury. Associated findings included uveal prolapse (93%), choroidal detachment (39%), hyphema (32%), and retinal detachment (11%). In addition to primary repair, 43% patients required a lensectomy, and 7% underwent surgery to repair retinal detachment. Complicating cataract (P < 0.005) and a wound >6 mm (P < 0.05) were associated with a final visual acuity worse than 20/40. A novel algorithm for predicting visual outcome was devised with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%. Patients 0-6 years of age with open globe injuries present unique risk factors for poor outcome. The trauma score generated by our algorithm is not reliant on presenting visual acuity and may be useful in predicting prognosis in very young children. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the prognostic values of selected inflammation based scores in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Lei, Jianyong; Li, Canjun; Shu, Kunpeng; Li, Wenbin; Zhang, Yuwei; Li, Zhihui; Gong, Rixiang; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2017-09-01

    The significance of inflammation based scores including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and plasma fibrinogen remains unclear in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We aimed to compare the prognostic value of these scores. Seventy-eight patients newly diagnosed as MTC with operation in our institution from May 2009 to September 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Kaplan-Meier analyses were calculated to compare the prognostic value of these scores. Increased PLR was predictive of lymph node metastasis (AUC = 0.644, P = 0.022), capsule invasion (AUC = 0.666, P = 0.007), advanced tumor stages (AUC = 0.657, P = 0.011), and recurrence (AUC = 0.655, P = 0.049). Increased fibrinogen was predictive of lymph node metastasis (AUC = 0.669, P = 0.006) and capsule invasion (AUC = 0.631, P = 0.038). Reduced PNI was predictive of recurrence (AUC = 0.655, P = 0.049). Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox regression analysis revealed that PLR was a significant predictor for recurrence. PLR, fibrinogen, and PNI are all predictive. Specially, PLR is superior to other inflammation based scores in terms of prognostic ability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Novel and Validated Inflammation-Based Score (IBS) Predicts Survival in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Curative Surgical Resection: A STROBE-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yi-Peng; Ni, Xiao-Chun; Yi, Yong; Cai, Xiao-Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jia-Xing; Lu, Zhu-Feng; Han, Xu; Cao, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Qiu, Shuang-Jian

    2016-02-01

    As chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the prognostic accuracy of a cluster of inflammatory scores, including the Glasgow Prognostic Score, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, platelet to lymphocyte ratio, Prognostic Nutritional Index, Prognostic Index, and a novel Inflammation-Based Score (IBS) integrated preoperative and postoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in 2 independent cohorts. Further, we aimed to formulate an effective prognostic nomogram for HCC after hepatectomy.Prognostic value of inflammatory scores and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage were studied in a training cohort of 772 patients with HCC underwent hepatectomy. Independent predictors of survival identified in multivariate analysis were validated in an independent set of 349 patients with an overall similar clinical feature.In both training and validation cohorts, IBS, microscopic vascular invasion, and BCLC stage emerged as independent factors of overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The predictive capacity of the IBS in both OS and RFS appeared superior to that of the other inflammatory scores in terms of C-index. Additionally, the formulated nomogram comprised IBS resulted in more accurate prognostic prediction compared with BCLC stage alone.IBS is a novel and validated prognostic indicator of HCC after curative resection, and a robust HCC nomogram including IBS was developed to predict survival for patients after hepatectomy.

  18. Scoring Systems to Estimate Intracerebral Control and Survival Rates of Patients Irradiated for Brain Metastases;Brain metastases; Radiation therapy; Local control; Survival; Prognostic scores

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Dziggel, Liesa; Haatanen, Tiina; Veninga, Theo; Lohynska, Radka; Dunst, Juergen; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To create and validate scoring systems for intracerebral control (IC) and overall survival (OS) of patients irradiated for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: In this study, 1,797 patients were randomly assigned to the test (n = 1,198) or the validation group (n = 599). Two scoring systems were developed, one for IC and another for OS. The scores included prognostic factors found significant on multivariate analyses. Age, performance status, extracerebral metastases, interval tumor diagnosis to RT, and number of brain metastases were associated with OS. Tumor type, performance status, interval, and number of brain metastases were associated with IC. The score for each factor was determined by dividing the 6-month IC or OS rate (given in percent) by 10. The total score represented the sum of the scores for each factor. The score groups of the test group were compared with the corresponding score groups of the validation group. Results: In the test group, 6-month IC rates were 17% for 14-18 points, 49% for 19-23 points, and 77% for 24-27 points (p < 0.0001). IC rates in the validation group were 19%, 52%, and 77%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In the test group, 6-month OS rates were 9% for 15-19 points, 41% for 20-25 points, and 78% for 26-30 points (p < 0.0001). OS rates in the validation group were 7%, 39%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Patients irradiated for brain metastases can be given scores to estimate OS and IC. IC and OS rates of the validation group were similar to the test group demonstrating the validity and reproducibility of both scores.

  19. A Novel Prognostic Score, Based on Preoperative Nutritional Status, Predicts Outcomes of Patients after Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Xu, Dazhi; Li, Wei; Zhan, Youqing; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yingbo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether preoperative nutritional status (PNS) was a valuable predictor of outcome in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1320 patients with GC undergoing curative resection. The PNS score was constructed based on four objective and easily measurable criteria: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score 1, serum albumin <35 g/L, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2, or preoperative weight loss ≥5% of body weight. The PNS score was 2 for patients who met three or four criteria, 1 for those who met one or two criteria, and 0 for those who didn't meet all of these criteria. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rates in patients with PNS scores 0, 1, and 2 were 59.1%, 42.4%, and 23.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed the PNS was an independent predictor for OS (HR for PNS 1 and PNS 2: 1.497, 95 % CI: 1.230-1.820 and 2.434, 95 % CI: 1.773-3.340, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, 5-year OS ranged from 92% (stage I) to 37% (stage III), while the combination of TNM and PNS stratified 5-year OS from 95% (TNM I, PNS 0) to 19% (TNM III, PNS 3). Of note, the prognostic significance of PNS was still maintained when stratified by TNM stage, age, sex, tumor size, anemia and adjuvant chemotherapy (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PNS, a novel nutritional-based prognostic score, is independently associated with OS in GC. Prospective studies are needed to validate its clinical utility. PMID:27877232

  20. A Novel Prognostic Score, Based on Preoperative Nutritional Status, Predicts Outcomes of Patients after Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Xu, Dazhi; Li, Wei; Zhan, Youqing; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yingbo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether preoperative nutritional status (PNS) was a valuable predictor of outcome in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1320 patients with GC undergoing curative resection. The PNS score was constructed based on four objective and easily measurable criteria: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score 1, serum albumin <35 g/L, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m(2), or preoperative weight loss ≥5% of body weight. The PNS score was 2 for patients who met three or four criteria, 1 for those who met one or two criteria, and 0 for those who didn't meet all of these criteria. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rates in patients with PNS scores 0, 1, and 2 were 59.1%, 42.4%, and 23.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed the PNS was an independent predictor for OS (HR for PNS 1 and PNS 2: 1.497, 95 % CI: 1.230-1.820 and 2.434, 95 % CI: 1.773-3.340, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, 5-year OS ranged from 92% (stage I) to 37% (stage III), while the combination of TNM and PNS stratified 5-year OS from 95% (TNM I, PNS 0) to 19% (TNM III, PNS 3). Of note, the prognostic significance of PNS was still maintained when stratified by TNM stage, age, sex, tumor size, anemia and adjuvant chemotherapy (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PNS, a novel nutritional-based prognostic score, is independently associated with OS in GC. Prospective studies are needed to validate its clinical utility.

  1. Validation of prognostic scoring and assessment of clinical benefit for patients with bone sarcomas enrolled in phase I clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, J. Andrew; Hess, Kenneth R.; Naing, Aung; Hong, David S.; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Benjamin, Robert S.; Ludwig, Joseph A.; Conley, Anthony; Herzog, Cynthia E.; Anderson, Pete; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to validate the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) and MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) prognostic scoring systems for the selection of bone sarcoma patients for phase I clinical trials and to identify additional risk factors related to survival. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the baseline characteristics and outcomes of 92 bone sarcoma patients who were referred to MDACC's Phase I Clinical Trials Program. Results Ninety-two patients with Ewing sarcoma (N = 47), osteosarcoma (N = 22), chondrosarcoma (N = 16), and other tumors (N = 7) were evaluated; 78 were enrolled in at least 1 of 43 different phase I trials. The median overall survival (OS) was 8.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.8–13.7 months). Independent factors that predicted shorter survival were male sex, >2 metastatic sites, >3 previous therapies, hemoglobin level <10.5 g/dL, platelet count >200 x103/L, creatinine level ≥1.3 mg/dL, and lactate dehydrogenase level >ULN. Patients with good RMH scores (0-1) had longer OS than patients with poor RMH scores (2-3) (HR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.9–11.0; P < 0.0001), as did patients with low MDACC scores (0-1) as compared to patients with higher MDACC scores (2–4) (HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.9–5.6; P < 0.0001). Conclusion The RMH prognostic score can be used to predict the OS of bone cancer patients referred for phase I trials. The MDACC score added no value to the RMH score and therefore does not have a role in assessment of patients with bone tumors. Patients with advanced bone sarcomas should be considered for phase I trials. PMID:27486883

  2. Impaired hepato-renal function defined by the MELD XI score as prognosticator in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Biegus, Jan; Zymliński, Robert; Sokolski, Mateusz; Siwołowski, Paweł; Gajewski, Piotr; Nawrocka-Millward, Sylwia; Poniewierka, Elżbieta; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Multi-organ dysfunction often complicates the natural course of acute heart failure (AHF) and identifies patients with poor prognosis. The MELD score (Model of End-Stage Liver Dysfunction) combines data reflecting liver and kidney function, which makes it a potentially useful tool for the assessment of patients with AHF. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic utility of the MELD score in patients with AHF. The MELD score was calculated on admission and during hospital stay (days 2-3) using a formula that does not take into account the international normalized ratio (MELD XI). The study population consisted of 203 AHF patients (mean age 65 ± 12 years, 76% male). The mean MELD XI score was -14.8 ± 4.5 points on admission and 13.9 ± 4.3 points during hospitalization. Contributors of elevated MELD XI score at baseline and during hospital stay were isolated increase in creatinine in 22-25%, isolated increase in bilirubin in 17-19%, and abnormal values of both in 40-46% of patients. During 1-year follow-up, 67 (33%) patients died. After adjustment for well-established prognosticators, MELD XI score at baseline and during hospital stay were significant predictors of poor outcome [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.11 (1.05-1.2) and 1.14 (1.09-1.2), respectively, P < 0.001]. An increase in the MELD XI score during hospital stay occurred in 31% of patients and was related to increased risk of death at 1 year [1.97 (1.2-3.2), P < 0.005]. Impairment of hepato-renal function defined by the MELD XI score is common and carries unfavourable prognosis in AHF patients. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  3. [Comparison of two prognostic scores (PRISM and PIM) at a pediatric intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Martha, Vanessa Feller; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Einloft, Paulo Roberto; Bruno, Francisco; Rampon, Viviane

    2005-01-01

    To compare the performance of the PRISM (Pediatric Risk of Mortality) and the PIM (Pediatric Index of Mortality) scores at a general pediatric intensive care unit, investigating the relation between observed mortality and survival and predicted mortality and survival. A contemporary cohort study undertaken between 1 June 1999 and 31 May 2000 at the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Hospital São Lucas pediatric intensive care unit. The inclusion criteria and the PRISM and PIM calculations were performed as set out in the original articles and using the formulae as published. Statistical analysis for model evaluation employed the Flora z test, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic) and Spearman's correlation tests. The study was approved by the institution's Ethics Committee. Four hundred and ninety-eight patients were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, 77 of whom presented exclusion criteria. Thirty-three (7.83%) of the 421 patients studied died and 388 patients were discharged. Estimated mortality by PRISM was 30.84 (7.22%) with a standardized mortality rate of 1.07 (0.74-1.50), z = -0.45 and by PIM this was 26.13 (6.21%) with a standardized mortality rate of 1.26 (0.87-1.77), z = -1.14. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test gave a chi-square of 9.23 (p = 0.100) for PRISM and 27.986 (p < 0.001) for PIM. The area under the ROC curve was 0.870 (0.810-0.930) for PRISM and 0.845 (0.769-0.920) for PIM. The Spearman test returned r = 0.65 (p < 0.001). Analyzing the tests we can observe that, although the PIM test was less well calibrated overall, both PRISM and PIM offer a good capacity for discriminating between survivors and moribund patients. They are tools with comparable performance at the prognostic evaluation of the pediatric patients admitted to our unit.

  4. A simple prognostic scoring system for newly diagnosed cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: retrospective analysis of 530 patients.

    PubMed

    Malagola, Michele; Skert, Cristina; Vignetti, Marco; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Martinelli, Giovanni; Alimena, Giuliana; Mecucci, Cristina; Testoni, Nicoletta; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Clavio, Marino; Gobbi, Marco; Candoni, Anna; Damiani, Daniela; Bocchia, Monica; Lauria, Francesco; Zaccaria, Alfonso; Mazza, Patrizio; Visani, Giuseppe; Peli, Annalisa; Colombi, Chiara; Cancelli, Valeria; Mancini, Marco; Foà, Robin; Martelli, Massimo; Cantore, Nicola; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Petrini, Mario; De Fabritiis, Paolo; Fioritoni, Giuseppe; Nobile, Francesco; Fabbiano, Francesco; Specchia, Giorgina; Baccarani, Michele; Lo Coco, Francesco; Amadori, Sergio; Mandelli, Franco; Russo, Domenico

    2011-12-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the data of 337 patients with cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), aged ≤ 65 years (training set). A prognostic index score (PIS) was calculated by totaling the score derived from the regression coefficients of each clinical variable, significantly associated with prognosis by multivariate analysis. The variables that were independent prognostic factors for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in the training set were: age ≥ 50 years, secondary AML and white blood cell count (WBC) ≥ 20 × 10(9)/L. The patients of the training set were stratified into three groups: low-, intermediate- and high-risk. The median EFS was 25, 12 and 7 months in the low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups (p < 0.0001), respectively. The median OS was not reached in the low-risk group and was 19 and 10 months in the intermediate- and high-risk groups (p < 0.0001). This PIS was validated in a series of 193 patients with CN-AML. The median EFS was 66, 16, and 3 months (p < 0.0001) and the median OS was 66, 16, and 5 months in the three risk groups, respectively (p < 0.0001). This PIS may be useful for clinical decision-making in CN-AML and may be prospectively integrated with the newest biological markers which at present are not routinely assessed and need prognostic validation.

  5. Personalized Prognostic Risk Score for Long-Term Survival for Children with Acute Leukemia after Allogeneic Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bitan, Menachem; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Millard, Heather R; Pulsipher, Michael A; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Auletta, Jeffery J; Brown, Valerie; Chan, Ka Wah; Diaz, Miguel Angel; Dietz, Andrew; Vincent, Marta González; Guilcher, Gregory; Hale, Gregory A; Hayashi, Robert J; Keating, Amy; Mehta, Parinda; Myers, Kasiani; Page, Kristin; Prestidge, Tim; Shah, Nirali N; Smith, Angela R; Woolfrey, Ann; Thiel, Elizabeth; Davies, Stella M; Eapen, Mary

    2017-09-01

    We studied leukemia-free (LFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with acute myeloid (AML, n = 790) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 1096) who underwent transplantation between 2000 and 2010 and who survived for at least 1 year in remission after related or unrelated donor transplantation. Analysis of patient-, disease-, and transplantation characteristics and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was performed to identify factors with adverse effects on LFS and OS. These data were used to develop risk scores for survival. We did not identify any prognostic factors beyond 4 years after transplantation for AML and beyond 3 years for ALL. Risk score for survival for AML includes age, disease status at transplantation, cytogenetic risk group, and chronic GVHD. For ALL, the risk score includes age at transplantation and chronic GVHD. The 10-year probabilities of OS for AML with good (score 0, 1, or 2), intermediate (score 3), and poor risk (score 4, 5, 6, or 7) were 94%, 87%, and 68%, respectively. The 10-year probabilities of OS for ALL were 89% and 80% for good (score 0 or 1) and poor risk (score 2), respectively. Identifying children at risk for late mortality with early intervention may mitigate some excess late mortality. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and validation of a prognostic score to predict mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Jalan, Rajiv; Saliba, Faouzi; Pavesi, Marco; Amoros, Alex; Moreau, Richard; Ginès, Pere; Levesque, Eric; Durand, Francois; Angeli, Paolo; Caraceni, Paolo; Hopf, Corinna; Alessandria, Carlo; Rodriguez, Ezequiel; Solis-Muñoz, Pablo; Laleman, Wim; Trebicka, Jonel; Zeuzem, Stefan; Gustot, Thierry; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar; Elkrief, Laure; Soriano, German; Cordoba, Joan; Morando, Filippo; Gerbes, Alexander; Agarwal, Banwari; Samuel, Didier; Bernardi, Mauro; Arroyo, Vicente

    2014-11-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a frequent syndrome (30% prevalence), characterized by acute decompensation of cirrhosis, organ failure(s) and high short-term mortality. This study develops and validates a specific prognostic score for ACLF patients. Data from 1349 patients included in the CANONIC study were used. First, a simplified organ function scoring system (CLIF Consortium Organ Failure score, CLIF-C OFs) was developed to diagnose ACLF using data from all patients. Subsequently, in 275 patients with ACLF, CLIF-C OFs and two other independent predictors of mortality (age and white blood cell count) were combined to develop a specific prognostic score for ACLF (CLIF Consortium ACLF score [CLIF-C ACLFs]). A concordance index (C-index) was used to compare the discrimination abilities of CLIF-C ACLF, MELD, MELD-sodium (MELD-Na), and Child-Pugh (CPs) scores. The CLIF-C ACLFs was validated in an external cohort and assessed for sequential use. The CLIF-C ACLFs showed a significantly higher predictive accuracy than MELDs, MELD-Nas, and CPs, reducing (19-28%) the corresponding prediction error rates at all main time points after ACLF diagnosis (28, 90, 180, and 365 days) in both the CANONIC and the external validation cohort. CLIF-C ACLFs computed at 48 h, 3-7 days, and 8-15 days after ACLF diagnosis predicted the 28-day mortality significantly better than at diagnosis. The CLIF-C ACLFs at ACLF diagnosis is superior to the MELDs and MELD-Nas in predicting mortality. The CLIF-C ACLFs is a clinically relevant, validated scoring system that can be used sequentially to stratify the risk of mortality in ACLF patients. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic value of early warning scores in the emergency department (ED) and acute medical unit (AMU): A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Nannan Panday, R S; Minderhoud, T C; Alam, N; Nanayakkara, P W B

    2017-10-06

    A wide array of early warning scores (EWS) have been developed and are used in different settings to detect which patients are at risk of deterioration. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of studies conducted on the value of EWS on predicting intensive care (ICU) admission and mortality in the emergency department (ED) and acute medical unit (AMU). A literature search was conducted in the bibliographic databases PubMed and EMBASE, from inception to April 2017. Two reviewers independently screened all potentially relevant titles and abstracts for eligibility. 42 studies were included. 36 studies reported on mortality as an endpoint, 13 reported ICU admission and 9 reported the composite outcome of mortality and ICU admission. For mortality prediction National Early Warning Score (NEWS) was the most accurate score in the general ED population and in those with respiratory distress, Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis score (MEDS) had the best accuracy in patients with an infection or sepsis. ICU admission was best predicted with NEWS, however in patients with an infection or sepsis Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) yielded better results for this outcome. MEWS and NEWS generally had favourable results in the ED and AMU for all endpoints. Many studies have been performed on ED and AMU populations using heterogeneous prognostic scores. However, future studies should concentrate on a simple and easy to use prognostic score such as NEWS with the aim of introducing this throughout the (pre-hospital and hospital) acute care chain. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The prognostic value of the Modified Early Warning Score in critically ill patients: a prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Reini, Kirsi; Fredrikson, Mats; Oscarsson, Anna

    2012-03-01

    The Modified Early Warning Score is a validated assessment tool for detecting risk of deterioration in patients at risk on medical and surgical wards. To assess the prognostic ability of the Modified Early Warning Score in predicting outcome after critical care. A prospective observational study. A tertiary care general ICU. Five hundred and eighteen patients aged at least 16 years admitted to the ICU at Linköping University Hospital were included. The Modified Early Warning Score was documented on arrival at the ICU and every hour for as long as the patient was breathing spontaneously, until discharge from the ICU. The primary endpoint was mortality in the ICU. Secondary endpoints were 30-day mortality, length of stay and readmission to the ICU. Patients with a Modified Early Warning Score of at least six had significantly higher mortality in the ICU than those with a Modified Early Warning Score <6 (24 vs. 3.4%, P < 0.001). A Modified Early Warning Score of at least six was an independent predictor of mortality in the ICU [odds ratio (OR) 5.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-20.6]. The prognostic ability of the Modified Early Warning Score on admission to the ICU [area under the curve (AUC) 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.88] approached those of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.94) and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on admission (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.97). A Modified Early Warning Score of at least six on admission was also an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3-8.1) and length of stay in the ICU (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8). In contrast, the Modified Early Warning Score on discharge from the ICU did not predict the need for readmission. This study shows that the Modified Early Warning Score is a useful predictor of mortality in the ICU, 30-day mortality and length of stay in the ICU.

  9. Revalidation of a prognostic score model based on complete blood count for nasopharyngeal carcinoma through a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Chang, Hui; Tao, Yalan; Wang, Xiaohui; Gao, Jin; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Objective In our previous work, we incorporated complete blood count (CBC) into TNM stage to develop a new prognostic score model, which was validated to improve prediction efficiency of TNM stage for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to revalidate the accuracy of the model, and its superiority to TNM stage, through data from a prospective study. Methods CBC of 249 eligible patients from the 863 Program No. 2006AA02Z4B4 was evaluated. Prognostic index (PI) of each patient was calculated according to the score model. Then they were divided by the PI into three categories: the low-, intermediate-and high-risk patients. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) of the three categories was compared by a log-rank test. The model and TNM stage (7th edition) were compared on efficiency for predicting the 5-year DSS, through comparison of the area under curve (AUC) of their receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results The 5-year DSS of the low-, intermediate-and high-risk patients were 96.0%, 79.1% and 62.2%, respectively. The low-and intermediate-risk patients had better DSS than the high-risk patients (P<0.001 and P<0.005, respectively). And there was a trend of better DSS in the low-risk patients, compared with the intermediate-risk patients (P=0.049). The AUC of the model was larger than that of TNM stage (0.726 vs. 0.661, P=0.023). Conclusions A CBC-based prognostic score model was revalidated to be accurate and superior to TNM stage on predicting 5-year DSS of NPC. PMID:27877005

  10. Prognostic value of liver dysfunction assessed by MELD-XI scoring system in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takahide; Yashima, Fumiaki; Yanagisawa, Ryo; Tanaka, Makoto; Shimizu, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Naganuma, Toru; Araki, Motoharu; Tada, Norio; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Shirai, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Masanori; Hayashida, Kentaro

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data regarding the influence of liver dysfunction on outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Model for End-stage Liver Disease eXcluding International normalized ratio (MELD-XI) score, which was originally developed for patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation, has been reported as a predictor of heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of MELD-XI score for patients undergoing TAVI. Data from the prospectively maintained Optimized transCathEter vAlvular iNtervention (OCEAN-TAVI) multicenter registry were collected in 749 patients who underwent TAVI between October 2013 and August 2015. MELD-XI score was calculated as follows: 11.76×Ln (creatinine)+5.11×Ln (total bilirubin)+9.44. Patients were categorized based on MELD-XI score>10 or ≤10, and compared with regard to clinical characteristics and outcomes of TAVI. Higher MELD-XI score was associated with lower 30-day survival (95.6% vs 98.5%, P=0.03). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that higher MELD-XI score also was associated with lower 6-month survival (P<0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that MELD-XI score was an independent predictor of 6-month cumulative mortality. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that MELD-XI score showed better accuracy in predicting 6-month mortality compared with Logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores (area under the curve=0.67, 0.58, 0.57, and 0.60, respectively). Evaluation of liver dysfunction according to MELD-XI score provides additional risk information for patients undergoing TAVI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards improved prognostic scores predicting survival in patients with brain metastases: a pilot study of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Carsten; Marienhagen, Kirsten; Dalhaug, Astrid; Norum, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prognostic information is desirable when counselling patients with brain metastases regarding their therapeutic options and life expectancy. Based on previous studies, we selected serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a promising factor on which we perform a pilot study investigating methodological aspects of biomarker studies in patients with brain metastases, before embarking on large-scale studies that will look at a larger number of candidate markers in an expanded patient cohort. For this retrospective analysis, 100 patients with available information on LDH treated with palliative whole-brain radiotherapy were selected. A comprehensive evaluation of different LDH-based variables was performed in uni- and multivariate tests. Probably, the most intriguing finding was that LDH kinetics might be more important, or at least complement, information obtained from a single measurement immediately before radiotherapy. LDH and performance status outperformed several other variables that are part of prognostic models such as recursive partitioning analyses classes and graded prognostic assessment score. LDH kinetics might reflect disease behaviour in extracranial metastatic and primary sites without need for comprehensive imaging studies and is a quite inexpensive diagnostic test. Based on these encouraging results, confirmatory studies in a larger cohort of patients are warranted.

  12. Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System scores, pre-transplant therapy and chronic graft-versus-host disease determine outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ditschkowski, Markus; Elmaagacli, Ahmet H.; Trenschel, Rudolf; Gromke, Tanja; Steckel, Nina K.; Koldehoff, Michael; Beelen, Dietrich W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative stem cell disorder curable exclusively by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess disease-specific and transplant-related risk factors that influence post-transplant outcome in patients with myelofibrosis. Design and Methods We retrospectively assessed 76 consecutive patients with primary (n=47) or secondary (n=29) myelofibrosis who underwent bone marrow (n=6) or peripheral blood stem cell (n=70) transplantation from sibling (n=30) or unrelated (n=46) donors between January 1994 and December 2010. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 55±7.5 months. Results Primary graft failure occurred in 5% and the non-relapse mortality rate at 1 year was 28%. The relapse-free survival rate was 50% with a relapse rate of 19% at 5 years. The use of pharmacological pre-treatment and the post-transplant occurrence of chronic graft-versus-host disease were significant independent unfavourable risk factors for post-transplant survival in multivariate analysis. Using the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System for risk stratification, low-risk patients had significantly better overall survival (P=0.014, hazard ratio 1.4) and relapse-free survival (P=0.02, hazard ratio 1.3) compared to the other risk groups of patients. The additional inclusion of thrombocytopenia, abnormal karyotype and transfusion need (Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System Plus) resulted in a predicted 5-year overall survival of 100%, 51%, 54% and 30% for low, intermediate-1, intermediate-2 and high-risk groups, respectively. The relapse incidence was significantly higher in the absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.006), and pharmacological pre-treatment (n=43) was associated with reduced relapse-free survival (P=0.001). Conclusions The data corroborate a strong correlation between alloreactivity and long-term post

  13. Evolution of the COPD Assessment Test score during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: Determinants and prognostic value

    PubMed Central

    Feliz-Rodriguez, Darwin; Zudaire, Santiago; Carpio, Carlos; Martínez, Elizabet; Gómez-Mendieta, Antonia; Santiago, Ana; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; García-Río, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An adequate evaluation of exacerbations is a primary objective in managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To define the profile of health status recovery during severe exacerbations of COPD using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) questionnaire and to evaluate its prognostic value. METHODS: Forty-five patients with previous COPD diagnoses who were hospitalized due to severe exacerbation(s) were included in the study. These patients were treated by their respective physicians following current recommendations; health status was assessed daily using the CAT questionnaire. The CAT score, spirometry and recurrent hospitalizations were recorded one and three months after hospital discharge. RESULTS: Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage was an independent determinant for increased CAT score during the first days of exacerbation with respect to postexacerbation values. From hospitalization day 5, the CAT score was similar to that obtained in the stable phase. Body mass index, GOLD stage and education level were related to health status recovery pattern. CAT score increase and the area under the curve of CAT recovery were inversely related to the forced expiratory volume in 1 s achieved three months after discharge (r= −0.606; P<0.001 and r= −0.532; P<0.001, respectively). Patients with recurrent hospitalizations showed higher CAT score increases and slower recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The CAT detects early health status improvement during severe COPD exacerbations. Its initial worsening and recovery pattern are related to lung function and recurrent hospitalizations. PMID:24093119

  14. Association Between Nutritional Status, Inflammatory Condition, and Prognostic Indexes with Postoperative Complications and Clinical Outcome of Patients with Gastrointestinal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Costa, Milena Damasceno de Souza; Vieira de Melo, Camila Yandara Sousa; Amorim, Ana Carolina Ribeiro de; Cipriano Torres, Dilênia de Oliveira; Dos Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and relate nutritional and inflammatory status and prognostic indexes with postoperative complications and clinical outcome of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated; nutritional assessment was carried out by subjective and objective parameters; albumin, pre-albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were determined. To assess prognosis, the Glasgow scale, the Prognostic Inflammatory Nutritional Index (PINI), and CRP/albumin ratio were used; the clinical outcomes considered were hospital discharge and death. A high Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) score was associated with the occurrence of postoperative complications: 73% of the patients with postoperative complications had the highest SGA score, but only 6% of those without postoperative complications had the highest SGA score (P < 0.001). Greater occurrence of death was observed in patients with a high SGA score, low serum albumin, increased CRP, PINI > 1, and Glasgow score 2. There was a positive correlation between weight loss percentage with serum CRP levels (P = 0.002), CRP/albumin (P = 0.002), PINI (P = 0.002), and Glasgow score (P = 0.000). This study provides evidence that the assessment of the nutritional status and the use of prognostic indexes are good tools for predicting postoperative complications and clinical outcome in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasia.

  15. A new molecular prognostic score for predicting the risk of distant metastasis in patients with HR+/HER2− early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Gyungyub; Kwon, Mi Jeong; Han, Jinil; Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Seon-Heui; Park, Sarah; Choi, Jong-Sun; Cho, Soo Youn; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Lee, Jong Won; Cho, Sang Rae; Moon, Youngho; Nam, Byung-Ho; Nam, Seok Jin; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee

    2017-01-01

    To make an optimal treatment decision for early stage breast cancer, it is important to identify risk of recurrence. Here, we developed and validated a new prognostic model for predicting the risk of distant metastasis in patients with pN0-N1, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative (HR+/HER2−) breast cancer treated with hormone therapy alone. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The relative expression of six novel prognostic genes was combined with two clinical variables (nodal status and tumor size) to calculate a risk score (BCT score). In the validation cohort treated with hormone therapy alone, the 10 year rate of distant metastasis in the high-risk group (26.3%) according to BCT score was significantly higher than that in the low-risk group (3.8%) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for clinical variables revealed that BCT score is an independent predictor of distant metastasis. Moreover, the C-index estimate revealed that BCT score has a prognostic power superior to that of prognostic models based on clinicopathological parameters. The BCT score outperforms prognostic models based on traditional clinicopathological factors and predicts the risk of distant metastasis in patients with HR+/HER2− early breast cancer. PMID:28350001

  16. Validating a Prognostic Scoring System for Postmastectomy Locoregional Recurrence in Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Skye Hung-Chun; Tsai, Stella Y.; Yu, Ben-Long; Horng, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Chii-Ming; Jian, James J.; Chu, Nan-Min; Tsou, Mei-Hua; Liu, Mei-Ching; Huang, Andrew T.; Prosnitz, Leonard R.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This study is designed to validate a previously developed locoregional recurrence risk (LRR) scoring system and further define which groups of patients with breast cancer would benefit from postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Methods and Materials: An LRR risk scoring system was developed previously at our institution using breast cancer patients initially treated with modified radical mastectomy between 1990 and 2001. The LRR score comprised 4 factors: patient age, lymphovascular invasion, estrogen receptor negativity, and number of involved lymph nodes. We sought to validate the original study by examining a new dataset of 1545 patients treated between 2002 and 2007. Results: The 1545 patients were scored according to the previously developed criteria: 920 (59.6%) were low risk (score 0-1), 493 (31.9%) intermediate risk (score 2-3), and 132 (8.5%) were high risk (score ≥4). The 5-year locoregional control rates with and without PMRT in low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 98% versus 97% (P=.41), 97% versus 91% (P=.0005), and 89% versus 50% (P=.0002) respectively. Conclusions: This analysis of an additional 1545 patients treated between 2002 and 2007 validates our previously reported LRR scoring system and suggests appropriate patients for whom PMRT will be beneficial. Independent validation of this scoring system by other institutions is recommended.

  17. Immunophenotype and intermediate-high international prognostic index score are prognostic factors for therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Broccoli, Alessandro; Stefoni, Vittorio; Musuraca, Gerardo; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; De Renzo, Amalia; Cantonetti, Maria; Bacci, Francesco; Baccarani, Michele; Pileri, Stefano A

    2010-12-15

    The development of gene expression profiling and tissue microarray techniques have provided more information about the heterogeneity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), enabling categorization of DLBCL patients into 3 prognostic groups according to cell origin (but independently from the International Prognostic Index [IPI] score): germinal center (GCB), activated B-cell (ABC), and not classified (NC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This study investigated the role of immunohistochemical discrimination between GCB and ABC&NC-DLBCL subtypes in identifying those high-risk patients who may benefit from a more aggressive first-line therapeutic approach. From February 2003 to August 2006, 45 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients, with IPI≥2, were considered eligible for this study: 13 had a GCB, 8 an ABC, and 24 a NC-DLBCL. GCB patients received 6 courses of rituximab, cyclophophosphamide, doxorubicin, vinicristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy, with a subsequent, autologous stem cell transplantation in case of partial response. All ABC and NC-DLBCL patients received 6 R-CHOP cycles and autologous stem cell transplantation. Complete response rate for each treatment arm was 84.6% for GCB and 89.7% for ABC&NC-DLBCL (P = .50), with a continuous complete response rate of 81.8% and 84.6%, respectively (P = .59). Projected 4-year overall survival is 100% for GCB and 82% for ABC&NC patients (P = .12). Progression-free survival is 77% and 79% (P = .7), respectively. The autologous stem cell transplantation consolidation in the ABC&NC-DLBCL subtypes induced the same rate of complete response (and similar progression-free survival rate) compared with GCB-DLBCL. In ABC&NC-DLBCL patients the authors observed a complete response rate of 89.7% vs. 84.6% in the GCB-DLBCL subset, without any significant difference in progression-free survival rate. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  18. Report on outcomes of hypomethylating therapy for analyzing prognostic value of Revised International Prognostic Scoring System for patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, In Hee; Ahn, Jae Sook; Kim, Hyeoung Joon; Chung, Joo Seop; Shin, Ho Jin; Lee, Won Sik; Lee, Sang Min; Joo, Young Don; Kim, Hawk; Lee, Ho Sup; Kim, Yang Soo; Cho, Yoon Young; Moon, Joon Ho; Sohn, Sang Kyun

    2016-10-01

    The outcomes for patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (LR-MDS) by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) vary widely. For more precise prognostication, this study evaluates the prognostic value of revised IPSS with the response to hypomethylating therapy (HMT). Using the Korean MDS Working Party database, treatment outcomes for 236 patients with HMT were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were then reclassified into very low/low (VL/L), intermediate (INT), and high (H) risk groups according to IPSS-R. According to the HMT response, the 3-year overall survival (OS) did not differ between the response group (37.9 ± 9.1 %) and the stable group (52.9 ± 6.6 %, p = 0. 782). When reclassifying according to IPSS-R, 42 patients (20.8 %) were reclassified into the H risk group. Most of them did not have benefit from continued HMT and progressed to secondary failure. The median OS was 59.0 months (range, 40.0-77.9 months) for the VL/L risk group, 31 months (range, 22.7-439.3 months) for the INT risk group, and 20.0 months (range, 15.9-24.1 months) for the H risk group (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with survival: age ≥ 65 (HR = 1.515, p = 0.023), ECOG ≥ 2 (HR = 2.968, p < 0.001), H risk group according to IPSS-R (HR = 3.054, p < 0.001), P/VP cytogenetic risk according to IPSS-R (HR = 4.912, p = 0.003), and transformation to AML (HR = 2.158, p = 0.002). If IPSS-R reclassifies LR-MDS patients as H risk, these patients should be considered for early allo-HCT, regardless of the current benefits from HMT.

  19. Prognostic and predictive implications of Sokal, Euro and EUTOS scores in chronic myeloid leukaemia in the imatinib era-experience from a tertiary oncology centre in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Kuntegowdanahalli, Lakshmaiah Chinnagiriyappa; Kanakasetty, Govind Babu; Thanky, Aditi Harsh; Dasappa, Lokanatha; Jacob, Linu Abraham; Mallekavu, Suresh Babu; Lakkavalli, Rajeev Krishnappa; Kadabur, Lokesh N; Haleshappa, Rudresha Antapura

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder. Over the years many prognostic models have been developed to better risk stratify this disease at baseline. Sokal, Euro, and EUTOS scores were developed in varied populations initially receiving various therapies. Here we try to identify their predictive and prognostic implication in a larger population of Indian patients with CML-CP (chronic phase) in the imatinib era.

  20. Validation of the prognostic Heidelberg re-irradiation score in an independent mono-institutional patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Re-irradiation has been shown to be a valid option with proven efficacy for recurrent high-grade glioma patients. Overall, up to now it is unclear which patients might be optimal candidates for a second course of irradiation. A recently reported prognostic score developed by Combs et al. may guide treatment decisions and thus, our mono-institutional cohort served as validation set to test its relevance for clinical practice. Patients and methods The prognostic score is built upon histology, age (< 50 vs. ≥ 50 years) and the time between initial radiotherapy and re-irradiation (≤ 12 vs. > 12 months). This score was initially introduced to distinguish patients with excellent (0 points), good (1 point), moderate (2 points) and poor (3–4 points) post-recurrence survival (PRS) after re-irradiation. Median prescribed radiation dose during re-treatment of recurrent malignant glioma was 36 Gy in 2 Gy single fractions. A substantial part of the patients was additionally treated with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously at d1 and d15 during re-irradiation). Results 88 patients (initially 61 WHO IV, 20 WHO III, 7 WHO II) re-irradiated in a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. Median follow-up was 30 months and median PRS of the entire patient cohort 7 months. Seventy-one patients (80.7%) received bevacizumab. PRS was significantly increased in patients receiving bevacizumab (8 vs. 6 months, p = 0.027, log-rank test). KPS, age, MGMT methylation status, sex, WHO grade and the Heidelberg score showed no statistically significant influence on neither PR-PFS nor PRS. Conclusion In our cohort which was mainly treated with bevacizumab the usefulness of the Heidelberg score could not be confirmed probably due to treatment heterogeneity; it can be speculated that larger multicentric data collections are needed to derive a more reliable score. PMID:24893775

  1. Ki-67 in endometrial cancer: scoring optimization and prognostic relevance for window studies

    PubMed Central

    Kitson, Sarah; Sivalingam, Vanitha N; Bolton, James; McVey, Rhona; Nickkho-Amiry, Mashid; Powell, Melanie E; Leary, Alexandra; Nijman, Hans W; Nout, Remi A; Bosse, Tjalling; Renehan, Andrew G; Kitchener, Henry C; Edmondson, Richard J; Crosbie, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    Ki-67, a marker of cellular proliferation, is increasingly being used in pre-surgical window studies in endometrial cancer as a primary outcome measure. Unlike in breast cancer, however, there are no guidelines standardizing its measurement and its clinical relevance as a response biomarker is undetermined. It is, therefore, imperative that Ki-67 scoring protocols are optimized and its association with patient survival rigorously evaluated, in order to be able to clinically interpret the results of these studies. Using the International Ki-67 in Breast Cancer Working Group guidelines as a basis, whole slide, hot spot and invasive edge scoring protocols were evaluated using endometrial biopsies and hysterectomy specimens from 179 women. Whole sections and tissue microarrays, manual and semi-automated scoring using Definiens Developer software were additionally compared. Ki-67 scores were related to clinicopathological variables and cancer-specific survival in uni- and multivariate analysis. Against criteria of time efficiency, intra- and inter-observer variability and consistency, semi-automated hot spot scoring was the preferred method. Ki-67 scores positively correlated with grade, stage and depth of myometrial invasion (P-values all <0.03). By univariate analysis, higher Ki-67 scores were associated with a significant reduction in cancer-specific survival (P≤0.05); however, this effect was substantially attenuated in the multivariate model. In conclusion, hot spot scoring of whole sections using Definiens is an optimal method to quantify Ki-67 in endometrial cancer window study specimens. Measured this way, it is a clinically relevant marker, though further work is required to determine whether reductions in Ki-67 in neoadjuvant intervention studies translate into improved patient outcome. PMID:27910946

  2. Ki-67 in endometrial cancer: scoring optimization and prognostic relevance for window studies.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Sarah; Sivalingam, Vanitha N; Bolton, James; McVey, Rhona; Nickkho-Amiry, Mashid; Powell, Melanie E; Leary, Alexandra; Nijman, Hans W; Nout, Remi A; Bosse, Tjalling; Renehan, Andrew G; Kitchener, Henry C; Edmondson, Richard J; Crosbie, Emma J

    2017-03-01

    Ki-67, a marker of cellular proliferation, is increasingly being used in pre-surgical window studies in endometrial cancer as a primary outcome measure. Unlike in breast cancer, however, there are no guidelines standardizing its measurement and its clinical relevance as a response biomarker is undetermined. It is, therefore, imperative that Ki-67 scoring protocols are optimized and its association with patient survival rigorously evaluated, in order to be able to clinically interpret the results of these studies. Using the International Ki-67 in Breast Cancer Working Group guidelines as a basis, whole slide, hot spot and invasive edge scoring protocols were evaluated using endometrial biopsies and hysterectomy specimens from 179 women. Whole sections and tissue microarrays, manual and semi-automated scoring using Definiens Developer software were additionally compared. Ki-67 scores were related to clinicopathological variables and cancer-specific survival in uni- and multivariate analysis. Against criteria of time efficiency, intra- and inter-observer variability and consistency, semi-automated hot spot scoring was the preferred method. Ki-67 scores positively correlated with grade, stage and depth of myometrial invasion (P-values all <0.03). By univariate analysis, higher Ki-67 scores were associated with a significant reduction in cancer-specific survival (P≤0.05); however, this effect was substantially attenuated in the multivariate model. In conclusion, hot spot scoring of whole sections using Definiens is an optimal method to quantify Ki-67 in endometrial cancer window study specimens. Measured this way, it is a clinically relevant marker, though further work is required to determine whether reductions in Ki-67 in neoadjuvant intervention studies translate into improved patient outcome.

  3. Overall Survival in Spine Myeloma Metastases: Difficulties in Predicting With Prognostic Scores.

    PubMed

    Amelot, Aymeric; Cristini, Joseph; Salaud, Céline; Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Moreau, Philippe; Bord, Eric; Buffenoir, Kevin

    2017-03-15

    Fifty-one patients with spinal multiple myeloma (MM) metastases were operated and followed between January 2004 and July 2014. The aim of this study was to consider the efficiency of surgical prognosis scores in the management of spinal metastases myelomas. The spine is the most common site of bone metastases in MM. Surgery in spine metastases MM is a matter of debate and its impact on the increase of a patient's survival time is not clear. Several surgical survival scores have been developed to determine the best treatment in these patients. We studied 51 patients operated for spinal MM metastases between January 2004 and July 2014. We determined the Tokuhashi and Tomita survival scores and compared them with documented patient survivals. The two scores were also compared with the International Staging System (ISS). Median survival (MS) was 108 months [standard deviation (SD) 62] for ISS I, 132.2 (SD 40) for ISS II, and 45.5 months (SD 16.3) for ISS III (P = 0.09). According to Tokuhashi survival score, 21 patients (41.2%) will survive <6 months, 6 (11.8%) 6 to 12 months, and 24 (47%) >12 months. According to Tomita et al., 50 patients (98%) will survive >49.9 months and 1 patient (2%) <15 months. Regardless of the ISS grade prognosis, Tokuhashi survival score, and to a lesser extent Tomita score, underestimated the actual survival very significantly [P < 0.0001, Log Rank (Mantel-Cox)]. We suggest that spine surgical prognosis scores are not accurate and are not able to predict the survival of patients with spine myeloma metastases. Spine surgeons have to be guided not by the initial ISS stage but rather by spinal instability and neurological status. N/A.

  4. Nailfold capillaroscopy for day-to-day clinical use: construction of a simple scoring modality as a clinical prognostic index for digital trophic lesions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vanessa; De Keyser, Filip; Pizzorni, Carmen; Van Praet, Jens T; Decuman, Saskia; Sulli, Alberto; Deschepper, Ellen; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Construction of a simple nailfold videocapillaroscopic (NVC) scoring modality as a prognostic index for digital trophic lesions for day-to-day clinical use. An association with a single simple (semi)-quantitatively scored NVC parameter, mean score of capillary loss, was explored in 71 consecutive patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and reliable reduction in the number of investigated fields (F32-F16-F8-F4). The cut-off value of the prognostic index (mean score of capillary loss calculated over a reduced number of fields) for present/future digital trophic lesions was selected by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. Reduction in the number of fields for mean score of capillary loss was reliable from F32 to F8 (intraclass correlation coefficient of F16/F32: 0.97; F8/F32: 0.90). Based on ROC analysis, a prognostic index (mean score of capillary loss as calculated over F8) with a cut-off value of 1.67 is proposed. This value has a sensitivity of 72.22/70.00, specificity of 70.59/69.77, positive likelihood ratio of 2.46/2.32 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.39/0.43 for present/future digital trophic lesions. A simple prognostic index for digital trophic lesions for daily use in SSc clinics is proposed, limited to the mean score of capillary loss as calculated over eight fields (8 fingers, 1 field per finger).

  5. The prognostic role of controlling nutritional status scores in patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ruo-Fei; Li, Jun-Hong; Li, Mao; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Yan-Hui

    2017-09-27

    We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between preoperative controlling nutritional status (CONUT) scores in various solid tumors and clinical outcomes. Relevant studies published up to August 12, 2017 were identified using electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. The pooled hazard ratios (HR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were calculated to explore the relationship between preoperative CONUT score and prognosis. In total, 674 patients with solid tumors from four published studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled HR for OS was 1.98 (95% CI, 1.34-2.91, p=0.001), indicating that patients with high CONUT scores had worse OS. The pooled HR for EFS was 1.98 (95% CI, 1.34-2.93, p=0.001), revealing that high CONUT scores were significantly associated with short EFS. Our data suggest that high preoperative CONUT scores indicate poor prognosis for patients with solid tumors. Further studies are needed to verify the significance of CONUT scores in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Prognostic index score and clinical prediction model of local regional recurrence after mastectomy in breast cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Skye Hongiun . E-mail: skye@mail.kfcc.org.tw; Horng, C.-F.; Clarke, Jennifer L.; Tsou, M.-H.; Tsai, Stella Y.; Chen, C.-M.; Jian, James J.; Liu, M.-C.; West, Mike; Huang, Andrew T.; Prosnitz, Leonard R.

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To develop clinical prediction models for local regional recurrence (Lr) of breast carcinoma after mastectomy that will be superior to the conventional measures of tumor size and nodal status. Methods and Materials: Clinical information from 1,010 invasive breast cancer patients who had primary modified radical mastectomy formed the database of the training and testing of clinical prognostic and prediction models of LRR. Cox proportional hazards analysis and Bayesian tree analysis were the core methodologies from which these models were built. To generate a prognostic index model, 15 clinical variables were examined for their impact on LRR. Patients were stratified by lymph node involvement (<4 vs. {>=}4) and local regional status (recurrent vs. control) and then, within strata, randomly split into training and test data sets of equal size. To establish prediction tree models, 255 patients were selected by the criteria of having had LRR (53 patients) or no evidence of LRR without postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) (202 patients). Results: With these models, patients can be divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups on the basis of axillary nodal status, estrogen receptor status, lymphovascular invasion, and age at diagnosis. In the low-risk group, there is no influence of PMRT on either LRR or survival. For intermediate-risk patients, PMRT improves LR control but not metastases-free or overall survival. For the high-risk patients, however, PMRT improves both LR control and metastasis-free and overall survival. Conclusion: The prognostic score and predictive index are useful methods to estimate the risk of LRR in breast cancer patients after mastectomy and for estimating the potential benefits of PMRT. These models provide additional information criteria for selection of patients for PMRT, compared with the traditional selection criteria of nodal status and tumor size.

  7. Prognostic value of quality of life score in disease-free survivors of surgically-treated lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Ho; Kim, Young Ae; Sim, Jin Ah; Shin, Ae Sun; Chang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Moon Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Zo, Jae Lll

    2016-07-20

    We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of quality of life (QOL) for predicting survival among disease-free survivors of surgically-treated lung cancer after the completion of cancer treatment. We administered the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Quality of Life Questionnaire Lung Cancer Module (QLQ-LC13), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) to 809 survivors who were surgically-treated for lung cancer at two hospitals from 2001 through 2006. We gathered mortality data by linkage to the National Statistical Office through December 2011. We used Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the relationship between QOL and survival. Analyses of QOL items adjusted for age, sex, stage, body mass index, and physical activity showed that scores for poor physical functioning, dyspnea, anorexia, diarrhea, cough, personal strength, anxiety, and depression were associated with poor survival. With adjustment for the independent indicators of survival, final multiple proportional hazard regression analyses of QOL show that physical functioning (aHR, 2.39; 95 % CI, 1.13-5.07), dyspnea (aHR, 1.56; 95 % CI, 1.01-2.40), personal strength (aHR, 2.36; 95 % CI, 1.31-4.27), and anxiety (aHR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.38-3.30) retained their independent prognostic power of survival. This study suggests that patient-reported QOL outcomes in disease-free survivors of surgically-treated lung cancer after the completion of active treatment has independent prognostic value for long-term survival.

  8. Can Procalcitonin Add to the Prognostic Power of the Severity Scoring System in Adults with Pneumonia?

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, HamidReza; Sarvghad, MohammadReza; Nooghabi, Mehdi Jabbari

    2015-01-01

    Background: The first decision confronting clinicians in the management of patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is whether the patient is to be hospitalized or not. We sought to validate the pneumonia scoring system and assess the power of procalcitonin (PCT) level to predict in-hospital mortality (IHM) and intensive vasopressor and respiratory support (IVRS) requirements in patients with CAP. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients with CAP were evaluated for severity of illness based on the defined scoring systems including pneumonia severity index (PSI), confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age>65 (CURB-65), confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age>65 (CRB-65), infectious diseases society of America/American thoracic society 2007 criteria (IDSA/ATS 2007) and systolic blood pressure, multilobar infiltrate, albumin, respiratory rate, tachycardia, confusion, low oxygen, low pH (SMART-COP). Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiographic data were collected prospectively. The accuracy of each scoring system in predicting IVRS requirement and IHM was assessed from the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Level of PCT was determined by semi-quantitative PCT-Q method (BRAHMS). The accuracy of the defined scoring systems, PCT levels and each scoring system plus PCT levels in prediction of IHM and IVRS requirement was analyzed. Results: The accuracy of PCT levels in predicting IHM and IVRS requirement based on AUC was 0.542 and 0.658, respectively and the best threshold was ≥ 2ng/mL for both of them. Adding the level of procalcitonin to different scoring systems (based on the defined scoring systems) improved the accuracy of all systems. Conclusion: We do not suggest using the PCT level alone as a predictor for mortality and IVRS requirement. Instead, we suggest PSI plus PCT and IDSA/ATS 2007 plus PCT as accurate predictors for IHM and SMART-COP plus PCT for IVRS requirement in patients who

  9. Additive prognostic value of the SYNTAX score over GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE, CADILLAC and PAMI risk scores in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Brkovic, Voin; Dobric, Milan; Beleslin, Branko; Giga, Vojislav; Vukcevic, Vladan; Stojkovic, Sinisa; Stankovic, Goran; Nedeljkovic, Milan A; Orlic, Dejan; Tomasevic, Miloje; Stepanovic, Jelena; Ostojic, Miodrag

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated additive prognostic value of the SYNTAX score over GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE, CADILLAC and PAMI risk scores in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). All six scores were calculated in 209 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing pPCI. Primary end-point was the major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE--composite of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke); secondary end point was cardiovascular mortality. Patients were stratified according to the SYNTAX score tertiles (≤12; between 12 and 19.5; >19.5). The median follow-up was 20 months. Rates of MACE and cardiovascular mortality were highest in the upper tertile of the SYNTAX score (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). SYNTAX score was independent multivariable predictor of MACE and cardiovascular mortality when added to GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE, and PAMI risk scores. However, the SYNTAX score did not improve the Cox regression models of MACE and cardiovascular mortality when added to the CADILLAC score. The SYNTAX score has predictive value for MACE and cardiovascular mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Furthermore, SYNTAX score improves prognostic performance of well-established GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE and PAMI clinical scores, but not the CADILLAC risk score. Therefore, long-term survival in patients after STEMI depends less on detailed angiographical characterization of coronary lesions, but more on clinical characteristics, myocardial function and basic angiographic findings as provided by the CADILLAC score.

  10. A PROGNOSTIC SCORE FOR ACUTE GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE BASED ON BIOMARKERS: A MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Levine, John E.; Braun, Thomas M.; Harris, Andrew C.; Holler, Ernst; Taylor, Austin; Miller, Holly; Magenau, John; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Ho, Vincent T.; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Alousi, Amin M.; Ferrara, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of non-relapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT). The severity of symptoms at the onset of GVHD does not accurately define risk, and thus most patients are treated alike with high dose systemic corticosteroids. We aimed to define clinically meaningful risk strata for patients with newly diagnosed acute GVHD using plasma biomarkers. Methods We prospectively collected plasma from 492 HCT patients with newly diagnosed acute GVHD and randomly divided them into training (n=328) and test (n=164) sets. We used the concentrations of three recently validated biomarkers (TNFR1, ST2, and REG3α) to create an algorithm that computed the probability of NRM six months after GVHD onset for individual patients in the training set alone. We rank ordered the probabilities and identified thresholds that created three distinct NRM scores. We evaluated the algorithm in the testset, and again in an independent validation set of 300 additional HCT patients enrolled on multicenter clinical trials of primary therapy for acute GVHD. Findings In all three datasets, the cumulative incidence of twelve month NRM significantly increased as the GVHD score increased (8% [95% confidence interval (CI); 3%, 16%], 27% [95% CI; 20%%, 34%], and 46% [95% CI; 33%, 58%], for scores 1, 2 and 3 respectively in the multicenter validation set, p<0 · 0001). Conversely, the response rates to primary GVHD treatment decreased as the GVHD score increased (86%, 67%, and 46%, for scores 1, 2 and 3 respectively in the multicenter validation set, p<0 · 0001). Interpretation Biomarker-based scores can be used to guide risk-adapted therapy at the onset of acute GVHD. PMID:26687425

  11. Reliability of a spinal metastasis prognostic score to model 1-year survival.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy A; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Sankey, Eric W; Harris, Mitchel B; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-09-01

    Predicting survival after surgery for patients with metastatic spine disease can be challenging, with multiple variables that can influence a patient's overall survival. Predictive models have been developed to assist clinicians in providing a prognosis for patients. Recently, Ghori et al. reported a composite model taking into account a modified Bauer score, preoperative albumin, and ambulatory status of patients with spinal metastasis. Using an independent cohort, we sought to assess the reliability and validity of this composite model to predict 1-year survival in patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer to the spine. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Ghori et al. composite model to predict 1-year survival in patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer to the spine, using an independent cohort. A retrospective study was carried out. The sample comprised 161 patients with spinal metastasis undergoing surgery. Patients' modified Bauer score, preoperative albumin, and ambulatory status were assessed. This study used a retrospective analysis of 161 patients with spinal metastasis who underwent surgical management from 2007 to 2013. The ability of this composite model to predict 1-year survival was compared with actual patient survival using multivariable logistic regression to control for confounders, as well as post-regression diagnostics. Our analysis revealed significantly lower 1-year mortality among patients with higher composite scores as compared with those with lower scores. Strong associations between scores and survival were appreciated in unadjusted analysis. The final model was able to account for 80% of the variation in the 1-year survival, and there was no evidence of lack of fit. This study demonstrates, in an independent cohort of spinal metastases patients, that a composite model taking into account the ambulatory status, serum albumin, and modified Bauer score is able to better predict postoperative survival. These

  12. Margin Status is Still an Important Prognostic Factor in Hepatectomies for Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    PubMed

    Memeo, Riccardo; de Blasi, Vito; Adam, Rene; Goéré, Diane; Piardi, Tullio; Lermite, Emilie; Turrini, Olivier; Navarro, Francis; de'Angelis, Nicola; Cunha, Antonio Sa; Pessaux, Patrick

    2017-09-19

    The width of resection margin is still a matter of debate in case of colorectal liver metastasis resection. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for R1 resection. Once risk factors had been identified, patients were matched according to Fong's prognostic criteria, in order to evaluate whether R1 resection still remained a negative prognostic factor impacting overall and disease-free survival. A total of 1784 hepatectomies were analyzed from a multicentric retrospective cohort of hepatectomies. Patients were compared before and after a 1:1 propensity score analysis in order to compare R0 versus R1 resections according to Fong criteria. Primary tumor nodes found positive after colorectal resection (RR = 1.20, p = 0.02), operative time (> 240 min) (RR = 1.26, p = 0.05), synchronous liver metastasis (RR = 1.27, p = 0.02), pedicle clamping (> 40 min) (RR = 1.52, p = 0.001), lesion size larger than 50 mm (RR = 1.54, p = 0.001), rehepatectomy (RR = 1.68, p = 0.001), more than 3 lesions (RR = 1.69, p = 0.0001), and bilateral lesions (RR = 1.74, p = 0.0001) were identified as risk factors in multivariate analysis. After a 1:1 PSM according to Fong criteria, R1 resection still remained a negative prognostic factor impacting overall and disease-free survival, with 1-, 3-, 5-year OS at 94, 81, and 70% in R0 and 92, 75, and 58% in R1, respectively, (p = 0.008), and disease-free survival (DFS) with 1-, 3-, 5-year survival at 64, 41, and 28% in R0 versus 51, 28, and 18% in R1 (p = 0.0002), respectively. Even after using PSM as an oncological prognostic criterion, R1 resection still impacts overall and disease-free survival negatively.

  13. Predictive Significance of a New Prognostic Score for Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Interim-Positron Emission Tomography Findings.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yu; Qu, Lili; Li, Yuekai; Liu, Dai; Lv, Xuemin; Han, Jiankui

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that the objective treatment response of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was affected by many factors such as pathophysiological, biological, and pharmaceutical mechanisms. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the predictive significance of clinical prognostic factors and interim fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), and to find a new prognostic predictor significantly associated with DLBCL patients' outcome. A total of 105 adult patients with DLBCL were reviewed. Each patient underwent an interim F-FDG PET/CT scan after the second chemotherapy cycle. The visual method based on the Deauville 5-point scale was used to evaluate the interim-PET/CT scans. The relationships among the prognostic factors, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier plots. The predictive value of the newly constructed prognostic score was analyzed with multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazard regression model). The visual analysis showed statistically significant differences in both PFS and OS between the patients with a negative interim-PET/CT and those with a positive interim-PET/CT. Advanced age, advanced stage, and DLBCL subtype were also significantly associated with outcome. A new prognostic score that composed of the above 4 factors was obtained. New prognostic score stratified patients into 4 risk groups with 3-year PFS of 98.5%, 73.9%, 11.1%, and 0%, and 3-year OS of 100%, 91.3%, 55.6%, and 0% (P < 0.001 for PFS and OS). Multivariate analysis showed that the new prognostic score had the greatest ability to predict relapse (P < 0.001) and death (P < 0.001). In DLBCL patients, interim F-FDG PET/CT can provide significant independent prognostic information. Our work illustrates that the new prognostic score has the strongest potential for accurately prognostication, for stratification in clinical

  14. Diagnostic and prognostic scoring system for prostate cancer using urine and plasma biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wanlong; Diep, Kevin; Fritsche, Herbert A; Shore, Neal; Albitar, Maher

    2014-03-01

    To avoid relying solely on serum prostate-specific antigen (sPSA) in screening for prostate cancer (PCa), we developed a scoring system for detecting PCa and the prediction of aggressiveness. We analyzed urine and plasma specimens from 121 patients with PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for the levels of UAP1, PDLIM5, IMPDH2, HSPD1, PCA3, PSA, TMPRSS2, ERG, GAPDH, and B2M genes. Patient age, sPSA level, and polymerase chain reaction data were entered through multiple algorithms to determine models most useful for the detection of cancer and predicting aggressiveness. In the first algorithm, we distinguished PCa from BPH (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] of 0.78). Another algorithm distinguished patients with the Gleason score (GS) of ≥7 from GS of <7 cancer or BPH (AUROC of 0.88). By incorporating the two algorithms into a scoring system, 75% of the analyzed samples showed concordance between the two models (99% specificity and 68% sensitivity for predicting GS ≥7 in this group). A scoring system incorporating two algorithms using urine and plasma biomarkers highly predicts the presence of GS ≥7 PCa in 75% of patients. Our algorithms may assist with both biopsy indication and patient prognosis.

  15. Preeclampsia in kidney transplanted women; Outcomes and a simple prognostic risk score system

    PubMed Central

    Reisæter, Anna Varberg; Zucknick, Manuela; Lorentzen, Bjørg; Vangen, Siri; Henriksen, Tore; Michelsen, Trond Melbye

    2017-01-01

    Women pregnant following kidney transplantation are at high risk of preeclampsia. Identifying the effects of preeclampsia on pregnancy outcome and allograft function in kidney transplanted women, and predicting which women will require more targeted follow-up and possible therapeutic intervention, could improve both maternal and neonatal outcome. In this retrospective cohort study of all pregnancies following kidney transplantation in Norway between 1969 and 2013, we used medical records to identify clinical characteristics predictive of preeclampsia. 175 pregnancies were included, in which preeclampsia was diagnosed in 65. Pregnancies with preeclampsia had significantly higher postpartum serum creatinine levels, higher risks of preterm delivery, caesarean delivery, and small for gestational age infants. In the final multivariate model chronic hypertension (aOR = 5.02 [95% CI, 2.47–10.18]), previous preeclampsia (aOR = 3.26 [95% CI, 1.43–7.43]), and elevated serum creatinine (≥125 μmol/L) at the start of pregnancy (aOR = 5.79 [95% CI, 1.91–17.59]) were prognostic factors for preeclampsia. Based on this model the risk was 19% when none of these factors were present, 45–59% risk when one was present, 80–87% risk when two were present, and 96% risk when all three were present. We suggest that the risk of preeclampsia in pregnancies in kidney transplanted women can be predicted with these variables, which are easily available at the start of pregnancy. PMID:28319175

  16. Prognostic Utility of Calcium Scoring as an Adjunct to Stress Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Moody, William E; Lin, Erica L S; Stoodley, Matthew; McNulty, David; Thomson, Louise E; Berman, Daniel S; Edwards, Nicola C; Holloway, Benjamin; Ferro, Charles J; Townend, Jonathan N; Steeds, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a strong predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in the general population. Recent data confirm the prognostic utility of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging in end-stage renal disease, but whether performing CACS as part of hybrid imaging improves risk prediction in this population is unclear. Consecutive patients (n = 284) were identified after referral to a university hospital for cardiovascular risk stratification in assessment for renal transplantation. Participants underwent technetium-99m SPECT imaging after exercise or standard adenosine stress in those unable to achieve 85% maximal heart rate; multislice CACS was also performed (Siemens Symbia T16, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Subjects with known coronary artery disease (n = 88) and those who underwent early revascularization (n = 2) were excluded. The primary outcome was a composite of death or first myocardial infarction. An abnormal SPECT perfusion result was seen in 22% (43 of 194) of subjects, whereas 45% (87 of 194) had at least moderate CACS (>100 U). The frequency of abnormal perfusion (summed stress score ≥4) increased with increasing CACS severity (p = 0.049). There were a total of 15 events (8 deaths, and 7 myocardial infarctions) after a median duration of 18 months (maximum follow-up 3.4 years). Univariate analysis showed diabetes mellitus (Hazard ratio [HR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 9.54; p = 0.028), abnormal perfusion on SPECT (HR 5.32, 95% CI 1.84 to 15.35; p = 0.002), and moderate-to-severe CACS (HR 3.55, 95% CI 1.11 to 11.35; p = 0.032) were all associated with the primary outcome. In a multivariate model, abnormal perfusion on SPECT (HR 4.18, 95% CI 1.43 to 12.27; p = 0.009), but not moderate-to-severe CACS (HR 2.50, 95% CI 0.76 to 8.20; p = 0.130), independently predicted all-cause death or myocardial infarction. The prognostic value of CACS was not incremental to clinical and SPECT perfusion data (global chi-square change

  17. The prognostic ability of early Braden Q Scores in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Tume, Lyvonne N; Siner, Sarah; Scott, Elaine; Lane, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Pressure ulcer (PU) risk assessment tools are an important component of good nursing care; however, it is essential that these tools offer a good sensitivity and specificity, in addition to clinical utility in the population being assessed. The aim of this study was to examine how the lowest Braden Q score recorded in the first 24 h of paediatric intensive care unit admission related to the risk of PU development in an English PICU (paediatric intensive care unit). A retrospective cohort study was undertaken over 12 months in a single PICU in the North West of England. 891 critically ill children with a Braden Q score were evaluated. The lowest Braden Q score within the first 24 h of PICU admission was matched to reported PU development and grade. The Braden Q score was found to perform well in children aged 3 weeks to 8 years without congenital heart disease (CHD), which is the population it was validated on. At a cut off score of ≤16 it yielded a sensitivity of 100% specificity of 73.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) 2.56 and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87(0.75-0.98). When used in other age groups and when it included children with CHD, it performed less well with lower AUC and wider confidence intervals, but it performed moderately well in the group of term to 14 years with a sensitivity of 75% specificity of 72.6%, PPV 1.5 and a NPV of 99.8 and AUC of 0.74 (0.49-0.98). Our results in a heterogeneous UK PICU population found the Braden Q score performed well in the specific population it was validated for (PICU children aged 3 weeks to 8 years without CHD), however, it performed moderately well in the more heterogonous PICU population of term to 14 years including children with CHD. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  18. Prognostic value of NT-proBNP and an adapted monin score in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Farré, Núria; Gómez, Miquel; Molina, Luis; Cladellas, Mercedes; Blé, Mireia; Roqueta, Cristina; Ascoeta, Maria Soledad; Comin-Colet, Josep; Vila, Joan; Bruguera, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the prognostic value of NT-proBNP in patients with asymptomatic moderate/severe aortic stenosis and to validate an adapted Monin score using natriuretic peptide levels in our setting. Prospective study of 237 patients with degenerative asymptomatic moderate/severe aortic stenosis. NT-proBNP was determined in all patients, who were then followed up clinically. The adapted Monin score was defined as follows: (peak velocity [m/s]×2)+(logn NT-proBNP×1.5)(+1.5 if woman). A clinical event was defined as surgery, hospital admission due to angina, heart failure or syncope, or death. A total of 51% were women, and the mean age was 74 years. Mean (SD) echocardiographic values were as follows: peak velocity 4.14 (0.87) m/s; mean gradient, 43.2 (16.0) mmHg; aortic valve area, 0.87 (0.72) cm(2), and aortic valve area index, 0.49 (0.14) cm(2)/m(2). The median NT-pro-BNP value was 490.0 [198.0-1312.0] pg/mL. There were 153 events during follow-up (median 18 months). The optimum NT-proBNP cut-point was 515 pg/mL, giving event-free survival rates at 1 and 2 years of 93% and 57%, respectively, in patients with NT-proBNP <515 pg/mL compared with 50% and 31% in those with NT-proBNP >515 pg/mL. Patients were divided into quartiles based on the Monin score. Event-free survival at 1 and 2 years was 87% and 79% in the first quartile, compared with 45% and 28% in the fourth quartile, respectively. NT-proBNP determination provides prognostic information in patients with asymptomatic moderate/severe aortic stenosis. The adapted Monin score is useful in our setting and allows a more precise prognosis than does the use of NT-proBNP alone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Promoting breast screening in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L; Dobson, H; McGuire, F

    2000-03-01

    To establish whether there is a role for advertising in the promotion of the Breast Screening Programme and what the role of advertising might be. Four hundred and sixty questionnaires were completed by women attending their breast screening appointment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the static unit at Calder Street and the mobile unit in Govan. The advertising (budget 30,000 Pounds) campaign ran over an eight week period in the Govan, Paisley Road West and Cardonald areas of Glasgow. Media used included press advertising, The Glasgow Underground, adshells, bus advertising (interiors) and poster distribution via local outlets. Forty-two per cent of the sample were aware of the campaign. Ninety-seven per cent liked the campaign images. Eighty eight per cent felt that breast screening should be advertised more. Screening uptake increased in the areas covered by the advertising campaign. Govan -58%-71% and Ibrox (Paisley Road West and Cardonald) -59%-61%. Women were very supportive of the role of advertising for the Breast Screening Programme. In particular they found the campaign images and messages reassuring, supportive and credible. Their views suggest that the role of advertising should be: To raise awareness of the service To make women more conscious of the benefits of screening To change public perceptions of the screening process However, it is recognised that a fully integrated approach is required for the promotion of the service to account for the improvement in uptake, as advertising cannot be expected to work in isolation.

  20. Low Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) Predicts Unfavorable Distant Metastasis-Free Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shaodong; Chen, Haiyang; Liang, Shaobo; Peng, Peijian; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional status is associated with progression and advanced disease in patients with cancer. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may represent a simple method of assessing host immunonutritional status. This study was designed to investigate the prognostic value of the PNI for distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods A training cohort of 1,168 patients with non-metastatic NPC from two institutions was retrospectively analyzed. The optimal PNI cutoff value for DMFS was identified using the online tool “Cutoff Finder”. DMFS was analyzed using stratified and adjusted analysis. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed to balance baseline characteristics between the high and low PNI groups. Subsequently, the prognostic value of the PNI for DMFS was validated in an external validation cohort of 756 patients with NPC. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated to compare the discriminatory ability of different prognostic scores. Results The optimal PNI cutoff value was determined to be 51. Low PNI was significantly associated with poorer DMFS than high PNI in univariate analysis (P<0.001) as well as multivariate analysis (P<0.001) before propensity score matching. In subgroup analyses, PNI could also stratify different risks of distant metastases. Propensity score-matched analyses confirmed the prognostic value of PNI, excluding other interpretations and selection bias. In the external validation cohort, patients with high PNI also had significantly lower risk of distant metastases than those with low PNI (Hazards Ratios, 0.487; P<0.001). The PNI consistently showed a higher AUC value at 1-year (0.780), 3-year (0.793) and 5-year (0.812) in comparison with other prognostic scores. Conclusion PNI, an inexpensive and easily assessable inflammatory index, could aid clinicians in developing individualized treatment and follow-up strategies for patients

  1. A prognostic score to identify low-risk outpatients with acute deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Lozano, Francisco; Lorente, Manuel Alejandro; Adarraga, Dolores; Hirmerova, Jana; Del Toro, Jorge; Mazzolai, Lucia; Barillari, Giovanni; Barrón, Manuel; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    No prior studies have identified which patients with deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs are at a low risk for adverse events within the first week of therapy. We used data from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) to identify patients at low risk for the composite outcome of pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, or death within the first week. We built a prognostic score and compared it with the decision to treat patients at home. As of December 2013, 15,280 outpatients with deep vein thrombosis had been enrolled. Overall, 5164 patients (34%) were treated at home. Of these, 12 (0.23%) had pulmonary embolism, 8 (0.15%) bled, and 4 (0.08%) died. On multivariable analysis, chronic heart failure, recent immobility, recent bleeding, cancer, renal insufficiency, and abnormal platelet count independently predicted the risk for the composite outcome. Among 11,430 patients (75%) considered to be at low risk, 15 (0.13%) suffered pulmonary embolism, 22 (0.19%) bled, and 8 (0.07%) died. The C-statistic was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.65) for the decision to treat patients at home and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72-0.79) for the score (P = .003). Net reclassification improvement was 41% (P < .001). Integrated discrimination improvement was 0.034 for the score and 0.015 for the clinical decision (P < .001). Using 6 easily available variables, we identified outpatients with deep vein thrombosis at low risk for adverse events within the first week. These data may help to safely treat more patients at home. This score, however, should be validated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain Metastases From Breast Carcinoma: Validation of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification and Proposition of a New Prognostic Score

    SciTech Connect

    Le Scodan, Romuald Massard, Christophe; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Guinebretierre, Jean Marc; Cohen-Solal, Christine; De Lalande, Brigitte; Moisson, Patricia; Breton-Callu, Christelle; Gardner, Miriam; Goupil, Alain; Renody, Nicole; Floiras, Jean Louis; Labib, Alain

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To validate the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RTOG RPA) classification and determine independent prognostic factors, to create a simple and specific prognostic score for patients with brain metastases (BM) from breast carcinoma treated with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: From January 1998 through December 2003, 132 patients with BM from breast carcinoma were treated with WBRT. We analyzed several potential predictors of survival after WBRT: age, Karnofsky performance status, RTOG-RPA class, number of BM, presence and site of other systemic metastases, interval between primary tumor and BM, tumor hormone receptor (HR) status, lymphocyte count, and HER-2 overexpression. Results: A total of 117 patients received exclusive WBRT and were analyzed. Median survival with BM was 5 months. One-year and 2-year survival rates were 27.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.9-36.8%) and 12% (95% CI 6.5-21.2%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, RTOG RPA Class III, lymphopenia ({<=}0.7 x 10{sup 9}/L) and HR negative status were independent prognostic factors for poor survival. We constructed a three-factor prognostic scoring system that predicts 6-month and 1-year rates of overall survival in the range of 76.1-29.5% (p = 0.00033) and 60.9-15.9% (p = 0.0011), respectively, with median survival of 15 months, 5 months, or 3 months for patients with none, one, or more than one adverse prognostic factor(s), respectively. Conclusions: This study confirms the prognostic value of the RTOG RPA classification, lymphopenia, and tumor HR status, which can be used to form a prognostic score for patients with BM from breast carcinoma.

  3. Coronary artery calcium scoring does not add prognostic value to standard 64-section CT angiography protocol in low-risk patients suspected of having coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung Woo; Kim, Young Jin; Shim, Jaemin; Sung, Ji Min; Han, Mi Eun; Kang, Dong Won; Kim, Ji-Ye; Choi, Byoung Wook; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the prognostic outcome of cardiac computed tomography (CT) for prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in low-risk patients suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD) and to explore the differential prognostic values of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and coronary CT angiography. Institutional review committee approval and informed consent were obtained. In 4338 patients who underwent 64-section CT for evaluation of suspected CAD, both CAC scoring and CT angiography were concurrently performed by using standard scanning protocols. Follow-up clinical outcome data regarding composite MACEs were procured. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed to predict MACEs. Risk-adjusted models incorporated traditional risk factors for CAC scoring and coronary CT angiography. During the mean follow-up of 828 days ± 380, there were 105 MACEs, for an event rate of 3%. The presence of obstructive CAD at coronary CT angiography had independent prognostic value, which escalated according to the number of stenosed vessels (P < .001). In the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, the superiority of coronary CT angiography to CAC scoring was demonstrated by a significantly greater area under the ROC curve (AUC) (0.892 vs 0.810, P < .001), whereas no significant incremental value for the addition of CAC scoring to coronary CT angiography was established (AUC = 0.892 for coronary CT angiography alone vs 0.902 with addition of CAC scoring, P = .198). Coronary CT angiography is better than CAC scoring in predicting MACEs in low-risk patients suspected of having CAD. Furthermore, the current standard multisection CT protocol (coronary CT angiography combined with CAC scoring) has no incremental prognostic value compared with coronary CT angiography alone. Therefore, in terms of determining prognosis, CAC scoring may no longer need to be incorporated in the cardiac CT protocol in this population. © RSNA, 2011.

  4. Prognostic value of Angiographic Perfusion Score (APS) following percutaneous interventions in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Narain, V S; Fischer, L; Puri, A; Sethi, R; Dwivedi, S K

    2013-01-01

    Identifying reperfusion and predicting post procedure risk is important following Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCI). An Angiographic Perfusion Score (APS) combining TIMI flow (TFG) and myocardial perfusion (TMPG) grades before and after PCI can accurately measure both epicardial and myocardial perfusion and predict Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE). APS was calculated in 226 (88 ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and 138 Non STEMI) patients. Maximum score being 12, reperfusion was defined as failed: 0-3, partial: 4-9, and full APS: 10-12. Thirty day MACE were observed. APS identified reperfusion significantly more than TMPG alone (STEMI: 50.6% vs 11.8% (p < 0.001); Non STEMI, early reperfusion: 69.4% vs 52.8% (p < 0.01) and Non STEMI late reperfusion: 38.2% vs 7.8%; (p ≤ 0.001) respectively. A significantly lower incidence of MACE was observed in the full as compared to the failed APS group (1.8% vs 22.5%) (p < 0.001). No differences were noted between TMPG 0-2 (9.8%, 9.4%, 7.3%, respectively) (p = NS). Compared to MPG alone APS detects more low risk reperfused patients, post PCI. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Prognostic Value of Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Determination of Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Maryam; Nouri, Shadi; Nourozi, Ali; Golbidi, Danial

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background There are controversies regarding the usefulness of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) for predicting coronary artery stenosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of CACS for determining the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with sign and symptoms of the disease. Material/Methods In this cross-sectional study, 748 consecutive patients with suspected CAD, referred for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), were enrolled. The mean CACS was compared between patients with different severities of coronary artery stenosis. The association between CACS and different CAD risk factors was determined as well. Different cutoff points of CACS for discriminating between different levels of coronary artery stenosis was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The mean CACS was significantly different between different levels of coronary artery stenosis (P<0.001) and there was a significant positive association between the severity of CAD and CACS (P<0.001,r=0.781). ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal cutoff point for discriminating between CAD (presence of stenosis) and the non-stenosis condition was 5.35 with 88.6% sensitivity and 86.2% specificity. Area under the curve for different levels of coronary artery stenosis did not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between different levels of CAD severity (<70%). Conclusions The study demonstrated that there is a significant association between CACS and the presence as well as the severity of CAD. CACS could have an appropriate prognostic value for the determination of coronary artery stenosis but not for discriminating between different severities of stenoses.

  6. NAFLD fibrosis score: A prognostic predictor for mortality and liver complications among NAFLD patients

    PubMed Central

    Treeprasertsuk, Sombat; Björnsson, Einar; Enders, Felicity; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Lindor, Keith D

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study whether the severity of liver fibrosis estimated by the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score can predict all-cause mortality, cardiac complications, and/or liver complications of patients with NAFLD over long-term follow-up. METHODS: A cohort of well-characterized patients with NAFLD diagnosed during the period of 1980-2000 was identified through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. The NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) was used to separate NAFLD patients with and without advanced liver fibrosis. We used the NFS score to classify the probability of fibrosis as < -1.5 for low probability, > -1.5 to < 0.67 for intermediate probability, and > 0.67 for high probability. Primary endpoints included all-cause death and cardiovascular- and/or liver-related mortality. From the 479 patients with NAFLD assessed, 302 patients (63%) greater than 18 years old were included. All patients were followed, and medical charts were reviewed until August 31, 2009 or the date when the first primary endpoint occurred. By using a standardized case record form, we recorded a detailed history and physical examination and the use of statins and metformin during the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 302/479 (63%) NAFLD patients (mean age: 47 ± 13 year) were included with a follow-up period of 12.0 ± 3.9 year. A low probability of advanced fibrosis (NFS < -1.5 at baseline) was found in 181 patients (60%), while an intermediate or high probability of advanced fibrosis (NSF > -1.5) was found in 121 patients (40%). At the end of the follow-up period, 55 patients (18%) developed primary endpoints. A total of 39 patients (13%) died during the follow-up. The leading causes of death were non-hepatic malignancy (n = 13/39; 33.3%), coronary heart disease (CHD) (n = 8/39; 20.5%), and liver-related mortality (n = 5/39; 12.8%). Thirty patients had new-onset CHD, whereas 8 of 30 patients (27%) died from CHD-related causes during the follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, a

  7. Flow cytometric maturity score as a novel prognostic parameter in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tanja; Flörcken, Anne; Singh, Anju; Türkmen, Seval; Burmeister, Thomas; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Pezzutto, Antonio; Dörken, Bernd; Westermann, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    The European LeukemiaNet (ELN) classification is widely accepted for risk stratification of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In order to establish immunophenotypic features that predict prognosis, the expression of single AML blast cell antigens has been evaluated with partly conflicting results; however, the influence of immunophenotypic blast maturity is largely unknown. In our study, 300 AML patients diagnosed at our institution between January 2003 and April 2012 were analyzed. A flow cytometric maturity score was developed in order to distinguish "mature" AML (AML-ma) from "immature" AML (AML-im) by quantitative expression levels of early progenitor cell antigens (CD34, CD117, and TdT). AML-ma showed significantly longer relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than AML-im (p < 0.001). Interestingly, statistically significant differences in RFS and OS were maintained within the "intermediate-risk" group according to ELN (RFS, 7.0 years (AML-ma) vs. 3.3 years (AML-im); p = 0.002; OS, 5.1 years (AML-ma) vs. 3.0 years (AML-im); p = 0.022). Our novel flow cytometric score easily determines AML blast maturity and can predict clinical outcome. It remains to be clarified whether these results simply reflect an accumulation of favorable molecular phenotypes in the AML-ma subgroup or whether they rely on biological differences such as a higher proportion of leukemia stem cells and/or a higher degree of genetic instability within the AML-im subgroup.

  8. A prognostic cytogenetic scoring system to guide the adjuvant management of patients with atypical meningioma.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Ayal A; Abedalthagafi, Malak; Bi, Wenya Linda; Horvath, Margaret C; Arvold, Nils D; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Lee, Eudocia Q; Nayak, Lakshmi; Rinne, Mikael L; Norden, Andrew D; Reardon, David A; Wen, Patrick Y; Ligon, Keith L; Ligon, Azra H; Beroukhim, Rameen; Dunn, Ian F; Santagata, Sandro; Alexander, Brian M

    2016-02-01

    The appropriate use of adjuvant therapy in patients with gross totally resected atypical meningioma requires an accurate assessment of recurrence risk. We sought to determine whether cytogenetic/genetic characterization may facilitate better estimation of the probability of recurrence. We first analyzed our clinical database, including high-resolution DNA copy number data, to identify 11 common copy number aberrations in a pilot cohort of meningiomas of all grades. We summed these aberrations to devise a cytogenetic abnormality score (CAS) and determined the CAS from archived tissue of a separate cohort of 32 patients with gross totally resected atypical meningioma managed with surgery alone. Propensity score adjusted Cox regression was used to determine whether the CAS was predictive of recurrence. An association between higher CAS and higher grade was noted in our pilot cohort with heterogeneity among atypical tumors. Among the 32 patients who underwent gross total resection of an atypical meningioma, the CAS was not significantly associated with age, gender, performance status, or tumor size/location but was associated with the risk of recurrence on univariable analysis (hazard ratio per aberration = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.08-2.14; P = .02). After adjustment, the impact of the dichotomized number of copy aberrations remained significantly associated with recurrence risk (hazard ratio = 4.47; 95% CI = 1.01-19.87; P = .05). The number of copy number aberrations is strongly associated with recurrence risk in patients with atypical meningioma following gross total resection and may inform the appropriate use of adjuvant radiation therapy in these patients or be useful for stratification in clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prognostic markers in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gomatos, Ilias P; Xiaodong, Xu; Ghaneh, Paula; Halloran, Christopher; Raraty, Michael; Lane, Brian; Sutton, Robert; Neoptolemos, John P

    2014-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a mortality rate of 5-10%. Early deaths are mainly due to multiorgan failure and late deaths are due to septic complications from pancreatic necrosis. The recently described 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification and the Determinant Classification both provide a more accurate description of edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis and local complications. The 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification uses the modified Marshall scoring system for assessing organ dysfunction. The Determinant Classification uses the sepsis-related organ failure assessment scoring system for organ dysfunction and, unlike the 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification, includes infected necrosis as a criterion of severity. These scoring systems are used to assess systemic complications requiring intensive therapy unit support and intra-abdominal complications requiring minimally invasive interventions. Numerous prognostic systems and markers have been evaluated but only the Glasgow system and serum CRP levels provide pragmatic prognostic accuracy early on. Novel concepts using genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic profiling and also functional imaging for the identification of specific disease patterns are now required.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Patients With Gleason Score 8-10 Prostate Cancer Treated With Primary Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hayek, Sylvia; Amin, Mitual; Ye Hong; Kestin, Larry L.; Zadora, Steven; Vicini, Frank A.; Cotant, Matthew; Brabbins, Donald S.; Ghilezan, Michel I.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the prognostic significance of neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer treated with primary radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Chromogranin A (CgA) staining was performed and overseen by a single pathologist on core biopsies from 176 patients from the William Beaumont prostate cancer database. A total of 143 had evaluable biopsy material. Staining was quantified as 0%, <1%, 1-10%, or >10% of tumor cells. Patients received external beam RT alone or together with high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier estimates determined if the presence/frequency of neuroendocrine cells correlated with clinical endpoints. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Forty patients (28%) had at least focal positive CgA staining (<1% n = 21, 1-10% n = 11, >10% n = 8). No significant differences existed between patients with or without staining in terms of age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, tumor stage, hormone therapy administration, % biopsy core involvement, mean Gleason score, or RT dose/modality. CgA staining concentration independently predicted for biochemical and clinical failure, distant metastases (DM), and cause-specific survival (CSS). For patients with <1% vs. >1% staining, 10-year DM rates were 13.4% vs. 55.3%, respectively (p = 0.001), and CSS was 91.7% vs. 58.9% (p < 0.001). As a continuous variable, increasing CgA staining concentration predicted for inferior rates of DM, CSS, biochemical control, and any clinical failure. No differences in outcomes were appreciated for patients with 0% vs. <1% NED. Conclusions: For Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer, >1% NED is associated with inferior clinical outcomes for patients treated with radiotherapy. This relates most directly to an increase in distant disease failure.

  11. A novel scoring system for prognostic prediction in d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bo; Wu, Sheng Ming; Lv, Sa; Liu, Feng; Chen, Hong Song; Gao, Yan; Dong, Fang Ting; Wei, Lai

    2009-12-30

    It is frequently important to identify the prognosis of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) patients as this will influence patient management and candidacy for liver transplantation. Therefore, a novel scoring system based on metabonomics combining with multivariate logistic regression was developed to predict the prognosis of FHF mouse model. BALB/c mice were used to construct FHF model. Parts of plasma were collected at 4, 5, and 6-h time points after treatment, respectively, and detected using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS). The acquired data were processed using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The metabolic markers identified were used to construct a scoring system by multivariate regression analysis. 28 mice of survival group and 28 of dead group were randomly selected and analyzed. PLS regression analysis showed that both the PLS models of 5 h and 6 h after d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide treatment demonstrated good performances. Loadings plot suggested that phosphate, beta-hydroxybutyrate (HB), urea, glucose and lactate concentrations in plasma had the highest weightings on the clustering differences at the three time points. By the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the death/survival index (DSI) was constructed based on relative concentrations of HB, urea and phosphate. It provided general accurate rate of prediction of 93.3% in the independent samples. The novel scoring system based on metabonomics combining with multivariate logistic regression is accurate in predicting the prognosis of FHF mouse model and may be referred in clinical practice as a more useful prognostic tool with other available information.

  12. Design and Validation of the GI-NEC Score to Prognosticate Overall Survival in Patients With High-Grade Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lamarca, Angela; Walter, Thomas; Pavel, Marianne; Borbath, Ivan; Freis, Patricia; Nuñez, Barbara; Childs, Alexa; McNamara, Mairéad G; Hubner, Richard A; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocio; Meyer, Tim; Valle, Juan W; Barriuso, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Prognostic markers for risk stratification of patients with gastrointestinal high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (GI-NECs) are lacking; we designed and validated a prognostic score for overall survival (OS). Consecutive patients diagnosed in five neuroendocrine specialist European centers were included. Patients were divided into three cohorts: a training cohort (TC), an external validation cohort (EVC), and a prospective validation cohort (PVC). Prognostic factors were identified by log-rank test, Cox-regression, and logistic regression analyses. The derived score was internally and externally validated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Of 395 patients screened, 313 were eligible (TC = 109 patients, EVC = 184 patients, and PVC = 20 patients). The derived prognostic score included five variables: presence of liver metastases, alkaline phosphatase (ALK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), and Ki67. In multivariable analysis, the score was prognostic for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.47 to 2.35, P < .001) and had good discrimination (C-index = 0.76) and calibration (mean error = 0.021, 90th percentile = 0.037) in the TC. These results were validated in the EVC and PVC, in which our score was able to prognosticate for OS when adjusted for other prognostic variables in the multivariable analysis (HR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.27 to 2.71, P = .001; and HR = 4.51, 95% CI = 1.87 to 10.87, P = .001, respectively). The score classified patients into two groups with incremental risk of death: group A (0-2 points, 181 patients [63.9%], median OS = 19.4 months, 95% CI = 16.1 to 25.1) and group B (3-6 points, 102 patients [36.1%], median OS = 5.2 months, 95% CI = 3.6 to 6.9). The GI-NEC score identifies two distinct patient cohorts; it provides a tool for clinicians when making treatment decisions and may be used as a stratification factor in future

  13. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography (CT) Angiography and Coronary Artery Calcium Score Performed Before Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac events after revascularization are equally attributable to recurrence at site of culprit lesions and development of nonculprit lesions. We evaluated the hypothesis that coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) performed before revascularization predicts cardiac events after treatment. Methods and Results Among 2238 consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease who underwent coronary CT angiography and CACS, 359 patients underwent revascularization within 30 days after CT; in 337 of 359 (93.9%) follow-up clinical information was available. In addition to known cardiac risk factors, CT findings were evaluated as predictors of cardiac events after revascularization: CACS and the presence of CT-verified high-risk plaque (CT-HRP). Improvement of predictive accuracy by including CT findings was evaluated from a discrimination (Harrell’s C-statistics) standpoint. During the follow-up period (median: 673, interquartile range: 47 to 1529 days), a total of 98 cardiac events occurred. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that age, diabetes, triglyceride, CACS, and nonculprit CT-HRP were significant predictors of overall cardiac events. Although not statistically significant, discriminatory power was greater for the model with CACS (C-stat: 63.2%) and the model with both CACS and CT-HRP (65.8%) compared to the model including neither CACS nor CT-HRP (60.7%). Conclusions High CACS and the presence of nonculprit CT-HRP performed before revascularization are significant predictors of cardiac events after revascularization. PMID:26296858

  14. Physician knowledge of the Glasgow Coma Scale.

    PubMed

    Riechers, Ronald G; Ramage, Anthony; Brown, William; Kalehua, Audrey; Rhee, Peter; Ecklund, James M; Ling, Geoffrey S F

    2005-11-01

    Appropriate triage is critical to optimizing outcome from battle related injuries. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the primary means by which combat casualties, who have suffered head injury, are triaged. For the GCS to be reliable in this critical role, it must be applied accurately. To determine the level of knowledge of the GCS among military physicians with exposure and/or training in the scale we administered a prospective, voluntary, and anonymous survey to physicians of all levels of training at military medical centers with significant patient referral base. The main outcome measures were correct identification of title and categories of the GCS along with appropriate scoring of each category. Overall performance on the survey was marginal. Many were able to identify what "GCS" stands for, but far fewer were able to identify the titles of the specific categories, let alone identify the specific scoring of each category. When evaluated based on medical specialties, those in surgical specialties outperformed those in the medical specialties. When comparing the different levels of training, residents and fellows performed better than attending staff or interns. Finally, those with Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) certification performed significantly better than those without the training. Physician knowledge of the GCS, as demonstrated in this study, is poor, even in a population of individuals with specific training in the use of the scale. It is concluded that, to optimize outcome from combat related head injury, methods for improving accurate quantitation of neurologic state need to be explored.

  15. Does the RIFLE Classification Improve Prognostic Value of the APACHE II Score in Critically Ill Patients?

    PubMed

    Wahrhaftig, Kátia M; Correia, Luis C L; Matias, Denise; De Souza, Carlos A M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The RIFLE classification defines three severity criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI): risk, injury, and failure. It was associated with mortality according to the gradation of AKI severity. However, it is not known if the APACHE II score, associated with the RIFLE classification, results in greater discriminatory power in relation to mortality in critical patients. Objective. To analyze whether the RIFLE classification adds value to the performance of APACHE II in predicting mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. An observational prospective cohort of 200 patients admitted to the ICU from July 2010 to July 2011. Results. The age of the sample was 66 (±16.7) years, 53.3% female. ICU mortality was 23.5%. The severity of AKI presented higher risk of death: class risk (RR = 1.89 CI:0.97-3.38, P = 0.001), grade injury (RR = 3.7 CI:1.71-8.08, P = 0.001), and class failure (RR = 4.79 CI:2.10-10.6, P = 0.001). The APACHE II had C-statistics of 0.75, 95% (CI:0.68-0.80, P = 0.001) and 0.80 (95% CI:0.74 to 0.86, P = 0.001) after being incorporated into the RIFLE classification in relation to prediction of death. In the comparison between AUROCs, P = 0.03. Conclusion. The severity of AKI, defined by the RIFLE classification, was a risk marker for mortality in critically ill patients, and improved the performance of APACHE II in predicting the mortality in this population.

  16. Does the RIFLE Classification Improve Prognostic Value of the APACHE II Score in Critically Ill Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Wahrhaftig, Kátia M.; Correia, Luis C. L.; De Souza, Carlos A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The RIFLE classification defines three severity criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI): risk, injury, and failure. It was associated with mortality according to the gradation of AKI severity. However, it is not known if the APACHE II score, associated with the RIFLE classification, results in greater discriminatory power in relation to mortality in critical patients. Objective. To analyze whether the RIFLE classification adds value to the performance of APACHE II in predicting mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. An observational prospective cohort of 200 patients admitted to the ICU from July 2010 to July 2011. Results. The age of the sample was 66 (±16.7) years, 53.3% female. ICU mortality was 23.5%. The severity of AKI presented higher risk of death: class risk (RR = 1.89 CI:0.97–3.38, P = 0.001), grade injury (RR = 3.7 CI:1.71–8.08, P = 0.001), and class failure (RR = 4.79 CI:2.10–10.6, P = 0.001). The APACHE II had C-statistics of 0.75, 95% (CI:0.68–0.80, P = 0.001) and 0.80 (95% CI:0.74 to 0.86, P = 0.001) after being incorporated into the RIFLE classification in relation to prediction of death. In the comparison between AUROCs, P = 0.03. Conclusion. The severity of AKI, defined by the RIFLE classification, was a risk marker for mortality in critically ill patients, and improved the performance of APACHE II in predicting the mortality in this population. PMID:24024031

  17. Prognostic value of malnutrition assessed by Controlling Nutritional Status score for long-term mortality in patients with acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Iwakami, Naotsugu; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Sugano, Yasuo; Honda, Satoshi; Okada, Atsushi; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Aiba, Takeshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Kusano, Kengo; Ogawa, Hisao; Yasuda, Satoshi; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2017-03-01

    The prognostic value of nutritional status is poorly understood and evidence-based nutritional assessment indices are required in acute heart failure (AHF). We investigated the prognostic value of malnutrition assessed by the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score (range 0-12, higher=worse, consisting of serum albumin, cholesterol and lymphocytes) in AHF patients. The CONUT score was measured on admission in 635 consecutive AHF patients. The primary outcome was all-cause death. Median CONUT score was 3 (interquartile range 2 to 5). During the median follow-up of 324days, CONUT score was independently associated with death (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11-1.42, P<0.001) after adjustment for confounders in a multivariate Cox model. The CONUT score demonstrated the best C-statistic for predicting death (0.71) among other common nutritional markers in HF. Furthermore, addition of the CONUT score to an established risk prediction model from the Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure study significantly increased the C-statistic from 0.75 to 0.77 (P=0.02). The net reclassification improvement afforded by CONUT score was 21% for all-cause death, 27% for survival and 49% overall (P<0.001). Malnutrition assessed by the CONUT score on admission was an independent determinant of long-term death in AHF, and its prognostic value outweighed that of other nutritional indices. Moreover, addition of the score to the existing risk prediction model significantly increased the predictive ability for death, indicating beneficial clinical application of the CONUT score in AHF patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short- and Long-Term Prognostic Utility of the HEART Score in Patients Evaluated in the Emergency Department for Possible Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun; Nowak, Richard; Hudson, Michael; Frisoli, Tiberio; Jacobsen, Gordon; McCord, James

    2016-06-01

    The HEART score is a risk-stratification tool that was developed and validated for patients evaluated for possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). We sought to determine the short-term and long-term prognostic utility of the HEART score. A retrospective single-center analysis of 947 patients evaluated for possible ACS in the ED in 1999 was conducted. Patients were followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 30 days: death, acute myocardial infarction, or revascularization procedure. All-cause mortality was assessed at 5 years. The HEART score was compared with the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score. At 30 days, 14% (135/947) of patients had an MACE: 48 deaths (5%), 84 acute myocardial infarctions (9%), and 48 (5%) revascularization procedures. The MACE rate in patients with HEART score ≤3 was 0.6% (1/175) involving a revascularization procedure, 9.5% (53/557) in patients with HEART score between 4 and 6, and 38% (81/215) with HEART score ≥7. The C-statistic for the HEART score was 0.82 and 0.68 for the TIMI score for predicting 30-day MACE (P < 0.05). Patients with HEART score ≤3 had lower 5-year mortality rate compared with those with TIMI score of 0 (10.6% vs. 20.5%, P = 0.02). The HEART score is a valuable risk-stratification tool in predicting not only short-term MACE but also long-term mortality in patients evaluated for possible ACS in the ED. The HEART score had a superior prognostic value compared with the TIMI score.

  19. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in the Prognostication after Endovascular Treatment for Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Shup; Park, Soonchan; Suh, Sang Hyun; Koh, Jun Seok; Choi, Hye-Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) was devised to quantify the extent of early ischemic changes in the middle cerebral artery territory on brain CT. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that presented clinical outcomes and baseline ASPECTS in ischemic stroke patients managed with endovascular methods to validate the use of ASPECTS for risk prognostication. Materials and Methods We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochran databases for observational or interventional studies that reported clinical outcomes and baseline ASPECTS in ischemic stroke patients treated with endovascular methods. Data were pooled to perform a meta-analysis for comparisons of clinical outcomes between high and low ASPECTS patients. Results A meta-analysis of 13 studies (six observational and seven interventional) revealed favorable outcomes (mRS sore 0-2 at 90 days) for high baseline ASPECTS (odds ratio=2.22; 95% CI: 1.74-2.86). Conclusion High ASPECTS is a predictor of favorable outcome after endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke. PMID:28316866

  20. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in the Prognostication after Endovascular Treatment for Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Chang-Woo; Shin, Hee Shup; Park, Soonchan; Suh, Sang Hyun; Koh, Jun Seok; Choi, Hye-Yeon

    2017-03-01

    The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) was devised to quantify the extent of early ischemic changes in the middle cerebral artery territory on brain CT. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that presented clinical outcomes and baseline ASPECTS in ischemic stroke patients managed with endovascular methods to validate the use of ASPECTS for risk prognostication. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochran databases for observational or interventional studies that reported clinical outcomes and baseline ASPECTS in ischemic stroke patients treated with endovascular methods. Data were pooled to perform a meta-analysis for comparisons of clinical outcomes between high and low ASPECTS patients. A meta-analysis of 13 studies (six observational and seven interventional) revealed favorable outcomes (mRS sore 0-2 at 90 days) for high baseline ASPECTS (odds ratio=2.22; 95% CI: 1.74-2.86). High ASPECTS is a predictor of favorable outcome after endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke.

  1. A prognostic score to identify low-risk outpatients with acute deep vein thrombosis in the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Salazar, V; Trujillo-Santos, J; Díaz Peromingo, J A; Apollonio, A; Sanz, O; Malý, R; Muñoz-Rodriguez, F J; Serrano, J C; Soler, S; Monreal, M

    2015-07-01

    No studies have identified which patients with upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are at low risk for adverse events within the first week of therapy. We used data from Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica to explore in patients with upper-extremity DVT a prognostic score that correctly identified patients with lower limb DVT at low risk for pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, or death within the first week. As of December 2014, 1135 outpatients with upper-extremity DVT were recruited. Of these, 515 (45%) were treated at home. During the first week, three patients (0.26%) experienced pulmonary embolism, two (0.18%) had major bleeding, and four (0.35%) died. We assigned 1 point to patients with chronic heart failure, creatinine clearance levels 30-60 mL min(-1) , recent bleeding, abnormal platelet count, recent immobility, or cancer without metastases; 2 points to those with metastatic cancer; and 3 points to those with creatinine clearance levels < 30 mL min(-1) . Overall, 759 (67%) patients scored ≤ 1 point and were considered to be at low risk. The rate of the composite outcome within the first week was 0.26% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.004-0.87) in patients at low risk and 1.86% (95% CI 0.81-3.68) in the remaining patients. C-statistics was 0.73 (95% CI 0.57-0.88). Net reclassification improvement was 22%, and integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0055. Using six easily available variables, we identified outpatients with upper-extremity DVT at low risk for adverse events within the first week. These data may help to safely treat more patients at home. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Prognostic Index: A New Integrated Scoring System to Predict the Time to First Treatment in Chinese Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Yi, Shu-Hua; Xiong, Wen-Jie; Liu, Hui-Min; Lyu, Rui; Wang, Ting-Yu; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Shi-Zhen; Yu, Zhen; Zou, De-Hui; Xu, Yan; An, Gang; Li, Zeng-Jun; Qiu, Lu-Gui

    2017-01-01

    Background: The established clinical staging systems (Rai/Binet) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cannot accurately predict the appropriate treatment of patients in the earlier stages. In the past two decades, several prognostic factors have been identified to predict the outcome of patients with CLL, but only a few studies investigated more markers together. To predict the time to first treatment (TTFT) in patients of early stages, we evaluated the prognostic role of conventional markers as well as cytogenetic abnormalities and combined them together in a new prognostic scoring system, the CLL prognostic index (CLL-PI). Methods: Taking advantage of a population of 406 untreated Chinese patients with CLL at early and advanced stage of disease, we identified the strongest prognostic markers of TTFT and, subsequently, in a cohort of 173 patients who had complete data for all 3 variables, we integrated the data of traditional staging system, cytogenetic aberrations, and mutational status of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) in CLL-PI. The median follow-up time was 45 months and the end point was TTFT. Results: The median TTFT was 38 months and the 5-year overall survival was 80%. According to univariate analysis, patients of advanced Rai stages (P < 0.001) or with 11q- (P = 0.002), 17p- (P < 0.001), unmutated IGHV (P < 0.001), negative 13q- (P = 0.007) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (P = 0.001) tended to have a significantly shorter TTFT. And subsequently, based on multivariate Cox regression analysis, three independent factors for TTFT were identified: advanced clinical stage (P = 0.002), 17p- (P = 0.050) and unmutated IGHV (P = 0.049). Applying weighted grading of these independent factors, a CLL-PI was constructed based on regression parameters, which could categorize four different risk groups (low risk [score 0], intermediate low [score 1], intermediate high [score 2] and high risk [score 3–6]) with significantly different TTFT

  3. Psychometric properties of Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale in Portuguese language.

    PubMed

    Meia-Via, Mariana Soares; Marques, Daniel Ruivo; Espie, Colin A; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes; Allen Gomes, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Sleep effort is generally defined as the attempt to force and induce sleep in a voluntary manner. This study aimed to document the psychometric properties of a brief measure of sleep effort--the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale--in its European (Portuguese) version using a large sample (N = 2,995). The results supported the good internal consistency of the overall scale scores (α = .79). Potential construct validity was evaluated with various methods, including criterion validity. There was also a convergent validity indicator. Principal components analysis revealed a 1-dimensional structure that accounted for 45% of the total variance. This preliminary study suggests that this Portuguese version of the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale is a measure of sleep behavior suitable for research and clinical purposes. However, more studies are needed, particularly with clinical groups.

  4. Comparison of the prognostic value of normal regadenoson with normal adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging with propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Fahad M; Hage, Fadi G; Ahmed, Ali; Dean, Phillip J; Raslan, Saleem; Heo, Jaekyeong; Iskandrian, Ami E

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with normal regadenoson myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) have a low rate of cardiac events, similar to patients with normal adenosine MPI. Regadenoson, a new selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, is now a widely used stress agent for MPI. The low rate of cardiac events in patients with normal adenosine MPI is well-documented, but the prognostic implications of a normal regadenoson MPI have not been examined and compared with those with adenosine. Data on primary composite endpoint (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization) were collected for 2,000 patients (1,000 regadenoson, and 1,000 adenosine stress) with normal myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction referred for vasodilator MPI. In addition, propensity scores were used to assemble a balanced cohort of 505 pairs of patients who were balanced on 36 baseline characteristics. The primary endpoint occurred in 21 (2.1%; 1.1%/year) patients in the regadenoson group and 33 (3.3%; 1.7%/year) patients in the adenosine group (hazard ratio [HR] for regadenoson vs. adenosine: 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36 to 1.08; p = 0.090). In the propensity-matched pairs, the primary endpoint occurred in 7 (1.4%; 0.7%/year) patients in the regadenoson group and 13 (2.6%; 1.3%/year) patients in the adenosine group (matched HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.23 to 1.48; p = 0.257). Cardiac deaths were infrequent in the entire sample and in the propensity-matched groups; the cardiac death rate was 0.9%/year and 1.15%/year in the regadenoson and adenosine groups (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.42 to 1.43; p = 0.404) in the pre-match sample and 0.5%/year and 0.7%/year in the matched groups, respectively (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.25 to 2.73; p = 0.763). Major cardiac events are infrequent in patients with normal regadenoson MPI. These findings provide assurance that normal MPI using a simpler stress protocol with regadenoson provides prognostic

  5. Patient Prognostic Score and Associations With Survival Improvement Offered by Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Rachel A.; Vaz-Luis, Ines; Mallory, Melissa Anne; Wong, Stephanie M.; Aydogan, Fatih; DeSantis, Stephen; Barry, William T.; Golshan, Mehra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a standard treatment option for the management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We sought to determine the survival benefit of RT after BCS on the basis of risk factors for local recurrence. Patients and Methods A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was performed to identify patients with DCIS diagnosed between 1988 and 2007 and treated with BCS by using SEER data. Patients were divided into the following two groups: BCS+RT (RT group) and BCS alone (non-RT group). We used a patient prognostic scoring model to stratify patients on the basis of risk of local recurrence. We performed a Cox proportional hazards model with propensity score weighting to evaluate breast cancer mortality between the two groups. Results We identified 32,144 eligible patients with DCIS, 20,329 (63%) in the RT group and 11,815 (37%) in the non-RT group. Overall, 304 breast cancer–specific deaths occurred over a median follow-up of 96 months, with a cumulative incidence of breast cancer mortality at 10 years in the weighted cohorts of 1.8% (RT group) and 2.1% (non-RT group; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.88). Significant improvements in survival in the RT group compared with the non-RT group were only observed in patients with higher nuclear grade, younger age, and larger tumor size. The magnitude of the survival difference with RT was significantly correlated with prognostic score (P < .001). Conclusion In this population-based study, the patient prognostic score for DCIS is associated with the magnitude of improvement in survival offered by RT after BCS, suggesting that decisions for RT could be tailored on the basis of patient factors, tumor biology, and the prognostic score. PMID:26834064

  6. 15-Year Prognostic Utility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for All-Cause Mortality in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Valenti, Valentina; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Xie, Joseph X.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Shaw, Leslee J.; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prior studies have demonstrated a decline in the predictive ability of conventional risk factors (RF) with advancing age, emphasizing the need for novel tools to improve risk stratification in the elderly. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a robust predictor of adverse cardiovascular events, but its long-term prognostic utility beyond RFs in elderly persons is unknown. Methods A consecutive series of 9,715 individuals underwent CAC scoring and were followed for a mean of 14.6±1.1 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was employed to assess the independent relationship of CAC and RFs with all-cause death. The incremental value of CAC, stratified by age, was examined by using an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI). Results Of the overall study sample, 728 (7.5%) adults (mean age 74.2±4.2 years; 55.6% female) were 70 years or older, of which 157 (21.6%) died. The presence of any CAC was associated with a >4-fold (95% CI = 2.84–6.59) adjusted risk of death for those over the age of 70, which was higher compared with younger study counterparts, or other measured RFs. For individuals 70 years or older, the discriminatory ability of CAC improved upon that of RFs alone (C statistics 0.764 vs. 0.675, P <0.001). CAC also enabled improved reclassification (category-free NRI = 84%, P <0.001) when added to RFs. Conclusion In a large-scale observational cohort registry, CAC improves prediction, discrimination, and reclassification of elderly individuals at risk for future death. PMID:26841073

  7. Traumatic extremity arterial injury in children: Epidemiology, diagnostics, treatment and prognostic value of Mangled Extremity Severity Score

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traumatic paediatric arterial injuries are a great challenge due to low incidence and specific characteristics of paediatric anatomy and physiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate their epidemiology, diagnostic and therapeutic options and complications. Furthermore, the prognostic value of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) was evaluated. Methods In a retrospective clinical study 44 children aged 9.0 ± 3.2 years treated for traumatic extremity arterial lesions in our Level I trauma center between 1971 and 2006 were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were age > 14, venous and iatrogenic vascular injury. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, severity of arterial lesions (by Vollmar and MESS), diagnostic and therapeutic management, complications and outcome were evaluated. Results The most commonly injured vessel was the femoral artery (25%) followed by the brachial artery (22.7%). The mechanism of injury was penetrating (31.8%), isolated severe blunt extremity trauma (29.6%), multiple trauma (25%) and humeral supracondylar fractures (13.6%). In 63.6% no specific vascular diagnostic procedure was performed in favour of emergency surgery. Surgical reconstructive strategies were preferred (68.2%). A MESS < 7 was associated with initial (p < 0.05) and definite limb salvage (p < 0.001) of the lower extremity. Conclusions Traumatic paediatric vascular injuries are very rare. The most common situations of vascular lesions in childhood were penetrating injuries and fractures of the extremities either as isolated injuries or in multiply injured patients. In paediatric patients, the MESS could serve as a basis for decision making for limb salvage or amputation. PMID:20398337

  8. Prognostic impact of nutritional status assessed by the Controlling Nutritional Status score in patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideki; Dohi, Tomotaka; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Doi, Shinichiro; Konishi, Hirokazu; Naito, Ryo; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Okazaki, Shinya; Isoda, Kikuo; Suwa, Satoru; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-20

    Recently, malnutrition has been shown to be related to worse clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. However, the association between nutritional status and clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unclear. We investigated the prognostic value of malnutrition assessed by the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT; range 0-12, higher = worse, consisting of serum albumin, cholesterol and lymphocytes) score in patients with CAD. The CONUT score was measured on admission in a total of 1987 patients with stable CAD who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2000 and 2011. Patients were divided into two groups according to their CONUT score (0-1 vs. ≥2). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including all-cause death and non-fatal myocardial infarction, was evaluated. The median CONUT score was 1 (interquartile range 0-2). During the median follow-up of 7.4 years, 342 MACE occurred (17.2%). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that patients with high CONUT scores had higher rates of MACE (log-rank p < 0.0001). High CONUT scores showed a significant increase in the incidence of MACE compared with low CONUT scores, even after adjusting for confounding factors (hazard ratio: 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.07, p < 0.0001). Adding CONUT scores to a baseline model with established risk factors improved the C-index (p = 0.02), net reclassification improvement (p = 0.004) and integrated discrimination improvement (p = 0.0003). Nutritional status assessed by the CONUT score was significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes in patients with CAD. Pre-PCI assessment of the CONUT score may provide useful prognostic information.

  9. Validation of a novel prognostic scoring system using inflammatory response biomarkers in patients undergoing curative thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Noriyuki; Fujii, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Tetsu; Hyakudomi, Ryoji; Hirayama, Takanori; Taniura, Takahito; Ishitobi, Kazunari; Tajima, Yoshitsugu

    2017-01-01

    Background Systemic inflammatory markers, including the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio have been shown to predict postoperative recurrence and survival in various types of cancer. However, their role in esophageal cancer has yet to be determined. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of an inflammatory response biomarker (IRB) score, independent of conventional clinicopathological criteria, in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing curative resection. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed a database containing the medical records of 147 consecutive patients who underwent curative esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The IRB score was determined as follows: a low lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (<4), a low neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (<1.6), and a high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (>147), which were each scored as 1, with all remaining values scored as 0. The scores were added together to produce the IRB score (range: 0–3). Results An IRB score of 2–3 (hazard ratio: 6.023, 95% confidence interval: 1.675–13.078; P<0.01) was identified as an independent poor prognostic factor of cancer-specific survival (CSS) in a multivariate logic regression analysis. The 5-year CSS rates in patients with the IRB scores of 0−1, 2, and 3 were 37.8%, 67.8%, and 72.5%, respectively. As determined by Kaplan–Meier analysis and the log-rank test, these differences were significant (P<0.001). Conclusion The IRB score can predict the systemic inflammatory response as accurately as conventional tumor markers and is useful for determining CSS in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing curative thoracoscopic esophagectomy. PMID:28144151

  10. Use of the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) score in patients with brain metastases from primary tumours not represented in the diagnosis-specific GPA studies.

    PubMed

    Nieder, C; Andratschke, N H; Geinitz, H; Grosu, A L

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of prognostic factors might influence treatment decisions in patients with brain metastases. Based on large studies, the diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score is a useful tool. However, patients with unknown or rare primary tumours are not represented in this model. A pragmatic approach might be use of the first GPA version which is not limited to specific primary tumours. This retrospective analysis examines for the first time whether the GPA is a valid score in patients not eligible for the diagnosis-specific GPA. It includes 71 patients with unknown primary tumour, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, thyroid cancer or other uncommon primaries. Survival was evaluated in uni- and multivariate tests. The GPA significantly predicted survival. Moreover, improved survival was seen in patients treated with surgical resection or radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. The older recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) score was significant in univariate analysis. However, the multivariate model with RPA, GPA and surgery or SRS versus none showed that only GPA and type of treatment were independent predictors of survival. Ideally, cooperative research efforts would lead to development of diagnosis-specific scores also for patients with rare or unknown primary tumours. In the meantime, a pragmatic approach of using the general GPA score appears reasonable.

  11. Stage IV and age over 45 years are the only prognostic factors of the International Prognostic Score for the outcome of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in the Spanish Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group series.

    PubMed

    Guisado-Vasco, Pablo; Arranz-Saez, Reyes; Canales, Miguel; Cánovas, Araceli; Garcia-Laraña, José; García-Sanz, Ramón; Lopez, Andrés; López, José Luis; Llanos, Marta; Moraleda, José Maria; Rodriguez, José; Rayón, Consuelo; Sabin, Pilar; Salar, Antonio; Marín-Niebla, Ana; Morente, Manuel; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; Tomás, José Francisco; Muriel, Alfonso; Abraira, Victor; Piris, Miguel A; Garcia, Juán F; Montalban, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    The International Prognostic Score (IPS) is the most widely used system to date for identifying risk groups for the outcome of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, although important limitations have been recognized. We analyzed the value of the IPS in a series of 311 patients with advanced classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) (Ann Arbor stage III, IV or stage II with B symptoms and/or bulky masses) treated with first-line chemotherapy including adriamycin (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine [ABVD] or equivalent variants). In univariate and multivariate analyses, stage IV disease and age ≥ 45 years were the only factors with independent predictive significance for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Stage IV was still significant for freedom from progression (FFP) (p = 0.001) and age ≥ 45 years was borderline significant (p = 0.058). IPS separates prognostic groups, as in the original publication, but this is mainly due to the high statistical significance of stage IV and age ≥ 45 years. Moreover, the combination of these two factors enables a simpler system to be constructed that separates groups with different FFP and OS. In conclusion, in our series, stage IV and age ≥ 45 years are the key prognostic factors for the outcome of advanced cHL.

  12. Prognostic discrimination for early chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia in imatinib era: comparison of Sokal, Euro, and EUTOS scores in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yahng, Seung-Ah; Jang, Eun-Jung; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2014-08-01

    Beyond the conventional Sokal and Euro scores, a new prognostic risk classification, based on the European Treatment Outcome Study (EUTOS), has been developed to predict the outcome of treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the present study, each risk score was validated by various endpoints in 206 Korean patients with early chronic-phase CML treated with up-front standard dose imatinib. In our analysis, all three scores were found to be valid. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was significantly discriminated using Sokal (P = 0.002), Euro (P = 0.003), and EUTOS (P = 0.029), with the worst probability by Euro high-risk (62 vs. 49 vs. 67 %) and better EFS in Sokal low-risk (89 vs. 86 vs. 82 %). Combining all scores identified 6 % of all patients having homogeneous high-risk with distinctively worse outcomes (5-year EFS of 41 %, cumulative complete cytogenetic response rate of 56 %, and cumulative major molecular response rate of 27 %), whereas the group of discordance in risk scores (60 %) had similar results to those of intermediate-risk groups of Sokal and Euro scores. Combining all risk scores for baseline risk assessment may be useful in clinical practice for identifying groups of patients who may benefit from treatment initiation with a more potent TKI among the currently available first-line TKIs.

  13. The prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based prognostic scores and nutritional status for overall survival in resected patients with nonmetastatic Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixiang; Su, Yezhou; Chen, Zhangming; Wei, Zhijian; Han, Wenxiu; Xu, Aman

    2017-07-01

    Immune and nutritional status of patients have been reported to predict postoperative complications, recurrence, and prognosis of patients with cancer. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to explore the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based prognostic scores [neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR)] and nutritional status [prognostic nutritional index (PNI), body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, albumin, and prealbumin] for overall survival (OS) in adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) patients. A total of 355 patients diagnosed with Siewert type II/III AEG and underwent surgery between October 2010 and December 2011 were followed up until October 2016. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the cutoff values of NLR, PLR, and PNI. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses were used to calculate the OS characteristics. The ideal cutoff values for predicting OS were 3.5 for NLR, 171 for PLR, and 51.3 for PNI according to the ROC curve. The patients with hemoglobin <120 g/L (P = .001), prealbumin <180 mg/L (P = .000), PNI <51.3 (P = .010), NLR >3.5 (P = .000), PLR >171 (P = .006), and low BMI group (P = .000) had shorter OS. And multivariate survival analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model showed that the tumor-node-metastasis stage, BMI, NLR, and prealbumin levels were independent risk factors for the OS. Our study demonstrated that preoperative prealbumin, BMI, and NLR were independent prognostic factors of AEG patients.

  14. Prognostic Value of the Clinical SYNTAX Score on 2-Year Outcomes in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Song, Ying; Wang, Chuang-Shi; Yao, Yi; Tang, Xiao-Fang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Gao, Run-Lin; Yang, Yue-Jin; Xu, Bo; Yuan, Jin-Qing

    2017-03-01

    This prospective, single-center, observational study evaluated prognostic value of clinical SYNTAX score (CSS) on 2-year outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The SYNTAX score (SS) is a scoring system based on the complexity and severity of coronary lesions and is thought to be a prognostic tool to predict long-term outcomes. However, SS was a sole angiographic grading tool only with no consideration for clinical factors. There are few studies investigating the prognostic value of CSS in patients with ACS who underwent PCI. From January 2013 to December 2013, 6,099 consecutive patients with ACS admitted to FuWai hospital and underwent PCI were enrolled in this study. Based on CSS, patients were divided into low CSS group (CSS ≤ 6.5; 2,012 patients), mid-CSS group (6.5 < CSS < 13.8; 2,056 patients), and high CSS group (CSS ≥ 13.8; 2,031 patients). At 2-year follow-up, rates of cardiac death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were significantly higher in the high CSS group. Compared with baseline SS, CSS demonstrated significantly improved performance for 2-year cardiac death (receiver-operating characteristic curve C-statistic: 0.74 vs 0.62, p <0.001) but not for MACE (receiver-operating characteristic curve C-statistic: 0.60 vs 0.59, p = 0.29). By multivariable analysis, the CSS combined with PCI history and hypertension were strong predictors for cardiac death and CSS, intra-aortic balloon pump support, diabetes, and successful PCI were independent predictors for MACE. In conclusion, compared with the anatomic SS, CSS was suitable in risk stratifying and predicting 2-year clinical outcome among ACS population.

  15. Nutritional Risk in Major Abdominal Surgery: Protocol of a Prospective Observational Trial to Evaluate the Prognostic Value of Different Nutritional Scores in Pancreatic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Pascal; Haller, Sebastian; Dörr-Harim, Colette; Bruckner, Thomas; Ulrich, Alexis; Hackert, Thilo; Diener, Markus K

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of patients’ preoperative nutritional status on their clinical outcome has already been proven. Therefore, patients with malnutrition are in need of additional therapeutic efforts. However, for pancreatic surgery, evidence suggesting the adequacy of existing nutritional assessment scores to estimate malnutrition associated with postoperative outcome is limited. Objective The aim of the observational trial “Nutritional Risk in Major Abdominal Surgery (NURIMAS) Pancreas” is to prospectively assess and analyze different nutritional assessment scores for their prognostic value on postoperative complications in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. Methods All patients scheduled to receive elective pancreatic surgery at the University Hospital of Heidelberg will be screened for eligibility. Preoperatively, 12 nutritional assessment scores will be collected and patients will be assigned either at risk or not at risk for malnutrition. The postoperative course will be followed prospectively and complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification will be recorded. The prognostic value for complications will be evaluated for every score in a univariable and multivariable analysis corrected for known risk factors in pancreatic surgery. Results Final data analysis is expected to be available during Spring 2016. Conclusions The NURIMAS Pancreas trial is a monocentric, prospective, observational trial aiming to find the most predictive clinical nutritional assessment score for postoperative complications. Using the results of this protocol as a knowledge base, it is possible to conduct nutritional risk-guided intervention trials to prevent postoperative complications in the pancreatic surgical population. Trial Registration germanctr.de: DRKS00006340; https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00006340 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6bzXWSRYZ) PMID:26573991

  16. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    PubMed Central

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  17. Coalesced Multicentric Analysis of 2,351 Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes Indicates an Underestimation of Poor-Risk Cytogenetics of Myelodysplastic Syndromes in the International Prognostic Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Schanz, Julie; Steidl, Christian; Fonatsch, Christa; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Tuechler, Heinz; Valent, Peter; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Aul, Carlo; Lübbert, Michael; Stauder, Reinhard; Krieger, Otto; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Kantarjian, Hagop; Germing, Ulrich; Haase, Detlef; Estey, Elihu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) remains the most commonly used system for risk classification in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). The IPSS gives more weight to blast count than to cytogenetics. However, previous publications suggested that cytogenetics are underweighted in the IPSS. Here we investigate the prognostic impact of cytogenetic subgroups compared with that of bone marrow blast count in a large, multicentric, international patient cohort. Patients and Methods In total, 2,351 patients with MDS who have records in the German-Austrian and the MD Anderson Cancer Center databases were included and analyzed in univariate and multivariate models regarding overall survival and risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The data were analyzed separately for patients treated with supportive care without specific therapy, with AML-like chemotherapy, or with other therapy regimens (low-dose chemotherapy, demethylating agents, immune modulating agents, valproic acid, and cyclosporine). Results The prognostic impact of poor-risk cytogenetic findings (as defined by the IPSS classification) on overall survival was as unfavorable as an increased (> 20%) blast count. The hazard ratio (compared with an abnormal karyotype or a bone marrow blast count < 5%) was 3.3 for poor-risk cytogenetics, 4.8 for complex abnormalities harboring chromosomes 5 and/or 7, and 3.1 for a blast count of 21% to 30% (P < .01 for all categories). The predictive power of the IPSS cytogenetic subgroups was unaffected by type of therapy given. Conclusion The independent prognostic impact of poor-risk cytogenetics on overall survival is equivalent to the impact of high blast counts. This finding should be considered in the upcoming revision of the IPSS. PMID:21519021

  18. A clinical prognostic scoring system for resectable gastric cancer to predict survival and benefit from paclitaxel- or oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing; Qian, Yingying; Wang, Jian; Gu, Bing; Pei, Dong; He, Shaohua; Zhu, Fang; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Xu, Jin; Liu, Lianke; Gu, Yanhong; Guo, Renhua; Yin, Yongmei; Shu, Yongqian; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy is a standard procedure of curative resection for gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable prognostic scoring system for GC treated with D2 gastrectomy combined with adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods A prognostic scoring system was established based on clinical and laboratory data from 579 patients with localized GC without distant metastasis treated with D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Results From the multivariate model for overall survival (OS), five factors were selected for the scoring system: ≥50% metastatic lymph node rate, positive lymphovascular invasion, pathologic TNM Stage II or III, ≥5 ng/mL preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level, and <110 g/L preoperative hemoglobin. Two models were derived using different methods. Model A identified low- and high-risk patients for OS (P<0.001), while Model B differentiated low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients for OS (P<0.001). Stage III patients in the low-risk group had higher survival probabilities than Stage II patients. Both Model A (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69–0.78) and Model B (AUC: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.83) were better predictors compared with the pathologic TNM classification (AUC: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.59–0.71, P<0.001). Adjuvant paclitaxel- or oxaliplatin-based or triple chemotherapy showed significantly better outcomes in patients classified as high risk, but not in those with low and intermediate risk. Conclusion A clinical three-tier prognostic risk scoring system was established to predict OS of GC treated with D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The potential advantage of this scoring system is that it can identify high-risk patients in Stage II or III who may benefit from paclitaxel- or oxaliplatin-based regimens. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results before they are applied clinically. PMID:26966350

  19. A 4-gene expression score associated with high levels of Wilms Tumor-1 (WT1) expression is an adverse prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Niavarani, Ahmadreza; Herold, Tobias; Reyal, Yasmin; Sauerland, Maria C; Buchner, Thomas; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Bohlander, Stefan K; Valk, Peter J M; Bonnet, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Wilms Tumor-1 (WT1) expression level is implicated in the prognosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We hypothesized that a gene expression profile associated with WT1 expression levels might be a good surrogate marker. We identified high WT1 gene sets by comparing the gene expression profiles in the highest and lowest quartiles of WT1 expression in two large AML studies. Two high WT1 gene sets were found to be highly correlated in terms of the altered genes and expression profiles. We identified a 17-probe set signature of the high WT1 set as the optimal prognostic predictor in the first AML set, and showed that it was able to predict prognosis in the second AML series after adjustment for European LeukaemiaNet genetic groups. The gene signature also proved to be of prognostic value in a third AML series of 163 samples assessed by RNA sequencing, demonstrating its cross-platform consistency. This led us to derive a 4-gene expression score, which faithfully predicted adverse outcome. In conclusion, a short gene signature associated with high WT1 expression levels and the resultant 4-gene expression score were found to be predictive of adverse prognosis in AML. This study provides new clues to the molecular pathways underlying high WT1 states in leukaemia. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prospective trial to evaluate the prognostic value of different nutritional assessment scores in pancreatic surgery (NURIMAS Pancreas).

    PubMed

    Probst, P; Haller, S; Bruckner, T; Ulrich, A; Strobel, O; Hackert, T; Diener, M K; Büchler, M W; Knebel, P

    2017-07-01

    Preoperative nutritional status has an impact on patients' clinical outcome. For pancreatic surgery, however, it is unclear which nutritional assessment scores adequately assess malnutrition associated with postoperative outcome. Patients scheduled for elective pancreatic surgery at the University of Heidelberg were screened for eligibility. Twelve nutritional assessment scores were calculated before operation, and patients were categorized as either at risk or not at risk for malnutrition by each score. The postoperative course was monitored prospectively by assessors blinded to the nutritional status. The primary endpoint was major complications evaluated for each score in a multivariable analysis corrected for known risk factors in pancreatic surgery. Overall, 279 patients were analysed. A major complication occurred in 61 patients (21·9 per cent). The proportion of malnourished patients differed greatly among the scores, from 1·1 per cent (Nutritional Risk Index) to 79·6 per cent (Nutritional Risk Classification). In the multivariable analysis, only raised amylase level in drainage fluid on postoperative day 1 (odds ratio (OR) 4·91, 95 per cent c.i. 1·10 to 21·84; P = 0·037) and age (OR 1·05, 1·02 to 1·09; P = 0·005) were significantly associated with major complications; none of the scores was associated with, or predicted, postoperative complications. None of the nutritional assessment scores defined malnutrition relevant to complications after pancreatic surgery and these scores may thus be abandoned. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The International Scoring System (ISS) for multiple myeloma remains a robust prognostic tool independently of patients' renal function.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, M A; Kastritis, E; Michalis, E; Tsatalas, C; Michael, M; Pouli, A; Kartasis, Z; Delimpasi, S; Gika, D; Zomas, A; Roussou, M; Konstantopoulos, K; Parcharidou, A; Zervas, K; Terpos, E

    2012-03-01

    The International Staging System (ISS) is the most widely used staging system for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, serum β2-microglobulin increases in renal impairment (RI) and there have been concerns that ISS-3 stage may include 'up-staged' MM patients in whom elevated β2-microglobulin reflects the degree of renal dysfunction rather than tumor load. In order to assess the impact of RI on the prognostic value of ISS, we analyzed 1516 patients with symptomatic MM and the degree of RI was classified according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative-Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) criteria. Forty-eight percent patients had stages 3-5 CKD while 29% of patients had ISS-1, 38% had ISS-2 and 33% ISS-3. The frequency and severity of RI were more common in ISS-3 patients. RI was associated with inferior survival in univariate but not in multivariate analysis. When analyzed separately, ISS-1 and ISS-2 patients with RI had inferior survival in univariate but not in multivariate analysis. In ISS-3 MM patients, RI had no prognostic impact either in univariate or multivariate analysis. Results were similar, when we analyzed only patients with Bence-Jones >200 mg/day. ISS remains unaffected by the degree of RI, even in patients with ISS-3, which includes most patients with renal dysfunction.

  2. Incremental prognostic value of the SYNTAX score to late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance images for patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Saito, Naka; Kirigaya, Hidekuni; Gyotoku, Daiki; Iinuma, Naoki; Kusakawa, Yuka; Iguchi, Kohei; Nakachi, Tatsuya; Fukui, Kazuki; Futaki, Masaaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Taguri, Masataka; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of the SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and cardiac surgery) score has recently been demonstrated in patients with stable multivessel or left main coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study determines whether adding the SYNTAX score to Framingham risk score (FRS), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and presence of myocardial infarction (MI) by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging can improve the risk stratification in patients with stable CAD. We calculated the SYNTAX score in 161 patients with stable CAD (mean age: 66 ± 10 years old). During a mean follow-up of 2.3 years, 56 (35 %) of 161 patients developed cardiovascular events defined as cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, cerebral infarction, unstable angina pectoris, hospitalization due to heart failure and revascularization. Multivariate Cox regression analysis selected triglycerides [hazard ratio (HR): 1.005 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.001-1.008), p < 0.008], presence of LGE [HR: 6.329 (95 % CI: 2.662-15.05), p < 0.001] and the SYNTAX score [HR: 1.085 (95 % CI: 1.044-1.127), p < 0.001] as risk factors for future cardiovascular events. Adding the SYNTAX score to FRS, EF and LGE significantly improved the net reclassification index (NRI) [40.4 % (95 % CI: 18.1-54.8 %), p < 0.05] with an increase in C-statistics of 0.089 (from 0.707 to 0.796). An increase in C-statistics and significant improvement of NRI showed that adding the SYNTAX score to the FRS, LVEF and LGE incrementally improved risk stratification in patient with stable CAD.

  3. Changes and their prognostic implications in the abbreviated Vitalpac™ early warning score (ViEWS) after admission to hospital of 18,853 acutely ill medical patients.

    PubMed

    Kellett, John; Woodworth, Simon; Wang, Fei; Huang, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The best performing early warning score is Vitalpac™ Early Warning Score (ViEWS). However, it is not known how often, to what extent and over what time frame any early warning scores change, and what the implications of these changes are. Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Center, Ontario, Canada. The changes in the first three complete sets of the six variables required to retrospectively calculate the abbreviated version of ViEWS (that did not include mental status) after admission to hospital of 18,853 acutely ill medical patients, and their relationship to subsequent in-hospital mortality were examined. In the 10.4 SD 20.1 (median 5.0) hours between admission and the second recording the score changed in only 5.9% of patients and these changes were of no prognostic value. By the time of the third recording 34.9 SD 21.7 (median 30.0) hours after admission a change in score was clearly associated with a corresponding change in in-hospital mortality (e.g. for patients with an initial score of 5 an increase between the first and third recording of ≥4 points was associated with an increased mortality (OR 6.5 95% CI 2.3-15.9, p<0.00001), whereas a reduction of ≤-4 points was associated with a reduced mortality (OR 0.4 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p 0.03)). After a median interval of 30 h both the initial abbreviated ViEWS recording and subsequent changes in it both predict clinical outcome. It remains to be determined what interventions during this time frame will improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Semiquantitative mIBG Scoring as a Prognostic Indicator in Patients with Stage 4 Neuroblastoma: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Yanik, Gregory A.; Parisi, Marguerite T.; Shulkin, Barry L.; Naranjo, Arlene; Kreissman, Susan G.; London, Wendy B.; Villablanca, Judith G.; Maris, John M.; Park, Julie R.; Cohn, Susan L.; McGrady, Patrick; Matthay, Katherine K.

    2017-01-01

    Radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is a highly sensitive and specific marker for detecting neuroblastoma. A semiquantitative mIBG score (Curie score [CS]) was assessed for utility as a prognostic indicator for a cohort of patients with highrisk metastatic disease. Methods mIBG scans from 280 patients with mIBG-avid, stage 4 neuroblastoma enrolled on the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) protocol A3973 were evaluated at diagnosis (n = 280), after induction chemotherapy (n = 237), and after an autologous stem cell transplantation (n = 178). Individual mIBG scans were evaluated at 10 different anatomic regions, with the scoring of each site (0–3) based on the extent of disease at that anatomic region. Results There was no correlation between CS at diagnosis and subsequent treatment outcome. Patients with a CS > 2 after induction therapy had a significantly worse event-free survival (EFS) than those with scores ≤ 2 (3-y EFS: 15.4% ± 5.3% vs. 44.9% ± 3.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). A postinduction CS > 2 identified a cohort of patients at greater risk for an event, independent of other known neuroblastoma factors, including age, MYCN status, ploidy, mitosis-karyorrhexis index, and histologic grade. For MYCN-amplified tumors, the presence (CS > 0) versus absence (CS = 0) of residual mIBG avidity after induction was associated with a significantly worse outcome (3-y EFS: 11.8% ± 7.8% vs. 49.6% ± 7.7%, respectively; P = 0.003). After transplantation, patients with a CS > 0 had an EFS inferior to that of patients with a CS of 0 (3-y EFS: 28.9% ± 6.8% vs. 49.3% ± 4.9%, respectively [n = 133]; P = 0.009). Conclusion Curie scoring carries prognostic significance in the management of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. In particular, patients with CSs > 2 after induction have extremely poor outcomes and should be considered for alternative therapeutic strategies. PMID:23440556

  5. Semiquantitative mIBG scoring as a prognostic indicator in patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's oncology group.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Gregory A; Parisi, Marguerite T; Shulkin, Barry L; Naranjo, Arlene; Kreissman, Susan G; London, Wendy B; Villablanca, Judith G; Maris, John M; Park, Julie R; Cohn, Susan L; McGrady, Patrick; Matthay, Katherine K

    2013-04-01

    Radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is a highly sensitive and specific marker for detecting neuroblastoma. A semiquantitative mIBG score (Curie score [CS]) was assessed for utility as a prognostic indicator for a cohort of patients with high-risk metastatic disease. mIBG scans from 280 patients with mIBG-avid, stage 4 neuroblastoma enrolled on the Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocol A3973 were evaluated at diagnosis (n = 280), after induction chemotherapy (n = 237), and after an autologous stem cell transplantation (n = 178). Individual mIBG scans were evaluated at 10 different anatomic regions, with the scoring of each site (0-3) based on the extent of disease at that anatomic region. There was no correlation between CS at diagnosis and subsequent treatment outcome. Patients with a CS > 2 after induction therapy had a significantly worse event-free survival (EFS) than those with scores ≤ 2 (3-y EFS: 15.4% ± 5.3% vs. 44.9% ± 3.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). A postinduction CS > 2 identified a cohort of patients at greater risk for an event, independent of other known neuroblastoma factors, including age, MYCN status, ploidy, mitosis-karyorrhexis index, and histologic grade. For MYCN-amplified tumors, the presence (CS > 0) versus absence (CS = 0) of residual mIBG avidity after induction was associated with a significantly worse outcome (3-y EFS: 11.8% ± 7.8% vs. 49.6% ± 7.7%, respectively; P = 0.003). After transplantation, patients with a CS > 0 had an EFS inferior to that of patients with a CS of 0 (3-y EFS: 28.9% ± 6.8% vs. 49.3% ± 4.9%, respectively [n = 133]; P = 0.009). Curie scoring carries prognostic significance in the management of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. In particular, patients with CSs > 2 after induction have extremely poor outcomes and should be considered for alternative therapeutic strategies.

  6. Reliability, Reproducibility and Prognostic Accuracy of the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score on CT Perfusion and Non-Contrast CT in Hyperacute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jillian; Churilov, Leonid; Chen, Ziyuan; Koome, Miriam; Rane, Neil; Campbell, Bruce C V

    2017-08-16

    Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) assesses early ischemic change on non-contrast CT (NCCT). We hypothesised that assessing ASPECTS regions on CT Perfusion (CTP) rather than NCCT would improve inter-rater agreement and prognostic accuracy, particularly in patients presenting early after stroke onset. Ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous alteplase from 2009 to 2014 at our institution were included in this study. Inter-rater agreement and prognostic accuracy of ASPECTS across modalities were analysed by the time between stroke onset and initial NCCT, dichotomized 1st quartile versus quartiles 2-4, referred to as epochs. ASPECTS was assessed by 2 independent raters, blinded to stroke onset time, with agreement determined by weighted kappa (κw). Prognostic accuracy for favourable outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) was assessed using the receiver-operating characteristic analysis. A total of 227 participants were included. There was significant time-by-CT modality interaction for ASPECTS, p < 0.0001. The inter-rater agreement of ASPECTS on NCCT significantly increased as onset to CT time increased (κw epoch 1 = 0.76 vs. κw epoch 2-4 = 0.89, p = 0.04), whereas agreement using CTP parameters was stable across epochs. Inter-rater agreement for CTP-ASPECTS was significantly higher than NCCT in early epoch: Tmax κw = 0.96, p = 0.002; cerebral blood volume (CBV) κw = 0.95, p = 0.003; cerebral blood flow (CBF) κw = 0.94, p = 0.006, with no differences in the later epochs. Prognostic accuracy of ASPECTS on NCCT in epoch 1 were (area under the ROC curves [AUC] = 0.52, 95% CI 0.48-0.56), CBV (AUC = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.69, CBF (AUC = 0.58, 95% CI 0.46-0.71) and Tmax (AUC = 0.62, 95% CI 0.49-0.75), p = 0.46 between modalities. CTP can improve reliability when assessing the extent of ischemic changes, particularly in patients imaged early after stroke onset. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A combination of Nottingham prognostic index and IHC4 score predicts pathological complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Weijuan; Liang, Gehao; Xie, Xinhua; Zheng, Wenbo; Song, Erwei; Su, Fengxi; Gong, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic complete response (pCR) prediction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is important for clinical decision-making in breast cancer. This study investigated the predictive value of Nottingham prognostic index (NPI), Immunohistochemical four (IHC4) score and a new predictive index combined with them in estrogen-positive (ER+) breast cancer following NAC. We retrospectively gathered clinical data of 739 ER+ breast cancer patients who received NAC from two cancer centers. We developed a new predictive biomarker named NPI+IHC4 to predict pCR in ER+ breast cancer in a training set (n=443) and validated it in an external validation set (n=296). The results showed that a lower IHC4 score, NPI and NPI+IHC4 were significantly associated a high pCR rate in the entire cohort. In the study set, NPI+IHC4 showed a better sensitivity and specificity for pCR prediction (AUC 0.699, 95% CI 0.626-0.772) than IHC4 score (AUC 0.613, 95% CI 0.533-0.692), NPI (AUC 0.576, 95% CI 0.494-0.659), tumor size (AUC 0.556, 95% CI 0.481-0.631) and TNM stage (AUC 0.521, 95% CI 0.442-0.601). In the validation set, NPI+IHC4 had a better predictive value for pCR (AUC 0.665, 95% CI 0.579-0.751) than IHC4 score or NPI alone. In addition, ER+ patients with lower IHC4, NPI and NPI+IHC4 scores had significantly better DFS in both study and validation sets. In summary, NPI+IHC4 can predict pCR following NAC and prognosis in ER+ breast cancer, which is cost-effect and potentially more useful in guiding decision-making regarding NAC in clinical practice. Further validation is needed in prospective clinical trials with larger cohorts of patients. PMID:27894097

  8. Childhood Hodgkin International Prognostic Score (CHIPS) Predicts event-free survival in Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Cindy L; Chen, Lu; McCarten, Kathleen; Wolden, Suzanne; Constine, Louis S; Hutchison, Robert E; de Alarcon, Pedro A; Keller, Frank G; Kelly, Kara M; Trippet, Tanya A; Voss, Stephan D; Friedman, Debra L

    2017-04-01

    Early response to initial chemotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) measured by computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET) after two to three cycles of chemotherapy may inform therapeutic decisions. Risk stratification at diagnosis could, however, allow earlier and potentially more efficacious treatment modifications. We developed a predictive model for event-free survival (EFS) in pediatric/adolescent HL using clinical data known at diagnosis from 1103 intermediate-risk HL patients treated on Children's Oncology Group protocol AHOD0031 with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, cyclophosphamide (ABVE-PC) chemotherapy and radiation. Independent predictors of EFS were identified and used to develop and validate a prognostic score (Childhood Hodgkin International Prognostic Score [CHIPS]). A training cohort was randomly selected to include approximately half of the overall cohort, with the remainder forming the validation cohort. Stage 4 disease, large mediastinal mass, albumin (<3.5), and fever were independent predictors of EFS that were each assigned one point in the CHIPS.  Four-year EFS was 93.1% for patients with CHIPS = 0, 88.5% for patients with CHIPS = 1, 77.6% for patients with CHIPS = 2, and 69.2% for patients with CHIPS = 3. CHIPS was highly predictive of EFS, identifying a subset (with CHIPS 2 or 3) that comprises 27% of intermediate-risk patients who have a 4-year EFS of <80% and who may benefit from early therapeutic augmentation.  Furthermore, CHIPS identified higher risk patients who were not identified by early PET or CT response. CHIPS is a robust and inexpensive approach to predicting risk in patients with intermediate-risk HL that may improve ability to tailor therapy to risk factors known at diagnosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Exploring the social, emotional and behavioural development of preschool children: is Glasgow different?

    PubMed

    Marryat, Louise; Thompson, Lucy; Minnis, Helen; Wilson, Philip

    2015-01-17

    Glasgow City has poorer adolescent and adult health outcomes in comparison to demographically similar cities in England and the rest of Scotland. Until now, little exploration of differences in child development between Glasgow and other areas has been made. The authors hypothesized that the poorer health outcomes and lifestyle behaviours of adults, coupled with relative economic deprivation, may impact on child social, emotional and behavioural development, compared with children from other parts of Scotland. Data from the Growing Up in Scotland national birth cohort study were used. Differences between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scores and child and family characteristics of children living in the Greater Glasgow and Clyde (GGC) Health board vs. other health boards were examined. Logistic regression and linear regression models were fitted in order to explore independent associations between health board and SDQ raw and banded scores, respectively, whilst controlling for other contributing factors. Children in GGC were demographically different from those in other areas of Scotland, being significantly more likely to live in the most deprived areas, yet no difference was found in relation to the mental health of preschool-aged children in GGC. Children in GGC had slightly better SDQ Conduct Problems scores once demographic factors were controlled for. At 46 months, there does not appear to be any difference in Glasgow with regards to social, emotional and behavioural development. Glaswegian children appear to have slightly fewer conduct problems at this age, once demographics are taken into account. A range of theories are put forward as to why no differences were found, including the inclusion of areas adjacent to Glasgow City in the analysis, sleeper effects, and rater bias.

  10. The Advanced Dementia Prognostic Tool (ADEPT): A Risk Score to Estimate Survival in Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Susan L.; Miller, Susan C.; Teno, Joan M.; Davis, Roger B.; Shaffer, Michele L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Estimating life expectancy is challenging in advanced dementia. Objectives To create a risk score to estimate survival in nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study performed in the setting of all licensed US NHs. Residents with advanced dementia living in US NHs in 2002 were identified using Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments. Mortality data from Medicare files were used to determine 12-month survival. Independent variables were selected from the MDS. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model survival. The accuracy of the final model was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). To develop a risk score, points were assigned to variables in the final model based on parameter estimates. Residents meeting hospice eligibility guidelines for dementia, based on MDS data, were identified. The AUROC assessed the accuracy of hospice guidelines to predict six-month survival. Results Over 12 months, 40.6% of residents with advanced dementia (n=22,405) died. Twelve variables best predicted survival: length of stay, age, male, dyspnea, pressure ulcers, total functional dependence, bedfast, insufficient intake, bowel incontinence, body mass index, weight loss, and congestive heart failure. The AUROC for the final model was 0.68. The risk score ranged from 0–32 points (higher scores indicate worse survival). Only 15.9% of residents met hospice eligibility guidelines for which the AUROC predicting six-month survival was 0.53. Conclusion A mortality risk score derived from MDS data predicted six-month survival in advanced dementia with moderate accuracy. The predictive ability of hospice guidelines, simulated with MDS data, was poor. PMID:20621437

  11. Model for End-stage Liver Disease excluding INR (MELD-XI) score in critically ill patients: Easily available and of prognostic relevance

    PubMed Central

    Wernly, Bernhard; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Kabisch, Bjoern; Muessig, Johanna; Masyuk, Maryna; Hoppe, Uta C.; Kelm, Malte; Jung, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose MELD-XI, an adapted version of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score excluding INR, was reported to predict outcomes e.g. in patients with acute heart failure. We aimed to evaluate MELD-XI in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for prognostic relevance. Methods A total of 4381 medical patients (66±14 years, 2862 male) admitted to a German ICU between 2004 and 2009 were included and retrospectively investigated. Admission diagnoses were e.g. myocardial infarction (n = 2034), sepsis (n = 694) and heart failure (n = 688). We divided our patients in two cohorts basing on their MELD-XI score and evaluated the MELD-XI score for its prognostic relevance regarding short-term and long-term survival. Optimal cut-offs were calculated by means of the Youden-Index. Results Patients with a MELD-XI score >12 had pronounced laboratory signs of organ failure and more comorbidities. MELD-XI >12 was associated with an increase in short-term (27% vs 6%; HR 4.82, 95%CI 3.93–5.93; p<0.001) and long-term (HR 3.69, 95%CI 3.20–4.25; p<0.001) mortality. In a univariate Cox regression analysis for all patients MELD-XI was associated with increased long-term mortality (changes per score point: HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.05–1.07; p<0.001) and remained to be associated with increased mortality after correction in a multivariate regression analysis for renal failure, liver failure, lactate concentration, blood glucose concentration, oxygenation and white blood count (HR 1.04, 95%CI 1.03–1.06; p<0.001). Optimal cut-off for the overall cohort was 11 and varied remarkably depending on the admission diagnosis: myocardial infarction (9), pulmonary embolism (9), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (17) and pneumonia (17). We performed ROC-analysis and compared the AUC: SAPS2 (0.78, 95%CI 0.76–0.80; p<0.0001) and APACHE (0.76, 95%CI 0.74–0.78; p<0.003) score were superior to MELD-XI (0.71, 95%CI 0.68–0.73) for prediction of mortality. Conclusions The easily

  12. Model for End-stage Liver Disease excluding INR (MELD-XI) score in critically ill patients: Easily available and of prognostic relevance.

    PubMed

    Wernly, Bernhard; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Kabisch, Bjoern; Muessig, Johanna; Masyuk, Maryna; Hoppe, Uta C; Kelm, Malte; Jung, Christian

    2017-01-01

    MELD-XI, an adapted version of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score excluding INR, was reported to predict outcomes e.g. in patients with acute heart failure. We aimed to evaluate MELD-XI in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for prognostic relevance. A total of 4381 medical patients (66±14 years, 2862 male) admitted to a German ICU between 2004 and 2009 were included and retrospectively investigated. Admission diagnoses were e.g. myocardial infarction (n = 2034), sepsis (n = 694) and heart failure (n = 688). We divided our patients in two cohorts basing on their MELD-XI score and evaluated the MELD-XI score for its prognostic relevance regarding short-term and long-term survival. Optimal cut-offs were calculated by means of the Youden-Index. Patients with a MELD-XI score >12 had pronounced laboratory signs of organ failure and more comorbidities. MELD-XI >12 was associated with an increase in short-term (27% vs 6%; HR 4.82, 95%CI 3.93-5.93; p<0.001) and long-term (HR 3.69, 95%CI 3.20-4.25; p<0.001) mortality. In a univariate Cox regression analysis for all patients MELD-XI was associated with increased long-term mortality (changes per score point: HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.05-1.07; p<0.001) and remained to be associated with increased mortality after correction in a multivariate regression analysis for renal failure, liver failure, lactate concentration, blood glucose concentration, oxygenation and white blood count (HR 1.04, 95%CI 1.03-1.06; p<0.001). Optimal cut-off for the overall cohort was 11 and varied remarkably depending on the admission diagnosis: myocardial infarction (9), pulmonary embolism (9), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (17) and pneumonia (17). We performed ROC-analysis and compared the AUC: SAPS2 (0.78, 95%CI 0.76-0.80; p<0.0001) and APACHE (0.76, 95%CI 0.74-0.78; p<0.003) score were superior to MELD-XI (0.71, 95%CI 0.68-0.73) for prediction of mortality. The easily calculable MELD-XI score is a robust and reliable

  13. Predictive and Prognostic Value of the 21-Gene Recurrence Score in Hormone Receptor–positive, Node-positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to hormonal therapy is recommended for patients with estrogen receptor–positive (ER+), node-positive (N+) early breast cancer (EBC). Some of these patients, however, are not likely to benefit from treatment and may, therefore, be overtreated while also incurring unnecessary treatment-related adverse events and health care costs. The 21-gene Recurrence Score assay has been clinically validated and recommended for use in patients with ER+, node-negative (N0) EBC to assess the 10-year risk of distant disease recurrence and predict the likelihood of response to adjuvant chemotherapy. A growing body of evidence from several large phase III clinical trials reports similar findings in patients with ER+, N+ EBC. A systematic review of published literature from key clinical trials that have used the 21-gene breast cancer assay in patients with ER+, N+ EBC was performed. The Recurrence Score has been shown to be an independent predictor of disease-free survival, overall survival, and distant recurrence-free interval in patients with ER+, N+ EBC. Outcomes from decision impact and health economics studies further indicate that the Recurrence Score affects physician treatment recommendations equally in patients with N+ or N0 disease. It also indicates that a reduction in Recurrence Score–directed chemotherapy is cost-effective. There is a large body of evidence to support the use of the 21-gene assay Recurrence Score in patients with N+ EBC. Use of this assay could help guide treatment decisions for patients who are most likely to receive benefit from chemotherapy. PMID:24853663

  14. Civilian craniocerebral gunshot injuries in a developing country: presentation, injury characteristics, prognostic indicators, and complications.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Babar; Kumar, Rajesh; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Irfan, Affan Bin; Bari, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Civilian craniocerebral gunshot injuries (CGIs) are rare but increasing in incidence in the developing world and there is scare literature on presentation, injury characteristics, prognostic indicators, and complications of brain trauma due to projectiles. A retrospective review of 51 civilian patients with CGI who presented to the Aga Khan University Hospital between 1998 and 2011 was carried out. Presentation, injury characteristics, and complications were analyzed with emphasis on outcomes and prognostic indicators. There were 43 male and 8 female patients with an average age of 28.92 (±12.33) years. Twenty-three patients had a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15, 6 patients had a GCS score of 9-12, and 22 patients had a GCS score of 3-8 on admission. The overall mortality rate was 22% (n = 11). The most common postoperative neurologic deficits were motor deficits (19 patients) followed by aphasias (11 patients). On univariate analysis, admission GCS score and bi- or multilobar injuries were found to be highly predictive of neurologic outcome. There was no difference in outcomes between penetrating and perforating injuries. We also failed to find a statistically significant correlation between ventricular injury and outcomes in our patients. Admission GCS and number of lobes involved are highly prognostic of outcome. Patients with a GCS score ≥9 and unilobar injury on computed tomographic scans may benefit the most from surgical management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the prognostic value of Chronic Liver Failure Consortium scores and traditional models for predicting mortality in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Artur Gião; Teixeira, Cristina; Vaz, Ana Margarida; Martins, Cláudio; Queirós, Patrícia; Alves, Ana; Velasco, Francisco; Peixe, Bruno; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Guerreiro, Horácio

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the European Association for the Study of the Liver - Chronic Liver Failure (CLIF) Consortium defined two new prognostic scores, according to the presence or absence of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF): the CLIF Consortium ACLF score (CLIF-C ACLFs) and the CLIF-C Acute Decompensation score (CLIF-C ADs). We sought to compare their accuracy in predicting 30- and 90-day mortality with some of the existing models: Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), MELD-Na, integrated MELD (iMELD), MELD to serum sodium ratio index (MESO), Refit MELD and Refit MELD-Na. Retrospective cohort study that evaluated all admissions due to decompensated cirrhosis in 2 centers between 2011 and 2014. At admission each score was assessed, and the discrimination ability was compared by measuring the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). A total of 779 hospitalizations were evaluated. Two hundred and twenty-two patients met criteria for ACLF (25.9%). The 30- and 90-day mortality were respectively 17.7 and 37.3%. CLIF-C ACLFs presented an AUROC for predicting 30- and 90-day mortality of 0.684 (95% CI: 0.599-0.770) and 0.666 (95% CI: 0.588-0.744) respectively. No statistically significant differences were found when compared to traditional models. For patients without ACLF, CLIF-C ADs had an AUROC for predicting 30- and 90-day mortality of 0.689 (95% CI: 0.614-0.763) and 0.672 (95% CI: 0.624-0.720) respectively. When compared to other scores, it was only statistically superior to MELD for predicting 30-day mortality (p=0.0296). The new CLIF-C scores were not statistically superior to the traditional models, with the exception of CLIF-C ADs for predicting 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. Prognostic value of ICU-acquired hypernatremia in patients with neurological dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bei; Han, Qianpeng; Mengke, Nashun; He, Kairan; Zhang, Yiqin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Hongke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have indicated that hypernatremia is associated with increased mortality. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired hypernatremia and the prognosis of critically neurological patients. Based on serum sodium level in the ICU, 450 patients were divided into 3 groups: 222 had normal serum sodium, 142 had mild hypernatremia, and 86 had severe hypernatremia. Kaplan–Meier and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hypernatremia in critically neurological patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for serum sodium levels to determine their roles in predicting ICU mortality. Hypernatremia was significantly related with age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, serum sodium, APACHE II score, and serum creatinine. Moreover, the different treatment outcome including mechanical ventilation, the days of stayed in ICU, and Glasgow Outcome Scale score had correlation with serum sodium levels. Old ages, GCS score, therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) score, APACHE II score, serum sodium peak, and so on were all associated with the mortality. In addition, hypernatremia was an independent prognostic factor for critically neurological patients by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 1.192, 95% confidence interval = 1.135–1.252, P = 0.000). Moreover, we got the sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 74.5% in the ROC analysis between peak serum sodium and the mortality. The area under the ROC curve was 0.844, and the optimal cutoff value was 147.55. Our results showed that ICU-acquired hypernatremia may be a potential prognosis marker for critically neurological patients. PMID:27583842

  17. Prognostic value of ICU-acquired hypernatremia in patients with neurological dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bei; Han, Qianpeng; Mengke, Nashun; He, Kairan; Zhang, Yiqin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Hongke

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have indicated that hypernatremia is associated with increased mortality. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired hypernatremia and the prognosis of critically neurological patients.Based on serum sodium level in the ICU, 450 patients were divided into 3 groups: 222 had normal serum sodium, 142 had mild hypernatremia, and 86 had severe hypernatremia. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hypernatremia in critically neurological patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for serum sodium levels to determine their roles in predicting ICU mortality.Hypernatremia was significantly related with age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, serum sodium, APACHE II score, and serum creatinine. Moreover, the different treatment outcome including mechanical ventilation, the days of stayed in ICU, and Glasgow Outcome Scale score had correlation with serum sodium levels. Old ages, GCS score, therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) score, APACHE II score, serum sodium peak, and so on were all associated with the mortality. In addition, hypernatremia was an independent prognostic factor for critically neurological patients by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 1.192, 95% confidence interval = 1.135-1.252, P = 0.000). Moreover, we got the sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 74.5% in the ROC analysis between peak serum sodium and the mortality. The area under the ROC curve was 0.844, and the optimal cutoff value was 147.55.Our results showed that ICU-acquired hypernatremia may be a potential prognosis marker for critically neurological patients.

  18. Validation of the Glasgow Facial Palsy Scale for the assessment of smile reanimation surgery in facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, M; O'Reilly, B; Robertson, B F; Morley, S

    2012-06-01

      To evaluate the Glasgow Facial Palsy Scale as a tool to assess facial reanimation surgery in facial palsy. Software analysis of digital video data is used to measure facial movements, comparing the affected to the normal side. We present the first use of the Glasgow Facial Palsy Scale following facial re-animation surgery.   A comparison of the Glasgow Facial Palsy Scale against the Nottingham scoring system. Subjects undergoing unilateral surgical smile reanimation procedures were selected. Comparison was made with the Nottingham facial palsy scale and the House-Brackmann Scale pre- and postoperatively.   Patients were recruited in the facial palsy clinic of Canniesburn Plastic Surgery Unit, Glasgow.   Seven consecutive patients were selected who were due to undergo unilateral facial reanimation.   The difference in pre- and post-surgical facial movement as measured using the Glasgow Facial Palsy Scale with this value being compared to that obtained using the Nottingham scoring system. Note was also taken of the correlation with House-Brackmann system and clinical correlation. Statistical analysis indicated a linear relationship between the Glasgow Facial Palsy Scale and the Nottingham System. The Pearson correlation test was used to confirm the relationship between the two methods giving a result of -0.587, which indicates significant correlation between the two methods. We conclude that the Glasgow Facial Palsy Scale is a standardised objective method of assessing the change in facial movement following smile reanimation surgery. We commend it as a useful tool to objectively assess surgical results in this challenging field. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of prognostic differences in elderly patients with pneumonia treated by between pulmonologists and non-pulmonologists: a propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Kosaku; Oka, Hiroaki; Ohama, Minoru; Uchida, Masahiro; Miyajima, Hajime; Iwashita, Tomohiko; Okabe, Eiji; Shuto, Osamu; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pneumonia among elderly people is increasing in aged countries, and both pulmonologists and non-pulmonologists treat such patients. The aim of this study was to assess prognostic differences between elderly patients treated by pulmonologists and those treated by non-pulmonologists. This study was a retrospective cohort using a propensity score analysis. Patients 65 years of age or over with pneumonia were consecutively included. The propensity score was estimated based on the patient's background and severity of pneumonia. The difference in 30-day and 90-day mortality depending on the attending physician's specialty was analyzed after adjusting for other variables, including the propensity score. We assessed 68 and 182 patients treated by pulmonologists and non-pulmonologists, respectively. The pulmonologists tended to be in charge of patients with hypoxemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or dementia without aspiration pneumonia or renal dysfunction (area under receiver operating characteristic curve to predict treatment by a pulmonologist according to the propensity score = 0.737, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, white blood count cell (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.000, P = 0.030) and the serum albumin level (0.382, P = 0.001) were associated with 30-day mortality, and a bedridden status (3.000, P = 0.013) and the serum albumin level (0.382, P < 0.001) were associated with 90-day mortality; however, the attending physician's specialty was not associated with these prognoses. The overall prognosis of pneumonia in elderly patients may not necessarily improve, irrespective of treatment by pulmonologists, and host factors seemed to be associated with mortality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prognostic role of Ki-67 score in localized prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Alejandro; Castro-Mesta, Julio F; Rodriguez-Romo, Laura; Hernandez-Barajas, David; González-Guerrero, Juan F; Rodríguez-Fernández, Iván A; González-Conchas, Galileo; Verdines-Perez, Adrian; Vera-Badillo, Francisco E

    2017-08-01

    Ki-67 for quantifying tumor proliferation is widely used. In localized prostate cancer (PCa), despite a suggested predictive role of Ki-67 for outcomes after therapies, it has not been incorporated into clinical practice. Herein, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature reporting the association of Ki-67 and disease outcomes in PCa treated radically. Medline and EMBASE databases were searched without date or language restrictions, using "KI67" and "prostate cancer" MeSH terms. Studies reporting Ki-67 association with clinical outcomes (disease-free survival [DFS], biochemical failure-free survival, rate of distant metastases [DM], disease-specific survival [DSS], or overall survival [OS], or all of these) in patients with PCa managed actively were included, and relevant data extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Odds ratios (OR) were weighted and pooled in a meta-analysis using Mantel-Haenszel random-effect modeling. Twenty-one studies comprising 5,419 patients met eligibility for analysis, and 67.6% of patients had low Ki-67. Mean Ki-67 was 6.14%. High Ki-67 was strongly associated with worse clinical outcomes. DFS was better in those patients with low Ki-67 at 5 and 10 years (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.23-0.44, P<0.00001; OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.20-0.48, P<0.00001). Similarly, low Ki-67 was related to improved DSS at 5 and 10 years (OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.10-0.21, P<0.00001; OR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.06-0.40, P<0.00001). Association between low Ki-67 scores with improved OS (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.37-0.61; P<0.00001) and high Ki-67 scores with DM at 5 years (OR = 4.07; 95% CI: 2.52-6.58; P<0.00001) was consistently observed. High Ki-67 expression in localized PCa is a factor of poor prognosis for DSS, biochemical failure-free survival, DFS, DM, and OS after curative-intent treatments. Incorporation into clinical routine of this widely available and standardized biomarker should be strongly considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Initial intracranial pressure as a prognosticator in head-injured patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Ren, Guanghui; He, Shengxue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prognostic discrimination and prediction of initial intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) undergoing decompressive craniectomy (DC). Results The relationship between the initial ICP value and prognosis was quantified, and higher values indicated worse patient outcomes. Univariate analysis showed that the initial ICP value was significantly associated with mortality (odds ratio: 1.272, 95% confidence interval: 1.116-1.449; P<0.001) and unfavorable outcomes (odds ratio: 1.256, 95% confidence interval: 1.160-1.360; P<0.001). After adjustment for related outcome predictors of TBI in multivariate regression, the initial ICP value remained an independent predictor of unfavorable outcomes (odds ratio: 1.251, 95% confidence interval: 1.140-1.374; P=0.015) and mortality (odds ratio: 1.162, 95% confidence interval: 1.093-1.321; P=0.019). Methods A retrospective study was conducted in 133 TBI patients after DC. Initial ICP was defined as the first ICP recorded during surgery. Mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale score at the end of follow-up were used as outcome measures. Unfavorable and favorable outcomes were classified by a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1 to 3 and 4 to 5, respectively. We used binary logistic and proportional odds regression for prognostic analyses. Conclusion For TBI patients undergoing DC, the initial ICP value provides great prognostic discrimination and is an independent predictor of unfavorable outcomes and mortality. We suggest that the initial ICP be included as a prognosticator in the overall assessment of prognosis of head-injured patients after DC. PMID:27577076

  2. Diagnostic validation and prognostic significance of the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Amparo, Fernanda C; Kamimura, Maria A; Molnar, Miklos Z; Cuppari, Lilian; Lindholm, Bengt; Amodeo, Celso; Carrero, Juan J; Cordeiro, Antonio C

    2015-05-01

    Malnutrition and inflammation are highly prevalent and intimately linked conditions in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients that lead to a state of protein-energy wasting (PEW), the severity of which can be assessed by the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS). Here, we applied MIS and validated, for the first time, its ability to grade PEW and predict mortality in nondialyzed CKD patients. We cross-sectionally evaluated 300 CKD stages 3-5 patients [median age 61 (53-68) years; estimated glomerular filtration rate 18 (12-27) mL/min/1.73 m(2); 63% men] referred for the first time to our center. Patients were followed during a median 30 (18-37) months for all-cause mortality. A worsening in MIS scale was associated with inflammatory biomarkers increase (i.e. alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, fibrinogen, ferritin and C-reactive protein) as well as a progressive deterioration in various MIS-independent indicators of nutritional status based on anthropometrics, dynamometry, urea kinetics and bioelectric impedance analysis. A structural equation model with two latent variables (assessing simultaneously malnutrition and inflammation factors) demonstrated good fit to the observed data. During a follow-up, 71 deaths were recorded; patients with higher MIS were at increased mortality risk in both crude and adjusted Cox models. MIS appears to be a useful tool to assess PEW in nondialyzed CKD patients. In addition, MIS identified patients at increased mortality risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT AGENCY... a final rule published in the Federal Register of September 30, 2013, that establishes Class E... aid, Glasgow, MT. A favorable comment from the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA)...

  4. Comparison of APACHE II, MEES and Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with nontraumatic coma for prediction of mortality

    PubMed Central

    Grmec, Štefek; Gašparovic, Vladimir

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: There are numerous prehosital descriptive scoring systems, and it is uncertain whether they are efficient in assessing of the severity of illness and whether they have a prognostic role in the estimation of the illness outcome (in comparison with that of the prognostic scoring system Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II). The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of the various scoring systems in predicting outcome in nontraumatic coma patients and to evaluate the importance of mental status measurement in relation to outcome. Patients and methods: In a prehospital setting, postintervention values of the Mainz Emergency Evaluation System (MEES) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were measured for each patient. The APACHE II score was recorded on the day of admission to the hospital. This study was undertaken over a 2-year period (from January 1996 to October 1998), and included 286 consecutive patients (168 men, 118 women) who were hospitalized for nontraumatic coma. Patients younger than 16 years were not included. Their age varied from 16 to 87 years, with mean ± standard deviation of 51.8 ± 16.9 years. Sensitivity, specificity and correct prediction of outcome were measured using the χ2 method, with four severity scores. The best cutoff point in each scoring system was determined using the Youden index. The difference in Youden index was calculated using the Z score. For each score, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained. The difference in ROC was calculated using the Z score. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For prediction of mortality, the best cutoff points were 19 for APACHE II, 18 for MEES and 5 for GCS. The best cutoffs for the Youden index were 0.63 for APACHE II, 0.61 for MEES and 0.65 for GCS. The correct prediction of outcome was achieved in 79.9% for APACHE II, 78.3% for MEES and 81.9% for GCS. The area under the ROC curve (mean ± standard error) was 0

  5. Decision analysis of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome stratified according to the revised international prognostic scoring system (IPSS-R).

    PubMed

    Della Porta, M G; Jackson, C H; Alessandrino, E P; Rossi, M; Bacigalupo, A; van Lint, M T; Bernardi, M; Allione, B; Bosi, A; Guidi, S; Santini, V; Malcovati, L; Ubezio, M; Milanesi, C; Todisco, E; Voso, M T; Musto, P; Onida, F; Iori, A P; Cerretti, R; Grillo, G; Molteni, A; Pioltelli, P; Borin, L; Angelucci, E; Oldani, E; Sica, S; Pascutto, C; Ferretti, V; Santoro, A; Bonifazi, F; Cazzola, M; Rambaldi, A

    2017-03-21

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) represents the only curative treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), but involves non-negligible morbidity and mortality. Crucial questions in clinical decision making include the definition of optimal timing of the procedure and the benefit of cytoreduction before transplant in high risk patients. We carried out a decision analysis on 1728 MDS who received supportive care, transplantation or hypomethylating agents (HMAs). Risk assessment was based on the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). We used a continuous-time multistate Markov model to describe the natural history of disease and evaluate the effect of different treatment policies on survival. Life expectancy increased when transplantation was delayed from the initial stages to intermediate IPSS-R risk (gain of life expectancy 5.3, 4.7 and 2.8 years for patients aged ⩽55, 60 and 65 years, respectively), and then decreased for higher risks. Modelling decision analysis on IPSS-R vs original IPSS changed transplantation policy in 29% of patients, resulting in a 2-year gain in life expectancy. In advanced stages, HMAs given before transplant is associated with a 2-year gain of life expectancy, especially in older patients. These results provide a preliminary evidence to maximize the effectiveness of allo-SCT in MDS.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 21 March 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.88.

  6. Enumerating Bone Marrow Blasts from Nonerythroid Cellularity Improves Outcome Prediction in Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Permits a Better Definition of the Intermediate Risk Category of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R).

    PubMed

    Calvo, Xavier; Arenillas, Leonor; Luño, Elisa; Senent, Leonor; Arnan, Montserrat; Ramos, Fernando; Pedro, Carme; Tormo, Mar; Montoro, Julia; Díez-Campelo, María; Blanco, María Laura; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Xicoy, Blanca; Bonanad, Santiago; Jerez, Andrés; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Ana, Ferrer; Sanz, Guillermo F; Florensa, Lourdes

    2017-03-28

    The Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) has been recognized as the score with the best outcome prediction capability in MDS, but this brought new concerns about the accurate prognostication of patients classified into the intermediate risk category. The correct enumeration of blasts is essential in prognostication of MDS. Recent data evidenced that considering blasts from nonerythroid cellularity (NECs) improves outcome prediction in the context of IPSS and WHO classification. We assessed the percentage of blasts from total nucleated cells (TNCs) and NECs in 3,924 MDS patients from the GESMD, 498 of whom were MDS with erythroid predominance (MDS-E). We assessed if calculating IPSS-R by enumerating blasts from NECs improves prognostication of MDS. 24% patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk categories and showed shorter overall survival (OS) and time to AML evolution than those who remained into the intermediate one. Likewise, a better distribution of patients was observed, since lower-risk patients showed longer survivals than previously whereas higher-risk ones maintained the outcome expected in this poor prognostic group (median OS<20 months). Furthermore, our approach was particularly useful for detecting patients at risk of dying with AML. Regarding MDS-E, 51% patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk ones and showed shorter OS and time to AML. In this subgroup of MDS, IPSS-R was capable of splitting our series in five groups with significant differences in OS only when blasts were assessed from NECs. In conclusion, our easy-applicable approach improves prognostic assessment of MDS patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic Value of Brain Diffusion Weighted Imaging After Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Wijman, Christine A.C.; Mlynash, Michael; Caulfield, Anna Finley; Hsia, Amie W.; Eyngorn, Irina; Bammer, Roland; Fischbein, Nancy; Albers, Gregory W.; Moseley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcome prediction is challenging in comatose post-cardiac arrest survivors. We assessed the feasibility and prognostic utility of brain diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) during the first week. Methods Consecutive comatose post-cardiac arrest patients were prospectively enrolled. MRI data of patients who met predefined specific prognostic criteria were used to determine distinguishing ADC thresholds. Group 1: death at 6 months and absent motor response or absent pupillary reflexes or bilateral absent cortical responses at 72 hours, or vegetative at 1 month. Group 2A: Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score of 4 or 5 at 6 months. Group 2B: GOS of 3 at 6 months. The percentage of voxels below different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) thresholds was calculated at 50 × 10−6 mm2/sec intervals. Results Overall, 86% of patients underwent MR imaging. Fifty-one patients with 62 brain MRIs were included in the analyses. Forty patients met the specific prognostic criteria. The percentage of brain volume with an ADC value below 650–700 × 10−6 mm2/sec best differentiated between group 1 and groups 2A and 2B combined (p<0.001), while the 400–450 × 10−6 mm2/sec threshold best differentiated between groups 2A and 2B (p=0.003). The ideal time window for prognostication using DWI was between 49 to 108 hours after the arrest. When comparing MRI in this time window with the 72 hour neurological examination MRI improved the sensitivity for predicting poor outcome by 38% while maintaining 100% specificity (p=0.021). Interpretation Quantitative DWI in comatose post-cardiac arrest survivors holds great promise as a prognostic adjunct. PMID:19399889

  8. Ratio of C-reactive protein to albumin is a prognostic factor for operable non-small-cell lung cancer in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takuro; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Kunizaki, Masaki; Kamohara, Ryotaro; Hatachi, Go; Doi, Ryoichiro; Obata, Tomohiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate inflammation-based scoring as a prognostic factor for operable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in elderly patients. We collected preoperative data from 108 patients aged above 80 years with NSCLC. Inflammation-based scoring systems, including the C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (CAR) and the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), as well as other clinicopathological factors, were evaluated as potential prognostic factors. The median patient age was 82 (range 80-93) years and the 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 49.7 and 73.9%, respectively. The cut-off value for CAR was calculated using a receiver operator characteristics analysis and patients were dichotomized accordingly. Patients with a low CAR had significantly higher overall survival than those with a high CAR (<0.028; 65.2% vs. ≥0.028; 31.0%, respectively; p < 0.01). In univariate analysis, female gender, a low Charlson comorbidity index of 0 or 1 and a low CAR were significantly identified in overall survival. On multivariate analysis, a low CAR (p = 0.03, hazard ratio: 2.13, 95% confidence interval 1.074-4.295) was identified as a significant prognostic factor. The preoperative CAR is a useful predictor of overall survival and could be a simple prognostic tool to help identify resectable NSCLC in elderly patients.

  9. Correlation and prognostic role of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and SYNTAX score in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: A six-year experience.

    PubMed

    Zuin, Marco; Rigatelli, Gianluca; Picariello, Claudio; dell'Avvocata, Fabio; Marcantoni, Lina; Pastore, Gianni; Carraro, Mauro; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Faggian, Giuseppe; Roncon, Loris

    2017-05-12

    The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a prognostic marker in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of our study is to demonstrates the correlation between SYNTAX score (SXs) and NLR and its association with 1-year cardiovascular (CV) mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Over 6 consecutive years, (1st January 2010 and 1st January 2016) 6560 patients (4841 males and 1719 females, mean age 64.36±11.77years) were admitted for AMI and treated with PCI within 24-h. The study population was divided into tertiles based on the SXs. Both in STEMI and NSTEMI groups, neutrophils and the SXs were significantly higher (p<0.0001) in upper versus lower among NLR tertiles and a significant correlation was found between the NLR and SXs (r=0.617, p<0.0001 and r=0.252, p<0.0001 for STEMI and NSTEMI groups, respectively). One-year CV mortality significantly raised up among the NLR tertiles in both STEMI and NSTEMI patients (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that, after adjusting SXs and PAD, an NLR (≥3.9 and ≥2.7 for STEMI and NTEMI patients, respectively) was an independent significant predictor of 1-year CV mortality (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.54-5.26, p=0.001 and OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.62-4.07, p<0.0001 for STEMI and NSTEMI respectively.) CONCLUSIONS: NLR significantly correlates with SXs and is associated with 1-year CV mortality in patients with STEMI or NSTEMI treated with PCI within 24-h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is 'excess' mortality in Glasgow an artefact of measurement?

    PubMed

    Stanners, G; Walsh, D; McCartney, G

    2015-06-01

    A previous investigation of Glasgow's excess mortality showed that the (income) deprivation profiles for Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester were nearly identical. Despite this, premature deaths in Glasgow were found to be more than 30% higher, and all deaths 15% higher, than in the English cities. This study aimed to explore the extent to which Glasgow's higher mortality could be explained by the use of a potentially more sensitive measure of deprivation employed at a suitably small and consistent geographical spatial unit. Analyses of mortality based on the creation of a three-city index of deprivation using rates of 'car/van ownership' deprivation for small areas (average population size: 1600) in Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester derived from the census. Rates of 'car/van ownership deprivation were calculated for small areas in Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. All-cause and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated for Glasgow relative to Liverpool and Manchester, standardizing for age, gender and deprivation decile. The overall levels of car/van ownership based deprivation in Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester, in 2001, differed. Glasgow had a higher percentage of its population who did not have access to a car compared with Liverpool and Manchester. All-cause mortality, after adjustment for age, sex and this measure of deprivation, for deaths <65 years were 15% higher and 8% higher for all deaths for males and females respectively. However, this was lower than the excess observed in the previous study. 'Excess' mortality was greatest in the working age groups of 15-44 years and 45-64 years, where it was 23% and 15% higher respectively. For deaths at all ages after adjustment, analysis by deprivation decile showed that excess mortality in Glasgow was seen in half the deciles, including four of the five most deprived deciles. However, the greatest excess was seen in comparison of the least deprived neighbourhoods. For premature mortality

  11. Comparison of risk of local-regional recurrence after mastectomy or breast conservation therapy for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation stratified according to a prognostic index score

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eugene H.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Oh, Julia L.; Chen, Allen M.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hunt, Kelly K.; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Buchholz, Thomas A. . E-mail: tbuchhol@mdanderson.org

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: We previously developed a prognostic index that stratified patients treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy into groups with different risks for local-regional recurrence (LRR). The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of LRR as a function of prognostic index score for patients treated with BCT or mastectomy plus radiation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 815 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Patients were assigned an index score from 0 to 4 and given 1 point for the presence of each factor: clinical N2 to N3 disease, lymphovascular invasion, pathologic size >2 cm, and multifocal residual disease. Results: The 10-year LRR rates were very low and similar between the mastectomy and BCT groups for patients with an index score of 0 or 1. For patients with a score of 2, LRR trended lower for those treated with mastectomy vs. BCT (12% vs. 28%, p = 0.28). For patients with a score of 3 to 4, LRR was significantly lower for those treated with mastectomy vs. BCT (19% vs. 61%, p = 0.009). Conclusions: This analysis suggests that BCT can provide excellent local-regional treatment for the vast majority of patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. For the few patients with a score of 3 to 4, LRR was >60% after BCT and was <20% with mastectomy. If these findings are confirmed in larger randomized studies, the prognostic index may be useful in helping to select the type of surgical treatment for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation.

  12. STS-68 radar image: Glasgow, Missouri

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-10-07

    STS068-S-055 (7 October 1994) --- This is a false-color L-Band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired using the L-Band radar channel (horizontally transmitted and received and horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization's combined. The data were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on orbit 50 on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 37 by 25 kilometers (23 by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in land forms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory flood plains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image, below the bend of the river, is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as dark regions. West (left) of the dark areas, a gap in the levee tree canopy shows the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses the three microwave wavelengths: the L-Band (24 centimeters), C-Band (6 centimeters) and X-Band (3 centimeters). The multi

  13. Risk factors in germ cell tumour patients with relapse or progressive disease after first-line chemotherapy: evaluation of a prognostic score for survival after high-dose chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sammler, C; Beyer, J; Bokemeyer, C; Hartmann, J T; Rick, O

    2008-01-01

    To retrospectively re-evaluate a published prognostic score for response to salvage treatment in patients with germ-cell tumours relapsing or progressing after cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. From a database of 257 germ cell tumour (GCT) patients treated with salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) we identified 176 patients (67%) with relapse or progression after first-line conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT). Patients were retrospectively grouped according to a published prognostic score defined by Fossa and colleagues [Fossa SD, Stenning SP, Gerl A, et al. Prognostic factors in patients progressing after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. Br J Cancer 1999; 80:1392-9]. Overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) after HDCT were retrospectively evaluated in each prognostic group. After a median follow-up of 9 years the OS probability for all 176 patients was 38% and the EFS probability was 35%. The respective survival probability at 5 years in 100/176 (57%) good prognosis patients and 76/176 (43%) poor prognosis patients were 47% versus 28% for OS (p<0.001) and 41% versus 26% for EFS (p<0.005). Whereas survival probabilities did not differ in good prognosis patients, OS and EFS in poor prognosis patients were substantially better in the current series of patients treated with HDCT compared to the ones reported by Fossa treated with CDCT. This retrospective analysis confirms the impact of prognostic factors on the results of salvage treatment in patients with GCT and suggests a clinical benefit for patients with poor prognosis features receiving a single course of HDCT.

  14. A case report on near manual strangulation and glasgow coma scale.

    PubMed

    Meel Banwari, L

    2015-09-01

    Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is considered as a gold standard in estimating the prognosis of the comatose patient. The management of the patient relies heavily on this scale. The mechanism of injury must also be included in scoring of the GCS. Survival from strangulation is uncommon, and if it occurs, it is often associated with various complications such as neurological consequences. To highlight a poor correlation with low GCS and ultimate outcome in cases of manual strangulation. This is a case report of young female adult who was raped and manually strangulated by a colleague during a training course for traditional healers. She was admitted with very low (3/15) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and presumed to have a poor prognosis. She was rigorously ventilated in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and was discharged from hospital after a week without any complications. The neck and genital injuries are described. This report discusses. A low Glasgow Coma Scale is not a predictive of poor prognosis in cases of manual strangulation.

  15. 78 FR 41337 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    .../Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Glasgow, MT, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument... route domestic airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface at the Glasgow VOR/DME... controlled airspace the Glasgow VOR/ DME, Glasgow, MT. This proposal will be subject to an...

  16. Does cell-of-origin or MYC, BCL2 or BCL6 translocation status provide prognostic information beyond the International Prognostic Index score in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab and chemotherapy? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Berendse, Sabine; Marafioti, Teresa; McNamara, Christopher

    2017-02-09

    We examined the additional prognostic value for survival of cell-of-origin, and MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 translocation status to that provided by the International Prognostic Index in newly-diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated firstline with rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy. We searched Medline, Premedline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ISI Proceedings (2000-2015) and assessed study risk-of-bias using a prognostic study checklist. Forty-four studies of moderate-high risk of bias with 100-712 participants were included. Immunohistochemistry-determined cell-of-origin, and BCL2 and BCL6 translocation status added no additional prognostic value. Half of the studies on gene expression profiling-determined cell-of-origin and MYC translocation status found that germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and no translocation were associated with better overall survival (OS) whereas the remaining studies found no effect of these covariates. Further studies are required to ensure that biological information assessed using newer technologies can be reliably used for studies that incorporate newer agents targeting distinct molecular abnormalities identified in high-risk DLBCL patients.

  17. Ratio of C-Reactive Protein/Albumin is An Inflammatory Prognostic Score for Predicting Overall Survival of Patients with Small-cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Zhan, Jianhua; Hong, Shaodong; Hu, Zhihuang; Fang, Wenfeng; Qin, Tao; Ma, Yuxiang; Yang, Yunpeng; He, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the C-reactive protein/ albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We examined the prognostic value of this ratio in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this retrospective study, a total of 367 eligible SCLC patients were analyzed and the correlation between the pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio and overall survival (OS) was investigated. The optimal cutoff level of CRP/Alb ratio was at 0.441. A low and high CRP/Alb ratio was assigned to 65.1% and 34.9% of patients, respectively. The median OS of patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio was worse than those in the low group (13.70 vs 18.90 months HR, 1.34; p = 0.005). Disease stage (p < 0.001), performance status (PS) (p < 0.001) and pretreatment LDH (p < 0.001) were also significant predictors of OS. Multivariate analyses showed that the CRP/Alb ratio is an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.025). This study demonstrated that the CRP/Alb ratio could independently predict OS in patients with SCLC, and had comparable prognostic value to other known prognostic markers. Therefore, the CRP/Alb ratio could have prognostic value and be a measurable biomarker in patients with SCLC. PMID:26084991

  18. Body mass index, airflow obstruction and dyspnea and body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea scores, age and pack years-predictive properties of new multidimensional prognostic indices of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Khalid; Keaney, Niall; Kay, Andrea; Price, Monica; Munby, Joan; Billett, Andrew; Haggerty, Sharon; Taylor, Ian K.; Al Otaibi, Hajed

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should involve a multidimensional approach that is now clearly shown to be better than using spirometric impairment alone. The aim of this study is to validate and compare novel tools without an exercise test and to extend prognostic value to patients with less severe impairment of Forced expiratory volume 1 s. METHODS: A prospective, observational, primary care cohort study identified 458 eligible patients recruited from the primary care clinics in the northeast of England in 1999–2002. A new prognostic indicator – body mass index, airflow obstruction and dyspnea (BOD) together with the conventional prognostic indices age, dyspnea and airflow obstruction (ADO), global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) and new GOLD matrix were studied. We also sought to improve prognostication of BOD by adding age (A) and smoking history as pack years (S) to validate BODS (BOD with smoking history) and BODAS (BOD with smoking history and age) as prognostic tools and the predictive power of each was analyzed. RESULTS: The survival of the 458 patients was assessed after a median of 10 years when the mortality was found to be 33.6%. The novel indices BOD, BODS, and BODAS were significantly predictive for all-cause mortality in our cohort. Furthermore with ROC analysis the C statistics for BOD, BODS, and BODAS were 0.62, 0.66, and 0.72, respectively (P < 0.001 for each), whereas ADO and GOLD stages had a C statistic of 0.70 (P < 0.001) and 0.56 (P < 0.02), respectively. GOLD Matrix was not significant in this cohort. CONCLUSION: BOD, BODS, and BODAS scores are validated predictors of all-cause mortality in a primary care cohort with COPD. PMID:27803752

  19. Body mass index, airflow obstruction and dyspnea and body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea scores, age and pack years-predictive properties of new multidimensional prognostic indices of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Khalid; Keaney, Niall; Kay, Andrea; Price, Monica; Munby, Joan; Billett, Andrew; Haggerty, Sharon; Taylor, Ian K; Al Otaibi, Hajed

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should involve a multidimensional approach that is now clearly shown to be better than using spirometric impairment alone. The aim of this study is to validate and compare novel tools without an exercise test and to extend prognostic value to patients with less severe impairment of Forced expiratory volume 1 s. A prospective, observational, primary care cohort study identified 458 eligible patients recruited from the primary care clinics in the northeast of England in 1999-2002. A new prognostic indicator - body mass index, airflow obstruction and dyspnea (BOD) together with the conventional prognostic indices age, dyspnea and airflow obstruction (ADO), global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) and new GOLD matrix were studied. We also sought to improve prognostication of BOD by adding age (A) and smoking history as pack years (S) to validate BODS (BOD with smoking history) and BODAS (BOD with smoking history and age) as prognostic tools and the predictive power of each was analyzed. The survival of the 458 patients was assessed after a median of 10 years when the mortality was found to be 33.6%. The novel indices BOD, BODS, and BODAS were significantly predictive for all-cause mortality in our cohort. Furthermore with ROC analysis the C statistics for BOD, BODS, and BODAS were 0.62, 0.66, and 0.72, respectively (P < 0.001 for each), whereas ADO and GOLD stages had a C statistic of 0.70 (P < 0.001) and 0.56 (P < 0.02), respectively. GOLD Matrix was not significant in this cohort. BOD, BODS, and BODAS scores are validated predictors of all-cause mortality in a primary care cohort with COPD.

  20. Representing the Glasgow Coma Scale in IT: Proper Specification is Required for Assessment Scales.

    PubMed

    Goossen, William; Oemig, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In healthcare a huge amount of assessment scales and score systems are in use to abbreviate and summarize the results of clinical observations to interpret a patient's condition in a valid and reliable manner. It is challenging to convey the information in a semantic interoperable form to other systems. A bad approach would be to invent individual models for each of them. Within this paper we would like to demonstrate that a generic model is sufficient by demonstrating the realization with the Glasgow Coma Scale.

  1. Selective internal migration. Does it explain Glasgow's worsening mortality record?

    PubMed

    Popham, Frank; Boyle, Paul J; O'Reilly, Dermot; Leyland, Alastair H

    2011-11-01

    The mortality difference between Glasgow and the rest of Scotland has been increasing and mortality rates are higher than Glasgow's excess deprivation would suggest. One plausible explanation for this excess is selective migration. A sample of 137,073 individuals aged 15 to 64 in 1991 from the Scottish Longitudinal Study was used to test this explanation. Three geographic areas were compared: Glasgow; Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh cities combined and the rest of Scotland. The impact of selective migration was assessed by calculating age and sex standardised mortality rates for 2001/03 by residence in 2001 and by residence in 1991. Glasgow experienced the greatest loss of population (-7.1%) between 1991 and 2001 but this was not strongly related to deprivation. It had the highest mortality at baseline and the difference between it and the other areas increased over the ten years. This pattern was not significantly affected by calculating death rates according to area of residence at 1991 or in 2001. Our results suggest that the increasing difference in mortality rates between Glasgow and the rest of Scotland over this period was probably not caused by selective migration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: applicability and relation with the Glasgow Coma Scale.

    PubMed

    Fürbringer e Silva, Silvia Cristina; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in São Paulo - Brazil. The sample consisted of 73 victims of blunt traumatic brain injury, admitted at this institution between January 03rd and May 03rd 2001. Regarding the applicability, the test could be applied in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score > 12; however, the end of post traumatic amnesia was verified in patients who scored > 14 on the scale. A significant relationship (r s = 0.65) was verified between these measures, although different kinds of relationship between the end of the amnesia and changes in consciousness were observed.

  3. Prognostic correlation of cell cycle progression score and Ki-67 as a predictor of aggressiveness, biochemical failure, and mortality in men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    López, Iván Henríquez; Parada, David; Gallardo, Pablo; Gascón, Marina; Besora, Arnau; Peña, Karla; Riu, Francesc; Arquez Pianetta, Miquel; Abuchaibe, Oscar; Torres Royò, Laura; Arenas, Meritxell

    2017-01-01

    Ki-67 is a proliferation marker in prostate cancer. A prognostic RNA signature was developed to characterize prostate cancer aggressiveness. The aim was to evaluate prognostic correlation of CCP and Ki-67 with biochemical failure (BF), and survival in high-risk prostate cancer patients (pts) treated with radiation therapy (RT). CCP score and Ki-67 were derived retrospectively from pre-treatment paraffin-embedded prostate cancer tissue of 33 men diagnosed from 2002 to 2006. CCP score was calculated as an average expression of 31 CCP genes. Ki-67 was determined by IHC. Single pathologist evaluated all tissues. Factors associated to failure and survival were analyzed. Median CCP score was 0.9 (-0-1 - 2.6). CCP 0: 1 pt; CCP 1: 19 pts; CCP 2: 13 pts. Median Ki-67 was 8.9. Ki-67 cutpoint was 15.08%. BF and DSM were observed in 21% and 9%. Ki-67 ≥ 15% predicted BF (p = 0.043). With a median follow-up of 8.4 years, 10-year BF, OS, DM and DSM for CCP 1 vs. CCP 2 was 76-71% (p = 0.83), 83-73% (p = 0.86), 89-85% (p = 0.84), and 94-78% (p = 0.66). On univariate, high Ki-67 was correlated with BF (p = 0.013), OS (p = 0.023), DM (p = 0.007), and DSM (p = 0.01). On Cox MVA, high Ki-67 had a BF trend (p = 0.063). High CCP score was not correlated with DSM. High Ki-67 significantly predicted outcome and provided prognostic information. CCP score may improve accuracy stratification. We did not provide prognostic correlation of CCP and DSM. It should be validated in a larger cohort of pts.

  4. Prognostic implications of serial risk score assessments in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) analysis.

    PubMed

    Benza, Raymond L; Miller, Dave P; Foreman, Aimee J; Frost, Adaani E; Badesch, David B; Benton, Wade W; McGoon, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Data from the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) were used previously to develop a risk score calculator to predict 1-year survival. We evaluated prognostic implications of changes in the risk score and individual risk-score parameters over 12 months. Patients were grouped by decreased, unchanged, or increased risk score from enrollment to 12 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates of subsequent 1-year survival were made based on change in the risk score during the initial 12 months of follow-up. Cox regression was used for multivariable analysis. Of 2,529 patients in the analysis cohort, the risk score was decreased in 800, unchanged in 959, and increased in 770 at 12 months post-enrollment. Six parameters (functional class, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, 6-minute walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide levels, and pericardial effusion) each changed sufficiently over time to improve or worsen risk scores in ≥5% of patients. One-year survival estimates in the subsequent year were 93.7%, 90.3%, and 84.6% in patients with a decreased, unchanged, and increased risk score at 12 months, respectively. Change in risk score significantly predicted future survival, adjusting for risk at enrollment. Considering follow-up risk concurrently with risk at enrollment, follow-up risk was a much stronger predictor, although risk at enrollment maintained a significant effect on future survival. Changes in REVEAL risk scores occur in most patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension over a 12-month period and are predictive of survival. Thus, serial risk score assessments can identify changes in disease trajectory that may warrant treatment modifications. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a radical foster care intervention in Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Kathleen Anne; Balogun, Mayowa Oluwatosin; Minnis, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Services for maltreated children are inadequate and lack infant mental health input in many parts of the world. A recent audit of Glasgow services revealed that children frequently 'revolve' between maltreating birth parents and various temporary foster placements for many years. Addressing infant mental health in this population will require radical change to current services. The New Orleans programme developed by the Tulane Infant Team in Louisiana is one such radical programme. Prior to the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test this programme in Glasgow, it was essential that policy-makers had some insight into the local model of service delivery and how a New Orleans model could impact. This article explores the structure and costs of the current Glasgow system and the potential costs and consequence impact of implementing a New Orleans model in Glasgow, using data obtained from the research literature, Glasgow City Council audit data and expert's opinion. A New Orleans-Glasgow model would likely shift resources from social services on to the NHS. The resource intensive nature of this model could increase the cost of an episode in care from £66 300 in the current system to £86 070; however, the probability of repeated episodes in care is likely to fall substantially, making the cost per child fall from £95 500 in the current system to £88 600. This study informed the design of a phase II explorative RCT, identified appropriate outcomes for measurement and areas of uncertainty for further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Comparison of the Prognostic Significance of Initial Blood Lactate and Base Deficit in Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Raux, Mathieu; Le Manach, Yannick; Gauss, Tobias; Baumgarten, Romain; Hamada, Sophie; Harrois, Anatole; Riou, Bruno; Duranteau, Jacques; Langeron, Olivier; Mantz, Jean; Paugam-Burtz, Catherine; Vigue, Bernard

    2017-03-01

    Initial blood lactate and base deficit have been shown to be prognostic biomarkers in trauma, but their respective performances have not been compared. Blood lactate levels and base deficit were measured at admission in trauma patients in three level 1 trauma centers. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data. The association of initial blood lactate and base deficit with mortality was tested using receiver operating characteristics curve, logistic regression using triage scores (Revised Trauma Score and Mechanism Glasgow scale and Arterial Pressure score), and Trauma Related Injury Severity Score as a reference standard. The authors also used a reclassification method. The authors evaluated 1,075 trauma patients (mean age, 39 ± 18 yr, with 90% blunt and 10% penetrating injuries and a mortality of 13%). At admission, blood lactate was elevated in 425 (39%) patients and base deficit was elevated in 725 (67%) patients. Blood lactate was correlated with base deficit (R = 0.54; P < 0.001). Using logistic regression, blood lactate was a better predictor of death than base deficit when considering its additional predictive value to triage scores and Trauma Related Injury Severity Score. This result was confirmed using a reclassification method but only in the subgroup of normotensive patients (n = 745). Initial blood lactate should be preferred to base deficit as a biologic variable in scoring systems built to assess the initial severity of trauma patients.

  7. The Physical Tourist Physics in Glasgow: A Heritage Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2006-12-01

    I trace the history of the physical and applied sciences, and particularly physics, in Glasgow. Among the notable individuals I discuss are Joseph Black (1728 1799), James Watt (1736 1819), William John Macquorn Rankine (1820 1872), William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824 1907), John Kerr (1824 1907), Frederick Soddy (1877 1956), John Logie Baird (1888 1946), and Ian Donald (1910 1987), as well as physics-related businesses.The locations, centering on the city center and University of Glasgow, include sites both recognizable today and transformed from past usage, as well as museums and archives related to the history and interpretation of physics.

  8. NSCA light pollution seminar, Glasgow, 1999 November 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizon, R.

    2000-04-01

    In July 1999 I was invited to speak at a seminar on 'Light Pollution in Scotland', to be held in Glasgow in November. The event was organised by the National Society for Clean Air and Protection of the Environment (NSCA).The Glasgow Central Hotel saw the gathering of over 100 local authority planners and environmental health officers from all over Scotland, and the CfDS presence included Dennis Proudman, of Taynuilt, Argyll, who has done much to spread awareness of the problem of light pollution in the Argyll area, not least with his series of articles in the Oban Times.

  9. Assessment of the prognostic role of a 94-single nucleotide polymorphisms risk score in early breast cancer in the SIGNAL/PHARE prospective cohort: no correlation with clinico-pathological characteristics and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Curtit, Elsa; Pivot, Xavier; Henriques, Julie; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Fumoleau, Pierre; Rios, Maria; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Bachelot, Thomas; Soulié, Patrick; Jouannaud, Christelle; Bourgeois, Hugues; Petit, Thierry; Tennevet, Isabelle; Assouline, David; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Lavau-Denes, Sandrine; Darut-Jouve, Ariane; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Tarpin, Carole; Lévy, Christelle; Delecroix, Valérie; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique; Cojocarasu, Oana; Meunier, Jérôme; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Kerbrat, Pierre; Faure-Mercier, Céline; Blanché, Hélène; Sahbatou, Mourad; Boland, Anne; Bacq, Delphine; Besse, Céline; Thomas, Gilles; Deleuze, Jean-François; Pauporté, Iris; Romieu, Gilles; Cox, David G

    2017-08-22

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have to date identified 94 genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) associated with risk of developing breast cancer. A score based on the combined effect of the 94 risk alleles can be calculated to measure the global risk of breast cancer. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the 94-SNP-based risk score is associated with clinico-pathological characteristics, breast cancer subtypes and outcomes in early breast cancer. A 94-SNP risk score was calculated in 8703 patients in the PHARE and SIGNAL prospective case cohorts. This score is the total number of inherited risk alleles based on 94 selected SNPs. Clinical data and outcomes were prospectively registered. Genotyping was obtained from a GWAS. The median 94-SNP risk score in 8703 patients with early breast cancer was 77.5 (range: 58.1-97.6). The risk score was not associated with usual prognostic and predictive factors (age; tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) status; Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade; inflammatory features; estrogen receptor status; progesterone receptor status; human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status) and did not correlate with breast cancer subtypes. The 94-SNP risk score did not predict outcomes represented by overall survival or disease-free survival. In a prospective case cohort of 8703 patients, a risk score based on 94 SNPs was not associated with breast cancer characteristics, cancer subtypes, or patients' outcomes. If we hypothesize that prognosis and subtypes of breast cancer are determined by constitutional genetic factors, our results suggest that a score based on breast cancer risk-associated SNPs is not associated with prognosis. PHARE cohort: NCT00381901 , Sept. 26, 2006 - SIGNAL cohort: INCa RECF1098, Jan. 28, 2009.

  10. Ideals of ITE Students at the University of Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruyter, Doret J.; Conroy, James C.; Lappin, Mary; McKinney, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of a questionnaire completed by initial teacher education (ITE) students at the University of Glasgow shows a clear divergence between their personal and professional ideals. The students define their own ideals predominantly in terms of situations, like being married, having children or being happy. Their professional ideals, which…

  11. Emotional and Behavioural Development in Glasgow Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Rachel; Nowek, Gail; Neill, Cróna; Minnis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the well-being of British children find that about 5-10% are at risk of developing problems. This study aimed to examine the emotional and behavioural development of six to eight year olds in an area of socio-economic deprivation in Glasgow (Scotland) and compare this with UK norms. Furthermore, it aimed to look at overlap…

  12. Pure Dead Brilliant?: Evaluating the Glasgow Story Digitisation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ian G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of The Glasgow Story (TGS) digitisation project, funded by the UK's National Lottery's New Opportunities Fund digitisation (NOF-Digi) programme, and a critique of the evaluation process itself. The paper emphasises the need for user impact evaluation and for results to be brought into…

  13. Territorialities in Scotland: Perceptions of Young People in Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Christopher Peter; Deuchar, Ross

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory, small-scale qualitative research enquiry into the perceptions and experiences of young people in communities afflicted by deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. The context within which we address this focus contains a culture reputed to involve sectarianism, territoriality and gangs.…

  14. Territorialities in Scotland: Perceptions of Young People in Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Christopher Peter; Deuchar, Ross

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory, small-scale qualitative research enquiry into the perceptions and experiences of young people in communities afflicted by deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. The context within which we address this focus contains a culture reputed to involve sectarianism, territoriality and gangs.…

  15. Long-term prognostic impact of CT-Leaman score in patients with non-obstructive CAD: Results from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) study.

    PubMed

    Andreini, Daniele; Pontone, Gianluca; Mushtaq, Saima; Gransar, Heidi; Conte, Edoardo; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Pepi, Mauro; Opolski, Maksymilian P; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Berman, Daniel S; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Dunning, Allison; Marques, Hugo; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Min, James K

    2017-03-15

    Non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) identified by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) demonstrated prognostic value. CT-adapted Leaman score (CT-LeSc) showed to improve the prognostic stratification. Aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of CT-LeSc to assess long-term prognosis of patients with non-obstructive (CAD). From 17 centers, we enrolled 2402 patients without prior CAD history who underwent CCTA that showed non-obstructive CAD and provided complete information on plaque composition. Patients were divided into a group without CAD and a group with non-obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis). Segment-involvement score (SIS) and CT-LeSc were calculated. Outcomes were non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and the combined end-point of MI and all-cause mortality. Patient mean age was 56±12years. At follow-up (mean 59.8±13.9months), 183 events occurred (53 MI, 99 all-cause deaths and 31 late revascularizations). CT-LeSc was the only multivariate predictor of MI (HRs 2.84 and 2.98 in two models with Framingham and risk factors, respectively) and of MI plus all-cause mortality (HR 2.48 and 1.94 in two models with Framingham and risk factors, respectively). This was confirmed by a net reclassification analysis confirming that the CT-LeSc was able to correctly reclassify a significant proportion of patients (cNRI 0.28 and 0.23 for MI and MI plus all-cause mortality, respectively) vs. baseline model, whereas SIS did not. CT-LeSc is an independent predictor of major acute cardiac events, improving prognostic stratification of patients with non-obstructive CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inflammation scores predict the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated with transarterial chemoembolization and recombinant human type-5 adenovirus H101

    PubMed Central

    He, Chao-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Background The systemic inflammatory response plays an important role in cancer development and progression. An original inflammation-based staging system for predicting survival in patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with recombinant human type-5 adenovirus H101 is not available. This study aimed to validate the prognostic value of inflammation scores for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who were treated with TACE combined with H101. Methods The data from 216 patients with HCC who underwent TACE combined with H101 from January 2007 to July 2015 were retrospectively collected, and the association of the inflammation scores with overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables associated with OS. The prognostic value of the inflammation scores, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil/ platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR-PLR), modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), prognostic index (PI), tumor-node-metastasis (TNM), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) staging systems were analyzed and compared using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). Results The estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 61.3%, 44.2%, and 40.5% for the entire study cohort, respectively; the median OS was 17 months. According to the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, the pretreatment NLR, tumor diameter and pretreatment alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were independent predictors of OS. The CLIP score had superior discriminative abilities compared with other staging systems, and the NLR-PLR score consistently displayed a higher AUROC value than the other inflammation-based prognostic scores. The combination of the NLR-PLR and CLIP scores exhibited a superior prognostic ability for OS compared to the NLR-PLR or

  17. Factors Considered by Clinicians when Prognosticating Intracerebral Hemorrhage Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, David Y; Chu, Stacy Y; Dell, Cameron A; Sparks, Mary J; Watson, Tiffany D; Langefeld, Carl D; Comeau, Mary E; Rosand, Jonathan; Battey, Thomas W K; Koch, Sebastian; Perez, Mario L; James, Michael L; McFarlin, Jessica; Osborne, Jennifer L; Woo, Daniel; Kittner, Steven J; Sheth, Kevin N

    2017-07-25

    The early subjective clinical judgment of clinicians outperforms formal prognostic scales for accurate determination of outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), with the judgment of physicians and nurses having equivalent accuracy. This study assessed specific decisional factors that physicians and nurses incorporate into early predictions of functional outcome. This prospective observational study enrolled 121 ICH patients at five US centers. Within 24 h of each patient's admission, one physician and one nurse on the clinical team were each surveyed to predict the patient's modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months and to list up to 10 subjective factors used in prognostication. Factors were coded and compared between (1) physician and nurse and (2) accurate and inaccurate surveys, with accuracy defined as an exact prediction of mRS. Aside from factors that are components of the ICH or FUNC scores, surveys reported pre-existing comorbidities (40.0%), other clinical or radiographic factors not in clinical scales (43.0%), and non-clinical/radiographic factors (21.9%) as important. Compared to physicians, nurses more frequently listed neurologic examination components (Glasgow Coma Scale motor, 27.3 vs. 5.8%, p < 0.0001; GCS verbal, 12.4 vs. 0.0%, p < 0.0001) and non-clinical/radiographic factors (31.4 vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0005). Physicians more frequently listed neuroimaging factors (ICH location, 33.9 vs. 7.4%, p < 0.0001; intraventricular hemorrhage, 13.2 vs. 2.5%, p = 0.003). There was no difference in listed factors between accurate versus inaccurate surveys. Clinicians frequently utilize factors outside of the components of clinical scales for prognostication, with physician and nurses focusing on different factors despite having similar accuracy.

  18. A Psychological Service Contribution to Nurture: Glasgow's Nurturing City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Sam; Kearney, Maura

    2017-01-01

    This article details the work undertaken in Glasgow to develop a range of nurturing approaches across establishments. Glasgow Psychological Service (GPS), in conjunction with Glasgow education colleagues, used the nurture group principles as developed by the Nurture Group Network, and extended and adapted these to give more detail and direction as…

  19. An Advanced Deep Learning Approach for Ki-67 Stained Hotspot Detection and Proliferation Rate Scoring for Prognostic Evaluation of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Chakraborty, Chandan; Arun, Indu; Ahmed, Rosina; Chatterjee, Sanjoy

    2017-06-12

    Being a non-histone protein, Ki-67 is one of the essential biomarkers for the immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation rate in breast cancer screening and grading. The Ki-67 signature is always sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Due to random morphological, color and intensity variations of cell nuclei (immunopositive and immunonegative), manual/subjective assessment of Ki-67 scoring is error-prone and time-consuming. Hence, several machine learning approaches have been reported; nevertheless, none of them had worked on deep learning based hotspots detection and proliferation scoring. In this article, we suggest an advanced deep learning model for computerized recognition of candidate hotspots and subsequent proliferation rate scoring by quantifying Ki-67 appearance in breast cancer immunohistochemical images. Unlike existing Ki-67 scoring techniques, our methodology uses Gamma mixture model (GMM) with Expectation-Maximization for seed point detection and patch selection and deep learning, comprises with decision layer, for hotspots detection and proliferation scoring. Experimental results provide 93% precision, 0.88% recall and 0.91% F-score value. The model performance has also been compared with the pathologists' manual annotations and recently published articles. In future, the proposed deep learning framework will be highly reliable and beneficial to the junior and senior pathologists for fast and efficient Ki-67 scoring.

  20. Prognostic Value of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Risk Score in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction (from the EPHESUS Trial).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Batric; Girerd, Nicolas; Rossignol, Patrick; Agrinier, Nelly; Camenzind, Edoardo; Fay, Renaud; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez

    2016-11-15

    The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score remains a robust prediction tool for short-term and midterm outcome in the patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the validity of this risk score in patients with STEMI with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remains unclear. A total of 2,854 patients with STEMI with early coronary revascularization participating in the randomized EPHESUS (Epleronone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study) trial were analyzed. TIMI risk score was calculated at baseline, and its predictive value was evaluated using C-indexes from Cox models. The increase in reclassification of other variables in addition to TIMI score was assessed using the net reclassification index. TIMI risk score had a poor predictive accuracy for all-cause mortality (C-index values at 30 days and 1 year ≤0.67) and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI; C-index values ≤0.60). Among TIMI score items, diabetes/hypertension/angina, heart rate >100 beats/min, and systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg were inconsistently associated with survival, whereas none of the TIMI score items, aside from age, were significantly associated with MI recurrence. Using a constructed predictive model, lower LVEF, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and previous MI were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The predictive accuracy of this model, which included LVEF and eGFR, was fair for both 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality (C-index values ranging from 0.71 to 0.75). In conclusion, TIMI risk score demonstrates poor discrimination in predicting mortality or recurrent MI in patients with STEMI with reduced LVEF. LVEF and eGFR are major factors that should not be ignored by predictive risk scores in this population.

  1. Changes and their prognostic implications in the abbreviated VitalPAC™ Early Warning Score (ViEWS) after admission to hospital of 18,827 surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Kellett, John; Wang, Fei; Woodworth, Simon; Huang, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    It is not known how often, to what extent and over what time frame any early warning scores change in surgical patients, and what the implications of these changes are. Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada. The changes in the first three recordings of the abbreviated version of the VitalPAC™ Early Warning Score (ViEWS) after admission to hospital of 18,827 surgical patients, and their relationship to subsequent in-hospital mortality were examined. In the 2.0 SD 2.4h between admission and the second recording the score changed in 12.6% of patients. If the initial abbreviated ViEWS was ≤ 2 points (78% of all patients) the in-hospital mortality was 0.5%, and not significantly different in the 3.7% of patients that either increased or decreased their score. Patients who had an initial score ≥ 3 had a significantly higher overall in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 5.48, Chi-square 120.72, p<0.0001). Of these patients, those with a lower second score (42.3% of patients) had a significantly lower in-hospital mortality than those with an unchanged second score (i.e. 1.5% versus 3.3%, odds ratio 0.43, Chi-square 11.08, p<0.001). The abbreviated ViEWS score measured on admission identifies the majority of surgical patients who are at low risk of in-hospital death. Patients with an initial abbreviated ViEWS ≥ 3 who do not reduce their score within 2-3h of admission have a further significantly increased mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of central obesity in risk stratification after an acute coronary event: does central obesity add prognostic value to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score in patients with acute coronary syndrome?

    PubMed

    Martins, Albino; Ribeiro, Sílvia; Gonçalves, Pierre; Correia, Adelino

    2013-10-01

    Accurate risk stratification is an important step in the initial management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and current guidelines recommend the use of risk scores, such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score (GRACE RS). Recent studies have suggested that abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular events in patients with ACS. However, little is known about the additional value of abdominal obesity beyond risk scores. The aim of our study was thus to assess whether waist circumference, a surrogate of abdominal adiposity, adds prognostic information to the GRACE RS. This was a retrospective cohort study of ACS patients admitted consecutively to a cardiac care unit between June 2009 and July 2010. The composite of all-cause mortality or myocardial reinfarction within six months of index hospitalization was used as the endpoint for the analysis. A total of 285 patients were studied, 96.1% admitted for myocardial infarction (with or without ST elevation) and 3.9% for unstable angina. At the end of the follow-up period, 10 patients had died and the composite endpoint had been reached in 27 patients (9.5%). More than 70% of the study population were obese or overweight, and abdominal obesity was present in 44.6%. The GRACE RS showed poor predictive accuracy (area under the curve 0.60), and most of the GRACE variables did not reach statistical significance in multivariate analysis. The addition of waist circumference to the GRACE RS did not improve its discriminatory performance. Abdominal obesity does not add prognostic information to the GRACE RS to predict six-month mortality or myocardial reinfarction.

  3. The Glasgow Voice Memory Test: Assessing the ability to memorize and recognize unfamiliar voices.

    PubMed

    Aglieri, Virginia; Watson, Rebecca; Pernet, Cyril; Latinus, Marianne; Garrido, Lúcia; Belin, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    One thousand one hundred and twenty subjects as well as a developmental phonagnosic subject (KH) along with age-matched controls performed the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, which assesses the ability to encode and immediately recognize, through an old/new judgment, both unfamiliar voices (delivered as vowels, making language requirements minimal) and bell sounds. The inclusion of non-vocal stimuli allows the detection of significant dissociations between the two categories (vocal vs. non-vocal stimuli). The distributions of accuracy and sensitivity scores (d') reflected a wide range of individual differences in voice recognition performance in the population. As expected, KH showed a dissociation between the recognition of voices and bell sounds, her performance being significantly poorer than matched controls for voices but not for bells. By providing normative data of a large sample and by testing a developmental phonagnosic subject, we demonstrated that the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, available online and accessible from all over the world, can be a valid screening tool (~5 min) for a preliminary detection of potential cases of phonagnosia and of "super recognizers" for voices.

  4. Patient-perceived benefit of sialendoscopy as measured by the Glasgow Benefit Inventory.

    PubMed

    Meier, Bue A; Holst, René; Schousboe, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Evaluate the patient-perceived effect of sialendoscopy on patients with obstructive symptoms from the salivary glands. Retrospectively identified cohort used for a prospective study of all consecutive patients at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark, March 2009 to December 2013. By chart review we recorded the patient's age, gender, date of the sialendoscopy, type of gland, sialolithiasis, successful extraction of sialolithiasis, stenosis of salivary ducts, dilation, type of saliva, and surgeon. The follow-up was done by applying the Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire by letter and telephone. There were 130 sialendoscopies performed on 116 patients. Of these, 24 patients were excluded due to subsequent surgery. Thus, 92 patients were eligible, of whom 80 responded, giving an 87% response rate. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory score had a predicted overall mean of 13.4 (95% confidence interval: 9.9 to 17.2). Significant positive outcomes by multiple regression were the presence of stones (P = 0.015) and examination of the parotid gland (P = 0.041). Overall, there is a significant patient-perceived benefit from sialendoscopy, which is comparable to the benefit from tonsillectomy. The benefit is significantly higher if stones are found than not and for examination of the parotid gland as compared to the submandibular gland. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Patient-perceived outcome after sialendoscopy using the glasgow benefit inventory.

    PubMed

    Ianovski, Ilia; Morton, Randall P; Ahmad, Zahoor

    2014-04-01

    Sialendoscopy is a technique for investigating and managing obstructive salivary disease that avoids risks associated with the more invasive sialoadenectomy and other open surgery techniques. To date, surgeon-based outcomes have been reported, but only one report of patient-oriented outcomes has appeared in the literature. The objective of this study was to review our experience after introducing sialendoscopy to New Zealand and report the patient-perceived benefit. A prospective observational study of all sialendoscopic procedures performed in the only sialendoscopy-practicing center in New Zealand between June 2010 and June 2012. Clinical and epidemiological data of all patients were recorded. Sialendoscopic findings, complications, and outcomes were noted. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire was administered to the patients at their follow-up. Fifty-four patients underwent a total of 66 sialendoscopic procedures, involving 44 parotid and 22 submandibular glands. There was a complete symptom resolution in 54 procedures (82%). Sialolith removal was successful in 67% of cases, with postsialendoscopy symptom resolution in 86% of sialolithiasis cases. Symptoms resolved in 81% of cases with ductal stenosis. The overall mean Glasgow Benefit Inventory score was +31, which compares very favorably with other otolaryngology procedures. This study shows a substantial positive patient-perceived benefit of sialendoscopy for both sialolith- and stenosis-based pathology. The overall rate of symptom resolution is comparable to international literature. 4. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Prognostic accuracy of SIRS criteria, qSOFA score and GYM score for 30-day-mortality in older non-severely dependent infected patients attended in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    González Del Castillo, J; Julian-Jiménez, A; González-Martínez, F; Álvarez-Manzanares, J; Piñera, P; Navarro-Bustos, C; Martinez-Ortiz de Zarate, M; Llopis-Roca, F; Debán Fernández, M; Gamazo-Del Rio, J; García-Lamberechts, E J; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2017-07-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score and GYM score to predict 30-day mortality in older non-severely dependent patients attended for an episode of infection in the emergency department (ED). We performed an analytical, observational, prospective cohort study including patients 75 years of age or older, without severe functional dependence, attended for an infectious process in 69 Spanish EDs for 2-day three-seasonal periods. Demographic, clinical and analytical data were collected. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality after the index event. We included 1071 patients, with a mean age of 83.6 [standard deviation (SD) 5.6] years; 544 (50.8%) were men. Seventy-two patients (6.5%) died within 30 days. SIRS criteria ≥ 2 had a sensitivity of 65% [95% confidence interval (CI) 53.1-75.9] and a specificity of 49% (95% CI 46.0-52.3), a qSOFA score ≥ 2 had a sensitivity of 28% (95% CI 18.2-39.8) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI 91.9-95.1), and a GYM score ≥ 1 had a sensitivity of 81% (95% CI 69.2-88.6) and a specificity of 45% (95% CI 41.6-47.9). A GYM score ≥ 1 and a qSOFA score ≥ 2 were the cut-offs with the highest sensitivity (p < 0.001) and specificity (p < 0.001), respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.73 (95% CI 0.66-0.79; p < 0.001) for the GYM score, 0.69 (95% CI 0.61-0.76; p < 0.001) for the qSOFA score and 0.65 (95% CI 0.59-0.72; p < 0.001) for SIRS. A GYM score ≥ 1 may be the most sensitive score and a qSOFA score ≥ 2 the most specific score to predict 30-day mortality in non-severely dependent older patients attended for acute infection in EDs.

  7. The prognostic value of initial blood lactate concentration measurements in very low birthweight infants and their use in development of a new disease severity scoring system.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise A; Dewhurst, Chris J; Yoxall, Charles William

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the predictive value of the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) score in current practise, the predictive value of blood lactate concentrations ([L]) and to develop a new clinical scoring system for very low birthweight (VLBW) babies. The predictive ability of CRIB, [L] and the development of the new score was based on retrospective data collected from all inborn VLBW babies born between March 2001 and February 2004 in a tertiary neonatal unit. Predictive ability was determined from area under the receiver operator curve (AUC). A new score was developed and validated with a second cohort of VLBW babies. 408 babies were studied in the development cohort and 275 in the validation cohort. AUC for CRIB was 0.933 (95% CI 0.897-0.969). Initial [L] was significantly higher in babies who died than in those who survived (median (range) 9.2 (1.26-21.1) vs 3.64 (0.67- 17.9) mmol/l, p<0.0001) as was the highest [L] in the first 12 h (10.2 (3.37-26) vs 3.84 (1.05-20.7) mmol/l, p<0.0001). A new score was developed using; highest [L], gestation and the presence of life-threatening malformation. AUC for the new score was 0.918 (95% CI 0.876-0.961) in the development cohort and 0.859 (95% CI 0.805-0.913) in the validation cohort. CRIB score retains its predictive ability for mortality in VLBW babies. Early hyperlactataemia is a predictor of death in VLBW babies. The new score appears to perform as well as CRIB but requires fewer data items.

  8. An Exploratory Study Identifying a Possible Response Shift Phenomena of the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Jonathan; Watts, Tessa; Davies, Ruth; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Slater, Julie

    2016-08-23

    A then-test technique was used to investigate the possibility of a response shift in the Glasgow hearing aid benefit profile (GHABP). Following completion of part 1 of the GHABP, 16 adults were invited for hearing-aid follow up appointments. In accordance with then-test technique, participants were asked to think back to before they had their hearing-aids fitted and the GHABP part 1 was completed again to re-establish the disability and handicap scores. These scores were then compared with the initial GHABP part I scores. Paired T testing and Wilcoxon Rank tests were carried out to investigate the statistical significance of the response shift effect. Statistically significant differences were seen between initial and retrospective GHABP (disability) scores using t test. No significant differences could be seen between the initial and retrospective handicap scores. Results suggest participants may have demonstrated a possible response shift phenomenon with the disability construct of the GHABP questionnaire, related to a possible re-calibration effect or a denial of disability effect. This exploratory study suggests that the GHABP questionnaire may be subject to a response shift phenomena. We suggest that further more robust studies are completed to verify this and recommend that this could have psychological impact on participants when explaining the results of the outcome measure and may affect hearing aid use. There is also potential for this phenomenon to affect global GHABP scores specifically when demonstrating to stakeholders the overall success of an audiology service.

  9. An Exploratory Study Identifying a Possible Response Shift Phenomena of the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Jonathan; Watts, Tessa; Davies, Ruth; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Slater, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A then-test technique was used to investigate the possibility of a response shift in the Glasgow hearing aid benefit profile (GHABP). Following completion of part 1 of the GHABP, 16 adults were invited for hearing-aid follow up appointments. In accordance with then-test technique, participants were asked to think back to before they had their hearing-aids fitted and the GHABP part 1 was completed again to re-establish the disability and handicap scores. These scores were then compared with the initial GHABP part I scores. Paired T testing and Wilcoxon Rank tests were carried out to investigate the statistical significance of the response shift effect. Statistically significant differences were seen between initial and retrospective GHABP (disability) scores using t test. No significant differences could be seen between the initial and retrospective handicap scores. Results suggest participants may have demonstrated a possible response shift phenomenon with the disability construct of the GHABP questionnaire, related to a possible re-calibration effect or a denial of disability effect. This exploratory study suggests that the GHABP questionnaire may be subject to a response shift phenomena. We suggest that further more robust studies are completed to verify this and recommend that this could have psychological impact on participants when explaining the results of the outcome measure and may affect hearing aid use. There is also potential for this phenomenon to affect global GHABP scores specifically when demonstrating to stakeholders the overall success of an audiology service. PMID:27942371

  10. Modified Glasgow Coma Scale to predict mortality in febrile unconscious children.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, P; Kishore, M

    2001-04-01

    A prospective hospital based study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of the Kasturba Hospital, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha to predict the mortality in children admitted with fever and unconsciousness using the Modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) score. Forty eight children were admitted with fever and unconsciousness; cases of febrile convulsions, epilepsy and cerebral palsy were excluded. MGCS scores were assessed on admission and repeated at 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after admission in each case. Diagnosis in each case was confirmed by history, examinations and investigations. All the cases were regularly followed up till death/discharge. The overall mortality was 29.1% (14/48) out of which 85% (12/14) died within the first 24 hours. Mortality was highest in the toddler age group and in patients with pyogenic meningitis. There was a significant association between death and MGCS scores on admission with a post test probability for discharge being only 10% with a score of less than 5 and 99% with a score of more than 10 respectively. MGCS scores on admission can be used to predict mortality in patients hospitalized with fever and unconsciousness. The scale is simple, easy, can be applied at bed side and does not need any investigations. Its application in developing countries with limited investigative and intensive care facilities can help the treating physician decide regarding referral and counseling the parents regarding the probable clinical outcome.

  11. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α, a possible prognostic marker in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pan, De-Sheng; Yan, Min; Hassan, Muhammad; Fang, Ze-Bin; Chen, Man-Tao

    2017-06-01

    8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is a potential biomarker of oxidative stress. This study clarified whether plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were affected and its underlying relevance to prognosis in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). In this prospective, observational study, a total of 170 controls and 170 aSAH patients were enrolled. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were detected using an ELISA. Severity was assessed by World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale and modified Fisher grading scale. Clinical outcomes included 6-month mortality and poor outcome referred to as Glasgow outcome scale score of 1-3. As compared to controls, admission plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were significantly enhanced. Increased concentrations of plasma 8-iso-PGF2α correlated with WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores. 8-iso-PGF2α in plasma was an independent predictor for clinical outcomes. Under ROC curve, the predictive values of 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations resembled those of WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores for clinical outcomes. An elevation in plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations is associated with the severity and poor outcome after aSAH, substantializing 8-iso-PGF2α as a potential prognostic biomarker of aSAH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. External Validation of the Rotterdam Computed Tomography Score in the Prediction of Mortality in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Charry, Jose D; Falla, Jesus D; Ochoa, Juan D; Pinzón, Miguel A; Tejada, Jorman H; Henriquez, Maria J; Solano, Juan Pablo; Calvache, Camilo

    2017-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem. It is a pathology that causes significant mortality and disability in Colombia. Different calculators and prognostic models have been developed to predict the neurological outcomes of these patients. The Rotterdam computed tomography (CT) score was developed for prognostic purposes in TBI. We aimed to examine the accuracy of the prognostic discrimination and prediction of mortality of the Rotterdam CT score in a cohort of trauma patients with severe TBI in a university hospital in Colombia. We analyzed 127 patients with severe TBI treated in a regional trauma center in Colombia over a 2-year period. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. The discriminatory power of the score, its accuracy, and precision were assessed by logistic regression and as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Shapiro-Wilk, Chi-square, and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare the real outcomes in the cohort against the predicted outcomes. The median age of the patient cohort was 33 years, and 84.25% were male. The median injury severity score was 25, the median Glasgow Coma Scale motor score was 3, the basal cisterns were closed in 46.46% of the patients, and a midline shift of >5 mm was seen in 50.39%. The 6-month mortality was 29.13%, and the Rotterdam CT score predicted a mortality of 26% (P < 0.0001) (area under the curve: 0.825; 95% confidence interval: 0.745-0.903). The Rotterdam CT score predicted mortality at 6 months in patients with severe head trauma in a university hospital in Colombia. The Rotterdam CT score is useful for predicting early death and the prognosis of patients with TBI.

  13. External Validation of the Rotterdam Computed Tomography Score in the Prediction of Mortality in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Charry, Jose D.; Falla, Jesus D.; Ochoa, Juan D.; Pinzón, Miguel A.; Tejada, Jorman H.; Henriquez, Maria J.; Solano, Juan Pablo; Calvache, Camilo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem. It is a pathology that causes significant mortality and disability in Colombia. Different calculators and prognostic models have been developed to predict the neurological outcomes of these patients. The Rotterdam computed tomography (CT) score was developed for prognostic purposes in TBI. We aimed to examine the accuracy of the prognostic discrimination and prediction of mortality of the Rotterdam CT score in a cohort of trauma patients with severe TBI in a university hospital in Colombia. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 127 patients with severe TBI treated in a regional trauma center in Colombia over a 2-year period. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. The discriminatory power of the score, its accuracy, and precision were assessed by logistic regression and as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Shapiro–Wilk, Chi-square, and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare the real outcomes in the cohort against the predicted outcomes. Results: The median age of the patient cohort was 33 years, and 84.25% were male. The median injury severity score was 25, the median Glasgow Coma Scale motor score was 3, the basal cisterns were closed in 46.46% of the patients, and a midline shift of >5 mm was seen in 50.39%. The 6-month mortality was 29.13%, and the Rotterdam CT score predicted a mortality of 26% (P < 0.0001) (area under the curve: 0.825; 95% confidence interval: 0.745–0.903). Conclusions: The Rotterdam CT score predicted mortality at 6 months in patients with severe head trauma in a university hospital in Colombia. The Rotterdam CT score is useful for predicting early death and the prognosis of patients with TBI. PMID:28936067

  14. Prognostic Value of the CHADS2 Score for Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Without Atrial Fibrillation-A Multi-Center Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Yamashita, Takayoshi; Sueta, Daisuke; Takashio, Seiji; Arima, Yuichiro; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Matsui, Kunihiko; Fujimoto, Kazuteru; Sakamoto, Kenji; Shimomura, Hideki; Tsunoda, Ryusuke; Hirose, Toyoki; Nakamura, Natsuki; Sakaino, Naritsugu; Nakamura, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Nobuyasu; Matsumura, Toshiyuki; Kajiwara, Ichiro; Koide, Shunichi; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nakao, Koichi; Oshima, Shuichi; Tsujita, Kenichi

    2017-08-16

    The CHADS2 score has mainly been used to predict the likelihood of cerebrovascular accidents in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, increasing attention is being paid to this scoring system for risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease. We investigated the value of the CHADS2 score in predicting cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events in coronary artery disease patients without atrial fibrillation. This was a multicenter, observational cohort study. The subjects had been admitted to one of the participating institutions with coronary artery disease requiring percutaneous coronary intervention. We calculated the CHADS2 scores for 7082 patients (mean age, 69.7 years; males, 71.9%) without clinical evidence of atrial fibrillation. Subjects were subdivided into low- (0-1), intermediate- (2-3), and high-score (4-6) groups and followed for 1 year. The end point was a composite of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke at 1-year follow-up. Rates of triple-vessel/left main trunk disease correlated positively with CHADS2 score categories. CHADS2 scores among single, double, and triple-vessel/left main trunk groups were 2 (1-2), 2 (1-3), and 2 (2-3), respectively (P<0.001). A total of 194 patients (2.8%) had a cardiovascular/cerebrovascular event, and Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significantly higher probability of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events in proportion to a higher CHADS2 score (log-rank test, P<0.001). Multivariate Cox hazard analysis identified CHADS2 score (per 1 point) as an independent predictor of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.17-1.47; P<0.001). This large cohort study indicated that the CHADS2 score is useful for the prediction of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events in coronary artery disease patients without atrial fibrillation. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. Prognostic significance of preoperative C-reactive protein: albumin ratio in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Shao, Yingjie; Fan, Min; Zhuang, Qianfeng; Wang, Kun; Cao, Wei; Xu, Xianlin; He, Xiaozhou

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a retrospective analysis to evaluate the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for its prognostic value in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The study comprised 406 CCRCC patients undergoing nephrectomy between 2003 and 2012 in our hospital. The correlations among the pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio, clinicopathological parameters, and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. An elevated CRP/Alb ratio was associated with older age at surgery (P=0.007), more advanced TNM stage (P<0.001), more presence of tumor necrosis (P<0.001) and lymphovascular invasion (P<0.001), lower concentration of hemoglobin (P<0.001) and calcium (P=0.005), and shorter OS (P<0.001). The multivariate analysis confirmed that the CRP/Alb ratio independently predicted the OS of patients with CCRCC (P<0.001), the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) (P=0.001) and modified GPS (mGPS) (P=0.019) were independent prognostic factors also. At last, we evaluated the prognostic value of the CRP/Alb ratio compared with the similar inflammation-based prognostic scores GPS and mGPS using the area under the curve (AUC). Although the differences were not statistically significant, the AUC value of the CRP/Alb ratio (continuous, categorical) was higher compared with the GPS and mGPS, except that the AUC value for the CRP/Alb ratio (categorical) at 3 years was lower than that for the GPS. The CRP/Alb ratio could take the place of the GPS and mGPS in terms of predicting prognosis in CCRCC. PMID:26823819

  16. Glasgow marathons 1982-1987. A review of medical problems.

    PubMed

    Ridley, S A; Rogers, P N; Wright, I H

    1990-02-01

    The race statistics, whether conditions and incidence of medical problems for the six consecutive years of the Glasgow Marathon are reviewed. The results suggest that the popularity of marathon running is declining but that the competitors are becoming more experienced, seeking medical assistance earlier and, as a result, experiencing fewer and less serious problems at the finish. The effect of weather conditions on the runners' performance is discussed.

  17. Drug related deaths amongst Glasgow city hostel dwellers.

    PubMed

    Seymour, A; Black, M; Simpson, K; Oliver, J S

    2000-12-01

    The problems of homelessness and drug misuse are every day issues encountered in today's society. Over the past 2 years the number of hostel residents overdosing within their rooms in the city of Glasgow was shown to increase. Approximately three-quarters of deaths involved heroin, of which 56% also involved at least one benzodiazepine. This paper demonstrates a dearth in the literature relating to drug misuse amongst the homeless population, highlighting an area in need of address by the appropriate authorities.

  18. Unhealthy Glasgow: a case for ecological public health?

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Phil

    2015-10-01

    Ecological public health has been proposed as an approach appropriate for addressing the multiple transitions that currently affect human health and sustainability. The paper draws on the author's experience in public health in Glasgow to analyse the health challenges faced by this postindustrial Scottish city. Like other such cities, it not only faces multiple health challenges but also demonstrates a currently unexplained excess mortality that has been dubbed the 'Glasgow Effect'. To explore this troubled mixture, the paper outlines four historical waves of public health challenge and response in Glasgow over the last century, and proposes that a fifth is emerging. The challenge now is how to negotiate environmental sustainability with social, political and economic sustainability to enhance health for all. The paper suggests that gains made by past approaches still need to be protected and can be included within ecological public health, but they lack the wider vision, coherence and capacity required if cities are to address the scale and range of contemporary conditions. A number of lessons are offered for the ecological public health perspective. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new prognostic evaluation of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty: combined Zwolle and Syntax score.

    PubMed

    Kul, Seref; Uyarel, Huseyin; Turfan, Murat; Ertas, Gokhan; Vatankulu, Mehmet Akif; Kucukdagli, Okkes Taha; Ergelen, Mehmet; Erer, Hatice Betul; Guvenc, Tolga Sinan; Goktekin, Omer

    2014-01-01

    The Zwolle score (Zs) is a validated risk score used to identify low-risk patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The Syntax score (Ss) is an angiographic score that evaluates the complexity of coronary artery disease. We aimed to create a simple risk score by combining these two scores for risk stratification in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. 299 consecutive STEMI patients (mean age 57.4 ± 11.7 years, 240 men) who underwent primary PCI were prospectively enrolled into the present study. The study population was divided into tertiles based on admission Zs and Ss. A high Zs (> 3) and high Ss (> 24) were defined as values in the third tertiles. A low Zs and low Ss were defined as values in the lower two tertiles. Patients were then classified into four groups: high Zs and high Ss (HZsHSs, n = 26), high Zs and low Ss (HZsLSs, n = 29), low Zs and high Ss (LZsHSs, n = 48), and low Zs and low Ss (LZsLSs, n = 196). In-hospital cardiacoutcomes were then recorded. In-hospital cardiovascular mortality was higher in HZsHSs (50%) compared to the HZsLSs (27.5%), LZsHSs (0%), and LZsLSs (0.5%) groups. After adjustment for potentially confounding factors, HZsHSs (OR 77.6, 95% CI 6.69-113.1, p = 0.001), and HZsLSs (OR 28.9, 95% CI 2.77-56.2, p = 0.005) status, but not LZsHSs and LZsLSs status, remained independent predictors of in-hospital cardiovascular mortality. STEMI patients with HZsHSs represent the highest risk population for in-hospital cardiovascular mortality.

  20. Prognostic factors for open globe injuries and correlation of Ocular Trauma Score at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Wei, Ho Sue; Teoh, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors influencing final vision outcome after surgical repair of open globe injuries and to correlate the Ocular trauma score. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case analysis of patients with open globe injuries at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore was performed. Pre-operative factors affecting final vision outcome in patients with open globe injury and correlation of ocular trauma score in our study with international ocular trauma scoring system was performed. Results: Case records of 172 eyes with open globe injury were analyzed. Mean age was 36. 67 years. Mean follow up was 12.26 m. Males were pre-dominantly affected. Initial visual acuity was ≥20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- CF, HM– PL and NLP in 24 (14%), 39 (22.7%), 16 (9.3%), 66 (38.4%) and 27 (15.7%) eyes respectively. Final visual acuity was ≤20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- 1/200, HM– PL and NLP in 76 (44.2%), 28 (16.3%), 11 (6.4%), 30 (17.4%) and 27 (15.7%) eyes respectively. Ocular trauma score in our study correlates with international ocular trauma scoring system. Conclusion: The present study showed pre-operative variables such as mode of injury, pre-operative visual acuity, traumatic cataract, hyphaema, relative afferent papillary defect, vitreous lossand vitreous hemorrhage to be adversely affecting the final vision outcome. Our study showed a good synchrony with international ocular trauma score (OTS) and based on this study we were able to validate application of OTS in Singapore population. Recognizing these factors can help the surgeon in evidence based counseling. PMID:24104709

  1. The Prognostic Scoring System Establishment and Validation for Chronic Atrial Fibrillation Patients Receiving Modified Cox-Maze IV and Concomitant Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jen-Ping; Tsai, Feng-Chang; Chu, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Pyng-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Traditional Cox maze III is the gold standard for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Because of its invasiveness, it has been replaced by a simplified procedure involving radiofrequency ablation of modified Cox maze IV. Although the modified Cox maze IV has the advantages of simplicity and less morbidity, a lower rate of sinus rhythm conversion has been reported. We try to establish a scoring system to predict the outcome of this procedure. Methods and Results The derivation group consisted of 287 patients with structural heart disease and chronic AF who underwent cardiac surgery and modified Cox-maze IV procedure between August 2005 and March 2013. Demographics, clinical and laboratory variables were retrospectively collected as sinus conversional predictors. Overall sinus conversion rate was 75.8%. The parameters of the Soft Markers Scoring system included AF duration, preoperative left atrial (LA) size, rheumatic pathology and postoperative LA remodeling. We compared 80 patients from another hospital between January 2004 and December 2011 as a validation group to evaluate the power of the scoring system. Soft Markers Score indicated a good discriminative power by using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.759 ± 0.032). The score was further divided into three groups: low (0-2), intermediate (3-5), and high (6-10), with predicted sinus conversion rates of 92.4%, 74.2%, and 47.8%, respectively. Conclusions In patients with chronic AF receiving modified Cox-maze IV procedure, the Soft Markers Score demonstrated good discriminative power of predicting sinus recovery in our patients and applied well to the other validation populations. PMID:26067656

  2. Prognostic factors for open globe injuries and correlation of ocular trauma score at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Wei, Ho Sue; Teoh, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the factors influencing final vision outcome after surgical repair of open globe injuries and to correlate the Ocular trauma score. Retrospective case analysis of patients with open globe injuries at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore was performed. Pre-operative factors affecting final vision outcome in patients with open globe injury and correlation of ocular trauma score in our study with international ocular trauma scoring system was performed. Case records of 172 eyes with open globe injury were analyzed. Mean age was 36. 67 years. Mean follow up was 12.26 m. Males were pre-dominantly affected. Initial visual acuity was ≥ 20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- CF, HM- PL and NLP in 24 (14%), 39 (22.7%), 16 (9.3%), 66 (38.4%) and 27 (15.7%) eyes respectively. Final visual acuity was ≤ 20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- 1/200, HM- PL and NLP in 76 (44.2%), 28 (16.3%), 11 (6.4%), 30 (17.4%) and 27 (15.7%) eyes respectively. Ocular trauma score in our study correlates with international ocular trauma scoring system. The present study showed pre-operative variables such as mode of injury, pre-operative visual acuity, traumatic cataract, hyphaema, relative afferent papillary defect, vitreous lossand vitreous hemorrhage to be adversely affecting the final vision outcome. Our study showed a good synchrony with international ocular trauma score (OTS) and based on this study we were able to validate application of OTS in Singapore population. Recognizing these factors can help the surgeon in evidence based counseling.

  3. The length of treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas established according to the international prognostic index score: long-term results of the GISL LA03 study.

    PubMed

    Federico, Massimo; Luminari, Stefano; Gobbi, Paolo G; Sacchi, Stefano; Di Renzo, Nicola; Lombardo, Marco; Merli, Francesco; Baldini, Luca; Stelitano, Caterina; Partesotti, Giovanni; Polimeno, Giuseppe; Montanini, Antonella; Mammi, Caterina; Brugiatelli, Maura

    2006-03-01

    To compare two different schedules of two different anthracycline-containing regimens, where length of treatment is modulated according to the international prognostic index (IPI) in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL). In 1993 the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio dei Linfomi (GISL) started a randomized 2 x 2 factorial phase III clinical trial for patients with newly diagnosed aggressive NHL comparing ProME(Epidoxorubicin)CE-CytaBOM (PE-C) to ProMI(Idarubicin)CE-CytaBOM (PI-C) and a fixed to a flexible treatment schedule where anthracycline dose was to be modulated according to observed hematological toxicity. Patients with low or low-intermediate IPI (IPI 0-2) and those with intermediate-high or high IPI (IPI 3-5) should receive six or eight courses, respectively. Involved-field radiotherapy was allowed for patients with initial bulky disease or with residual masses. Three hundred and fifty-six patients were registered into the study and randomized. Patients were well balanced among the four study arms in terms of clinical characteristics and prognostic factors. Three hundred and forty-five patients were available for evaluation of study endpoints. At the end of induction therapy complete remission rate was 61%, 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate was 40% and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 59%; no differences were observed according to treatment arms. Patients in the flexible arm received higher dose intensity of anthracycline (P < 0.001) with no apparent increase in toxicity. However, the flexible schedule was not superior to the fixed one. Patients with IPI 3-5 showed lower response rates (45% vs. 67%: P < 0.0001) and lower 5-year FFS (29% vs. 45%: P < 0.0001) compared to those with IPI 0-2. six courses of fixed or flexible PE-C or PI-C can determine a promising success rate in patients with advanced aggressive NHL with IPI 0-2, whereas the same regimens are less effective in patients with IPI 3-5, even if two additional courses are

  4. West German Study Group Phase III PlanB Trial: First Prospective Outcome Data for the 21-Gene Recurrence Score Assay and Concordance of Prognostic Markers by Central and Local Pathology Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gluz, Oleg; Nitz, Ulrike A; Christgen, Matthias; Kates, Ronald E; Shak, Steven; Clemens, Michael; Kraemer, Stefan; Aktas, Bahriye; Kuemmel, Sherko; Reimer, Toralf; Kusche, Manfred; Heyl, Volker; Lorenz-Salehi, Fatemeh; Just, Marianne; Hofmann, Daniel; Degenhardt, Tom; Liedtke, Cornelia; Svedman, Christer; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Kreipe, Hans H; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-07-10

    The 21-gene Recurrence Score (RS) assay is a validated prognostic/predictive tool in early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (BC); however, only a few prospective outcome results have been available so far. In the phase III PlanB trial, RS was prospectively used to define a subset of patients who received only endocrine therapy. We present 3-year outcome data and concordance analysis (among biomarkers/RS). Central tumor bank was established prospectively from PlanB (intermediate and high-risk, locally human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative BC). After an early amendment, HR-positive, pN0-1 patients with RS ≤ 11 were recommended to omit chemotherapy. From 2009 to 2011, PlanB enrolled 3,198 patients with a median age of 56 years; 41.1% had node-positive and 32.5% grade 3 disease. In 348 patients (15.3%), chemotherapy was omitted based on RS ≤ 11. After 35 months median follow-up, 3-year disease-free survival in patients with RS ≤ 11 and endocrine therapy alone was 98% versus 92% and 98% in RS > 25 and RS 12 to 25 in chemotherapy-treated patients, respectively. Nodal status, central and local grade, the Ki-67 protein encoded by the MKI67 gene, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, tumor size, and RS were univariate prognostic factors for disease-free survival; only nodal status, both central and local grade, and RS were independent multivariate factors. Histologic grade was discordant between central and local laboratories in 44%. RS was positively but moderately correlated with the Ki-67 protein encoded by the MKI67 gene and grade and negatively correlated with progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor. In this prospective trial, patients with enhanced clinical risk and omitted chemotherapy on the basis of RS ≤ 11 had excellent 3-year survival. The substantial discordance observed between traditional prognostic markers and RS emphasizes the need for standardized assessment and supports the potential integration of standardized, well

  5. Exploration and Validation of C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio as a Novel Inflammation-Based Prognostic Marker in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Liu, Xu; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Tang, Ling-Long; Liu, Qing; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic value of C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CRP/Alb), a novel inflammation-based marker, remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 1572 consecutive patients with non-metastatic NPC. Patients were randomly divided into a training set (n = 514) and validation set (n = 1058). The prognostic value of the CRP/Alb ratio and the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS; a well-recognized inflammation-based score) was assessed. Results: Receiver-operating characteristic analysis identified 0.05 as the optimal CRP/Alb cut-off value for disease failure in the training set. Patients with a CRP/Alb > 0.05 had poorer overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the training set (all P < 0.05). These results were confirmed in the validation set (all P < 0.05) and the whole cohort (all P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, the pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 1.394; 95% CI, 1.004-1.937; P = 0.048) and DMFS (HR, 1.545; 95% CI, 1.124-2.122; P = 0.007), but not for DFS (P = 0.083). The mGPS had no significant independent prognostic value for any end-point. Conclusion: CRP/Alb ratio is an useful prognostic indicator in patients with NPC, independent of disease stage. PMID:27471556

  6. Sleep/Wake Modulation of Polysomnographic Patterns has Prognostic Value in Pediatric Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Molteni, Erika; Avantaggiato, Paolo; Formica, Francesca; Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Galbiati, Sara; Arrigoni, Filippo; Strazzer, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep patterns of pediatric patients in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) have been poorly investigated, and the prognostic potential of polysomnography (PSG) in these subjects is still uncertain. The goal of the study was to identify quantitative PSG indices to be applied as possible prognostic markers in pediatric UWS. Methods: We performed PSG in 27 children and adolescents with UWS due to acquired brain damage in the subacute phase. Patients underwent neurological examination and clinical assessment with standardized scales. Outcome was assessed after 36 mo. PSG tracks were scored for sleep stages and digitally filtered. The spectral difference between sleep and wake was computed, as the percent difference at specific spectral frequencies. We computed (1) the ratio between percent power in the delta and alpha frequency bands, (2) the ratio between alpha and theta frequency bands, and (3) the power ratio index, during wake and sleep, as proposed in previous literature. The predictive role of several clinical and PSG measures was tested by logistic regression. Results: Correlation was found between the differential measures of electroencephalographic activity during sleep and wake in several frequency bands and the clinical scales (Glasgow Outcome Score, Level of Cognitive Functioning Assessment Scale, and Disability Rating Scale) at follow-up; the Sleep Patterns for Pediatric Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (SPPUWS) scores correlated with the differential measures, and allowed outcome prediction with 96.3% of accuracy. Conclusions: The differential measure of electroencephalographic activity during sleep and wake in the beta band and, more incisively, SPPUWS can help in determining the capability to recover from pediatric UWS well before the confirmation provided by suitable clinical scales. Citation: Molteni E, Avantaggiato P, Formica F, Pastore V, Colombo K, Galbiati S, Arrigoni F, Strazzer S. Sleep/wake modulation of polysomnographic

  7. The prognostic significance of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) with systemic vasculitis patients transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU)

    PubMed Central

    Biscetti, Federico; Carbonella, Angela; Parisi, Federico; Bosello, Silvia Laura; Schiavon, Franco; Padoan, Roberto; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemic vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that share clinical features including respiratory distress, renal dysfunction, and neurologic disorders. These diseases may often cause life-threatening complications requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) score to predict survival in patients with systemic vasculitides admitted to ICU. A retrospective study was carried out from 2004 to 2014 in 18 patients with systemic vasculitis admitted to 2 different Rheumatology divisions and transferred to ICU due to clinical worsening, with a length of stay beyond 24 hours. We found that ICU mortality was significantly associated with higher BVAS scores performed in the ward (P = 0.01) and at the admission in ICU (P = 0.01), regardless of the value of Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores (P = 0.50). We used receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to evaluate the possible cutoff value for the BVAS in the ward and in ICU and we found that a BVAS > 8 in the ward and that a BVAS > 10 in ICU might be a useful tool to predict in-ICU mortality. BVAS appears to be an excellent tool for assessing ICU mortality risk of systemic vasculitides patients admitted to specialty departments. Our experience has shown that performing the assessment at admission to the ward is more important than determining the evaluation before the clinical aggravation causing the transfer to ICU. PMID:27902615

  8. [Prognostic criteria for tracheostomy in the neuroresuscitation unit].

    PubMed

    Baishev, S N; Kondrat'ev, A N; Semen'kova, G V; Nazarov, R V

    2012-01-01

    The aim is to specify prognostic criteria for tracheostomy on the basis of long-term (more than 14 days) ALV and prolonged (more than 14 days) trachea canmulation. Retrospectively were analyzed the medical history of 120 difficult patients with tracheostomy, who spent in ICU more than 72 hours. Was executed multiple logistic regression analysis. In patients with consciousness level of 8 or less points on the Glasgow coma scale and subarachnoid hemorrhage, detected on CT scan of the brain, increases the chances for prolonged ALV versus patients without these signs in 3.93 times. In patients with constrained basal cisterns, detected on CT scan of the brain and to the consciousness level of 8 or less points on the Glasgow coma scale versus patients without these signs increases the chances of the prolonged trachea cannulation in 5 times. Prognostic criteria for tracheostomy in patients in neuroresuscitation unit are: criteria for prolonged ALV: level of 8 or less points on the Glasgow coma scale and subarachnoid hemorrhage and criteria for prolonged trachea cannulation: constrained basal cisterns, detected on CT scan of the brain and to the consciousness level of 8 or less points on the Glasgow coma scale.

  9. Assessment of nurse’s knowledge about Glasgow coma scale at a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Wesley Cajaíba; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess knowledge of nurses of emergency services and intensive care units about Glasgow Coma Scale. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study included 127 nurses of critical units of an university hospital. We used structured interview with 12 questions to evaluate their knowledge about the scale. Association of Knowledge with professionals’ sociodemographic variables were verified by the Fisher-test, χ2 and likelihood ratio. Results Most of participants were women mean aged 31.1 years, they had graduated more than 5 years previously, and had 1 to 3 years of work experience. In the assessment of best score possible for Glasgow scale (question 3) nurses who had graduate more than 5 years ago presented a lower percentage success rate (p=0.0476). However, in the question 7, which evaluated what interval of the scale indicated moderate severity of brain trauma injury, those with more years of experience had higher percentage of correct answers (p=0.0251). In addition, nurses from emergency service had more correct answers than nurses from intensive care unit (p=0.0143) in the same question. Nurses graduated for more than 5 years ago had a lower percentage of correct answers in question 7 (p=0.0161). Nurses with more work experience had a better score (p=0.0119) to identify how assessment of motor response should be started. Conclusion Number of year since graduation, experience, and work at critical care units interfered in nurses’ knowledge about the scale, which indicates the need of training. PMID:27462896

  10. Prognostic Factors of Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Spontaneous Thalamic Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Kyung-Jae; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Jung, Yong-Gu; Park, Jung-Yul; Park, Dong-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a well-known condition, but ICH restricted to the thalamus is less widely studied. We investigated the prognostic factors of thalamic ICHs. Material/Methods Seventy patients from January 2009 to November 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who demonstrated spontaneous ICH primarily affecting the thalamus on initial brain computed tomography (CT) were enrolled. Patients were categorized into 2 groups based on their Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores. Various presumptive prognostic factors were analyzed to investigate relationships between various clinical characteristics and outcomes. Results Of the enrolled patients, 39 showed a GOS of 4–5, and were categorized as the good outcome group, while another 31 patients showed a GOS of 1–3 and were categorized as the poor outcome group. Initial GCS score, calculated volume of hematoma, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), coexisting complications, hydrocephalus, performance of external ventricular drainage, and modified Graeb’s scores of patients with IVH were significantly different between the 2 groups. In multivariate analysis, among the factors above, initial GCS score (P=0.002, Odds ratio [OR]=1.761, Confidence interval [CI]=1.223–2.536) and the existence of systemic complications (P=0.015, OR=0.059, CI=0.006–0.573) were independently associated with clinical outcomes. Calculated hematoma volume showed a borderline relationship with outcomes (P=0.079, OR=0.920, CI=0.839–1.010). Conclusions Initial GCS score and the existence of systemic complications were strong predictive factors for prognosis of thalamic ICH. Calculated hematoma volume also had predictive value for clinical outcomes. PMID:26343784

  11. Prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen in patients with colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hai-Jiang; Tang, Yong; Zhao, Ze-Liang; Qu, Yan-Li; Xu, Rui-Wei; Liu, Yan-Yan; Yu, Xian-Bo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen levels in colon cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 255 colon cancer patients treated at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 1st 2005 to June 1st 2008 were enrolled in the study. All patients received radical surgery as their primary treatment method. Preoperative fibrinogen was detected by the Clauss method, and all patients were followed up after surgery. Preoperative fibrinogen measurements were correlated with a number of clinicopathological parameters using the Student t test and analysis of variance. Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modeling to measure 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The mean preoperative fibrinogen concentration of all colon cancer patients was 3.17 ± 0.88 g/L. Statistically significant differences were found between preoperative fibrinogen levels and the clinicopathological parameters of age, smoking status, tumor size, tumor location, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, modified Glasgow prognostic scores (mGPS), white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. Univariate survival analysis showed that TNM stage, tumor cell differentiation grade, vascular invasion, mGPS score, preoperative fibrinogen, WBC, NLR, PLR and CEA all correlated with both OS and DFS. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and body mass index correlated only with OS. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that both OS and DFS of the total cohort, as well as of the stage II and III patients, were higher in the hypofibrinogen group compared to the hyperfibrinogen group (all P < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference between OS and DFS in stage I patients with low or high fibrinogen levels. Cox regression analysis indicated preoperative fibrinogen levels, TNM stage, mGPS score, CEA, and

  12. Prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen in patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hai-Jiang; Tang, Yong; Zhao, Ze-Liang; Qu, Yan-Li; Xu, Rui-Wei; Liu, Yan-Yan; Yu, Xian-Bo

    2014-07-14

    To investigate the prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen levels in colon cancer patients. A total of 255 colon cancer patients treated at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 1(st) 2005 to June 1(st) 2008 were enrolled in the study. All patients received radical surgery as their primary treatment method. Preoperative fibrinogen was detected by the Clauss method, and all patients were followed up after surgery. Preoperative fibrinogen measurements were correlated with a number of clinicopathological parameters using the Student t test and analysis of variance. Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modeling to measure 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The mean preoperative fibrinogen concentration of all colon cancer patients was 3.17 ± 0.88 g/L. Statistically significant differences were found between preoperative fibrinogen levels and the clinicopathological parameters of age, smoking status, tumor size, tumor location, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, modified Glasgow prognostic scores (mGPS), white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. Univariate survival analysis showed that TNM stage, tumor cell differentiation grade, vascular invasion, mGPS score, preoperative fibrinogen, WBC, NLR, PLR and CEA all correlated with both OS and DFS. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and body mass index correlated only with OS. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that both OS and DFS of the total cohort, as well as of the stage II and III patients, were higher in the hypofibrinogen group compared to the hyperfibrinogen group (all P < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference between OS and DFS in stage I patients with low or high fibrinogen levels. Cox regression analysis indicated preoperative fibrinogen levels, TNM stage, mGPS score, CEA, and AFP levels correlated

  13. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography over coronary artery calcium score for risk prediction of major adverse cardiac events in asymptomatic diabetic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Min, James K.; Labounty, Troy M.; Gomez, Millie J.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M.; Chow, Benjamin; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Dunning, Allison; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Jorg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Berman, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is useful for identification of symptomatic diabetic individuals at heightened risk for death. Whether CCTA-detected CAD enables improved risk assessment of asymptomatic diabetic individuals beyond clinical risk factors and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) remains unexplored. Methods From a prospective 12-center international registry of 27,125 individuals undergoing CCTA, we identified 400 asymptomatic diabetic individuals without known CAD. Coronary stenosis by CCTA was graded as 0%, 1–49%, 50–69%, and ≥70%. CAD was judged on a per-patient, per-vessel and per-segment basis as maximal stenosis severity, number of vessels with ≥50% stenosis, and coronary segments weighted for stenosis severity (segment stenosis score), respectively. We assessed major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) – inclusive of mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and late target vessel revascularization ≥90 days (REV) – and evaluated the incremental utility of CCTA for risk prediction, discrimination and reclassification. Results Mean age was 60.4 ± 9.9 years; 65.0% were male. At a mean follow-up 2.4 ± 1.1 years, 33 MACE occurred (13 deaths, 8 MI, 12 REV) [8.25%; annualized rate 3.4%]. By univariate analysis, per-patient maximal stenosis [hazards ratio (HR) 2.24 per stenosis grade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–3.10, p < 0.001], increasing numbers of obstructive vessels (HR 2.30 per vessel, 95% CI 1.75–3.03, p < 0.001) and segment stenosis score (HR 1.14 per segment, 95% CI 1.09–1.19, p < 0.001) were associated with increased MACE. After adjustment for CAD risk factors and CACS, maximal stenosis (HR 1.80 per grade, 95% CI 1.18–2.75, p = 0.006), number of obstructive vessels (HR 1.85 per vessel, 95% CI 1.29–2.65, p < 0.001) and segment stenosis score (HR 1.11 per segment, 95% CI 1.05–1.18, p < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of

  14. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography over coronary artery calcium score for risk prediction of major adverse cardiac events in asymptomatic diabetic individuals.

    PubMed

    Min, James K; Labounty, Troy M; Gomez, Millie J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M; Chow, Benjamin; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Dunning, Allison; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Jorg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Berman, Daniel S

    2014-02-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is useful for identification of symptomatic diabetic individuals at heightened risk for death. Whether CCTA-detected CAD enables improved risk assessment of asymptomatic diabetic individuals beyond clinical risk factors and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) remains unexplored. From a prospective 12-center international registry of 27,125 individuals undergoing CCTA, we identified 400 asymptomatic diabetic individuals without known CAD. Coronary stenosis by CCTA was graded as 0%, 1-49%, 50-69%, and ≥70%. CAD was judged on a per-patient, per-vessel and per-segment basis as maximal stenosis severity, number of vessels with ≥50% stenosis, and coronary segments weighted for stenosis severity (segment stenosis score), respectively. We assessed major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) - inclusive of mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and late target vessel revascularization ≥90 days (REV) - and evaluated the incremental utility of CCTA for risk prediction, discrimination and reclassification. Mean age was 60.4 ± 9.9 years; 65.0% were male. At a mean follow-up 2.4 ± 1.1 years, 33 MACE occurred (13 deaths, 8 MI, 12 REV) [8.25%; annualized rate 3.4%]. By univariate analysis, per-patient maximal stenosis [hazards ratio (HR) 2.24 per stenosis grade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-3.10, p < 0.001], increasing numbers of obstructive vessels (HR 2.30 per vessel, 95% CI 1.75-3.03, p < 0.001) and segment stenosis score (HR 1.14 per segment, 95% CI 1.09-1.19, p < 0.001) were associated with increased MACE. After adjustment for CAD risk factors and CACS, maximal stenosis (HR 1.80 per grade, 95% CI 1.18-2.75, p = 0.006), number of obstructive vessels (HR 1.85 per vessel, 95% CI 1.29-2.65, p < 0.001) and segment stenosis score (HR 1.11 per segment, 95% CI 1.05-1.18, p < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of MACE. Beyond age, gender and CACS (C-index 0

  15. Gender aspects in clinical presentation and prognostication of chronic heart failure according to NT-proBNP and the Heart Failure Survival Score.

    PubMed

    Franke, Jennifer; Lindmark, Andreas; Hochadel, Matthias; Zugck, Christian; Koerner, Eva; Keppler, Jeannette; Ehlermann, Philipp; Winkler, Ralph; Zahn, Ralf; Katus, Hugo A; Senges, Jochen; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    We performed a prospective multi-center study to assess gender-specific differences in the predictive value of the measured level of NT-proBNP and the calculated Heart Failure Survival Score (HFSS). Baseline characteristics and follow-up data up to 5 years from 2,019 men and 530 women diagnosed with chronic heart failure (CHF) due to ischemic heart disease or dilated cardiomyopathy were prospectively compared. Death from any cause constituted the endpoint of the study. NT-proBNP was measured and HFSS calculated according to standard methods. Survival of men and women according to level of NT-proBNP and HFSS was analyzed in logistic regression models. Median NT-proBNP level in men was 1,394 ng/l (IQR 516-3,406 ng/l) and 1,168 ng/l (IQR 444-2,830 ng/l) in women (p = n.s.). Median HFSS value was 8.4 (IQR 7.7-9.1) and 8.5 (8.0-9.1) in men and women, respectively. NT-proBNP levels and HFSS score correlated well with survival rates in both genders (p for interaction = 0.22 for NT-proBNP and 0.93 for HFSS). The all-cause death rates were similar in men and women. Despite a number of gender-specific differences in CHF and the general predominance of men measured levels of NT-proBNP and HFSS score can be utilized for risk stratification with similar informative value in men and women.

  16. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury: creatine kinase as a prognostic marker and validation of the McMahon Score in a 10-year cohort: A retrospective observational evaluation.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joanna P; Taylor, Andrew; Sudhan, Nazneen; Menon, David K; Lavinio, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    High-volume fluid resuscitation and the administration of sodium bicarbonate and diuretics have a theoretical renoprotective role in patients at high risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) following rhabdomyolysis. Abnormally elevated creatine kinase has previously been used as a biological marker for the identification of patients at high risk of AKI following rhabdomyolysis. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of plasma creatine kinase (admission and peak values) for the prediction of AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) or of death in patients with confirmed rhabdomyolysis. To compare the diagnostic performance of creatine kinase with the McMahon score. Retrospective observational study. Data collection included McMahon and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores; daily creatine kinase; daily creatinine and electrolytes; ICU length of stay and mortality. Neurosciences and Trauma Critical Care Unit (Cambridge, UK). In total, 232 adults with confirmed rhabdomyolysis (creatine kinase > 1000 Ul) admitted to Neurosciences and Trauma Critical Care Unit between 2002 and 2012. AKI, RRT and mortality. Forty-five (19%) patients developed AKI and 29 (12.5%) patients required RRT. Mortality was significantly higher in patients who developed AKI (62 vs. 18%, P < 0.001). Average creatine kinase on admission was 5009 (range 69-157 860) Ul. Creatine kinase peaked between the day of admission and day 3 in 91% of cases. PEAK creatine kinase of at least 5000 Ul is 55% specific and 83% sensitive for the prediction of AKI requiring RRT. A McMahon Score of at least 6 calculated on admission is 68% specific and 86% sensitive for RRT. Creatine kinase is not a specific or early predictor of AKI in patients with rhabdomyolysis. Although a PEAK creatine kinase of at least 5000 Ul has sensitivity acceptable for screening purposes, this is often a delayed finding. A McMahon score of at least 6 calculated on admission allows for a more

  17. The effect of health visitors on breastfeeding in Glasgow

    PubMed Central

    Tappin, David; Britten, Jane; Broadfoot, Mary; McInnes, Rhona

    2006-01-01

    Background The UNICEF Baby Friendly Initiative includes a community component to help women who want to breastfeed. This study aimed to document the health visitor role in promoting and supporting breastfeeding in Glasgow during 2000 and the effect it had on breastfeeding rates. Methods Glasgow, UK, has a population of 906,000, with approximately 10,000 births per year. Glasgow has high levels of material deprivation and traditionally low breastfeeding rates. This was a cross-sectional study in January 2000 which used a postal questionnaire to document individual health visitors' interventions, activities and attitude towards breastfeeding. Infant's breastfeeding data collected routinely by the Child Health Surveillance programme from 1 August 1998 to 28 February 1999 was directly matched with interventions, activities and attitudes reported by their own health visitor. Results 146/216 (68%) health visitors completed and returned the questionnaire. 5401 child health records were eligible and 3,294 (58.2%) could be matched with health visitors who returned questionnaires. 2145 infants had the first visit from 8 to 20 days of age and the second 3 to 7 weeks later. At the first postnatal visit 835 of 2145 (39%) infants were breastfed (median age of 13 days) and 646 (30%) continued to breastfeed at the second visit (median age 35 days). Infants being breastfed at the first visit were significantly more likely to be fed infant formula at the second visit if their health visitors had had no breastfeeding training in the previous two years (OR1.74 95%CI 1.13, 2.68). Conclusion It is essential that Health Visitors are specially trained to support breastfeeding postnatally. PMID:16822298

  18. "The Glasgow effect?"- the result of the geographical patterning of deprived areas?

    PubMed

    Livingston, Mark; Lee, Duncan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this research was to examine whether the excess mortality found in Glasgow, compared to other cities in the UK ("Glasgow effect"), could be attributed to patterns of the distribution of deprived neighbourhoods within the cities. Data on mortality and deprivation at a neighbourhood scale were used to examine the impact of the patterning of neighbourhood deprivation on mortality in Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. Analysis using a combination of GIS and statistical approaches, including a Moran׳s I test and Conditional Auto Regressive models to capture residual spatial autocorrelation, was carried out. The pattern of deprivation was found to be more dispersed in Glasgow compared to the other cities. The impact of surrounding deprivation at two different scales shows strong impact on neighbourhood health outcomes in Glasgow and Liverpool but not in Manchester, suggesting that patterning is not a major contribution to the excess mortality in Glasgow.

  19. Swirl sign in traumatic acute epidural hematoma: prognostic value and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cheng; Liu, Lin; Wang, Bing; Wang, Zhigang

    2017-09-11

    The swirl sign is identified as a small area of low attenuation within an intracranial hyperattenuating clot on non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of the brain, which represents active bleeding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the swirl sign among patients with acute epidural hematoma (AEDH) and to identify its prognostic value and impact on surgical treatment. A retrospective review was performed of patients with a diagnosis of traumatic EDH by CT scan who were surgically treated at the Department of Neurosurgery of the First People's Hospital of Jingmen between January 2010 and January 2014. Patients with combined or open craniocerebral injuries and those who did not undergo surgical treatment were excluded. Of the 147 patients evaluated, 21 (14%) exhibited the swirl sign on non-enhanced CT scans of the brain. Univariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between the occurrence of the swirl sign and preoperative Glasgow coma scale scores, preoperative mydriasis, time from injury to CT scan, and intraoperative hematoma volume. Compared with patients without this sign, those exhibiting the swirl sign had a higher mortality rate (24 vs. 6%, respectively; P = 0.028) and a worse outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≤ 3: 38 vs. 15%, respectively; P = 0.027) at 3 months. An adjusted analysis showed that the occurrence of the swirl sign was an independent predictor of poor outcome (death: odds ratio (OR) = 4.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-15.82; P < 0.05; 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≤ 3: OR = 3.47; 95% CI: 1.27-9.49; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the occurrence of the swirl sign on the head CT scan of patients with AEDH was found to be significantly associated with poor outcome. Therefore, early identification of this sign and aggressive management with early surgical evacuation is crucial for improving patient outcome.

  20. Early lenalidomide treatment for low and intermediate-1 International Prognostic Scoring System risk myelodysplastic syndromes with del(5q) before transfusion dependence.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Esther N; Lauseker, Michael; Aloe Spiriti, Maria Antonietta; Poloni, Antonella; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; Balleari, Enrico; Sanpaolo, Grazia; Volpe, Antonio; Ricco, Alessandra; Ronco, Francesca; Alati, Caterina; D'Errigo, Maria Grazia; Santacaterina, Irene; Kündgen, Andrea; Germing, Ulrich; Latagliata, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Lenalidomide is approved for the treatment of transfusion-dependent (TD) del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, few data are available in patients with transfusion-independent (TI) del(5q) MDS. In the first, observational, part of this 2-part study, we assessed the impact of transfusion dependence on overall survival (OS) and non-leukemic death in untreated del(5q) MDS patients who were TD (n = 136), TI with hemoglobin (Hb) ≥10 mg/dL (n = 88), or TI with Hb <10 mg/dL (n = 96). In the second, interventional, part we assessed the quality-of-life (QoL) benefits and clinical efficacy of lenalidomide (10 mg/day) in 12 patients with TI del(5q) MDS and Hb <10 mg/dL. In the untreated population, OS was significantly longer in TI than in TD patients (TI [Hb ≥10 g/dL], 108 months; TI [Hb <10 g/dL], 77 months; TD, 44 months). Transfusion dependence also negatively impacted non-leukemic death rates. In the interventional part of the study, baseline Hb levels were found to correlate significantly with physical (R = 0.666, P = 0.035) and fatigue (R = 0.604, P = 0.049) QoL scores. Median physical QoL scores improved significantly after 12 weeks' treatment with lenalidomide (+12.5; P = 0.020). Evaluable TI patients experienced early increases in Hb levels, and all attained an erythroid response. Our findings suggest that TI patients with moderate anemia may benefit from early treatment with lenalidomide.

  1. Early warning score independently predicts adverse outcome and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael J; Neal, Christopher P; Ngu, Wee Sing; Dennison, Ashley R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value of established scoring systems with early warning scores in a large cohort of patients with acute pancreatitis. In patients presenting with acute pancreatitis, age, sex, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade, Modified Glasgow Score, Ranson criteria, APACHE II scores and early warning score (EWS) were recorded for the first 72 h following admission. These variables were compared between survivors and non-survivors, between patients with mild/moderate and severe pancreatitis (based on the 2012 Atlanta Classification) and between patients with a favourable or adverse outcome. A total of 629 patients were identified. EWS was the best predictor of adverse outcome amongst all of the assessed variables (area under curve (AUC) values 0.81, 0.84 and 0.83 for days 1, 2 and 3, respectively) and was the most accurate predictor of mortality on both days 2 and 3 (AUC values of 0.88 and 0.89, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that an EWS ≥2 was independently associated with severity of pancreatitis, adverse outcome and mortality. This study confirms the usefulness of EWS in predicting the outcome of acute pancreatitis. It should become the mainstay of risk stratification in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  2. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.

  3. Retrospective evaluation of prognostic indicators in dogs with head trauma: 72 cases (January-March 2011).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Diya; Holowaychuk, Marie K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of clinical and laboratory variables and scoring systems in dogs with head trauma. Retrospective study (January-March, 2011). University teaching hospital. Seventy-two client-owned dogs with a history of head trauma occurring ≤5 days prior to hospital admission. Dogs were excluded if they had an unconfirmed history of trauma, preexisting neurologic disease, or insufficient data available in the medical record. None. Data from hospital admission were collected, including vital signs; blood pressure; pulse oximetry; venous blood gases and electrolyte concentrations; plasma lactate and blood glucose concentrations; PCV; total plasma protein concentration; activated clotting time; WBC count; and serum albumin, creatinine, total bilirubin, and BUN concentrations. Modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS), mentation, and animal trauma triage (ATT) scores were also calculated. Treatment with mannitol, hypertonic saline (HS), corticosteroids, benzodiazepines, or phenobarbital, and requirement for endotracheal intubation were also recorded. Outcome was classified as survival or nonsurvival to hospital discharge. Decreased pulse oximetry, pH, bicarbonate concentration, or base excess, and increased potassium concentration, lactate concentration, BUN concentration, ATT score, or mentation score were risk factors for nonsurvival. Decreased MGCS score was the strongest predictor of nonsurvival; a score ≤ 11 was 84% sensitive and 73% specific for predicting nonsurvival. Dogs were more likely to die before discharge if they required HS or endotracheal intubation. Dogs that did not survive following head trauma were more likely to have poor perfusion, severe concurrent injuries reflected by increased ATT scores, severe traumatic brain injury as evidenced by decreased MGCS or increased mentation scores, or requirement for HS administration or endotracheal intubation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  4. Early Liver Failure after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in Patients with Cirrhosis with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score of 12 or Less: Incidence, Outcome, and Prognostic Factors.

    PubMed

    Luca, Angelo; Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; D'Amico, Mario; Tuzzolino, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incidence, outcomes, and prognostic factors of early liver failure (ELF) after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation in patients with cirrhosis with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 12 or less. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approved this retrospective study, with waiver of written informed consent. Two-hundred sixteen consecutive patients with cirrhosis (140 men, 76 women; mean age, 55.9 years; virus-related cirrhosis, 67.6% [146 of 216 patients]) with baseline MELD score of 12 or less who underwent TIPS placement between September 1999 and July 2012 were followed until last clinical evaluation, liver transplantation, or death. The Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and univariate and multivariate analyses were used, as appropriate. Results Twenty of 216 patients (9.2%) developed ELF within 3 months of TIPS (10 patients died, one required liver transplantation, and nine increased the MELD score to >18). ELF was associated with lower survival, 37% versus 95% at 6 months, and 24% versus 86% at 12 months (P < .001) compared with patients without ELF. ELF occurred in 16 of 95 (16.8%) patients with refractory ascites and in four of 121 (3.3%) patients with other indications for TIPS. Multivariate analysis confirmed MELD scores of 11 or 12 (odds ratio, 3.96 [95% confidence interval: 1.07, 14.67]; P = .040), decreased hemoglobin level (odds ratio, 0.68 [95% confidence interval: 0.49, 0.95]; P = .022), and decreased platelet count (odds ratio, 0.99 [95% confidence interval: 0.99, 0.99]; P = .024) as predictors for ELF in patients with refractory ascites. Conclusion ELF is not uncommon in cirrhotic patients with a MELD score of 12 or less who undergo TIPS placement for refractory ascites (especially in patients with MELD of 11 or 12) and decreased hemoglobin level and platelet count. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  5. Eight Cycles of ABVD Versus Four Cycles of BEACOPPescalated Plus Four Cycles of BEACOPPbaseline in Stage III to IV, International Prognostic Score ≥ 3, High-Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma: First Results of the Phase III EORTC 20012 Intergroup Trial.

    PubMed

    Carde, Patrice; Karrasch, Matthias; Fortpied, Catherine; Brice, Pauline; Khaled, Hussein; Casasnovas, Olivier; Caillot, Denis; Gaillard, Isabelle; Bologna, Serge; Ferme, Christophe; Lugtenburg, Pieternella Johanna; Morschhauser, Frank; Aurer, Igor; Coiffier, Bertrand; Meyer, Ralph; Seftel, Matthew; Wolf, Max; Glimelius, Bengt; Sureda, Anna; Mounier, Nicolas

    2016-06-10

    To compare patients with high-risk stage III to IV Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in the phase III European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 20012 Intergroup trial (Comparison of Two Combination Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Hodgkin's Lymphoma) who were randomly assigned to either doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) or to bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP). Patients with clinical stage III or IV HL, International Prognostic Score of 3 or higher, and age 60 years or younger received ABVD for eight cycles (ABVD8) or escalated-dose BEACOPP (BEACOPPescalated) for four cycles followed by baseline BEACOPP (BEACOPPbaseline) for four cycles (BEACOPP4+4) without radiotherapy. Primary end points were event-free survival (EFS), treatment discontinuation, no complete response (CR) or unconfirmed complete response (CRu) after eight cycles, progression, relapse, or death. Secondary end points were CR rate, overall survival (OS), quality of life, secondary malignancies, and disease-free survival in CR/CRu patients. Between 2002 and 2010, 549 patients were randomly assigned to ABVD8 (n = 275) or BEACOPP4+4 (n = 274). Other characteristics included median age, 35 years; male, 75%; stage IV, 74%; "B" symptoms, 81%; and International Prognostic Score ≥ 4, 59%. WHO performance status was 0 (34%), 1 (48%), or 2 (17%). Median follow-up was 3.6 years. CR/CRu was 82.5% in both arms. At 4 years, EFS was 63.7% for ABVD8 versus 69.3% for BEACOPP4+4 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.15; P = .312); disease-free survival was 85.8% versus 91.0% (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.33 to 1.06; P = .076), and OS was 86.7% versus 90.3% (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.42 to 1.21; P = .208). Death as a result of toxicity occurred in six and five patients, early discontinuation (before cycle 5) in 12 and 26 patients, treatment crossovers in five and 10 patients, and secondary

  6. Biochemical markers and somatosensory evoked potentials in patients after cardiac arrest: the role of neurological outcome scores.

    PubMed

    Rana, Obaida R; Saygili, Erol; Schiefer, Johannes; Marx, Nikolaus; Schauerte, Patrick

    2011-06-15

    Biochemical markers, e.g. NSE or S100B, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) are considered promising candidates for neurological prognostic predictors in patients after cardiac arrest (CA). The Utstein Templates recommend the use of the Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Categories (GP-CPC) to divide patients according to their neurological outcome. However, several studies investigating biochemical markers and SSEP are based on the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). We noticed that many studies failed to exclude patients who died without certified brain damage from patients classified as poor outcome, instead including all patients who died into this category. Therefore, we summarized the published NSE cut-off values and the derived sensitivity and specificity to predict poor outcome of those studies which only included patients with certified brain death in GOS-1 or GP-CPC-5 (group A) vs. those studies which did not differentiate between death from any cause or death due to primary brain damage (group B). On average, mean NSE cut-off values and sensitivity were higher (56 ± 35 ng/ml, 56 ± 18%) in group A than in group B (41 ± 17 ng/ml, 44 ± 25%), respectively. The specificity remained equally high in both groups. In analogy, the average sensitivity of SSEP to predict poor outcome was higher in group A (76 ± 11%) than in group B (50 ± 15%), while the specificity was similar in both groups. Conclusively, inclusion of deaths without certified brain damage after CA in neurological outcome studies will lead to underestimation of the prognostic power of biochemical or electrophysiological markers for brain damage. A modified GOS and GP-CPC score might help to avoid this bias.

  7. Glasgow Coma Scores, Early Opioids, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Combat Amputees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Center, 2011). Patients with severe brain or spinal injury leading to paralysis were excluded. Of the 857 combat amputees injured through 2008, we...included postconcussion syndrome, pain, and sleep disorders. Data Analysis Sample sizes for analyses of data varied by the level of care at which

  8. Glasgow Coma Scale Scores, Early Opioids, and 4-year Psychological Outcomes among Combat Amputees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Patients who died of wounds or survived with severe brain or spinal injuries leading to paralysis were excluded. Following these exclusions, we...psychological diagnoses included postconcussion syndrome, pain, sleep , and unspecified cognitive disorders. Data Analysis and Study Retention The... sleep disturbance in a department of vet- erans affairs outpatient rehabilitation setting. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;89(6):437–45. [PMID:20489391

  9. The functional intraoral Glasgow scale in floor of mouth carcinoma: longitudinal assessment of 62 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Ellabban, Mohamed A; Shoaib, Taimur; Devine, John; McMahon, Jeremy; Morley, Stephen; Adly, Osama A; Farrag, Sherif H; Moati, Taha A; Soutar, David

    2013-03-01

    The functional integrity of the floor of the mouth (FOM) is essential in maintaining tongue mobility, deglutition, and control and disposal of saliva. The present study focused on reporting oral function using functional intraoral Glasgow scale (FIGS) in patients who had surgical ablation and reconstruction of FOM carcinoma with or without chemo-radiotherapy. The study included patients who had surgical treatment of floor of mouth cancer in two regional head and neck units in Glasgow, UK between January 2006 and August 2007. Patients were assessed using FIGS before surgery, 2 months, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. It is a five-point scale self-questionnaire to allow patients to self-assess speech, chewing and swallowing. The maximum total score is 15 points. The influence of socio-demographic parameters, tumour characteristics and surgical parameters was addressed in the study. A total of 62 consecutive patients were included in the study; 41 (66.1 %) were males and 21 (33.9 %) were females. The patients' mean age at the time of diagnosis was 60.6 years. Fifty (80.6 %) patients had unilateral origin of FOM tumours and 10 (19.4 %) had bilateral origin. Peroral approach was the most common approach used in 35 (56.4 %) patients. The mean preoperative FIGS score was 14. Two months after surgery, it droped to 9.4 then started to increase gradually thereafter and recorded 10.1 at 6 months and 11 at 1 year. Unilateral FOM resection recorded better score than bilateral and lateral FOM tumours than anterior at 1 year postoperatively. Furthermore, direct closure showed better functional outcome than loco-regional and free flaps. The FIGS is a simple and comprehensive way of assessing a patient's functional impairment following surgery in the FOM. Tumour site and size, surgical access, surgical resection and method of reconstruction showed significant influence on oral function following surgical resection. A well-designed rehabilitation programme is required to improve

  10. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow Royal Infirmary: microbiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Timbury, M. C.; Donaldson, J. R.; McCartney, A. C.; Fallon, R. J.; Sleigh, J. D.; Lyon, D.; Orange, G. V.; Baird, D. R.; Winter, J.; Wilson, T. S.

    1986-01-01

    The bacteriological investigation of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow Royal Infirmary affecting 16 patients is described. Most of the patients had been treated in high-dependency areas on two floors of the hospital supplied by the same two air-conditioned ventilation systems. The source of infection was traced to contamination of a cooling tower from which a plume of spray discharged into the intake vents of the two ventilation systems. Rubber grommets within the cooling tower probably provided a nidus of infection there. The control and management of the outbreak are discussed: a policy of frankness about the course and progress of the investigations was adopted and helped to allay anxiety on the part of both staff and media. PMID:3540109

  11. Space Radar Image of Missouri River, Glasgow, Missouri

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a false-color L-band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 50th orbit on October 3, 1994. The false-color composite was made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in green; and the sum of the two channels in blue. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as blue regions below the bend in the river. West (left) of this dark area, a blue gap in the levee tree canopy can be seen, showing the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01744

  12. Persistence of glaucoma medical therapy in the Glasgow Glaucoma Database.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Q; Abeysinghe, S S; Kelly, S; Roskell, N S; Shannon, P R; Abdlseaed, A A; Montgomery, D M I

    2011-07-01

    To report the persistence of glaucoma medical therapy in a database of 1006 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT), normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) attending the Glaucoma Clinic at Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK. Analyses have been carried out using specially written queries to generate reports relating to initial treatment choice and persistence for individual drugs. Queries were investigated in the database time period from 16 February 1982 to 11 February 2009. When investigating drug persistence, the results from the database were split into two distinct time periods from 1997 to 2001 and from 2002 to 2009 to reflect the available treatment options used. The number of patients with each diagnosis was as follows: POAG 608; OHT 246; NTG 152. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for mean persistence from 1997 to 2001 (time to treatment discontinuation) of latanoprost was 58.8 ± 1.95 months, timolol was 41.8 ± 3.94 months, brimonidine was 24.1 ± 3.05 months, and betaxolol was 22.9 ± 2.04 months. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for mean persistence from 2002 to 2009 of latanoprost (time to treatment discontinuation) was 52.0 ± 2.26 months, bimatoprost was 25.8 ± 2.89 months, and travoprost was 23.0 ± 1.27 months. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for mean persistence of latanoprost (time to treatment change) was 37.5 ± 2.47 months, travoprost was 30.2 ± 2.70 months, and bimatoprost was 17.5 ± 2.88 months. The introduction of the first prostaglandin analogue, latanoprost, dramatically improved treatment persistence for glaucoma patients. In the current prostaglandin-rich treatment environment, these data do not show any significant differences between prostaglandins with respect to treatment persistence.

  13. 76 FR 30300 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    .... You must identify FAA Docket No. FAA-2011- 0362; Airspace Docket No. 11-ANM-7, at the beginning of... surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 Glasgow, MT [Modified] Wokal Field/Glasgow International Airport...., long. 107[deg]07'02'' W., thence to point of beginning. Issued in Seattle, Washington, on May 17, 2011...

  14. Traumatic axonal injury: the prognostic value of lesion load in corpus callosum, brain stem, and thalamus in different magnetic resonance imaging sequences.

    PubMed

    Moen, Kent G; Brezova, Veronika; Skandsen, Toril; Håberg, Asta K; Folvik, Mari; Vik, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic value of visible traumatic axonal injury (TAI) loads in different MRI sequences from the early phase after adjusting for established prognostic factors. Likewise, we sought to explore the prognostic role of early apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal-appearing corpus callosum. In this prospective study, 128 patients (mean age, 33.9 years; range, 11-69) with moderate (n = 64) and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were examined with MRI at a median of 8 days (range, 0-28) postinjury. TAI lesions in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and T2*-weighted gradient echo (T2*GRE) sequences were counted and FLAIR lesion volumes estimated. In patients and 47 healthy controls, mean ADC values were computed in 10 regions of interests in the normal-appearing corpus callosum. Outcome measure was the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) at 12 months. In patients with severe TBI, number of DWI lesions and volume of FLAIR lesions in the corpus callosum, brain stem, and thalamus predicted outcome in analyses with adjustment for age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and pupillary dilation (odds ratio, 1.3-6.9; p = <0.001-0.017). The addition of Rotterdam CT score and DWI lesions in the corpus callosum yielded the highest R2 (0.24), compared to all other MRI variables, including brain stem lesions. For patients with moderate TBI only the number of cortical contusions (p = 0.089) and Rotterdam CT score (p = 0.065) tended to predict outcome. Numbers of T2*GRE lesions did not affect outcome. Mean ADC values in the normal-appearing corpus callosum did not differ from controls. In conclusion, the loads of visible TAI lesions in the corpus callosum, brain stem, and thalamus in DWI and FLAIR were independent prognostic factors in patients with severe TBI. DWI lesions in the corpus callosum were the most important predictive MRI variable. Interestingly, number of cortical

  15. Evaluation of prognostic markers for patients with curatively resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ikeguchi, Masahide; Kouno, Yusuke; Kihara, Kyoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Endo, Kanenori; Nakamura, Seiichi; Sawada, Takashi; Shimizu, Tetsu; Matsunaga, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Yoji; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) are prognostic parameters for malignancies. Additionally, serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) are tumor markers for squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, the prognostic importance of these markers in patients with resectable thoracic esophageal cancer was investigated. In this retrospective study, 84 enrolled patients diagnosed with resectable clinical stage I–III thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) underwent thoracic esophageal resection and three-field lymph node dissection at Tottori University Hospital between January 2007 and December 2013. The correlations among preoperative patient markers (GPS, NLR, PNI, SCC-Ag and CYFRA 21-1) and the occurrence of postoperative complications and patient survival were analyzed. The operative mortality was 2.4%, and morbidity was 42.9%. Strong correlations between occurrence of postoperative complications and open thoracotomy (P=0.083) and high-serum CYFRA 21-1 (P=0.007) were observed. In 15 patients with high-serum CYFRA 21-1, postoperative complications were detected in 11 of them (73.3%); on the other hand, complications occurred in 25 of 69 (36.2%) with low-serum CYFRA 21-1. The 5-year disease-free survival rate and 5-year overall survival rate of all the patients were 52.2 and 50.8%, respectively. Among the prognostic parameters, preoperative high NLR was determined to be a poor prognostic factor, independent of the tumor stage in the multivariate analysis. These results may indicate that, in patients with preoperative high-serum CYFRA 21-1, more attention should be paid to the occurrence of postoperative complications. Therefore, in such cases, anastomosis between blood vessels of the substitute esophagus and cervical vessels would be recommended. Furthermore, in patients with high preoperative NLR, effective adjuvant

  16. The prognostic value of plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang-Qun; Chou, Xiao-Min; Ji, Wen-Jian; Yang, Xiao-Gang; Lan, Luo-Xin; Sheng, Yan-Jun; Shen, Yang-Fang; Li, Jian-Rong; Huang, Guo-Zhong; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Du, Quan; Yang, Ding-Bo; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Wang, Hao; Shen, Yong-Feng; Jiang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Nesfatin-1 is related to inflammation. Its increased circulating concentrations are associated with the severity and prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. In-hospital major adverse events (IMAEs), including acute traumatic coagulopathy, progressive hemorrhagic injury and posttraumatic cerebral infarction, are correlated with mortality after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study was designed to investigate the changes of plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations and further assess its association with inflammation, trauma severity, in-hospital mortality and IMAEs following TBI. We measured plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations of 100 severe TBI patients and 100 controls. Progressive hemorrhagic injury and posttraumatic cerebral infarction were diagnosed based on a follow-up computerized tomography scan. Acute traumatic coagulopathy was identified according to a coagulation test. Plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations were significantly higher in patients than in controls and associated highly with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and plasma C-reactive protein concentrations. Nesfatin-1 was indicated as an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality and IMAEs. In accordance with area under receiver operating characteristic curve, its predictive value was similar to GCS scores. Increased plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations are associated closely with inflammation, trauma severity and clinical outcomes, indicating that nesfatin-1 might be involved in inflammation and become a good prognostic biomarker following TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of nurse's knowledge about Glasgow coma scale at a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Santos, Wesley Cajaíba; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-01-01

    To assess knowledge of nurses of emergency services and intensive care units about Glasgow Coma Scale. This cross-sectional analytical study included 127 nurses of critical units of an university hospital. We used structured interview with 12 questions to evaluate their knowledge about the scale. Association of Knowledge with professionals' sociodemographic variables were verified by the Fisher-test, χ2 and likelihood ratio. Most of participants were women mean aged 31.1 years, they had graduated more than 5 years previously, and had 1 to 3 years of work experience. In the assessment of best score possible for Glasgow scale (question 3) nurses who had graduate more than 5 years ago presented a lower percentage success rate (p=0.0476). However, in the question 7, which evaluated what interval of the scale indicated moderate severity of brain trauma injury, those with more years of experience had higher percentage of correct answers (p=0.0251). In addition, nurses from emergency service had more correct answers than nurses from intensive care unit (p=0.0143) in the same question. Nurses graduated for more than 5 years ago had a lower percentage of correct answers in question 7 (p=0.0161). Nurses with more work experience had a better score (p=0.0119) to identify how assessment of motor response should be started. Number of year since graduation, experience, and work at critical care units interfered in nurses' knowledge about the scale, which indicates the need of training. Avaliar o conhecimento de enfermeiros de unidades críticas, serviços de emergência e unidades de terapia intensiva em relação à escala de coma de Glasgow. Estudo transversal e analítico com 127 enfermeiros de unidades críticas de um hospital universitário. Utilizou-se entrevista estruturada com 12 questões que avaliaram conhecimento sobre a escala. Associação do conhecimento com variáveis sociodemográficas dos profissionais foi verificada pelo teste de Fisher, teste χ2 e razão de

  18. Retrospective study of long-term outcome after brain arteriovenous malformation rupture: the RAP score.

    PubMed

    Shotar, Eimad; Debarre, Matthieu; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Di Maria, Federico; Gabrieli, Joseph; Nouet, Aurélien; Chiras, Jacques; Degos, Vincent; Clarençon, Frédéric

    2017-01-20

    OBJECTIVE The authors aimed to design a score for stratifying patients with brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) rupture, based on the likelihood of a poor long-term neurological outcome. METHODS The records of consecutive patients with BAVM hemorrhagic events who had been admitted over a period of 11 years were retrospectively reviewed. Independent predictors of a poor long-term outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) beyond 1 year after admission were identified. A risk stratification scale was developed and compared with the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) score to predict poor outcome and inpatient mortality. RESULTS One hundred thirty-five patients with 139 independent hemorrhagic events related to BAVM rupture were included in this analysis. Multivariate logistic regression followed by stepwise analysis showed that consciousness level according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 6.5, 95% CI 3.1-13.7, p < 10(-3)), hematoma volume (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, p = 0.005), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.66-21, p < 10(-3)) were independently associated with a poor outcome. A 12-point scale for ruptured BAVM prognostication was constructed combining these 3 factors. The score obtained using this new scale, the ruptured AVM prognostic (RAP) score, was a stronger predictor of a poor long-term outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.87, 95% CI 0.8-0.92, p = 0.009) and inpatient mortality (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.95, p = 0.006) than the ICH score. For a RAP score ≥ 6, sensitivity and specificity for predicting poor outcome were 76.8% (95% CI 63.6-87) and 90.8% (95% CI 81.9-96.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS The authors propose a new admission score, the RAP score, dedicated to stratifying the risk of poor long-term outcome after BAVM rupture. This easy-to-use scoring system may help to improve communication between health care providers and consistency in clinical research. Only external prospective cohorts and population

  19. Alexander Robertson (1834-1908): Glasgow's pioneer aphasiologist and epileptologist.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Alexander Robertson (1834-1908) was a Glasgow physician whose professional career was involved mainly with institutional-based practice but who published significant insights into the anatomical background to aphasia (1867) and the mechanisms of focal epileptogenesis (1869). His aphasiology ideas, including his suggestion that disconnection between cerebral centers involved in speech was responsible for the phenomenon, made him one of the earliest members of the late-nineteenth-century school of aphasia diagram makers. His view of epileptogenesis was that contralateral convulsing arose from irritation in a local area of pathology on the surface of the cerebral cortex after the irritation spread to a cortical motor center and then down the motor pathway to the striatum, while spreading within the cortex itself caused loss of consciousness. This interpretation contains much of the essence of the present-day understanding of cortical epileptogenesis. The origin of this interpretation is often attributed to John Hughlings Jackson, but Robertson published the idea in full a year or two prior to Jackson. However, Robertson's original insights were hardly noticed at the time they were published and have since almost entirely been ignored.

  20. Glasgow women medical students: some facts and figures.

    PubMed

    Timbury, M C; Timbury, G C

    1971-04-24

    A questionaire was sent to 343 women medical undergraduates at the University of Glasgow, and 317 replied. Of the respondents, 36% had a member of their family in medicine and 15% had either one or both parents a doctor: 45% had a working mother. Half of all the students had doubts about medicine as a career, and the proportion of these rose with seniority. Doubts were mainly due to the length of the medical course but the girls also recognized the difficulty of combining a medical career with family life. There was a significant correlation between having doubts about a medical career and having a mother who worked.Half the girls said they would prefer to work in hospital after qualification-the favourite specialties being paediatrics and obstetrics; only a quarter said they would like to do general practice. The need for careers advice which links actual career openings and the wish of most women to combine medical work with marriage and child-rearing is emphasized. The majority of the students saw a doctor's primary role as the giving of advice and reassurance.

  1. Mite fauna of dust from passenger trains in Glasgow.

    PubMed Central

    Colloff, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The mite fauna of dust from cloth-covered seats of four passenger trains and bedding from a British Rail linen store in Glasgow was investigated; 22 samples containing 4488 mg of dust from a total surface area of 5.5 m2 were taken. Sixteen samples were positive for mites and 33 specimens belonging to 10 species were found. The most common species were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart), Glycyphagus domesticus (De Geer), G. destructor (Schrank) and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman). The species composition bore considerable resemblance to that of house dust (although the density of mites was far lower) and the mites have probably been transported from homes via clothing and pets. Only five intact specimens, which may have been alive at the time of sampling, were found. The dust from trains consisted mostly of particles of soot. Very few skin scales, the food source of house dust mites, were detected. The small numbers of intact mites found and the absence of an identifiable food source make it unlikely that permanent populations of mites survive in upholstered seats on trains. PMID:3556435

  2. Cumulative score based on preoperative plasma fibrinogen and serum C-reactive protein could predict long-term survival for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Sun, Peng; Wu, Ai-Ran; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Yu-Lu; Wu, Jing; Lu, Yan-Hong; Xu, Qiu-Yan; Zhan, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Qian, Li-Ting; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to establish a prognostic indicator based on preoperative fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) (FC score) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Clinicopathologic characteristics, preoperative plasma fibrinogen and serum CRP levels were reviewed in patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy. The optimal cut-off value for fibrinogen and CRP was defined as 4.0 g/dL and 10.0 mg/L according to previous reports. Patients with elevated fibrinogen and CRP levels were assigned a score of 2, those with only one of these two abnormalities were allocated a score of 1, and those with neither of the two abnormalities were assigned a score of 0. Preoperative FC score was significantly correlated with degree of differentiation, depth of invasion, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS). No significant differences in age, gender, tumor length, tumor location, lymph node status or smoking were identified between groups. Univariate survival analysis demonstrated that high preoperative FC score (1/2) was significantly associated with impaired disease free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR), 1.650; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.181-2.303; P = 0.003] and overall survival (OS) (HR, 1.879; 95% CI, 1.333-2.648; P<0.001), and it remained an independent predictor for both DFS (HR, 1.468; 95% CI, 1.043-2.067; P=0.028) and OS (HR, 2.070; 95% CI, 1.266-3.385; P=0.004) in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Preoperative FC score might represent a new potential marker of worst prognosis that warrants further evaluation in prospective and large cohort studies among ESCC patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy. PMID:27517497

  3. 78 FR 67218 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Glasgow Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ..., between milepost 00E-90.85, at Park City, Ky., and milepost 00E-101.00, at Glasgow, Ky., a distance of... motion for protective order, which will be addressed in a separate decision. The transaction is scheduled...

  4. Space Radar Image of Missouri River, Glasgow, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false-color L-band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 50th orbit on October 3, 1994. The false-color composite was made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in green; and the sum of the two channels in blue. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as blue regions below the bend in the river. West (left) of this dark area, a blue gap in the levee tree canopy can be seen, showing the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm

  5. Space Radar Image of Missouri River, Glasgow, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false-color L-band image of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 50th orbit on October 3, 1994. The false-color composite was made by displaying the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) return in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) return in green; and the sum of the two channels in blue. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The radar data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct radar scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The image shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the radar image is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as blue regions below the bend in the river. West (left) of this dark area, a blue gap in the levee tree canopy can be seen, showing the area where the levee failed. Radar data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm

  6. Retrospective study on prognostic importance of serum procalcitonin and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels as compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Score on Intensive Care Unit admission, in a mixed Intensive Care Unit population

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Chitra; Dara, Babita; Mehta, Yatin; Tariq, Ali M.; Joby, George V.; Singh, Manish K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Timely decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is very essential to improve the outcome of critically sick patients. Conventional scores like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV) are quite cumbersome with calculations and take minimum 24 hours. Procalcitonin has shown to have prognostic value in ICU/Emergency department (ED) in disease states like pneumonia, sepsis etc. NTproBNP has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic importance in cardiac diseases. It has also been found elevated in non-cardiac diseases. We chose to study the prognostic utility of these markers on ICU admission. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective analysis of 100 eligible patients was done who had undergone PCT and NTproBNP measurements on ICU admission. Their correlations with all cause mortality, length of hospital stay, need for ventilator support, need for vasopressors were performed. Results: Among 100 randomly selected ICU patients, 28 were non-survivors. NTproBNP values on admission significantly correlated with all cause mortality (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.643) and morbidity (P = 0.000, AUC = 0.763), comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. PCT values on admission did not show significant association with mortality, but correlated well with morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (AUC = 0.616, P = 0.045). Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a good predictive value of NTproBNP, in terms of mortality and morbidity comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. Procalcitonin, however, was found to have doubtful prognostic importance. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective larger study. PMID:27052066

  7. Thrombin Generation in the Glasgow Myocardial Infarction Study

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Machiel; Dielis, Arne W. J. H.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Rumley, Ann; van Oerle, Rene; Woodward, Mark; ten Cate, Hugo; Lowe, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombin is a key protease in coagulation also implicated in complex pathology including atherosclerosis. To address the role of thrombin in relation to myocardial infarction (MI) we explored thrombin generation analysis in plasma from patients and controls that had participated in the Glasgow MI Study (GLAMIS). Methods Thrombin generation at 1 and 2 pM TF and with and without thrombomodulin (TM) was performed on plasmas from 356 subjects (171 cases, 185 age and sex matched controls) from GLAMIS collected between 3 and 9 months after the MI event. Results Although thrombin generation was slightly delayed in cases (lag time increased from 3.3 to 3.6 min) at the highest trigger, the overall potential to generate thrombin was increased by 7% for the ETP and by 15% for the peak height (both at the 1 pM TF trigger) in cases. Addition of TM did not reveal differences. Furthermore, an increased thrombin generation was associated with MI [normalized ETP: adjusted OR for the highest percentile = 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.5) and normalized peak height: adjusted OR = 2.6 (1.3–5.0)] at the lowest trigger; normalized ETP and peak height being 2.1 (1.1–3.8) and 2.0 (1.0–4.1) at the higher 2 pM trigger. Conclusion In GLAMIS, patients with a previous MI had an increased thrombin generation compared to controls. The absence of a clear difference in TM reduction suggests an unaltered anticoagulant activity in these patients. Further research is needed in order to unravel the underlying mechanisms of enhanced thrombin generation after MI. PMID:23826181

  8. Dentoalveolar trauma in Glasgow: an audit of mechanism and injury.

    PubMed

    Wright, Graeme; Bell, Aileen; McGlashan, Gregor; Vincent, Carolyn; Welbury, Richard R

    2007-08-01

    Traumatic dental injuries in children often require multiple follow-up visits to the dentist and may have long-term consequences for the developing dentition. The aim of this audit was to examine age, gender, location, time of year, mechanism of injury and type of injury sustained in relation to dentoalveolar trauma in children attending the paediatric dental trauma clinic at Glasgow Dental Hospital from 2002 to 2004, and to compare our findings with data in the published literature. Males suffered 60% of all dental trauma, 79% of sporting injuries and 85% of assaults. The injuries in males were more severe, representing 65% of enamel dentine and pulp fractures, 100% of crown root fractures and 66% of crown root and pulp fractures. A peak for trauma was seen in the 8-11-year-old group (43%). The majority of injuries in the under four age group resulted from falls (87%). Taken as a whole, falls accounted for 49%, sports related injuries 18%, bicycle and scooter 13%, assault 7%, and road traffic accidents 1.5% of all injuries. They also accounted for a far higher percentage of intrusive luxations (67%). The largest proportion of injuries occurred during the summer months (33%). Sixty-four percent of children suffered trauma to more than one tooth. Fifty-eight percent of injuries involved the dental hard tissues and pulp and the majority of these (82%) were crown fractures. Most subjects (82%) suffered trauma to their periodontal tissues, (26% concussion or subluxation, 26% lateral luxation and 23% avulsion). Injuries to the supporting bone were uncommon. Sixty-six percent of all injuries occurred outdoors. Our findings were similar to a number of published studies, but in contrast to several others. More consistency is required in the collection and reporting of trauma data to be able to draw meaningful conclusions by comparison.

  9. Libraries as 'everyday' settings: the Glasgow MCISS project.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, Sandy; Coburn, Jonathan; Lacey, Marion; McKee, Martin J; Hill, Carol

    2016-03-22

    A settings-based approach is now well-established in health promotion, initially undertaken in conventional places like schools and workplaces, but more recently being expressed in a wider range of what Torp et al. call 'everyday' settings. In this context, libraries have emerged as another potential setting whose ubiquity and accessibility suggests that they may be particularly effective in addressing health inequalities. Drawing on a case study-the Glasgow Macmillan Cancer Information and Support Services Library project-this paper reports on the potential for seeing 'libraries as settings' and in the context of a set of associated theoretical resources, specifically scrutinizes the nature of initiative implementation. Data were drawn from multiple sources: semi-structured interviews and focus groups with strategic partners and stakeholders, operational staff, project volunteers, service users and members of the general public. Qualitative data were complemented by quantitative insights from surveys with members of the partnership, libraries staff and volunteers. Despite some concerns associated with potentially hostile cultural and financial contexts that might threaten longer term sustainability, insights suggested that in pragmatic terms, the project was attracting sizable 'footfall' and successfully addressing a range of needs. Additionally, the formal implementation processes associated with project implementation were considered to have been highly successful in embedding the model into the library culture. In summary, there is evidence that libraries have the potential to be considered as supportive settings and could act as a model for an emergent vision of what libraries do. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An Exploration of Smoking Behavior of African Male Immigrants Living in Glasgow

    PubMed Central

    Ezika, Ejiofor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this research study was to explore the smoking behavior of adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow to inform and contribute to primary health promotion frameworks. METHODS 25 adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow were recruited via consecutive sampling by soliciting for participation through the use of flyers, posters and word of mouth. Data collection occurred via semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interviews were audio taped, after which verbatim transcription was carried out and the data analyzed thematically. RESULTS The participants’ smoking habits were influenced by cold weather environment as well as societal norms that appear to make the smoking habit more acceptable in Glasgow than Africa. It appears the more educated the participants were, the fewer cigarettes they smoked. However, there was only a slight difference in the number of cigarettes smoked between participants with a degree and those with a postgraduate degree. CONCLUSION The participants’ smoking habits in Glasgow appear to have increased because of environmental variables associated with living in Glasgow, specifically the cold weather environment and high acceptability of smoking habits in Glasgow. PMID:25741179

  11. Some new insights into the history of the Glasgow time ball and time guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David; Kinns, Roger

    2012-03-01

    The 1857 time ball machinery at the Glasgow Sailors' Home was supplied by Alexander McKenzie, mechanist, using a design that had much in common with the 1853 Edinburgh apparatus. It was operated using electrical connections to a mean time clock in the Home. This clock required adjustment by hand each day to compensate for its losing rate. Such manual intervention and lack of independent verification of accuracy under-mined the authority of the signal. The relative prestige of the Glasgow and Edinburgh Observatories was an important issue. There was no telegraphic link between Glasgow Observatory and the City until the end of 1863, but it had been demonstrated as early as October 1855 that a time ball could be dropped by telegraph from Edinburgh. Another Edinburgh initiative in September 1863 using time guns fired from Edinburgh caused offence in Glasgow and the trials were terminated in February 1864. Professor Grant, Director of Glasgow Observatory, argued successfully that a system of slave clocks controlled from Glasgow Observatory would be far superior to either a time ball or time guns which only provided a signal once per day. He won the debate in March 1864.

  12. Comparison of risk scoring systems for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: international multicentre prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R; Ngu, Jing H; Schultz, Michael; Abazi, Roseta; Zakko, Liam; Thornton, Susan; Wilkinson, Kelly; Khor, Cristopher J L; Murray, Iain A; Laursen, Stig B

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Design International multicentre prospective study. Setting Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania. Participants 3012 consecutive patients presenting over 12 months with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Main outcome measures Comparison of pre-endoscopy scores (admission Rockall, AIMS65, and Glasgow Blatchford) and post-endoscopy scores (full Rockall and PNED) for their ability to predict predefined clinical endpoints: a composite endpoint (transfusion, endoscopic treatment, interventional radiology, surgery, or 30 day mortality), endoscopic treatment, 30 day mortality, rebleeding, and length of hospital stay. Optimum score thresholds to identify low risk and high risk patients were determined. Results The Glasgow Blatchford score was best (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.86) at predicting intervention or death compared with the full Rockall score (0.70), PNED score (0.69), admission Rockall score (0.66, and AIMS65 score (0.68) (all P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≤1 was the optimum threshold to predict survival without intervention (sensitivity 98.6%, specificity 34.6%). The Glasgow Blatchford score was better at predicting endoscopic treatment (AUROC 0.75) than the AIMS65 (0.62) and admission Rockall scores (0.61) (both P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≥7 was the optimum threshold to predict endoscopic treatment (sensitivity 80%, specificity 57%). The PNED (AUROC 0.77) and AIMS65 scores (0.77) were best at predicting mortality, with both superior to admission Rockall score (0.72) and Glasgow Blatchford score (0.64; P<0.001). Score thresholds of ≥4 for PNED, ≥2 for AIMS65, ≥4 for admission Rockall, and ≥5 for full Rockall were optimal at predicting death, with sensitivities of 65.8-78.6% and specificities of 65

  13. Prognostic significance of blood-brain barrier disruption in patients with severe nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury requiring decompressive craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kwok M; Honeybul, Stephen; Yip, Cheng B; Silbert, Benjamin I

    2014-09-01

    The authors assessed the risk factors and outcomes associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in patients with severe, nonpenetrating, traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring decompressive craniectomy. At 2 major neurotrauma centers in Western Australia, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among 97 adult neurotrauma patients who required an external ventricular drain (EVD) and decompressive craniectomy during 2004-2012. Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were used to assess neurological outcomes. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with BBB disruption, defined by a ratio of total CSF protein concentrations to total plasma protein concentration > 0.007 in the earliest CSF specimen collected after TBI. Of the 252 patients who required decompressive craniectomy, 97 (39%) required an EVD to control intracranial pressure, and biochemical evidence of BBB disruption was observed in 43 (44%). Presence of disruption was associated with more severe TBI (median predicted risk for unfavorable outcome 75% vs 63%, respectively; p = 0.001) and with worse outcomes at 6, 12, and 18 months than was absence of BBB disruption (72% vs 37% unfavorable outcomes, respectively; p = 0.015). The only risk factor significantly associated with increased risk for BBB disruption was presence of nonevacuated intracerebral hematoma (> 1 cm diameter) (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.23-7.50; p = 0.016). Although BBB disruption was associated with more severe TBI and worse long-term outcomes, when combined with the prognostic information contained in the Corticosteroid Randomization after Significant Head Injury (CRASH) prognostic model, it did not seem to add significant prognostic value (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.855 vs 0.864, respectively; p = 0.453). Biochemical evidence of BBB disruption after severe nonpenetrating TBI was common, especially among patients with large intracerebral hematomas. Disruption of the BBB was associated with more severe

  14. [Prognostic factors after cardiac arrest. Usefulness of early video-electroencephalogram].

    PubMed

    Arméstar, Fernando; Becerra Cuñat, Juan Luis; León Chan, Yariela; Mesalles Sanjuan, Eduard; Moreno, José Antonio; Jiménez González, Marta; Roca, Josep

    2015-05-08

    Predictors of unfavorable outcome in patients after cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) are important to make decisions about the limitation of therapeutic efforts. The aim was to analyze the clinical variables in the prognosis of patients recovered after CPA. Retrospective study on comatose patients with recovered CPA. The variables were: age, sex, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), pupillary light reflex, other variables related to CPA (cause, duration, witnessed or not witnessed), myoclonic status and electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns. Fifty patients were studied. The variables associated with mortality were the absence of pupillary light reflex (hazard ratio [HR] 0.277, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.103-0.741, P=.01), a low GCS (HR 0.701, 95% CI 0.542-0.908, P=.007) and myoclonic state (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.176-0.854, P=.01). We evaluated the EEG patterns in 22 patients. No statistical significance was observed. The absence of pupillary light reflex, a low GCS and myoclonic state are prognostic factors in patients recovered after a CPA. The EEG patterns showed a nonsignificant association with prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Prediction of Outcome after Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: External Validation of the IMPACT and CRASH Prognostic Models

    PubMed Central

    Roozenbeek, Bob; Lingsma, Hester F.; Lecky, Fiona E.; Lu, Juan; Weir, James; Butcher, Isabella; McHugh, Gillian S.; Murray, Gordon D.; Perel, Pablo; Maas, Andrew I.R.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials (IMPACT) and Corticoid Randomisation After Significant Head injury (CRASH) prognostic models predict outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) but have not been compared in large datasets. The objective of this is study is to validate externally and compare the IMPACT and CRASH prognostic models for prediction of outcome after moderate or severe TBI. Design External validation study. Patients We considered 5 new datasets with a total of 9036 patients, comprising three randomized trials and two observational series, containing prospectively collected individual TBI patient data. Measurements Outcomes were mortality and unfavourable outcome, based on the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at six months after injury. To assess performance, we studied the discrimination of the models (by AUCs), and calibration (by comparison of the mean observed to predicted outcomes and calibration slopes). Main Results The highest discrimination was found in the TARN trauma registry (AUCs between 0.83 and 0.87), and the lowest discrimination in the Pharmos trial (AUCs between 0.65 and 0.71). Although differences in predictor effects between development and validation populations were found (calibration slopes varying between 0.58 and 1.53), the differences in discrimination were largely explained by differences in case-mix in the validation studies. Calibration was good, the fraction of observed outcomes generally agreed well with the mean predicted outcome. No meaningful differences were noted in performance between the IMPACT and CRASH models. More complex models discriminated slightly better than simpler variants. Conclusions Since both the IMPACT and the CRASH prognostic models show good generalizability to more recent data, they are valid instruments to quantify prognosis in TBI. PMID:22511138

  16. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of patients with mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies: a single-institution study of 225 cases.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen; Sheng, Yan; Weng, Xiangqin; Zhu, Yongmei; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Pengpeng; Fei, Xiaochun; Chen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Li; Zhao, Weili

    2015-12-01

    Mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies comprise a group of heterogeneous diseases that vary in clinicopathological features, biological behavior, treatment response, and prognosis. Bone marrow (BM) infiltration is more commonly present in mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies compared with their B-cell counterparts and hence important for differential diagnosis. In this study, clinical characteristics and prognostic factors were analyzed in 225 patients with mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies treated in a single institution. These included 29 cases of T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T-LPD, all with BM infiltration) and 196 cases of T-/natural-killer-cell lymphoma (T/NKCL, 56 with BM infiltration and 140 without BM infiltration). The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of T-LPD and T/NKCL were 96.6% and 37.3%, respectively. T-LPD patients were less likely to exhibit poor performance status, advanced disease stage, presence of B symptoms, or abnormal level of serum β-2 microglobulin. With similar pathological characteristics, T/NKCL patients with BM infiltration showed significantly lower response rates and shorter OS than those without BM infiltration (P = 0.0264 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that poor performance status, advanced disease stage, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level, and BM involvement were independent unfavorable prognostic factors. The Glasgow Prognostic Score may be more efficient than the International Prognostic Index in predicting disease outcome in T/NKCL. In conclusion, clinical characteristics may be useful in more effectively stratifying patients with mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies.

  17. Hypoglycorrhachia in adults with community-acquired meningitis: etiologies and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Shrikanth, Vandana; Salazar, Lucrecia; Khoury, Nabil; Wootton, Susan; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2015-10-01

    Hypoglycorrhachia (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose <45 mg/dl) has been identified as a prognostic factor in patients with meningitis. The differential diagnosis of hypoglycorrhachia and its clinical significance was analyzed in the present study. This was a retrospective study of 620 adult patients with community-acquired meningitis (CSF white blood cell count >5 × 10(6) cells/l and absence of a CSF shunt or recent neurosurgical procedure (<1 month)) at eight Memorial Hermann hospitals in Houston, Texas, from January 2005 to December 2010. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow outcome scale score of ≤ 4. Out of 620 patients with meningitis, 116 (19%) had hypoglycorrhachia. Etiologies of hypoglycorrhachia were idiopathic (n=40), bacterial (n=27), cryptococcal (n=26), viral (n=15), and tuberculous (n=4). Patients with hypoglycorrhachia were more likely to be immunosuppressed, have a history of intravenous drug use, and present with a vesicular or petechial rash, nausea or vomiting, nuchal rigidity, sinusitis/otitis, abnormal mental status, and focal neurological deficits compared to those patients without hypoglycorrhachia (p<0.05). Additionally, patients in the hypoglycorrhachia group had significantly higher rates of positive CSF and blood cultures, urgent treatable conditions, and abnormal cranial imaging (p<0.05). Furthermore, patients with hypoglycorrhachia had more adverse clinical outcomes (26/116 (22.4%) vs. 45/504 (8.9%); p<0.001). Hypoglycorrhachia has significant clinical and prognostic value in the evaluation of adult patients with community-acquired meningitis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest and targeted temperature management 33°C versus 36°C: Results from a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dragancea, Irina; Horn, Janneke; Kuiper, Michael; Friberg, Hans; Ullén, Susann; Wetterslev, Jørn; Cranshaw, Jules; Hassager, Christian; Nielsen, Niklas; Cronberg, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The reliability of some methods of neurological prognostication after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has been questioned since the introduction of induced hypothermia. The aim of this study was to determine whether different treatment temperatures after resuscitation affected the prognostic accuracy of clinical neurological findings and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in comatose patients. We calculated sensitivity and false positive rate for Glasgow Coma Scale motor score (GCS M), pupillary and corneal reflexes and SSEP to predict poor neurological outcome using prospective data from the Target Temperature Management after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Trial which randomised 939 comatose survivors to treatment at either 33 °C or 36 °C. Poor outcome was defined as severe disability, vegetative state or death (Cerebral Performance Category scale 3-5) at six months. 313 patients (33%) were prognostically assessed; 168 in the 33 °C, and 145 in the 36 °C group. A GCS M ≤ 2 had a false positive rate of 19.1% to predict poor outcome due to nine false predictions. Bilaterally absent pupillary reflexes had a false positive rate of 2.1% and absent corneal reflexes had a false positive rate of 2.2% due to one false prediction in each group. The false positive rate for bilaterally absent SSEP N20-peaks was 2.6%. Bilaterally absent pupillary and corneal reflexes and absent SSEP N20-peaks were reliable markers of a poor prognosis after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but low GCS M score was not. The reliability of the tests was not altered by the treatment temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: pooled analyses of individual patient data in the SAHIT repository.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Lingsma, Hester; Schweizer, Tom A; Thorpe, Kevin E; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Macdonald, R Loch

    2015-03-01

    The literature has conflicting reports about the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in the SAH International Trialists repository. Patient-level meta-analyses were conducted to investigate univariate associations between premorbid hypertension (6 studies; n = 7249), admission neurological status measured on the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) scale (10 studies; n = 10,869), and 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Multivariable analyses were performed to sequentially adjust for the effects of age, CT clot burden, aneurysm location, aneurysm size, and modality of aneurysm repair. Prognostic associations were estimated across the ordered categories of the GOS using proportional odds models. Nagelkerke's R(2) statistic was used to quantify the added prognostic value of hypertension and neurological status beyond those of the adjustment factors. Premorbid hypertension was independently associated with poor outcome, with an unadjusted pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-2.00) and an adjusted OR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.25-1.53). Patients with a premorbid history of hypertension had higher rates of cardiovascular and renal comorbidities, poorer neurological status (p ≤ 0.001), and higher odds of neurological complications including cerebral infarctions, hydrocephalus, rebleeding, and delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Worsening neurological status was strongly independently associated with poor outcome, including WFNS Grades II (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.68-2.03), III (OR 3.85, 95% CI 3.32-4.47), IV (OR 5.58, 95% CI 4.91-6.35), and V (OR 14.18, 95% CI 12.20-16.49). Neurological status had substantial added predictive value greater than the combined value of other prognostic factors (R(2) increase > 10%), while the added predictive value of

  20. Impact of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System, cytogenetics and monosomal karyotype on outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes and secondary acute myeloid leukemia evolving from myelodysplastic syndromes: a retrospective multicenter study of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koenecke, Christian; Göhring, Gudrun; de Wreede, Liesbeth C; van Biezen, Anja; Scheid, Christof; Volin, Liisa; Maertens, Johan; Finke, Jürgen; Schaap, Nicolaas; Robin, Marie; Passweg, Jakob; Cornelissen, Jan; Beelen, Dietrich; Heuser, Michael; de Witte, Theo; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the revised 5-group International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic classification on outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or secondary acute myeloid leukemia who were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database. A total of 903 patients had sufficient cytogenetic information available at stem cell transplantation to be classified according to the 5-group classification. Poor and very poor risk according to this classification was an independent predictor of shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio 1.40 and 2.14), overall survival (hazard ratio 1.38 and 2.14), and significantly higher cumulative incidence of relapse (hazard ratio 1.64 and 2.76), compared to patients with very good, good or intermediate risk. When comparing the predictive performance of a series of Cox models both for relapse-free survival and for overall survival, a model with simplified 5-group cytogenetics (merging very good, good and intermediate cytogenetics) performed best. Furthermore, monosomal karyotype is an additional negative predictor for outcome within patients of the poor, but not the very poor risk group of the 5-group classification. The revised International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic classification allows patients with myelodysplastic syndromes to be separated into three groups with clearly different outcomes after stem cell transplantation. Poor and very poor risk cytogenetics were strong predictors of poor patient outcome. The new cytogenetic classification added value to prediction of patient outcome compared to prediction models using only traditional risk factors or the 3-group International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic classification. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  1. Comparing logistic models based on modified GCS motor component with other prognostic tools in prediction of mortality: results of study in 7226 trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Ghodsi, Mohammad; Moezardalan, Koorosh; Zargar, Moosa; Ketabchi, Ebrahim

    2005-08-01

    A simple reproducible and sensitive prognostic trauma tool is still needed. In this article we have introduced modified GCS motor response (MGMR) and evaluated the performance of logistic models based on this variable. The records of 8452 trauma patients admitted to major hospitals of Tehran from 1999 to 2000 were analysed. 7226 records with known outcome were included in our study. Logistic models based on outcome (death versus survival) as a dependent variable and Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), GCS motor component (GMR) and MGMR (following command [=2], movement but not following [=1] command and without movement [=0]) were compared based on their accuracy and area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The accuracy of the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), RTS, GCS, GMR and MGMR models were almost the same. Considering both the area under the ROC curve and accuracy, the age included MGMR model was also comparable with other age included models (RTS+age, GCS+age, GMR+age). We concluded that although in some situations we need more sophisticated models, should our results be reproducible in other populations, MGMR (with or without age added) model may be of considerable practical value.

  2. Prevalence of alcohol related brain damage among homeless hostel dwellers in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Gail; Morrison, David S

    2005-12-01

    Over half of Glasgow's 4000 homeless people drink hazardously but the prevalence of alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) has not been described. To determine the prevalence of ARBD among homeless hostel dwellers in Glasgow. A representative sample of homeless hostel dwellers was surveyed using validated survey instruments and clinical assessment. From a sample of 266 hostel dwellers, 82% had cognitive impairment and 78% were drinking hazardously. The prevalence of ARBD among homeless hostel dwellers was 21%. ARBD has a high prevalence among homeless hostel dwellers and treatment is usually effective. There is a need to actively identify and treat this population to help them move out of homelessness.

  3. Predictive power of UKCAT and other pre-admission measures for performance in a medical school in Glasgow: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and its four subtests are currently used by 24 Medical and Dental Schools in the UK for admissions. This longitudinal study examines the predictive validity of UKCAT for final performance in the undergraduate medical degree programme at one Medical School and compares this with the predictive validity of the selection measures available pre-UKCAT. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of one cohort of students, admitted to Glasgow Medical School in 2007. We examined the associations which UKCAT scores, school science grades and pre-admissions interview scores had with performance indicators, particularly final composite scores that determine students’ postgraduate training opportunities and overall ranking (Educational Performance Measure - EPM, and Honours and Commendation – H&C). Analyses were conducted both with and without adjustment for potential socio-demographic confounders (gender, age, ethnicity and area deprivation). Results Despite its predictive value declining as students progress through the course, UKCAT was associated with the final composite scores. In mutually adjusted analyses (also adjusted for socio-demographic confounders), only UKCAT total showed independent relationships with both EPM (p = 0.005) and H&C (p = 0.004), school science achievements predicted EPM (p = 0.009), and pre-admissions interview score predicted neither. UKCAT showed less socio-demographic variation than did TSS. Conclusion UKCAT has a modest predictive power for overall course performance at the University of Glasgow Medical School over and above that of school science achievements or pre-admission interview score and we conclude that UKCAT is the most useful predictor of final ranking. PMID:24919950

  4. Predictive power of UKCAT and other pre-admission measures for performance in a medical school in Glasgow: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sartania, Nana; McClure, John D; Sweeting, Helen; Browitt, Allison

    2014-06-11

    The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and its four subtests are currently used by 24 Medical and Dental Schools in the UK for admissions. This longitudinal study examines the predictive validity of UKCAT for final performance in the undergraduate medical degree programme at one Medical School and compares this with the predictive validity of the selection measures available pre-UKCAT. This was a retrospective observational study of one cohort of students, admitted to Glasgow Medical School in 2007. We examined the associations which UKCAT scores, school science grades and pre-admissions interview scores had with performance indicators, particularly final composite scores that determine students' postgraduate training opportunities and overall ranking (Educational Performance Measure - EPM, and Honours and Commendation - H&C). Analyses were conducted both with and without adjustment for potential socio-demographic confounders (gender, age, ethnicity and area deprivation). Despite its predictive value declining as students progress through the course, UKCAT was associated with the final composite scores. In mutually adjusted analyses (also adjusted for socio-demographic confounders), only UKCAT total showed independent relationships with both EPM (p = 0.005) and H&C (p = 0.004), school science achievements predicted EPM (p = 0.009), and pre-admissions interview score predicted neither. UKCAT showed less socio-demographic variation than did TSS. UKCAT has a modest predictive power for overall course performance at the University of Glasgow Medical School over and above that of school science achievements or pre-admission interview score and we conclude that UKCAT is the most useful predictor of final ranking.

  5. Contested Urban Spaces: Exploring the Analytics of Young Persons' Experiences of Living in Glasgow's Deprived Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Chris; Deuchar, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an exploratory study of mainly young people's verbally articulated perceptions of urban life in Glasgow, Scotland. The focus is upon areas of deprivation where territory and social capital is contested and whose meanings are possibly only partially grasped by our informants. Their personal knowledge of violence and…

  6. The changing face of hepatitis B in greater Glasgow: epidemiological trends 1993-2007.

    PubMed

    Barclay, S T; Cameron, S; Mills, P R; Priest, M; Ross, F; Fox, R; Goulding, C; Forrest, E H; Morris, A J; Neilson, M; Stanley, A J

    2010-08-01

    Whilst hepatitis B (HBV) is historically uncommon in Scotland, anecdotal experience suggests an increasing prevalence of chronic infection. We sought to establish whether the incidence of chronic HBV is increasing in Greater Glasgow, and whether patients are assessed in secondary care. The regional virus centre database identified HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive samples. For adult patients tested in Glasgow between 1993-2007 the first positive test was identified and classified as acute or chronic infection serologically. Clinic referral and attendance data was then obtained. 1,672 patients tested HBsAg positive; 1051 with chronic infection, 421 acute and 200 indeterminate. New diagnoses of HBV remained stable over time, however falling numbers of acute cases were mirrored by a rise in chronic cases from 40 to 119 per annum between 2000 and 2007. Of 193 patients diagnosed in 2006 and 2007, 51% were not seen in secondary care due to non referral (43%) or non attendance (8%). Chronic HBV trebled in Glasgow between 2000 and 2007. Most patients were not assessed in secondary care. Improved levels of clinic referral and attendance are required to ensure best care for HBV patients in Glasgow.

  7. University of Glasgow at TREC 2012: Experiments with Terrier in Medical Records, Microblog, and Web Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Univ. of Glasgow, 2003. [2] G. Amati, E. Ambrosi, M. Bianchi, C. Gaibisso, and G. Gambosi. FUB, IASI -CNR and Univ. of Tor Vergata at TREC 2007 Blog track...In Proc. of TREC, 2007. [3] G. Amati, G. Amodeo, M. Bianchi, G. Marcone, C. Gaibisso, A. Celi, C. De Nicola and M. Flammini. FUB, IASI -CNR, UNIVAQ

  8. The Use of Electronic Information Services and Information Literacy: A Glasgow Caledonian University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, John

    2006-01-01

    The study was undertaken as part of the LIRG/SCONUL Value and Impact study and sought to establish direct evidence of the impact of electronic information services (EIS) on Glasgow Caledonian University students, both past and present. Evidence of the spread of information literacy among students and alumni was also sought. An electronic…

  9. Drug Issues Affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani People Living in Greater Glasgow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, A. J.; Heim, D.; Bakshi, N.; Davies, J. B.; Flatley, K. J.; Hunter, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes research on drug issues affecting Chinese, Indian and Pakistani people living in Greater Glasgow. There were two strands: (i) a questionnaire-based survey of young people and focus groups; (ii) interviews with young people and adults. The primary aims were to gather prevalence data and to investigate perceptions about current…

  10. Contested Urban Spaces: Exploring the Analytics of Young Persons' Experiences of Living in Glasgow's Deprived Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Chris; Deuchar, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an exploratory study of mainly young people's verbally articulated perceptions of urban life in Glasgow, Scotland. The focus is upon areas of deprivation where territory and social capital is contested and whose meanings are possibly only partially grasped by our informants. Their personal knowledge of violence and…

  11. Patient age, remission status and HCT-CI in a combined score are prognostic for patients with AML undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in CR1 and CR2.

    PubMed

    Michelis, F V; Messner, H A; Atenafu, E G; McGillis, L; Lambie, A; Uhm, J; Alam, N; Seftel, M D; Gupta, V; Kuruvilla, J; Lipton, J H; Kim, D D

    2015-11-01

    For AML, older age, advanced disease and increased hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index (HCT-CI) are associated with worse prognosis following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This single-center retrospective study investigated the influence of pre-transplant characteristics on outcomes of 387 patients undergoing allogeneic HCT for AML in CR1 and CR2. The multivariable analysis model for overall survival (OS) included age (hazard ratio (HR)=2.24 for ages 31-64 years and HR=3.23 for age ⩾65 years compared with age ⩽30 years, P=0.003), remission status (HR=1.49 for CR2 compared with CR1, P=0.005) and HCT-CI score (HR=1.47 for ⩾3 compared with <3, P=0.005). Transplant year was significantly associated with OS (P=0.001) but this did not influence the model. A weighted score was developed with age ⩽30, CR1 and HCT-CI score <3 receiving 0 points each, and CR2 and HCT-CI score ⩾3 receiving 1 point each. Ages 31-64 received 2 points, age ⩾65 received 3 points. Scores were grouped as follows: scores 0-1 (low risk, n=36), score 2 (intermediate-low risk, n=147), score 3 (intermediate-high risk, n=141) and scores 4-5 (high risk, n=63) with 3-year OS of 71%, 55%, 42% and 29% for scores 0-1, 2, 3 and 4-5, respectively (P<0.0001). The score predicted nonrelapse mortality (P=0.03) but not cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.18). This model should be validated for the pre-HCT assessment of AML patients in CR1 and CR2.

  12. External validation of scoring systems in risk stratification of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Anchu, Anna Cherian; Mohsina, Subair; Sureshkumar, Sathasivam; Mahalakshmy, T; Kate, Vikram

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to externally validate the four commonly used scoring systems in the risk stratification of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB). Patients of UGIB who underwent endoscopy within 24 h of presentation were stratified prospectively using the pre-endoscopy Rockall score (PRS) >0, complete Rockall score (CRS) >2, Glasgow Blatchford bleeding scores (GBS) >3, and modified GBS (m-GBS) >3 scores. Patients were followed up to 30 days. Prognostic accuracy of the scores was done by comparing areas under curve (AUC) in terms of overall risk stratification, re-bleeding, mortality, need for intervention, and length of hospitalization. One hundred and seventy-five patients were studied. All four scores performed better in the overall risk stratification on AUC [PRS = 0.566 (CI: 0.481-0.651; p-0.043)/CRS = 0.712 (CI: 0.634-0.790); p<0.001)/GBS = 0.810 (CI: 0.744-0.877; p->0.001); m-GBS = 0.802 (CI: 0.734-0.871; p<0.001)], whereas only CRS achieved significance in identifying re-bleed [AUC-0.679 (CI: 0.579-0.780; p = 0.003)]. All the scoring systems except PRS were found to be significantly better in detecting 30-day mortality with a high AUC (CRS = 0.798; p-0.042)/GBS = 0.833; p-0.023); m-GBS = 0.816; p-0.031). All four scores demonstrated significant accuracy in the risk stratification of non-variceal patients; however, only GBS and m-GBS were significant in variceal etiology. Higher cutoff scores achieved better sensitivity/specificity [RS > 0 (50/60.8), CRS > 1 (87.5/50.6), GBS > 7 (88.5/63.3), m-GBS > 7(82.3/72.6)] in the risk stratification. GBS and m-GBS appear to be more valid in risk stratification of UGIB patients in this region. Higher cutoff values achieved better predictive accuracy.

  13. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing, the respiratory score is 0. If the respirations are slow or irregular, the infant scores 1 for respiratory effort. If the infant cries well, the respiratory score is 2. Heart rate is evaluated by stethoscope. This is the most ...

  14. Mortality in Glasgow and Edinburgh: a paradigm of inequality in health.

    PubMed Central

    Watt, G C; Ecob, R

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to describe, predict, and interpret mortality in Glasgow and Edinburgh. DESIGN--The study was an analysis of all cause and cause specific mortality data for quinquennia based on census years between 1931 and 1981, linking age and sex specific mortality rates by year of birth, for people dying between the ages of 25 and 74 years. SETTING--Glasgow and Edinburgh, Scotland. MAIN RESULTS--Age and sex specific mortality rates declined steadily in Edinburgh and Glasgow during the period 1931-1981, with rates always being lower in Edinburgh than in Glasgow. Since 1961 log mortality rates have tended to rise linearly with age in both cities. In 1979-83, the population of Glasgow reached a given all cause mortality rate 3.9 years earlier in men and 3.6 years earlier in women than did the population of Edinburgh. These differences have increased, and are predicted to increase further, especially in men. CONCLUSIONS--The current 40% cross sectional difference in mortality rates between the cities is largely determined by levels of mortality in early adulthood which provide a baseline for the subsequent rise in log mortality. Disease specific epidemiology provides a limited view of inequalities in health, and a partial basis for health promotion. Campaigns to alter disease risk profiles in adults should be complemented by measures operating earlier in life to reduce susceptibility to risk. Maternal and child health require greater priority in public health policy, particularly in areas of socioeconomic disadvantage. PMID:1479319

  15. The health and well-being of children and young people who are looked after: Findings from a face-to-face survey in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sharon; Jopling, Michael

    2017-09-11

    Evidence suggests children and young people who are looked after (LACYP) may have poorer health outcomes than children and young people in the general population, particularly in relation to mental health. This paper discusses findings from a survey of the health and well-being of LACYP in Glasgow. A structured questionnaire used in the 2010 Glasgow Schools Survey (GSS) was adapted and administered in face-to-face interviews with 130 young people aged 11-18 in 2014-2015 to investigate various aspects of health and well-being including physical activity, diet and sleep, smoking, alcohol and drugs, health