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Sample records for glass composition basicity

  1. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  2. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, Gene H.; Roche, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na.sub.2 O, ZrO.sub.2, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and SiO.sub.2 in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2.times.10.sup.-3 (ohm-cm).sup.-1 at 300.degree. C. and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500.degree. C.

  3. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-08

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

  4. Metallic glass composition

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; Koch, Carl C.

    1986-01-01

    A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  5. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-04-24

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  6. Database for waste glass composition and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.D.; Chapman, C.C.; Mendel, J.E.; Williams, C.G.

    1993-12-31

    A database of waste glass composition and properties, called the PNL Waste Glass Database, has been developed. The source of data is published literature and files from projects funded by the US Department of Energy. The glass data have been organized into categories and corresponding data files have been prepared. These categories are glass chemical composition, thermal properties, leaching data, waste composition, glass radionuclide composition and crystallinity data. The data files are compatible with commercial database software. Glass compositions are linked to properties across the various files using a unique glass code. Programs have been written in database software language to permit searches and retrievals of data. The database provides easy access to the vast quantities of glass compositions and properties that have been studied. It will be a tool for researchers and others investigating vitrification and glass waste forms.

  7. Boron Nitride Nanotubes-Reinforced Glass Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam; Hurst, Janet B.; Choi, Sung R.

    2005-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes of significant lengths were synthesized by reaction of boron with nitrogen. Barium calcium aluminosilicate glass composites reinforced with 4 weight percent of BN nanotubes were fabricated by hot pressing. Ambient-temperature flexure strength and fracture toughness of the glass-BN nanotube composites were determined. The strength and fracture toughness of the composite were higher by as much as 90 and 35 percent, respectively, than those of the unreinforced glass. Microscopic examination of the composite fracture surfaces showed pullout of the BN nanotubes. The preliminary results on the processing and improvement in mechanical properties of BN nanotube reinforced glass matrix composites are being reported here for the first time.

  8. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughenbaugh, Katherine; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS), calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS), a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  9. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of research for the origination of graphite-fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are presented. The method selected to form the composites consisted of pulling the graphite fiber through a slurry containing powdered glass, winding up the graphite fiber and the glass it picks up on a drum, drying, cutting into segments, loading the tape segment into a graphite die, and hot pressing. During the course of the work, composites were made with a variety of graphite fibers in a glass matrix.

  10. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  11. Major element composition of Luna 20 glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ten per cent of the 50 to 150-micron size fraction of Luna 20 soil is glass. A random suite of 270 of these glasses has been analyzed by electron microprobe techniques. The major glass type forms a strong cluster around a mean value corresponding to Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro) with 70% normative feldspar. Minor glass groups have the compositions of mare basalts and of low-K Fra Mauro type basalts. The glass data indicate that Highland basalt is the major rock type in the highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis.

  12. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  13. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.; Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A composite that can be used at temperatures up to 875 K with mechanical properties equal or superior to graphite fiber reinforced epoxy composites is presented. The composite system consist of graphite fiber, uniaxially or biaxially, reinforced borosilicate glass. The mechanical and thermal properties of such a graphite fiber reinforced glass composite are described, and the system is shown to offer promise as a high performance structural material. Specific properties that were measured were: a modified borosilicate glass uniaxially reinforced by Hercules HMS graphite fiber has a three-point flexural strength of 1030 MPa, a four-point flexural strength of 964 MPa, an elastic modulus of 199 GPa and a failure strain of 0.0052. The preparation and properties of similar composites with Hercules HTS, Celanese DG-102, Thornel 300 and Thornel Pitch graphite fibers are also described.

  14. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOEpatents

    Mattes, B.R.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.; Koskelo, A.C.; Love, S.P.

    1995-05-30

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites is described. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C{sub 60} in silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these ``guests`` in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C{sub 60}. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C{sub 60} dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C{sub 60} in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  15. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOEpatents

    Mattes, Benjamin R.; McBranch, Duncan W.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Love, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  16. GLASS COMPOSITION AND PROCESS OF MAKING

    DOEpatents

    Bishay, A.M.

    1962-09-01

    Glass compositions are described which are suitable for scintillators of thermal-neutron counters. The glass consists of from 70 to 75 mole% of B/sub 2/O/ sub 3/, from 7 to 9 mole% of Ce/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and from 23 to 16 mole% of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ plus Na/sub 2 /O in a mole ratio of 1 to 1.5. The process of making the glass from cerous oxalate, ammonium pentaborate, sodium carbonate, and hydrated alumina in a nonoxidizing atmosphere at 1400-1500 deg C is given. (AEC)

  17. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Samuels, W. D.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  18. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Samuels, W.D.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1995-06-06

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    SciTech Connect

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  20. Molybdenum sealing glass-ceramic composition

    DOEpatents

    Eagan, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having low hydrogen and helium permeability properties, along with high fracture strength, a thermal coefficient of expansion similar to that of molybdenum, and adaptable for hermetically sealing to molybdenum at temperatures of between about 900.degree. and about 950.degree.C. to form a hermatically sealed insulator body.

  1. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    High levels of mechanical performance in tension, flexure, fatigue, and creep loading situations of graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are discussed. At test temperatures of up to 813 K it was found that the major limiting factor was the oxidative instability of the reinforcing graphite fibers. Particular points to note include the following: (1) a wide variety of graphite fibers were found to be comparable with the glass matrix composite fabrication process; (2) choice of fiber, to a large extent, controlled resultant composite performance; (3) composite fatigue performance was found to be excellent at both 300 K and 703 K; (4) composite creep and stress rupture at temperatures of up to 813 K was limited by the oxidative stability of the fiber; (5) exceptionally low values of composite thermal expansion coefficient were attributable to the dimensional stability of both matrix and fiber; and (6) component fabricability was demonstrated through the hot pressing of hot sections and brazing using glass and metal joining phases.

  2. Natural Fiber or Glass Reinforced Polypropylene Composites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, W.; Di Landro, L.; Casiraghi, A.; Pagano, M. R.

    2008-08-01

    Problems related to the recycle of conventional composite materials are becoming always more relevant for many industrial fields. Natural fiber composites (NFC) have recently gained much attention due to their low cost, environmental gains (eco-compatibility), easy disposal, reduction in volatile organic emissions, and their potential to compete with glass fiber composites (GFC). Interest in natural fibers is not only based over ecological aspects. NFC have good mechanical performances in relation to their low specific weight and low price. A characterization of mechanical properties, dynamic behavior, and moisture absorption is presented.

  3. NATURAL FIBER OR GLASS REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES?

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzi, W.; Di Landro, L.; Casiraghi, A.; Pagano, M. R.

    2008-08-28

    Problems related to the recycle of conventional composite materials are becoming always more relevant for many industrial fields. Natural fiber composites (NFC) have recently gained much attention due to their low cost, environmental gains (eco-compatibility), easy disposal, reduction in volatile organic emissions, and their potential to compete with glass fiber composites (GFC). Interest in natural fibers is not only based over ecological aspects. NFC have good mechanical performances in relation to their low specific weight and low price. A characterization of mechanical properties, dynamic behavior, and moisture absorption is presented.

  4. Compositional dependence of in vitro response to commercial silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlicka, Amy B.

    Materials are often incorporated into the human body, interacting with surrounding fluids, cells and tissues. The reactions that occur between a material and this surrounding biological system are not fundamentally understood. Basic knowledge of material biocompatibility and the controlling processes is lacking. This thesis examines material biocompatibility of a series of silicate-based glasses on a primary level determining cell response to material composition and durability. The silicate glass system studied included two BioglassRTM compositions with known biologically favorable response, two fiberglass compositions, with demonstrated 'not-unfavorable' in vitro response, a ternary soda-lime-silicate glass, a binary alkali silicate glass, and pure silica. Chemical durability was analyzed in three different fluids through solution analysis and material characterization. In vitro response to the substrates was observed. Cell behavior was then directly correlated to the material behavior in cell culture medium under the same conditions as the in vitro test, yet in the absence of cells. The effect of several physical and chemical surface treatments on substrates with predetermined biocompatible behavior was subsequently determined. The chemically durable glasses with no added B2O3 elicited similar cell response as the control polystyrene substrate. The addition of B2O3 resulted in polygonal cell shape and restricted cell proliferation. The non-durable glasses presented a dynamic surface to the cells, which did not adversely affect in vitro response. Extreme dissolution of the binary alkali silicate glass in conjunction with increased pH resulted in unfavorable cell response. Reaction of the Bioglass RTM compositions, producing a biologically favorable calcium-phosphate surface film, caused enhanced cell attachment and spreading. Surface energy increase due to sterilization procedures did not alter cellular response. Surface treatment procedures influencing substrate

  5. Novel routes to ceramic and glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, B.; Mohankrishnan, C.K.; Miller, D.J.; Lira, C.T. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a novel fabrication process under development for making glass and ceramic composites. A sol-gel process is used to prepare gels which are subsequently dried in a semibatch supercritical (hypercritical) fluid apparatus. The gels are dried rapidly at temperatures lower than previous supercritical processes have used. The dried ceramics are characterized with mercury and nitrogen porosimetry. The highly-porous matrices are impregnated with organic silicon carbide precursors; the impregnated matrix is pyrolyzed to form the densified ceramic composite. Material properties, including extent of fiber formation, are characterized.

  6. Glass Mica Composite Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2005-07-20

    A novel glass-mica composite seal was developed based on the previous concept of ''infiltrated'' mica seals for solid oxide fuel cells. A Ba-Al-Ca silicate sealing glass was mixed with mica flakes to form the glass-mica composite seals. The glass-mica composite seals were tested thermal cycle stability in terms of the high temperature leakage and compressive stresses. Post mortem analyses were used to characterize the fracture and leak path of the glass-mica composite seals.

  7. Modified glass fibre reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yumei

    A high ratio of strength to density and relatively low-cost are some of the significant features of glass fibre reinforced polymer composites (GFRPCs) that made them one of the most rapidly developed materials in recent years. They are widely used as the material of construction in the areas of aerospace, marine and everyday life, such as airplane, helicopter, boat, canoe, fishing rod, racket, etc. Traditionally, researchers tried to raise the mechanical properties and keep a high strength/weight ratio using all or some of the following methods: increasing the volume fraction of the fibre; using different polymeric matrix material; or changing the curing conditions. In recent years, some new techniques and processing methods were developed to further improve the mechanical properties of glass fibre (GF) reinforced polymer composite. For example, by modifying the surface condition of the GF, both the interface strength between the GF and the polymer matrix and the shear strength of the final composite can be significantly increased. Also, by prestressing the fibre during the curing process of the composite, the tensile, flexural and the impact properties of the composite can be greatly improved. In this research project, a new method of preparing GFRPCs, which combined several traditional and modern techniques together, was developed. This new method includes modification of the surface of the GF with silica particles, application of different levels of prestressing on the GF during the curing process, and the change of the fibre volume fraction and curing conditions in different sets of experiments. The results of the new processing were tested by the three-point bend test, the short beam shear test and the impact test to determine the new set of properties so formed in the composite material. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to study the fracture surface of the new materials after the mechanical tests were performed. By taking advantages of the

  8. Lunar glass compositions - Apollo 16 core sections 60002 and 60004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. O. A.; Tsai, H.-M.

    1975-01-01

    Approximately 500 glasses between 1 mm and 125 microns in size have been analyzed from fourteen samples from the Apollo 16 core sections 60002 and 60004. The majority of glasses have compositions comparable to those found in previous studies of lunar surface soils; however, two new and distinct glass compositions that are probably derived in part from mare material occur in the core samples. The major glass composition in all samples is that of Highland Basalt glass, but it also appears that high-K Fra Mauro Basalt (KREEP) glass is more common at the Apollo 16 site than was previously thought. The relative abundance of glasses within the core samples is random in distribution: each sample is characterized by a particular assemblage and distribution of the constituent glass compositions.

  9. Metallic glass nanostructures of tunable shape and composition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Jingbei; Sohn, Sungwoo; Li, Yanglin; Cha, Judy J.; Schroers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Metals of hybrid nano-/microstructures are of broad technological and fundamental interests. Manipulation of shape and composition on the nanoscale, however, is challenging, especially for multicomponent alloys such as metallic glasses. Although top–down approaches have demonstrated nanomoulding, they are limited to very few alloy systems. Here we report a facile method to synthesize metallic glass nanoarchitectures that can be applied to a broad range of glass-forming alloys. This strategy, using multitarget carousel oblique angle deposition, offers the opportunity to achieve control over size, shape and composition of complex alloys at the nanoscale. As a consequence, nanostructures of programmable three-dimensional shapes and tunable compositions are realized on wafer scale for metallic glasses including the marginal glass formers. Realizing nanostructures in a wide compositional range allows chemistry optimization for technological usage of metallic glass nanostructures, and also enables the fundamental study on size, composition and fabrication dependences of metallic glass properties. PMID:25901951

  10. Vitrification and waste glass compositional limits

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.C.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1994-08-01

    The most important issue when evaluating the suitability of a waste stream for vitrification is the composition of the waste. Appropriate analytical data are required to ensure that adequate information is available for evaluating and implementing the technology. Although vitrification can be used to immobilize almost any waste stream through dilution of the waste with glass formers, it may be too costly for certain limiting conditions. This report provides guidelines of these limit sand the consequent analytical requirements that are necessary for appropriate qualitative cost estimates.

  11. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-09-23

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste uranium oxides The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  12. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  13. Compositional-tailoring of optical properties in IR transparent chalcogenide glasses for precision glass molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, B.; Wachtel, P.; Musgraves, J. D.; Qiao, A.; Anheier, N.; Richardson, K.

    2013-09-01

    The structural and optical properties of AsSe chalcogenide glass, starting with As40Se60, were studied as a function of Ge or Se additions. These elements provide broad glass forming options when combined with the host matrix to allow for compositional tuning of properties. Optimization of glass composition has been shown to produce bulk glasses with a thermoptic coefficient (dn/dT) equal to zero, as well as a composition which could demonstrate a net zero change in index after precision glass molding (PGM). The bulk glass density, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), refractive index, and dn/dT were measured for all bulk compositions, as was the refractive index after PGM. For the bulk glasses examined, both the refractive index (measured at discrete laser wavelengths from 3.4 to10.6 μm) and dn/dT were observed to decrease as the molecular percentage of either Ge or Se is increased. Compared to the starting glass' network, additions of either Ge or Se lead to a deviation from the "optimally constrained" binary glass' average coordination number = 2.4. Additions of Se or Ge serve to decrease or increase the average coordination number (CN) of the glass, respectively, while also changing the network's polarizability. After a representative PGM process, glasses exhibited an "index drop" consistent with that seen for oxide glasses.1 Based on our evaluation, both the Gecontaining and Ge-free tielines show potential for developing unique compositions with either a zero dn/dT for the unmolded, bulk glass, as well as the potential for a glass that demonstrates a net zero "index drop" after molding. Such correlation of glass chemistry, network, physical and optical properties will enable the tailoring of novel compositions suitable for prototyping towards targeted molding behavior and final properties.

  14. Compositional Models of Glass/Melt Properties and their Use for Glass Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-12-18

    Nuclear waste glasses must simultaneously meet a number of criteria related to their processability, product quality, and cost factors. The properties that must be controlled in glass formulation and waste vitrification plant operation tend to vary smoothly with composition allowing for glass property-composition models to be developed and used. Models have been fit to the key glass properties. The properties are transformed so that simple functions of composition (e.g., linear, polynomial, or component ratios) can be used as model forms. The model forms are fit to experimental data designed statistically to efficiently cover the composition space of interest. Examples of these models are found in literature. The glass property-composition models, their uncertainty definitions, property constraints, and optimality criteria are combined to formulate optimal glass compositions, control composition in vitrification plants, and to qualify waste glasses for disposal. An overview of current glass property-composition modeling techniques is summarized in this paper along with an example of how those models are applied to glass formulation and product qualification at the planned Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant.

  15. Compositional Models of Glass/Melt Properties and their Use for Glass Formulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vienna, John D.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-12-18

    Nuclear waste glasses must simultaneously meet a number of criteria related to their processability, product quality, and cost factors. The properties that must be controlled in glass formulation and waste vitrification plant operation tend to vary smoothly with composition allowing for glass property-composition models to be developed and used. Models have been fit to the key glass properties. The properties are transformed so that simple functions of composition (e.g., linear, polynomial, or component ratios) can be used as model forms. The model forms are fit to experimental data designed statistically to efficiently cover the composition space of interest. Examples ofmore » these models are found in literature. The glass property-composition models, their uncertainty definitions, property constraints, and optimality criteria are combined to formulate optimal glass compositions, control composition in vitrification plants, and to qualify waste glasses for disposal. An overview of current glass property-composition modeling techniques is summarized in this paper along with an example of how those models are applied to glass formulation and product qualification at the planned Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant.« less

  16. Glass-ceramic composition for hermetic seals

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Jr., Clifford P.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having a high fracture strength adaptable for hermetically sealing to chromium bearing iron or nickel base alloys at temperatures of between about 950.degree. C to about 1100.degree. C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body, comprising from about 55 to about 65 weight percent SiO.sub.2, from about 0 to about 5 weight percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, from about 6 to about 11 weight % Li.sub.2 O, from about 25 to about 32 weight percent BaO, from about 0.5 to about 1.0 weight percent CoO and from about 1.5 to about 3.5 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5.

  17. Optical basicity and polarizability for copper-zinc doped sol-gel glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, G.; Amjotkaur, Pandey, O. P.; Kumar, Vishal

    2016-05-01

    CaO-SiO2-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been studied by varying ratios of Copper oxide and Zinc oxide. Glasses were prepared using Sol-Gel technique. Opitical Basicity and oxide ion Polarizability were calculated and discussed in relation with non bridging Oxygen ions (NBOs). Optical basicity is average electron donating capability of an oxide atom. All glasses had a little difference in optical basicity and polarizability values but CZ8 glass (20CaO-60SiO2-5B2O3-5P2O5-2CuO-8ZnO) came out to show highest optical basicity and polarizability with value 0.5177 and 0.9798 respectively. This showed the highest electron donating tendency of CZ8 glass and highest number of NBOs. These were minimum for CZ2 glass with 8CuO and 2ZnO. In aspect of optical basicity and polarizability glasses follow the series CZ2 < CZ4 < CZ6 < CZ8. Increasing concentration of ZnO and decreasing concentration of CuO lead to higher optical basicity and oxide ion polarizability.

  18. Relationship between topological order and glass forming ability in densely packed enstatite and forsterite composition glasses.

    PubMed

    Kohara, S; Akola, J; Morita, H; Suzuya, K; Weber, J K R; Wilding, M C; Benmore, C J

    2011-09-01

    The atomic structures of magnesium silicate melts are key to understanding processes related to the evolution of the Earth's mantle and represent precursors to the formation of most igneous rocks. Magnesium silicate compositions also represent a major component of many glass ceramics, and depending on their composition can span the entire fragility range of glass formation. The silica rich enstatite (MgSiO(3)) composition is a good glass former, whereas the forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) composition is at the limit of glass formation. Here, the structure of MgSiO(3) and Mg(2)SiO(4) composition glasses obtained from levitated liquids have been modeled using Reverse Monte Carlo fits to diffraction data and by density functional theory. A ring statistics analysis suggests that the lower glass forming ability of the Mg(2)SiO(4) glass is associated with a topologically ordered and very narrow ring distribution. The MgO(x) polyhedra have a variety of irregular shapes in MgSiO(3) and Mg(2)SiO(4) glasses and a cavity analysis demonstrates that both glasses have almost no free volume due to a large contribution from edge sharing of MgO(x)-MgO(x) polyhedra. It is found that while the atomic volume of Mg cations in the glasses increases compared to that of the crystalline phases, the number of Mg-O contacts is reduced, although the effective chemical interaction of Mg(2+) remains similar. This unusual structure-property relation of Mg(2)SiO(4) glass demonstrates that by using containerless processing it may be possible to synthesize new families of dense glasses and glass ceramics with zero porosity. PMID:21873237

  19. Relationship between topological order and glass forming ability in densely packed enstatite and forsterite composition glasses.

    PubMed

    Kohara, S; Akola, J; Morita, H; Suzuya, K; Weber, J K R; Wilding, M C; Benmore, C J

    2011-09-01

    The atomic structures of magnesium silicate melts are key to understanding processes related to the evolution of the Earth's mantle and represent precursors to the formation of most igneous rocks. Magnesium silicate compositions also represent a major component of many glass ceramics, and depending on their composition can span the entire fragility range of glass formation. The silica rich enstatite (MgSiO(3)) composition is a good glass former, whereas the forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) composition is at the limit of glass formation. Here, the structure of MgSiO(3) and Mg(2)SiO(4) composition glasses obtained from levitated liquids have been modeled using Reverse Monte Carlo fits to diffraction data and by density functional theory. A ring statistics analysis suggests that the lower glass forming ability of the Mg(2)SiO(4) glass is associated with a topologically ordered and very narrow ring distribution. The MgO(x) polyhedra have a variety of irregular shapes in MgSiO(3) and Mg(2)SiO(4) glasses and a cavity analysis demonstrates that both glasses have almost no free volume due to a large contribution from edge sharing of MgO(x)-MgO(x) polyhedra. It is found that while the atomic volume of Mg cations in the glasses increases compared to that of the crystalline phases, the number of Mg-O contacts is reduced, although the effective chemical interaction of Mg(2+) remains similar. This unusual structure-property relation of Mg(2)SiO(4) glass demonstrates that by using containerless processing it may be possible to synthesize new families of dense glasses and glass ceramics with zero porosity.

  20. Relationship between topological order and glass forming ability in densely packed enstatite and forsterite composition glasses

    PubMed Central

    Kohara, S.; Akola, J.; Morita, H.; Suzuya, K.; Weber, J. K. R.; Wilding, M. C.; Benmore, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The atomic structures of magnesium silicate melts are key to understanding processes related to the evolution of the Earth’s mantle and represent precursors to the formation of most igneous rocks. Magnesium silicate compositions also represent a major component of many glass ceramics, and depending on their composition can span the entire fragility range of glass formation. The silica rich enstatite (MgSiO3) composition is a good glass former, whereas the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) composition is at the limit of glass formation. Here, the structure of MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 composition glasses obtained from levitated liquids have been modeled using Reverse Monte Carlo fits to diffraction data and by density functional theory. A ring statistics analysis suggests that the lower glass forming ability of the Mg2SiO4 glass is associated with a topologically ordered and very narrow ring distribution. The MgOx polyhedra have a variety of irregular shapes in MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 glasses and a cavity analysis demonstrates that both glasses have almost no free volume due to a large contribution from edge sharing of MgOx-MgOx polyhedra. It is found that while the atomic volume of Mg cations in the glasses increases compared to that of the crystalline phases, the number of Mg-O contacts is reduced, although the effective chemical interaction of Mg2+ remains similar. This unusual structure-property relation of Mg2SiO4 glass demonstrates that by using containerless processing it may be possible to synthesize new families of dense glasses and glass ceramics with zero porosity. PMID:21873237

  1. Reversible atomic processes as basic mechanisms of the glass transition

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Feng; Sprengel, Wolfgang; Wunderlich, Rainer K.; Fecht, Hans-Jörg; Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2007-01-01

    Reversible formation and disappearance of vacant spaces (vacancy-type defects) in bulk Zr57Cu15.4Ni12.6Nb5Al10 glass are directly evidenced by high-resolution, time-differential dilatometry studies. The vacancy kinetics are strongly temperature-dependent, with an effective migration enthalpy of HVM = 3.34 eV. This may explain the strong temperature dependence of glass properties such as viscosity. The results presented here are of general importance for understanding amorphous condensed matter and biomaterials and for the technical development of amorphous steels. PMID:17664428

  2. Prediction of glass durability as a function of glass composition and test conditions: Thermodynamics and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1988-01-01

    The long-term durability of nuclear waste glasses can be predicted by comparing their performance to natural and ancient glasses. Glass durability is a function of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of glass in solution. The relationship between the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of glass durability can be understood when the relative contributions of glass composition and imposed test conditions are delineated. Glass durability has been shown to be a function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy which can be calculated from the glass composition. Hydration thermodynamics also furnishes a quantitative frame of reference to understand how various test parameters affect glass durability. Linear relationships have been determined between the logarithmic extent of hydration and the calculated hydration free energy for several different test geometries. Different test conditions result in different kinetic reactivity parameters such as the exposed glass surface area (SA), the leachant solution volume (V), and the length of time that the glass is in the leachant (t). Leachate concentrations are known to be a function of the kinetic test parameter (SAV)t. The relative durabilities of glasses, including pure silica, obsidians, nuclear waste glasses, medieval window glasses, and frit glasses define a plane in three dimensional ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration-(SAV)t space. At constant kinetic conditions, e.g., test geometry and test duration, the three dimensional plane is intersected at constant (SAV)t and the ..delta..G/sub hyd/-concentration plots have similar slopes. The slope represents the natural logarithm of the theoretical slope, (12.303 RT), for the rate of glass dissolution. 53 refs., 4 figs.

  3. GLASS COMPOSITIONS FOR THE NEPHELINE PHASE III STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-29

    A series of 29 test glass compositions were selected for Phase III of the nepheline study using a combination of two approaches. The first approach was based on evaluating the glass composition region allowable by all of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models with the exception of the current nepheline discriminator. This approach was taken to determine whether there are glass compositions that, while predicted to crystallize nepheline upon slow cooling, would otherwise be acceptable for processing in the DWPF. The second approach was based on quasicrystalline theory of glass structure, which helped predict compositional regions where nepheline should form. A detailed description of this methodology is forthcoming. The selection strategy outlined here will provide an opportunity to determine experimentally whether the glasses that fail the current nepheline discriminator but pass the newly proposed nepheline discriminator are indeed free of nepheline after slow cooling. If this is the case, these data will serve as a significant step toward reducing conservatism in the current nepheline discriminator. The 29 glass compositions selected for testing address both the PCCS model and quasicrystalline theory approaches in evaluating both a reduction in conservatism for the current nepheline discriminator and possible implementation of the newly proposed discriminator based on glass structural theory. These glasses will be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory, with the results and conclusions described in a technical report.

  4. Glass-ferroic composite caused by the crystallization of ferroic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yuanchao; Ding, Xiangdong; Wang, Dong; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Ren, Xiaobing

    2015-12-01

    We report a glass-ferroic composite (in short "glass-ferroic") in ferroic materials, an analog of the composite of glassy and crystalline phases (glass-crystal composite, e.g., semicrystalline polymer). The formation of glass-ferroic (i.e., the existence of residual ferroic glass) stems from a time-dependent crystallization of the ferroic glass. Moreover, glass-ferroics show two types of transition characteristics depending on the thermal hysteresis of crystallization transition as exemplified in T i48.7N i51.3 and P b0.87L a0.13Z r0.4T i0.6O3 . Based on experimental results, a generic phase diagram is established to include all ferroic states, i.e., ferroic crystal, ferroic glass, and glass-ferroic. Being the third class of ferroic materials, glass-ferroics may open a new avenue for achieving novel properties and designing ferroic phase-change memory devices.

  5. Glass/Ceramic Composites for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A family of glass/ceramic composite materials has been investigated for use as sealants in planar solid oxide fuel cells. These materials are modified versions of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass developed previously for the same purpose. The composition of the glass in mole percentages is 35BaO + 15CaO + 5Al2O3 + 10B2O3 + 35SiO2. The glass seal was found to be susceptible to cracking during thermal cycling of the fuel cells. The goal in formulating the glass/ ceramic composite materials was to (1) retain the physical and chemical advantages that led to the prior selection of the barium calcium aluminosilicate glass as the sealant while (2) increasing strength and fracture toughness so as to reduce the tendency toward cracking. Each of the composite formulations consists of the glass plus either of two ceramic reinforcements in a proportion between 0 and 30 mole percent. One of the ceramic reinforcements consists of alumina platelets; the other one consists of particles of yttria-stabilized zirconia wherein the yttria content is 3 mole percent (3YSZ). In preparation for experiments, panels of the glass/ceramic composites were hot-pressed and machined into test bars.

  6. Sintering maps for ceramic-filled-glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ewsuk, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    Ceramic-filled-glass (CFG) composites densify by viscous flow during final-stage, non-reactive, liquid-phase sintering (NLPS). The rate of densification is controlled by the viscosity of the CFG composite dispersion during sintering, which is determined by the concentration of ceramic filler in the composite, and the viscosity of the suspending glass medium. A mathematical expression has been developed that determines the critical filler concentration in a given viscosity glass at which high-density CFG composites will be produced in a given time during final-stage NLPS. This expression has been used to predict the effects of sintering time, pore size, and glass viscosity on critical filler concentration, and to construct final-stage sintering maps that provide guidelines for designing and processing high-density CFG composites. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Structure and constitution of glass and steel compound in glass-metal composite

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimova, Olga N.; Morkovin, Andrey V.; Dryuk, Sergey A.; Nikiforov, Pavel A.

    2014-11-14

    The research using methods of optical and scanning electronic microscopy was conducted and it discovered common factors on structures and diffusing zone forming after welding glass C49-1 and steel Ct3sp in technological process of creating new glass-metal composite. Different technological modes of steel surface preliminary oxidation welded with and without glass were investigated. The time of welding was varied from minimum encountering time to the time of stabilizing width of diffusion zone.

  8. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOEpatents

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-03-01

    A device and method are described for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method use the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality. 2 figures.

  9. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOEpatents

    Schumacher, Ray F.

    1994-01-01

    A device and method for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method uses the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality.

  10. Composite material based on fluoroplast and low melting oxyfluoride glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatieva, L. N.; Savchenko, N. N.; Lalayan, V. M.; Zverev, G. A.; Goncharuk, V. K.; Ustinov, A. Yu.; Shaulov, A. Yu.; Berlin, A. A.; Bouznik, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    The present work summarizes the results of studies of the samples fabricated through extrusion blending of mixtures composed of the perfluorocarbon polymer (polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF), which presently undergoes intensive studies, and the inorganic glass (BF-glass) of the composition 3B2O3-97(40SnF2-30SnO-30P2O5). It is revealed as a result of application of the suggested technique the composite material whose structure depends on the component ratio in the mixture (from individual areas formed by each component to homogeneously distributed composite particles) has been fabricated. The peculiarities of formation of composites were studied on the basis of the results of studying their morphology, molecular structure and phase composition. It was revealed the preservation of the polymer molecular structure and the absence of interaction with the glass in the fabricated samples. We found that in the process of sample fabrication there occur melting of the mixture, mixing of particles and changing of the phase compositions. The polymer partially and the glass almost completely crystallize in the process of composite fabrication. Glass crystals fill polymer cavities forming agglomerates. Along with the increase of the amount of inorganic component crystals, the polymer monolithic nature is disrupted and an inversion occurs at a certain component ratio: polymer particles are located between crystals of the inorganic component, mixing with them and covering them. The glass crystallization is facilitated through pre-crushing in extruder mill.

  11. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  12. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  13. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  14. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  15. 47 CFR 76.920 - Composition of the basic tier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composition of the basic tier. 76.920 Section 76.920 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.920 Composition of the basic...

  16. In vitro behaviour of three biocompatible glasses in composite implants.

    PubMed

    Varila, Leena; Lehtonen, Timo; Tuominen, Jukka; Hupa, Mikko; Hupa, Leena

    2012-10-01

    Poly(L,DL-lactide) composites containing filler particles of bioactive glasses 45S5 and S53P4 were compared with a composite containing a slowly dissolving glass S68. The in vitro reactivity of the composites was studied in simulated body fluid, Tris-buffered solution, and phosphate buffered saline. The high processing temperature induced thermal degradation giving cavities in the composites containing 45S5 and S53P4, while good adhesion of S68 to the polymer was observed. The cavities partly affected the in vitro reactivity of the composites. The degradation of the composites containing the bioactive glasses was faster in phosphate buffered saline than in the two other solutions. Hydroxyapatite precipitation suggesting bone tissue bonding capability was observed on these two composites in all three solutions. The slower dissolution of S68 glass particles and the limited hydroxyapatite precipitation suggested that this glass has potential as a reinforcing composition with the capability to guide bone tissue growth in biodegradable polymer composites.

  17. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  18. Fs Laser Fabrication of Photonic Structures in Glass: the Role of Glass Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Krol, D M; Chan, J W; Huser, T R; Risbud, S H; Hayden, J S

    2004-06-16

    The use of fs lasers to directly write photonic structures inside a glass has great potential as a fabrication method for three-dimensional all-optical integrated components. The ability to use this technique with different glass compositions--specifically tailored for a specific photonics application--is critical to its successful exploitation. Consequently, it is important to understand how glass composition effects waveguide fabrication with fs laser pulses and how different glasses are structurally modified after exposure to fs laser pulses. We have used confocal laser spectroscopy to monitor the changes in glass structure that are associated with waveguide fabrication. Using a low power continuous wave (cw) Ar laser as excitation source we have measured both Raman and fluorescence spectra of the modified regions. Raman spectroscopy provides us with information on the network structure, whereas fluorescence measurements reveal the presence of optically active point defects in the glass. In this paper we review our work on fs-laser fabrication and characterization of photonic structures in glass and discuss the effect of glass composition on processing parameters and structural modification.

  19. Basic mechanics of laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanics of laminated composite materials is presented in a clear manner with only essential derivations included. The constitutive equations in all of their forms are developed and then summarized in a separate section. The effects of hygrothermal effects are included. The prediction of the engineering constants for a laminate are derived. Strength of laminated composites is not covered.

  20. Microwave processing of polyester and polyester-glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hottong, U.; Wei, J.; Dhulipla, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1992-04-27

    Polyester resins and polyester/glass composites were processed using 2.45GHz microwave radiation in single mode resonant cavities. An alkyl phthalate polyester resin (diluted with vinyltoluene) and a unidirectional glass fiber/polyester (diallyl phthalate) prepreg were examined. In the study of polymerization kinetics, a 6 inch diameter resonant cavity and a thin film technique were used to cure neat resin samples. Thermal curing was carried out for comparison. The extents of cure of the samples were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR). Faster reaction rates microwave processing; polyester; polyester/glass composite; extent of cure; dielectric measurement; mode switching.

  1. Mechanical properties of woven glass fiber-reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Kanie, Takahito; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Koichi; Ban, Seiji

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the flexural and compressive strengths and the corresponding moduli of cylindrical composite specimens reinforced with woven glass fiber. Test specimens were made by light-curing urethane dimethacrylate oligomer with woven glass fiber of 0.18-mm standard thickness. Tests were conducted using four reinforcement methods and two specimen diameters. Flexural strength and modulus of woven glass fiber-reinforced specimens were significantly greater than those without woven glass fiber (p < 0.01). Likewise, compressive strength of reinforced specimens was significantly greater than those without woven glass fiber (p < 0.01), except for specimens reinforced with woven glass fiber oriented at a tilt direction in the texture (p > 0.05). In terms of comparison between the two specimen diameters, no statistically significant differences in flexural strength and compressive strength (p > 0.05) were observed.

  2. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2004-11-02

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  3. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-10-07

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  4. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  5. Basic failure mechanisms in advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullin, J. V.; Mazzio, V. F.; Mehan, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Failure mechanisms in carbon-epoxy composites are identified as a basis for more reliable prediction of the performance of these materials. The approach involves both the study of local fracture events in model specimens containing small groups of filaments and fractographic examination of high fiber content engineering composites. Emphasis is placed on the correlation of model specimen observations with gross fracture modes. The effects of fiber surface treatment, resin modification and fiber content are studied and acoustic emission methods are applied. Some effort is devoted to analysis of the failure process in composite/metal specimens.

  6. Fracture behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Avci, A.; Arikan, H.; Akdemir, A

    2004-03-01

    Chopped strand glass fiber reinforced particle-filled polymer composite beams with varying notch-to-depth ratios and different volume fractions of glass fibers were investigated in Mode I fracture using three-point bending tests. Effects of polyester resin content and glass fiber content on fracture behavior was also studied. Polyester resin contents were used 13.00%%, 14.75%, 16.50%, 18.00% and 19.50%, and glass fiber contents were 1% and 1.5% of the total weight of the polymer composite system. Flexural strength of the polymer composite increases with increase in polyester and fiber content. The critical stress intensity factor was determined by using several methods such as initial notch depth method, compliance method and J-integral method. The values of K{sub IC} obtained from these methods were compared.

  7. Highly evolved rhyolitic glass compositions from the Toba Caldera, Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Chesner, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The quartz latite to rhyolitic ash flow tuffs erupted form the Toba Caldera, perhaps the largest caldera on earth (100 by 30 kms), provide the unique opportunity to study a highly differentiated liquid in equilibrium with numerous mineral phases. Not only are the rocks very crystal rich (30-50%), but at present a minimum of 15 co-existing mineral phases have been identified. Both whole-rock and glass analyses were made by XRF techniques providing data on both major and trace elements. Whole rock chemistry of individual pumices from the youngest eruption at Toba (75,000 years ago), are suggestive of the eruption of two magma compositions across a boundary layer in the magma chamber. Glass chemistry of the pumices also show two distinct liquid compositions. The more silicic pumices, which have the most evolved glass compositions, are similar to the whole rock chemistry of the few aplitic pumices and cognate granitic xenoliths that were collected. This highly evolved composition resulted from the removal of up to 15 mineral phases and may be a fractionation buffered, univariant composition. The glasses from the less silicic pumices are similar to the whole rock chemistry of the more silicic pumice, thus falling nicely on a fractionation trend towards the univariant composition for these rocks. This set of glass compositions allows an independent test for the origin of distal ashes thought to have erupted from Toba and deposited in Malaysia, the Indian Ocean, and as far away as India.

  8. Electronic polarizability, optical basicity, and interaction parameter of La2O3 and related glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, T.; Benino, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Komatsu, T.; Sato, R.; Dimitrov, V.

    2002-03-01

    The electronic polarizability and optical basicity of La2O3 and related glasses have been determined from ultraviolet absorption spectra and calculations based on the Lorentz-Lorenz equation. The optical basicity for La2O3 oxide is found to be 1.07, being much larger compared with typical glass-forming oxides such as B2O3 (0.42) and SiO2 (0.48) but being similar to heavy element oxides such as TeO2 (0.93). The Yamashita and Kurosawa's interaction parameter of La2O3 is 0.03 Å-3, indicating that La2O3 is classified as a normal ionic (basic) oxide, i.e., an ionic bonding character in the La3+-O bond is proposed. Close correlations are confirmed among optical basicity, interaction parameter, and oxygen 1s binding energy in x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectra for La2O3-P2O5 and other La2O3-containing glasses. It is found from XPS and Raman spectra that La3+ ions in La2O3-P2O5 glasses act as network modifiers, supporting an ionic bonding character in the La3+-O bond. The parameters related to electronic polarizability in La2O3 determined in the present study would be useful for the design of rare-earth containing optical functional glasses.

  9. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION KT07-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-12

    This report is the third in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility is also considered in the study. The KT07-series glasses were selected to evaluate any potential impacts of noble metals on their properties and performance. The glasses characterized thus far for the SCIX study have not included noble metals since they are not typically tracked in sludge batch composition projections. However, noble metals can act as nucleation sites in glass melts, leading to enhanced crystallization. This crystallization can potentially influence the properties and performance of the glass, such as chemical durability, viscosity, and liquidus temperature. The noble metals Ag, Pd, Rh, and Ru were added to the KT07-series glasses in concentrations based on recent measurements of Sludge Batch 6, which was considered to contain a high concentration of noble metals. The KT04-series glasses were used as the baseline compositions. After fabrication, the glasses were characterized to determine their homogeneity, chemical composition, durability, and viscosity. Liquidus temperature measurements are also underway but were not complete at the time of this report. The liquidus temperature results for the KT07-series glasses, along with several of the earlier glasses in the SCIX study, will be documented separately. All of the KT07-series glasses, both quenched and slowly cooled, were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. Chemical composition measurements showed that all of the glasses met their targeted compositions. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all of the glasses had chemical durabilities that were far better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass

  10. Effect of modified aminosilane interfaces in glass/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.E.; Blum, F.D.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of the interfacial modification of glass/epoxy composites have been studied using 3-point bending tests. Hydrolyzed {gamma}-aminopropyltriethyoxysilane APS and {gamma}-aminobutyltriethoxysilane (ABS) were separately adsorbed onto E-glass and the treated fibers were then used in composites that used both a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and a diglycidyl ether of polypropylene epoxy matrix. Mechanical tests were used to characterize the flexural strength of the composite as a function of the silane coupling agent and the flexibility of the epoxy used.

  11. Composition-dependent metallic glass alloys correlate atomic mobility with collective glass surface dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Zhu, Zhi-Guang; Pringle, Brian; Lyding, Joseph; Wang, Wei-Hua; Gruebele, Martin

    2016-06-22

    Glassy metallic alloys are richly tunable model systems for surface glassy dynamics. Here we study the correlation between atomic mobility, and the hopping rate of surface regions (clusters) that rearrange collectively on a minute to hour time scale. Increasing the proportion of low-mobility copper atoms in La-Ni-Al-Cu alloys reduces the cluster hopping rate, thus establishing a microscopic connection between atomic mobility and dynamics of collective rearrangements at a glass surface made from freshly exposed bulk glass. One composition, La60Ni15Al15Cu10, has a surface resistant to re-crystallization after three heating cycles. When thermally cycled, surface clusters grow in size from about 5 glass-forming units to about 8 glass-forming units, evidence of surface aging without crystal formation, although its bulk clearly forms larger crystalline domains. Such kinetically stable glass surfaces may be of use in applications where glassy coatings stable against heating are needed.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seal Glass - BN Nanotubes Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.; Hurst, Janet B.; Garg, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell seal glass G18 composites reinforced with approx.4 weight percent of BN nanotubes were fabricated via hot pressing. Room temperature strength and fracture toughness of the composite were determined by four-point flexure and single edge V-notch beam methods, respectively. The strength and fracture toughness of the composite were higher by as much as 90% and 35%, respectively, than those of the glass G18. Microscopic examination of the composite fracture surfaces using SEM and TEM showed pullout of the BN nanotubes, similar in feature to fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with weak interfaces. Other mechanical and physical properties of the composite will also be presented.

  13. Plasma-sprayed lead zirconate titanate-glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrit, S.; Savin, C.R.; Wiederick, H.D.; Mukherjee, B.K. . Dept. of Physics); Prasad, S.E. )

    1994-07-01

    A plasma-spray process was used to produce piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-glass composite thick films. The films were found to have the same crystal structure as the PZT (Navy-type V) and lead-based glass starting powder mixture. The films showed good adhesion to stainless steel and silver-coated glass slides and poor adhesion to aluminum substrates. The dielectric constant of the films varied between 58 and 20 with dissipations between 0.019 and 0.032. The films were poled, and their piezoelectric charge coefficient, d[sub 33], was 1.1 pC/N.

  14. Research on graphite reinforced glass matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Thompson, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A broad group of fibers and matrices were combined to create a wide range of composite properties. Primary material fabrication procedures were developed which readily permit the fabrication of flat plate and shaped composites. Composite mechanical properties were measured under a wide range of test conditions. Tensile, flexure mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance were evaluated. Selected fiber-matrix combinations were shown to maintain their strength at up to 1300 K when tested in an inert atmosphere. Composite high temperature mechanical properties were shown to be limited primarily by the oxidation resistance of the graphite fibers. Composite thermal dimensional stability was measured and found to be excellent.

  15. Shock Interaction Studies on Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. P. J.; Jagadeesh, G.; Jayaram, V.; Reddy, B. Harinath; Madhu, V.; Reddy, C. Jaya Rami

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites are being extensively used for structural applications both in civil and defense sectors, owing to their high specific strength, stiffness and good energy absorbing capability. Understanding the dynamic response of these composites on shock loading is very essential for effective design of structures resistant to blast loads. In the present study, E- glass/epoxy composite laminate has been fabricated and evaluated for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Further, dynamic response of E-glass laminates is presently studied by shock loading. When E-glass composite subjected to peak shock reflected pressure of 7.2 MPa and estimated temperature of about 14000 K for short duration, it underwent surface discolorations and charring of epoxy matrix. Post test analysis of the composite sample was carried out to study the damage analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), changes in thermal properties of composites using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The results of these investigations are discussed in this paper.

  16. Effect of glass composition on activation energy of viscosity in glass-melting-temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Han, Sang Soo

    2012-08-01

    In the high-temperature range, where the viscosity (Eta) of molten glass is <10{sup 3} Pa s, the activation energy (B) is virtually ln(Eta) = A + B/T, is nearly independent of melt composition. Hence, the viscosity-composition relationship for Eta < 10{sup 3} Pa s is defined by B as a function of composition. Using a database encompassing over 1300 compositions of high-level waste glasses with nearly 7000 viscosity data, we developed mathematical models for B(x), where x is the composition vector in terms of mass fractions of components. In this paper, we present 13 versions of B(x) as first- and second-order polynomials with coefficients for 15 to 39 components, including Others, a component that sums constituents having little effect on viscosity.

  17. Thermal-expansion hysteresis in graphite/glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Janas, V.F.

    1988-07-01

    The thermal-expansion hysteresis phenomena in graphite/glass composites was studied. Neat (unfilled) glass and unidirectional composites showed no observable hysteresis, while (0/90) cross-ply composites showed significant residual thermal strain (approx. 20 PPM) after thermal cycling (25 ..-->.. 150 ..-->.. 25/sup 0/C). Multiple thermal cycling of the composite and the strengthening of the fiber/matrix bond were found to greatly reduce the magnitude of the residual thermal strain. Bond strengthening also weakened and embrittled the composite, supporting a fiber-slippage mechanism for hysteresis. Thermal precycling and interface modification are proposed as methods of diminishing the effects of thermal-expansion hysteresis. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  18. High-temperature testing of glass/ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, John F.; Grande, Dodd H.; Dannemann, Kathryn A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in ceramic and other high-temperature composites have created a need for test methods that can be used at 1000 C and above. Present test methods usually require adhesively bonded tabs that cannot be used at high temperatures. This paper discusses some of the difficulties with high-temperature test development and describes several promising test methods. Stress-strain data are given for Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites tested in air at temperatures up to 1000 C.

  19. Composition and property measurements for PHA Phase 4 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.B.

    2000-01-25

    The results presented in this report are for nine Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) Phase 4 glasses. Three of the glasses contained HM sludge at 22, 26, and 30 wt% respectively, 10 wt% PHA and 1.25 wt% monosodium titanate (MST), all on an oxide basis. The remaining six glasses were selected from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies (Purex sludge) but with an increased amount of MST. The high-end target for MST of 2.5 wt% oxide was missed in Phases 1 and 2 due to {approximately}30 wt% water content of the MST. A goal of this Phase 4 study was to determine whether this increase in titanium concentration from the MST had any impact on glass quality or processibility. Two of the glasses, pha14c and pha15c, were rebatched and melted due to apparent batching errors with pha14 and pha15. The models currently in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) were used to predict durability, homogeneity, liquidus, and viscosity for these nine glasses. All of the HM glasses and half of the Purex glasses were predicted to be phase separated, and consequently prediction of glass durability is precluded with the cument models for those glasses that failed the homogeneity constraint. If one may ignore the homogeneity constraint, the measured durabilities were within the 95% prediction limits of the model. Further efforts will be required to resolve this issue on phase separation (inhomogeneity). The liquidus model predicted unacceptable liquidus temperatures for four of the nine glasses. The approximate, bounding liquidus temperatures measured for all had upper limits of 1,000 C or less. Given the fact that liquidus temperatures were only approximated, the 30 wt% loading of Purex may be near or at the edge of acceptability for liquidus. The measured viscosities were close to the predictions of the model. For the Purex glasses, pha12c and pha15c, the measured viscosities of 28 and 23 poise, respectively, indicate that DWPF processing may be

  20. Non-toxic invert analog glass compositions of high modulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi are described. They and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consist essentially of, in mols, 15 to 40% SiO2, 6 to 15% Li2O, 24 to 45% of at least two bivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Ca, NzO, MgO and CuO; 13 to 39% of at least two trivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, La2O3, and Y2O3 and up to 15% of one or more tetravelent oxides selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2. The high modulus, low density glass compositions contain no toxic elements. The composition, glass density, Young's modulus, and specific modulus for 28 representative glasses are presented. The fiber modulus of five glasses are given.

  1. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, Paul T.; Fisher, Robert W.; Hosking, Floyd M.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone.

  2. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, P.T.; Fisher, R.W.; Hosking, F.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1996-08-20

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone. 6 figs.

  3. Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Livingston, R.R.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-06-10

    A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications is described. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagent strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping. 12 figs.

  4. Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Baylor, Lewis C.; Whitaker, Michael J.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagant strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping.

  5. Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites: mechanical properties and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Anesi, Alexandre; Salvatori, Roberta; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue repair and regeneration have been produced and discussed. The use of a recently developed glass, namely BG_Ca/Mix, with its low tendency to crystallize, allowed one to sinter the samples at a relatively low temperature thus avoiding several adverse effects usually reported in the literature, such as extensive crystallization of the glassy phase, hydroxyapatite (HA) decomposition and reaction between HA and glass. The mechanical properties of the composites with 80wt.% BG_Ca/Mix and 20wt.% HA are sensibly higher than those of Bioglass® 45S5 reference samples due to the presence of HA (mechanically stronger than the 45S5 glass) and to the thermal behaviour of the BG_Ca/Mix, which is able to favour the sintering process of the composites. Biocompatibility tests, performed with murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 and osteocites MLO-Y4 throughout a multi-parametrical approach, allow one to look with optimism to the produced composites, since both the samples themselves and their extracts do not induce negative effects in cell viability and do not cause inhibition in cell growth.

  6. Failure mechanisms of woven carbon and glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Alif, N.; Carlsson, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    Stress-strain responses in tension, compression, and shear of a five-harness satin-weave carbon/epoxy composite and a four-harness satin-weave glass/epoxy composite have been examined. Damage progression under tension was examined by optical microscopic inspection of the polished edges of the specimens. Models for elastic property and failure predictions of woven-fabric composites were examined and correlated with the experimental data. Damage inspection of the carbon/epoxy composite under tension revealed that the initial failure was cracking of pure matrix regions followed by transverse bundle cracking. Fill/weft debonding and longitudinal splits of the fill bundles occurred close to ultimate failure of the composite. The glass/epoxy composite displayed damage in the form of fill/weft debonding and longitudinal splits, but no transverse yarn cracking. The damage observed in both composites was confined to the region where ultimate failure occurred. Elastic properties of the composites were overall in good agreement with micromechanical predictions based on uniform strain, but failure stress predictions were less accurate.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi-Yim, Haein

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix are synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this thesis, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Ceramics such as SiC, WC, or TiC, and metals W or Ta were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. Structure, microstructure and thermal stability of the composites are studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to 30 percent volume fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The thermal stability of the matrix did not deteriorate after adding the particles. In the case of SiC, the matrix becomes even more robust with respect to crystallization. The reactions at the interfaces between the matrix and the different reinforcing materials are investigated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. At the interfaces between the matrix and the WC or SiC particles, ZrC layers formed. W and Si diffused into the matrix, respectively. At the interface between W and the matrix, a thin layer of nanocrystals is observed after cooling the liquid/particulate mixture. The mechanical properties of the composites are studied in compression and tension. Compressive strain to failure increased by over 300% compared to the unreinforced Zr57Nb5Al10Cu15.4 Ni12.6 and the energy to fracture of the tensile samples increased by over 50% adding 15 vol. % W. The effect of silicon on the

  8. Cytotoxicity of Resin Composites Containing Bioactive Glass Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Satin; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Pfeifer, Carmem; Ferracane, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of dental composites containing bioactive glass fillers. Methods Dental composites (50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin: 72.5wt% filler, 67.5%Sr-glass and 5% OX50) containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt %) of two sol-gel bioactive glasses, BAG65 (65 mole% SiO2, 31 mole% CaO, 4 mole% P2O5) and BAG62 (3 mole% F added) were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Alamar Blue assay. First, composite extracts were obtained from 7 day incubations of composite in cell culture medium at 37° C. Undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to dilutions of the original extracts for 3, 5, and 7 days. Then freshly cured composite disks were incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 2 days. Subsequently, fresh composite disks were incubated in culture medium at 37°C for 7 days, and then the extracted disks were incubated with OD-21 cells for 2 days. Finally, fresh composites disks were light cured for 3, 5, and 20 seconds and incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. To verify that the three different curing modes produced different levels of degree of conversion (DC), the DC of each composite was determined by FTIR. Groups (n=5) were compared with ANOVA/Tukey’s (α≤0.05). Results Extracts from all composites significantly reduced cell viability until a dilution of 1:8 or lower, where the extract became equal to the control. All freshly-cured composites showed significantly reduced cell viability at two days. However, no reduction in cell viability was observed for any composite that had been previously soaked in media before exposure to the cells. Composites with reduced DC (3 s vs. 20 s cure), as verified by FTIR, showed significantly reduced cell viability. Significance The results show that the composites, independent of composition, had equivalent potency in terms of reducing the viability of the cells in culture. Soaking the composites for 7 days before exposing them to the cells suggested that the

  9. Crystallization behavior and glass formation of selected lunar compositions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, G.; Hopper, R. W.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The kinetics of crystal growth have been determined over a wide range of temperature, from 800 to 1219 C, for lunar compositions 14259 and 14310. At all temperatures for both compositions the extent of crystal growth is found to be a linear function of time. For both materials, the growth rate versus temperature relations exhibit the form generally found with glass-forming materials. At all temperatures measured, the crystal growth rate of composition 14259 is smaller than that of composition 14310. The maximum growth rate for both compositions occurs at a temperature of about 1120 C. The growth rate data are combined with viscosity data obtained on the same compositions to construct the reduced growth rate versus undercooling relations.

  10. Thermal fatigue of ceramic fiber glass matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zawada, L.P.; Wetherhold, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    The thermal fatigue (TF) of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) introduces stresses within the composite due to the inevitable thermal expansion mismatch of fiber and matrix; this will affect the lifetime and dimensional stability of the composite. A Nicalon/glass composite has been subjected to rapid, controlled TF from 250-700 C and 250-800 C under no load and dead load conditions in order to illustrate a variety of elastic and inelastic cyclic strain conditions. After TF, the surfaces of the composites were characterized using SEM for evidence of thermal damage and microcracking. The composites were then tested for flexural modulus and strength. Results from the mechanical properties tests are present and correlated with observed thermal degradation. 7 refs.

  11. Hot isostatic pressing of glass-zeolite composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Glass-zeolite waste forms are being developed for immobilizing the chloride waste salt generated from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel. Glass-zeolite composites with high densities were made using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. Processing parameters were investigated to yield desirable structural ceramic properties such as mechanical, chemical, and thermal stability. Limits for these parameters were determined by differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. The resulting ceramic properties such as bulk density, open or apparent porosity, and leach resistance were determined. In addition, phase equilibria and particle-size distribution were observed by optical light and electron microscopy. Pre-HIP processing techniques were also studied to ensure intimate mixing of the glass and zeolite powders. Particle size distributions resulting from dry blending procedure are appropriate for needed flow and packing characteristics.

  12. Lithium isotope composition of basalt glass reference material.

    PubMed

    Kasemann, Simone A; Jeffcoate, Alistair B; Elliott, Tim

    2005-08-15

    We present data on the lithium isotope compositions of glass reference materials from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) determined by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our data on the USGS basaltic glass standards agree within 2 per thousand, independent of the sample matrix or Li concentration. For SIMS analysis, we propose use of the USGS glasses GSD-1G (delta(7)Li 31.14 +/- 0.8 per thousand, 2sigma) and BCR-2G (delta(7)Li 4.08 +/- 1.0 per thousand, 2sigma) as suitable standards that cover a wide range of Li isotope compositions. Lithium isotope measurements on the silica-rich NIST 600 glass series by MC-ICPMS and TIMS agree within 0.8 per thousand, but SIMS analyses show systematic isotopic differences. Our results suggest that SIMS Li isotope analyses have a significant matrix bias in high-silica materials. Our data are intended to serve as a reference for both microanalytical and bulk analytical techniques and to improve comparisons between Li isotope data produced by different methodologies.

  13. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Patachia, Silvia; Papancea, Adina; Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  14. Development of a glass polymer composite sewer pipe from waste glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rayfiel, R.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1980-02-01

    A range of polymer-aggregate composites for applications in industry which appear to be economically attractive and contribute to energy conservation were developed at BNL. Waste glass is the aggregate in one such material, which is called glass-polymer-composite (GPC). This report assays the economics and durability of GPC in piping for storm drains and sewers. The properties of the pipe are compared statistically with the requirements of industrial specifications. These establish the raw materials requirements. The capital and operating costs for producing pipe are then estimated. Using published sales values for competing materials, the return on investment is calculated for two cases. The ultimate energy requirement of the raw materials in GPC is compared with the corresponding requirement for vitrified clay pipe. The strengths of GPC, reinforced concrete, vitrified clay and asbestos cement pipe are compared after extended exposure to various media. The status of process and product development is reviewed and recommendations are made for future work.

  15. BASIC PROPERTIES OF REFERENCE CROSSPLY CARBON-FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.

    2001-01-11

    This report provides basic in-air property data and correlations-tensile, compressive, shear, tensile fatigue, and tensile creep-for a reference carbon-fiber composite being characterized as a part of the Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Materials and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-based design guidance for polymeric composites for automotive structural applications. The composite addressed here is a {+-}45{degree} crossply consisting of continuous Thornel T300 fibers in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. Basic tensile, compressive, and shear properties are tabulated for the temperature range from {minus}40 to 120 C. Fatigue response at room-temperature and 120 C are presented, and creep and creep rupture at room temperature only are reported. In all cases, two fiber orientations--0/90{degree} and {+-}45{degree}--relative to the specimen axes are addressed. The properties and correlations presented are interim in nature. They are intended as a baseline for planning a full durability test program on this reference composite.

  16. 2014 Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Isabelle; Pegg, Ian L.; Joseph, Innocent; Gilbo, Konstantin

    2015-10-28

    This report describes the results of testing specified by the Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, VSL-13T3050-1, Rev. 0 Test Plan. The work was performed in compliance with the quality assurance requirements specified in the Test Plan. Results required by the Test Plan are reported. The te4st results and this report have been reviewed for correctness, technical adequacy, completeness, and accuracy.

  17. Dynamic tensile strength of glass fiber reinforced pultruded composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.K.; Kumar, M.M.; Hui, D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the stress-strain behavior, fracture strength, influence of low temperature, and energy absorption in the diametral tensile splitting fracturing of a Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite. Experiments were conducted at low-temperature in a thermal chamber installed on a servo-hydraulic universal testing machine. The tensile strength was determined by diametral compression of disc samples at 24, {minus}5 and {minus}40 C.

  18. Surface coatings of bioactive glasses on high strength ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorana, S.; Fedele, A.; Mazzocchi, M.; Bellosi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dense and ultrafine alumina-zirconia composites (Al 2O 3-16 wt%ZrO 2 and ZrO 2-20 wt%Al 2O 3) are developed and characterized for load bearing prosthetic applications. The improvement of the ceramic/bone interface, namely of the ceramic bioactivity, is performed by a glass coating on the surface of the composites. A new composition is used to produce the glass powder, by melting at 1550 °C the mixture of oxide raw materials. The processing to obtain a homogeneous and adherent coating on the ceramic substrates is investigated: the optimal temperature for the glazing treatment is 1200 °C. The microstructure of the coating and of the ceramic/coating interface, the adhesion and some mechanical properties of the prepared glass and of the coating are analyzed. Besides, the in vitro bioactive responses, by incubation of osteoblast-like cells on the coated samples, are evaluated: positive results are confirmed after 24 h and 72 h.

  19. Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.

    2009-04-01

    Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

  20. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Packaging Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware... glass, porcelain, or stoneware: (1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within...

  1. Development and characterization of charcoal filled glass-composite materials made from SLS waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Zaleha; Ismail, Mohd Ikwan; Juoi, Jariah Mohd; Shamsudin, Zurina; Rosli, Zulkifli M.; Fadzullah, Siti Hajar Sheikh Md; Othman, Radzali

    2015-07-01

    Glass-composite materials were prepared from the soda lime silicate (SLS) waste glass, ball clay and charcoal powder at various carbon content, of 1wt. % C, 5wt.% C and 10 wt.% C, fired to temperature of 850 °C as an alternative method for land site disposal method as well as effort for recycling waster glass. The effect of charcoal powder on the porosity, water absorption and hardness properties were studied. Phase analysis studies revealed the present of quartz (ICDD: 00001-0649, 2θ = 25.6° and 35.6°), cristobalite (ICDD 00004-0379, 2θ = 22.0° and 38.4°) and wollastonite (ICDD 00002-0689, 2θ = 30.1° and 26.9°). The results showed that the composite prepared from the mixture of 84 wt.% SLS, 1 wt.% of charcoal and 15 wt.% ball clay containing average pore size of 10 µm has projected optimized physical and mechanical properties. It is observed this batch has projected lowest water absorption percentage of 0.76 %, lowest porosity percentage of 1.76 %, highest 4.6 GPa for Vickers Microhardness.

  2. Composition-Structure-Property Relations of Compressed Borosilicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenson, Mouritz N.; Bechgaard, Tobias K.; Fuglsang, Søren D.; Pedersen, Rune H.; Tjell, Anders Ø.; Østergaard, Martin B.; Youngman, Randall E.; Mauro, John C.; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Bockowski, Michal; Smedskjaer, Morten M.

    2014-08-01

    Hot isostatic compression is an interesting method for modifying the structure and properties of bulk inorganic glasses. However, the structural and topological origins of the pressure-induced changes in macroscopic properties are not yet well understood. In this study, we report on the pressure and composition dependences of density and micromechanical properties (hardness, crack resistance, and brittleness) of five soda-lime borosilicate glasses with constant modifier content, covering the extremes from Na-Ca borate to Na-Ca silicate end members. Compression experiments are performed at pressures ≤1.0 GPa at the glass transition temperature in order to allow processing of large samples with relevance for industrial applications. In line with previous reports, we find an increasing fraction of tetrahedral boron, density, and hardness but a decreasing crack resistance and brittleness upon isostatic compression. Interestingly, a strong linear correlation between plastic (irreversible) compressibility and initial trigonal boron content is demonstrated, as the trigonal boron units are the ones most disposed for structural and topological rearrangements upon network compaction. A linear correlation is also found between plastic compressibility and the relative change in hardness with pressure, which could indicate that the overall network densification is responsible for the increase in hardness. Finally, we find that the micromechanical properties exhibit significantly different composition dependences before and after pressurization. The findings have important implications for tailoring microscopic and macroscopic structures of glassy materials and thus their properties through the hot isostatic compression method.

  3. Thermal expansion of an epoxy-glass microsphere composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal expansion of a composite of epoxy (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and solid glass microspheres was investigated. The microspheres had surfaces which were either untreated or treated with a silicone release agent, an epoxy coupling agent, or a general purpose silane coupling agent. Both room temperature (about 300 K) and elevated temperature (about 475 K) cures were used for the epoxy. Two microsphere size ranges were used, about 50 microns, which is applicable in filled moldings, and about 125 microns, which is applicable as bond line spacers. The thermal expansion of the composites was measured from 300 to 350 K or from 300 to 500 K, depending on the epoxy cure temperature. Measurements were made on composites containing up to .6 volume fraction microspheres. Two predictive models, which required only the values of thermal expansion of the polymer and glass and their specific gravities, were tested against the experimental data. A finite element analysis was made of the thermal strain of a composite cell containing a single microsphere surrounded by a finite-thickness interface.

  4. Filament winding S-glass/polyimide resin composite processing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The work performed in selecting a TRW A-type polyimide resin that would be suitable for fabrication of filament wound reinforced plastic structures is described. Several different formulations were evaluated after which the P105AC formulation was selected as the most promising. Procedures then were developed for preparing P105AC/S-glass roving prepreg and for fabricating filament wound structural composites. Composites were fabricated and then tested in order to obtain tensile and shear strength information. Small, closed-end cylindrical pressure vessels then were fabricated using a stainless steel liner and end fittings with a P105AC/S-glass polar wound overwrap. These pressure vessels were cured in an air circulating oven without augmented pressure. It is concluded that the P105AC resin system is suitable for filament winding; that low void content, high strength composites are obtained by the filament winding process; and that augmented pressure is not required to effect the fabrication of filament wound P105AC composites.

  5. Compositional landscape for glass formation in metal alloys.

    PubMed

    Na, Jong Hyun; Demetriou, Marios D; Floyd, Michael; Hoff, Andrew; Garrett, Glenn R; Johnson, William L

    2014-06-24

    A high-resolution compositional map of glass-forming ability (GFA) in the Ni-Cr-Nb-P-B system is experimentally determined along various compositional planes. GFA is shown to be a piecewise continuous function formed by intersecting compositional subsurfaces, each associated with a nucleation pathway for a specific crystalline phase. Within each subsurface, GFA varies exponentially with composition, wheres exponential cusps in GFA are observed when crossing from one crystallization pathway to another. The overall GFA is shown to peak at multiple exponential hypercusps that are interconnected by ridges. At these compositions, quenching from the high-temperature melt yields glassy rods with diameters exceeding 1 cm, whereas for compositions far from these cusps the critical rod diameter drops precipitously and levels off to 1 to 2 mm. The compositional landscape of GFA is shown to arise primarily from an interplay between the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystal nucleation, or more precisely, from a competition between driving force for crystallization and liquid fragility.

  6. A glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction of basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX from water.

    PubMed

    Tak, Vijay; Kabra, Ankur; Pardasani, Deepak; Goud, D Raghavender; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, D K

    2015-12-24

    In this work, a glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction (μ-EME) was demonstrated for the first time. The device was made by connecting an auxillary borosilicate glass tubing (O.D. 3mm, I.D. 2mm) perpendicular to main borosilicate glass capillary just below one end of the capillary (O.D. 8mm, I.D. 1.2mm). It generated the distorted T-shaped device with inlet '1' and inlet '2' for the introduction of sample and acceptor solutions, respectively. At one end of this device (inlet '2'), a microsyringe containing acceptor solution along with hollow fiber (O.D. 1000μm) was introduced. This configuration creates the micro-channel between inner wall of glass capillary and outer surface of hollow fiber. Sample solution was pumped into the system through another end of glass capillary (inlet '1'), with a micro-syringe pump. The sample was in direct contact with the supported liquid membrane (SLM), consisted of 20% (w/w) di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether immobilized in the pores of the hollow fiber. In the lumen of the hollow fiber, the acceptor phase was present. The driving force for extraction was direct current (DC) electrical potential sustained over the SLM. Highly polar (logP=-2.5 to 1.4) basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX were selected as model analytes. The influence of chemical composition of SLM, extraction time, voltage and pH of donor and acceptor phase were investigated. The model analytes were extracted from 10μL of pure water with recoveries ranging from 15.7 to 99.7% just after 3min of operation time. Under optimized conditions, good limits of detection (2-50ngmL(-1)), linearity (from 5-1000 to 100-1000ngmL(-1)), and repeatability (RSDs below 11.9%, n=3) were achieved. Applicability of the proposed μ-EME was proved by recovering triethanolamine (31.3%) from 10μL of five times diluted original water sample provided by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons during 28th official

  7. A glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction of basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX from water.

    PubMed

    Tak, Vijay; Kabra, Ankur; Pardasani, Deepak; Goud, D Raghavender; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, D K

    2015-12-24

    In this work, a glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction (μ-EME) was demonstrated for the first time. The device was made by connecting an auxillary borosilicate glass tubing (O.D. 3mm, I.D. 2mm) perpendicular to main borosilicate glass capillary just below one end of the capillary (O.D. 8mm, I.D. 1.2mm). It generated the distorted T-shaped device with inlet '1' and inlet '2' for the introduction of sample and acceptor solutions, respectively. At one end of this device (inlet '2'), a microsyringe containing acceptor solution along with hollow fiber (O.D. 1000μm) was introduced. This configuration creates the micro-channel between inner wall of glass capillary and outer surface of hollow fiber. Sample solution was pumped into the system through another end of glass capillary (inlet '1'), with a micro-syringe pump. The sample was in direct contact with the supported liquid membrane (SLM), consisted of 20% (w/w) di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether immobilized in the pores of the hollow fiber. In the lumen of the hollow fiber, the acceptor phase was present. The driving force for extraction was direct current (DC) electrical potential sustained over the SLM. Highly polar (logP=-2.5 to 1.4) basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX were selected as model analytes. The influence of chemical composition of SLM, extraction time, voltage and pH of donor and acceptor phase were investigated. The model analytes were extracted from 10μL of pure water with recoveries ranging from 15.7 to 99.7% just after 3min of operation time. Under optimized conditions, good limits of detection (2-50ngmL(-1)), linearity (from 5-1000 to 100-1000ngmL(-1)), and repeatability (RSDs below 11.9%, n=3) were achieved. Applicability of the proposed μ-EME was proved by recovering triethanolamine (31.3%) from 10μL of five times diluted original water sample provided by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons during 28th official

  8. Surface Modification of Metallic Glass Composites Through Severe Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sundeep; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Mridha, Sanghita

    2015-03-01

    Refinement of crystalline dendrites in a metallic glass composite, Zr56.2Ti13.8Nb5.0Cu6.9Ni5.6Be12.5, was demonstrated by friction stir processing. The surface hardness of the amorphous matrix as well as the crystalline dendritic phase was found to increase by nearly a factor of two for the processed specimens. Higher hardness for the amorphous matrix was explained by the interaction of shear bands, while that for the crystalline dendrite was explained by grain refinement.

  9. Leaching behavior of microtektite glass compositions in sea water and the effect of precipitation on glass leaching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The present study attempts to account for the slow corrosion rates of microtektite glass in nature by comparing the leach rates of synthetic microtektite glass samples in deionized water and in sea-water, respectively. In order to obtain systematic data about leachant composition effects, leach tests were also carried out with synthetic leachant compositions enriched with respect to silica or depleted with respect to certain major components of sea-water (Mg, Ca).

  10. Mechanical performance of novel bioactive glass containing dental restorative composites

    PubMed Central

    Khvostenko, D.; Mitchell, J. C.; Hilton, T. J.; Ferracane, J. L.; Kruzic, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Bioactive glass (BAG) is known to possess antimicrobial properties and release ions needed for remineralization of tooth tissue, and therefore may be a strategic additive for dental restorative materials. The objective of this study was to develop BAG containing dental restorative composites with adequate mechanical properties comparable to successful commercially available composites, and to confirm the stability of these materials when exposed to a biologically challenging environment. Methods Composites with 72 wt.% total filler content were prepared while substituting 0–15% of the filler with ground BAG. Flexural strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth tests were performed after several different soaking treatments: 24 hours in DI water (all experiments), two months in brain-heart infusion (BHI) media+S. mutans bacteria (all experiments) and two months in BHI media (only for flexural strength). Mechanical properties of new BAG composites were compared along with the commercial composite Heliomolar by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test (p≤0.05). Results Flexural strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth resistance for the BAG containing composites were unaffected by increasing BAG content up to 15% and were superior to Heliomolar after all post cure treatments. The flexural strength of the BAG composites was unaffected by two months exposure to aqueous media and a bacterial challenge, while some decreases in fracture toughness and fatigue resistance were observed. The favorable mechanical properties compared to Heliomolar were attributed to higher filler content and a microstructure morphology that better promoted the toughening mechanisms of crack deflection and bridging. Significance Overall, the BAG containing composites developed in this study demonstrated adequate and stable mechanical properties relative to successful commercial composites. PMID:24050766

  11. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-11-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications.

  12. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT05- AND KT06-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-03

    This report is the second in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT05-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions where iron titanate crystals had been previously found to form. The intent was to better understand the mechanisms and compositions that favored the formation of crystals containing titanium. Formation of these crystalline phases was confirmed. Increased Na{sub 2}O concentrations had little if any impact on reducing the propensity for the formation of the iron titanate crystalline phases. Other physical properties of these glasses were not measured since the intent was to focus on crystallization. Additional studies are suggested to investigate the potential impacts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O on crystallization in glasses with high TiO{sub 2} concentrations. The KT06-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions that, while broader than the current projections for DWPF feeds with SCIX material, are potential candidates for future processing (i.e., the compositions are acceptable for processing by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) with the exception of the current TiO{sub 2} concentration constraint). The chemical compositions of these glasses matched well with the target values. The chemical durabilities of all the glasses were acceptable relative to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark. Minor crystallization was identified in some of the slowly cooled glasses, although this crystallization did not impact chemical durability. Several of the KT06-series compositions had durability values that, while acceptable, were not accurately predicted by the current durability models

  13. Waste vitrification: prediction of acceptable compositions in a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    A model is presented based upon calculated bridging oxygens which allows the prediction of the region of acceptable glass compositions for a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system containing mixed waste. The model can be used to guide glass formulation studies (e.g., treatability studies) or assess the applicability of vitrification to candidate waste streams.

  14. Low Temperature Thermal Conductivity of Woven Fabric Glass Fibre Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagaraj, S.; Pattanayak, S.

    2004-06-28

    Fibre reinforced composites are replacing conventional materials due to its compatible and superior properties at low temperatures. Transverse thermal conductivity of plain fabric E-glass/Epoxy composites with the fibre concentrations of 32.5%, 35.2%, 39.2% and 48.9% has been studied in a GM-refrigerator based experimental setup using guarded hotplate technique. Experiments are carried out with the sets of stability criteria. This paper presents the investigation of the influence of the fibre concentration and temperature on the thermal conductivity of fabric composites from 30 K to 300K. It is observed from the experimental results that thermal conductivity increases with the increase of temperature and also with fibre concentration with different rate in different temperature range. The series model has been used to predict the thermal conductivity and compared with the experimental results. It is observed that below the crossover temperature of the composites, which varies from 150-225K depending upon their fibre concentration, the experimental results are within 10% with that of predicted values. The possible causes of variation are analyzed. The physical phenomenon behind the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity is discussed in detail.

  15. First principles process-product models for vitrification of nuclear waste: Relationship of glass composition to glass viscosity, resistivity, liquidus temperature, and durability

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-12-31

    Borosilicate glasses will be used in the USA and in Europe to immobilize radioactive high level liquid wastes (HLLW) for ultimate geologic disposal. Process and product quality models based on glass composition simplify the fabrication of the borosilicate glass while ensuring glass processability and quality. The process model for glass viscosity is based on a relationship between the glass composition and its structural polymerization. The relationship between glass viscosity and electrical resistivity is also shown to relate to glass polymerization. The process model for glass liquidus temperature calculates the solubility of the liquidus phases based on the free energies of formation of the precipitating species. The durability product quality model is based on the calculation of the thermodynamic hydration free energy from the glass composition.

  16. First principles process-product models for vitrification of nuclear waste: Relationship of glass composition to glass viscosity, resistivity, liquidus temperature, and durability

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses will be used in the USA and in Europe to immobilize radioactive high level liquid wastes (HLLW) for ultimate geologic disposal. Process and product quality models based on glass composition simplify the fabrication of the borosilicate glass while ensuring glass processability and quality. The process model for glass viscosity is based on a relationship between the glass composition and its structural polymerization. The relationship between glass viscosity and electrical resistivity is also shown to relate to glass polymerization. The process model for glass liquidus temperature calculates the solubility of the liquidus phases based on the free energies of formation of the precipitating species. The durability product quality model is based on the calculation of the thermodynamic hydration free energy from the glass composition.

  17. Effect of glass composition on waste form durability: A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Mazer, J.J.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-11-01

    This report reviews literature concerning the relationship between the composition and durability of silicate glasses, particularly glasses proposed for immobilization of radioactive waste. Standard procedures used to perform durability tests are reviewed. It is shown that tests in which a low-surface area sample is brought into contact with a very large volume of solution provide the most accurate measure of the intrinsic durability of a glass composition, whereas high-surface area/low-solution volume tests are a better measure of the response of a glass to changes in solution chemistry induced by a buildup of glass corrosion products. The structural chemistry of silicate and borosilicate glasses is reviewed to identify those components with the strongest cation-anion bonds. A number of examples are discussed in which two or more cations engage in mutual bonding interactions that result in minima or maxima in the rheologic and thermodynamic properties of the glasses at or near particular optimal compositions. It is shown that in simple glass-forming systems such interactions generally enhance the durability of glasses. Moreover, it is shown that experimental results obtained for simple systems can be used to account for durability rankings of much more complex waste glass compositions. Models that purport to predict the rate of corrosion of glasses in short-term durability tests are evaluated using a database of short-term durability test results for a large set of glass compositions. The predictions of these models correlate with the measured durabilities of the glasses when considered in large groupings, but no model evaluated in this review provides accurate estimates of durability for individual glass compositions. Use of these models in long-term durability models is discussed. 230 refs.

  18. Development of Cu-E-Glass Fiber Composites by Powder Metallurgy Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Pallabi; Singh, Harspreet; Kumar, Lailesh; Sharma, Nidhi; Panda, Deepankar; Verma, Deepanshu; NasmulAlam, Syed

    2016-02-01

    Cu-E glass fiber composites were developed with different vol. % of E-glass fiber (10, 20, 30 and 40 vol. %) by powder metallurgy route. Both as-received Cu and nanostructured Cu developed by milling as-received Cu powder for 20 h were used to develop various Cu-E-glass fiber composites. The effect of using as-received Cu powder and nanostructured Cu powder on the properties of the various Cu-E-glass fiber composites was analysed. The samples were sintered at 900oC for 1 h in inert atmosphere. The results show good bonding between the matrix and the reinforcement and there is homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement in the matrix.. The hardness of the Cu-E-glass fiber composites was found to increase from 0.8GPa to 2.7GPa with increase in vol. % of the glass fiber in case of unmilled and from 1.2GPa to 2.9GPa for the milled Cu-E-glass fiber composites. The as-milled Cu-E- glass fiber composites shows better densification and sinterability compared to the unmilled CuE-glass fiber composites

  19. Bulk metallic glasses and their composites: Composition optimization, thermal stability, and microstructural tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Hesham Ezzat

    A design protocol utilizing common elements for bulk metallic glass formation has been employed to develop novel, low cost Fe-, and Ti- based bulk metallic glasses. A critical obstacle that was successfully overcome in this work is the omission of beryllium in these alloys. Beryllium is of vital importance in many bulk metallic glass forming systems, but it is expensive and poses considerable health risks. Bulk metallic glasses in these novel Fe-, and Ti-based systems exhibit extremely high mechanical strength and excellent thermal stability. Devitrification and cooling rate experiments were used to identify crystalline phase formation and assess activation energy for crystallization, as well as to explore and develop ductile BMG composites. To better control microstructure in these BMG composites, a novel processing technique, called semi-solid forging was developed, wherein the alloy melt is heated to above the melt temperature of the glass, but below the melt temperature of the ductile crystalline phase. Such an approach permits the maintenance of a glassy, or nanocrystalline matrix phase, while simultaneously coarsening and homogenizing the ductile, secondary phase. This processing approach leads to enhanced ductility in the alloys, which, to this point, has not been observed using conventional casting methods. The combination of novel, low-cost, alloy compositions with semi-solid forging has been successfully utilized to develop new high strength structural materials with enhanced ductility and toughness. Microstrutural and mechanical properties of these novel, toughened, BMG composites are presented. A comprehensive analysis of the relationship between deformation mechanisms and microstructure reveals that enhanced ductility is predicated on matching fundamental mechanical and microstructural length scales in a Ti-Ni-Si-Mo BMG composite. Under optimized microstructural conditions, a maximum compressive strength exceeding 2400 MPa with ˜ 30% total strain to

  20. Accelerated viscoelastic characterization of E-Glass/Epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Min.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, an accelerated viscoelastic characterization was applied to E-Glass/Epoxy materials. The approach is based on the TTSP (Time Temperature Superposition Principle) and the widely used lamination theory for composite materials. The final goal is the life prediction for fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) piping systems used in oil industries. Creep tests at different temperatures were conducted with a servo-hydraulic test system to determine compliance master curves. The viscoelastic response of unidirectional specimens was modeled by a generalized Kelvin model. Direct iteration methods were developed to solve the differential equations. The viscoelastic response of E-Glass/Epoxy laminates at different temperatures to transverse normal and in-plane shear stresses is determined using 90{degree} and 10{degree} off-axis tensile specimens, respectively. Based on short-term creep tests, (2.5 hours), 40-year predictions were achieved. Creep-rupture tests at different temperatures were conducted. The rupture stresses were determined for 0{degree}, 90{degree}, 10{degree}, and ({plus minus}55{degrees})s specimens.

  1. High modulus rare earth and beryllium containing silicate glass compositions. [for glass reinforcing fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 16 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of approximately, by weight, 20 to 43% SiO2, 8 to 21% Al2O3, 4 to 10% BeO, 27 to 58% of at least one oxide selected from a first group consisting of Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Ce2O3, Ce2O3, and the mixed rare earth oxides, and 3 to 12% of at least one oxide selected from a second group consisting of MgO, ZrO2, ZnO and CaO are described. The molar ratio of BeO to the total content of the first group oxides is from 1.0 to 3.0.

  2. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sushama, D.

    2014-10-15

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped TeO{sub 2}‐WO{sub 3}‐La{sub 2}O{sub 3} Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption.

  3. Bulk metallic glass composite with good tensile ductility, high strength and large elastic strain limit

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fu-Fa; Chan, K. C.; Jiang, Song-Shan; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large elastic strain limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large elastic strain limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong strain-hardening capability and large elastic strain limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large elastic strain limit and high strength under tension. These unique elastic mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19′ phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:24931632

  4. Transition from glass to graphite in manufacture of composite aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, H. E.; Thompson, V. S.

    1978-01-01

    The transition from fiberglass reinforced plastic composites to graphite reinforced plastic composites is described. Structural fiberglass design and manufacturing background are summarized. How this experience provides a technology base for moving into graphite composite secondary structure and then to composite primary structure is considered. The technical requirements that must be fulfilled in the transition from glass to graphite composite structure are also included.

  5. High modulus invert analog glass compositions containing beryllia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of, in mols, 10-45% SiO2, 2-15% Li2O, 3-34% BeO, 12-36% of at least one bivalent oxide selected from the group consisting of CaO, ZnO, MgO and CuO, 10-39% of at least one trivalent oxide selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, B2O3, La2O3, Y2O3 and the mixed rare earth oxides, the total number of said bivalent and trivalent oxides being at least three, and up to 10% of a tetravalent oxide selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2.

  6. Parametric Study of End Milling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Azmi, Azwan I.; Lin, Richard J. T.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the application of Taguchi 'Design of Experiment' method to investigate the effects of end milling parameters on machinability characteristics of unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A series of milling experiments were conducted using tungsten carbide end milling cutters at various spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Taguchi analysis was carried out and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio with analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyse the effects of those parameters on GFRP machinability. Overall, the results of the current investigations present some desirable combinations of the machining parameters that can further enhance the end milling machinability characteristics to suit the final requirements of the finished GFRP products.

  7. Multilayered Glass Fibre-reinforced Composites In Rotational Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. C.; Harkin-Jones, E.; Kearns, M.; McCourt, M.

    2011-05-01

    The potential of multiple layer fibre-reinforced mouldings is of growing interest to the rotational moulding industry because of their cost/performance ratio. The particular problem that arises when using reinforcements in this process relate to the fact that the process is low shear and good mixing of resin and reinforcement is not optimum under those conditions. There is also a problem of the larger/heavier reinforcing agents segregating out of the powder to lay up on the inner part surface. In this study, short glass fibres were incorporated and distributed into a polymer matrix to produce fibre-reinforced polymer composites using the rotational moulding process and characterised in terms of morphology and mechanical properties.

  8. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. (a) The following are identification codes for composite packagings with inner receptacles of...

  9. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. (a) The following are identification codes for composite packagings with inner receptacles of...

  10. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. (a) The following are identification codes for composite packagings with inner receptacles of...

  11. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. (a) The following are identification codes for composite packagings with inner receptacles of...

  12. Study to determine and analyze the strength of high modulus glass in epoxy-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Glass composition research was conducted to produce a high modulus, high strength beryllium-free glass fiber. This program was built on the previous research for developing high modulus, high strength glass fibers which had a 5 weight percent beryllia content. The fibers resulting from the composition program were then used to produce fiber reinforced-epoxy resin composites which were compared with composites reinforced by commercial high modulus glass fibers, Thornel S graphite fiber, and hybrids where the external quarters were reinforced with Thornel S graphite fiber and the interior half with glass fiber as well as the reverse hybrid. The composites were given tensile strength, compressive strength, short-beam shear strength, creep and fatigue tests. Comments are included on the significance of the test data.

  13. Marginal Adaptation of Indirect Composite, Glass-Ceramic Inlays and Direct Composite: An In Vitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zarrati, S.; Mahboub, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This experimental in vitro study compared marginal adaptation of indirect composite, glass-ceramic inlays and direct composite. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five recently extracted human molars were randomly divided into three groups (n=25) and mesio-occluso-distal cavities with the same dimensions were prepared in the teeth. Indirect composite and glass-ceramic inlays were fabricated following manufacturer’s instructions and the marginal gap was measured by a stereomicroscope at magnification 40× before cementation. After cementation of inlays and restoring the third group by direct composite, all the specimens were thermocycled and the marginal gaps were measured exactly as previously described. Repeated measure ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test were used for pairwise comparison of occlusal, proximal, and gingival marginal gaps in each group. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test were used for comparison of mean marginal gap in the three groups and for comparison of marginal gap before and after cementation in inlays, paired T-test was used. Results: The marginal gap of direct composite (19.96 μm) was significantly lower than that of indirect composite inlay (48.47 μm), which in itself was significantly lower than that of glass-ceramic inlay (60.96 μm). In all the restorations, marginal gap in the gingival margin was significantly higher than occlusal and proximal margins. The marginal gap of inlays did not change after cementation and thermocycling. Conclusion: This study indicated that the marginal gaps of the evaluated restorations are less than 100 μm, which is clinically acceptable. PMID:21998779

  14. Fabrication and characterization of poly-(ε)-caprolactone and bioactive glass composites for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkhah, Ali; Marquardt, Laura M; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Day, Delbert E; Harkins, Amy B

    2015-04-01

    Much work has focused on developing synthetic materials that have tailored degradation profiles and physical properties that may prove useful in developing biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. In the present study, three different composite sheets consisting of biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and varying types of bioactive glass were investigated. The three composites were composed of 50wt.% PCL and (1) 50wt.% 13-93 B3 borate glass particles, (2) 50wt.% 45S5 silicate glass particles, or (3) a blend of 25wt.% 13-93 B3 and 25wt.% 45S5 glass particles. Degradation profiles determined for each composite showed the composite that contained only 13-93 B3 borate glass had a higher degradation rate compared to the composite containing only 45S5 silicate glass. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the composites to determine the effect of adding glass to the polymer on mechanical properties. The peak stress of all of the composites was lower than that of PCL alone, but 100% PCL had a higher stiffness when pre-reacted in cell media for 6weeks, whereas composite sheets did not. Finally, to determine whether the composite sheets would maintain neuronal growth, dorsal root ganglia isolated from embryonic chicks were cultured on composite sheets, and neurite outgrowth was measured. The bioactive glass particles added to the composites showed no negative effects on neurite extension, and neurite extension increased on PCL:45S5 PCL:13-93 B3 when pre-reacted in media for 24h. This work shows that composite sheets of PCL and bioactive glass particles provide a flexible biomaterial for neural tissue engineering applications.

  15. Mechanical behavior of polyester-based woven jute/glass hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Q.; Tanju, S.

    2012-06-01

    In polymer composite fabrication system, hybridization of jute fibers with synthetic fibers is one of the techniques adopted to overcome some of the limitations (poor mechanical properties and moisture resistance) that have been identified for jute fiber reinforced composites. In the present study, the effect of hybridization on mechanical properties of jute and glass mat reinforced polyester composites has been evaluated experimentally. The composites were made of glass mat, jute mat and varying layers of jute and glass mat in the polyester matrix by applying hand lay-up technique at room temperature (250C). The values of mechanical properties obtained from tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) tests show significant improvement with the increase of glass fiber content in hybrid composites. But the positive contribution from glass mat in increasing of ILSS of composite is limited to some extent and the optimum ILSS is achieved when glass-jute incorporated in composite as 50-50 weight basis. SEM images were used to study the modes of fracture, fiber-matrix adhesion, and jute-glass layer adhesion. The fracture surfaces resulted from different tests clearly show that cracks propagate throughout the polyester matrix by tearing the jute mat and delaminating the glass mat.

  16. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticle composite membranes for periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mota, Joana; Yu, Na; Caridade, Sofia G; Luz, Gisela M; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John A; Walboomers, X Frank; Mano, João F

    2012-11-01

    Barrier membranes are used in periodontal applications with the aim of supporting periodontal regeneration by physically blocking migration of epithelial cells. The present work proposes a combination of chitosan (CHT) with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) in order to produce a novel guided tissue and bone regeneration membrane, fabricated by solvent casting. The CHT/BG-NP nanocomposite membranes are characterized in terms of water uptake, in mechanical tests, under simulated physiological conditions and in in vitro bioactivity tests. The addition of BG-NPs to CHT membranes decreased the mechanical potential of these membranes, but on the other hand the bioactivity improved. The membranes containing the BG-NPs induced the precipitation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid (SBF). Biological tests were carried out using human periodontal ligament cells and human bone marrow stromal cells. CHT/BG-NP composite membranes promoted cell metabolic activity and mineralization. The results indicate that the CHT/BG-NP composite membrane could potentially be used as a temporary guided tissue regeneration membrane in periodontal regeneration, with the possibility to induce bone regeneration. PMID:22771458

  17. The combined effect of glass buffer strips and stitching on the damage tolerance of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kullerd, Susan M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that through-the-thickness stitching provides major improvements in the damage tolerance of composite laminates loaded in compression. However, the brittle nature of polymer matrix composites makes them susceptible to damage propagation, requiring special material applications and designs to limit damage growth. Glass buffer strips, embedded within laminates, have shown the potential for improving the damage tolerance of unstitched composite laminates loaded in tension. The glass buffer strips, less stiff than the surrounding carbon fibers, arrest crack growth in composites under tensile loads. The present study investigates the damage tolerance characteristics of laminates that contain both stitching and glass buffer strips.

  18. Glass former composition and method for immobilizing nuclear waste using the same

    DOEpatents

    Cadoff, Laurence H.; Smith-Magowan, David B.

    1988-01-01

    An alkoxide glass former composition has silica-containing constituents present as solid particulates of a particle size of 0.1 to 0.7 micrometers in diameter in a liquid carrier phase substantially free of dissolved silica. The glass former slurry is resistant to coagulation and may contain other glass former metal constituents. The immobilization of nuclear waste employs the described glass former by heating the same to reduce the volume, mixing the same with the waste, and melting the resultant mixture to encapsulate the waste in the resultant glass.

  19. Bioactive glass/polymer composite scaffolds mimicking bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Chiono, Valeria; Ferretti, Concetta; Baino, Francesco; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Pashkuleva, Iva; Reis, Rui L; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of scaffolds with mechanical and functional properties able to regenerate bone. Porous scaffolds made of chitosan/gelatin (POL) blends containing different amounts of a bioactive glass (CEL2), as inorganic material stimulating biomineralization, were fabricated by freeze-drying. Foams with different compositions (CEL2/POL 0/100; 40/60; 70/30 wt %/wt) were prepared. Samples were crosslinked using genipin (GP) to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability. The scaffolds were characterized in terms of their stability in water, chemical structure, morphology, bioactivity, and mechanical behavior. Moreover, MG63 osteoblast-like cells and periosteal-derived stem cells were used to assess their biocompatibility. CEL2/POL samples showed interconnected pores having an average diameter ranging from 179 ± 5 μm for CEL2/POL 0/100 to 136 ± 5 μm for CEL2/POL 70/30. GP-crosslinking and the increase of CEL2 amount stabilized the composites to water solution (shown by swelling tests). In addition, the SBF soaking experiment showed a good bioactivity of the scaffold with 30 and 70 wt % CEL2. The compressive modulus increased by increasing CEL2 amount up to 2.1 ± 0.1 MPa for CEL2/POL 70/30. Dynamical mechanical analysis has evidenced that composite scaffolds at low frequencies showed an increase of storage and loss modulus with increasing frequency; furthermore, a drop of E' and E″ at 1 Hz was observed, and for higher frequencies both moduli increased again. Cells displayed a good ability to interact with the different tested scaffolds which did not modify cell metabolic activity at the analyzed points. MTT test proved only a slight difference between the two cytotypes analyzed.

  20. Characteristics of PTR Glass with Novel Modified Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S. A.; Ignatiev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Aseev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    We compare spectral and holographic characteristics of a novel material designed for manufacture of photothermorefractive (PTR) glass. The parameters of holograms recorded in classical and modified PTR glass are confronted. It is shown that unlike the classical PTR glass, the modified PTR glass does not have an additional absorption band in the blue-green spectral region. This allows one to record purely phase holograms in the visible spectral range. The amplitude of modulation of the first harmonic in the refraction factor for the modified photothermorefractive glass is twice as high as that within the classical approach.

  1. Dental applications of nanostructured bioactive glass and its composites

    PubMed Central

    Polini, Alessandro; Bai, Hao; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    To improve treatments for bone or dental trauma, and for diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer, and infections, scientists who perform basic research are collaborating with clinicians to design and test new biomaterials for the regeneration of lost or injured tissue. Developed some 40 years ago, bioactive glass (BG) has recently become one of the most promising biomaterials, a consequence of discoveries that its unusual properties elicit specific biological responses inside the body. Among these important properties are the capability of BG to form strong interfaces with both hard and soft tissues, and its release of ions upon dissolution. Recent developments in nanotechnology have introduced opportunities for materials sciences to advance dental and bone therapies. For example, the applications for BG expand as it becomes possible to finely control structures and physicochemical properties of materials at the molecular level. Here we review how the properties of these materials have been enhanced by the advent of nanotechnology; and how these developments are producing promising results in hard-tissue regeneration and development of innovative BG-based drug-delivery systems. PMID:23606653

  2. R&D on glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites for superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nannan; Wang, Ke; Ma, Hongming; Pan, Wanjiang; Chen, Qingqing

    2016-01-01

    The glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites play an important role in superconducting Tokamak, which are used to insulate the metal components, such as superconducting winding, cooling pipes, metal electrodes and so on. For the components made of metal and glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites, thermal shrinkage leads to non-ignorable thermal stress, therefore, much attention should be paid on the thermal shrinkage rate of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites. The structural design of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites should aim at reducing thermal stress. In this paper, the density, glass fiber content and thermal shrinkage rate of five insulation tubes were tested. The testing results will be applied in structural design and mechanical analysis of isolators for superconducting Tokamak. PMID:27652137

  3. R&D on glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites for superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nannan; Wang, Ke; Ma, Hongming; Pan, Wanjiang; Chen, Qingqing

    2016-01-01

    The glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites play an important role in superconducting Tokamak, which are used to insulate the metal components, such as superconducting winding, cooling pipes, metal electrodes and so on. For the components made of metal and glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites, thermal shrinkage leads to non-ignorable thermal stress, therefore, much attention should be paid on the thermal shrinkage rate of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites. The structural design of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites should aim at reducing thermal stress. In this paper, the density, glass fiber content and thermal shrinkage rate of five insulation tubes were tested. The testing results will be applied in structural design and mechanical analysis of isolators for superconducting Tokamak.

  4. Durability of glasses from Pacific Northwest Laboratory Composition Variability Study-II (CVS-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-05-10

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a borosilicate glass as a solid, stable medium for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste at the Hanford site. They are optimizing the glass forming region and developing process models to be used in the Hanford Waste Verification Project (HWVP). Their experimentally-based statistical approach for optimizing the glass composition for HWVP has been designated the Composition Variability Study (CVS). In Part 1 of the CVS study PNL tested wide ranges of composition developed first-order empirical models, and provided input for planning CVS-2. In part 2, they are generating glass property data for a number of compositions in order to develop second-order empirical models which will be used to identify the composition region that simultaneously satisfies all quality and processability requirements of HWVP.

  5. Polyimide/Glass Composite High-Temperature Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Vasquez, Peter; Chatlin, Richard L.; Smith, Donald L.; Skalski, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary S.; Chu, Sang-Hyon

    2009-01-01

    Lightweight composites of RP46 polyimide and glass fibers have been found to be useful as extraordinarily fire-resistant electrical-insulation materials. RP46 is a polyimide of the polymerization of monomeric reactants (PMR) type, developed by NASA Langley Research Center. RP46 has properties that make it attractive for use in electrical insulation at high temperatures. These properties include high-temperature resistance, low relative permittivity, low dissipation factor, outstanding mechanical properties, and excellent resistance to moisture and chemicals. Moreover, RP46 contains no halogen or other toxic materials and when burned it does not produce toxic fume or gaseous materials. The U. S. Navy has been seeking lightweight, high-temperature-resistant electrical-insulation materials in a program directed toward reducing fire hazards and weights in ship electrical systems. To satisfy the requirements of this program, an electrical-insulation material must withstand a 3-hour gas-flame test at 1,600 F (about 871 C). Prior to the development reported here, RP46 was rated for use at temperatures from -150 to +700 F (about -101 to 371 C), and no polymeric product - not even RP46 - was expected to withstand the Navy 3-hour gas-flame test.

  6. Dynamic mechanical properties of a Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinshan Cui, Jing; Bai, Jie; Kou, Hongchao; Wang, Jun; Qiao, Jichao

    2015-04-21

    Dynamic mechanical behavior of a Ti{sub 50}Zr{sub 20}Nb{sub 12}Cu{sub 5}Be{sub 13} bulk metallic glass composite was investigated using mechanical spectroscopy in both temperature and frequency domains. Storage modulus G′ and loss modulus G″ are determined by temperature, and three distinct regions corresponding to different states in the bulk metallic glass composite are characterized. Physical parameters, such as atomic mobility and correlation factor χ, are introduced to analyze dynamic mechanical behavior of the bulk metallic glass composite in the framework of quasi-point defects (QPD) model. The experimental results are in good agreement with the prediction of QPD model.

  7. Water absorption behavior and residual strength assessment of glass/epoxy and glass-carbon/epoxy hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, S. C.; Singh, B. P.; Mahato, K. K.; Rathore, D. K.; Prusty, R. K.; Ray, B. C.

    2016-02-01

    Present investigation is aimed to study the water absorption behaviour and evaluation of residual strength of glass fibre/epoxy (GE) and alternate plies of glass- carbon/epoxy (GCE) hybrid composite. Both the composite systems were exposed to water at 70°C. Specimens were weighed after certain time periods to study the water uptake kinetic. Flexural tests were conducted after 4, 100 and 450 hours of ageing to evaluate the effect of hot water ageing on the mechanical properties of these potential materials. The water uptake kinetic was found to follow Fickian diffusion kinetic for GE as well as GCE hybrid composite but the rate of diffusion was higher for GE composite over GCE composite. The water content was also higher in GE composite over GCE composite after 450 hours of ageing. Significant decrement in flexural strength was observed with the increase in ageing time. Presence of water in the composite also imparted significant embrittlement to the matrix as reflected in the decrease in strain at peak for both the composite systems.

  8. Raman spectra of Martian glass analogues: a tool to approximate their chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, Danilo; Kolzenburg, Stephan; Vona, Alessandro; Chevrel, Magdalena O.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Neuville, Daniel R.; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Romano, Claudia; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    We present a study on the systematic changes of Raman spectra of a series of glasses as a function of their chemistry. These glass compositions are considered as analogues for rock materials identified on Mars. We performed a diffusion experiment between an iron-rich basaltic and a rhyolitic melt under reducing conditions to produce a wide range of intermediate chemical compositions. We then systematically acquired Raman spectra of the intermediate composition glasses across the diffusion interface and correlate them with the corresponding chemical compositions derived by electron microprobe analysis. Using a linear mixing model for the spectral evolution as a function of chemistry, we fitted a Raman parameter to each spectrum to estimate the chemical composition of each glass. The Raman model was verified using external natural and synthetic samples. This study: 1) expands the Raman database of silicate glasses including alkali and iron-rich compositions as expected to be found on Mars; and 2) contributes to develop Raman spectroscopy as a quantitative tool in geological and planetary science to estimate the chemistry of glasses on a microscopic level. Moreover, as Raman spectrometers have been developed for two forthcoming Mars missions [ExoMars program (2016-2018) and Mars 2020], with the benefit of this calibration, Raman spectroscopy will allow rapid, in-situ and remotely controlled identification and investigation of silicate glasses on future extraterrestrial rover missions.

  9. Mechanical and thermal expansion properties of glass fibers reinforced PEEK composites at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X. X.; Wu, Z. X.; Huang, R. J.; Zhou, Y.; Li, L. F.

    2010-02-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been widely used as matrix material for high performance composites. In this work, 30% chopped glass fibers reinforced PEEK composites were prepared by injection molding, and then the tensile, flexural and impact properties were tested at different temperatures. The modulus, strength and specific elongation of glass fibers reinforced PEEK at room temperature, 77 K and 20 K have been compared. And the fracture morphologies of different samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a dependence of mechanical properties of glass fibers reinforced PEEK composites on temperature. The coefficient of thermal expansion of unfilled PEEK and glass fibers reinforced PEEK were also investigated from 77 K to room temperature. The results indicated that the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of PEEK matrix was nearly a constant in this temperature region, and it can be significantly decreased by adding glass fibers.

  10. Preparation and bioactive properties of nano bioactive glass and segmented polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pérez, Fernando J; Vargas-Coronado, Rossana F; Cervantes-Uc, Jose M; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Covarrubias, Cristian; Pedram-Yazdani, Merhdad

    2016-04-01

    Composites of glutamine-based segmented polyurethanes with 5 to 25 wt.% bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared, characterized, and their mineralization potential was evaluated in simulated body fluid. Biocompatibility with dental pulp stem cells was assessed by MTS to an extended range of compositions (1 to 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles). Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained many of the matrix properties, i.e. those corresponding to semicrystalline elastomeric polymers as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) between -41 and -36℃ and a melting temperature (Tm) between 46 and 49℃ in agreement with X-ray reflections at 23.6° and 21.3°. However, with bioactive glass nanoparticles addition, tensile strength and strain were reduced from 22.2 to 12.2 MPa and 667.2 to 457.8%, respectively with 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not show evidence of mineralization after conditioning of these composites in simulated body fluid, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the formation of an apatite layer on the surface which increased with higher bioactive glass concentrations and longer conditioning time. Dental pulp stem cells proliferation at day 5 was improved in bioactive glass nanoparticles composites containing lower amounts of the filler (1-2.5 wt.%) but it was compromised at day 9 in composites containing high contents of nBG (5, 15, 25 wt.%). However, Runx2 gene expression was particularly upregulated for the dental pulp stem cells cultured with composites loaded with 15 and 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. In conclusion, low content bioactive glass nanoparticles and segmented polyurethanes composites deserve further investigation for applications such as guided bone regeneration membranes, where osteoconductivity is desirable but not a demanding mechanical performance.

  11. Preparation and bioactive properties of nano bioactive glass and segmented polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pérez, Fernando J; Vargas-Coronado, Rossana F; Cervantes-Uc, Jose M; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Covarrubias, Cristian; Pedram-Yazdani, Merhdad

    2016-04-01

    Composites of glutamine-based segmented polyurethanes with 5 to 25 wt.% bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared, characterized, and their mineralization potential was evaluated in simulated body fluid. Biocompatibility with dental pulp stem cells was assessed by MTS to an extended range of compositions (1 to 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles). Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained many of the matrix properties, i.e. those corresponding to semicrystalline elastomeric polymers as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) between -41 and -36℃ and a melting temperature (Tm) between 46 and 49℃ in agreement with X-ray reflections at 23.6° and 21.3°. However, with bioactive glass nanoparticles addition, tensile strength and strain were reduced from 22.2 to 12.2 MPa and 667.2 to 457.8%, respectively with 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not show evidence of mineralization after conditioning of these composites in simulated body fluid, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the formation of an apatite layer on the surface which increased with higher bioactive glass concentrations and longer conditioning time. Dental pulp stem cells proliferation at day 5 was improved in bioactive glass nanoparticles composites containing lower amounts of the filler (1-2.5 wt.%) but it was compromised at day 9 in composites containing high contents of nBG (5, 15, 25 wt.%). However, Runx2 gene expression was particularly upregulated for the dental pulp stem cells cultured with composites loaded with 15 and 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. In conclusion, low content bioactive glass nanoparticles and segmented polyurethanes composites deserve further investigation for applications such as guided bone regeneration membranes, where osteoconductivity is desirable but not a demanding mechanical performance. PMID

  12. Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

  13. Composition/Property Relationships for the Phase 2 Am-Cm Glass Variability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    2000-06-09

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of compositional uncertainties on the primary processing and product performance criteria for potential glasses to stabilize the Tank 17.1 Am-Cm solution and to identify the AGCR in which glasses simultaneously meet both process and product performance criteria as defined for Phase 2.

  14. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  15. The effect of composition on the viscosity, crystallization and dissolution of simple borate glasses and compositional design of borate based bioactive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetschius, Kathryn Lynn

    Borate glasses have recently been developed for a variety of medical applications, but much less is known about their structures and properties than more common silicate glasses. Melt properties and crystallization tendency for compositions in the Na2O-CaO-B2O3 system were characterized using differential thermal analysis and viscosity measurements. Characteristic viscosity (isokom) temperatures varied with the ratio between the modifier content (Na2O+CaO) and B2O3, particularly at lower temperatures, consistent with the changes in the relative concentrations of tetrahedral borons in the glass structure. Similar glasses were used to study dissolution processes in water. These alkali-alkaline earth glasses dissolve congruently and follow linear dissolution kinetics. The dissolution rates were dependent on the glass structure, with slower rates associated with greater fractions of four-coordinated boron. For glasses with a fixed alkaline earth identity, the dissolution rates increased in the order Liglasses with a constant alkali identity, the dissolution rates increased in the order Cacomposition-property relationships to optimize the properties of new borate-based bioactive compositions for specific applications. Melt viscosity, thermal expansion coefficient, liquidus temperature and crystallization tendency were determined, as were dissolution rates in simulated body fluid (SBF).

  16. Effect of different glass and zeolite A compositions on the leach resistance of ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Hash, M.; Glandorf, D.

    1996-12-31

    A ceramic waste form is being developed for waste generated during electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste is generated when fission products are removed from the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic. The waste form is a composite fabricated by hot isostatic pressing a mixture of glass frit and zeolite occluded with fission products and salt. Normalized release rate is less than 1 g/m{sup 2}d for all elements in MCC-1 leach test run for 28 days in deionized water at 90 C. This leach resistance is comparable to that of early Savannah River glasses. We are investigating how leach resistance is affected by changes in cationic form of zeolite and in glass composition. Composites were made with 3 forms of zeolite A and 6 glasses. We used 3-day ASTM C1220-92 (formerly MCC-1) leach tests to screen samples for development purposes only. The leach test results show that the glass composites of zeolites 5A and 4A retain fission products equally well. Loss of Cs is small (0.1-0.5 wt%), while the loss of divalent and trivalent fission products is one or more orders of magnitude smaller. Composites of 5A retain chloride ion better in these short-term screens than 4A and 3A. The more leach resistant composites were made with durable glasses rich in silica and poor in alkaline earth oxides. XRD show that a salt phase was absent in the leach resistant composites of 5A and the better glasses but was present in the other composites with poorer leach performance. Thus, absence of salt phase corresponds to improved leach resistance. Interactions between zeolite and glass depend on composition of both.

  17. The Effect of Exposed Glass Fibers and Particles of Bioactive Glass on the Surface Wettability of Composite Implants

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmajeed, Aous A.; Lassila, Lippo V.; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Närhi, Timo O.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the wettability of a material is a predictive index of cytocompatibility. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposed E-glass fibers and bioactive glass (BAG) particles on the surface wettability behavior of composite implants. Two different groups were investigated: (a) fiber reinforced composites (FRCs) with different fiber orientations and (b) polymer composites with different wt. % of BAG particles. Photopolymerized and heat postpolymerized composite substrates were made for both groups. The surface wettability, topography, and roughness were analyzed. Equilibrium contact angles were measured using the sessile drop method. Three liquids were used as a probe for surface free energy (SFE) calculations. SFE values were calculated from contact angles obtained on smooth surfaces. The surface with transverse distribution of fibers showed higher (P < 0.001) polar (γP) and total SFE (γTOT) components (16.9 and 51.04 mJ/m2, resp.) than the surface with in-plane distribution of fibers (13.77 and 48.27 mJ/m2, resp.). The increase in BAG particle wt. % increased the polar (γP) value, while the dispersive (γD) value decreased. Postpolymerization by heat treatment improved the SFE components on all the surfaces investigated (P < 0.001). Composites containing E-glass fibers and BAG particles are hydrophilic materials that show good wettability characteristics. PMID:22253628

  18. First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0{sub 2},B{sub 2}O{sub 3},A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O,Li{sub 2}O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

  19. First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0[sub 2],B[sub 2]O[sub 3],A1[sub 2]O[sub 3], Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], ZrO[sub 2], Na[sub 2]O,Li[sub 2]O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

  20. Mechanical behavior of glass fiber polyester hybrid composite filled with natural fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, G.; Gupta, A.; Dhanola, A.; Raturi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Now-a-days, the natural fibers and fillers from renewable natural resources offer the potential to act as a reinforcing material for polymer composite material alternative to the use of synthetic fiber like as; glass, carbon and other man-made fibers. Among various natural fibers and fillers like banana, wheat straw, rice husk, wood powder, sisal, jute, hemp etc. are the most widely used natural fibers and fillers due to its advantages like easy availability, low density, low production cost and reasonable physical and mechanical properties This research work presents the effect of natural fillers loading with 5%, 10% and 15% on mechanical behavior of polyester based hybrid composites. The result of test depicted that hybrid composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite under impact and flexural loads. However it is found that the hybrid composite have better strength as compared to single glass fibre composites.

  1. Fracture toughness and crack-resistance curve behavior in metallic glass-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Suh, Jin-Yo; Kozachkov, Henry; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-05-26

    Nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics methods are used to assess the fracture toughness of bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites; results are compared with similar measurements for other monolithic and composite BMG alloys. Mechanistically, plastic shielding gives rise to characteristic resistance?curve behavior where the fracture resistance increases with crack extension. Specifically, confinement of damage by second?phase dendrites is shown to result in enhancement of the toughness by nearly an order of magnitude relative to unreinforced glass.

  2. Size effect in resin/glass composite flexure strengths.

    PubMed

    Baran, G R; McCool, J I; Boberick, K G; Zhang, H Q

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that composite restorative materials possess an elastic-brittle nature and therefore will exhibit a size effect for flexure strength data. The experimental material consisted of 20 wt% 60:40 BISGMA:TEGDMA, 10 wt% colloidal silica, and 70 wt% Sr glass and was cured by light irradiation. Two sizes of flexure specimens were fabricated: 3.2x1.6x35 mm, and 6.25x3.1x35 mm. Half of the specimens made were soaked to equilibrium weight gain in 50:50 ethanol:water. The fracture strengths were measured in four-point bending tests. The beams under load were modelled by the finite element package ABAQUS. A statistical fracture mechanics methodology embodied in a public domain computer program called CARES/LIFE, developed by NASA, utilized the ABAQUS input and the fracture strengths of the smaller specimens to predict the fracture strengths of the larger specimens. In making the computation it used an approach that combines a Weibull distribution of flaw size with Batdorf's fracture mechanical model for failure at a material flaw. Both the soaked and unsoaked specimens exhibited Weibull behaviour, with shape parameters ranging from 4.04 to 8.15. Soaking had a clearly detrimental effect on the strengths of specimens of both sizes, and produced a comparable percentage reduction in the estimated scale parameter of the fracture strength distribution. Both the soaked and unsoaked specimens also exhibited a clear and comparable size effect, i.e. the larger specimens had a fracture strength that was lower than that of the smaller specimens by roughly the same percentage. Moreover, the magnitude of the size effect was well predicted by the CARES/LIFE methodology for both the soaked and the dry specimens. The elastic-brittle character of both soaked and unsoaked composite specimens was validated by load-deflection data, the magnitude of the Weibull shape parameters of the observed fracture strength data (<10), and the observed effect

  3. Flexural Strength Comparison of Silorane- and Methacrylate-Based Composites with Pre-impregnated Glass Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Doozandeh, Maryam; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Karimizadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Sufficient adhesion between silorane/methacrylate-based composites and methacrylate impregnated glass fiber increases the benefits of fibers and enhances the mechanical and clinical performance of both composites. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of silorane and methacrylate-based composites with pre-impregnated glass fiber by using flexural strength (FS) test. Materials and Method A total of 60 bar specimens were prepared in a split mold (25×2×2 mm) in 6 groups (n=10). In groups 1 and 4 (control), silorane-based (Filtek P90) and nanohybrid (Filtek Z350) composites were placed into the mold and photopolymerized with a high-intensity curing unit. In groups 2 and 5, pre-impregnated glass fiber was first placed into the mold and after two minutes of curing, the mold was filled with respective composites. Prior to filling the mold in groups 3 and 6, an intermediate adhesive layer was applied to the glass fiber. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours and then their flexural strength was measured by 3 point bending test, using universal testing machine at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc test were used for analyzing the data (p< 0.05). Results A significant difference was observed between the groups (p< 0.05). The highest FS was registered for combination of Z350 composite, impregnated glass fiber, and application of intermediate adhesive layer .The lowest FS was obtained in Filtek P90 alone. Cohesive failure in composite was the predominant failure in all groups, except group 5 in which adhesive failure between the composite and fiber was exclusively observed. Conclusion Significant improvement in FS was achieved for both composites with glass fiber. Additional application of intermediate adhesive layer before composite build up seems to increase FS. Nanohybrid composite showed higher FS than silorane-based composite. PMID:27284555

  4. Bond strength between resin composite and etched and non-etched glass ionomer.

    PubMed

    Zanata, R L; Navarro, M F; Ishikiriama, A; da Silva e Souza Júnior, M H; Delazari, R C

    1997-01-01

    The authors evaluated, in vitro, the effects of etching glass ionomer cements prior to the application of a bonding agent and a resin composite on the bond strength of the glass ionomer/resin composite interface. Six glass ionomer cements were tested using the same bonding agent/resin composite system (Scotchbond Multipurpose/Z 100). For each material, 16 specimens were prepared and divided into two groups. Eight of the specimens were not etched while eight were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. All the materials were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. Glass ionomer cylinders were prepared and were mounted in an assembly apparatus and the bonding agent/resin composite transferred to a demarcated area on the cement surface. The specimens were stored for 24 hours in distilled water at 37 degrees C and thermocycled. After thermocycling, the specimens were placed in a testing machine and a shear load applied with a knife-edged rod at the glass ionomer/resin composite interface. The shear bond strength was calculated and expressed in MPa. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test. There were no significant differences among the shear bond strengths of the resin composite to etched and non-etched glass ionomer cements.

  5. Calcium phosphates and glass composite coatings on zirconia for enhanced biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae-Won; Georgiou, George; Knowles, Jonathan C; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2004-08-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaP) and phosphate-based glass (P-glass, xCaO-(0.55-x) Na(2)O-0.45P(2)O(5) composition) composite coatings were obtained on a strong ZrO(2) to improve biocompatibility, the mechanical strength and biological activity. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and P-glass mixed powder slurries were coated on the ZrO(2) substrate, and subsequently heat-treated to obtain CaP- and P-glass composite coatings. The effects of glass composition (x=0.3, 0.4, 0.5 mol), mixing ratio of glass to HA (30%, 40%, 50% wt/wt), and heat treatment temperature (800 degrees C, 900 degrees C, 1000 degrees C) on the coating properties were investigated. After heat treatment, additional calcium phosphates, i.e., dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), were crystallized, resulting in the formation of triphasic calcium phosphates (HA-TCP-DCP) surrounded by a glass phase. The relative amounts of the crystalline phases varied with coating variables. The higher heat treatment temperature and glass amount, and the lower CaO content in the glass composition rendered the composite coatings to retain the higher amounts of TCP and DCP while the initial HA decreased. These appearance of additional crystalline phases and reduction of HA amount were attributed to the combined effects, i.e., the melting-crystallization of P-glass and the reaction between glass liquid phase and HA powder during thermal treatment. As a result of the glass phase in the composite coatings, their microstructures became much denser when compared to the pure HA coating. In particular, a completely dense structure was obtained at coating conditions with large amount of glass addition (50 wt%) at the glass composition of lower CaO content (0.3 mol CaO), and the following heat treatment above 800 degrees C for 2h. As a result, the adhesion strengths of the composite coating layers were significantly improved when compared to the pure HA coating. The highest strength of the composite coating was approximately 40

  6. Technical Note: Updated durability/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Hartley, S.A.; Redgate, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    This technical note presents empirical models developed in FYI 995 to predict durability as functions of glass composition. Models are presented for normalized releases of B, Li, Na, and Si from the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) applied to quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses as well as from the 28-day Materials Characterization Center-1 (MCC-1) test applied to quenched glasses. Models are presented for Composition Variation Study (CVS) data from low temperature melter (LTM) studies (Hrma, Piepel, et al. 1994) and high temperature melter (HTM) studies (Vienna et al. 1995). The data used for modeling in this technical note are listed in Appendix A.

  7. Correlation among electronic polarizability, optical basicity and interaction parameter of Bi 2O 3-B 2O 3 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaoli; Lin, Hai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2007-03-01

    For optical basicity and electronic polarizability, the previous studies basically concentrate on the wavelength range of the visible light region. However, heavy metal oxides glasses have a reputation of being good materials for infrared region. In this study, new data of the average electronic polarizability of the oxide ion α, optical basicity Λ and Yamashita-Kurosawa's interaction parameter A of Bi 2O 3-B 2O 3 glasses have been calculated in a wavelength range from 404.66 to 1083.03 nm. The present investigation suggests that both α and Λ increase gradually with increasing wave number, and A decreases with increasing wave number. Furthermore, close correlations are studied among α, Λ, A and refractive index n in this paper. Particularly, it has been found that a quantitative relationship between electronic polarizability and optical basicity is observed in a wavelength range from 404.66 to 1083.03 nm. Our present study extends over a wide range of α, Λ and A values.

  8. Structural considerations in design of lightweight glass-fiber composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The development of structurally efficient, metal-lined, glass-fiber composite pressure vessels. Both the current state-of-the-art and current problems are discussed along with fracture mechanics considerations for the metal liner. The design concepts used for metal-lined, glass-fiber, composite pressure vessels are described and the structural characteristics of the composite designs are compared with each other and with homogeneous metal pressure vessels. Specific design techniques and available design data are identified. Results of a current program to evaluate flaw growth and fracture characteristics of the metal liners are reviewed and the impact of these results on composite pressure vessel designs is discussed.

  9. Methods of vitrifying waste with low melting high lithia glass compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  10. Composite polymer-glass edge cladding for laser disks

    DOEpatents

    Powell, Howard T.; Riley, Michael O.; Wolfe, Charles R.; Lyon, Richard E.; Campbell, John H.; Jessop, Edward S.; Murray, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Large neodymium glass laser disks for disk amplifiers such as those used in the Nova laser require an edge cladding which absorbs at 1 micrometer. This cladding prevents edge reflections from causing parasitic oscillations which would otherwise deplete the gain. Nova now utilizes volume-absorbing monolithic-glass claddings which are fused at high temperature to the disks. These perform quite well but are expensive to produce. Absorbing glass strips are adhesively bonded to the edges of polygonal disks using a bonding agent whose index of refraction matches that of both the laser and absorbing glass. Optical finishing occurs after the strips are attached. Laser disks constructed with such claddings have shown identical gain performance to the previous Nova disks and have been tested for hundreds of shots without significant degradation.

  11. Composite polymer: Glass edge cladding for laser disks

    DOEpatents

    Powell, H.T.; Wolfe, C.A.; Campbell, J.H.; Murray, J.E.; Riley, M.O.; Lyon, R.E.; Jessop, E.S.

    1987-11-02

    Large neodymium glass laser disks for disk amplifiers such as those used in the Nova laser require an edge cladding which absorbs at 1 micrometer. This cladding prevents edge reflections from causing parasitic oscillations which would otherwise deplete the gain. Nova now utilizes volume-absorbing monolithic-glass claddings which are fused at high temperature to the disks. These perform quite well but are expensive to produce. Absorbing glass strips are adhesively bonded to the edges of polygonal disks using a bonding agent whose index of refraction matches that of both the laser and absorbing glass. Optical finishing occurs after the strips are attached. Laser disks constructed with such claddings have shown identical gain performance to the previous Nova disks and have been tested for hundreds of shots without significant degradation. 18 figs.

  12. Glass/BNNT Composite for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Hurst, Janet B.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A material consisting of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass reinforced with 4 weight percent of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) has shown promise for use as a sealant in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

  13. IMPACT OF COMPOSITION AND HEAT TREATMENT ON PORE SIZE IN POROUS WALLED HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Erich Hansen, E; Ray Schumacher, R; David Peeler, D

    2007-12-04

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a new geometric form: hollow glass microspheres (HGMs), with unique porous walls. The new geometric form combines the existing technology of HGMs with basic glass science knowledge in the realm of glass-in-glass phase separation. Conceptually, the development of a HGM with porous walls (referred to as a PWHGM) provides a unique system in which various media or filling agents can be incorporated into the PWHGM (via transport through the porous walls) and ultimately has the capacity to serve as a functional delivery system in various industrial applications. Applications of these types of systems could range from hydrogen storage, molecular sieves, drug and bioactive delivery systems, to environmental, chemical and biological indicators, relevant to Energy, Environmental Processing and Homeland Security fields. As a specific example, previous studies at SRNL have introduced materials capable of hydrogen storage (as well as other materials) into the interior of the PWHGMs. The goal of this project was to determine if the microstructure (i.e., pore size and pore size distribution) of a PWHGM could be altered or tailored by varying composition and/or heat treatment (time and/or temperature) conditions. The ability to tailor the microstructure through composition or heat treatments could provide the opportunity to design the PWHGM system to accommodate different additives or fill agents. To meet this objective, HGMs of various alkali borosilicate compositions were fabricated using a flame forming apparatus installed at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory (ACTL). HGMs were treated under various heat treatment conditions to induce and/or enhance glass in glass phase separation. Heat treatment temperatures ranged from 580 C to 620 C, while heat treatment times were either 8 or 24 hours. Of the two primary variables assessed in this study, heat treatment temperature was determined to be most effective in changing the

  14. Metallic glass composition. [That does not embrittle upon annealing

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.

    1984-09-14

    This patent pertains to a metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon, carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility-enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PCT DATA FOR THE INITIAL SET OF HANFORD ENHANCED WASTE LOADING GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2014-06-02

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test results for 20 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation ranges of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. Two components of the study glasses, fluorine and silver, were not measured since each of these species would have required the use of an additional preparation method and their measured values were likely to be near or below analytical detection limits. Some of the glasses were difficult to prepare for chemical analysis. A sodium peroxide fusion dissolution method was successful in completely dissolving the glasses. Components present in the glasses in minor concentrations can be difficult to measure using this dissolution method due to dilution requirements. The use of a lithium metaborate preparation method for the minor components (planned for use since it is typically successful in digesting Defense Waste Processing Facility HLW glasses) resulted in an unacceptable amount of undissolved solids remaining in the sample solutions. An acid dissolution method was used instead, which provided more thorough dissolution of the glasses, although a small amount of undissolved material remained for some of the study glasses. The undissolved material was analyzed to determine those components of the glasses that did not fully dissolve. These components (e.g., calcium and chromium) were present in sufficient quantities to be reported from the measurements resulting from the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method, which did not leave undissolved material. Overall, the analyses resulted in sums of

  16. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Hrma, Pavel; Matyas, Josef

    2012-11-15

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}d) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition, and the spinel solubility (c{sub o}) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of T{sub L} as a function of composition are based on T{sub L} measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c{sub o} versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates T{sub L} as a function of composition based on c{sub o} data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  17. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef

    2014-01-15

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni , Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (TL) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition and the spinel solubility (c0) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of TL as a function of composition are based on TL measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c0 versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates TL as a function of composition based on c0 data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  18. Properties of glass/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. H.; Sevkani, V. R.; Patel, B. R.; Patel, V. B.

    2016-05-01

    Composite Materials are well known for their tailor-made properties. For the fabrication of composites different types of reinforcements are used for different applications. Sometimes for a particular application, one type of reinforcement may not fulfill the requirements. Therefore, more than one type of reinforcements may be used. Thus, the idea of hybrid composites arises. Hybrid composites are made by joining two or more different reinforcements with suitable matrix system. It helps to improve the properties of composite materials. In the present work glass/carbon fiber reinforcement have been used with a matrix triglycidyl ether of tris(m-hydroxy phenyl) phosphate epoxy resin using amine curing agent. Different physical and mechanical properties of the glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber reinforced polymeric systems have been found out.

  19. Use of composites of topaz-glass as TSEE and TL dosemeters.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, C M S; Souza, D N; Caldas, L V E

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) and thermoluminescent (TL) emission of topaz-glass composites were studied with the aim of using them as solid-state dosemeters. The TSEE response was studied as a function of radiation energy and as a function of absorbed dose. Topaz-glass composites presented a linear TL and TSEE response to dose within a range of 0.01-1 Gy. The topaz-glass composites presented higher TSEE peaks than topaz-Teflon pellets. In the dosimetry of radiotherapic fields normally the responses of the topaz-glass dosemeters are comparable to topaz-Teflon pellets. The results confirmed that these new dosemeters can be useful in monitoring the quality of the radiation sources. This dose mapping technique is particularly useful in investigating dose distribution throughout a planned target volume.

  20. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  1. Experimental input for the design of metallic glass/crystalline composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Nicholas Willis

    Bulk metallic glasses often exhibit exceptional strength and large elastic strains, but the structural applications of bulk metallic glasses are limited by their extremely low tensile ductility. Below the glass transition temperature of the alloy, plastic deformation occurs primarily in narrow shear bands, which propagate unimpeded through the monolithic glass structure, resulting in catastrophic failure under tensile loading. A number of studies have added crystalline reinforcements to the glassy matrix in an effort to block shear band propagation and increase ductility. The reinforcements in these bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMC's) can be added as ex situ particles or fibers infiltrated by the glass-forming liquid [1], or can be formed in situ, either via devitrification of the glass during post-processing [2] or as a second phase that precipitates from the melt during solidification [3]. The size, distribution, and mechanical properties of the reinforcement phase have significant impact on the ductility of the composite. However, surprisingly little quantitative microstructural information is available for BMGMC's, particularly those formed by precipitation from the melt. In this work, we examine two in situ BMGMC's in which a ductile crystalline phase precipitates during solidification of the melt, resulting in a complex dendritic structure embedded in a continuous glass matrix. A 3D serial sectioning process was used to image the microstructure at regular intervals by removing slices of material using a dual beam focused ion-scanning electron microscope (FIB). Due to the complex nature of the microstructure, measurements of key features were conducted using a 3D measurement method that was developed for this purpose. Experiments were also conducted to provide experimental input for the development and tuning of finite element models. Changes in the elastic modulus of the composite were evaluated over a range of stresses that encompassed the yield

  2. Toughening mechanisms in discontinuous glass/polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Eunethia Denise

    1997-08-01

    There are five energy absorbing mechanisms for discontinuous fiber reinforced composites. These include fiber debonding, fiber pullout/bridging, fiber breakage, matrix cracking and matrix deformation. Because of the typically random orientation of fibers in these systems, it has been difficult to develop an experimental approach to determine which of these contributions dominate the measured in-plane toughness values. To address this issue, a specimen has been developed of one pultruded sheet of polypropylene-glass longitudinally centered in a compression molded polypropylene bar. Experimentally, interface strength was varied from weak to intermediate to strong adhesion through the addition of different sizings and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene. The pullout contribution was determined through varying fiber length. Matrix contributions were determined by changing the molecular weight of the matrix and by changing the crystal structure from predominantly the alpha form to the beta form. Experiments of Izod testing have shown that impact strength is maximized in specimens with a weak interface at an optimum fiber length corresponding to the fiber length at which pullout predominates. In specimens with an intermediate strength interface, impact strength showed a maximum but was reduced. In specimens with a strong interface, impact strength was the lowest and fairly level. Experiments of tensile testing also showed maximum toughness in specimens with a weak interface with an optimum fiber length where pull out predominates. In specimens with a strong interface, tensile toughness was reduced. Examination of these specimens suggests that the impact strength is maximized by the density via the crystallinity of the resin. The density influences the volume contraction of the matrix around the fibers during cooling. This volume contraction creates a radial stress on the fibers that affects the frictional shear stress against which the fibers are pulled out during

  3. Thermal Cycle Stability of a Novel Glass-Mica Composite Seal for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Effect of Glass Volume Fraction and Stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2005-12-01

    A novel glass-mica composite seal was developed based on a previously of ''infiltrated'' mica seals for solid oxide fuel cells. Ba-Al-Ca silicate sealing glass-mica composite seals. The seals were leak tested for short-term thermal cyfunction of glass volume fraction. Composite seals with 10 v% and 20 v% glatested under compressive stresses from 3 psi to 100 psi and voltage tests on dense 8YSZ electrolyte with the glas-mica composite seal showed very good thermal cycle stability.

  4. The effects of composition on glass dissolution rates: The application of four models to a data base

    SciTech Connect

    Geldart, R.W.; Kindle, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Four models have been applied to a data base to relate glass dissolution in distilled water to composition. The data base is used to compare the precisions obtained from the models in fitting actual data. The usefulness of the data base in formulating a model is also demonstrated. Two related models in which the composite or pH-adjusted free energy of hydration of the glass is the correlating parameter are compared with experimental data. In a structural model, the nonbridging oxygen content of the glasses is used to correlate glass dissolution rate to composition. In a model formulated for this report, the cation valence and the oxygen content of the glass are compared with observed dissolution rates. The models were applied to the 28-day normalized silica release at 90/sup 0/C for over 285 glass compositions with surface area to volume ratios of 10 m/sup -1/ (Materials Characterization Center MCC-1 glass durability test using distilled water). These glasses included the nonradioactive analogs of WV205 and SRL-165, as well as SRL-131, PNL 76-68, and a European glass, UK209. Predicted glass dissolution rates show similar fits to the data for all four models. The predictions of the models were also plotted for two subsets of the glasses: waste glasses and Savannah River Laboratory glasses. The model predictions fit the data for these groups much better than they fit the data for the entire set of glasses. 14 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Soft magnetic composites manufactured by warm co-extrusion of bulk metallic glass and steel powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Francis; Raber, Thomas R.; Zabala, Robert J.; Buresh, Steve J.; Tanico, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Soft magnetic composites of Fe-based bulk metallic glass and low-alloy steel have been manufactured by warm co-extrusion of precursor powders at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region of the glass. Composites were manufactured with amorphous volume fractions of 75%, 67%, and 100%. Full consolidation of the constituent powders was observed with the bulk metallic glass remaining substantially amorphous. The composite electrical resistivity was observed to be anisotropic with a resistivity of 79 μΩ cm measured transverse to the extrusion axis in a sample with 75% amorphous volume fraction. A 0-3 connectivity pattern with the low-resistivity steel phase embedded in a 3-dimensionally connected high-resistivity bulk metallic glass phase was observed with scanning electron microscopy. This confirms that the flow characteristics of the bulk metallic glass and the steel powders were comparable during extrusion at these temperatures. The saturation magnetization of 1.3 T was consistent with the volume weighted average of the saturation magnetization of the two phases. A relatively high quasistatic coercivity of 8 Oe was measured and is likely due to slight crystallization of the bulk metallic glass as well as domain wall pinning at prior particle boundaries. Careful control of the thermal environment during the extrusion process is required to minimize glass crystallization and achieve the desired balance of magnetic and electrical properties.

  6. Soft magnetic composites manufactured by warm co-extrusion of bulk metallic glass and steel powders

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Francis; Raber, Thomas R.; Zabala, Robert J.; Buresh, Steve J.; Tanico, Brian

    2013-05-07

    Soft magnetic composites of Fe-based bulk metallic glass and low-alloy steel have been manufactured by warm co-extrusion of precursor powders at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region of the glass. Composites were manufactured with amorphous volume fractions of 75%, 67%, and 100%. Full consolidation of the constituent powders was observed with the bulk metallic glass remaining substantially amorphous. The composite electrical resistivity was observed to be anisotropic with a resistivity of 79 {mu}{Omega} cm measured transverse to the extrusion axis in a sample with 75% amorphous volume fraction. A 0-3 connectivity pattern with the low-resistivity steel phase embedded in a 3-dimensionally connected high-resistivity bulk metallic glass phase was observed with scanning electron microscopy. This confirms that the flow characteristics of the bulk metallic glass and the steel powders were comparable during extrusion at these temperatures. The saturation magnetization of 1.3 T was consistent with the volume weighted average of the saturation magnetization of the two phases. A relatively high quasistatic coercivity of 8 Oe was measured and is likely due to slight crystallization of the bulk metallic glass as well as domain wall pinning at prior particle boundaries. Careful control of the thermal environment during the extrusion process is required to minimize glass crystallization and achieve the desired balance of magnetic and electrical properties.

  7. Driving force for indentation cracking in glass: composition, pressure and temperature dependence

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Tanguy

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of damage at the surface of glass parts caused by sharp contact loading is a major issue for glass makers, suppliers and end-users. Yet, it is still a poorly understood problem from the viewpoints both of glass science and solid mechanics. Different microcracking patterns are observed at indentation sites depending on the glass composition and indentation cracks may form during both the loading and the unloading stages. Besides, we do not know much about the fracture toughness of glass and its composition dependence, so that setting a criterion for crack initiation and predicting the extent of the damage yet remain out of reach. In this study, by comparison of the behaviour of glasses from very different chemical systems and by identifying experimentally the individual contributions of the different rheological processes leading to the formation of the imprint—namely elasticity, densification and shear flow—we obtain a fairly straightforward prediction of the type and extent of the microcracks which will most likely form, depending on the physical properties of the glass. Finally, some guidelines to reduce the driving force for microcracking are proposed in the light of the effects of composition, temperature and pressure, and the areas for further research are briefly discussed. PMID:25713446

  8. Glass transition and composite formation in InF3-containing oxyfluoroniobate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, N. N.; Ignatieva, L. N.; Marchenko, Yu. V.; Bouznik, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    The glasses in the system MnNbOF5-BaF2-InF3 have been firstly synthesized and studied. The thermal parameters of these glasses are analyzed. It was stated that glass of the composition 40MnNbOF5-40BaF2-20InF3 is the most thermal stable in the system under study. By X-ray analysis the compositions of the crystalline phases obtained at the glass thermal treatment were determined: the main phases are Ba3In2F12 and BaNbOF5. By Raman and IR spectra analysis it was stated that the networks of glasses in the system are built by the structural type of the glasses in NbO2F-BaF2 system: (NbOnFm) polyhedra joined oxygen bridges. Indium trifluoride forms InF6 polyhedra, which are embeded between oxyfluoroniobate ions, forming a common networks or forms its own layers from InF6 polyhedra. IR-spectroscopy method showed that at devitrification of the sample 30MnNbOF5-50BaF2-20InF3 the band position and shape change in going from glass state to crystalline. The bands in the range 900-700 cm-1 shift into the low-frequency range and transformed into narrow peaks characteristic for the crystalline state. It was determined that for this sample the IR-spectroscopy method fixes the presence of the crystalline phases at 340°C without time of exposure, despite the fact that X-ray analysis shows an amorphous state for this sample at the same temperature. It was suggested, that controlling the composition and conditions of annealing of the glasses it can be obtain the transparent glass-ceramics of definite composition.

  9. Fiberglass goes green: Developing phosphate glass for use in biodegradable composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Christina Lee

    Composite materials, such as the glass fiber reinforced polyester thermosets known as "fiberglass," are used in many applications. However, recycling processes for these materials are inefficient and not widely available. Specially engineered degradable polymers offer an opportunity to redesign these composites. Additionally, the composite could be tailored to be multi-use, such that upon degradation, the resulting products could be used as part of a zeoponic substrate (artificial soil) for growing plants. Such a material would be beneficial for long-duration space missions, terraforming, or in other agricultural applications. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on developing phosphate glass for use as the fiber reinforcement for such a composite. Due to the under-utilization of phosphate systems, there is a lack of thermodynamic data on these systems. The modified associate species method of phase diagram calculation was used in an attempt to gain more information about the desired system, as it is a good predictor of the phase relations in oxide melts, slags, and glasses and requires less data than other methods. Further research into the thermodynamic properties of phosphates is still needed to develop accurate phase diagrams and melting temperatures for this system. Seventeen glass formulations were developed and melted. Six of these formulations were chosen for dissolution testing. Of these six, Glass 17 was chosen for intensive testing and characterization. This glass was tested in water, hydrochloric acid solutions, and citric acid solutions. The weight loss was measured and ICP-OES was performed on the leachate solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction were performed on the tested specimens. Shrinking-core models were fit to the dissolution data. Fibers were drawn from the glass and characterized using SEM. The data shows that this glass is not dissolving congruently, as is expected of phosphate glasses. Instead

  10. Structural characterization and anti-cancerous potential of gallium bioactive glass/hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Keenan, T J; Placek, L M; Coughlan, A; Bowers, G M; Hall, M M; Wren, A W

    2016-11-20

    A bioactive glass series (0.42SiO2-0.10Na2O-0.08CaO-(0.40-X)ZnO-(X)Ga2O3) was incorporated into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/dextran (Dex) hydrogels in three different amounts (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25m(2)), and the resulting composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and (13)C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP MAS-NMR). Composite extracts were also evaluated in vitro against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. TEM confirmed glass distribution throughout the composites, although some particle agglomeration was observed. DSC revealed that glass composition and content did have small effects on both Tg and Tm. MAS-NMR revealed that both CMC and Dex were successfully functionalized, that cross-linking occurred, and that glass addition did slightly alter bonding environments. Cell viability analysis suggested that extracts of the glass and composites with the largest Ga-content significantly decreased MG-63 osteosarcoma viability after 30days. This study successfully characterized this composite series, and demonstrated their potential for anti-cancerous applications. PMID:27561520

  11. Structural characterization and anti-cancerous potential of gallium bioactive glass/hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Keenan, T J; Placek, L M; Coughlan, A; Bowers, G M; Hall, M M; Wren, A W

    2016-11-20

    A bioactive glass series (0.42SiO2-0.10Na2O-0.08CaO-(0.40-X)ZnO-(X)Ga2O3) was incorporated into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/dextran (Dex) hydrogels in three different amounts (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25m(2)), and the resulting composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and (13)C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP MAS-NMR). Composite extracts were also evaluated in vitro against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. TEM confirmed glass distribution throughout the composites, although some particle agglomeration was observed. DSC revealed that glass composition and content did have small effects on both Tg and Tm. MAS-NMR revealed that both CMC and Dex were successfully functionalized, that cross-linking occurred, and that glass addition did slightly alter bonding environments. Cell viability analysis suggested that extracts of the glass and composites with the largest Ga-content significantly decreased MG-63 osteosarcoma viability after 30days. This study successfully characterized this composite series, and demonstrated their potential for anti-cancerous applications.

  12. Chemical composition analysis of simulated waste glass T10-G-16A

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.

    2015-08-01

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical composition analyses of a simulated LAW glass designated T10-G-16A.The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component. No issues were identified in reviewing the analytical data.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Georgarakis, K; Nakayama, K S; Li, Y; Tsarkov, A A; Xie, G; Dudina, D; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Yavari, A R

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses. PMID:27067824

  14. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Georgarakis, K; Nakayama, K S; Li, Y; Tsarkov, A A; Xie, G; Dudina, D; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Yavari, A R

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses. PMID:27067824

  16. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Georgarakis, K.; Nakayama, K. S.; Li, Y.; Tsarkov, A. A.; Xie, G.; Dudina, D.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Yavari, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses.

  17. Modification of epoxy-reinforced glass-cloth composites with a perfluorinated alkyl ether elastomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Chen, T. S.; Taylor, M.

    1984-01-01

    A perfluorinated alkyl ether diacyl fluoride prepolymer (molecular weight about 1500) was coreacted with Epon 828 epoxy resin and diamino diphenyl sulfone to obtain an elastomer-toughened, glass-cloth composite. Improvements in flexural toughness, impact resistance, and water resistance, without loss of strength, modulus of elasticity or a lowering of the glass-transition temperature, were realized over those of the unmodified composite. Factors concerning optimization of the process are discussed. Results suggest that a simultaneously interpenetrating polymer network may be formed which gives rise to a measured improvement in composite mechanical properties.

  18. The oxidative stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Batt, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The environmental stability of carbon fibre reinforced glass-matrix composites is assessed. Loss of composite strength due to oxidative exposure at elevated temperatures under no load, static load and cyclic fatigue as well as due to thermal cycling are all examined. It is determined that strength loss is gradual and predictable based on the oxidation of carbon fibres. The glass matrix was not found to prevent this degradation but simply to limit it to a gradual process progressing from the composite surfaces inward.

  19. Fracture Morphology and Local Deformation Characteristics in the Metallic Glass Matrix Composite Under Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Sun, X. H.; Hao, G. J.; Guo, Z. X.; Zhang, Y.; Lin, J. P.; Sui, M. L.; Qiao, J. W.

    2015-11-01

    Fracture and deformation characteristics of the Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite have been studied by the tensile test and the in situ TEM tension test. Typically, the composite exhibits the high strength and considerable plasticity. Microscopically, it was found that shear deformation zone formed at the crack tip in glass phase, which can bring about quick propagation of shear bands. However, the plastic deformation zone nearby the crack tip in dendrites will postpone or retard the crack extension by dislocations. The attributions of micro-deformations to mechanical properties of composites were discussed.

  20. Properties of indirect composites reinforced with monomer-impregnated glass fiber.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Naomi; Sawase, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; McCabe, John F

    2012-07-01

    Sufficient flexural strength is required for long-term clinical use of fixed partial dentures made with fiber-reinforced composite. The flexural strengths of indirect composite materials reinforced with a monomer-preimpregnated glass fiber material were determined to evaluate the compatibility of the composites to glass fiber material. Four types (microhybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, and minifilled) of indirect composites and a unidirectional long glass fiber material were selected for investigation. The composites were placed on a fiber plate and polymerized in accordance with the respective manufacturer's instructions. Rectangular bar fiber-composite specimens were machined and the flexural strength was calculated. The flexural strength of each indirect composite was also measured. The microfilled composite with the lowest filler content (70 wt%) exhibited the highest increase ratio using the fiber, although its strength without fiber reinforcement was the lowest (62.1 MPa). The fiber-microhybrid specimen demonstrated the highest mean strength (355.9 MPa), although the filler content of the microhybrid composite was comparatively low (73 wt%). The type of composite material should be considered for the selection of an optimal fiber-composite combination. PMID:21932008

  1. Effect of the glass composition on the chemical durability of zinc-phosphate-based glasses in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massera, J.; Bourhis, K.; Petit, L.; Couzi, M.; Hupa, L.; Hupa, M.; Videau, J. J.; Cardinal, T.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical durability of glasses with the composition 40P2O5-55ZnO-1Ga2O3-4Ag2O and 41P2O5-51ZnO-8Ga2O3 (mol%) was studied by measuring the rates of aqueous dissolution in neutral, acidic and alkaline aqueous solutions and discussed as a function of the glass composition. The change in the pH of the solutions as a function of the immersion time of the samples was used to study the dissolution mechanism. Using XRD and SEM/EDXA, we showed that the dissolution in deionized (DI) water and HCl consists of the leaching of the phosphate chains into the medium along with (i) the formation of a hydrated layer with the composition Zn2P2O7·3H2O and also of AgCl agglomerates when immersed in HCl and (ii) a leaching out of P, Ga and Ag when immersed for more than 180 min in DI water and for more than 60 min in HCl. The dissolution in NaOH-Na2CO3 consists of a net consumption of the OH- along with the formation of layers of Zn3(PO4)2·(H2O)4 and Zn(H2PO2)2·H2O with no apparent diffusion of P, Ga and Ag when immersed for as long as 240 min. Increasing the Ga2O3 concentration in zinc-phosphate glass at the expense of Ag2O lowers the dissolution rate when immersed in DI water, HCl and NaOH-Na2CO3 probably due to a reinforcement of the glass network.

  2. Monotonic and fatigue properties of kenaf /glass hybrid composites under fully reversed cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharba, M. J.; Leman, Z.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Ishak, M. R.; Hanim, M. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of hybridization of kenaf-glass fibers reinforced unsaturated polyester on fatigue life. Three types of composites were fabricated using hands lay-up method, namely, kenaf, glass, and hybrid composites with 30% of weight fraction, the hybrid was mixed with a ratio of kenaf: glass 10:20. Monotonic tests were achieved (Tensile and compression) to determine the fatigue stress levels. Fully reversed fatigue loading was conducted with a stress ratio of -1 and stress levels 55-85% of the ultimate static stresses, all tests were conducted at 10 Hz of frequency. The results proof a positive hybrid composite; also agree with the rule of mixture that can predict the final composite properties. Moreover, it's been observed an improvement in overall mechanical properties of hybrid compared to individual ones.

  3. Method of producing a ceramic fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced composite composed of a BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2 (BAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD silicon carbide continuous fibers. A slurry of BAS glass powders is prepared and celsian seeds are added during ball melting. The slurry is cast into tapes which are cut to the proper size. Continuous CVD-SiC fibers are formed into mats of the desired size. The matrix tapes and the fiber mats are alternately stacked in the proper orientation. This tape-mat stack is warm pressed to produce a 'green' composite. The 'green' composite is then heated to an elevated temperature to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot pressed to form a silicon carbide fiber-reinforced celsian (BAS) glass-ceramic matrix composite which may be machined to size.

  4. Flexural Strength of Glass and Polyethylene Fiber Combined with Three Different Composites

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, F; Alavi, AA; Talei, Z

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The flexure of the fiber- reinforced composites (FRC) which can be generally used instead of fixed metal- framework prostheses have been more advocated due to the enormous demands for the conservative and esthetic restoration. The flexure of the fiber should be well-fitted to its covering composite. No study has been reported the comparison of the combination of glass and polyethylene fiber with particulate filled composite and fiber reinforced composite yet. Purpose: This study compared the flexural strength of two types of fibers combined with three types of composites. Materials and Method: Sixty-six specimens were prepared in a split mold (25×2×2 mm). The specimens were divided into six groups according to the type of resin and the fiber (N = 11): group 1: Z250 composite + Polyethylene fiber; group 2: Build It composite + Polyethylene fiber; group 3: Nulite F composite+ Polyethylene fiber; group 4: glass fiber + Z250 composite; group 5: glass fiber + Build-It composite and group 6: glass fiber + Nulite F. The mean flexural strengths (MPa) values were determined in a 3-point bending test at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min by a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany). The results were statistically analyzed, using one and two- way ANOVA and LSD post-hoc tests (p< 0.05). Results: The highest flexural strength was registered for glass fiber in combination with Z250 composite (500 MPa) and the lowest for polyethylene fiber in combination with Build-It composite (188 MPa). One-way ANOVA test revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between polyethylene fiber combinations (p= 0.62) but there was a significant difference between glass fiber combinations (p= 0.0001). Two-way ANOVA revealed that the fiber type had a significant effect on flexural strength (p= 0.0001). Conclusion: The choice of fiber and composite type was shown to have a significant positive influence on the flexural properties of the

  5. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  6. Origin of the Apollo 15 very low Ti green glass. A perspective from the compositional diversity in the very low Ti glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The very low Ti green glasses from the Apollo 15 site have intrigued scientists for over 20 years. Their primitive composition has been used to understand magmatic processes and the structure of the moon. The compositional variability observed in the Apollo 15 glass population has long been a point of debate. Initial studies did not recognize the compositional diversity in the glasses. Stolper et al. documented the major element variability and concluded it could not be produced by magmatic processes and therefore concluded that these glasses must be of impact origin. Subsequent studies confirmed a volcanic origin for the glass population and attempted to elucidate magmatic processes to account for its compositional variability. Models that have been proposed for these glasses include the following: (1) the crystallization of single or multiple phases (olivine, pyroxene, Fe metal, immiscible sulfide); (2) the incompatible behavior of Ni and Co during multiple phase crystallization at extremely low fO2; and (3) magma or source mixing. All of these models have problems. Type (1) models appear not to be consistent with recent trace element studies on the glasses; model (2) is dependent on the debatable incompatible behavior of Ni and Co, and, in models of type (3), the origin and nature of mixing models are somewhat unconstrained. This study compares the Apollo 15 green glasses with the very low Ti picritic glasses from other landing sites.

  7. Mechanical behaviour of degradable phosphate glass fibres and composites-a review.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, R; Tanner, K E

    2016-02-01

    Biodegradable materials are potentially an advantageous alternative to the traditional metallic fracture fixation devices used in the reconstruction of bone tissue defects. This is due to the occurrence of stress shielding in the surrounding bone tissue that arises from the absence of mechanical stimulus to the regenerating bone due to the mismatch between the elastic modulus of bone and the metal implant. However although degradable polymers may alleviate such issues, these inert materials possess insufficient mechanical properties to be considered as a suitable alternative to current metallic devices at sites of sufficient mechanical loading. Phosphate based glasses are an advantageous group of materials for tissue regenerative applications due to their ability to completely degrade in vivo at highly controllable rates based on the specific glass composition. Furthermore the release of the glass's constituent ions can evoke a therapeutic stimulus in vivo (i.e. osteoinduction) whilst also generating a bioactive response. The processing of these materials into fibres subsequently allows them to act as reinforcing agents in degradable polymers to simultaneously increase its mechanical properties and enhance its in vivo response. However despite the various review articles relating to the compositional influences of different phosphate glass systems, there has been limited work summarising the mechanical properties of different phosphate based glass fibres and their subsequent incorporation as a reinforcing agent in degradable composite materials. As a result, this review article examines the compositional influences behind the development of different phosphate based glass fibre compositions intended as composite reinforcing agents along with an analysis of different potential composite configurations. This includes variations in the fibre content, matrix material and fibre architecture as well as other novel composites designs.

  8. Radiation transmission through a composite medium of glass and water

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Solar ponds have been shown to be a viable method of collecting solar energy. The most common type of solar pond is the salt gradient solar pond. Interest has also been shown in other types of ponds, such as a membrane stratified solar pond. Another possible alternative is a porous medium solar pond, where a porous medium would be used to stratify the pond. The growing abundance of recycled glass could provide an inexpensive source of material for constructing a light transmitting porous medium. In order to establish the feasibility of such a pond, it is necessary to know the radiation transmission characteristics of the porous medium. Two experiments were conducted to measure the transmittance properties of a porous medium of glass and water. The results of these experiments are compared with the transmittance of parallel glass plates in water, and a semi-empirical correlation is developed to express the data. In addition, a model consisting of a glass lattice in water is developed and compared with the experimental data.

  9. Research of glass fibre used in the electromagnetic wave shielding and absorption composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Jia, F.; Bao, H. Q.; Cui, K.; Zhang, F.

    2016-07-01

    Electromagnetic shielding and absorption composite material plays an important role in the defence and economic field. Comparing with other filler, Glass fibre and its processed product—metal-coated glass fibre can greatly reduce the material's weight and costs, while it still remains the high strength and the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. In this paper, the electromagnetic absorption mechanism and the reflection mechanism have been investigated as a whole, and the shielding effectiveness of the double-layer glass fibre composite material is mainly focused. The relationship between the shielding effectiveness and the filled glass fibre as well as its metal-coated product's parameters has also been studied. From the subsequent coaxial flange and anechoic chamber analysis, it can be confirmed that the peak electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of this double-layer material can reach -78dB while the bandwidth is from 2GHz to 18GHz.

  10. Compositional dependence of absorption and fluorescence of Yb{sup 3+} in oxide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Takebe, Hiromichi; Murata, Takahiro; Morinaga, Kenji

    1996-03-01

    The integrated absorption cross section, the spontaneous emission probability, and the stimulated emission cross section of Yb{sup 3+} were determined in silicate, phosphate, borate, germanate, aluminate, gallate, and ZBLAN host glasses. The compositional dependence of the stimulated emission cross section of the {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} {yields} {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} transition is determined mainly by the integrated absorption cross section in the glasses. A peak stimulated emission cross section above 1 pm{sup 2}, which is the highest value in glasses, was obtained in a gallate glass with a composition of 40K{sub 2}O{center_dot}20Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}40Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The factors affecting the integrated absorption cross section are discussed using the Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er{sup 3+} calculated in previous studies.

  11. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/45S5 Bioactive Glass Composite Coatings Doped with Zn and Sr

    PubMed Central

    Miola, Marta; Verné, Enrica; Ciraldo, Francesca Elisa; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In this research work, the original 45S5 bioactive glass was modified by introducing zinc and/or strontium oxide (6 mol%) in place of calcium oxide. Sr was added for its ability to stimulate bone formation and Zn for its role in bone metabolism, antibacterial properties, and anti-inflammatory effect. The glasses were produced by means of melting and quenching process. SEM and XRD analyses evidenced that Zr and Sr introduction did not modify the glass structure and morphology while compositional analysis (EDS) demonstrated the effective incorporation of these elements in the glass network. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 1 month evidenced a reduced bioactivity kinetics for Zn-doped glasses. Doped glasses were combined with chitosan to produce organic/inorganic composite coatings on stainless steel AISI 316L by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Two EPD processes were considered for coating development, namely direct current EPD (DC-EPD) and alternating current EPD (AC-EPD). The stability of the suspension was analyzed and the deposition parameters were optimized. Tape and bending tests demonstrated a good coating-substrate adhesion for coatings containing 45S5-Sr and 45S5-ZnSr glasses, whereas the adhesion to the substrate decreased by using 45S5-Zn glass. FTIR analyses demonstrated the composite nature of coatings and SEM observations indicated that glass particles were well integrated in the polymeric matrix, the coatings were fairly homogeneous and free of cracks; moreover, the AC-EPD technique provided better results than DC-EPD in terms of coating quality. SEM, XRD analyses, and Raman spectroscopy, performed after bioactivity test in SBF solution, confirmed the bioactive behavior of 45S5-Sr-containing coating while coatings containing Zn exhibited no hydroxyapatite formation. PMID:26539431

  12. Behaviour of hybrid jute-glass/epoxy composite tubes subjected to lateral loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental work on hybrid and non-hybrid composite tubes subjected to lateral loading has been carried out using jute, glass and hybrid jute-glass/epoxy materials. Tubes of 200 mm length with 110 mm inner diameter were fabricated by hand lay-up method to investigate the effect of material used and the number of layers on lateral-load-displacement relations and on the failure mode. Crush force efficiency and the specific energy absorption of the composite tubes were calculated. Results show that the six layers glass/epoxy tubes supported load higher 10.6% than that of hybrid jute-glass/ epoxy made of two layers of jute/epoxy four layers of glass/epoxy. It has been found that the specific energy absorption of the glass/epoxy tubes is found higher respectively 11.6% and 46% than hybrid jute-glass/epoxy and jute/epoxy tubes. The increase in the number of layers from two to six increases the maximum lateral load from 0.53KN to 1.22 KN for jute/epoxy and from 1.35 KN to 3.87 KN for the glass/epoxy tubes. The stacking sequence of the hybrid tubes influenced on the maximum lateral load and the absorbed energy. The maximum load obtained for the six layers jute-glass/epoxy tubes of different staking sequence varies between 1.88 KN to 3.46 KN. Failure mechanisms of the laterally loaded composite tubes were also observed and discussed.

  13. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/45S5 Bioactive Glass Composite Coatings Doped with Zn and Sr.

    PubMed

    Miola, Marta; Verné, Enrica; Ciraldo, Francesca Elisa; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-01-01

    In this research work, the original 45S5 bioactive glass was modified by introducing zinc and/or strontium oxide (6 mol%) in place of calcium oxide. Sr was added for its ability to stimulate bone formation and Zn for its role in bone metabolism, antibacterial properties, and anti-inflammatory effect. The glasses were produced by means of melting and quenching process. SEM and XRD analyses evidenced that Zr and Sr introduction did not modify the glass structure and morphology while compositional analysis (EDS) demonstrated the effective incorporation of these elements in the glass network. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 1 month evidenced a reduced bioactivity kinetics for Zn-doped glasses. Doped glasses were combined with chitosan to produce organic/inorganic composite coatings on stainless steel AISI 316L by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Two EPD processes were considered for coating development, namely direct current EPD (DC-EPD) and alternating current EPD (AC-EPD). The stability of the suspension was analyzed and the deposition parameters were optimized. Tape and bending tests demonstrated a good coating-substrate adhesion for coatings containing 45S5-Sr and 45S5-ZnSr glasses, whereas the adhesion to the substrate decreased by using 45S5-Zn glass. FTIR analyses demonstrated the composite nature of coatings and SEM observations indicated that glass particles were well integrated in the polymeric matrix, the coatings were fairly homogeneous and free of cracks; moreover, the AC-EPD technique provided better results than DC-EPD in terms of coating quality. SEM, XRD analyses, and Raman spectroscopy, performed after bioactivity test in SBF solution, confirmed the bioactive behavior of 45S5-Sr-containing coating while coatings containing Zn exhibited no hydroxyapatite formation. PMID:26539431

  14. Compositional dependent response of silica-based glasses to femtosecond laser pulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuthe, Thomas; Grehn, Moritz; Mermillod-Blondin, Alexandre; Bonse, Jörn; Eberstein, Markus

    2013-11-01

    Femtosecond laser pulse irradiation of inorganic glasses allows a selective modification of the optical properties with very high precision. This results in the possibility for the production of three-dimensional functional optical elements in the interior of glass materials, such as optical data storage, waveguide writing, etc. The influence of the chemical glass composition to the response upon ultrashort laser irradiation has not been studied systematically. For that, simple silicabased model glasses composed of systematically varying alkaline- and earth-alkaline components were prepared, irradiated on the surface and in the volume with single fs-laser pulses (~130 fs, 800 nm), and were subsequently analyzed by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy and quantitative phase contrast microscopy in order to account for changes in the glass structure and for alterations of the optical refractive index, respectively. The Raman spectroscopic studies of the laser-irradiated spots revealed no change in the average binding configuration (the so called Q-structure), but local changes of bond-angles and bond-lengths within the glass structure structure. Those changes are explained by structural relaxation of the glass network due to densification caused by a transient laser-induced plasma generation and the following shock wave and other thermal phenomena. Glasses with a low amount of network modifiers show changes in the Si-O network while glasses with a high amount of network modifiers react primarily via variation of the nonbridging oxygen ions. The results are discussed in terms of possible structural response mechanisms and conclusions are outlined regarding glass compositions with technical suitability for fs-laser modifications.

  15. Thermal recycling and re-manufacturing of glass fibre thermosetting composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraisse, A.; Beauson, J.; Brøndsted, P.; Madsen, B.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of using thermally recycled glass fibre in re-manufactured composites was investigated. A unidirectional glass fibre thermosetting composite laminate was manufactured. The matrix in one part of the laminate was burnt off to recover the glass fibres. These recycled glass fibres were used to manufacture a new composite laminate with the same fibre architecture as the pristine one. The fibres, the matrix and the composite laminates were thoroughly characterised and analysed. The results show that good materials quality was obtained for both laminates. A difference in fibre packing behaviour was observed in the composites with the pristine and the recycled fibres, which lead to a lower fibre volume fraction in the latter one. The Young's modulus of the composites was not changed by the recycling process, if the lower fibre volume fraction is taken into account. However, a marked drop in the maximum stress of the composites was reported, which was found to be related to the loss in maximum stress of the fibres.

  16. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    SciTech Connect

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Gibson, Mark A.; East, Daniel; Simon, George P.

    2011-11-07

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  17. A mesoporous bioactive glass/polycaprolactone composite scaffold and its bioactivity behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Shi, Jianlin; Dong, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lingxia; Zeng, Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and conventional bioactive glass (BG)/PCL were fabricated by a solvent casting-particulate leaching method, and the structure and properties of the composite scaffolds were characterized. The measurements of the water contact angles suggest that the incorporation of either MBG or BG into PCL can improve the hydrophilicity of the composites, and the former is more effective than the later. The bioactivity of the composite scaffold is evaluated by soaking the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and the results show that the MBG/PCL composite scaffolds can induce a dense and continuous layer of apatite after soaking in SBF for 3 weeks, as compared with the scattered and discrete apatite particles on the BG/PCL composite scaffolds. Such improvements (improvements of the hydrophilicity and apatite forming ability) should be helpful for the extensive applications of PCL scaffold in tissue engineering. PMID:17600329

  18. Simulations reveal the role of composition into the atomic-level flexibility of bioactive glass cements.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kun Viviana; Chass, Gregory A; Di Tommaso, Devis

    2016-01-14

    Bioactive glass ionomer cements (GICs), the reaction product of a fluoro-alumino-silicate glass and polyacrylic acid, have been in effective use in dentistry for over 40 years and more recently in orthopaedics and medical implantation. Their desirable properties have affirmed GIC's place in the medical materials community, yet are limited to non-load bearing applications due to the brittle nature of the hardened composite cement, thought to arise from the glass component and the interfaces it forms. Towards helping resolve the fundamental bases of the mechanical shortcomings of GICs, we report the 1st ever computational models of a GIC-relevant component. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were employed to generate and characterise three fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses of differing compositions with focus on resolving the atomic scale structural and dynamic contributions of aluminium, phosphorous and fluorine. Analyses of the glasses revealed rising F-content leading to the expansion of the glass network, compression of Al-F bonding, angular constraint at Al-pivots, localisation of alumino-phosphates and increased fluorine diffusion. Together, these changes to the structure, speciation and dynamics with raised fluorine content impart an overall rigidifying effect on the glass network, and suggest a predisposition to atomic-level inflexibility, which could manifest in the ionomer cements they form.

  19. Simulations reveal the role of composition into the atomic-level flexibility of bioactive glass cements.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kun Viviana; Chass, Gregory A; Di Tommaso, Devis

    2016-01-14

    Bioactive glass ionomer cements (GICs), the reaction product of a fluoro-alumino-silicate glass and polyacrylic acid, have been in effective use in dentistry for over 40 years and more recently in orthopaedics and medical implantation. Their desirable properties have affirmed GIC's place in the medical materials community, yet are limited to non-load bearing applications due to the brittle nature of the hardened composite cement, thought to arise from the glass component and the interfaces it forms. Towards helping resolve the fundamental bases of the mechanical shortcomings of GICs, we report the 1st ever computational models of a GIC-relevant component. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were employed to generate and characterise three fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses of differing compositions with focus on resolving the atomic scale structural and dynamic contributions of aluminium, phosphorous and fluorine. Analyses of the glasses revealed rising F-content leading to the expansion of the glass network, compression of Al-F bonding, angular constraint at Al-pivots, localisation of alumino-phosphates and increased fluorine diffusion. Together, these changes to the structure, speciation and dynamics with raised fluorine content impart an overall rigidifying effect on the glass network, and suggest a predisposition to atomic-level inflexibility, which could manifest in the ionomer cements they form. PMID:26646505

  20. Combustion Synthesis of Glass-Ceramic Composites Under Terrestrial and Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manerbino, Anthony; Yi, H. C.; Guigne, J. Y.; Moore, J. J.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Glasses based on B2O3-Al2O3-BaO-and B2O3-Al2O3-MgO have been produced by the combustion synthesis technique. The combustion temperature, wave velocity for selected compositions are presented. Combustion reactions of these materials were typically low exothermic, resulting in unstable combustion waves. Microstructural characterization of these materials indicated that the glass formation region was similar to those that were produced by the traditional technique. Results of the effect of gravity on the glass formation (or divitrification) studied onboard of KC-135 is also presented.

  1. Raman spectra of Martian glass analogues: A tool to approximate their chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, Danilo; Kolzenburg, Stephan; Vona, Alessandro; Chevrel, Magdalena Oryaëlle; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Neuville, Daniel R.; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Romano, Claudia; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-05-01

    Raman spectrometers will form a key component of the analytical suite of future planetary rovers intended to investigate geological processes on Mars. In order to expand the applicability of these spectrometers and use them as analytical tools for the investigation of silicate glasses, a database correlating Raman spectra to glass composition is crucial. Here we investigate the effect of the chemical composition of reduced silicate glasses on their Raman spectra. A range of compositions was generated in a diffusion experiment between two distinct, iron-rich end-members (a basalt and a peralkaline rhyolite), which are representative of the anticipated compositions of Martian rocks. Our results show that for silica-poor (depolymerized) compositions the band intensity increases dramatically in the regions between 550-780 cm-1 and 820-980 cm-1. On the other hand, Raman spectra regions between 250-550 cm-1 and 1000-1250 cm-1 are well developed in silica-rich (highly polymerized) systems. Further, spectral intensity increases at ~965 cm-1 related to the high iron content of these glasses (~7-17 wt % of FeOtot). Based on the acquired Raman spectra and an ideal mixing equation between the two end-members we present an empirical parameterization that enables the estimation of the chemical compositions of silicate glasses within this range. The model is validated using external samples for which chemical composition and Raman spectra were characterized independently. Applications of this model range from microanalysis of dry and hydrous silicate glasses (e.g., melt inclusions) to in situ field investigations and studies under extreme conditions such as extraterrestrial (i.e., Mars) and submarine volcanic environments.

  2. Bioactivity of thermal plasma synthesized bovine hydroxyapatite/glass ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganand, C. P.; Selvarajan, V.; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Cannillo, Valeria; Sola, Antonella

    2010-02-01

    Bone injuries and failures often require the inception of implant biomaterials. Research in this area is receiving increasing attention worldwide. A variety of artificial bone materials, such as metals, polymeric materials, composites and ceramics, are being explored to replace diseased bones. Calcium phosphate ceramics are currently used as biomaterials for many applications in both dentistry and orthopedics. Bioactive silicate-based glasses show a higher bioactive behaviour than calcium phosphate materials. It is very interesting to study the mixtures of HA and silicate-based glasses. In the present study; natural bovine hydroxyapatite / SiO2-CaO-MgO glass composites were produced using the Transferred arc plasma (TAP) melting method. TAP melting route is a brisk process of preparation of glass-ceramics in which the raw materials are melted in the plasma and crystallization of the melt occurs while cooling down at a much faster rate in relatively short processing times compared to the conventional methods of manufacture of glass ceramics/composites. It is well known that; one essential step to the understanding of the biological events occurring at the bone tissue/material interface is the biological investigation by in vitro tests. Cell lines are commonly used for biocompatibility tests, and are very efficient because of their reproducibility and culture facility. In this study, we report the results of a study on the response of primary cultures of human fibroblast cells to TAP melted bioactive glass ceramics.

  3. The possibility of E-glass woven roving as reinforcement of GFRP composite sheet roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyanto, Djoko

    2016-03-01

    The 1.25 mm thickness of opaque glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite sheet roof that is produced by an Indonesia company at Tangerang, consists of two layers of 300 g/m2 E-glass chopped strand mat as reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as matrix. A layer of 300 g/m2 E-glass chopped strand mat is replaced by a layer of 400 g/m2 E-glass woven roving as reinforcement to study the possibility use as sheet roof material. The properties of the two samples of GFRP composite materials were compared. Barcol hardness and flexure strength of the two samples relatively not significance change. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of the new sample which contains a layer of woven roving reinforcement is greater than the other one. On the other hand the waviness of the new sample is greater, but cheaper. In general, a layer of E-glass woven roving and a layer of E-glass chopped strand mat can be considered as an alternative reinforcement of two layers reinforcement of GFRP composite material of sheet roof.

  4. Structure of a composite material based on oxyfluoride glass and low-melting fluoroplast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat'eva, L. N.; Savchenko, N. N.; Lalayan, V. M.; Zverev, G. A.; Usol'tseva, T. I.; Ustinov, A. Yu.; Shaulov, A. Yu.; Berlin, A. A.; Buznik, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Aspects of the fabrication of composites obtained via the extrusion formation of mixtures composed of a perfluorocarbon polymer (F2MB) and a thermoplastic inorganic glass of the composition 3B2O3-97(40SnF2-30SnO-30P2O5) are investigated by analyzing the results from studies of their morphology, molecular structure, and phase composition.

  5. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models: Results for the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.; Riley, W. T.; Best, D. R.

    2015-09-03

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  6. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support Enhanced Hanford Waste Glass Models. Results for the Augusta and October 2014 LAW Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.; Best, D. R.

    2015-07-07

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the August and October 2014 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  7. Characterization of glass-filled engineering thermoplastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.B.; Nease, A.B.; Yelton, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Characterization of three engineering thermoplastic (TP) materials has been carried out to assess suitability for Mound applications: Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK), Poly(etherimide) (PEI), and Poly(ethersulfone) (PES). Analyses included: thermogravimetric (TG), thermomechanical (TMA), direct probe/mass spectroscopy (DIP/MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and other chemical analyses. Both neat and glass-filled PEEK and PES were studied; only unfilled PEI was examined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the three TP's in N/sub 2/ showed that all were greater than or equal to 525/sup 0/C in decomposition onset temperature, with PEEK > PEI > PES. Both glass-filled PEEK and PEI showed <1% weight loss in the melt after two hours (N/sub 2/). TMA analyses were used to determine expansion coefficients below T/sub g/ for all three TP's. The glass-filled PEEK exhibited a low temperature (approx. 60 to 70/sup 0/C) transition below T/sub g/ (approx. 150/sup 0/C) on the first TMA runs. This disappeared on subsequent TMA runs and did not reappear on aging/RT. DIP/MS analyses showed both water and phenyl sulfone to be present in PES and PEEK. Water only was observed in PEI. The presence of phenylsulfone in PEEK was confirmed by FT-IR, and sulfur was found to be present in amounts up to 0.23% in 30% glass-filled molding compounds. Residual polymerization solvent is a probable source. Fluoride (from a monomer in the PEEK polymerization) was also detected.

  8. Fretting maps of glass fiber-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Turki, C.; Salvia, M.; Vincent, L.

    1993-12-31

    Industrial development of new materials are often limited due to an insufficient knowledge in their functional properties. The paper deals with fretting behavior of glass fiber reinforced epoxy/metal contacts. Fretting is a plague for all industries, especially in the case of quasi-static loadings. Furthermore friction testing under small displacements appeared well fitted to understand the effect of fiber orientations and to relate results to microstructure (fiber, matrix and interface).

  9. Kenaf-glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites: Tensile properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhafer, S. F.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Shahnaz, S. B. S.; Musa, L.; Zuliahani, A.

    2016-07-01

    The use of natural fibers in composite is rising in recent years due their lightweight, non-abrasive, combustible, non-toxic, low cost and biodegradable properties. However, in comparison with synthetic fibers, the mechanical properties of natural fibers are lower. Therefore, the inclusion of synthetic fibers could improve the mechanical performance of natural fiber based composites. In this study, kenaf bast fiber and glass fiber at different weight percentage loading were used as reinforcement to produce hybrid composites. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin was used as matrix and hand lay-up process was performed to apply the UP resin on the hybrid kenaf bast/glass fiber composite. Effect of different fiber loading on tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break of the hybrid composite was studied. It has been found that the highest value of tensile strength and modulus was achieved at 10 wt.% kenaf/10 wt.% glass fiber loading. It was concluded that addition of glass fiber has improved the tensile properties of kenaf bast fiber based UP composites.

  10. Glass composite waste forms for iodine confined in bismuth-embedded SBA-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to stabilize bismuth-embedded SBA-15 that captured iodine gas by fabrication of monolithic waste forms. The iodine containing waste was mixed with Bi2O3 (a stabilizing additive) and low-temperature sintering glass followed by pelletizing and the sintering process to produce glass composite materials. Iodine volatility during the sintering process was significantly affected by the ratio of Bi2O3 and the glass composition. It was confirmed that BiI3, the main iodine phase within bismuth-embedded SBA-15, was effectively transformed to the mixed phases of Bi5O7I and BiOI. The initial leaching rates of iodine from the glass composite waste forms ranged 10-3-10-2 g/m2 day, showing the stability of the iodine phases encapsulated by the glassy networks. It was also observed that common groundwater anions (e.g., chloride, carbonate, sulfite, and fluoride) elevated the iodine leaching rate by anion exchange reactions. The present results suggest that the glass composite waste form of bismuth-embedded SBA-15 could be a candidate material for stable storage of 129I.

  11. Energy dissipation and high-strain rate dynamic response of E-glass fiber composites with anchored carbon nanotubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study explores the mechanical properties of an E-glass fabric composite reinforced with anchored multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown on the E-glass fabric using a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition procedure. The E-glass fabric with attached CNTs was then incorpor...

  12. Recommended Minimum Test Requirements and Test Methods for Assessing Durability of Random-Glass-Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides recommended minimum test requirements are suggested test methods for establishing the durability properties and characteristics of candidate random-glass-fiber polymeric composites for automotive structural applications. The recommendations and suggestions are based on experience and results developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a US Department of Energy Advanced Automotive Materials project entitled ''Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures,'' which is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium. The report is intended as an aid to suppliers offering new structural composites for automotive applications and to testing organizations that are called on to characterize the composites.

  13. Effect of winding layer and speed on kenaf/glass fiber hybrid reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoni, Norizzahthul Ainaa Abdul; Sharifah Shahnaz S., B.; Ghazali, Che Mohd Ruzaidi

    2016-07-01

    The usage of natural fiber is becoming significant in composite industries due to their good performance. Single and continuous natural fibers have relatively high mechanical properties; especially their young modulus can be as high as glass fibers. Filament winding is a method to produce technically aligned composites which have high fibers content. The properties of filament winding can be tailored to meet the end product requirements. This research studied the compression properties of kenaf/glass fibers hybrid reinforced composites. Kenaf/glass fibers hybrid composite samples were fabricated by filament winding technique and their properties were compared with the properties of neat kenaf fiber and glass fibers composites. The kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites exhibited higher strength compared to the neat glass fibers composites. Composites of helical pattern, which produced at low winding speed showed better compression resistance than hoop pattern winding, which produced at high winding speed. As predicted, kenaf composite showed highest water absorption; followed by kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites while neat glass fiber has lowest water absorption capability.

  14. Composition-structure-properties relationship of strontium borate glasses for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad S; Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Boyd, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We have synthesized TiO2 doped strontium borate glasses, 70B2O3-(30-x)SrO-xTiO2 and 70B2 O3 -20SrO(10-x)Na2 O-xTiO2 . The composition dependence of glass structure, density, thermal properties, durability, and cytotoxicity of degradation products was studied. Digesting the glass in mineral acid and detecting the concentrations of various ions using an ICP provided the actual compositions that were 5-8% deviated from the theoretical values. The structure was investigated by means of (11)B magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. DSC analyses provided the thermal properties and the degradation rates were measured by measuring the weight loss of glass disc-samples in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C in vitro. Finally, the MTT assay was used to analyze the cytotoxicity of the degradation products. The structural analysis revealed that replacing TiO2 for SrO or Na2 O increased the BO3/BO4 ratio suggesting the network-forming role of TiO2 . Thermal properties, density, and degradation rates also followed the structural changes. Varying SrO content predominantly controlled the degradation rates, which in turn controlled the ion release kinetics. A reasonable control (2-25% mass loss in 21 days) over mass loss was achieved in current study. Even though, very high concentrations (up to 5500 ppm B, and 1200 ppm Sr) of ions were released from the ternary glass compositions that saturated the degradation media in 7 days, the degradation products from ternary glass system was found noncytotoxic. However, quaternary glasses demonstrated negative affect on cell viability due to very high (7000 ppm) Na ion concentration. All the glasses investigated in current study are deemed fast degrading with further control over degradation rates, release kinetics desirable.

  15. Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes observed in chalcogenide glasses of binary As-S system

    SciTech Connect

    Shpotyuk, M.; Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, Roman; McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.

    2014-01-23

    Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes in chalcogenide glasses are studied with the binary As-S system. Effects of γ-irradiation and annealing are compared using the changes measured in the fundamental optical absorption edge region. It is shown that annealing near the glass transition temperature leads to bleaching of As-S glasses, while γ-irradiation leads to darkening; both depend on the glass composition and thermal history of the specimens. These results are explained in terms of competitive destruction–polymerization transformations and physical aging occurring in As-S chalcogenide glasses under the influence of γ-irradiation.

  16. Alkaline composite PEO-PVA-glass-fibre-mat polymer electrolyte for Zn-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Lin, Sheng-Jen

    An alkaline composite PEO-PVA-glass-fibre-mat polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity (10 -2 S cm -1) at room temperature has been prepared and applied to solid-state primary Zn-air batteries. The electrolyte shows excellent mechanical strength. The electrochemical characteristics of the batteries were experimentally investigated by means of ac impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic discharge. The results indicate that the PEO-PVA-glass-fibre-mat composite polymer electrolyte is a promising candidate for application in alkaline primary Zn-air batteries.

  17. Method of producing a silicon carbide fiber reinforced strontium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A SrO-Al2O3-2SrO2 (SAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD SiC continuous fibers. This material is prepared by casting a slurry of SAS glass powder into tapes. Mats of continuous CVD-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with the matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite. Organic constituents are burned out of the 'green' composite, and the remaining interim material is hot pressed.

  18. Silicon carbide fiber reinforced strontium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A SrO-Al2O3 - 2SrO2 (SAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD SiC continuous fibers. This material is prepared by casting a slurry of SAS glass powder into tapes. Mats of continuous CVD-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with the matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite. Organic constituents are burned out of the 'green' composite, and the remaining interim material is hot pressed.

  19. EPR measurement of the effect of glass composition on the oxidation states of europium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Haskin, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the dependence of the concentration ratio of Eu(2+) to Eu(3+) on composition for silicate liquids whose compositional end members are CaAl2Si2O8 and MgSiO3, MG2SiO4, CaMgSi2O6, CaMgSiO4, CaSiO3, or Ca2SiO4. The liquids were quenched to produce glasses. An electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer was used to determine the concentration ratios of Eu(2+) to Eu(3+) in the glasses.

  20. Neutron detector using lithiated glass-scintillating particle composite

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven; Stephan, Andrew C.; Dai, Sheng; Im, Hee-Jung

    2009-09-01

    A neutron detector composed of a matrix of scintillating particles imbedded in a lithiated glass is disclosed. The neutron detector detects the neutrons by absorbing the neutron in the lithium-6 isotope which has been enriched from the natural isotopic ratio to a commercial ninety five percent. The utility of the detector is optimized by suitably selecting scintillating particle sizes in the range of the alpha and the triton. Nominal particle sizes are in the range of five to twenty five microns depending upon the specific scintillating particle selected.

  1. Ductilizing Bulk Metallic Glass Composite by Tailoring Stacking Fault Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhou, D. Q.; Song, W. L.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Ma, D.; Wang, X. L.; Lu, Z. P.

    2012-12-01

    Martensitic transformation was successfully introduced to bulk metallic glasses as the reinforcement micromechanism. In this Letter, it was found that the twinning property of the reinforcing crystals can be dramatically improved by reducing the stacking fault energy through microalloying, which effectively alters the electron charge density redistribution on the slipping plane. The enhanced twinning propensity promotes the martensitic transformation of the reinforcing austenite and, consequently, improves plastic stability and the macroscopic tensile ductility. In addition, a general rule to identify effective microalloying elements based on their electronegativity and atomic size was proposed.

  2. Mare glasses from Apollo 17 - Constraints on the moon's bulk composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two previously unreported varieties of mare volcanic glass have been discovered in Apollo 17 samples. Twenty-three chemical types of volcanic glass have now been analyzed from the six Apollo landing sites. These volcanic glasses, which may be samples of primary magmas derived from the differentiated lunar mantle, define two linear arrays that seem to reflect regional, if not global, regularities among the source regions of these melts. Additional systematics among these glasses have been used to estimate the bulk composition of the moon. The results suggest that the refractory lithophile elements are present at abundances of 1.7 x chondrites. The silicate portion of the moon appears to have a major-element composition similar to a volatile (Si, Na, K)-depleted, earth's upper mantle. The theory involving an earth-fission origin of the moon can be tested further through trace element analyses on the volcanic glasses, and through determination of the N/Ar-36 ratio and noble gas isotopes from primordial lunar gas trapped within vesicles associated with mare volcanic glass.

  3. Structural and compositional modification of a barium boroaluminosilicate glass surface by thermal poling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nicholas J.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2014-08-01

    In addition to inducing second-order nonlinear properties, significant structural and compositional alteration can be imparted to glass surfaces during the process of thermal poling. In this work, we focus on how thermal poling affects a structurally complex, nominally alkali-free boroaluminosilicate display glass composition. We provide evidence for electrolysis of the glass network, characterized by the migration of both cations (Ba2+, Na+) and anions (O-, F-) towards opposing electrode interfaces. This process results in oxidation of the positively biased electrode and forms a network-former rich, modifier-depleted glass surface layer adjacent to the anodic interface. The modified glass layer thickness is qualitatively correlated to the oxidation resistance of the electrode material, while extrinsic ions such as H+/H3O+ at not found in the depletion layer to compensate for the migration of modifier cations out of the region. Rather, FTIR spectroscopy suggests a local restructuring of the B2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 network species to accommodate the charge imbalance created by the exodus of network-modifying cations, specifically the conversion of tetrahedral B(4) to trigonal B(3) as Ba or Na ions are removed from B-related sites in the parent network. The resultant poling-induced depletion layer exhibits enhanced hydrolytic resistance under acidic conditions, and the IR spectra are substantially unlike those produced by acid leaching the same glass.

  4. Influence of Copolyester Composition on Adhesion to Soda-Lime Glass via Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ben; Hofmann, John; Pasquinelli, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    Copolyesters are a subset of polymers that have the desirable properties of strength and clarity while retaining chemical resistance, and are thus potential candidates for enhancing the impact resistance of soda-lime glass. Adhesion between the polymer and the glass relates to the impact performance of the system, as well as the longevity of the bond between the polymer and the glass under various conditions. Modifying the types of diols and diacids present in the copolyester provides a method for fine-tuning the physical properties of the polymer. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the influence of the chemical composition of the polymers on adhesion of polymer film laminates to two soda-lime glass surfaces, one tin-rich and one oxygen-rich. By calculating properties such as adhesion energies and contact angles, these results provide insights into how the polymer-glass interaction is impacted by the polymer composition, temperature, and other factors such as the presence of free volume or pi stacking. These results can be used to optimize the adhesion of copolyester films to glass surfaces.

  5. An esthetic glass-ceramic for use in composite restoration inserts.

    PubMed

    Bowen, R L; George, L A; Eichmiller, F C; Misra, D N

    1993-09-01

    The objective of the preliminary work reported here was to prepare an improved formulation of intrinsically colored microcrystalline glass-ceramic. Applications could include "megafillers" for direct composite restorations, precision castings, and CAD-CAM prostheses. The experimental glass-ceramic reported here contained SiO2 56.9, AI2O3 19, LiO2 7, ZnO 6, MgO 5, TiO22, ZrO22, P2O52, and CeO20.1 mole%. The batch materials were melted and stirred at 1,610 degrees C for 2 h, quenched in water and also formed into a block of a clear, slightly yellow glass. To identify the crystalline phases that developed during transformation of the glass to the ceramic, x-ray diffraction was used on ten aliquots taken during 15 h of stepwise heating from 750 to 1050 degrees C. With heating, the yellow color deepened to a very translucent "dark yellow" dental shade, then lightened with gradually increasing opacity during formation of secondary crystalline phases. X-ray opacity was approximately equivalent to that of dental enamel. The refractive index of the glass, nD1.554, increased during nucleation and growth of the crystalline phases to a maximum of 1.586. Intrinsic coloration of these glass-ceramic materials can be controlled by varying the heat treatment and/or composition to match typical dental shades.

  6. Effect of nanoparticulate bioactive glass particles on bioactivity and cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composites

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Superb K.; Ansari, Tahera; Mohn, Dirk; Valappil, Sabeel P.; Brunner, Tobias J.; Stark, Wendelin J.; Roy, Ipsita; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Sibbons, Paul D.; Jones, Eugenia Valsami; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Salih, Vehid

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of adding nanoparticulate (29 nm) bioactive glass particles on the bioactivity, degradation and in vitro cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) composites/nano-sized bioactive glass (n-BG). Two different concentrations (10 and 20 wt %) of nanoscale bioactive glass particles of 45S5 Bioglass composition were used to prepare composite films. Several techniques (Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray) were used to monitor their surface and bioreactivity over a 45-day period of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). All results suggested the P(3HB)/n-BG composites to be highly bioactive, confirmed by the formation of hydroxyapatite on material surfaces upon immersion in SBF. The weight loss and water uptake were found to increase on increasing bioactive glass content. Cytocompatibility study (cell proliferation, cell attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production) using human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in osteogenic and non-osteogenic medium showed that the composite substrates are suitable for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. PMID:19640877

  7. BASIC and the Density of Glass. A First-Year Laboratory/Computer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Arlo D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a first-year chemistry laboratory experiment which uses a simple computer program written in BASIC, to analyze data collected by students about the density of a set of marbles. A listing of the program is provided, along with a sample printout of the experiment's results. (TW)

  8. Survey of Potential Glass Compositions for the Immobilisation of the UK's Separated Plutonium Stocks

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Mike T.; Scales, Charlie R.; Bingham, Paul A.; Hand, Russell J.

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has taken over ownership of the majority of the UK's separated civil plutonium stocks, which are expected to exceed 100 metric tons by 2010. Studies to technically underpin options development for the disposition of these stocks, for example by immobilization or re-use as fuel, are being carried out by Nexia Solutions on behalf of NDA. Three classes of immobilization matrices have been selected for investigation by means of previous studies and stakeholder dialogue: ceramic or crystalline waste-forms, storage MOx, and vitreous or glass-based waste-forms. This paper describes the preliminary inactive experimental program for the vitrification option, with results from a wide range of glass compositions along with conclusions on their potential use for plutonium immobilization. Following review, four glass systems were selected for preliminary investigation: borosilicate, lanthanide borosilicate, aluminosilicate and phosphate glasses. A broad survey of glass properties was completed in order to allow meaningful evaluation, e.g. glass formulation, waste loading, chemical durability, thermal properties, and viscosity. The program was divided into two parts, with silicate and phosphate glasses being investigated by Nexia Solutions and the Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL) at the University of Sheffield respectively. (authors)

  9. Glass sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  10. Evaluating morphology and mechanical properties of glass-reinforced natural hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Z; Bahrololoom, M E; Hashemi, B

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite has been used in a wide variety of biomedical applications and it can be produced from natural resources such as bovine bone. This material does not have acceptable mechanical properties by itself. In the present work, hydroxyapatite composites with different weight percentages of sodalime glass were made and sintered at different temperatures (800-1200°C). Eventually the properties such as density, micro hardness, compressive strength and wear of specimens were evaluated. Specific percentages of glass additive increased the density and hardness of specimens due to increasing the sintering temperature. The hardness and density of specimens were decreased with higher percentage of glass additive. Moreover, the results of compressive test showed that increasing the glass addition increases the compressive performance. Furthermore, the SEM micrographs on worn specimens showed that the mechanism of wear was abrasive.

  11. Glass composition development for stabilization of lead based paints

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    Exposure to lead can lead to adverse health affects including permanent damage to the central nervous system. Common means of exposure to lead are from ingestion of lead paint chips or breathing of dust from deteriorating painted surfaces. The U.S. Army has over 101 million square feet of buildings dating to World War II or earlier. Many of these structures were built before the 1978 ban on lead based paints. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CERL is developing technologies to remove and stabilize lead containing organic coatings. Promising results have been achieved using a patented flame spray process that utilizes a glass frit to stabilize the hazardous constituents. When the glass frit is sprayed onto the paint containing substrate, differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the frit and the paint results in spalling of the paint from the substrate surface. The removed fragments are then collected and remelted to stabilize the hazardous constituents and allow for disposal as non-hazardous waste. Similar successful results using a patented process involving microwave technology for paint removal have also been achieved. In this process, the painted surface is coated with a microwave coupling compound that when exposed to microwave energy results in the spalling of the hazardous paint from the surface. The fragments can again be accumulated and remelted for stabilization and disposal.

  12. Low beryllium content Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite with plasticity and work hardenability

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn; Du, J. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn

    2014-01-28

    A modified Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite Zr{sub 47.67}Cu{sub 40}Ti{sub 3.66}Ni{sub 2.66}Be{sub 6} has been produced by increasing the contents of elements of Zr and Cu with higher Poisson ratio and reducing the contents of Ti, Ni, and Be elements with lower Poisson ratio based on famous metallic glass former Vitreloy 1. A compressive yielding strength of 1804 MPa, fracture strength of 1938 MPa and 3.5% plastic strain was obtained for obtained metallic glass composite. Also, work-hardening behavior was observed during compressive experiment which was ascribed to the interaction of the in situ precipitated CuZr phase and shear bands.

  13. A novel processing route for carbon nanotube reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Bonnefont, Guillaume; Fantozzi, Gilbert; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2015-03-01

    The current study reports the establishment of a novel feasible way for processing glass- and ceramic- matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The technique is based on high shear compaction of glass/ceramic and CNT blends in the presence of polymeric binders for the production of flexible green bodies which are subsequently sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering. The method was successfully applied on a borosilicate glass / multi-wall CNT composite with final density identical to that of the full-dense ceramic. Preliminary non-destructive evaluation of dynamic mechanical properties such as Young's and shear modulus and Poisson's ratio by ultrasonics show that property improvement maximizes up to a certain CNT loading; after this threshold is exceeded, properties degrade with further loading increase.

  14. Low beryllium content Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite with plasticity and work hardenability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Q.; Du, J.

    2014-01-01

    A modified Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite Zr47.67Cu40Ti3.66Ni2.66Be6 has been produced by increasing the contents of elements of Zr and Cu with higher Poisson ratio and reducing the contents of Ti, Ni, and Be elements with lower Poisson ratio based on famous metallic glass former Vitreloy 1. A compressive yielding strength of 1804 MPa, fracture strength of 1938 MPa and 3.5% plastic strain was obtained for obtained metallic glass composite. Also, work-hardening behavior was observed during compressive experiment which was ascribed to the interaction of the in situ precipitated CuZr phase and shear bands.

  15. Mechanochemically synthesized kalsilite based bioactive glass-ceramic composite for dental vaneering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pattem Hemanth; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Kalsilite glass-ceramic composites have been prepared by a mechanochemical synthesis process for dental veneering application. The aim of the present study is to prepare bioactive kalsilite composite material for application in tissue attachment and sealing of the marginal gap between fixed prosthesis and tooth. Mechanochemical synthesis is used for the preparation of microfine kalsilite glass-ceramic. Low temperature frit and bioglass have been prepared using the traditional quench method. Thermal, microstructural and bioactive properties of the composite material have been examined. The feasibility of the kalsilite to be coated on the base commercial opaque as well as the bioactive behavior of the coated specimen has been confirmed. This study indicates that the prepared kalsilite-based composites show similar structural, morphological and bioactive behavior to that of commercial VITA VMK95 Dentin 1M2.

  16. Silicate and borate glasses as composite fillers: a bioactivity and biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, P P; Ferreira, B J M Leite; Gomes, P S; Correia, R N; Fernandes, M H; Fernandes, M H V

    2011-06-01

    Composites filled with a silicate glass (CSi) and a new borate glass (CB) were developed and compared in terms of their in vitro behaviour both in acellular and cellular media. Acellular tests were carried out in SBF and the composites were characterized by SEM-EDS, XRD and ICP. Biocompatibility studies were investigated by in vitro cell culture with MG-63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. The growth of spherical calcium phosphate aggregates was observed in acellular medium on all composite surfaces indicating that these materials became potentially bioactive. The biological assessment resulted in a dissimilar behavior of the composites. The CSi demonstrated an inductive effect on the proliferation of cells. The cells showed a normal morphology and high growth rate when compared to standard culture plates. Contrarily, inhibition of cell proliferation occurred in the CB probably due to its high degradation rate, leading to high B and Mg ionic concentration in the cell culture medium.

  17. Tensile behavior of glass/ceramic composite materials at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, J. F.; Grande, D. H.; Jacobs, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the tensile behavior of high-temperature composite materials containing continuous Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforcement and glass and glass/ceramic matrices. The longitudinal properties of these materials can approach theoretical expectations for brittle matrix composites, failing at a strength and ultimate strain level consistent with those of the fibers. The brittle, high-modulus matrices result in a nonlinear stress-strain curve due to the onset of stable matrix cracking at 10 to 30 percent of the fiber strain to failure, and at strains below this range in off-axis plies. Current fibers and matrices can provide attractive properties well above 1000 C, but composites experience embrittlement in oxidizing atmospheres at 800 to 1000 C due to oxidation of a carbon interface reaction layer.The oxidation effect greatly increases the interface bond strength, causing composite embrittlement.

  18. TL behavior of topaz-glass composite in various irradiation fields.

    PubMed

    Sardar, M; Souza, D N; Tufail, M; Caldas, Linda V E; Antonio, P L; Carvalho, A B

    2013-08-01

    Topaz is a natural hard silicate mineral that has the potential to be used as a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). It is difficult to manufacture chips of topaz and problematic to use its powder as TLDs. Topaz-glass composite (in the form of pellets) can be made easily and applied for radiation dosimetry. To produce pellets of topaz-glass composite in 2:1 wt (%), topaz powder was combined with commercial glass. The pellets with 6 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness were sintered in a furnace at 900°C for 1 h. The composite pellets were irradiated with x-ray and gamma photons and alpha and beta particles. The pellets yielded two peaks in the glow curve; Peak 1 at temperature range 150-160°C and Peak 2 at 250-260°C. The intensity of Peak 2 rose linearly with the increase in absorbed dose. The intensity of Peak 2 was comparable with peaks for photons and beta irradiation but relatively low for alpha exposure. The reproducibility of the intensity of Peak 2 was within 5-8%. Two months after irradiation of the pellets, the fading of the intensity of Peak 2 was found to be about 7%. The topaz-glass composite can be used effectively and efficiently for dosimetry of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

  19. TL behavior of topaz-glass composite in various irradiation fields.

    PubMed

    Sardar, M; Souza, D N; Tufail, M; Caldas, Linda V E; Antonio, P L; Carvalho, A B

    2013-08-01

    Topaz is a natural hard silicate mineral that has the potential to be used as a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). It is difficult to manufacture chips of topaz and problematic to use its powder as TLDs. Topaz-glass composite (in the form of pellets) can be made easily and applied for radiation dosimetry. To produce pellets of topaz-glass composite in 2:1 wt (%), topaz powder was combined with commercial glass. The pellets with 6 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness were sintered in a furnace at 900°C for 1 h. The composite pellets were irradiated with x-ray and gamma photons and alpha and beta particles. The pellets yielded two peaks in the glow curve; Peak 1 at temperature range 150-160°C and Peak 2 at 250-260°C. The intensity of Peak 2 rose linearly with the increase in absorbed dose. The intensity of Peak 2 was comparable with peaks for photons and beta irradiation but relatively low for alpha exposure. The reproducibility of the intensity of Peak 2 was within 5-8%. Two months after irradiation of the pellets, the fading of the intensity of Peak 2 was found to be about 7%. The topaz-glass composite can be used effectively and efficiently for dosimetry of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. PMID:23799499

  20. Fluorescent protein senses and reports mechanical damage in glass-fiber-reinforced polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Makyła, Katarzyna; Müller, Christoph; Lörcher, Samuel; Winkler, Thomas; Nussbaumer, Martin G; Eder, Michaela; Bruns, Nico

    2013-05-21

    Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) is used as a mechanoresponsive layer at the fiber/resin interface in glass-fiber-reinforced composites. The protein loses its fluorescence when subjected to mechanical stress. Within the material, it reports interfacial shear debonding and barely visible impact damage by a transition from a fluorescent to a non-fluorescent state. PMID:23423911

  1. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

  2. Composite Laminate With Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Matching D263 Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Rodini, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory project seeks to make an X-ray telescope assembly with 14,000 flexible glass segments. The glass used is commercially available SCHOTT D263 glass. Thermal expansion causes the mirror to distort out of alignment. A housing material is needed that has a matching coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) so that when temperatures change in the X-ray mirror assembly, the glass and housing pieces expand equally, thus reducing or eliminating distortion. Desirable characteristics of this material include a high stiffness/weight ratio, and low density. Some metal alloys show promise in matching the CTE of D263 glass, but their density is high compared to aluminum, and their stiffness/weight ratio is not favorable. A laminate made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) should provide more favorable characteristics, but there has not been any made with the CTE matching D263 Glass. It is common to create CFRP laminates of various CTEs by stacking layers of prepreg material at various angles. However, the CTE of D263 glass is 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which is quite high, and actually unachievable solely with carbon fiber and resin. A composite laminate has been developed that has a coefficient of thermal expansion identical to that of SCHOTT D263 glass. The laminate is made of a combination of T300 carbon fiber, Eglass, and RS3C resin. The laminate has 50% uni-T300 plies and 50% uni-E-glass plies, with each fiber-layer type laid up in a quasi-isotropic laminate for a total of 16 plies. The fiber volume (percent of fiber compared to the resin) controls the CTE to a great extent. Tests have confirmed that a fiber volume around 48% gives a CTE of 6.3 ppm/ C. This is a fairly simple composite laminate, following well established industry procedures. The unique feature of this laminate is a somewhat unusual combination of carbon fiber with E-glass (fiberglass). The advantage is that the resulting CTE comes out to 6.3 ppm/ C at 20 C, which matches D

  3. Polylactic acid-phosphate glass composite foams as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, G; Mathieu, L; Pioletti, D P; Bourban, P-E; Månson, J-A E; Knowles, J C; Nazhat, S N

    2007-02-01

    Phosphate glass (PG) of the composition 0.46(CaO)-0.04(Na(2)O)-0.5(P(2)O(5)) was used as filler in poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) foams developed as degradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The effect of PG on PLA was assessed both in bulk and porous composite foams. Composites with various PG content (0, 5, 10, and 20 wt %) were melt-extruded, and either compression-molded or foamed through supercritical CO(2). Dynamic mechanical analysis on the bulk composites showed that incorporating 20 wt % PG resulted in a significant increase in storage modulus. Aging studies in deionized water in terms of weight loss, pH change, and ion release inferred that the degradation was due to PG dissolution, and dependent on the amount of glass in the composites. Foaming was only possible for composites containing 5 and 10 wt % PG, as an increase in PG increased the foam densities; however, the level of porosity was maintained above 75%. PLA-T(g) in the foams was higher than those obtained for the bulk. Compressive moduli showed no significant reinforcement with glass incorporation in either expansion direction, indicating no anisotropy. Biocompatibility showed that proliferation of human fetal bone cells was more rapid for PLA compared to PLA-PG foams. However, the proliferation rate of PLA-PG foams were similar to those obtained for foams of PLA with either hydroxyapatite or beta-tricalcium phosphate.

  4. Fatigue limits for composite restorations with and without glass ionomer cement liners.

    PubMed

    Assis, Claudine Pereira; Moyses, Marcos Ribeiro; Teixeira, Hercilia Marburg; Ribeiro, Jose Carlos Rabelo; Ribeiro, Joao Gustavo Rabelo; Dias, Sergio Candido

    2009-01-01

    This laboratory study compared the flexural endurance limits of clinical combinations of dental composite with and without glass ionomer cement (GIC) liners. Using only composite (Filtek Z350), specimens (10 mm long x 2 mm wide x 2 mm thick) in the control group were produced. Two GICs (Vitremer and Vitrebond) were used with the composite to prepare the test groups. Flexural strength and flexural fatigue limit (FFL) tests were performed. The FFL was determined using the staircase method. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. There was a significant difference in flexural strength values between the composite-only specimens and those produced by composite and GIC (p < 0.05). No statistical difference was observed in the flexural strength values between composite with Vitremer and composite with Vitrebond (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were detected in FFL values between composite with Vitremer and composite with Vitrebond; in addition, the mean value of the composite-only specimens differed statistically from those of both composite with Vitremer and composite with Vitrebond (p < 0.05). The FFL was lower than the flexural strength, indicating a decrease in flexural strength of 45 to 50%. Using GICs with composite decreased the mechanical properties (FFL and flexural strength) of the composite.

  5. Composition dependence of the glass forming ability in binary mixtures: The role of demixing entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Ujjwal Kumar; Banerjee, Atreyee; Chakrabarty, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra

    2016-07-01

    We present a comparative study of the glass forming ability of binary systems with varying composition, where the systems have similar global crystalline structure (CsCl+fcc). Biased Monte Carlo simulations using umbrella sampling technique show that the free energy cost to create a CsCl nucleus increases as the composition of the smaller particles is decreased. We find that systems with comparatively lower free energy cost to form CsCl nucleus exhibit more pronounced pre-crystalline demixing near the liquid/crystal interface. The structural frustration between the CsCl and fcc crystal demands this demixing. We show that closer to the equimolar mixture, the entropic penalty for demixing is lower and a glass forming system may crystallize when seeded with a nucleus. This entropic penalty as a function of composition shows a non-monotonic behaviour with a maximum at a composition similar to the well known Kob-Anderson (KA) model. Although the KA model shows the maximum entropic penalty and thus maximum frustration against CsCl formation, it also shows a strong tendency towards crystallization into fcc lattice of the larger "A" particles which can be explained from the study of the energetics. Thus for systems closer to the equimolar mixture although it is the requirement of demixing which provides their stability against crystallization, for KA model it is not demixing but slow dynamics and the presence of the "B" particles make it a good glass former. The locally favoured structure around "B" particles is quite similar to the CsCl structure and the incompatibility of CsCl and fcc hinders the fcc structure growth in the KA model. Although the glass forming binary systems studied here are quite similar, differing only in composition, we find that their glass forming ability cannot be attributed to a single phenomenon.

  6. Woven graphite epoxy composite test specimens with glass buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnar, G. R.; Palmer, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Woven unidirectional graphite cloth with bands of fiberglass replacing the graphite in discrete lengthwise locations was impregnated with epoxy resin and used to fabricate a series of composite tensile and shear specimens. The finished panels, with the fiberglass buffer strips, were tested. Details of the fabrication process are reported.

  7. Thorium abundances on the aristarchus plateau: Insights into the composition of the aristarchus pyroclastic glass deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagerty, J.J.; Lawrence, D.J.; Hawke, B.R.; Gaddis, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thorium (Th) data from the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer (LP-GRS) are used to constrain the composition of lunar pyroclastic glass deposits on top of the Aristarchus plateau. Our goal is to use forward modeling of LP-GRS Th data to measure the Th abundances on the plateau and then to determine if the elevated Th abundances on the plateau are associated with the pyroclastic deposits or with thorium-rich ejecta from Aristarchus crater. We use a variety of remote sensing data to show that there is a large, homogenous portion of the pyroclastics on the plateau that has seen little or no contamination from the Th-rich ejecta of Aristarchus crater. Our results show that the uncontaminated pyroclastic glasses on Aristarchus plateau have an average Th content of 6.7 ppm and ???7 wt % TiO2. These Th and Ti values are consistent with Th-rich, intermediate-Ti yellow glasses from the lunar sample suite. On the basis of this information, we use petrologic equations and interelement correlations for the Moon to estimate the composition of the source region from which the Aristarchus glasses were derived. We find that the source region for the Aristarchus glasses contained high abundances of heat-producing elements, which most likely served as a thermal driver for the prolonged volcanic activity in this region of the Moon. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Li, J. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, B. X.

    2015-01-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an amorphization driving force (ADF) for each possible glassy alloy located within the GFR. The calculations predict an optimized sub-region nearby a stoichiometry of Al80Ni5Y15, implying that the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses designed in the sub-region could be the most stable. Interestingly, the atomistic predictions are supported by experimental results observed in the Al-Ni-Y system. In addition, structural origin underlying the stability of the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses is also discussed in terms of a hybrid packing mode in the medium-range scale. PMID:26592568

  9. [Research on bending strength and fracture toughness of alumina-glass composite].

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Zhao, Y; Tian, J; Chao, Y; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y

    1998-12-01

    To develop a new ceramic material that can be machined and infiltrated with glass, a porous alumina blank sintered at 1350 degrees C was made of high purity, super fine alpha-alumina and then infiltrated with glass in this study. The density, bending strength and fracture toughness of the partially sintered alumina and alumina-glass composite were determined. The results indicated that the porous alumina density was 2.12 g/cm3, the three point bending strength 102 MPa, the fracture toughness 1.61 MPam1/2; that the alumina-glass composite density was 3.85 g/cm3, the three point bending strength 385 MPa, and the fracture toughness 4.05 MPam1/2. By SEM and EDXA analysis, lanthanum boroslicate glass was completely infiltrated into the 3 mm thick porous alumina blank for 6 h at 1150 degrees C. These suggest that the new developed alumina blank is suited for clinical use. PMID:10743233

  10. Composition, production and procurement of glass at San Vincenzo Al Volturno: an early Medieval monastic complex in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Schibille, Nadine; Freestone, Ian C

    2013-01-01

    136 glasses from the ninth-century monastery of San Vincenzo and its workshops have been analysed by electron microprobe in order to situate the assemblage within the first millennium CE glass making tradition. The majority of the glass compositions can be paralleled by Roman glass from the first to third centuries, with very few samples consistent with later compositional groups. Colours for trailed decoration on vessels, for vessel bodies and for sheet glass for windows were largely produced by melting the glass tesserae from old Roman mosaics. Some weakly-coloured transparent glass was obtained by re-melting Roman window glass, while some was produced by melting and mixing of tesserae, excluding the strongly coloured cobalt blues. Our data suggest that to feed the needs of the glass workshop, the bulk of the glass was removed as tesserae and windows from a large Roman building. This is consistent with a historical account according to which the granite columns of the monastic church were spolia from a Roman temple in the region. The purported shortage of natron from Egypt does not appear to explain the dependency of San Vincenzo on old Roman glass. Rather, the absence of contemporary primary glass may reflect the downturn in long-distance trade in the later first millennium C.E., and the role of patronage in the "ritual economy" founded upon donations and gift-giving of the time. PMID:24146876

  11. Composition, production and procurement of glass at San Vincenzo Al Volturno: an early Medieval monastic complex in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Schibille, Nadine; Freestone, Ian C

    2013-01-01

    136 glasses from the ninth-century monastery of San Vincenzo and its workshops have been analysed by electron microprobe in order to situate the assemblage within the first millennium CE glass making tradition. The majority of the glass compositions can be paralleled by Roman glass from the first to third centuries, with very few samples consistent with later compositional groups. Colours for trailed decoration on vessels, for vessel bodies and for sheet glass for windows were largely produced by melting the glass tesserae from old Roman mosaics. Some weakly-coloured transparent glass was obtained by re-melting Roman window glass, while some was produced by melting and mixing of tesserae, excluding the strongly coloured cobalt blues. Our data suggest that to feed the needs of the glass workshop, the bulk of the glass was removed as tesserae and windows from a large Roman building. This is consistent with a historical account according to which the granite columns of the monastic church were spolia from a Roman temple in the region. The purported shortage of natron from Egypt does not appear to explain the dependency of San Vincenzo on old Roman glass. Rather, the absence of contemporary primary glass may reflect the downturn in long-distance trade in the later first millennium C.E., and the role of patronage in the "ritual economy" founded upon donations and gift-giving of the time.

  12. Composition, Production and Procurement of Glass at San Vincenzo al Volturno: An Early Medieval Monastic Complex in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Schibille, Nadine; Freestone, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    136 glasses from the ninth-century monastery of San Vincenzo and its workshops have been analysed by electron microprobe in order to situate the assemblage within the first millennium CE glass making tradition. The majority of the glass compositions can be paralleled by Roman glass from the first to third centuries, with very few samples consistent with later compositional groups. Colours for trailed decoration on vessels, for vessel bodies and for sheet glass for windows were largely produced by melting the glass tesserae from old Roman mosaics. Some weakly-coloured transparent glass was obtained by re-melting Roman window glass, while some was produced by melting and mixing of tesserae, excluding the strongly coloured cobalt blues. Our data suggest that to feed the needs of the glass workshop, the bulk of the glass was removed as tesserae and windows from a large Roman building. This is consistent with a historical account according to which the granite columns of the monastic church were spolia from a Roman temple in the region. The purported shortage of natron from Egypt does not appear to explain the dependency of San Vincenzo on old Roman glass. Rather, the absence of contemporary primary glass may reflect the downturn in long-distance trade in the later first millennium C.E., and the role of patronage in the “ritual economy” founded upon donations and gift-giving of the time. PMID:24146876

  13. New bioactive glass-ceramic: synthesis and application in PMMA bone cement composites.

    PubMed

    Abd Samad, Hamizah; Jaafar, Mariatti; Othman, Radzali; Kawashita, Masakazu; Abdul Razak, Noor Hayati

    2011-01-01

    In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.

  14. New bioactive glass-ceramic: synthesis and application in PMMA bone cement composites.

    PubMed

    Abd Samad, Hamizah; Jaafar, Mariatti; Othman, Radzali; Kawashita, Masakazu; Abdul Razak, Noor Hayati

    2011-01-01

    In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test. PMID:22182792

  15. Strongly Composition-Dependent Partial Molar Compressibility of Water in Silicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, A. G.; Richet, P.; Polian, A.

    2010-12-01

    Water and other volatiles have long been known to play a fundamental role in igneous processes, yet their influence on the physical properties of melts are still not well enough understood. Of particular interest is the density contrast between liquid and solid phases, which facilitates melt extraction and migration. Owing to its low molecular weight, dissolved water must decrease magma density, but the way it does so as a function of pressure remains largely to be determined. Studies on quenched melts (glasses) provide useful information because the glass has the same structure as the melt. We measured compressional and shear wave velocities of seven series of hydrous aluminosilicate glasses by Brillouin scattering at room temperature and pressure. The glasses were quenched from high temperature and 2 or 3 kbar pressure. The dry end-members range from highly polymerized albitic and granitic compositions, to depolymerized synthetic analogues of mantle-derived melts. For each set of glasses, the adiabatic shear and bulk moduli have been calculated from the measured sound velocities and densities. These moduli are linear functions of water content up to 5 wt % H2O, the highest concentration investigated, indicating that both are independent of water speciation in all series. For water-free glasses, the bulk modulus decreases from about 65 to 35 GPa with increasing degree of polymerization. Sympathetically, the partial molar bulk modulus of the water component decreases from 114 to 8 GPa, such that dissolved water amplifies the differences in rigidity between the anhydrous glasses. This strong variation indicates that the solubility mechanisms of water depend strongly on silicate composition. Depolymerized liquids are also much less compressible than their polymerized counterparts, suggesting that the partial molar compressibility of dissolved water approaches zero in depolymerized liquids. If this is correct, hydrous mantle melts formed beneath volcanic arcs would be

  16. Microstructure Evolution of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite During Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Li, J. S.; Wang, J.; Kou, H. C.

    2015-02-01

    The deformation behavior of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 bulk metallic glass composite at room temperature was investigated by uniaxial compression tests. The results indicate that the composite exhibits excellent compressive properties at ambient temperature with high fracture strength (about 2425 MPa) and outstanding plasticity (about 23%). All the true stress-strain curves of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 display work-hardening effect with the same tendency which decreases with the increase of the strain. The dendrite morphology almost does not change before yielding, and there are only a few shear bands in the bulk metallic glass composite after yielding. More interestingly, the plastic deformation of dendrites can be observed evidently. Before fracture, the plastic deformation of dendrite becomes more severe, and the dendrite is stretched and more shear bands appear in the composite. Combined with the fracture surface, it can be concluded that the large step shape area, plastic dimple fracture, and shear bands are the evidences of an excellent plasticity in Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 bulk metallic glass composite.

  17. Long-Term Viscoelastic Response of E-glass/Bismaleimide Composite in Seawater Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yian, Zhao; Zhiying, Wang; Keey, Seah Leong; Boay, Chai Gin

    2015-12-01

    The effect of seawater absorption on the long-term viscoelastic response of E-glass/BMI composite is presented in this paper. The diffusion of seawater into the composite shows a two-stage behavior, dominated by Fickian diffusion initially and followed by polymeric relaxation. The Glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composite with seawater absorption is considerably lowered due to the plasticization effect. However the effect of water absorption at 50 °C is found to be reversible after drying process. The time-temperature superposition (TTS) was performed based on the results of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis to construct the master curve of storage modulus. The shift factors exhibit Arrhenius behavior when temperature is well below Tg and Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) like behavior when temperature gets close to glass transition region. As a result, a semi-empirical formulation is proposed to account for the seawater absorption effect in predicting long-term viscoelastic response of BMI composites based on temperature dependent storage modulus and TTS. The predicted master curves show that the degradation of storage modulus accelerates with both seawater exposure and increasing temperature. The proposed formulation can be applied to predict the long-term durability of any thermorheologically simple composite materials in seawater environment.

  18. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P2O5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  19. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-05

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO{sub 2} 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  20. Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Labrini; Koidis, Petros; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M.

    2011-01-15

    Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

  1. Effect of loading rate on tensile properties and failure behavior of glass fibre/epoxy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahato, K. K.; Biswal, M.; Rathore, D. K.; Prusty, R. K.; Dutta, K.; Ray, B. C.

    2016-02-01

    Fibre reinforced polymeric (FRP) composite materials are subjected to different range of loading rates during their service life. Present investigation is focused on to study the effects of variation of loading rates on mechanical behavior and various dominating failure modes of these potential materials when subjected to tensile loading. The results revealed that on the variation of loading rates the ultimate tensile strength varies but the tensile modulus is mostly unaffected. Furthermore, the strain to failure is also increasing with increase in loading rates. Different failure patterns of glass/epoxy composite tested at 1, 10,100, 500 and 1000 mm/min loading rates are identified. Scanning electron micrographs shows various dominating failures modes in the glass/epoxy composite.

  2. Interlaminar Fracture toughness in Glass-Cellulose Reinforced Epoxy hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uppin, Vinayak S.; Ashok; AnanthJoshi; Sridhar, I.; Shivakumar Gouda, P. S.

    2016-09-01

    Laminates of fibre reinforced compositesare weak in through thicknessbut strong in fibre direction, this lead to development of hybridizationconcept in polymer composites. In this work a new method of disperssing cellulose micro particleson unidirectional (UD) Glass fibre epoxy composite using semi-automated draw down coating technique was adopted to enhance fracture toughness.Test results show that by adding cellulose increases the load carrying competency by 32% in mode-I as compare to Glass- Epoxy composite samples. Imrovement in interlaminar critical energy release rates (GiC and GnC) up to 55% in Mode -I and 19 %in Mode -II respectively was also observed. This enahancement in fracture toughnees is due to the amount of fiber bridging seen during crack initiation and propagation.

  3. Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.

  4. Antibacterial and bioactive composite bone cements containing surface silver-doped glass particles.

    PubMed

    Miola, Marta; Fucale, Giacomo; Maina, Giovanni; Verné, Enrica

    2015-09-01

    A bioactive silica-based glass powder (SBA2) was doped with silver (Ag(+)) ions by means of an ion-exchange process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced that the glass powder was enriched with Ag(+) ions. However, a small amount of Ag2CO3 precipitated with increased Ag concentrations in the exchange solution. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Ag-SBA2 towards Staphylococcus aureus were also evaluated and were respectively 0.05 mg ml(-1) and 0.2 mg ml(-1). Subsequently, Ag-SBA2 glass was used as filler (30%wt) in a commercial formulation of bone cement (Simplex(™) P) in order to impart both antibacterial and bioactive properties. The composite bone cement was investigated in terms of morphology (using SEM) and composition (using EDS); the glass powder was well dispersed and exposed on the cement surface. Bioactivity tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) evidenced the precipitation of hydroxyapatite on sample surfaces. Composite cement demonstrated antibacterial properties and a compressive strength comparable to the commercial formulation.

  5. Shape dependence of nonlinear optical behaviors of nanostructured silver and their silica gel glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Chan; Du Yuhong; Feng Miao; Zhan Hongbing

    2008-10-06

    Nanostructured Ag in shapes of nanoplate, nanowire, and nanoparticle, as well as their silica gel glass composites have been prepared and characterized. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were measured at 532 and 1064 nm using open aperture z-scan technique and studied from the view of shape effect. NLO behaviors of the nanostructured Ag are found to be shape dependent in suspensions at both the investigated wavelengths, although they originate differently. Comparing to the mother suspensions, the Ag/silica gel glass nanocomposites present rather dissimilar NLO behaviors, which is quite interesting for further studies.

  6. Mechanical, degradation and cytocompatibility properties of magnesium coated phosphate glass fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoling; Hasan, Muhammad S; Grant, David M; Harper, Lee T; Parsons, Andrew J; Palmer, Graham; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2014-11-01

    Retention of mechanical properties of phosphate glass fibre reinforced degradable polyesters such as polycaprolactone and polylactic acid in aqueous media has been shown to be strongly influenced by the integrity of the fibre/polymer interface. A previous study utilising 'single fibre' fragmentation tests found that coating with magnesium improved the fibre and matrix interfacial shear strength. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a magnesium coating on the manufacture and characterisation of a random chopped fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composite. Short chopped strand non-woven phosphate glass fibre mats were sputter coated with degradable magnesium to manufacture phosphate glass fibre/polycaprolactone composites. The degradation behaviour (water uptake, mass loss and pH change of the media) of these polycaprolactone composites as well as of pure polycaprolactone was investigated in phosphate buffered saline. The Mg coated fibre reinforced composites revealed less water uptake and mass loss during degradation compared to the non-coated composites. The cations released were also explored and a lower ion release profile for all three cations investigated (namely Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) was seen for the Mg coated composite samples. An increase of 17% in tensile strength and 47% in tensile modulus was obtained for the Mg coated composite samples. Both flexural and tensile properties were investigated and a higher retention of mechanical properties was obtained for the Mg coated fibre reinforced composite samples up to 10 days immersion in PBS. Cytocompatibility study showed both composite samples (coated and non-coated) had good cytocompatibility with human osteosarcoma cell line.

  7. Thermodynamic calculation and interatomic potential to predict the favored composition region for the Cu-Zr-Al metallic glass formation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y Y; Wang, T L; Li, J H; Dai, Y; Liu, B X

    2011-03-01

    For the Cu-Zr-Al system, the glass forming compositions were firstly calculated based on the extended Miedema's model, suggesting that the amorphous phase could be thermodynamically favored over a large composition region. An n-body potential was then constructed under the smoothed and long-range second-moment-approximation of tight-binding formulism. Applying the constructed Cu-Zr-Al potential, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted using solid solution models to compare relative stability of crystalline solid solution versus its disordered counterpart. Simulations reveal that the physical origin of metallic glass formation is crystalline lattice collapsing while solute concentration exceeding the critical value, thus predicting a hexagonal composition region, within which the Cu-Zr-Al ternary metallic glass formation is energetically favored. The molecular dynamics simulations predicted composition region is defined as the quantitative glass-forming-ability or glass-forming-region of the Cu-Zr-Al system. PMID:21229150

  8. Effect of Polymer Form and its Consolidation on Mechanical Properties and Quality of Glass/PBT Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai Prabhakaran, R. T.; Pillai, Saju; Charca, Samuel; Oshkovr, Simin Ataollahi; Knudsen, Hans; Andersen, Tom Løgstrup; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Lilholt, Hans

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the role of the processing in determining the mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced polybutylene terephthalate composites (Glass/PBT). Unidirectional (UD) composite laminates were manufactured by the vacuum consolidation technique using three different material systems included in this study; Glass/CBT (CBT160 powder based resin), Glass/PBT (prepreg tapes), and Glass/PBT (commingled yarns). The different types of thermoplastic polymer resin systems used for the manufacturing of the composite UD laminate dictate the differences in final mechanical properties which were evaluated by through compression, flexural and short beam transverse bending tests. Microscopy was used to evaluate the quality of the processed laminates, and fractography was used to characterize the observed failure modes. The study provides an improved understanding of the relationships between processing methods, resin characteristics, and mechanical performance of thermoplastic resin composite materials.

  9. Structure, phases, and mechanical response of Ti-alloy bioactive glass composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G M; Nychka, J A; McDonald, A G

    2014-03-01

    Porous titanium alloy-bioactive glass composite coatings were manufactured via the flame spray deposition process. The porous coatings, targeted for orthodontic and bone-fixation applications, were made from bioactive glass (45S5) powder blended with either commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) or Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder. Two sets of spray conditions, two metallic particle size distributions, and two glass particle size distributions were used for this study. Negative control coatings consisting of pure Ti-6Al-4V alloy or Cp-Ti were sprayed under both conditions. The as-sprayed coatings were characterized through quantitative optical cross-sectional metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ASTM Standard C633 tensile adhesion testing. Determination of the porosity and glassy phase distribution was achieved by using image analysis in accordance with ASTM Standard E2109. Theoretical thermodynamic and heat transfer modeling was conducted to explain experimental observations. Thermodynamic modeling was performed to estimate the flame temperature and chemical environment for each spray condition and a lumped capacitance heat transfer model was developed to estimate the temperatures attained by each particle. These models were used to establish trends among the choice of alloy, spray condition, and particle size distribution. The deposition parameters, alloy composition, and alteration of the feedstock powder size distribution had a significant effect on the coating microstructure, porosity, phases present, mechanical response, and theoretical particle temperatures that were attained. The most promising coatings were the Ti-6Al-4V-based composite coatings, which had bond strength of 20±2MPa (n=5) and received reinforcement and strengthening from the inclusion of a glassy phase. It was shown that the use of the Ti-6Al-4V-bioactive glass composite coatings may be a superior choice due to the possible osteoproductivity from the bioactive glass, the potential ability to

  10. Research on Tribological Behavior of PEEK and Glass Fiber Reinforced PEEK Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, E. Z.; Guo, W. L.; Wang, H. D.; Xu, B. S.; Liu, X. T.

    The tribological behaviors of pure polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and PEEK composites reinforced by 30wt% short glass fibers (GF) were comparatively evaluated on a ball-on-disc configuration at room temperature. The effects of applied load and sliding time on the friction coefficient and wear loss of the GF/PEEK were examined. The mechanical property, morphology and thermal performance of the composite were studied. The results indicated that the friction coefficient and wear loss of the composite increased gradually and tended to be a stable state as the increase of applied load and sliding time. The GF/PEEK has an excellent wear resistance, compared with PEEK. The SEM and EDS indicated that the short glass-fibers were extruded from the composite rather than pulverized into the composite. Compared with that of pure PEEK, the thermal decomposition temperature of GF/PEEK composite had an increase of 75 °C. The tensile strength and flexural strength of the composite were increased by 64% and 66%, respectively.

  11. The effects of environmental aging on the durability of glass/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajorncheappunngam, Somjai

    1999-11-01

    Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) are beginning to be used as structural materials in construction. However, their mechanical properties can degrade after prolonged exposure to the environment. Understanding this degradation was the focus of this research. Epoxy neat resin and glass/epoxy composite samples were soaked in four different solutions (distilled water, saturated salt solution, 5 M NaOH, and 1 M HCl solution) for 5 months. The samples were also subjected to a combination of temperature and sustained load at room temperature and at 60°C. The glass transition temperature (Tg), storage modulus, tensile strength, and strain at failure were measured. The fracture surface of samples used in the tensile test were examined using a SEM. Results showed that immersion in aging media lowers Tg and enhances apparent phase separation in the samples due to polymer plasticization. At the elevated temperature, the Tg and the stiffness increased owing to continued resin curing. Sustained load, at the level used, had little effect on the mechanical behavior of the aged samples. At room temperature, water had the greatest influence in reducing the stiffness of epoxy neat resin samples. Combined effect of elevated temperature and sustained load caused an increase in Tg and a gain in stiffness in both epoxy neat resin and composite samples. This result is attributed more to the effect of temperature rather than to the effect of sustained load. At room temperature, glass/epoxy composite samples soaked in acid solution showed the highest reduction in tensile strength; this failure was the result of fiber damage. Other composite samples soaked in water and alkali were found to fail by adhesive failure mode. At 60°C, alkali was found to be the most damaging solution to glass/epoxy composite samples in terms of tensile strength. Here the composite samples failed under fiber failure mode while the composite samples soaked in water and acid solution failed under adhesive

  12. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT01, KT02, KT03, AND KT04-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-01

    Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT01 and KT02-series of glasses were chosen to allow for the identification of the influence of the concentrations of major components of the glass on the retention of TiO{sub 2}. The KT03 series of glasses was chosen to allow for the identification of these influences when higher Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZrO{sub 2} concentrations are included along with TiO2. The KT04 series of glasses was chosen to investigate the properties and performance of glasses based on the best available projections of actual compositions to be processed at the DWPF (i.e., future sludge batches including the SCIX streams).

  13. Compositional dependence of optical band gap and refractive index in lead and bismuth borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mallur, Saisudha B.; Czarnecki, Tyler; Adhikari, Ashish; Babu, Panakkattu K.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Refractive indices increase with increasing PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. • Optical band gap arises due to direct forbidden transition. • Optical band gaps decrease with increasing PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. • New empirical relation between the optical band gap and the refractive index. - Abstract: We prepared a series of lead and bismuth borate glasses by varying PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and studied refractive index and optical band gap as a function of glass composition. Refractive indices were measured very accurately using a Brewster’s angle set up while the optical band gaps were determined by analyzing the optical absorption edge using the Mott–Davis model. Using the Lorentz–Lorentz method and the effective medium theory, we calculated the refractive indices and then compared them with the measured values. Bismuth borate glasses show better agreement between the calculated values of the refractive index and experimental values. We used a differential method based on Mott–Davis model to obtain the type of transition and optical band gap (E{sub opt}) which in turn was compared with the value of E{sub opt} obtained using the extinction coefficient. Our analysis shows that in both lead and bismuth borate glasses, the optical band gap arises due to direct forbidden transition. With increasing PbO/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, the absorption edge shifts toward longer wavelengths and the optical band gap decreases. This behavior can be explained in terms of changes to the Pb−O/Bi−O chemical bonds with glass composition. We obtained a new empirical relation between the optical band gap and the refractive index which can be used to accurately determine the electronic oxide polarizability in lead and bismuth oxide glasses.

  14. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-04-26

    This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally

  15. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Gomes, M. E.; Chiellini, F.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomäki, M.; Chiellini, E.; Reis, R. L.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ɛ-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 °C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 °C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 °C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  16. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomaeki, M.; Ashammakhi, N.; Gomes, M. E.; Reis, R. L.; Chiellini, F.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-02-15

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-{epsilon}-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 deg. C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 deg. C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 deg. C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  17. Hypoxia-mimicking bioactive glass/collagen glycosaminoglycan composite scaffolds to enhance angiogenesis and bone repair.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Elaine; Partap, Sonia; Azevedo, Maria M; Jell, Gavin; Stevens, Molly M; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2015-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges in regenerative medicine is promoting sufficient vascularisation of tissue-engineered constructs. One approach to overcome this challenge is to target the cellular hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) pathway, which responds to low oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and results in the activation of numerous pro-angiogenic genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Cobalt ions are known to mimic hypoxia by artificially stabilising the HIF-1α transcription factor. Here, resorbable bioactive glass particles (38 μm and 100 μm) with cobalt ions incorporated into the glass network were used to create bioactive glass/collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds optimised for bone tissue engineering. Inclusion of the bioactive glass improved the compressive modulus of the resulting composite scaffolds while maintaining high degrees of porosity (>97%). Moreover, in vitro analysis demonstrated that the incorporation of cobalt bioactive glass with a mean particle size of 100 μm significantly enhanced the production and expression of VEGF in endothelial cells, and cobalt bioactive glass/collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold conditioned media also promoted enhanced tubule formation. Furthermore, our results prove the ability of these scaffolds to support osteoblast cell proliferation and osteogenesis in all bioactive glass/collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds irrespective of the particle size. In summary, we have developed a hypoxia-mimicking tissue-engineered scaffold with pro-angiogenic and pro-osteogenic capabilities that may encourage bone tissue regeneration and overcome the problem of inadequate vascularisation of grafts commonly seen in the field of tissue engineering.

  18. Glass composition development for plasma processing of Hanford high sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    To assess the acceptability of prospective compositions, response criteria based on durability, homogeneity, viscosity and volatility were defined. Response variables were weighted: durability 35%, homogeneity 25%, viscosity 25%, volatility 15%. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to define the first twelve glass formulations. Glass former additives included Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, ZrO2 and SiO2. Lithia was added to facilitate fritting of the additives. The additives were normalized to silica content to ease experimental matrix definition and glass formulation. Preset high and low values of these ratios were determined for the initial twelve melts. Based on rankings of initial compositions, new formulations for testing were developed based on a simplex algorithm. Rating and ranking of subsequent compositions continued until no apparent improvement in glass quality was achieved in newly developed formulations. An optimized composition was determined by averaging the additive component values of the final best performing compositions. The glass former contents to form the optimized glass were: 16.1 wt % Al2O3, 12.3 wt % B2O3, 5.5 wt % CaO, 1.7 wt % Li2O, 3.3 wt % ZrO2, 61.1 wt % SiO2. An optimized composition resulted after only 25 trials despite studying six glass additives. A vitrification campaign was completed using a small-scale Joule heated melter. 80 lbs of glass was produced over 96 hours of continuous operation. Several salt compounds formed and deposited on melter components during the run and likely caused the failure of several pour chamber heaters. In an attempt to minimize sodium volatility, several low or no boron glasses were formulated. One composition containing no boron produced a homogeneous glass worthy of additional testing.

  19. Biological Alteration of Basaltic Glass With Altered Composition and Oxidation States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B. E.; Staudigel, H.; Templeton, A.; Tebo, B. M.; Ryerson, F.; Plank, T.; Schroder, C.; Klingelhoefer, G.

    2004-12-01

    of glass, and compared these results to the types of enrichment cultures found and the composition and oxidation state of the synthetic and natural glasses. We will present preliminary results on culturing, molecular structure and experimental approach in exposure experiments and glass preparation.

  20. Research and Practice on Basic Composition and Cultivation Pattern of College Students' Innovative Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Zhenhui; Chen, Hanlin

    2010-01-01

    Facing the increasingly fierce international competition, it has been the core of higher education to explore how to cultivate college students with innovative ability. College students' innovative ability is mainly composed of basic ability, innovative thinking and innovative actions. In conformity to the above composition, the cultivation…

  1. Hygrothermal expansion of Kevlar 49/epoxy and S2-glass/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, S.Y.; Hahn, H.T.

    1982-11-01

    Ply failure occurred during preconditioning at 75/sup 0/C of (0/90)/sub 2S/ S2-glass/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy laminates. Wet specimens showed different thermal expansion beavior near and above the glass transition temperature. Various available theories can be used to predict the thermal expansion coefficients. Stress analysis showed that the compressive normal stress at the interface in Kevlar 49/epoxy after cure is very small compared with those in other composites. Significant and rapid changes in the transverse coefficient of thermal expansion occurs in the T/sub g/ region. The two-phase diffusion model is a good representation of the diffusion behavior. Desorption process reveals a higher diffusion coefficient than absorption. S2-glass/epoxy was found to be unstable under the conditions applied, with cracking and losses during desorption. Maximum moisture contents were approx. 0.31% at 75/sup 0/C/75% RH and approx. 0.412% at 75/sup 0/C/water. The composite swelled transversely up to about 0.11 and 0.16%. Kevlar 49/epoxy was more stable than S2-glass/epoxy; max moisture contents were approx. 2.47% at 75/sup 0/C/75% RH and approx. 5.5% at 75/sup 0/C/water. The composite swelled transversely up to 1.0 and 2.23%. Results indicate that Kevlar 49 fibers swell radially. Relation between swelling strain and moisture content undergoes hysteresis during moisture cycling. Relation between swelling strain and moisture concentration is fairly linear for S2-glass/epoxy, Kevlar 49/epoxy and AS 3501/5 graphite/epoxy and only weakly depends on the material system. The equilibrium moisture content in (+-45)/sub 2S/ laminate is higher than in unidirectional lamina. The equilibrium thickness swelling strain can be predicted by laminated plate theory.

  2. Sintered glass ceramic composites from vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes.

    PubMed

    Aloisi, Mirko; Karamanov, Alexander; Taglieri, Giuliana; Ferrante, Fabiola; Pelino, Mario

    2006-09-01

    A glass ceramic composite was obtained by sinter-crystallisation of vitrified municipal solid waste bottom ashes with the addition of various percentages of alumina waste. The sintering was investigated by differential dilatometry and the crystallisation of the glass particles by differential thermal analysis. The crystalline phases produced by the thermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The sintering process was found to be affected by the alumina addition and inhibited by the beginning of the crystal-phase precipitation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fractured sintered samples to observe the effect of the sintering. Young's modulus and the mechanical strength of the sintered glass ceramic and composites were determined at different heating rates. The application of high heating rate and the addition of alumina powder improved the mechanical properties. Compared to the sintered glass ceramic without additives, the bending strength and the Young's modulus obtained at 20 degrees C/min, increased by about 20% and 30%, respectively. PMID:16730889

  3. The Preparation and Characterization of INTEC Phase 2b Composition Variation Study Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Staples; B. A. Scholes; L. L. Torres; C. A. Musick; B. R. Boyle; D. K. Peeler; J. D. Vienna

    2000-02-01

    The second phase of the composition variation study (CVS) for the development of glass compositions to immobilize Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) high level wastes (HLW) is complete. This phase of the CVS addressed waste composition of high activity waste fractions (HAW) from the initial separations flowsheet. Updated estimates if INTEC calcined HLW compositions and of high activity waste fractions proposed to be separated from dissolved calcine were used as the waste component for this CVS phase. These wastes are of particular interest because high aluminum, calcium, zirconium, fluorine, potassium, and low iron and sodium content places them outside the vitrification experience in the Department of Energy complex. Because of the presence of calcium and fluorine, two major zirconia calcine components not addressed in Phase I, a series of scooping tests, designated Phase 2a, were performed. The results of these tests provided information on the effects of calcium and fluoride solubility and their impacts on product properties and composition boundary information for Phase 2b. Details and results of Phase 2a are reported separately. Through application of statistical techniques and the results of Phase 2a, a test matrix was defined for Phase 2b of the CVS. From this matrix, formulations were systematically selected for preparation and characterization with respect to visual and optical homogeneity, viscosity as a function of melt temperature, liquidus temperature (TL), and leaching properties based on response to the product consistency test. The results of preparing and characterizing the Phase 2b glasses are presented in this document. Based on the results, several formulations investigated have suitable properties for further development. A full analysis of the composition-product characteristic relationship of glasses being developed for immobilizing INTEC wastes will be performed at the completion of composition-property relationship

  4. Interphase formation and environmental degradation in glass fiber/vinyl ester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorowara, Rajeev Lochan

    2002-09-01

    Interphase formation mechanisms are identified, modeled, and correlated with degradation in glass fiber/thermoset polymer composites. This work focused on the effects of glass-fiber-surface coatings (sizings) in free-radical polymerizing vinyl ester/styrene resin. Prior research focused on silane coupling agents, which comprise only 10% of typical commercial sizing formulations. Well-defined models of commercial multi-component glass fiber sizings were formulated and applied to E-glass fibers in a manner consistent with commercial production. Sized fiber were chemically analyzed before and after extraction with acetone, a solubility model for the resin. Solution FTIR, HPLC-MALLS and fiber XPS determined quantity and quality of physically- and chemically-adsorbed layers. In these systems, thermodynamic equilibrium dominates interphase formation and structure, not a diffusion-gradient mechanism. Interphase environmental degradation (durability) was characterized by Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS) strength retention after hygrothermal exposure at 80°C, in unidirectional multi-fiber composites. Durability decreased with increasing amount of sizing inert relative to the matrix. Some sizing effects became less distinguished as the matrix degraded. Single fiber-microdroplet testing measuring interfacial shear strength showed similar results. Nonreactive species in the interphase would reduce the final interphase network crosslink density and reduce the durability of the interphase. Species partitioning between the bulk and interphase are described using a multi-component model for polymer chemical potential with a complex non-linear solution. A critical aspect considered is the elastic response of the swollen bound phase. It was found that predicted interphase concentrations were very sensitive to the crosslink density of the bound sizing layer, Mc, which describes the sizing structure. Other physical properties are calculated from the interphase species concentration

  5. Magnesium coated phosphate glass fibers for unidirectional reinforcement of polycaprolactone composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoling; Grant, David M; Palmer, Graham; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2015-10-01

    Bioresorbable composites have shown much potential for bone repair applications, as they have the ability to degrade completely over time and their degradation and mechanical properties can be tailored to suit the end application. In this study, phosphate glass fiber (from the system 45% P2 O5-16% CaO-24% MgO-11% Na2 O-4% Fe2 O3 (given in mol%)) were used to reinforce polycaprolactone (PCL) with approximately 20% fiber volume fraction. The glass fiber surfaces were coated with magnesium (Mg) through magnetron sputtering to improve the fiber-matrix interfacial properties. The Mg coating provided a rough fiber surface (roughness (Ra) of about 44nm). Both noncoated and Mg-coated fiber-reinforced composites were assessed. The water uptake and mass loss properties for the composites were assessed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C for up to 28 days, and ion release profiles were also investigated in both water and PBS media. Inhibition of media influx was observed for the Mg-coated composites. The composite mechanical properties were characterized on the basis of both tensile and flexural tests and their retention in PBS media at 37°C was also investigated. A higher retention of the mechanical properties was observed for the Mg-coated composites over the 28 days degradation period.

  6. In vitro microleakage of glass-ionomer composite resin hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J A; De Magalhães, C S; Serra, M C; Rodrigues Júnior, A L

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of six glass-ionomer composite resin hybrid materials compared with a glass-ionomer cement and a composite resin. Standardized class 5 dentin cavities were prepared on root surfaces of 240 extracted human teeth that were randomly assigned to eight groups and restored using the following restorative systems: (I) Vitremer, (II) Compoglass, (III) Photac-Fil Aplicap, (IV) Variglass, (V) Dyract, (VI) Fuji II LC, (VII) Ketac-Fil Aplicap, and (VIII) Z100. The teeth were thermocycled, placed in a 2% methylene blue solution, and sectioned with diamond disks. Dye penetration was scored on a scale of 0-3. Results showed no significant differences among groups VIII, IV, I, V, VI, III, and II. There were also no significant differences among groups VI, III, II, and VII.

  7. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Li, J. S.; Wang, J.; Kou, H. C.

    2015-06-01

    The tensile deformation behavior of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 bulk metallic glass composite at ambient temperature was investigated by uniaxial tensile tests. All stress-strain curves of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 demonstrated work hardening and work softening during deformation. Many shear bands were generated during deformation. In parallel, the dendrite of Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 underwent severe plastic deformation. Shear bands turned into microcracks during tensile deformation. By observing the fracture surface, the fractograph showed only a ductile dimple fracture pattern. Therefore, the excellent plasticity of the Ti50Zr20Nb12Cu5Be13 bulk metallic glass composite was due to the formation of plastic dimple fracture and many shear bands during tensile deformation.

  8. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  9. Effect of temperature on the dynamic characteristics of the glass-carbon fiber hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Yon Afif; Susilo, Didik Djoko; Raharjo, Wijang W.

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of temperature on the dynamic characteristics of hybrid composites. Hybrid composites consisting of unsaturated polyester resin and glass fiber reinforced with carbon fiber. The volume fraction used in this study was 0.4. The hybrid composite was made using hand lay-up technique. The dynamic characteristics were obtained through vibration testing. The testing was conducted according to ASTM E756. The variables studied were composite without heating, heating at 100 °C, 200 °C and 280 °C. The experiments were done in three mounting configurations, i.e. upright, downward and horizontal configurations. The natural frequency and damping ratio was determined using half-power bandwidth method. The results showed that heating of composite structure affects the natural frequency and damping ratio of the hybrid composite. Heating until 100 °C will increase the natural frequency of the hybrid composite and decrease the damping ratio, but heating at the temperature above 100 °C will decrease the natural frequency and will damage the hybrid composite structure. The composite mounting configurations do not give significant effect to natural frequency and damping ratio of the hybrid composites.

  10. Investigating the Role of Compositionally-Diverse Glasses in Interpreting Martian Chemistry and Mineralogy as Viewed by TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minitti, M. E.; Wyatt, M. B.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2006-12-01

    Mineralogy and chemistry of the Martian surface are derived from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data by linear deconvolution using a spectral library containing the infrared spectra of a variety of phases [e.g. 1]. Obtaining successful results relies on utilization of a spectral library containing an accurate representation of the phases measured on the Martian surface. In order to explore the influence of a variety of glass compositions on the deconvolution of TES spectra, we synthesized five pristine glasses, obtained their thermal infrared spectra and conducted preliminary TES spectral deconvolutions using a spectral library containing the new glass spectra. The five new glasses have compositions relevant to Martian igneous processes. One basalt has a high-FeO, low-Al2O 3 composition linked to several Martian meteorites [refs in 3]. A second basalt is based on the Deccan Trap basalt that serves as a spectral analog to the TES Surface Type 1 (ST1) spectrum [2]. Similarly, one andesite is based on the Medicine Lake andesite that serves as a spectral analog to the TES Surface Type 2 (ST2) spectrum [2]. A second andesite represents the interstitial melt composition resulting from 90% crystallization of an anhydrous Martian meteorite basalt (described above) [3]. A dacitic glass represents the interstitial melt composition resulting from 80% crystallization of a hydrous Martian meteorite basalt [3]. Each glass was fused in either Pt or AgPd tubing vacuum sealed in SiO2 glass tubing for 72-96 hours. We collected thermal infrared spectra of the ≥500 μm fraction of the glasses at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology with a ThermoElectron Nexus 470 FTIR interferometric spectrometer in thermal emission mode [4]. We obtained data from 200-4000 cm-1 at 2 cm-1 spectral sampling. Preliminary deconvolutions of ST1 and ST2 spectra indicate that the newly synthesized glasses may represent significant components in the Martian surface. ST1 and ST2 are

  11. Numerical simulation of toughening of alumina particulate glass matrix composite by interfacial precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kageyama, K.; Enoki, M.; Kishi, T.

    1994-12-31

    Strengthening and toughening by interfacial precipitation are strongly connected with crack bowing and deflection. In the present study, three dimensional numerical simulation of these events was performed on ceramics particulate glass matrix composites with interfacial precipitation by calculating the equations for a crack bowing and deflection. This numerical simulation revealed that fracture toughness and strength increased with the addition of interfacial precipitation because a crack bowing emerged. These results are in agreement with experimental data for fracture toughness.

  12. Tomographic Imaging of Glass/Epoxy Composite with a Laser Based Ultrasonics Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, N.; Raghuram, V.; Munshi, P.; Kishore, N. N.; Arnold, W.

    2008-09-26

    The present work is an attempt to augment the classical laser-based-ultrasonics setup for tomographic imaging purposes. A Glass/epoxy composite with steel insert is the test specimen and time-of-flight data has been used for tomographic reconstruction. Multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique is used for this limited-view experiment. The resulting image is able to bring out the strong metal features.

  13. Osmium Isotope and Highly Siderophile Element Compositions of Lunar Orange and Green Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.; Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The absolute and relative abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) present in planetary mantles are primarily controlled by: 1) silicate-metal partitioning during core-mantle differentiation, 2) the subsequent addition of HSE to mantles via continued planetary accretion. Consequently, constraints on the absolute and relative abundances of the HSE in the lunar mantle will provide unique insights to the formation and late accretionary history of not only the Moon, but also Earth. Determining the HSE content of the lunar mantle, however, has proven difficult, because no bona fide mantle rocks have been collected from the moon. The only materials presently available for constraining mantle abundances are lunar volcanic rocks. Lunar basalts typically have very low concentrations of HSE and highly fractionated HSE patterns. Because of our extremely limited understanding of mantle melt partitioning of the HSE, even for terrestrial systems, extrapolations to mantle compositions from basaltic compositions are difficult, except possibly for the less compatible HSE Pt and Pd. Primitive, presumably less fractionated materials, such as picritic glasses are potentially more diagnostic of the lunar interior. Here we report Os isotopic composition data and Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd concentration data for green glass (15426,164) and orange glass (74001,1217). As with previous studies utilizing neutron activation analysis, we are examining different size fractions of the spherules to assess the role of surface condensation in the generation of the HSE abundances.

  14. Monitoring Fiber Stress During Curing of Single Fiber Glass- and Graphite-Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhukar, Madhu S.; Kosuri, Ranga P.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    The difference in thermal expansion characteristics of epoxy matrices and graphite fibers can produce significant residual stresses in the fibers during curing of composite materials. Tests on single fiber glass-epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite specimens were conducted in which the glass and graphite fibers were preloaded in tension, and the epoxy matrix was cast around the fibers. The fiber tension was monitored while the matrix was placed around the fiber and subjected to the temperature-time curing cycle. Two mechanisms responsible for producing stress in embedded fibers were identified as matrix thermal expansion and contraction and matrix cure shrinkage. A simple analysis based on the change in fiber tension during the curing cycle was conducted to estimate the produced stresses. Experimental results on single fiber glass- and graphite-epoxy composites show that the fiber was subjected to significant tensile stresses when the temperature was raised from the first to the second dwell period. When initial fiber pretension is about 60 percent of the fiber failure load, these curing-induced stresses can cause tensile fracture of the embedded fiber.

  15. A glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection.

    PubMed

    Posti, Jussi P; Piitulainen, Jaakko M; Hupa, Leena; Fagerlund, Susanne; Frantzén, Janek; Aitasalo, Kalle M J; Vuorinen, Ville; Serlo, Willy; Syrjänen, Stina; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-03-01

    This case study describes the properties of an early development stage bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite calvarial implant with histology that has been in function for two years and three months. The patient is a 33-year old woman with a history of substance abuse, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury later unsuccessfully treated with an autologous bone flap and a custom-made porous polyethylene implant. She was thereafter treated with developmental stage glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass implant. After two years and three months, the implant was removed due to an implant site infection. The implant was analyzed histologically, mechanically, and in terms of chemistry and dissolution of bioactive glass. Mechanical integrity of the load bearing fiber-reinforced composite part of the implant was not affected by the in vivo period. Bioactive glass particles demonstrated surface layers of hydroxyapatite like mineral and dissolution, and related increase of pH was considerably less after two and three months period than that for fresh bioactive glass. There was a difference in the histology of the tissues inside the implant areas near to the margin of the implant that absorbed blood during implant installation surgery, showed fibrous tissue with blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagenous fibers with osteoid formation, and tiny clusters of more mature hard tissue. In the center of the implant, where there was less absorbed blood, only fibrous tissue was observed. This finding is in line with the combined positron emission tomography - computed tomography examination with (18F)-fluoride marker, which demonstrated activity of the mineralizing bone by osteoblasts especially at the area near to the margin of the implant 10 months after implantation. Based on these promising reactions found in the bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite implant that has been implanted for two years and three months, calvarial

  16. A glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection.

    PubMed

    Posti, Jussi P; Piitulainen, Jaakko M; Hupa, Leena; Fagerlund, Susanne; Frantzén, Janek; Aitasalo, Kalle M J; Vuorinen, Ville; Serlo, Willy; Syrjänen, Stina; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-03-01

    This case study describes the properties of an early development stage bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite calvarial implant with histology that has been in function for two years and three months. The patient is a 33-year old woman with a history of substance abuse, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury later unsuccessfully treated with an autologous bone flap and a custom-made porous polyethylene implant. She was thereafter treated with developmental stage glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass implant. After two years and three months, the implant was removed due to an implant site infection. The implant was analyzed histologically, mechanically, and in terms of chemistry and dissolution of bioactive glass. Mechanical integrity of the load bearing fiber-reinforced composite part of the implant was not affected by the in vivo period. Bioactive glass particles demonstrated surface layers of hydroxyapatite like mineral and dissolution, and related increase of pH was considerably less after two and three months period than that for fresh bioactive glass. There was a difference in the histology of the tissues inside the implant areas near to the margin of the implant that absorbed blood during implant installation surgery, showed fibrous tissue with blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagenous fibers with osteoid formation, and tiny clusters of more mature hard tissue. In the center of the implant, where there was less absorbed blood, only fibrous tissue was observed. This finding is in line with the combined positron emission tomography - computed tomography examination with (18F)-fluoride marker, which demonstrated activity of the mineralizing bone by osteoblasts especially at the area near to the margin of the implant 10 months after implantation. Based on these promising reactions found in the bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite implant that has been implanted for two years and three months, calvarial

  17. Relations among nonbridging oxygen, optical properties, optical basicity, and color center formation in CaO-MgO aluminosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Novatski, A.; Steimacher, A.; Medina, A. N.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Lima, S. M.; Guyot, Y.; Boulon, G.

    2008-11-01

    In this study the relations among nonbridging oxygen (NBO), optical properties, optical basicity, and color center formation in CaO-MgO aluminosilicate glasses were studied. Samples containing (in mol %) 35.9-57.5 of CaO, 16-27.7 of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 7.9-41.6 of SiO{sub 2}, and 6.5-6.9 of MgO were measured by optical absorption and excitation, luminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that when the SiO{sub 2} content was increased, the absorption edge shifted toward lower wavelengths and the bonds between O{sup 2-} ions and cations became more covalent. These observations were confirmed by Raman results that showed a decrease in the number of NBO per silicon tetrahedron as a function of SiO{sub 2} content. The results indicate that the effects of higher NBO concentration are the narrowing of the band gap energy and the delocalization of O{sup 2-} electrons, which facilitates the O{sup 2-} electrons to be trapped by anion vacancies and, consequently, forming color centers. The relationship between color center formation and SiO{sub 2} content was confirmed by optical spectroscopic measurements under UV radiation.

  18. Composition mediated serration dynamics in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Qiao, J. W. E-mail: mwchen@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.jp; Wang, B. C.; Xu, B. S.; Tian, H.; Sun, B. A.; Chen, M. W. E-mail: mwchen@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-11-16

    The composition mediated serration dynamics in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is investigated by statistics analyses of the elastic-energy density, and free volumes during shear-banding are beneficial to understand serrated-flow behavior. The amplitude and elastic-energy density display a gradually increasing and then decreasing trend with increasing the content of Zr. It is based on the free-volume theory describing the atomic-level structure of ternary Zr-Cu-Al BMGs. The good agreement between the molecular dynamics simulation and experimental results provides evidence for the variation of free volumes as the elementary mechanism of composition mediated serration dynamics.

  19. Modeling deformation behavior of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, S.; Liu, G.; Wang, G.; Das, J.; Kim, K. B.; Kühn, U.; Kim, D. H.; Eckert, J.

    2009-09-01

    In the present work we prepared an in situ Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 bulk metallic glass matrix composite derived from the shape memory alloy CuZr. We use a strength model, which considers percolation and a three-microstructural-element body approach, to understand the effect of the crystalline phase on the yield stress and the fracture strain under compressive loading, respectively. The intrinsic work-hardenability due to the martensitic transformation of the crystalline phase causes significant work hardening also of the composite material.

  20. Highly conductive electrolyte composites containing glass and ceramic, and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hash, M.C.; Bloom, I.D.

    1992-10-13

    An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of sodium ion conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800--1200 C), for example 1000 C, than are typically required (1400 C) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250 C with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4[times]10[sup [minus]2](ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250 to 300 C. 1 figure.

  1. Application of a Fiber Optic Distributed Strain Sensor System to Woven E-Glass Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Lopatin, Craig

    2001-01-01

    A distributed strain sensing system utilizing a series of identically written Bragg gratings along an optical fiber is examined for potential application to Composite Armored Vehicle health monitoring. A vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process was used to fabricate a woven fabric E-glass/composite panel with an embedded fiber optic strain sensor. Test samples machined from the panel were mechanically tested in 4-point bending. Experimental results are presented that show the mechanical strain from foil strain gages comparing well to optical strain from the embedded sensors. Also, it was found that the distributed strain along the sample length was consistent with the loading configuration.

  2. An update on glass fiber dental restorative composites: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Samad; Azam, Maria Tahir; Khan, Maria; Mian, Salman Aziz; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham

    2015-02-01

    Dentistry is a much developed field in the last few decades. New techniques have changed the conventional treatment methods as applications of new dental materials give better outcomes. The current century has suddenly forced on dentistry, a new paradigm regarding expected standards for state-of-the-art patient care. Within the field of restorative dentistry, the incredible advances in dental materials research have led to the current availability of esthetic adhesive restorations. The chemistry and structure of the resins and the nature of the glass fiber reinforced systems in dental composites are reviewed in relation to their influence and properties including mechanical, physical, thermal, biocompatibility, technique sensitivity, mode and rate of failure of restorations on clinical application. It is clear that a deeper understanding of the structure of the polymeric matrix and resin-based dental composite is required. As a result of ongoing research in the area of glass fiber reinforced composites and with the development and advancement of these composites, the future prospects of resin-based composite are encouraging.

  3. Effect of woven glass fibre reinforcement on the flexural strength of composites.

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, T G; du Preez, I C; Lombard, R; Pitout, E

    2007-10-01

    To measure and compare the flexural strength of composites reinforced with fibres, four groups of specimens (N = 10) were prepared from the combinations: Filtek Flow/Filtek Z250 and Esthet-X flow/Esthet-X dental composite. One group from each combination was reinforced with woven glass fibre (everStick net) and all the specimens subjected to three-point bend flexural testing. The mean and standard deviations for each test group were calculated and compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by pairwise Bonferroni T-tests at a preset alpha of p < 0.05. It was found that fibre reinforcement significantly (p < 0.001) increased the flexural strength of both types of composites. As the inclusion of only one layer of glass fibre net produced an increase of approximately 30% in the flexural strength of the composite samples, it can be speculated that multiple layers would increase it even more. The use of fibre-reinforcement to strengthen directly placed composite crowns and bridges will enable the clinician to provide a more cost effective service as well as aesthetic dentistry to more patients.

  4. Thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced polyimide-, epoxy-, and glass-matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of three epoxy-matrix composites, a polyimide-matrix composite and a borosilicate glass-matrix composite, each reinforced with continuous carbon fibers, has been measured and compared. The expansion of a composite with a rubber toughened epoxy-matrix and P75S carbon fibers was very different from the expansion of two different single phase epoxy-matrix composites with P75S fibers although all three had the same stacking sequence. Reasonable agreement was obtained between measured thermal-expansion data and results from classical laminate theory. The thermal expansion of a material may change markedly as a result of thermal cycling. Microdamage, induced by 250 cycles between -156 C and 121 C in the graphite/polyimide laminate, caused a 53 percent decrease in the coefficient of thermal expansion. The thermal expansion of the graphite/glass laminate was not changed by 100 thermal cycles from -129 C to 38 C; however, a residual strain of about 10 x 10 to the minus 6 power was measured for the laminate tested.

  5. Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-10-01

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis). If the amount of sulfur exceeds its tolerance level a molten salt will accumulate and upset melter operations and potentially shorten melter useful life. Therefore relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed which in-turn significantly impacts the amount of glass that will be produced, in particular at the Hanford site. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 312 individual glass compositions. This model was shown to well represent the data, accounting for over 80% of the variation in data and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed based on 19 scaled melter tests. The model is appropriate for control of waste glass processing which includes uncertainty quantification. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5 ≈ TiO2 < CaO < P2O5 ≈ ZnO. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > SiO2 ≈ ZrO2 > Al2O3.

  6. Innovative approach to the design of low-cost Zr-based BMG composites with good glass formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jia-Lin; Chen, Guang; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Li, Yi

    2013-06-01

    The high manufacturing cost for metallic glasses hampers actual commercial applications of this class of fascinating materials. In this letter, the effect of oxygen impurity on the glass forming ability and tensile properties of Zr-BMG composites were studied. Our results have demonstrated that oxygen was absorbed and concentrated only in the precipitated β-Zr phase, leading that the remainder molten metal retains good glass forming ability. The high oxygen concentration in the β-Zr phase induces a significant solid-solution strengthening effect, this resulting in an enhanced strength of the BMG composites without sacrificing their overall ductility. Based on this alloying strategy, we have successfully developed the low-cost Zr-based BMG composites with excellent tensile properties and good glass forming ability, using the low grade industrial raw materials processed under industrial vacuum systems. This finding is expected to greatly cut down the manufacturing cost and greatly promote the commercial applications of the BMG composites.

  7. Temperature effect during humid ageing on interfaces of glass and carbon fibers reinforced epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Ray, B C

    2006-06-01

    Weight change behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer composites in humid and thermal environments appears to be a complex phenomena. The state of fiber/matrix interface is believed to influence the nature of diffusion modes. A significant weakening often appears at the interface during the hygrothermal ageing. It effects the moisture uptake kinetics and also the reduction of mechanical properties. The importance of temperature at the time of conditioning plays an important role in environmental degradation of such composite materials. An attempt has been made here to evaluate the deleterious effect of temperature on shear strength of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites during hygrothermal conditionings. Mechanical tests were conducted at room temperature to assess the effectiveness of the relaxation process in the nullification of environmentally-induced damage in the composites.

  8. Cytocompatibility, degradation, mechanical property retention and ion release profiles for phosphate glass fibre reinforced composite rods.

    PubMed

    Felfel, R M; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Palmer, G; Sottile, V; Rudd, C D

    2013-05-01

    Fibre reinforced composites have recently received much attention as potential bone fracture fixation applications. Bioresorbable composites based on poly lactic acid (PLA) and phosphate based glass fibre were investigated according to ion release, degradation, biocompatibility and mechanical retention profiles. The phosphate based glass fibres used in this study had the composition of 40P2O5-24MgO-16CaO-16Na2O-4Fe2O3 in mol% (P40). The degradation and ion release profiles for the composites showed similar trends with the amount of sodium and orthophosphate ions released being greater than the other cations and anions investigated. This was attributed to low Dietzal's field strength for the Na(+) in comparison with Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) and breakdown of longer chain polyphosphates into orthophosphate ions. P40 composites exhibited good biocompatibility to human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which was suggested to be due to the low degradation rate of P40 fibres. After 63 days immersion in PBS at 37 °C, the P40 composite rods lost ~1.1% of mass. The wet flexural, shear and compressive strengths for P40 UD rods were ~70%, ~80% and ~50% of their initial dry values after 3 days of degradation, whereas the flexural modulus, shear and compressive strengths were ~70%, ~80%, and ~65% respectively. Subsequently, the mechanical properties remained stable for the duration of the study at 63 days. The initial decrease in mechanical properties was attributed to a combination of the plasticisation effect of water and degradation of the fibre-matrix interface, with the subsequent linear behaviour being attributed to the chemical durability of P40 fibres. P40 composite rods showed low degradation and ion release rates, good biocompatibility and maintained mechanical properties similar to cortical bone for the duration of the study. Therefore, P40 composite rods have huge potential as resorbable intramedullary nails or rods. PMID:23498213

  9. Toward understanding the effect of low-activity waste glass composition on sulfur solubility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong -Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.; Jantzen, C.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which inmore » turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ≈ P2O5 > Na2O ≈ B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ≈ SnO2 > Others ≈ SiO2. As a result, the order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.« less

  10. Toward understanding the effect of low-activity waste glass composition on sulfur solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong -Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.; Jantzen, C.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ≈ P2O5 > Na2O ≈ B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ≈ SnO2 > Others ≈ SiO2. As a result, the order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

  11. First-order model for durability of Hanford waste glasses as a function of composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, P.; Piepel, G.F.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

    1992-04-01

    Two standard chemical durability tests, the static leach test MCC-1 and product consistency test PCT, were conducted on simulated borosilicate glasses that encompass the expected range of compositions to be produced in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). A first-order empirical model was fitted to the data from each test method. The results indicate that glass durability is increased by addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, moderately increased by addition of ZrO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}, and decreased by addition of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and MgO. Addition of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO produce an indifferent or reducing effect on durability according to the test method. This behavior and a statistically significant lack of fit are attributed to the effects of multiple chemical reactions occurring during glass-water interaction. Liquid-liquid immiscibility is suspected to be responsible for extremely low durability of some glasses.

  12. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  13. Characterization of fabricated cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza; Gharahkhani, Raziyeh; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-01

    In this work, cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20wt% NBG were prepared and their bioactivity after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 to 4weeks was studied. Scanning electron microscopy images of two- step sintered composites revealed relatively dense microstructure. The results showed that density of composite samples decreased with increase in NBG amount. The microstructure analysis as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed that small amount of calcium phosphate phases precipitates on the surface of composite samples after 1week immersion in SBF. After 2weeks immersion, considerable amounts of cauliflower-like shaped precipitations were seen on the surface of the composites. Based on EDX analysis, these precipitations were composed mainly from Ca, P and Si. The observed bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of immersed composites samples for 4weeks in SBF, were characteristic bands of hydroxyapatite. Therefore it is possible to form hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of composite samples during immersion in SBF. The results indicated that prepared composites unlike cobalt-based alloy are bioactive, promising their possibility for implant applications. PMID:27612763

  14. Characterization of fabricated cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza; Gharahkhani, Raziyeh; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-01

    In this work, cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20wt% NBG were prepared and their bioactivity after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 to 4weeks was studied. Scanning electron microscopy images of two- step sintered composites revealed relatively dense microstructure. The results showed that density of composite samples decreased with increase in NBG amount. The microstructure analysis as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed that small amount of calcium phosphate phases precipitates on the surface of composite samples after 1week immersion in SBF. After 2weeks immersion, considerable amounts of cauliflower-like shaped precipitations were seen on the surface of the composites. Based on EDX analysis, these precipitations were composed mainly from Ca, P and Si. The observed bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of immersed composites samples for 4weeks in SBF, were characteristic bands of hydroxyapatite. Therefore it is possible to form hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of composite samples during immersion in SBF. The results indicated that prepared composites unlike cobalt-based alloy are bioactive, promising their possibility for implant applications.

  15. Mechanical and thermal characterization of a ceramic/glass composite seal for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Bodhayan; Walter, Mark E.; Arkenberg, Gene B.; Swartz, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) require seals that can function in harsh, elevated temperature environments. Comprehensive characterization and understanding of seals is needed for commercially viable SOFCs. The present research focuses on a novel ceramic/glass composite seal that is produced by roller compaction or tape casting of glass and ceramic powders and an organic binder. Upon heat treatment, micro-voids and surface anomalies are formed. Increased heating and cooling rates during the heat treatment resulted in more and larger voids. The first goal of the current research is to suggest an appropriate heating and cooling rate to minimize the formation of microstructural defects. After identifying an appropriate cure cycle, seals were thermally cycled and then characterized with laser dilatometry, X-ray diffraction, and sonic resonance. From these experiments the crystalline phases, thermal expansion, and elastic properties were determined. Subsequently compression testing with an acoustic emission (AE) sensor and post-test microstructural analysis were used to identify the formation of damage. By fully understanding the characteristics of this ceramic/glass composite seal, next generation seals can be fabricated for improved performance.

  16. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs. PMID:26354724

  17. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-09-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.

  18. Low loss Co2Z (Ba3Co2Fe24O41)-glass composite for gigahertz antenna application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaejin; Hong, Yang-Ki; Bae, Seok; Jalli, Jeevan; Abo, Gavin S.; Park, Jihoon; Seong, Won-Mo; Park, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Won-Ki

    2011-04-01

    Low magnetic and dielectric loss Co2Z (Ba3Co2Fe24O41)-glass composite in the frequency range of 1-3 GHz is reported. Co2Z-glass composite was prepared by firing a mixture of 40 h shake-milled Co2Z hexaferrite powder and borosilicate glass at 950 °C for 1 h. The real part of permeability decreased slightly from 2.29 to 1.96 at 2.4 GHz as the glass content increased from 0 to 4 wt. %, but magnetic loss decreased less than 0.02. On the other hand, the real part of permittivity was 7.29 at 0 wt. % and 7.28 at 4 wt. % glass and dielectric loss was less than 0.01 at 2.4 GHz. The 3D peak gain of Co2Z-glass composite chip antenna was measured to be 3.32 dBi at 2.35 GHz. These results imply that the Co2Z-glass composite is an underpinning magnetodielectric material for gigahertz antenna applications.

  19. Electrical and morphological properties of conducting layers formed from the silver-glass composite conducting powders prepared by spray pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jung, D S; Koo, H Y; Kang, Y C

    2010-03-01

    Ag-glass composite powders with various glass contents and excellent conducting properties were prepared by spray pyrolysis. Irrespective of the glass content, all the prepared powders were found to comprise spherical particles with nonaggregation characteristics. The crystal structure of the powder particles resembled that of pure Ag particles, irrespective of the glass content. Conducting layers formed from pure Ag did not melt even when sintered at 400 degrees C. On the other hand, conducting layers formed from composite powders containing 3 and 5 wt% glass melted when sintered at 400 degrees C. The optimum glass content of the composite powders was 3 wt% at sintering temperatures of 400 and 450 degrees C. However, the optimum glass content decreased to 1 wt% when the sintering temperature was increased to 550 degrees C. The lowest specific resistances of the conducting layers formed from the composite powders were 5.3 and 2.3 microohms-cm at sintering temperatures of 400 and 550 degrees C, respectively. PMID:20036371

  20. Interfacial bonding and friction in silicon carbide (filament)-reinforced ceramic- and glass-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, J.D.; Shetty, D.K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Griffin, C.W.; Limaye, S.Y. )

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports interfacial shear strength and interfacial sliding friction stress assessed in unidirectional SiC-filament-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) and borosilicate glass composites and 0/90 cross-ply reinforced borosilicate glass composite using a fiber pushout test technique. The interface debonding load and the maximum sliding friction load were measured for varying lengths of the embedded fibers by continuously monitoring the load during debonding and pushout of single fibers in finite-thickness specimens. The dependences of the debonding load and the maximum sliding friction load on the initial embedded lengths of the fibers were in agreement with nonlinear shear-lag models. An iterative regression procedure was used to evaluate the interfacial properties, shear debond strength ({tau}{sub d}), and sliding friction stress ({tau}{sub f}), from the embedded fiber length dependences of the debonding load and the maximum frictional sliding load, respectively. The shear-lag model and the analysis of sliding friction permit explicit evaluation of a coefficient of sliding friction ({mu}) and a residual compressive stress on the interface ({sigma}{sub 0}). The cross-ply composite showed a significantly higher coefficient of interfacial friction as compared to the unidirectional composites.

  1. Thermal Insulation Properties Research of the Composite Material "Water Glass - Graphite Microparticles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostev, V. A.; Pitukhin, E. A.; Ustinov, A. S.; Shelestov, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    Research results for the composite material (CM) "water glass - graphite microparticles" with high thermal stability and thermal insulation properties are given. A composition is proposed consisting of graphite (42 % by weight), water glass Na2O(SiO2)n (50% by weight) and the hardener - sodium silicofluoride Na2SiF6 (8% by weight). Processing technology of such composition is suggested. Experimental samples of the CM with filler particles (graphite) of a few microns in size were obtained. This is confirmed by a study of samples using X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy. The qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of the CM structure was done. Values of limit load causing destruction of the CM were identified. The character of the rupture surface was detected. Numerical values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity were defined. Dependence of the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity on temperature during monotonic heating was obtained experimentally. Studies have confirmed the increased thermal insulation properties of the proposed composition. The CM with such properties can be recommended as a coating designed to reduce heat losses and resistant to high temperatures. Due to accessibility and low cost of its components the proposed material can be produced on an industrial scale.

  2. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced.

  3. Abrasive Wear Performance of Aluminium Modified Epoxy-Glass Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Vikram G.; Mishra, Punyapriya; Al Dabbas, Hassan A.; Panda, H. S.; Fernandez, Johnathan Bruce

    2015-07-01

    For a long time, Aluminum filled epoxies molds have been used in rapid tooling process. These molds are very economical when applied in manufacturing of low volume of plastic parts. To improve the thermal conductivity of the material, the metallic filler material is added to it and the glass fiber improves the wear resistance of the material. These two important parameters establish the life of composites. The present work reports on abrasive wear behavior of Aluminum modified epoxy and glass fiber composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of aluminum particles. Through pin on disc wear testing machine, we studied the wear behaviors of composites, and all these samples were fabricated by using hand layup process. Epoxy resin was used as matrix material which was reinforced with Glass fiber and Aluminum as filler. The composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of Al was cast with dimensions 100 × 100 × 6 mm. The specimens were machined to a size of 6 × 6 × 4 mm for abrasive testing. Abrasive tests were carried out for different grit paper sizes, i.e., 150, 320, 600 at different sliding distance, i.e., 20, 40, 60 m at different loads of 5, 10 and 15 N and at constant speed. The weight loss due to wear was calculated along with coefficient of friction. Hardness was found using Rockwell hardness machine. The SEM morphology of the worn out surface wear was analyzed to understand the wear mechanism. Results showed that the addition of Aluminum particles was beneficial for low abrasive conditions.

  4. Antibacterial glass-composite coatings for protection of special purpose steel panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvova, O.; Bragina, L.; Babich, E.

    2011-12-01

    It has been established that the most informative and universal method for determination of biocide properties of vitreous coatings is qualitative method that takes into account the growth level of biotest microorganisms inoculated into liquid nutrient media. It is shown, that biocidity of glass-composite coatings on the basis of glasses of Na2O - K2O - CaO - ZrO2 - TiO2 - Al2O3 - P2O5 - B2O3 - SiO2 system is determined by the presence of calcium phosphates in them and depends on the type of bactericide filler. The most effective ones by the action on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium and Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans fungi are zinc titanate and Ag+, to Escherichia coli- only zinc phosphate.

  5. Tension-Tension-Fatigue Behaviors of a Zr-Based Bulk-Metallic-Glass-Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, J. W.; Ma, S. G.; Wang, G. Y.; Jiang, F.; Liaw, P. K.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-09-01

    An improved tension-fatigue limit of 473 MPa is gained for Zr58.5Ti14.3Nb5.2Cu6.1Ni4.9Be11.0 bulk-metallic-glass-matrix composites (BMGMCs). High volume-fraction dendrites within the glass matrix induce increased effectiveness on the blunting and propagating resistance of the fatigue-crack tip. Each fine striation is created during one stress cycle on the basis of analysis of experiments and calculations. A distinguishingly decreased crack-growth rate for the BMGMCs, compared to the monolithic BMGs, prevails, due to the plastic deformation of the dendrites, evidenced by the synchrotron X-ray results.

  6. Microyielding of Core-Shell Crystal Dendrites in a Bulk-metallic-glass Matrix Composite

    PubMed Central

    Huang, E-Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Lee, Wen-Jay; Scheel, Mario; Chuang, Chih-Pin; Liaw, Peter K.; Lo, Yu-Chieh; Zhang, Yong; Di Michiel, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulk metallic-glass matrix composite. The complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interface, as Maxwell damper, between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path. PMID:24637714

  7. Microyielding of core-shell crystal dendrites in a bulk-metallic-glass matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E. -Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Lee, Wen -Jay; Scheel, Mario; Chuang, Chih -Pin; Liaw, Peter K.; Lo, Yu -Chieh; Zhang, Yong; Di Michiel, Marco

    2014-03-18

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulk metallic-glass matrix composite. As a result, the complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interfaces between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path.

  8. Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Braga, R A; Magalhaes, P A A

    2015-11-01

    This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope.

  9. Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Braga, R A; Magalhaes, P A A

    2015-11-01

    This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope. PMID:26249589

  10. Characterisation and durability of glass composite waste forms immobilising spent clinoptilolite

    SciTech Connect

    Juoi, J.M.; Ojovan, M.I.

    2007-07-01

    Simulated spent clinoptilolite was immobilised in a monolithic glass composite wasteform (GCM) produced by a pressureless sintering for 2 hours at relative low temperatures 750 deg. C. The GCM utilises the high durability of alkali borosilicate glass to encapsulate the Cs-impregnated clinoptilolite (Cs-Clino). With this approach mobile radionuclides are retained by a multi-barrier system, comprising the crystalline form of the clinoptilolite and the borosilicate glass Wastes loading ranging from 1:1 up to 1:10 glass to Cs-clino volume ratios corresponding to 37- 88 mass % were studied. Water durability of GCM was assessed in 7, 14 and 28 days leaching tests in deionised water at 40 deg. C based on ASTM C1220-98 standard. It was found that the normalised leaching rates of Cs remaining below 6.35 10{sup -6} g/cm{sup 2} day in a GCM with 73 mass % waste during a leaching test for 7 days. However, at higher waste loading of {>=}80 mass %, the normalised leaching rate of Cs was as high as 9.06 10{sup -4} g/cm{sup 2} day. The normalised leaching rate of Cs decreased within the 28 days of leaching. Microstructure and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis of the GCM with 1:1 glass to Cs-clino vol. ratio shows that there were no changes in phases identified as well as elements present in GCM after 28 days leaching test. The compression strength of the GCM was found to be in a range from 85.5 at waste loading 80 mass % - 394.2 MPa at waste loading 37 mass %. (authors)

  11. Bioplotting of a bioactive alginate dialdehyde-gelatin composite hydrogel containing bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Leite, Álvaro J; Sarker, Bapi; Zehnder, Tobias; Silva, Raquel; Mano, João F; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2016-01-01

    Alginate dialdehyde-gelatin (ADA-GEL) constructs incorporating bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs) were produced by biofabrication to obtain a grid-like highly-hydrated composite. The material could induce the deposition of an apatite layer upon immersion in a biological-like environment to sustain cell attachment and proliferation. Composites were formulated with different concentrations of BGNPs synthetized from a sol-gel route, namely 0.1% and 0.5% (w/v). Strontium doped BGNPs were also used. EDS analysis suggested that the BGNPs loading promoted the growth of bone-like apatite layer on the surface when the constructs were immersed in a simulated body fluid. Moreover, the composite constructs could incorporate with high efficiency ibuprofen as a drug model. Furthermore, the biofabrication process allowed the successful incorporation of MG-63 cells into the composite material. Cells were distributed homogeneously within the hydrogel composite, and no differences were found in cell viability between ADA-GEL and the composite constructs, proving that the addition of BGNPs did not influence cell fate. Overall, the composite material showed potential for future applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:27432012

  12. Fatigue Behaviour of Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites for Ocean Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisseau, A.; Davies, P.; Thiebaud, F.

    2013-04-01

    The development of ocean energy conversion systems places more severe requirements on materials than similar land-based structures such as wind turbines. Intervention and maintenance at sea are very costly, so for ocean energy supply to become economically viable long term durability must be guaranteed. Cyclic loading is a common feature of most energy conversion devices and composites are widely used, but few data are available concerning the fatigue behaviour in sea water of composite materials. This paper presents the results from an experimental study to fill this gap. The fatigue behavior of composite materials reinforced with different types of glass fibre is characterized in air and in sea water; the influence of testing in sea water rather than air is shown to be small. However, sea water ageing is shown to reduce the fatigue lifetime significantly and strongly depends on matrix formulation.

  13. Effect of Sodium bicarbonate on Fire behaviour of tilled E- Glass Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girish, S.; Devendra, K.; Bharath, K. N.

    2016-09-01

    Composites such as fibre reinforced polymers give us the good mechanical properties, but their fire behaviour is not appreciable and needs to be improved. In this work, E- glass fiber is used as a reinforcement material and Epoxy resin is used as a matrix with particulate sodium bi-carbonate (NaHCO3) is used as additive. The hand lay-up technique is adopted for the development of composites by varying percentage of additive. All the tests were conducted according to ASTM standards to study the Fire behaviour of the developed composites. The different fire properties like Ignition time, mass loss rate and flame propagation rate of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) with NaHCO3 are compared with neat FRPs. It is found that the ignition time increases as the percentage of additive is increased.

  14. Mg-Zn based composites reinforced with bioactive glass (45S5) fabricated via powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    Metallic implants are shifting from bio-inert to bioactive and biodegradable materials. These changes are made in order to improve the stress shielding effect and bio-compatibility and also avoid the second surgery procedure. Second surgery procedure is required if the patient experienced infection and implant loosening. An implant is predicted to be well for 15 to 20 years inside patient body. Currently, magnesium alloys are found to be the new biomaterials because of their properties close to the human bones and also able to degrade in the human body. In this work, magnesium-zinc based composites reinforced with different content (5, 15, 20 wt. %) of bioactive glass (45S5) were fabricated through powder metallurgy technique. The composites were sintered at 450˚C. Density and porosity of the composites were determined using the gas pycnometer. Microstructure of the composites was observed using an optical microscope. In-vitro bioactivity behavior was evaluated in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to characterize the apatite forming on the samples surface. The microstructure of the composite showed that the pore segregated near the grain boundaries and bioglass clustering was observed with increasing content of bioglass. The true density of the composites increased with the increasing content of bioglass and the highest value of porosity was indicated by the Mg-Zn reinforced with 20 wt.% of bioglass. The addition of bio-glass to the Mg-Zn has also induced the formation of apatite layer after soaking in SBF solution.

  15. Isothermal and hygrothermal agings of hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjasteh, Ehsan

    New applications of fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) are arising in non-traditional sectors of industry, such as civil infrastructure, automotive, and power distribution. For example, composites are being used in place of steel to support high-voltage overhead conductors. In this application, conductive strands of aluminum are wrapped around a solid composite rod comprised of unidirectional carbon and glass fibers in an epoxy matrix, which is commercially called ACCC conductor. Composite-core conductors such as these are expected to eventually replace conventional steel-reinforced conductors because of the reduced sag at high temperatures, lower weight, higher ampacity, and reduced line losses. Despite the considerable advantages in mechanical performance, long-term durability of composite conductors is a major concern, as overhead conductors are expected to retain properties (with minimal maintenance) over a service life that spans multiple decades. These concerns stem from the uncertain effects of long-term environmental exposure, which includes temperature, moisture, radiation, and aggressive chemicals, all of which can be exacerbated by cyclic loads. In general, the mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites are adversely affected by such environmental factors. Consequently, the ability to forecast changes in material properties as a function of environmental exposure, particularly bulk mechanical properties, which are affected by the integrity of fiber-matrix interfaces, is required to design for extended service lives. Polymer composites are susceptible to oxidative degradation at high temperatures approaching but not quite reaching the glass transition temperature ( Tg). Although the fibers are stable at such temperatures, the matrix and especially the fiber-matrix interface can undergo degradation that affects the physical and mechanical properties of the structure over time. Therefore, as a first step, the thermal aging of an

  16. Genetic relations among basic lavas and ultramafic nodules: Evidence from oxygen isotope compositions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.; Carmichael, I.S.E.

    1982-01-01

    ??18O values of unaltered basic lavas range from 4.9 to 8.3 but different types of basalts are usually restricted to narrow and distinct ranges of isotopic composition. The average ??18O values for Hawaiian tholeiites, mid-ocean ridge tholeiites, and alkali basalts are 5.4, 5.7, and 6.2 permil, respectively. Potassic lavas and andesites tend to be more 18O rich with ??18O values between 6.0 and 8.0 permil. The differences among the oxygen isotopic compositions of most of these lavas can be attributed to partial melting of isotopically distinct sources. The oxygen isotope compositions of the sources may be a function of prior melting events which produce 18O-depleted partial melts and 18O-enriched residues as a consequence of relatively large isotopic fractionations that exist at high temperatures. It is proposed that lavas with relatively low ??18O values are derived from primitive, 18O-depleted sources whereas 18O-rich basalts are produced from refractory sources that have already produced partial melts. High temperature fractionations among silicate liquids and coexisting minerals can be used in conjunction with the oxygen isotope compositions of ultramafic nodules to place constraints on the genetic relations between some nodules and different types of basic lavas. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Comparison of nanoscale and microscale bioactive glass on the properties of P(3HB)/Bioglass composites.

    PubMed

    Misra, Superb K; Mohn, Dirk; Brunner, Tobias J; Stark, Wendelin J; Philip, Sheryl E; Roy, Ipsita; Salih, Vehid; Knowles, Jonathan C; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2008-04-01

    This study compares the effects of introducing micro (m-BG) and nanoscale (n-BG) bioactive glass particles on the various properties (thermal, mechanical and microstructural) of poly(3hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB))/bioactive glass composite systems. P(3HB)/bioactive glass composite films with three different concentrations of m-BG and n-BG (10, 20 and 30 wt%, respectively) were prepared by a solvent casting technique. The addition of n-BG particles had a significant stiffening effect on the composites, modulus when compared with m-BG. However, there were no significant differences in the thermal properties of the composites due to the addition of n-BG and m-BG particles. The systematic addition of n-BG particles induced a nanostructured topography on the surface of the composites, which was not visible by SEM in m-BG composites. This surface effect induced by n-BG particles considerably improved the total protein adsorption on the n-BG composites compared to the unfilled polymer and the m-BG composites. A short term in vitro degradation (30 days) study in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a high level of bioactivity as well as higher water absorption for the P(3HB)/n-BG composites. Furthermore, a cell proliferation study using MG-63 cells demonstrated the good biocompatibility of both types of P(3HB)/bioactive glass composite systems. The results of this investigation confirm that the addition of nanosized bioactive glass particles had a more significant effect on the mechanical and structural properties of a composite system in comparison with microparticles, as well as enhancing protein adsorption, two desirable effects for the application of the composites in tissue engineering. PMID:18255139

  18. Characterization of ceramic/glass composite seals for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Bodhayan

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) require seals that can function in harsh, elevated temperature environments. Comprehensive characterization and understanding of seals is needed for commercially viable SOFCs. The present research focuses on a novel ceramic/glass composite seal that is produced by roller compaction or tape casting of glass and ceramic powders and a proprietary organic binder. Upon heat treatment, micro-voids and surface anomalies are formed. Increased heating and cooling rates during the heat treatment resulted in more and larger voids. The first goal of the current research is to suggest an appropriate heating and cooling rate to minimize the formation of microstructural defects. After identifying an appropriate cure cycle, seals were thermally cycled and then characterized with laser dilatometry, X-Ray diffraction, and sonic resonance. From these experiments the crystalline phases, thermal expansion, and elastic properties were determined. Subsequently compression testing with an acoustic emission (AE) sensor and post-test microstructural analysis were used to identify the formation of damage. The research also focuses on the study of Weibull statistics and thermal responses for cured seals. The green seal was initially cured for 1 thermal cycle based on the aforementioned appropriate thermal cycle. The cycled seal was then characterized with a laser dilatometer to identify the glass transition, softening temperature and thermal expansion properties. High temperature ring-on-ring tests were also performed to study the effect of glass transition and softening temperatures on mechanical responses. In addition, Weibull statistics were conducted to determine the cumulative probability of failure/damage in seals. The third part of the research focuses on the construction and use of a controlled leak testing facility for investigating different interfaces involved in sealing electrolyte-supported cells. Simultaneous leak testing with an acoustic emission

  19. Composition-dependent stability of the medium-range order responsible for metallic glass formation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Feng; Ji, Min; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Yang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Kramer, M. J.; Napolitano, Ralph E.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-09-18

    The competition between the characteristic medium-range order corresponding to amorphous alloys and that in ordered crystalline phases is central to phase selection and morphology evolution under various processing conditions. We examine the stability of a model glass system, Cu–Zr, by comparing the energetics of various medium-range structural motifs over a wide range of compositions using first-principles calculations. Furthermore, we focus specifically on motifs that represent possible building blocks for competing glassy and crystalline phases, and we employ a genetic algorithm to efficiently identify the energetically favored decorations of each motif for specific compositions. These results show that a Bergman-type motifmore » with crystallization-resisting icosahedral symmetry is energetically most favorable in the composition range 0.63 < xCu < 0.68, and is the underlying motif for one of the three optimal glass-forming ranges observed experimentally for this binary system (Li et al., 2008). This work establishes an energy-based methodology to evaluate specific medium-range structural motifs which compete with stable crystalline nuclei in deeply undercooled liquids.« less

  20. Composition-dependent stability of the medium-range order responsible for metallic glass formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ji, Min; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Yang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I.; Kramer, M. J.; Napolitano, Ralph E.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-09-18

    The competition between the characteristic medium-range order corresponding to amorphous alloys and that in ordered crystalline phases is central to phase selection and morphology evolution under various processing conditions. We examine the stability of a model glass system, Cu–Zr, by comparing the energetics of various medium-range structural motifs over a wide range of compositions using first-principles calculations. Furthermore, we focus specifically on motifs that represent possible building blocks for competing glassy and crystalline phases, and we employ a genetic algorithm to efficiently identify the energetically favored decorations of each motif for specific compositions. These results show that a Bergman-type motif with crystallization-resisting icosahedral symmetry is energetically most favorable in the composition range 0.63 < xCu < 0.68, and is the underlying motif for one of the three optimal glass-forming ranges observed experimentally for this binary system (Li et al., 2008). This work establishes an energy-based methodology to evaluate specific medium-range structural motifs which compete with stable crystalline nuclei in deeply undercooled liquids.

  1. Simultaneous Application of Fibrous Piezoresistive Sensors for Compression and Traction Detection in Glass Laminate Composites

    PubMed Central

    Nauman, Saad; Cristian, Irina; Koncar, Vladan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes further development of a novel Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) approach described in one of our previous papers. Here these sensors have been used for the first time as a Piecewise Continuous System (PCS), which means that they are not only capable of following the deformation pattern but can also detect distinctive fracture events. In order to characterize the simultaneous compression and traction response of these sensors, multilayer glass laminate composite samples were prepared for 3-point bending tests. The laminate sample consisted of five layers of plain woven glass fabrics placed one over another. The sensors were placed at two strategic locations during the lay-up process so as to follow traction and compression separately. The reinforcements were then impregnated in epoxy resin and later subjected to 3-point bending tests. An appropriate data treatment and recording device has also been developed and used for simultaneous data acquisition from the two sensors. The results obtained, under standard testing conditions have shown that our textile fibrous sensors can not only be used for simultaneous detection of compression and traction in composite parts for on-line structural health monitoring but their sensitivity and carefully chosen location inside the composite ensures that each fracture event is indicated in real time by the output signal of the sensor. PMID:22163707

  2. Simultaneous application of fibrous piezoresistive sensors for compression and traction detection in glass laminate composites.

    PubMed

    Nauman, Saad; Cristian, Irina; Koncar, Vladan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes further development of a novel Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) approach described in one of our previous papers. Here these sensors have been used for the first time as a Piecewise Continuous System (PCS), which means that they are not only capable of following the deformation pattern but can also detect distinctive fracture events. In order to characterize the simultaneous compression and traction response of these sensors, multilayer glass laminate composite samples were prepared for 3-point bending tests. The laminate sample consisted of five layers of plain woven glass fabrics placed one over another. The sensors were placed at two strategic locations during the lay-up process so as to follow traction and compression separately. The reinforcements were then impregnated in epoxy resin and later subjected to 3-point bending tests. An appropriate data treatment and recording device has also been developed and used for simultaneous data acquisition from the two sensors. The results obtained, under standard testing conditions have shown that our textile fibrous sensors can not only be used for simultaneous detection of compression and traction in composite parts for on-line structural health monitoring but their sensitivity and carefully chosen location inside the composite ensures that each fracture event is indicated in real time by the output signal of the sensor. PMID:22163707

  3. Green glass vitrophyre 78526 - An impact of very low-Ti mare basalt composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Kiel, K.; Planner, H. H.; Nehru, C. E.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rake sample 78526 is an 8.77 g rock consisting primarily of vitrophyric pale green glass with subordinate mineral and lithic relics. Petrographic and compositional evidence leads to the following conclusions: (1) the bulk composition represents that of a mixture formed by impact melting of at least two different textural and compositional varieties of VLT mare basalt that are now present in the rock as lithic relics and a poorly defined low-Ti mare basalt component observed in thin section only in the form of isolated mineral relics; (2) the admixed VLT mare basalts had REE abundances lower than those found in other mare basalts (but probably higher than emerald green glass) and REE patterns showing significant enrichment of the heavy relative to light REE's, suggesting that they were derived by comparatively high degrees of partial melting of a clinopyroxene-rich source region; and (3) the impact melt supercooled to produce the vitrophyre, with rather sharply contrasting textural domains present in the vitrophyre resulting from differences in nucleation kinetics and degrees of supercooling in various portions of the sample.

  4. CO2-laser-assisted processing of glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Schares, Richard Ludwig; Stimpfl, Joffrey

    2013-02-01

    To fully exploit the potential of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (FRTC) and to achieve a broad industrial application, automated manufacturing systems are crucial. Investigations at Fraunhofer IPT have proven that the use of laser system technology in processing FRTC allows to achieve high throughput, quality, flexibility, reproducibility and out-of-autoclave processing simultaneously. As 90% of the FRP in Europe1 are glass fiber-reinforced a high impact can be achieved by introducing laser-assisted processing with all its benefits to glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTC). Fraunhofer IPT has developed the diode laser-assisted tape placement (laying and winding) to process carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTC) for years. However, this technology cannot be transferred unchanged to process milky transparent GFRTC prepregs (preimpregnated fibers). Due to the short wavelength (approx. 980 nm) and therefore high transmission less than 20% of the diode laser energy is absorbed as heat into non-colored GFRTC prepregs. Hence, the use of a different wave length, e.g. CO2-laser (10.6 μm) with more than 90% laser absorption, is required to allow the full potential of laser-assisted processing of GFRTC. Also the absorption of CO2-laser radiation at the surface compared to volume absorption of diode laser radiation is beneficial for the interlaminar joining of GFRTC. Fraunhofer IPT is currently developing and investigating the CO2-laser-assisted tape placement including new system, beam guiding, process and monitoring technology to enable a resource and energy efficient mass production of GFRP composites, e.g. pipes, tanks, masts. The successful processing of non-colored glass fiber-reinforced Polypropylene (PP) and Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) has already been proven.

  5. Effect of the Dosage of Tourmaline on Far Infrared Emission Properties of Tourmaline/Glass Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongchen; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Liu, Jie; Zeng, Zhaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Tourmaline/glass composite materials were prepared by sintering at 600 °C using micron-size tourmaline mineral and glass powders as raw materials. The glass has lower melting point than the transition temperature of tourmaline. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the far infrared emissivity of composite was significantly higher than that of either tourmaline or glass powders. A highest far infrared emissivity of 0.925 was obtained when the dosage of tourmaline was 10 wt%. The effects of the amount of tourmaline on the far infrared emission properties of composite was also systematically studied by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The tourmaline phase was observed in the composite, showing a particle size of about 70 nm. This meant that the tourmaline particles showed nanocrystallization. They distributed homogenous in the glass matrix when the dosage of tourmaline was not more than 20 wt%. Two reasons were attributed to the improved far infrared emission properties of composite: the particle size of tourmaline-doped was nanocrystallized and the oxidation of Fe2+ (0.076 nm in radius) to Fe3+ (0.064 nm in radius) took place inside the tourmaline-doped. This resulted in the shrinkage of unit cell of the tourmaline in the composite.

  6. Effect of the Dosage of Tourmaline on Far Infrared Emission Properties of Tourmaline/Glass Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongchen; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Liu, Jie; Zeng, Zhaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Tourmaline/glass composite materials were prepared by sintering at 600 °C using micron-size tourmaline mineral and glass powders as raw materials. The glass has lower melting point than the transition temperature of tourmaline. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the far infrared emissivity of composite was significantly higher than that of either tourmaline or glass powders. A highest far infrared emissivity of 0.925 was obtained when the dosage of tourmaline was 10 wt%. The effects of the amount of tourmaline on the far infrared emission properties of composite was also systematically studied by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The tourmaline phase was observed in the composite, showing a particle size of about 70 nm. This meant that the tourmaline particles showed nanocrystallization. They distributed homogenous in the glass matrix when the dosage of tourmaline was not more than 20 wt%. Two reasons were attributed to the improved far infrared emission properties of composite: the particle size of tourmaline-doped was nanocrystallized and the oxidation of Fe2+ (0.076 nm in radius) to Fe3+ (0.064 nm in radius) took place inside the tourmaline-doped. This resulted in the shrinkage of unit cell of the tourmaline in the composite. PMID:27451734

  7. Study on Control of Inclusion Compositions in Tire Cord Steel by Low Basicity Top Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Cai-ping; Yue, Feng; Jiang, Chen-xu; Wu, Qi-fan

    2016-01-01

    Top slag melting experiment was conducted in a silicon molybdenum furnace with tire cord steel billet. The influence of top slag composition on the plasticity of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO inclusion and inclusion plasticization conditions was calculated by thermodynamic software FactSage. Use the thermodynamic calculation to guide the laboratory experiments to study slag compositions influence inclusions composition. Then industrial experiments were conducted based on the theoretical calculation and results of laboratory experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine the morphology and composition of inclusions in steel. All studies show that in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-10% MgO diagram, when CaO = 8-48%, SiO2 = 35-75%, Al2O3 = 0-32%, inclusions are in the plastic area. When basicity of top slag is certain, Al2O3 content in inclusions increases with the increase of Al2O3 content in the slag, and the distribution of inclusions becomes scattered with the increase of Al2O3 content in slag. Inclusion plasticization can be achieved when the binary basicities of top slag are 0.6, 0.8-1.2, 1.4 and corresponding w(Al2O3)s are 2-15%, 2-10%, <2%. According to industrial experimental results, when top slag basicity decreases from 1.5 to 0.67-0.9 and Al2O3 content decreases below 10 wt%, the inclusion falls into plastic area. It is feasible in practice to control the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO inclusions plastic through adjusting Al2O3 content in slag.

  8. Class II direct composite resin restorations with beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts.

    PubMed

    Rada, R E

    1993-11-01

    With the increasing demand for esthetic posterior restorations, numerous techniques have been developed. The direct resin restoration has probably been used most extensively in Class II situations. Problems with Class II direct resin restorations include difficulty in developing proximal contact, occlusal wear, and polymerization shrinkage. Beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts have been developed in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these potential problems. They can be placed in a one-appointment technique, are relatively inexpensive, and can readily be utilized by the clinician adept in placing Class II composite resin restorations.

  9. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum.

  10. Z-scan study on the nonlinear refractive index of copper nanocluster composite silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglin, G.; Calvelli, P.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Polloni, R.; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.

    2001-06-18

    We used the Z-scan technique for measuring the nonlinear refractive index n{sub 2} of a thin composite film formed by copper nanoparticles embedded in silica glass. By varying the number of pulses of the laser shot, we evidenced heating effects induced by the laser during measurements. We were able to estimate the nonthermal refractive-index value, n{sub 2}=(3.0{+-}0.3){times}10{sup {minus}12}cm{sup 2}/W. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum. PMID:25822408

  12. Fabrication and in vitro characterization of bioactive glass composite scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Stevens, Molly M; Woodruff, Maria A

    2013-12-01

    Here we fabricate and characterize bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. 45S5 Bioglass® (45S5) or strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) were incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL) and fabricated into 3D bioactive composite scaffolds utilizing additive manufacturing technology. We show that composite scaffolds (PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG) can be reproducibly manufactured with a scaffold morphology highly resembling that of PCL scaffolds. Additionally, micro-CT analysis reveals BG particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the scaffolds. Mechanical data suggested that PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG composite scaffolds have higher compressive Young's modulus compared to PCL scaffolds at similar porosity (∼75%). After 1 day in accelerated degradation conditions using 5M NaOH, PCL/SrBG, PCL/45S5 and PCL lost 48.6 ± 3.8%, 12.1 ± 1% and 1.6 ± 1% of the original mass, respectively. In vitro studies were conducted using MC3T3 cells under normal and osteogenic conditions. All scaffolds were shown to be non-cytotoxic, and supported cell attachment and proliferation. Our results also indicate that the inclusion of bioactive glass (BG) promotes precipitation of calcium phosphate on the scaffold surfaces which leads to earlier cell differentiation and matrix mineralization when compared to PCL scaffolds. However, as indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity, no significant difference in osteoblast differentiation was found between PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG scaffolds. These results suggest that PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG composite scaffolds show potential as next generation bone scaffolds.

  13. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of vancomycin hydrochloride released from agar-gelatin-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneira, Josefina; Di Virgilio, Ana Laura; Audisio, M Carina; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Gorustovich, Alejandro A

    2015-01-13

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the perfomance of agar-gelatin (AG) composites and AG-containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) microparticles (AGBG) in relation to their water uptake capacity, sustained release of a drug over time, and antibacterial effects. The composites were fabricated by the gel-casting method. To impart the local drug release capacity, vancomycin hydrochloride (VC) was loaded in the composites in concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg ml(-1). VC release was assessed in distilled water at 37 °C up to 72 h and quantified spectrophotometrically. The antibacterial activity of composites was evaluated by the inhibition zone test and the plate count method. The experiments were performed in vitro up to 48 h on three staphylococcus strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, S. aureus ATCC6538 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228. The results showed that the addition of BG to AG composites did not affect the degree of water uptake. The release of VC was significantly affected by the presence of BG. VC release was higher from AGBGVC films than from AGVC ones over prolonged incubation times. Bacterial inhibition zones were found around the composites. The halos were larger when the cells were put in contact with AGVC composites than when they were put in contact with AGBGVC ones. Nevertheless, the viable count method demonstrated that the composites inhibited Staphylococcus cell growth with no statistical differences. In conclusion, the addition of BG did not reflect an improvement in the parameters studied. On the other hand, composites loaded with VC would have a role in prophylaxis against bacterial infection.

  14. Transverse isotropic modeling of the ballistic response of glass reinforced plastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    The use of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) composites is gaining significant attention in the DoD community for use in armor applications. These materials typically possess a laminate structure consisting of up to 100 plies, each of which is constructed of a glass woven roving fabric that reinforces a plastic matrix material. Current DoD attention is focused on a high strength, S-2 glass cross-weave (0/90) fabric reinforcing a polyester matrix material that forms each ply of laminate structure consisting anywhere from 20 to 70 plies. The resulting structure displays a material anisotropy that is, to a reasonable approximation, transversely isotropic. When subjected to impact and penetration from a metal fragment projectile, the GRP displays damage and failure in an anisotropic manner due to various mechanisms such as matrix cracking, fiber fracture and pull-out, and fiber-matrix debonding. In this presentation, the author will describe the modeling effort to simulate the ballistic response of the GRP material described above using the transversely isotropic (TI) constitutive model which has been implemented in the shock physics code, CTH. The results of this effort suggest that the model is able to describe the delamination behavior of the material but has some difficulty capturing the in-plane (i.e., transverse) response of the laminate due to its cross-weave fabric reinforcement pattern which causes a departure from transverse isotropy.

  15. Environmental effects on the hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yun-I.

    2009-12-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) have been widely used to replace conventional metals due to the high specific strength, fatigue resistance, and light weight. In the power distribution industry, an advanced composites rod has been developed to replace conventional steel cable as the load-bearing core of overhead conductors. Such conductors, called aluminum conductor composite core (ACCC) significantly increases the transmitting efficiency of existing power grid system without extensive rebuilding expenses, while meeting future demand for electricity. In general, the service life of such overhead conductors is required to be at least 30 years. Therefore, the long-term endurance of the composite core in various environments must be well-understood. Accelerated aging by hygrothermal exposure was conducted to determine the effect of moisture on the glass fiber (GF)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid composites. The influence of water immersion and humid air exposure on mechanical properties is investigated. Results indicated that immersion in water is the most severe environment for such hybrid GF/CF composites, and results in greater saturation and degradation of properties. When immersed directly in water, the hybrid GF/CF composites exhibit a moisture uptake behavior that is more complex than composite materials reinforced with only one type of fiber. The unusual diffusion behavior is attributed to a higher packing density of fibers at the annular GF/CF interface, which acts as a temporary moisture barrier. Moisture uptake leads to the mechanical and thermal degradation of such hybrid GF/CF composites. Findings presented here indicate that the degradation is a function of exposure temperature, time, and moisture uptake level. Results also indicate that such hybrid GF/CF composites recover short beam shear (SBS) strength and glass transition temperature (Tg) values comparable to pre-aged samples after removal of the absorbed moisture. In the hygrothermal environment

  16. Preparation and characterization of PVDF-glass fiber composite membrane reinforced by interfacial UV-grafting copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Luo, Nan; Xu, Rongle; Yang, Min; Yuan, Xing; Zhong, Hui; Fan, Yaobo

    2015-12-01

    A novel inorganic-organic composite membrane, namely poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF-glass fiber (PGF) composite membrane, was prepared and reinforced by interfacial ultraviolet (UV)-grafting copolymerization to improve the interfacial bonding strength between the membrane layer and the glass fiber. The interfacial polymerization between inorganic-organic interfaces is a chemical cross-linking reaction that depends on the functionalized glass fiber with silane coupling (KH570) as the initiator and the polymer solution with acrylamide monomer (AM) as the grafting block. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectra and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) pictures of the interface between the glass fiber and polymer matrix confirmed that the AM was grafted to the surface of the glass fiber fabric and that the grafting polymer was successfully embedded in the membrane matrix. The formation mechanisms, permeation, and anti-fouling performance of the PGF composite membrane were measured with different amounts of AM in the doping solutions. The results showed that the grafting composite membrane improved the interfacial bonding strength and permeability, and the peeling strength was improved by 32.6% for PGF composite membranes with an AM concentration at 2wt.%.

  17. Ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new zinc-phosphate glass/metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaroufi, A.; Oabi, O.; Lucas, B.

    2016-07-01

    The ac-conductivity and dielectric response of new composites based on zinc-phosphate glass with composition 45 mol%ZnO-55 mol%P2O5, filled with metallic powder of nickel (ZP/Ni) were investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature. A high percolating jump of seven times has been observed in the conductivity behavior from low volume fraction of filler to the higher fractions, indicating an insulator - semiconductor phase transition. The measured conductivity at higher filler volume fraction is about 10-1 S/cm and is frequency independent, while, the obtained conductivity for low filler volume fraction is around 10-8 S/cm and is frequency dependent. Moreover, the elaborated composites are characterized by high dielectric constants in the range of 105 for conductive composites at low frequencies (100 Hz). In addition, the distribution of the relaxation processes was also evaluated. The Debye, Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole and Havriliak-Negami models in electric modulus formalism were used to model the observed relaxation phenomena in ZP/Ni composites. The observed relaxation phenomena are fairly simulated by Davidson-Cole model, and an account of the interpretation of results is given.

  18. Investigation of Fiber Waviness in a Thick Glass Composite Beam Using THz NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Fiber waviness in laminated composite material is introduced during manufacture because of uneven curing, resin shrinkage, or ply buckling caused by bending the composite lay-up into its final shape prior to curing. The resulting waviness has a detrimental effect on mechanical properties, therefore this condition is important to detect and characterize. Ultrasonic characterization methods are difficult to interpret because elastic wave propagation is highly dependent on ply orientation and material stresses. By comparison, the pulsed terahertz response of the composite is shown to provide clear indications of the fiber waviness. Pulsed Terahertz NDE is an electromagnetic inspection method that operates in the frequency range between 300 GHz and 3 THz. Its propagation is influenced by refractive index variations and interfaces. This work applies pulsed Terahertz NDE to the inspection of a thick composite beam with fiber waviness. The sample is a laminated glass composite material approximately 15mm thick with a 90-degree bend. Terahertz response from the planar section, away from the bend, is indicative of a homogeneous material with no major reflections from internal plies, while the multiple reflections at the bend area correspond to the fiber waviness. Results of these measurements are presented for the planar and bend areas.

  19. Rheological evaluations and in vitro studies of injectable bioactive glass-polycaprolactone-sodium alginate composites.

    PubMed

    Borhan, Shokoufeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Behnamghader, Ali-Asghar; Ghasemi, Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Composite pastes composed of various amounts of melt-derived bioactive glass 52S4 (MG5) and polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres in sodium alginate solution were prepared. Rheological properties in both rotatory and oscillatory modes were evaluated. Injectability was measured as injection force versus piston displacement. In vitro calcium phosphate precipitation was also studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) and tracked using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and FTIR analyses. All composite pastes were thixotropic in nature and exhibited shear thinning behavior. The magnitude of thixotropy decreased by adding 10-30 wt% PCL, while further amounts of PCL increased it again. Moreover, the composites were viscoelastic materials in which the elastic modulus was higher than viscous term. The pastes which were just made of MG5 or PCL had poor injectability, whereas the composites containing both of these constituents exhibited reasonable injectability. All pastes revealed adequate structural stability in contact with SBF solution. In vitro calcium phosphate precipitation was well observed on the paste made of MG5 and somewhat on the pastes with 10-40 wt% PCL, however the precipitated layer was amorphous in nature. Overall, the produced composites may be appropriate as injectable biomaterials for non-invasive surgeries but more biological evaluations are essential. PMID:27432416

  20. A Raman model for determining the chemical composition of silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, Danilo; Morgavi, Daniele; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Neuville, Daniel R.; Perugini, Diego; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light which provides information about molecular vibrations of the investigated sample. Since the discovery of the Raman Effect (1928) in scattered light from liquids, the Raman investigation has been extended to a large number of substances at different pressure-temperature conditions. Recently, the Raman instrument setup has rapidly grown thanks to the progress in development of lasers, charge coupled devices and confocal systems (see Neuville et al. 2014 for a review). Here we present the first Raman model able to determine the chemical composition of silicate glasses. In this study we combine chemical analysis from magma mixing experiments between remelted basaltic and rhyolitic melts, with a high spatial resolution Raman spectroscopy investigation; we focus on tracking the evolution of the Raman spectrum with chemical composition of silicate glasses. The mixing process is driven by a recently-developed apparatus that generates chaotic streamlines in the melts (Morgavi et al., 2013), mimicking the development of magma mixing in nature. From these experiments we obtained a glassy filament with a chemical composition ranging from a basalt to a rhyolite. Raman and microprobe measurements have been performed on a filament of ~1000 μm diameter, every 2.5-20 μm. The evolution of the acquired Raman spectra with the measured chemical composition has been parametrized by combining both the Raman spectra of the basaltic and rhyolitic end-members. Using the developed Raman model we have been able to determine the chemical composition (mol% of SiO2, Al2O3, FeO, CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O) of the investigated filament. Additionally, the proposed Raman model has been successfully tested using external remelted natural samples; reference glasses (Jochum et al., 2000), a remelted basalt, andesite from Etna and Montserrat respectively. Finally, as the Raman spectrum depends on the

  1. Digital Image Correlation of Low-Velocity Impact on a Glass/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namala, Kiran Kumar; Mahajan, Puneet; Bhatnagar, Naresh

    2014-05-01

    Low-velocity-impact experiments were performed on a unidirectional laminate [0°]8 and cross-ply laminate [0°/90°]4 of E-glass/epoxy composite of thickness of 6.4 mm for incident energies 6.9 J, 9.48 J, and 12.7 J. The energy, contact forces, and displacement plots with respect to time are studied for a drop test. The damage observed as a back face signature on the back face of both cross-ply and unidirectional laminate are plotted. The composite was speckled randomly and the impact phenomenon was recorded using a high-speed camera. The DIC data were analyzed to obtain displacement and strains on the surface of the plate.

  2. Non-destructive evaluation of delamination growth in glass fiber composites using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping; Groves, Roger M.; Benedictus, Rinze

    2014-03-01

    Based on low coherence interferometry, a robust optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has been built. The system was used to monitor the growth of a delamination between the middle layers of a glass fiber composite under a static loading. Firstly specimens of the material used for the spar webs in wind turbines were prepared with an interlaminar crack from free edges. Then they were statically loaded by a customized tensile test stage to extend the delamination length and simultaneously scanned by the OCT system. To process the acquired data, an optimized signal processing algorithm was developed. The cross-sectional images clearly show the microstructure and the crack within the specimen. The 3D crack profiles show the application of OCT to determine the evolution of the crack structure inside the composite material during the propagation of the delamination, for the first time to the best of our knowledge.

  3. Characterization of E-glass/polyester woven fabric composite laminates and tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Stavig, M.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes an experimental study that supported the LDRD program ``A General Approach for Analyzing Composite Structures``. The LDRD was a tightly coupled analytical / experimental effort to develop models for predicting post-yield progressive failure in E-glass fabric/polyester composites subjected to a variety of loading conditions. Elastic properties, fracture toughness parameters, and failure responses were measured on flat laminates, rings and tubes to support the development and validation of material and structural models. Test procedures and results are presented for laminates tested in tension, compression, flexure, short beam shear, double cantilever beam Mode I fracture toughness, and end notched flexure Mode II fracture toughness. Structural responses, including failure, of rings loaded in diametral compression and tubes tested in axial compression, are also documented.

  4. Plasticity-improved Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites containing martensite phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. F.; Wei, B. C.; Wang, Y. R.; Li, W. H.; Cheung, T. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-08-01

    Zr48.5Cu46.5Al5 bulk metallic glass matrix composites with diameters of 3 and 4mm were produced through water-cooled copper mold casting. Micrometer-sized bcc based B2 structured CuZr phase containing martensite plate, together with some densely distributed nanocrystalline Zr2Cu and plate-like Cu10Zr7 compound, was found embedded in a glassy matrix. The microstructure formation strongly depends on the composition and cooling rate. Room temperature compression tests reveal significant strain hardening and plastic strains of 7.7% and 6.4% before failure are obtained for the 3-mm- and 4-mm-diam samples, respectively. The formation of the martensite phase is proposed to contribute to the strain hardening and plastic deformation of the materials.

  5. Highly conductive electrolyte composites containing glass and ceramic, and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hash, Mark C.; Bloom, Ira D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of sodium ion conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800.degree. C.-1200.degree. C.), for example 1000.degree. C., than are typically required (1400.degree. C.) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250.degree. C. with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4.times.10.sup.-2 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250.degree. to 300.degree. C.

  6. Compositional and structural changes at the anodic surface of thermally poled soda-lime float glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemath, E. C.; Araujo, V. D.; Escanhoela, C. A. Jr.

    2008-09-01

    Applying high dc electric fields at elevated temperatures on silicate glasses results in displacement of ions, causing compositional and structural changes in the anodic surface. In this work, the ionic displacement was accompanied by electric current measurements during poling. The thickness of the Na{sup +} depletion layer calculated from the current curves agrees with the thickness measured by EDS only if displacement of Ca{sup 2+} and O{sup -} are also taken into account. A depletion of Ca{sup 2+} in the anodic surface has in fact been observed. Structural changes were confirmed by infrared diffuse and specular reflectance spectroscopies. A narrowing of the band at about 1070 cm{sup -1} can be attributed to an increase in the structural ordering degree. Refractive index measurements confirm compositional changes and contact angle measurements indicate the existence of a negative charge density at the anodic surface.

  7. Plasticity-improved Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites containing martensite phase

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.F.; Wei, B.C.; Wang, Y.R.; Li, W.H.; Cheung, T.L.; Shek, C.H.

    2005-08-01

    Zr{sub 48.5}Cu{sub 46.5}Al{sub 5} bulk metallic glass matrix composites with diameters of 3 and 4 mm were produced through water-cooled copper mold casting. Micrometer-sized bcc based B2 structured CuZr phase containing martensite plate, together with some densely distributed nanocrystalline Zr{sub 2}Cu and plate-like Cu{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} compound, was found embedded in a glassy matrix. The microstructure formation strongly depends on the composition and cooling rate. Room temperature compression tests reveal significant strain hardening and plastic strains of 7.7% and 6.4% before failure are obtained for the 3-mm- and 4-mm-diam samples, respectively. The formation of the martensite phase is proposed to contribute to the strain hardening and plastic deformation of the materials.

  8. Designing metallic glass matrix composites with high toughness and tensile ductility.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Wiest, Aaron; Duan, Gang; Lind, Mary-Laura; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L

    2008-02-28

    The selection and design of modern high-performance structural engineering materials is driven by optimizing combinations of mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, elasticity and requirements for predictable and graceful (non-catastrophic) failure in service. Highly processable bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new class of engineering materials and have attracted significant technological interest. Although many BMGs exhibit high strength and show substantial fracture toughness, they lack ductility and fail in an apparently brittle manner in unconstrained loading geometries. For instance, some BMGs exhibit significant plastic deformation in compression or bending tests, but all exhibit negligible plasticity (<0.5% strain) in uniaxial tension. To overcome brittle failure in tension, BMG-matrix composites have been introduced. The inhomogeneous microstructure with isolated dendrites in a BMG matrix stabilizes the glass against the catastrophic failure associated with unlimited extension of a shear band and results in enhanced global plasticity and more graceful failure. Tensile strengths of approximately 1 GPa, tensile ductility of approximately 2-3 per cent, and an enhanced mode I fracture toughness of K(1C) approximately 40 MPa m(1/2) were reported. Building on this approach, we have developed 'designed composites' by matching fundamental mechanical and microstructural length scales. Here, we report titanium-zirconium-based BMG composites with room-temperature tensile ductility exceeding 10 per cent, yield strengths of 1.2-1.5 GPa, K(1C) up to approximately 170 MPa m(1/2), and fracture energies for crack propagation as high as G(1C) approximately 340 kJ m(-2). The K(1C) and G(1C) values equal or surpass those achievable in the toughest titanium or steel alloys, placing BMG composites among the toughest known materials. PMID:18305540

  9. Piloted Ignition of Polypropylene/Glass Composites in a Forced Air Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Rich, D.; Lautenberger, C.; Stefanovich, A.; Metha, S.; Torero, J.; Yuan, Z.; Ross, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Forced Ignition and Spread Test (FIST) is being used to study the flammability characteristics of combustible materials in forced convective flows. The FIST methodology is based on the ASTM E-1321, Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) which is used to determine the ignition and flame spread characteristics of materials, and to produce 'Flammability Diagrams' of materials. The LIFT apparatus, however, relies on natural convection to bring air to the combustion zone and the fuel vapor to the pilot flame, and thus cannot describe conditions where the oxidizer flow velocity may change. The FIST on the other hand, by relying on a forced flow as the dominant transport mechanism, can be used to examine variable oxidizer flow characteristics, such as velocity, oxygen concentration, and turbulence intensity, and consequently has a wider applicability. Particularly important is its ability to determine the flammability characteristics of materials used in spacecraft since in the absence of gravity the only flow present is that forced by the HVAC of the space facility. In this paper, we report work on the use of the FIST approach on the piloted ignition of a blended polypropylene fiberglass (PP/GL) composite material exposed to an external radiant flux in a forced convective flow of air. The effect of glass concentration under varying external radiant fluxes is examined and compared qualitatively with theoretical predictions of the ignition process. The results are used to infer the effect of glass content on the fire safety characteristics of composites.

  10. Polypropylene/glass fiber hierarchical composites incorporating inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles for advanced technological applications.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Naffakh, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Novel isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/glass fiber (GF) laminates reinforced with inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles as environmentally friendly fillers have been successfully fabricated by simple melt-blending and fiber impregnation in a hot-press without the addition of any compatibilizer. The influence of IF-WS2 concentration on the morphology, viscosity. and thermal and mechanical behavior of the hierarchical composites has been investigated. Results revealed an unprecedented 62 °C increase in the degradation temperature of iPP/GF upon addition of only 4.0 wt % IF-WS2. The coexistence of both micro- and nanoscale fillers resulted in synergistic effects on enhancing the stiffness, strength, crystallinity, thermal stability, glass transition (Tg) and heat distortion temperature (HDT) of the matrix. The approach used in this work is an efficient, versatile, scalable and economic strategy to improve the mechanical and thermal behavior of GF-reinforced thermoplastics with a view to extend their use in advanced technological applications. This new type of composite materials shows great potential to improve the efficiency and sustainability of many forms of transport. PMID:24015820

  11. Composition-structure-property relationships for non-classical ionomer cements formulated with zinc-boron germanium-based glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Boyd, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Non-classical ionomer glasses like those based on zinc-boron-germanium glasses are of special interest in a variety of medical applications owning to their unique combination of properties and potential therapeutic efficacy. These features may be of particular benefit with respect to the utilization of glass ionomer cements for minimally invasive dental applications such as the atruamatic restorative treatment, but also for expanded clinical applications in orthopedics and oral-maxillofacial surgery. A unique system of zinc-boron-germanium-based glasses (10 compositions in total) has been designed using a Design of Mixtures methodology. In the first instance, ionomer glasses were examined via differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and (11)B MAS NMR spectroscopy to establish fundamental composition - structure-property relationships for the unique system. Secondly, cements were synthesized based on each glass and handling characteristics (working time, Wt, and setting time, St) and compression strength were quantified to facilitate the development of both experimental and mathematical composition-structure-property relationships for the new ionomer cements. The novel glass ionomer cements were found to provide Wt, St, and compression strength in the range of 48-132 s, 206-602 s, and 16-36 MPa, respectively, depending on the ZnO/GeO2 mol fraction of the glass phase. A lower ZnO mol fraction in the glass phase provides higher glass transition temperature, higher N4 rate, and in combination with careful modulation of GeO2 mol fraction in the glass phase provides a unique approach to extending the Wt and St of glass ionomer cement without compromising (in fact enhancing) compression strength. The data presented in this work provide valuable information for the formulation of alternative glass ionomer cements for applications within and beyond the dental clinic, especially where conventional approaches to modulating working time and strength exhibit co

  12. Chemistry of Actinides in Molten Glasses and Its Correlation to Structural Performance of Solid Glasses: Filling the Knowledge Gap (Project 81926)

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Boatner, Lynn; Schumacher, Ray F.

    2005-06-25

    This proposal focuses on the following basic objectives to generate critical information for the following research Needs: (a) to conduct spectroscopic speciation of uranium compounds in glass forming melts as a function of the acid-base composition of the glasses and melt temperatures, and to use these data to develop a general thermodynamic model for the dissolution of actinide species in oxidic glass matrices, (b) to build a scientific basis for a new methodology to measure the basicity of glasses via optical spectra of in-situ immobilized actinides and to use this optical basicity as a primary actinide structure indicator for solid glass matrices, (c) to define the local environment of actinides in solid glasses via fluorescence lifetime distribution methods, (d) to correlate the above spectral ''fingerprints'' of actinides in solid and molten glasses with glass stability and the leaching rates of individual actinide species from a glass matrix.

  13. The effect of chemical composition on the PCT durability of mixed waste glasses from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Resce, J.L.; Ragsdale, R.G.; Overcamp, T.J.; Bickford, D.F.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-25

    An experimental program has been designed to examine the chemical durability of glass compositions derived from the vitrification of simulated wastewater treatment sludges. These sludges represent the majority of low-level mixed wastes currently in need of treatment by the US DOE. The major oxides in these model glasses included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, CaO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, three minor oxides, BaO, NiO, and PbO, were added as hazardous metals. The major oxides were each varied at two levels resulting in 32 experimental glasses. The chemical durability was measured by the 7-Day Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized sodium release rates (NRR{sub Na}) of these glasses ranged from 0.01 to 4.99 g/m{sup 2}. The molar ratio of the glass-former to glass-modifier (F/M) was found to have the greatest effect on PCT durability. Glass-formers included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Na{sub 2}O, CaO, BaO, NiO, and PbO were glass-modifiers. As this ratio increased from 0.75 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} was found to decrease between one and two orders of magnitude. Another important effect on NRR{sub Na} was the Na{sub 2}O/CaO ratio. As this ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} increased up to two orders of magnitude for the glasses with the low F/M ratio but almost no effect was observed for the glasses with the high F/M ratio. Increasing the iron oxide content from 2 to 18 mole% was found to decrease NRR{sub Na} one order of magnitude for the glasses with low F/M but iron had little effect on the glasses with the high F/M ratio. The durability also increased when 10 mole percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was included in low iron oxide glasses but no effect was observed with the high iron glasses. The addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} had little effect on durability. The effects of other composition parameters on durability are discussed as well.

  14. Impact glasses from Zhamanshin crater (U.S.S.R.) - Chemical composition and discussion of origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, C.; Fredriksson, K.

    1986-05-01

    Three silica-rich zhamanshinites and one irghizite from the Zhamanshin impact crater (northern Aral area, U.S.S.R.) have been analyzed for up to 40 major, minor, and trace elements. All data point to a clear distinction between these impact glasses and other tektites or impact glasses, e.g. from the Australasian strewn field. Halogens are generally enriched in the irghizites and zhamanshinites when compared to normal splash for tektites, with zhamanshinites enriched more than irghizites. The same holds also for the alkali metals and a number of other volatile elements like Sb and As. Nickel and cobalt are enriched in the irghizite sample to a considerable degree, suggesting meteoritic contamination. This view is also supported by gold and selenium data, but for quantifications other siderophile elements need to be considered. Chromium is not a valid indicator of meteoritic contamination, because small amounts of ultra-basic igneous material may completely alter the picture. The rare earth elements do show a sedimentary pattern, consistent with two or three different source materials and a variation which is probably mostly due to dilution with silica-rich materials. The peak pressure and temperature experienced by the irghizites was lower than for australites or other splash-form tektites, and even lower for zhamanshinites, which is revealed by the content of volatile elements and lesser homogeneity.

  15. MASBAL: A computer program for predicting the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, P.W.

    1987-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for the MASBAL computer program. MASBAL's objectives are to predict the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter based on a knowledge of process conditions; to generate simulated data that can be used to estimate the uncertainty in the predicted glass composition as a function of process uncertainties; and to generate simulated data that can be used to provide a measure of the inherent variability in the glass composition as a function of the inherent variability in the feed composition. These three capabilities are important to nuclear waste glass producers because there are constraints on the range of compositions that can be processed in a ceramic melter and on the range of compositions that will be acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. MASBAL was developed specifically to simulate the operation of the West Valley Component Test system, a commercial-scale ceramic melter system that will process high-level nuclear wastes currently stored in underground tanks at the site of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center (near West Valley, New York). The program is flexible enough, however, to simulate any slurry-fed ceramic melter system. 4 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. GLASS TRANSITION AND DEGREE OF CONVERSION OF A LIGHT-CURED ORTHODONTIC COMPOSITE

    PubMed Central

    Sostena, Michela M. D. S.; Nogueira, Renata A.; Grandini, Carlos R.; Moraes, João Carlos Silos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the glass transition temperature (Tg) and degree of conversion (DC) of a light-cured (Fill Magic) versus a chemically cured (Concise) orthodontic composite. Material and Methods: Anelastic relaxation spectroscopy was used for the first time to determine the Tg of a dental composite, while the DC was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. The light-cured composite specimens were irradiated with a commercial LED light-curing unit using different exposure times (40, 90 and 120 s). Results: Fill Magic presented lower Tg than Concise (35-84°C versus 135°C), but reached a higher DC. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that Fill Magic has lower Tg than Concise due to its higher organic phase content, and that when this light-cured composite is used to bond orthodontic brackets, a minimum energy density of 7.8 J/cm2 is necessary to reach adequate conversion level and obtain satisfactory adhesion. PMID:20027428

  17. Micromechanical Modeling the Plastic Deformation of Particle-Reinforced Bulk Metallic Glass Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunpeng; Shi, Xueping; Qiu, Kun

    2015-08-01

    A micromechanics model was employed to investigate the mechanical performance of particle-reinforced bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites. The roles of shear banding in the tensile deformation are accounted for in characterizing the strength and ductility of ductile particle-filled BMGs. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, shear band was considered to be a micro-crack in the present model. The strain-based Weibull probability distribution function and percolation theory were applied to describe the equivalent micro-crack evolution, which results in the progressive failure of BMG composites. Based on the developed model, the influences of shear bands on the plastic deformation were discussed for various microstructures. The predictions were in fairly good agreement with the experimental data from the literatures, which confirms that the developed analytical model is able to successfully describe the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, strain hardening, and stress softening elongation of composites. The present results will shed some light on optimizing the microstructures in effectively improving the tensile ductility of BMG composites.

  18. Mechanical properties and fabrication of small boat using woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misri, S.; Leman, Z.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ishak, M. R.

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, sugar palm fibre has been found to have great potential to be used as fibre reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. This research investigates the mechanical properties of woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres such as strand mat, natural and hand woven of sugar palm fibres. The composites were fabricated using a compression moulding technique. The tensile and impact test was carried out in accordance to ASTM 5083 and ASTM D256 standard. The fibre glass boat is a familiar material used in boat industry. A lot of research on fabrication process such as lay-up, vacuum infusion mould and resin transfer mould has been conducted. Hybrid material of sugar palm fibre and fibre glass was used in fabricating the boat. This research investigates the method selection for fabrication of small boat application of natural fibre composites. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres; woven glass fibre, strand mat, natural and hand woven of woven sugar palm fibres were prepared. The small boat were fabricated using a compression moulding and lay up technique. The results of the experiment showed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break value and impact strength were higher than the natural woven sugar palm fibre. The best method for fabricating the small boat was compression moulding technique. As a general conclusion, the usage of glass fibre had improved the tensile properties sugar palm fibre composites and compression moulding technique is suitable to be used in making a small boat application of natural fibre composites.

  19. Influence of the curing cycles on the fatigue performance of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüther, Jonas; Brøndsted, Povl

    2016-07-01

    During the manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polymers the curing reaction of the resin results in shrinkage of the resin and introduces internal stresses in the composites. When curing at higher temperatures in order to shorten up the processing time, higher curing stresses and thermal stresses are built up and frozen, as residual stresses occur. In the present work, a glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminate with an unidirectional architecture based on non-crimp fabrics with backing fibers is investigated. Three different curing cycles (time-temperature cycles) are used, leading to different levels of internal stresses. The mechanical properties, static strength and fatigue life time, are measured in three different directions of the material, i.e. the fiber direction, 0°, the 30° off axis direction, and the 90° direction transverse to the fiber direction. It is experimentally demonstrated that the resulting residual stresses barely influences the quasi-static mechanical properties of reinforced glass-fiber composites. It is found that the fatigue performance in the 0° direction is significantly influenced by the internal stresses, whereas the fatigue performance in the off axes directions so is not significantly influenced of these stresses. This is related to the observations that the damage mechanisms in the off axes directions are mainly related to shear failure in the matrix and in the interface between fiber and matrix and different from the damage mechanisms in the fiber direction, where the damage initiates in the transverse backing fibers and is directly related to fiber fractures in the load-carrying axial fiber bundles.

  20. Determination of local debonding stress and investigation of its effect on mechanical properties of glass short fiber reinforced polycarbonate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenjie; Kim, Hyung-ick; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2012-04-01

    Thermoplastic polymers are often reinforced by adding short fibers to improve mechanical properties including Young's modulus and tensile strength of the polymers. In many engineering applications, energy absorbing characteristics in such particulate polymers is known to be a very important property to be considered in composite designs, and meanwhile debonding at the interface between fiber and matrix in the composites may affect the energy absorption properties. Here, the focus of this study is to employ a semi-empirical approach to determine the debonding stress and investigate the effect of the debonding stress on energy absorbing properties of short glass fiber reinforced polycarbonate composites. Glass short fiber reinforced polycarbonate composites are fabricated via a solution mixing technique. Tensile testing and acoustic emission measurement are simultaneously performed for the polycarbonate composites. The test results including toughness are compared for the composites over neat polycarbonate. Also the local debonding stress in the vicinity of each glass fiber in composites is estimated by combining modeling and experiments. A finite element model is developed to determine local debonding stress at the interface between the fiber and matrix. The local debonding stress appears to considerably affect the toughness of the composites.

  1. Microyielding of core-shell crystal dendrites in a bulk-metallic-glass matrix composite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, E. -Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Lee, Wen -Jay; Scheel, Mario; Chuang, Chih -Pin; Liaw, Peter K.; Lo, Yu -Chieh; Zhang, Yong; Di Michiel, Marco

    2014-03-18

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulkmore » metallic-glass matrix composite. As a result, the complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interfaces between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path.« less

  2. Insights from the Lattice-Strain Evolution on Deformation Mechanisms in Metallic-Glass-Matrix Composites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jia, Haoling; Zheng, Lili; Li, Weidong; Li, Nan; Qiao, Junwei; Wang, Gongyao; Ren, Yang; Liaw, Peter K.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-02-18

    In this paper, in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and micromechanics-based finite element simulations have been conducted to examine the lattice-strain evolution in metallic-glass-matrix composites (MGMCs) with dendritic crystalline phases dispersed in the metallic-glass matrix. Significant plastic deformation can be observed prior to failure from the macroscopic stress–strain curves in these MGMCs. The entire lattice-strain evolution curves can be divided into elastic–elastic (denoting deformation behavior of matrix and inclusion, respectively), elastic–plastic, and plastic–plastic stages. Characteristics of these three stages are governed by the constitutive laws of the two phases (modeled by free-volume theory and crystal plasticity) and geometric informationmore » (crystalline phase morphology and distribution). The load-partitioning mechanisms have been revealed among various crystalline orientations and between the two phases, as determined by slip strain fields in crystalline phase and by strain localizations in matrix. Finally, implications on ductility enhancement of MGMCs are also discussed.« less

  3. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    R, Lisha; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Anantharaman, M. R.; T, Hysen; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2015-06-24

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  4. Compressive evaluation of homogeneous and graded epoxy-glass particulate composites.

    PubMed

    Seaglar, J; Rousseau, C-E

    2015-04-01

    The propagation of stress waves in epoxy-glass particulate composites and graded materials was studied experimentally. Materials tested in this study consisted of an epoxy matrix with various concentrations of spherical glass particles having a mean diameter of 42μm. Plate impact experiments were performed using a gas gun. Embedded within the specimens were manganin stress gauges used to record propagating compressive longitudinal stress waves through the material. High strain rate experiments using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) apparatus were also performed to evaluate the dynamic strength of the specimens, while quasi-static compression tests were undertaken to characterize their quasi-static behavior. Ultrasonic wave speed measurements were carried-out in order to obtain additional material properties and characterize the gradation in functionally graded materials (FGM). It was found that low volume fractions of particles are detrimental to the performance of the material under impact loading, while concentrations in the range of about 30 to 45% by volume exhibit characteristics of higher degrees of scattering. This suggests that materials in this latter range would be more effective in the thwarting of destructive shock waves than the homogeneous matrix material. Impact testing of FGM specimens suggests that impact loading on the stiff (high volume fraction) face results in much higher levels of scattering. Therefore, such materials would be effective for use in light weight armor or as shielding materials due to their effective attenuation of mechanical impulses.

  5. Insights from the Lattice-Strain Evolution on Deformation Mechanisms in Metallic-Glass-Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Haoling; Zheng, Lili; Li, Weidong; Li, Nan; Qiao, Junwei; Wang, Gongyao; Ren, Yang; Liaw, Peter K.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-02-18

    In this paper, in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and micromechanics-based finite element simulations have been conducted to examine the lattice-strain evolution in metallic-glass-matrix composites (MGMCs) with dendritic crystalline phases dispersed in the metallic-glass matrix. Significant plastic deformation can be observed prior to failure from the macroscopic stress–strain curves in these MGMCs. The entire lattice-strain evolution curves can be divided into elastic–elastic (denoting deformation behavior of matrix and inclusion, respectively), elastic–plastic, and plastic–plastic stages. Characteristics of these three stages are governed by the constitutive laws of the two phases (modeled by free-volume theory and crystal plasticity) and geometric information (crystalline phase morphology and distribution). The load-partitioning mechanisms have been revealed among various crystalline orientations and between the two phases, as determined by slip strain fields in crystalline phase and by strain localizations in matrix. Finally, implications on ductility enhancement of MGMCs are also discussed.

  6. Structure and dynamics of phosphate glasses: From ultra- to orthophosphate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Loong, C.K.; Price, D.L.; Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.

    1997-07-14

    The short- and intermediate-range order as well as atomic dynamics in various phosphate glasses were investigated using neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering. The 3-D network of corner-sharing PO{sub 4} tetrahedra in g-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is highly unstable and hygroscopic. Depolymerization of the network to chain-like structure and eventually to unconnected PO{sub 4} units by incorporating alkali, alkali-earth or transition-metal modifiers is clearly evident in the structure factor S(Q) in the Q < 4 {angstrom}{sup -1} region. The dynamic response to such structural changes is equally strong: e.g., the broad P-O stretching band extending to 170 meV in g-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is sharpened and shifted down to {approximately}125 meV in the orthophosphate composition. The correlation between the microscopic structure and physical properties for a series of P-glasses is discussed.

  7. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Lisha; T, Hysen; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  8. In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Choong Paul; Hays, Charles C.; Johnson, William L.

    2004-03-23

    A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

  9. In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Choong Paul; Hays, Charles C.; Johnson, William L.

    2007-07-17

    A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

  10. Flexural Properties of E Glass and TR50S Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chensong; Sudarisman; Davies, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    A study on the flexural properties of E glass and TR50S carbon fiber reinforced hybrid composites is presented in this paper. Specimens were made by the hand lay-up process in an intra-ply configuration with varying degrees of glass fibers added to the surface of a carbon laminate. These specimens were then tested in the three-point bend configuration in accordance with ASTM D790-07 at three span-to-depth ratios: 16, 32, and 64. The failure modes were examined under an optical microscope. The flexural behavior was also simulated by finite element analysis, and the flexural modulus, flexural strength, and strain to failure were calculated. It is shown that although span-to-depth ratio shows an influence on the stress-strain relationship, it has no effect on the failure mode. The majority of specimens failed by either in-plane or out-of-plane local buckling followed by kinking and splitting at the compressive GFRP side and matrix cracking combined with fiber breakage at the CFRP tensile face. It is shown that positive hybrid effects exist for the flexural strengths of most of the hybrid configurations. The hybrid effect is noted to be more obvious when the hybrid ratio is small, which may be attributed to the relative position of the GFRP layer(s) with respect to the neutral plane. In contrast to this, flexural modulus seems to obey the rule of mixtures equation.

  11. Wear behavior of light-cured dental composites filled with porous glass-ceramic particles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanni; Liu, Yong; Grover, Liam M; Huang, Baiyun

    2010-01-01

    Wear resistance is still perceived to be one of the most important limiting factors in the long-term performance of dental restorations. Consequently, a range of different materials have been used as filler particles to reduce the rate of wear, particularly in posterior restorations. In this study, novel bioactive glass-ceramic powders exhibiting different nominal calcium-mica to fluorapatite ratios were used as fillers for light-cured dental composites. Wear tests on the resulting samples were undertaken using a micro-tribometer with a linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry using lubrication from artificial saliva. The surfaces of the worn composites were then evaluated using optical microscopy. In order to enhance matrix bonding, the surfaces of the different particulates were treated using hydrofluoric acid to provide a porous surface and the resulting surface morphology was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Although in the case of the samples containing low fluorapatite contents (20 wt%; A2), surface etching enhanced the wear resistance of the composite, etching reduced the wear resistance of materials containing 50 wt% fluorapatite (A5). The reduction in wear resistance was attributed to the friability of the A5 particles following surface treatment. This suggests that in order to optimize wear resistance, it is important to find a critical balance between surface roughness and porosity and the strength of individual particles.

  12. Tribological and Mechanical Behaviors of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber Composite Filled with Various Solid Lubricants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Duxin; Xie, Ying; Li, Wenjuan; You, Yilan; Deng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF) were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study. PMID:23766687

  13. Tribological and mechanical behaviors of polyamide 6/glass fiber composite filled with various solid lubricants.

    PubMed

    Li, Duxin; Xie, Ying; Li, Wenjuan; You, Yilan; Deng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF) were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study. PMID:23766687

  14. Tribological and mechanical behaviors of polyamide 6/glass fiber composite filled with various solid lubricants.

    PubMed

    Li, Duxin; Xie, Ying; Li, Wenjuan; You, Yilan; Deng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF) were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  15. Wear behavior of light-cured dental composites filled with porous glass-ceramic particles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanni; Liu, Yong; Grover, Liam M; Huang, Baiyun

    2010-01-01

    Wear resistance is still perceived to be one of the most important limiting factors in the long-term performance of dental restorations. Consequently, a range of different materials have been used as filler particles to reduce the rate of wear, particularly in posterior restorations. In this study, novel bioactive glass-ceramic powders exhibiting different nominal calcium-mica to fluorapatite ratios were used as fillers for light-cured dental composites. Wear tests on the resulting samples were undertaken using a micro-tribometer with a linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry using lubrication from artificial saliva. The surfaces of the worn composites were then evaluated using optical microscopy. In order to enhance matrix bonding, the surfaces of the different particulates were treated using hydrofluoric acid to provide a porous surface and the resulting surface morphology was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Although in the case of the samples containing low fluorapatite contents (20 wt%; A2), surface etching enhanced the wear resistance of the composite, etching reduced the wear resistance of materials containing 50 wt% fluorapatite (A5). The reduction in wear resistance was attributed to the friability of the A5 particles following surface treatment. This suggests that in order to optimize wear resistance, it is important to find a critical balance between surface roughness and porosity and the strength of individual particles. PMID:19878904

  16. Durability of self-healing woven glass fabric/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Tao; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Zhao, Jian Qing

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the durability of the healing capability of self-healing woven glass fabric/epoxy laminates was investigated. The composites contained a two-component healing system with epoxy-loaded urea-formaldehyde microcapsules as the polymerizable binder and CuBr2(2-methylimidazole)4 (CuBr2(2-MeIm)4) as the latent hardener. It was found that the healing efficiency of the laminates firstly decreased with storage time at room temperature, and then leveled off for over two months. By means of a systematic investigation and particularly verification tests with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), diffusion of epoxy monomer from the microcapsules due to volumetric contraction of the composites during manufacturing was found to be the probable cause. The diffusing sites on the microcapsules were eventually blocked because the penetrated resin was gradually cured by the remnant amine curing agent in the composites' matrix, and eventually the healing ability was no longer reduced after a longer storage time. The results should help to develop approaches for improving the service stability of the laminates.

  17. Dynamic Deformation Behaviors of an In Situ Ti-Based Metallic Glass Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, R. F.; Zhang, T. W.; Yang, H. J.; Qiao, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Quasi-static and dynamic deformation behaviors, fracture characteristics, and microstructural evolution of an in situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composite: Ti50Zr20V10Cu5Be15 within a wide range of strain rates are investigated. Compared with the quasi-static compression, the yielding stress increases, but the macroscopic plasticity significantly decreases upon dynamic compression. The effects of the strain rate on strain hardening upon quasi-static loading and flow stress upon dynamic loading are evaluated, respectively. The Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) model based on dendrite-dominated mechanism is employed to further uncover the dependence of the yielding stress on the strain rate.

  18. Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with Kevlar/carbon/glass woven fabrics for ballistic impact testing.

    PubMed

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Jalil, Nawal Aswan Abdul; Majid, Dayang Laila Abang Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  19. Atomic interaction mechanism for designing the interface of W/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z. K.; Fu, H. M.; Sha, P. F.; Zhu, Z. W.; Wang, A. M.; Li, H.; Zhang, H. W.; Zhang, H. F.; Hu, Z. Q.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between active element Zr and W damages the W fibers and the interface and decreases the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength of the W fibers reinforced Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs). From the viewpoint of atomic interaction, the W-Zr interaction can be restrained by adding minor elements that have stronger interaction with W into the alloy. The calculation about atomic interaction energy indicates that Ta and Nb preferred to segregate on the W substrate surface. Sessile drop experiment proves the prediction and corresponding in-situ coating appears at the interface. Besides, the atomic interaction mechanism was proven to be effective in many other systems by the sessile drop technique. Considering the interfacial morphology, Nb was added into the alloy to fabricate W/Zr-based BMGCs. As expected, the Nb addition effectively suppressed the W-Zr reaction and damage to W fibers. Both the compressive and tensile properties are improved obviously. PMID:25758910

  20. Hybrid Composite Laminates Reinforced with Kevlar/Carbon/Glass Woven Fabrics for Ballistic Impact Testing

    PubMed Central

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Abdul Jalil, Nawal Aswan; Abang Abdul Majid, Dayang Laila

    2014-01-01

    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers. PMID:24955400

  1. Glass fiber-reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Babu, Gkl; Sunny, R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR) as a space maintainer and to compare it with a conventional band-and-loop space maintainer. A total of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) aged 6-8 years were selected for the study. Each of these children required maintenance of space due to premature loss of primary first molars in at least two quadrants. In one quadrant, a GFRCR space maintainer was applied and in the other quadrant a band-and-loop space maintainer was cemented. Patients were recalled at regular intervals over 12 months and retention of both the types of space maintainers was evaluated. The retention of the GFRCR space maintainer was found to be superior to that of the band-and-loop space maintainer, but this difference was not statistically significant.

  2. Glass-fiber reinforced composite in management of avulsed central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, M Yalçin; Kargül, Betül

    2004-01-01

    Reimplantation failure of avulsed anterior tooth in an adolescent patient requires removal of the failed tooth and consideration of restorative options. These options may include a removable partial denture, conventional 3-unit fixed partial denture, implant, or a resin-bonded appliance with a metal substructure (Maryland bridge). The glass-fiber reinforced composite material (everSTICK, StickTech Ltd, Turku, Finland) offers a restorative solution that is conservative and esthetic when compared to other restorations. Advantages include reduction of cost compared to conventional bridges, saving of time, elimination of second visit, ease of application, absence of metal allergy, ease of cleaning, and naturalness of feel. Its limitations include occlusal factors, and the presence of unsuitable abutment teeth. Another traditional contraindication is the presence of diastemas, which may limit the potential esthetic gains. This case of an 11-year-old girl, addresses the indications, preparation guidelines, and restorative procedures for an everSTICK bridge. PMID:15272660

  3. The ACEE program and basic composites research at Langley Research Center (1975 to 1986): Summary and bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Marvin B.

    1987-01-01

    Composites research conducted at the Langley Research Center during the period from 1975 to 1986 is described, and an annotated bibliography of over 600 documents (with their abstracts) is presented. The research includes Langley basic technology and the composite primary structures element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program. The basic technology documents cited in the bibliography are grouped according to the research activity such as design and analysis, fatigue and fracture, and damage tolerance. The ACEE documents cover development of composite structures for transport aircraft.

  4. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding. PMID:26932846

  5. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding.

  6. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites.

    PubMed

    Khanolkar, Gauri R; Rauls, Michael B; Kelly, James P; Graeve, Olivia A; Hodge, Andrea M; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding. PMID:26932846

  7. Use of woven glass fibres to reinforce a composite veneer. A fracture resistance and acoustic emission study.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to reinforce the mechanically interlocked veneer of a porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crown by woven glass fibre. A simulated situation to repair a fractured porcelain veneer was used in the experimental test set-up. A brass jig made into the shape of a framework of PFM maxillary central incisor crown with a retentive area at the palatal side of the incisal edge was used. A veneer were made with a restorative hybrid composite on the brass jig (control group). In the test groups, one or two layers of woven polymer pre-impregnated glass fibres (thickness: 0.06 mm/layer) were used by pressing the fibre weaves to the surface of the brass jig. Restorative hybrid composite was applied on the glass fibre weaves. Five veneers were made for all groups and the veneers were not cemented on the test jig. The veneers were loaded from the incisal edge until fracture occurred. The force was measured simultaneously with an acoustic emission analysis (AE) of the fracture propagation. Fracture force values for control veneers were 121 N and for those reinforced with one layer of glass fibres 399 N and for those reinforced with two layers of glass fibres 744 N ANOVA revealed significant difference between the mean values (P=0.003). The AE analysis showed different fracture propagation for the unreinforced and glass fibre reinforced veneers. The results of this study suggests that by placing two layers of woven glass fibres on the retentively shaped metal framework of the PFM crown before applying the restorative composite, considerably higher fracture resistance for the veneer could be obtained.

  8. Variations in K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion exchange depth in commercial and experimental float glass compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, C.W.; LaCourse, W.C.; O'Connell, M.J.

    1999-12-01

    The authors report the results of ion-exchange experiments conducted on 17 commercial soda-lime-silicate (SLS) float glass and 8 experimental SLS glass compositions. A significant variation in the depth of K{sup +} penetration with relatively small changes in composition was observed. The data were fit to a multiple regression model in which the major oxides are the independent variables and depth of K{sup +} is the dependent variable. The model indicates that increased depth of exchange (increased interdiffusion coefficient) correlates predominantly with increased K{sub 2}O and/or Na{sub 2}O content of the glass, with a decreased total alkaline earth content and with the ratio of CaO/MgO.

  9. Influence of Copper Layer Content in the Elastic and Damping Behavior of Glass-Fiber/Epoxy-Resin Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, V. H.; Capela, P.; Teixeira, J. C.; Teixeira, S.; Cerqueira, F.; Macedo, F.; Ribas, L.; Soares, D.

    2016-06-01

    The impact in the elastic behavior and internal friction, caused by the introduction of Copper layers in Glass-Fiber/Epoxy Resin composites and temperature effects, were studied and evaluated recurring to Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. It is shown that the introduction of Copper layers increases the storage modulus of the composites and delays their glass transition temperature, however, it allows a faster transformation. Additionally, it is concluded that the introduction of Copper layers elevates the internal friction during the glass transition phase by the inversion of the deformation mechanism due to thermal expansion and increase in the Poisson's ratio of the epoxy resin to a value near 0.5 where its deformation is approximately isochoric. This increase in damping capacity is relevant in application with cyclic fatigue and mechanical vibration.

  10. Influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of acidic, neutral and basic polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Chi; Zhao, Xia; Pu, Jiang-Hua; Luan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Monosaccharide composition analysis is important for structural characterization of polysaccharides. To investigate the influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides, we chose alginate, starch, chitosan and chondroitin sulfate as representative of acidic, neutral, basic and complex polysaccharides to compare the release degree of monosaccharides under different hydrolytic conditions. The hydrolysis stability of 10 monosaccharide standards was also explored. Results showed that the basic sugars were hard to release but stable, the acidic sugars (uronic acids) were easy to release but unstable, and the release and stability of neutral sugars were in between acidic and basic sugars. In addition, the hydrolysis process was applied to monosaccharide composition analysis of Hippocampus trimaculatus polysaccharide and the appropriate hydrolytic condition was accorded with that of the above four polysaccharides. Thus, different hydrolytic conditions should be used for the monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides based on their structural characteristics. PMID:27083372

  11. Effect of Si and Fe doping on calcium phosphate glass fibre reinforced polycaprolactone bone analogous composites.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, M Shah; Ahmed, I; Muja, N; Almeida, S; Rudd, C D; Bureau, M N; Nazhat, S N

    2012-04-01

    Reinforcing biodegradable polymers with phosphate-based glass fibres (PGF) is of interest for bone repair and regeneration. In addition to increasing the mechanical properties, PGF can also release bioinorganics, as they are water soluble, a property that may be controllably translated into a fully degradable composite. Herein, the effect of Si and Fe on the solubility of calcium-containing phosphate-based glasses (PG) in the system (50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-(10-x)SiO(2)-xFe(2)O(3), where x=0, 5 and 10 mol.%) were investigated. On replacing SiO(2) with Fe(2)O(3), there was an increase in the glass transition temperature and density of the PG, suggesting greater crosslinking of the phosphate chains. This significantly reduced the dissolution rates of degradation and ion release. Two PG formulations, 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-10Fe(2)O(3) (Fe10) and 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Fe(2)O(3)-5SiO(2) (Fe5Si5), were melt drawn into fibres and randomly incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL). Initially, the flexural strength and modulus significantly increased with PGF incorporation. In deionized water, PCL-Fe(5)Si(5) displayed a significantly greater weight loss and ion release compared with PCL-Fe10. In simulated body fluid, brushite was formed only on the surface of PCL-Fe(5)Si(5). Dynamic mechanical analysis in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C revealed that the PCL-Fe10 storage modulus (E') was unchanged up to day 7, whereas the onset of PCL-Fe(5)Si(5)E' decrease occurred at day 4. At longer-term ageing in PBS, PCL-Fe(5)Si(5) flexural strength and modulus decreased significantly. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts seeded onto PCL-PGF grew up to day 7 in culture. PGF can be used to control the properties of biodegradable composites for potential application as bone fracture fixation devices.

  12. Innovative approach to the design of low-cost Zr-based BMG composites with good glass formation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jia-Lin; Chen, Guang; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Li, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The high manufacturing cost for metallic glasses hampers actual commercial applications of this class of fascinating materials. In this letter, the effect of oxygen impurity on the glass forming ability and tensile properties of Zr-BMG composites were studied. Our results have demonstrated that oxygen was absorbed and concentrated only in the precipitated β-Zr phase, leading that the remainder molten metal retains good glass forming ability. The high oxygen concentration in the β-Zr phase induces a significant solid-solution strengthening effect, this resulting in an enhanced strength of the BMG composites without sacrificing their overall ductility. Based on this alloying strategy, we have successfully developed the low-cost Zr-based BMG composites with excellent tensile properties and good glass forming ability, using the low grade industrial raw materials processed under industrial vacuum systems. This finding is expected to greatly cut down the manufacturing cost and greatly promote the commercial applications of the BMG composites. PMID:23807140

  13. The effect of heat treatment on the magnitude and composition of residual gas in sealed silica glass ampoules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    The residual gas pressure and composition in sealed silica glass ampoules as a function of different treatment procedures has been investigated. The dependence of the residual gas on the outgassing and annealing parameters has been determined. The effects of the fused silica brand, of the ampoule fabrication, and of post-outgassing procedures have been evaluated.

  14. Experimental studies of glass refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.; Kondos, P.

    1984-01-01

    The basic components of the experimental apparatus were selected and acquired. Techniques were developed for the fabrication of the special crucibles necessary for the experiments. Arrangements were made for the analysis of glass and gas bubble samples for composition information. Donations of major equipment were received for this project from Owens, Illinois where a similar study had been conducted a few year ago. Decisions were made regarding the actual glass composition to be used, the gas to be used in the first experiments, and the temperatures at which the experiments should be conducted. A microcomputer was acquired, and work was begun on interfacing the video analyzer to it.

  15. A Novel Injectable Calcium Phosphate Cement-Bioactive Glass Composite for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kang; Tang, Yufei; Cheng, Zhe; Chen, Jun; Zang, Yuan; Wu, Jianwei; Kong, Liang; Liu, Shuai; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) can be molded or injected to form a scaffold in situ, which intimately conforms to complex bone defects. Bioactive glass (BG) is known for its unique ability to bond to living bone and promote bone growth. However, it was not until recently that literature was available regarding CPC-BG applied as an injectable graft. In this paper, we reported a novel injectable CPC-BG composite with improved properties caused by the incorporation of BG into CPC. Materials and Methods The novel injectable bioactive cement was evaluated to determine its composition, microstructure, setting time, injectability, compressive strength and behavior in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The in vitro cellular responses of osteoblasts and in vivo tissue responses after the implantation of CPC-BG in femoral condyle defects of rabbits were also investigated. Results CPC-BG possessed a retarded setting time and markedly better injectability and mechanical properties than CPC. Moreover, a new Ca-deficient apatite layer was deposited on the composite surface after immersing immersion in SBF for 7 days. CPC-BG samples showed significantly improved degradability and bioactivity compared to CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, the degrees of cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation on CPC-BG were higher than those on CPC. Macroscopic evaluation, histological evaluation, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis showed that CPC-BG enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation in comparison with CPC. Conclusions A novel CPC-BG composite has been synthesized with improved properties exhibiting promising prospects for bone regeneration. PMID:23638115

  16. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  17. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th 16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalm, O.; Caluwé, D.; Wouters, H.; Janssens, K.; Verhaeghe, F.; Pieters, M.

    2004-10-01

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Façon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century.

  18. Phase composition identification and microstructure of BaTiO3-containing sodium-aluminoborosilicate glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harizanova, Ruzha; Abrashev, Miroslav; Avramova, Ivalina; Vladislavova, Liliya; Bocker, Christian; Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Avdeev, Georgi; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Bulk glasses with a composition 20.1Na2O/23.1BaO/23.0TiO2/7.6B2O3/17.4SiO2/3Al2O3/5.8Fe2O3 containing less than 30 mol% glass-forming oxides are synthesized. Information on the valency of the glass constituents is obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and it is concluded that all species are predominantly present in their oxidized state. Glassy samples are annealed above the glass transition temperature which leads to the crystallization of BaTiO3 for all time-temperature applied schedules. The phase composition of the glass-ceramics is studied by x-ray diffraction and the formation of cubic BaTiO3 is suggested. Temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of solely cubic BaTiO3. The microstructures of all annealed samples are similar and consist of globular interconnected particles in which nanosized BaTiO3 crystals grow randomly. The mean size of the spherical formations increases with the increasing annealing time from 200 to 600 nm. Electron microscopy suggests that during the annealing process first phase separation and then crystallization of BaTiO3 occurs.

  19. Analysis of nanostructure and nanochemistry by ASAXS: Accessing phase composition of oxyfluoride glass ceramics doped with Er3+/Yb3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Sylvio; Hoell, Armin; Wurth, Roman; Rüssel, Christian; Boesecke, Peter; Vainio, Ulla

    2010-05-01

    Here, we describe the analysis of the nanostructure and average chemical compositions of each phase present in an oxyfluoride glass ceramic, which is composed of fluoride nanocrystals and an oxide glass matrix. The overall composition of the oxyfluoride glass ceramic as prepared is 21.1%SiO26.5%B2O37.0%Al2O321.0%PbF214.3%CdF211.0%YbF30.5%ErF311.0%PbO7.6%CdO(mole%) . Nanocrystals begin to grow at temperatures above the glass transformation temperature at 678 K as observed by x-ray diffraction. We report results from anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering taken at energies of x-ray absorption edges of Er, Yb, Pb, and Cd. By nonlinear regression of the scattering curves obtained from different edges simultaneously, the nanocrystals were found to be describable as polydisperse spheroids. The length of the smaller axis was found to be 6.4±1.4nm while the larger axis was found to be 17.7±3.9nm . By analyzing the scattering contrast as a function of the x-ray energy we found cadmium only in the glass matrix.

  20. Use of nanoclay to improve the fire performance of glass fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q.; Ngo, T.; Moinuddin, K.; Mendis, P.

    2013-08-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the fire performance of fibre composites so that they can be used in infrastructure applications. Nanoparticles from clay has been well known as a potential precursor of nanocomposites because of the significant improvement in mechanical properties and their availability. Nanoclay contains very thin layers of silicates, in which the octahedral sheet of alumina is sandwiched between two tetrahedral sheets of silica. Montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay, the most widely used type, is often treated with cation-organic surfactants to render it organophilic. The addition of 3-5% organophilic clay into polymeric matrix can enhance the mechanical and thermal performance of the nanocomposite. Most research projects on clay nanocomposites were carried out with more focus on their improvement of mechanical properties. However, the effect of nanoclay on the fire performance of hybrid composites has not been covered comprehensively. In this study, the effect of organoclay on the fire performance of the hybrid nanocomposite was investigated. Epoxy and glass fibre reinforcement were chosen as they have been proven to be more suitable and feasible for civil infrastructure applications. The fire characteristics of the hybrid nanocomposite were evaluated using cone calorimeter tests conducted according to ISO 5660-1.

  1. Fluoride release and uptake from glass ionomer cements and composite resins.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, P; Miranda, L A; Maltz, M; Samuel, S M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate fluoride release and uptake from 4 glass ionomer cements (GICs)--Vitremer (VIT), Fuji II LC (FII LC), Fuji IX (FIX), Chelon Fill (CHE)--and 2 composite resins (CRs)--Heliomolar (H) and Zeta-100 (Z-100). Eight discs (8 mm x 2 mm) were made of each material and were stored in plastic vials containing artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. In group 1 (N = 3), the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva which was changed daily for 25 days. In group 2 (N = 5), besides receiving the same treatment as group 1, the specimens were immersed, after 24 hours, in a fluoride solution (1% NaF) for 1 min before daily saliva change. An ion-specific electrode (9609 BN-Orion) connected to an ion analyzer (SA-720 Procyon) was used to determine the amount of fluoride released at days 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Friedman's test. GICs released more fluoride during the first day and after this period the mean fluoride released decreased. Composite resin H released fluoride during the first day only and Z-100 did not release fluoride. In terms of NaF treatment, CRs did not show fluoride uptake, whereas the GICs showed fluoride uptake (VIT = FII LC = CHE > FIX).

  2. A Tensile Deformation Model for In-situ Dendrite/Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, J. W.; Zhang, T.; Yang, F. Q.; Liaw, P. K.; Pauly, S.; Xu, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    In-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a composition of Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 exhibit ultimate tensile strength of 1510 MPa and fracture strain of about 7.6%. A tensile deformation model is established, based on the five-stage classification: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (yield platform), (4) plastic-plastic (work hardening), and (5) plastic-plastic (softening) stages, analogous to the tensile behavior of common carbon steels. The constitutive relations strongly elucidate the tensile deformation mechanism. In parallel, the simulation results by a finite-element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the experimental findings and theoretical calculations. The present study gives a mathematical model to clarify the work-hardening behavior of dendrites and softening of the amorphous matrix. Furthermore, the model can be employed to simulate the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite/MGMCs. PMID:24085187

  3. Fluoride release and uptake from glass ionomer cements and composite resins.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, P; Miranda, L A; Maltz, M; Samuel, S M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate fluoride release and uptake from 4 glass ionomer cements (GICs)--Vitremer (VIT), Fuji II LC (FII LC), Fuji IX (FIX), Chelon Fill (CHE)--and 2 composite resins (CRs)--Heliomolar (H) and Zeta-100 (Z-100). Eight discs (8 mm x 2 mm) were made of each material and were stored in plastic vials containing artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. In group 1 (N = 3), the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva which was changed daily for 25 days. In group 2 (N = 5), besides receiving the same treatment as group 1, the specimens were immersed, after 24 hours, in a fluoride solution (1% NaF) for 1 min before daily saliva change. An ion-specific electrode (9609 BN-Orion) connected to an ion analyzer (SA-720 Procyon) was used to determine the amount of fluoride released at days 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Friedman's test. GICs released more fluoride during the first day and after this period the mean fluoride released decreased. Composite resin H released fluoride during the first day only and Z-100 did not release fluoride. In terms of NaF treatment, CRs did not show fluoride uptake, whereas the GICs showed fluoride uptake (VIT = FII LC = CHE > FIX). PMID:11210268

  4. A Dynamic Transient Model to Simulate the Time Dependent Pultrusion Process of Glass/Polyester Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrieh, Mahmood M.; Mahmoud Aghdami, Ashkan

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel dynamic transient model to simulate the time dependent pultrusion process of glass/polyester composites. The model is able to simulate the resin curing process systematically. The resin curing process is divided in two liquid and gel-solid phases. Physical properties of the resin including resin specific heat, viscosity and thermal conductivity change by altering the resin temperature and the degree of cure. It is shown that in liquid and gel-solid phases, some of the resin physical properties have significant role in heat transfer phenomenon and affect simulation results. The physical and mechanical properties of fibers do not change during the curing process of composites; therefore, an equivalent material is introduced instead of the resin-fiber compound. The model simulates the heat generation during the resin curing process. The degree of cure of the resin, used for the resin viscosity calculation, is an important parameter indicating the final stage of simulation of resin curing process. The components of the model are integrated in a finite element method. As case studies, the process of pultrusion of circular, rectangular and I cross-sections are simulated by the model. The results show that the model is able to simulate the pultrusion process very well.

  5. Experimental/numerical study of anisotropic water diffusion in glass/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, I. B. C. M.; Raijmaekers, S.; Nijssen, R. P. L.; van der Meer, F. P.; Sluys, L. J.

    2016-07-01

    In this work a glass/epoxy composite commonly used in wind turbine blades is exposed to a humid environment at an elevated temperature. To research the anisotropic diffusion behaviour observed in unidirectional composite specimens, experimental results of slices cut along the three directional planes of the laminate immersed in demineralised water at 50° C are coupled with numerical modelling. The weight of the slices was measured at regular intervals, from which the uptake behaviour could be deduced. The process was modelled using a 3-dimensional RVE of the material, where diffusion is modelled as steady-state and the diffusivity in each direction was measured by applying concentration gradients to the model. The experimental data shows similar water uptake behaviour for samples in both transverse directions, while the water uptake in the fibre direction was significantly faster. A proper fit according to Fick's law was obtained for the transverse direction, while this was not possible for the samples in fibre direction, suggesting a strong dependency of the diffusion behaviour on the fibre orientation. Results from the proposed numerical models show that the geometric effect of fibres acting as barriers for the water movement is indeed responsible for part of the observed anisotropy.

  6. Glass composition and process for sealing void spaces in electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Kirby, Brent W.

    2012-05-01

    A glass foaming material and method are disclosed for filling void spaces in electrochemical devices. The glass material includes a reagent that foams at a temperature above the softening point of the glass. Expansion of the glass fills void spaces including by-pass and tolerance channels of electrochemical devices. In addition, cassette to cassette seals can also be formed while channels and other void spaces are filled, reducing the number of processing steps needed.

  7. Hybrid carbon-glass fiber/toughened epoxy thick composites subject to drop-weight and ballistic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevkat, Ercan

    The goals of this study are to investigate the low velocity and ballistic impact response of thick-section hybrid fiber composites at room temperature. Plain-woven S2-Glass and IM7 Graphite fabrics are chosen as fiber materials reinforcing the SC-79 epoxy. Four different types of composites consisting of alternating layers of glass and graphite woven fabric sheets are considered. Tensile tests are conducted using 98 KN (22 kip) MTS testing machine equipped with environmental chamber. Low-velocity impact tests are conducted using an Instron-Dynatup 8250 impact test machine equipped with an environmental chamber. Ballistic impact tests are performed using helium pressured high-speed gas-gun. Tensile tests results were used to define the material behavior of the hybrid and non-hybrid composites in Finite Element modeling. The low velocity and ballistic impact tests showed that hybrid composites performance was somewhere between non-hybrid woven composites. Using woven glass fabrics as outer skin improved the impact performance of woven graphite composite. However hybrid composites are prone to delamination especially between dissimilar layers. The ballistic limit velocity V50 hybrid composites were higher that of woven graphite composite and lower than that of woven glass composite. Both destructive cross-sectional micrographs and nondestructive ultrasonic techniques are used to evaluate the damage created by impact. The Finite Element code LS-DYNA is chosen to perform numerical simulations of low velocity and ballistic impact on thick-section hybrid composites. The damage progression in these composites shows anisotropic nonlinearity. The material model to describe this behavior is not available in LS-DYNA material library. Initially, linear orthotropic material with damage (Chan-Chan Model) is employed to simulate some of the experimental results. Then, user-defined material subroutine is incorporated into LS-DYNA to simulate the nonlinear behavior. The

  8. Water content, speciation and isotopic composition in volcanic glass: an open window on magma degassing processes or paleoclimate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Erwan; Bindeman, Ilya; Balan, Etienne; Palandri, Jim; Seligman, Angela; Villemant, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The content, speciation and isotopic composition of water in volcanic glass have been used for decades as recorder of magma degassing or late glass rehydration processes. Magmatic or paleoclimate information are derived depending on the primary (magmatic) or meteoric (secondary) origin of water. In this study, we attempt to discriminate residual magmatic from secondary meteoric water in volcanic glass. Using samples from different geological settings and different climatic conditions, we show that the H-isotope composition and water content measured via a TC/EA-MAT253 system in volcanic glass alone are not always sufficient to provide clear distinction between magmatic and meteoric origin. However, it is quite easy to resolve δD evolution during post-deposit rehydration by meteoric water from magma degassing when volcanic glass have a δD <-100‰ or >-50‰ and [H2O]tot >1.5-2wt.%. Water speciation inferred from near-infrared spectroscopy also provides valuable information complementary to isotopic and total water measurements. During magma degassing (typically with [H2O]tot decreasing from 6wt.% to ~0wt.% water) H2O/OH is expected to decrease from 2 to close to 0. However, our dataset shows the opposite trend with an increase of H2O/OH from 2 to ~5. We interpret it as post deposit rehydration of the volcanic glass. Overall our results show that the discrimination of the water origin is essential to discuss magma degassing processes or paleoclimatic reconstitutions. The present study of hydrous glass supports the use of H-isotopes of volcanic glass to discuss paleoclimate reconstitution in a specific region. To this purpose, the volcanic glass has to be almost fully rehydrated in order to fingerprint the isotopic composition of the rehydration water. A sharp time constrain can be obtained if the full rehydration occurs quickly after the eruption. This is most likely to occur in meters thick volcanic pyroclast deposits that undergo slow cooling rates and thus can

  9. TRANSMISSION OF COMPOSITE POLYMERIZATION CONTRACTION FORCE THROUGH A FLOWABLE COMPOSITE AND A RESIN-MODIFIED GLASS IONOMER CEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Pereira, Rosana Aparecida; Cavalcanti, Ana Paula; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the individual contraction force during polymerization of a composite resin (Z-250), a flowable composite (Filtek Flow, FF) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond, VB), and the transmission of Z-250 composite resin polymerization contraction force through different thicknesses of FF and VB. The experiment setup consisted of two identical parallel steel plates connected to a universal testing machine. One was fixed to a transversal base and the other to the equipment's cross head. The evaluated materials were inserted into a 1-mm space between the steel plates or between the inferior steel plate and a previously polymerized layer of an intermediate material (either FF or VB) adhered to the upper steel plate. The composite resin was light-cured with a halogen lamp with light intensity of 500 mW/cm2 for 60 s. A force/time graph was obtained for each sample for up to 120 s. Seven groups of 10 specimens each were evaluated: G1: Z-250; G2: FF; G3: VB; G4: Z-250 through a 0.5-mm layer of FF; G5: Z-250 through a 1-mm layer of FF; G6: Z-250 through a 0.5-mm of VB; G7: Z-250 through a 1-mm layer of VB. They were averaged and compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test at a = 0.05. The obtained contraction forces were: G1: 6.3N ± 0.2N; G2: 9.8 ± 0.2N; G3: 1.8 ± 0.2N; G4: 6.8N ± 0.2N; G5: 6.9N ± 0.3N; G6: 4.0N ± 0.4N and G7: 2.8N ± 0.4N. The use of VB as an intermediate layer promoted a significant decrease in polymerization contraction force values of the restorative system, regardless of material thickness. The use of FF as an intermediate layer promoted an increase in polymerization contraction force values with both material thicknesses. PMID:19089187

  10. Transmission of composite polymerization contraction force through a flowable composite and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Pereira, Rosana Aparecida; Cavalcanti, Ana Paula; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the individual contraction force during polymerization of a composite resin (Z-250), a flowable composite (Filtek Flow, FF) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond, VB), and the transmission of Z-250 composite resin polymerization contraction force through different thicknesses of FF and VB. The experiment setup consisted of two identical parallel steel plates connected to a universal testing machine. One was fixed to a transversal base and the other to the equipment's cross head. The evaluated materials were inserted into a 1-mm space between the steel plates or between the inferior steel plate and a previously polymerized layer of an intermediate material (either FF or VB) adhered to the upper steel plate. The composite resin was light-cured with a halogen lamp with light intensity of 500 mW/cm(2) for 60 s. A force/time graph was obtained for each sample for up to 120 s. Seven groups of 10 specimens each were evaluated: G1: Z-250; G2: FF; G3: VB; G4: Z-250 through a 0.5-mm layer of FF; G5: Z-250 through a 1-mm layer of FF; G6: Z-250 through a 0.5-mm of VB; G7: Z-250 through a 1-mm layer of VB. They were averaged and compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test at a = 0.05. The obtained contraction forces were: G1: 6.3N + 0.2N; G2: 9.8 + 0.2N; G3: 1.8 + 0.2N; G4: 6.8N + 0.2N; G5: 6.9N + 0.3N; G6: 4.0N + 0.4N and G7: 2.8N + 0.4N. The use of VB as an intermediate layer promoted a significant decrease in polymerization contraction force values of the restorative system, regardless of material thickness. The use of FF as an intermediate layer promoted an increase in polymerization contraction force values with both material thicknesses.

  11. Monitoring chemical degradation of thermally cycled glass-fibre composites using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, V. M.; Müller, B.; Hagenbeek, M.; Sinke, J.; Groves, R. M.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the application of glass-fibre composites in light-weight structures is growing. Although mechanical characterizations of those structures are commonly performed in testing, chemical changes of materials under stresses have not yet been well documented. In the present work coupon tests and Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) have been used to categorise possible chemical changes of glass-fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) which are currently used in the aircraft industry. HSI is a hybrid technique that combines spectroscopy with imaging. It is able to detect chemical degradation of surfaces and has already been successfully applied in a wide range of fields including astronomy, remote sensing, cultural heritage and medical sciences. GFRP specimens were exposed to two different thermal loading conditions. One thermal loading condition was a continuous thermal exposure at 120°C for 24h, 48 h and 96h, i.e. ageing at a constant temperature. The other thermal loading condition was thermal cycling with three different numbers of cycles (4000, 8000, 12000) and two temperature ranges (0°C to 120°C and -25°C to 95°C). The effects of both conditions were measured using both HSI and interlaminar shear (ILSS) tests. No significant changes of the physical properties of the thermally cycled GFRP specimens were detected using interlaminar shear strength tests and optical microscopy. However, when using HIS, differences of the surface conditions were detected. The results showed that the different thermal loading conditions could be successfully clustered in different colours, using the HSI linear unmixing technique. Each different thermal loading condition showed a different chemical degradation level on its surface which was indicated using different colours.

  12. Effect of Matrix Modification on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhixiong; Li, Jingwen; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

    In order to investigate the effect of the matrix variability on the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of glass fiber reinforced composites at 77K, three kinds of modifiers were employed to diethyl toluene diamine (DETD) cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) epoxy resin system. The woven glass fiber reinforced composites were fabricated by vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI). The ILSS at 77 K was studied and the results indicated that introduction of modifiers used in this study can enhance the ILSS of composite at 77 K. A maximum of 14.87% increase was obtained by addition of 10 wt% IPBE into the epoxy matrix. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the fracture mechanism and strengthening effect.

  13. Glass fibre-reinforced composite post and core used in decayed primary anterior teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Verma, Leena; Passi, Sidhi

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Among restorative treatment options, prefabricated crown and biological and resin composite restoration either by means of direct or indirect technique are mentioned in the literature. This paper presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth. Endodontic treatment was followed by the placement of a glass fibre-reinforced composite resin post. The crown reconstruction was done with composite restoration. Resin glass fibre post has best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, and resistance to traction and to impact. Along with ease of application, fiber can be used as an alternative to traditionally used materials in the management of early childhood caries.

  14. Glass Fibre-Reinforced Composite Post and Core Used in Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Leena; Passi, Sidhi

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Among restorative treatment options, prefabricated crown and biological and resin composite restoration either by means of direct or indirect technique are mentioned in the literature. This paper presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth. Endodontic treatment was followed by the placement of a glass fibre-reinforced composite resin post. The crown reconstruction was done with composite restoration. Resin glass fibre post has best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, and resistance to traction and to impact. Along with ease of application, fiber can be used as an alternative to traditionally used materials in the management of early childhood caries. PMID:22567447

  15. Light-weight sandwich panel honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin for electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Widodo, Angit; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, A.; Kaleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is relative high cost material in current manufacturing process of electric vehicle body structure. Sandwich panels consisting polypropylene (PP) honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin were investigated. The aim of present paper was evaluate the flexural properties and bending rigidity of various volume fraction carbon-glass fiber composite skins with the honeycomb core. The flexural properties and cost of panels were compared to the reported values of solid hybrid Carbon/Glass FRP used for the frame body structure of electric vehicle. The finite element model of represented sandwich panel was established to characterize the flexural properties of material using homogenization technique. Finally, simplified model was employed to crashworthiness analysis for engine hood of the body electric vehicle structure. The good cost-electiveness of honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber skin has the potential to be used as a light-weight alternative material in body electric vehicle fabricated.

  16. Predicting composition-property relationships for glass ionomer cements: a multifactor central composite approach to material optimization.

    PubMed

    Kiri, Lauren; Boyd, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Adjusting powder-liquid ratio (P/L) and polyacrylic acid concentration (AC) has been documented as a means of tailoring the handling and mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs). This work implemented a novel approach in which the interactive effects of these two factors on three key GIC properties (working time, setting time, and compressive strength) were investigated using a central composite design of experiments. Using nonlinear regression analysis, formulation-property relationships were derived for each property, which enabled prediction of an optimal formulation (P/L and AC) through application of the desirability approach. A novel aluminum free GIC was investigated, as this material may present the first clinically viable GIC for use in injectable spinal applications, such as vertebroplasty. Ultimately, this study presents the first series of predictive regression models that explain the formulation-dependence of a GIC, and the first statistical method for optimizing both P/L and AC depending on user-defined inputs. PMID:25828159

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of novel bioactive composite starch/bioactive glass microparticles.

    PubMed

    Silva, G A; Costa, F J; Coutinho, O P; Radin, S; Ducheyne, P; Reis, R L

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the development of composite materials is to combine the most desired properties of two or more materials. In this work, the biodegradable character, good controlled-release properties, and natural origin of starch-based biomaterials are combined with the bioactive and bone-bonding properties of bioactive glass (BG). Novel, bioactive composite starch-BG microparticles were synthesized starting from a blend of starch and polylactic acid (50%/50% wt) with BG 45S5 powder using a simple emulsion method. Morphological and chemical characterization showed that these particles exhibited a spherical morphology with sizes up to 350 microm and that BG 45S5 was incorporated successfully into the composite particles. Upon immersion in a solution simulating body fluids, for periods up to 3 weeks, their bioactive nature was confirmed, as a calcium-phosphate layer resembling biological apatite was formed onto their surface. The short-term cytotoxicity of these materials was also tested by placing 24-h leachables of the materials extracted in culture medium in contact with a fibroblastic cell line (L929) up to 72 h. At this time period, two biochemical tests--MTT and total protein quantification--were performed. The results showed that these materials are not cytotoxic. These results constitute the basis of future encapsulation studies using bone-acting therapeutic agents such as bone morphogenetic proteins or other bone-relevant factors. The particles developed here may be very useful for applications in which controlled release, degradability, and bone-bonding ability are the main requirements. PMID:15293318

  18. Towards an understanding of tensile deformation in Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites with BCC dendrites.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejska, Joanna A; Kozachkov, Henry; Kranjc, Kelly; Hunter, Allen; Marquis, Emmanuelle; Johnson, William L; Flores, Katharine M; Hofmann, Douglas C

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and tension ductility of a series of Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite (BMGMC) is investigated by changing content of the β stabilizing element vanadium while holding the volume fraction of dendritic phase constant. The ability to change only one variable in these novel composites has previously been difficult, leading to uninvestigated areas regarding how composition affects properties. It is shown that the tension ductility can range from near zero percent to over ten percent simply by changing the amount of vanadium in the dendritic phase. This approach may prove useful for the future development of these alloys, which have largely been developed experimentally using trial and error.

  19. Development of tough, low-density titanium-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites with tensile ductility

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Wiest, Aaron; Lind, Mary-Laura; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and their composites have been under intense investigation for many years, owing to their unique combination of high strength and elastic limit. However, because of their highly localized deformation mechanism, BMGs are typically considered to be brittle materials and are not suitable for structural applications. Recently, highly-toughened BMG composites have been created in a Zr–Ti-based system with mechanical properties comparable with high-performance crystalline alloys. In this work, we present a series of low-density, Ti-based BMG composites with combinations of high strength, tensile ductility, and excellent fracture toughness. PMID:19074287

  20. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)

    2005-11-01

    Anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composite laminates have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed. The laminates have been fabricated using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Five fiber complexes and a two-part epoxy resin system have been used in the study to fabricate panels of twenty different laminate constructions. These panels have been subjected to physical testing to measure density, fiber volume fraction, and void fraction. Coupons machined from these panels have also been subjected to mechanical testing to measure elastic properties and strength of the laminates using tensile, compressive, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear tests. Interlaminar shear strength has also been measured. Out-of-plane displacement, axial strain, transverse strain, and inplane shear strain have also been measured using photogrammetry data obtained during edgewise compression tests. The test data have been reduced to characterize the elastic properties and strength of the laminates. Constraints imposed by test fixtures might be expected to affect measurements of the moduli of anisotropic materials; classical lamination theory has been used to assess the magnitude of such effects and correct the experimental data for the same. The tensile moduli generally correlate well with experiment without correction and indicate that factors other than end constraints dominate. The results suggest that shear moduli of the anisotropic materials are affected by end constraints. Classical lamination theory has also been used to characterize the level of extension-shear coupling in the anisotropic laminates. Three factors affecting the coupling have been examined: the volume fraction of unbalanced off-axis layers, the angle of the off-axis layers, and the composition of the fibers (i.e., carbon or glass) used as the axial reinforcement. The results indicate that extension/shear coupling is maximized with the least loss in axial tensile stiffness by using carbon fibers oriented 15{sup

  1. Hybrid-particulate composites based on an epoxy matrix, a reactive rubber, and glass beads: Morphology, viscoelastic, and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Maazouz, A.; Sautereau, H.; Gerard, J.F. . Lab. des Materiaux Macromoleculaires)

    1993-10-20

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of hybrid-particulate epoxy composites have been examined. These materials were based on a DGEBA/DDA matrix with various volume fractions of glass beads and different rubber contents. Young's modulus, yield stress, dynamic mechanical spectra, and fracture energy have been determined at room temperature. The Kerner model fits well the Young's modulus for the hybrid complexes with various glass bead contents. The analysis of the relaxation peak recorded from viscoelastic measurements allow us to discuss the influence of the introduction of the glass beads on the mobility of macromolecular chains and the characteristics of the rubber-separated phase. The fracture energy displays a strong improvement and synergism effect due to the presence of both kinds of particles. The toughening mechanisms were discussed.

  2. Comparison between viscous elastic plastic behaviour of the composites reinforced with plain glass fabric and chopped strand mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, M. D.; Harapu, A.; Teodorescu Drăghicescu, H.; Curtu, I.; Savin, A.

    2016-08-01

    Composite structures are used mainly two types of reinforcement materials: woven glass fabric and the chopped strand mat, each contributing either to increase the resistance of the composite whole or in isotropic distribution of stresses. This paper presents a comparison of the visco-elastic characteristics of composites reinforced with glass fabric and the chopped strand mat and the breaking mode of the two types of the composite. The first type of samples contain three layers of chopped strand mat known as MAT with density of 450g/m2 and 225g/m2) and the second type is composed of four layers of woven glass fabric type RT500 (density of 500g/m2). Both specimens were cut in accordance with EN ISO 527-2 SR. Characteristic curve of the two types of specimens highlights visco-elastic-plastic behavior which largely depends on the type of reinforcement used as the matrix resin is the same in both cases (orthophthalic polyester resin). Breaking mode of those types of specimens were observed and analyzed by electronic microscope.

  3. Novel composite proton-exchange membrane based on proton-conductive glass powders and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Zhigang; Xie, Qiang; Li, Haibin; Mao, Dali; Li, Ming; Zhou, Daowu; Li, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The SiO2-Nafion/sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) composite membranes are fabricated by using the simple mechanical ball-milling process to combine SiO2 glass powders with small portion of Nafion, in which SiO2 glass powders are prepared by modified sol-gel progress and Nafion is embedded in situ into a highly porous silica network. The morphology, thermal and mechanical properties, pore structure, proton conductivity and fuel cell performance of the SiO2-Nafion/SPEEK composite membranes are investigated. The poor miscibility of Nafion and sulfonated aromatic polymer is solved by fixing Nafion into SiO2 glass powders. The composite membranes perform well even if the proportion of inorganic component in membranes is as high as 40 wt.%. A maximum of proton conductivity, 0.018 S cm-1, is obtained from the membrane of 4(8Si-2N)/6SPEEK at 80 °C and 90% relative humidity, which is owing to its enhanced hygroscopicity and highly dispersed Nafion clusters. In addition, a single fuel cell equipped with the composite membrane shows a peak power density of 589.2 mW cm-2 at 70 °C.

  4. Metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Greer, A L

    1995-03-31

    Amorphous metallic alloys, relative newcomers to the world of glasses, have properties that are unusual for solid metals. The metallic glasses, which exist in a very wide variety of compositions, combine fundamental interest with practical applications. They also serve as precursors for exciting new nanocrystalline materials. Their magnetic (soft and hard) and mechanical properties are of particular interest.

  5. Non-Magnetic, Tough, Corrosion- and Wear-Resistant Knives From Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Douglas C.; Potter, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Quality knives are typically fabricated from high-strength steel alloys. Depending on the application, there are different requirements for mechanical and physical properties that cause problems for steel alloys. For example, diver's knives are generally used in salt water, which causes rust in steel knives. Titanium diver's knives are a popular alternative due to their salt water corrosion resistance, but are too soft to maintain a sharp cutting edge. Steel knives are also magnetic, which is undesirable for military applications where the knives are used as a tactical tool for diffusing magnetic mines. Steel is also significantly denser than titanium (8 g/cu cm vs. 4.5 g/cu cm), which results in heavier knives for the same size. Steel is hard and wear-resistant, compared with titanium, and can keep a sharp edge during service. A major drawback of both steel and titanium knives is that they must be ground or machined into the final knife shape from a billet. Since most knives have a mirrored surface and a complex shape, manufacturing them is complex. It would be more desirable if the knife could be cast into a net or near-net shape in a single step. The solution to the deficiencies of titanium, steel, and ceramic knives is to fabricate them using bulk metallic glasses (or composites). These alloys can be cast into net or near-net shaped knives with a combination of properties that exceed both titanium and steel. A commercially viable BMG (bulk metallic glass) or composite knife is one that exhibits one or all of the following properties: It is based on titanium, has a self-sharpening edge, can retain an edge during service, is hard, is non-magnetic, is corrosion-resistant against a variety of corrosive environments, is tough (to allow for prying), can be cast into a net-shape with a mirror finish and a complex shape, has excellent wear resistance, and is low-density. These properties can be achieved in BMG and composites through alloy chemistry and processing. For

  6. Risk factors for failure of glass fiber-reinforced composite post restorations: a prospective observational clinical study.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Michael; Blankenstein, Felix; Kiessling, Saskia; Dietrich, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Glass fiber-reinforced endodontic posts are considered to have favorable mechanical properties for the reconstruction of endodontically treated teeth. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the survival of two tapered and one parallel-sided glass fiber-reinforced endodontic post systems in teeth with different stages of hard tissue loss and to identify risk factors for restoration failure. One-hundred and forty-nine glass fiber-reinforced endodontic posts in 122 patients were followed-up for 5-56 months [mean +/- standard deviation (SD): 39 +/- 11 months]. Glass fiber-reinforced endodontic posts were adhesively luted and the core was built with a composite resin. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association of clinical variables and failure rate. Higher failure rates were found for restorations of anterior teeth compared with posterior teeth [Hazard-Ratios (HR): 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-7.4], for restorations in teeth with no proximal contacts compared with at least one proximal contact (HR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.0-9.0), and for teeth restored with single crowns compared with fixed bridges (HR: 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1-16.2). Tooth type, type of final restoration and the presence of adjacent teeth were found to be significant predictors of failure rates in endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fiber-reinforced endodontic posts. PMID:16324143

  7. Effect of Bonding Application Time on Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Ghassemi, Amir; Mahdian, Mina; Akbarzadeh Bagheban, Alireza; Moayyedi, Seddigheh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This experimental study evaluated the effect of bonding application time on the microshear bond strength of composite resin to different types of glass ionomer cements (GICs). Materials and Methods: One-hundred and sixty specimens (two conventional and two resin-modified GICs) were prepared and divided into 16 groups. The surface of all specimens was prepared using two different bonding systems (Frog and Stea) at three different times. After setting, the composite resin (Z100) was placed over the GICs. The specimens were then stored in distilled water for 24 hours (37°C) and exposed to microshear stresses at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The results were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Results: In conventional GICs, bond strength was affected by the type of bonding system at different times, and bond strength was significantly higher in the Fuji II group compared to Riva Self Cure group. In the Riva Self Cure group, bond strength was significantly affected by time; whereas, the type of bonding system failed to exert a significant effect on bond strength. There was no significant correlation between the type of bonding system and the two brands of resin-modified GICs. Bond strength was not affected by the type of bonding agent; however, among the two brands of resin-modified GICs, Fuji II LC yielded a significantly stronger bond. Conclusion: It appears that the type of bonding agent does not affect the microshear bond strength, and the bonding application time affects the microshear bond strength in Riva Self Cure GICs. PMID:27507998

  8. Circularly Polarized S Band Dual Frequency Square Patch Antenna Using Glass Microfiber Reinforced PTFE Composite

    PubMed Central

    Samsuzzaman, M.; Islam, M. T.; Arshad, Haslina; Mandeep, J. S.; Misran, N.

    2014-01-01

    Circularly polarized (CP) dual frequency cross-shaped slotted patch antenna on 1.575 mm thick glass microfiber reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite material substrate is designed and fabricated for satellite applications. Asymmetric cross-shaped slots are embedded in the middle of the square patch for CP radiation and four hexagonal slots are etched on the four sides of the square patch for desired dual frequency. Different substrate materials have been analysed to achieve the desired operating band. The experimental results show that the impedance bandwidth is approximately 30 MHz (2.16 GHz to 2.19 GHz) for lower band and 40 MHz (3.29 GHz to 3.33 GHz) for higher band with an average peak gain of 6.59 dBiC and 5.52 dBiC, respectively. Several optimizations are performed to obtain the values of the antenna physical parameters. Moreover, the proposed antenna possesses compactness, light weight, simplicity, low cost, and circularly polarized. It is an attractive candidate for dual band satellite antennas where lower band can be used for uplink and upper band can be used for downlink. PMID:24982943

  9. Alternating Current Electrophoretic Deposition of Antibacterial Bioactive Glass-Chitosan Composite Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Seuss, Sigrid; Lehmann, Maja; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to produce multifunctional composite coatings combining bioactive glass (BG) particles and chitosan. BG particles of two different sizes were used, i.e., 2 μm and 20–80 nm in average diameter. The parameter optimization and characterization of the coatings was conducted by visual inspection and by adhesion strength tests. The optimized coatings were investigated in terms of their hydroxyapatite (HA) forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 21 days. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed the successful HA formation on the coatings after 21 days. The first investigations were conducted on planar stainless steel sheets. In addition, scaffolds made from a TiAl4V6 alloy were considered to show the feasibility of coating of three dimensional structures by EPD. Because both BG and chitosan are antibacterial materials, the antibacterial properties of the as-produced coatings were investigated using E. coli bacteria cells. It was shown that the BG particle size has a strong influence on the antibacterial properties of the coatings. PMID:25007822

  10. Effect of composition and temperature on the properties of High-Level Waste (HLW) glasses melting above 1200{degrees}C (Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    Increasing the melting temperature of HLW glass allows an increase of waste loading (thus reducing product volume) and the production of more durable glasses at a faster melting rate. However, HLW glasses that melt at high temperatures differ in composition from glasses formulated for low temperature ({approximately}1150{degree}C). Consequently, the composition of high-temperature glasses falls in a region previously not well tested or understood. This report represents a preliminary study of property/composition relationships of high-temperature Hanford HLW glasses using a one-component-at-a-time change approach. A test matrix has been designed to explore a composition region expected for high-temperature high-waste loading HLW glasses to be produced at Hanford. This matrix was designed by varying several key components (SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, UO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and others) starting from a glass based on a Hanford HLW all-blend waste. Glasses were fabricated and tested for viscosity, glass transition temperature, electrical conductivity, crystallinity, liquidus temperature, and PCT release. The effect of individual components on glass properties was assessed using first- and second- order empirical models. The first-order component effects were compared with those from low-temperature HLW glasses.

  11. Crystallization Kinetics of Barium and Strontium Aluminosilicate Glasses of Feldspar Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1994-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of BaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 (BAS) and SrO.Al2O3.2SiO2 (SAS) glasses in bulk and powder forms have been studied by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystal growth activation energies were evaluated to be 473 and 451 kJ/mol for bulk samples and 560 and 534 kJ/mol for powder specimens in BAS and SAS glasses, respectively. Development of crystalline phases on thermal treatments of glasses at various temperatures has been followed by powder x-ray diffraction. Powder samples crystallized at lower temperatures than the bulk and the crystallization temperature was lower for SAS glass than BAS. Crystallization in both glasses appeared to be surface nucleated. The high temperature phase hexacelsian, MAl2Si2O8 (M = Ba or Sr), crystallized first by nucleating preferentially on the glass surface. Also, monoclinic celsian does not nucleate directly in the glass, but is formed at higher temperatures from the transformation of the metastable hexagonal phase. In SAS the transformation to monoclinic celsian occurred rapidly after 1 h at 1100 C. In contrast, in BAS this transformation is sluggish and difficult and did not go to completion even after 10 h heat treatment at 1400 C. The crystal growth morphologies in the glasses have been observed by optical microscopy. Some of the physical properties of the two glasses are also reported.

  12. Summary of results for PHA glass study: Composition and property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.B.

    2000-01-06

    This report provides a summary of the results obtained for a limited variability study for glasses containing Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous, Monosodiumtitanate, and either simulated Purex or HM sludge.

  13. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  14. Production and characterization of polypropylene composites filled with glass fibre recycled from pyrolysed waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenyong; Sun, Shuiyu; Liang, Haifeng; Zhong, Sheng; Yang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are composed of nearly 70% non-metals, which are generally recycled as low-value filling materials or even directly dumped in landfills. In this study, polypropylene (PP) composites reinforced by recycled pure glass fibres (RGF) from pyrolysed WPCBs were successfully produced. The manufacturing process, mechanical properties and thermal behaviour of the composites were investigated. The results showed that the appropriate addition of RGF in the composites can significantly improve the mechanical properties and thermal behaviour. When the added content of RGF was 30%, the maximum increment of tensile strength, impact strength, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the glass fibre (GF)/PP composites are 25.93%, 41.38%, 31.16% and 68.42%, respectively, and the vicat softening temperature could rise by 4.6°C. Furthermore, leaching of the GF/PP composites was also investigated. The GF/PP composites exhibited high performance and non-toxicity, offering a promising method to recycle RGF from pyrolysed WPCBs with high-value applications. PMID:25176309

  15. Effect of strain rates on deformation behaviors of an in situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Chu, M. Y.; Wang, Y. S.; Yang, H. J.; Qiao, J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Quasi-static and dynamic deformation behaviors of an in situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composite: Ti56Zr18V10Cu4Be12 were investigated. Upon quasi-static compression, the composite exhibits distinguished work hardening, accompanied by the ultimate strength of 1290 MPa and the plasticity of 20 %. The improved plasticity is attributed to the multiplication of shear bands within the glass matrix and pileups of dislocations within the dendrites. Upon dynamic compression, the stable plastic flow prevails and the yielding stress increases with the strain rate. The macroscopic plasticity decreases considerably, since the shear bands cannot be effectively hindered by dendrites with deteriorated toughness. The dendrite-dominated mechanism results in the positive strain-rate sensitivity, and the Cowper-Symonds model is employed to depict the strain-rate dependency of yielding strength.

  16. The Late Holocene Compositionally Zoned Glass Mountain Eruption at Medicine Lake Volcano, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    The spectacular Glass Mountain rhyolite-dacite flow erupted high on the east side of Medicine Lake volcano 950 yrs ago, producing one cubic kilometer of pumice and lava from more than a dozen vents along a 5-km- long fissure. Detailed mapping and chemical/petrographic analysis of 107 lava and tephra samples, 40 quenched andesitic blobs, 18 co-magmatic cumulates, and 6 granitoid fragments show that the eruption commenced with an explosive ejection of rhyolitic tephra, followed by effusion of the mixed-magma dacitic flow, and ended with extrusion of rhyolitic lava at all vents along the fissure. Lava and pumice samples range from 61.3 to 74.6 percent silica and form linear to curvilinear arrays on variation diagrams. Quenched andesitic blobs (some with amphibole, Grove et al. 1977) are mainly in the dacitic lava flow, whereas the cumulate and granitoid fragments are found almost entirely in the distal domes near the ends of the fissure. The amphibole indicates high water contents in the parental andesitic magma, water that likely contributed to melting of granitic crust that combined with a rhyolitic differentiate to produce rhyolite. Compositional variation in the dacite and rhyolite requires at least three components. The dacite is a mixture of evolved rhyodacite (produced by fractionation of the parental andesite), a granitic crustal melt, and andesite containing olivine and An-rich plag. The dacite is charged with andesitic blobs, some of which may have intruded just prior to eruption. We interpret that before the eruption began, a zoned magma body formed at shallow depth, with rhyolitic magma at its top and dacitic magma underneath. Removal of rhyolitic magma during the initial explosive event allowed hotter and more fluid dacitic magma to enter and dominate the conduit resulting in effusion of the initial dacite flow. At times, rhyolitic melt remaining in the shallow reservoir squeezed into the conduit and was erupted as pods of obsidian (Anderson 1933) that

  17. Studies related to the surfaces of the moon and planets. [a discussion of vapor deposition and glasses of lunar composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1974-01-01

    A variety of glasses of lunar composition were prepared with different amounts of Fe and Ti under both reducing and oxidizing conditions, and also by sputter-deposition and thermal evaporation and condensation. These materials were analyzed by wet chemical, electron microprobe, ESR, Mossbauer and magnetic methods. The effects of darkening processes on surface soils of airless bodies are discussed along with the effects of vapor phase deposition processes on the optical, chemical, and magnetic properties of the lunar regolith.

  18. Radio frequency shielding behaviour of silane treated Fe2O3/E-glass fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun prakash, V. R.; Rajadurai, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, radio frequency shielding behaviour of polymer (epoxy) matrixes composed of E-glass fibres and Fe2O3 fillers have been studied. The principal aim of this project is to prepare suitable shielding material for RFID application. When RFID unit is pasted on a metal plate without shielding material, the sensing distance is reduced, resulting in a less than useful RFID system. To improve RF shielding of epoxy, fibres and fillers were utilized. Magnetic behaviour of epoxy polymer composites was measured by hysteresis graphs (B-H) followed by radio frequency identifier setup. Fe2O3 particles of sizes 800, 200 and 100 nm and E-glass fibre woven mat of 600 g/m2 were used to make composites. Particle sizes of 800 nm and 200 nm were prepared by high-energy ball milling, whereas particles of 100 nm were prepared by sol-gel method. To enhance better dispersion of particles within the epoxy matrix, a surface modification process was carried out on fillers by an amino functional coupling agent called 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Crystalline and functional groups of siliconized Fe2O3 particles were characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Variable quantity of E-glass fibre (25, 35, and 45 vol%) was laid down along with 0.5 and 1.0 vol% of 800, 200, and 100 nm size Fe2O3 particles into the matrix, to fabricate the hybrid composites. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images reveal the shape and size of Fe2O3 particles for different milling times and particle dispersion in the epoxy matrix. The maximum improved sensing distance of 45.2, 39.4 and 43.5 % was observed for low-, high-, and ultra-high radio frequency identifier setup along with shielding composite consist of epoxy, 1 vol% 200 nm Fe2O3 particles and 45 vol% of E-glass fibre.

  19. Time-Dependent Deformation Modelling for a Chopped-Glass Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, W

    2001-08-24

    Time-dependent deformation behavior of a polymeric composite with chopped-glass-fiber reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications, The material under stress was exposed to representative automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on time-dependent deformation behavior of the material. The data were analyzed and experimentally-based models developed for the time-dependent deformation behavior as a basis for automotive structural durability design criteria.

  20. Investigation on Stress-Rupture Behavior of a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, W

    2001-08-24

    Practical and inexpensive testing methods were developed to investigate stress-rupture properties of a polymeric composite with chopped glass fiber reinforcement for automotive applications. The material was tested in representative automotive environments to generate experimental data. The results indicate that environments have substantial effects on the stress-rupture behavior. The data were analyzed and developed into stress-rupture design criteria to address one of the durability aspects of the material for automotive structural applications.

  1. Effect of monomer composition of polymer matrix on flexural properties of glass fibre-reinforced orthodontic archwire.

    PubMed

    Ohtonen, J; Vallittu, P K; Lassila, L V J

    2013-02-01

    To compare force levels obtained from glass fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) archwires. Specifically, FRC wires were compared with polymer matrices having different dimethacrylate monomer compositions. FRC material (E-glass provided by Stick Tech Ltd, Turku, Finland) with continuous unidirectional glass fibres and four different types of dimethacrylate monomer compositions for the resin matrix were tested. Cross-sectionally round FRC archwires fitting into the 0.3 mm slot of a bracket were divided into 16 groups with six specimens in each group. Glass fibres were impregnated by the manufacturer, and they were initially light-cured by hand light-curing unit or additionally post-cured in light-curing oven. The FRC archwire specimens were tested at 37°C according to a three-point bending test in dry and wet conditions using a span length of 10 mm and a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The wires were loaded until final failure. The data were statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The dry FRC archwire specimens revealed higher load values than water stored ones, regardless of the polymer matrix. A majority of the FRC archwires showed higher load values after being post-cured. ANOVA revealed that the polymer matrix, curing method, and water storage had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the flexural behaviour of the FRC archwire. Polymer matrix composition, curing method, and water storage affected the flexural properties and thus, force level and working range which could be obtained from the FRC archwire. PMID:22058110

  2. Restoration of endodontically treated anterior teeth: an evaluation of coronal microleakage of glass ionomer and composite resin materials.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Arnold, A M; Wilcox, L R

    1990-12-01

    A glass ionomer material was evaluated for coronal microleakage in permanent lingual access restorations of endodontically treated anterior teeth. The material was tested as a restoration, placed over a zinc oxide-eugenol base, and as a base with an acid-etched composite resin veneer and a dentinal bonding agent. Restored teeth were thermocycled, immersed in silver nitrate, developed, and sectioned to assess microleakage. Significant coronal leakage was observed with all materials used.

  3. Mineralogical textural and compositional data on the alteration of basaltic glass from Kilauea, Hawaii to 300 degrees C: Insights to the corrosion of a borosilicate glass waste-form. [Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical, textural and compositional data accompanying greenschist facies metamorphism (to 300{degrees}C) of basalts of the East Rift Zone (ERZ), Kilauea, Hawaii may be evaluated relative to published and experimental results for the surface corrosion of borosilicate glass. The ERZ alteration sequence is dominated by intermittent palagonite, interlayered smectite-chlorite, chlorite, and actinolite-epidote-anhydrite. Alteration is best developed in fractures and vesicles where surface reaction layers root on the glass matrix forming rinds in excess of 100 microns thick. Fractures control fluid circulation and the alteration sequence. Proximal to the glass surface, palagonite, Fe-Ti oxides and clays replace fresh glass as the surface reaction layer migrates inwards; away from the surface, amphibole, anhydrite, quartz and calcite crystallize from hydrothermal fluids in contact with the glass. The texture and composition of basaltic glass surfaces are similar to those of a SRL-165 glass leached statically for sixty days at 150 {degrees}C. While the ERZ reservoir is a complex open system, conservative comparisons between the alteration of ERZ and synthetic borosilicate glass are warranted. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Compositional origin of unusual β-relaxation properties in La-Ni-Al metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z. G.; Li, Y. Z.; Wang, Z.; Gao, X. Q.; Wen, P.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.; Ngai, K. L.

    2014-08-28

    The β-relaxation of metallic glasses (MGs) bears nontrivial connections to their microscopic and macroscopic properties. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of the β-relaxation, we studied by dynamical mechanical measurements the change of its properties on varying the composition of La{sub 60}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 25} in various ways. The properties of the β-relaxation turn out to be very sensitive to the composition. It is found that the isochronal loss peak temperature of β-relaxation, T{sub β,peak}, is effectively determined by the total (La + Ni) content. When Cu is added into the alloy to replace either La, Ni, or Al, the T{sub β,peak} increases with decrease of the (La + Ni) content. The trend is in accordance with data of binary and ternary MGs formed from La, Ni, Al, and Cu. Binary La-Ni MGs have pronounced β-relaxation loss peaks, well separated from the α-relaxation. In contrast, the β-relaxation is not resolved in La-Al and La-Cu MGs, showing up as an excess wing. For the ternary La-Ni-Al MGs, increase of La or Ni content is crucial to lower the T{sub β,peak}. Keeping the Al content fixed, increase of La content lowers the T{sub β,peak} further, indicating the more important role La plays in lowering T{sub β,peak} than Ni. The observed effects on changing the composition of La{sub 60}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 25} lead to the conclusion that the properties of the β-relaxation are mainly determined by the interaction between the largest solvent element, La, and the smallest element, Ni. From our data, it is further deduced that La and Ni have high mobility in the MGs, and this explains why the β-relaxation in this La-based MGs is prominent and well resolved from the α-relaxation as opposed to Pd- and Zr-based MGs where the solvent and largest atoms, Pd and Zr, are the least mobile.

  5. Roles of water and solids composition in the control of glass transition and stickiness of milk powders.

    PubMed

    Silalai, Nattiga; Roos, Yrjö H

    2010-06-01

    Plasticization and glass transition of amorphous components in food powders often result in stickiness and caking. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of milk powders was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a viscometer method was used to determine sticky-point temperatures. Water sorption isotherms were established for varying solids compositions. Lactose contents were analyzed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and proteins were identified using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Solids composition and water affected both the T(g) and stickiness behavior. Stickiness was governed by carbohydrates and water plasticization. At low protein contents, precrystallization of lactose decreased the sticky point temperature, but increasing protein content in all milk powders decreased stickiness at all water activities. The results showed that glass transition can be used to describe time-dependent stickiness and crystallization phenomena, and it can be used as a parameter to control and reduce stickiness of dairy solids with various compositions. PMID:20629875

  6. Roles of water and solids composition in the control of glass transition and stickiness of milk powders.

    PubMed

    Silalai, Nattiga; Roos, Yrjö H

    2010-06-01

    Plasticization and glass transition of amorphous components in food powders often result in stickiness and caking. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of milk powders was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a viscometer method was used to determine sticky-point temperatures. Water sorption isotherms were established for varying solids compositions. Lactose contents were analyzed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and proteins were identified using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Solids composition and water affected both the T(g) and stickiness behavior. Stickiness was governed by carbohydrates and water plasticization. At low protein contents, precrystallization of lactose decreased the sticky point temperature, but increasing protein content in all milk powders decreased stickiness at all water activities. The results showed that glass transition can be used to describe time-dependent stickiness and crystallization phenomena, and it can be used as a parameter to control and reduce stickiness of dairy solids with various compositions.

  7. Epoxy/Glass Fiber Laminated Composites Integrated with Amino Functionalized ZrO2 for Advanced Structural Applications.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sudipta; Ahemad, Soyeb; Das, Subhankar; Wang, Jialai

    2016-01-27

    This work demonstrates the successful silanization of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZN) and their incorporation in glass fiber/epoxy composites. Microscopic investigation under transmission electron microscope elucidates antiaggregation and size enhancement of silanized ZrO2 nanoparticles (SZNs). FTIR spectroscopy has been used to demonstrate the chemical nature of the SZNs prepared. EDX results reveal the presence of Si onto SZNs. Incorporation of SZNs shows a strong influence on tensile and flexural properties of hybrid multiscale glass fiber composite (SZGFRP) compared to that of the neat epoxy glass fiber composite (GFRP). A significant variation of tensile strength, stiffness, and toughness of ∼27%, 62%, and 110% is observed with respect to GFRP. Strength and modulus under bending are also enhanced to ∼22% and ∼38%, respectively. Failure mechanisms obtained from macroscopic and microscopic investigation demonstrate reduced interfacial delamination for SZGFRP. Additionally, increased roughness of the fiber surface in SZGFRP laminates produces better interfacial bonding arising from SZN incorporation in laminates. This symptomatic behavior exposes the espousal of organically modified ZrO2 to enhance the interfacial bonding for their use in next generation hybrid laminates. PMID:26714570

  8. Yb-doped silica-based laser fibers: correlation of photodarkening kinetics and related optical properties with the glass composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhof, J.; Unger, S.; Jetschke, S.; Schwuchow, A.; Leich, M.; Reichel, V.

    2009-02-01

    In the last years, photodarkening in ytterbium doped silica based laser fibers turned out to be a critical factor for high power laser action. Several investigations have been carried out in order to characterize the time dependent increase of the fiber loss and to understand and model the complex optical phenomenon. Despite of progress in this field, there is still a lack of data concerning the detailed influence of fiber composition and preparation process parameters as well as concerning the role of atomic defects in the core glass. Here we report on investigations about the photodarkening in dependence on the glass composition of the fiber laser core. By MCVD, fibers with different codopants (additional to the active ytterbium doping) have been prepared in a well-defined manner, regarding process parameters and glass composition, and comprehensively characterized. In addition to the photodarkening measurements, further optical properties have been measured on the fibers and fiber performs, which are related to the photodarkening effect: intensity and spectral behaviour of the Yb3+ absorption and emission in the NIR, cooperative visible fluorescence, UV absorption and UV excited visible emission. The concentration of codopants which are commonly used for active and passive lightguide fibers (aluminium, germanium, phosphorus) was systematically varied and correlated with the optical properties.

  9. The effect of shock wave impingement on thin, woven glass fiber reinforced, polymer composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, Douglas M.

    High-performance fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly used in many applications over the last 30 years. Their high specific stiffness, specific strength, and energy absorption capacity have made them attractive as replacements for traditional materials. While the dynamic response of homogeneous or monolithic materials has been well documented, the response of FRP composites is still under investigation. Knowledge of the response of FRP composites under this type of loading is essential to evaluating its performance as a structural or protective material. While such information starts to be slowly available, the effects of dynamic thermomechanical extremes such as shock wave loading on the FRP composites is relatively unknown. The challenge then is to develop a consistent laboratory methodology that allows investigations of the interactions between a FRP composite and a shock wave and eventually testing of such materials for performance evaluations under shock loading. Measuring the deformation of test specimens caused by shock wave impingement of different intensities was basic to understanding the gross effects on the FRP composites. In early tests, displacement across the diameter of the test specimen was measured after the end of the test giving a static measurement of the permanent deformation. To allow meaningful comparisons between disparate materials subject to different shock wave intensities a method of weighting and normalizing the was developed. The complexity of setting up and running a shock wave test limited the number tests could be performed, so while the results aren't statically robust, the trends observed are useful in comparing or choosing among different materials. A Time-Resolved Catadioptric Stereo Digital Image Correlation (TRC-SDIC) technique was developed which provide a non-contact, full-field method of measuring deformation over the time span from the impingement of the shock wave including the maximum

  10. Rehabilitation of advanced periodontal problems by using a combination of a glass fiber-reinforced composite resin bridge and splint.

    PubMed

    Kumbuloglu, Ovul; Aksoy, Gokhan; User, Atilla

    2008-02-01

    Rehabilitation of masticatory ability in patients with reduced periodontal tissue support is a multiple challenge in dentistry. It has been shown that tooth mobility is reduced by a splint in place. Splints may be constructed of various materials. Development of fiber-reinforced composite materials offers a new and conservative approach for tooth replacement and stabilization. This case report describes the rehabilitation and 2-year follow-up of a patient with advanced periodontal problems by using a glass fiber-reinforced composite resin material. PMID:18389738

  11. Joining and Assembly of Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Through Capacitive Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Kozachkov, Henry; Demetriou, Marios D.; Schramm, Joseph P.; Johnson, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a class of amorphous metals defined as having a thickness greater than 1 mm, are being broadly investigated by NASA for use in spacecraft hardware. Their unique properties, attained from their non-crystalline structure, motivate several game-changing aerospace applications. BMGs have low melting temperatures so they can be cheaply and repeatedly cast into complex net shapes, such as mirrors or electronic casings. They are extremely strong and wear-resistant, which motivates their use in gears and bearings. Amorphous metal coatings are hard, corrosion-resistant, and have high reflectivity. BMG composites, reinforced with soft second phases, can be fabricated into energy-absorbing cellular panels for orbital debris shielding. One limitation of BMG materials is their inability to be welded, bonded, brazed, or fastened in a convenient method to form larger structures. Cellular structures (which can be classified as trusses, foams, honeycombs, egg boxes, etc.) are useful for many NASA, commercial, and military aerospace applications, including low-density paneling and shields. Although conventional cellular structures exhibit high specific strength, their porous structures make them challenging to fabricate. In particular, metal cellular structures are extremely difficult to fabricate due to their high processing temperatures. Aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels, for example, are used widely as spacecraft shields due to their low density and ease of fabrication, but suffer from low strength. A desirable metal cellular structure is one with high strength, combined with low density and simple fabrication. The thermoplastic joining process described here allows for the fabrication of monolithic BMG truss-like structures that are 90% porous and have no heat-affected zone, weld, bond, or braze. This is accomplished by welding the nodes of stacked BMG composite panels using a localized capacitor discharge, forming a single monolithic structure

  12. Microstructural percolation assisted breakthrough of trade-off between strength and ductility in CuZr-based metallic glass composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Liu, G; Qu, R T; Zhang, Z F; Wu, S J; Zhang, T

    2014-01-01

    As two important mechanical properties, strength and ductility generally tend to be muturally exclusive in conventional engineering materials. The breakthrough of such a trade-off has been potentiated by the recently developed CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites ductilized by a shape memory CuZr(B2) phase. Here the microstructural dependences of tensile properties for the CuZr-based BMG composites were elucidated qualitatively and modeled quantitatively, and the underlying mechanisms were unraveled. Through the microstructural percolation induced by matching the length scales of particle size and interparticle spacing, a notable breakthrough was achieved in the composites that the general conflicts between strength and ductility can be defeated. This study is expected to greatly aid in the microstructural design and tailoring for improved properties of BMG composites. It also has implications for the development of strong and ductile materials in the future.

  13. Sonochemical processing and characterization of composite materials based on soy protein and alginate containing micron-sized bioactive glass particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Raquel; Bulut, Buse; Roether, Judith A.; Kaschta, Joachim; Schubert, Dirk W.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-09-01

    Novel composite hydrogels based on the combination of natural polymers; namely alginate and soy protein isolate, and bioactive glass (BG) particles (mean size: 2 μm) were developed. For this purpose a sonochemical approach was used and homogeneous composite hydrogels, incorporating two concentrations of BG particles, were successfully obtained. Further physico-chemical characterization was performed in order to evaluate the influence of each component on hydrogel properties. The water uptake ability, weight loss, protein release, as well as FTIR, SEM and DMTA characterization were carried out. The biomineralization process in simulated body fluid (SBF) was followed over time and the results demonstrated that the composite materials have the ability to form a surface apatite layer after 7 days in SBF. The design of novel composite hydrogels based on soy protein, alginate and BG can be a suitable approach for bone regeneration applications.

  14. Microstructural percolation assisted breakthrough of trade-off between strength and ductility in CuZr-based metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z. Q.; Liu, G.; Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. F.; Wu, S. J.; Zhang, T.

    2014-01-01

    As two important mechanical properties, strength and ductility generally tend to be muturally exclusive in conventional engineering materials. The breakthrough of such a trade-off has been potentiated by the recently developed CuZr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites ductilized by a shape memory CuZr(B2) phase. Here the microstructural dependences of tensile properties for the CuZr-based BMG composites were elucidated qualitatively and modeled quantitatively, and the underlying mechanisms were unraveled. Through the microstructural percolation induced by matching the length scales of particle size and interparticle spacing, a notable breakthrough was achieved in the composites that the general conflicts between strength and ductility can be defeated. This study is expected to greatly aid in the microstructural design and tailoring for improved properties of BMG composites. It also has implications for the development of strong and ductile materials in the future. PMID:24566737

  15. Role of mast cells in wound healing process after glass - fiber composite implant in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, L F; Rezzani, Rita; Buffoli, Barbara; Bonomini, Francesca; Tengattini, Sandra; Laffranchi, Laura; Paganelli, C; Sapelli, P L; Bianchi, Rossella

    2006-01-01

    Glass-fiber composites are frequently used in dentistry. In order to evaluate their biocompatibility we tested, in an experimental model “in vivo”, their tissue response pointing our attention on presence of mast cells (MCs) and fibrotic process. Sprague Dawley rats were used for the experimental design. The fibers were introduced in a subcutaneous pocket along the middle dorsal line between the two scapulas for 7, 14 or 21 days. At the end of the treatments the skins were excised and then processed for Toluidine Blue, to determine the presence of MCs, and Picrosirius Red staining, to evaluate the presence of fibrotic tissue. Our preliminary results showed and increase of both MC number and deposition of collagen type I, which characterized the fibrotic tissue. So, subsequent aims of our study were to evaluate the role played by MCs in tissue fibrosis and to give a possible explanation regarding the mechanisms that were responsible of biological response observed, through the analyses of some proteins, such as metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), its inhibitor (TIMP-2) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Our data confirmed the involvement of TGF-β, released by MCs, in the disruption of the equilibrium between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 that were implicated in the enhancement of fibrosis. In summary, this study demonstrate that this type of materials induced an inflammatory response at the site of implant and help to clarify what type of mechanism and which proteins are involved in this biological response. Nevertheless, more extensive investigations are in progress to better evaluate the inflammatory process. PMID:17125597

  16. An evaluation of the interfacial bond properties between carbon phenolic and glass phenolic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kelvin; Clinton, Raymond; Jeelani, Shaik

    1989-01-01

    The effects of moisture and surface finish on the mechanical and physical properties of the interfacial bond between the carbon/phenolic (C/P) and glass/phenolic (G/P) composite materials are presented. Four flat panel laminates were fabricated using the C/P and G/P materials. Of the four laminates, one panel was fabricated in which the C/P and G/P materials were cured simultaneously. It was identified as the cocure. The remaining laminates were processed with an initial simultaneous cure of the three C/P billets. Two surface finishes, one on each half, were applied to the top surface. Prior to the application and cure of the G/P material to the machined surface of the three C/P panels, each was subjected to the specific environmental conditioning. Types of conditioning included: (1) nominal fabrication environment, (2) a prescribed drying cycle, and (3) a total immersion in water at 160 F. Physical property tests were performed on specimens removed from the C/P materials of each laminate for determination of the specific gravity, residual volatiles and and resin content. Comparisons of results with shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzle material specifications verified that the materials used in fabricating the laminates met acceptance criteria and were representative of SRM nozzle materials. Mechanical property tests were performed at room temperature on specimens removed from the G/P, the C/P and the interface between the two materials for each laminate. The double-notched shear strength test was used to determine the ultimate interlaminar shear strength. Results indicate no appreciable difference in the C/P material of the four laminates with the exception of the cocure laminate, where 20 percent reduction in the strength was observed. The most significant effect and the ultimate strength was significantly reduced in the wet material. No appreciable variation was noted between the surface finishes in the wet laminate.

  17. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic. Part I: Morphological, mechanical and calorimetric characterization.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Bretcanu, Oana; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Laviano, Francesco; Verné, Enrica

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthermia is a technique for destroying cancer cells which involves the exposition of body's tissue to a controlled heat, normally between 41℃ and 46℃. It has been reported that ferro- or ferrimagnetic materials can heat locally, if they are placed (after being implanted) under an alternating magnetic field, damaging only tumoral cells and not the healthy ones. The power loss produced by the magnetic materials can be dissipated in the form of heat. This phenomenon has to be regulated in order to obtain a controlled temperature inside the tissues. The material that was produced and characterized in this work is composed of two phases: a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix in which a ferrimagnetic biocompatible/bioactive glass ceramic is dispersed. This composite material is intended to be applied as bone filler for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (FeO*Fe2O3) inside an amorphous bioactive residual phase. The composite material possesses structural, magnetic and bioactivity properties. The structural ones are conferred by PMMA which acts as filler for the bone defect or its damaged area. Bioactivity is conferred by the composition of the residual amorphous phase of the glass-ceramic and magnetic properties are conferred by magnetite crystals embedded in the bioactive glass-ceramic. The characterization involved the following tests: morphological and chemical characterization (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion spectrometry-micro computed tomography analysis), calorimetric tests and mechanical test (compression and flexural four point test). In vitro assessment of biological behavior will be the object of the part II of this work.

  18. Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, J. D.

    2011-12-12

    Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work--fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaF{sub 2}) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O{sub 3}) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 deg. C, 1150 deg. C, 1250 deg. C and 1350 deg. C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with {alpha}-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and {beta}-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 deg. C and 1150 deg. C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 deg. C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 deg. C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 deg. C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and

  19. Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work—fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3-CaF2) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P2O5-Na2O3) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 °C, 1150 °C, 1250 °C and 1350 °C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with α-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and β-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 °C and 1150 °C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 °C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 °C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 °C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the green pellets.

  20. Nonlinear-optic and ferroelectric behavior of lithium borate{endash}strontium bismuth tantalate glass{endash}ceramic composite

    SciTech Connect

    Senthil Murugan, G.; Varma, K. B. R.; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2001-06-18

    Transparent glasses in the system (100{endash}x) Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{endash}xSrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (0{le}x{le}20) were fabricated via a splat-quenching technique. The glassy nature of the as-quenched samples was established by differential thermal analyses. X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the as-quenched and crystallinity (40 nm) in the heat-treated (glass{endash}ceramic) samples. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}) of the glass{endash}ceramic composite (x=20, heat treated at 773 K/8 h) was in between that of the parent host glass (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) and strontium bismuth tantalate ceramics in the frequency range 100 Hz{endash}40 MHz at 300 K. These exhibited intense second-harmonic generation and a ferroelectric hysteritic behavior (P vs E loops) at 300 K. The coercive field (E{sub c}) and the remnant polarization (P{sub r}) were 1053 V/cm and 0.483 {mu}C/cm2, respectively. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.