Science.gov

Sample records for glazing materials

  1. Advances in glazing materials for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    No one type of glazing is suitable for every application. Many materials are available that serve different purposes. Moreover, consumers may discover that they need two types of glazing for a home because of the directions that the windows face and the local climate. To make wise purchases, consumers should first examine their heating and cooling needs and prioritize desired features such as daylighting, solar heating, shading, ventilation, and aesthetic value. Research and development into types of glazing have created a new generation of materials that offer improved window efficiency and performance for consumers. While this new generation of glazing materials quickly gains acceptance in the marketplace, the research and development of even more efficient technology continues.

  2. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be of material that will not break into dangerous fragments if fractured. ...

  3. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410 Safety-glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be material that will not break into...

  4. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  5. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety-glazing materials. 127.410 Section 127.410... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410 Safety-glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be material that will not break...

  6. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety-glazing materials. 127.410 Section 127.410... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410 Safety-glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be material that will not break...

  7. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety-glazing materials. 127.410 Section 127.410... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410 Safety-glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be material that will not break...

  8. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 116.1010 Section 116.1010... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be of material that will not break into dangerous fragments if fractured....

  9. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 116.1010 Section 116.1010... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be of material that will not break into dangerous fragments if fractured....

  10. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows accessible to passengers and crew must be...

  11. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows accessible to passengers and crew must be...

  12. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows accessible to passengers and crew must be...

  13. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows accessible to passengers and crew must be...

  14. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  15. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 116.1010 Section 116.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other...

  16. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 116.1010 Section 116.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other...

  17. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety-glazing materials. 127.410 Section 127.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410...

  18. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety...

  19. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini

    2014-07-01

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  20. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini

    2014-07-10

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  1. Electron beam/laser glazing of iron-base materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutt, P. R.; Lewis, B. G.; Kurup, M.

    1981-07-01

    Research on directed energy source processing of hard-iron base materials demonstrates the effect of environment, alloy chemistry and processing parameters on the nature of the crystal structure, distribution, and compositional variation of phases. In molybdenum high speed steels, for example, it is found that segregation resulting from convective and turbulent flow during glazing may either result in large scale phase separation or compositional variation within a phase. Another example of the importance of processing conditions is a clear demonstration of the effect of small oxide particles in inducing martensite during laser processing. A detailed analysis has been made to determine the effect of deflection coil parameters on the distortion of surface area glazing patterns. This is particularly important in developing techniques for preparing uniform rapidly solidified layers. In studying molybdenum base high speed steels the value of the carbon content is found to be important in determining delta ferrite formation and the peritectic reaction of this phase to uniform austenite and carbide phases. In contrast to M2 (where the carbon concentration is 0.85wt%) a homogeneous gamma/alpha phase mixture forms in materials with a carbon content of > or = 1wt%, i.e. the alloys M7, and M42. However in these two materials combined convective and turbulent flow during glazing results in a significant composition variation of the refractory elements. Tempering largely removes this inhomogeneity and results in the formation of a homogeneous tempered martensite structure. A most important effect observed in M2, M7, and M42 was the shift to longer tempering times of material glazed at moderate to high beam velocities.

  2. Glazing materials for solar and architectural applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes five collaborative research projects on glazings performed by participants in Subtask C of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) Task 10, Materials Research and Testing. The projects include materials characterization, optical and thermal measurements, and durability testing of several types of new glazings Three studies were completed on electrochromic and dispersed liquid crystals for smart windows, and two were completed for low-E coatings and transparent insulation materials for more conventional window and wall applications. In the area of optical switching materials for smart windows, the group developed more uniform characterization parameters that are useful to determine lifetime and performance of electrochromics. The detailed optical properties of an Asahi (Japan) prototype electrochromic window were measured in several laboratories. A one square meter array of prototype devices was tested outdoors and demonstrated significant cooling savings compared to tinted static glazing. Three dispersed liquid crystal window devices from Taliq (USA) were evaluated. In the off state, these liquid crystal windows scatter light greatly. When a voltage of about 100 V ac is applied, these windows become transparent. Undyed devices reduce total visible light transmittance by only .25 when switched, but this can be increased to .50 with the use of dyed liquid crystals. A wide range of solar-optical and emittance measurements were made on low-E coated glass and plastic. Samples of pyrolytic tin oxide from Ford glass (USA) and multilayer metal-dielectric coatings from Interpane (Germany) and Southwall (USA) were evaluated. In addition to optical characterization, the samples were exposure-tested in Switzerland. The thermal and optimal properties of two different types of transparent insulation materials were measured.

  3. The effect of glazing on the biaxial flexural strength of different zirconia core materials.

    PubMed

    Yener, Esra Salihoğlu; Ozcan, Mutlu; Kazazoğlu, Ender

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glazing on biaxial flexural strength of different zirconia core materials. Disc-shaped zirconia (ZirkonZahn, Cercon, Ceramill) specimens (15 mm x 1.15+/-0.02 mm) were prepared according to manufacturers' instructions. The specimens from each system were divided into 2 groups (N= 10): unglazed and glazed. Glaze liquid was applied on the entire surface of the specimens of the glazed group and fired according to manufacturers' instructions. Flexural strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed: 1 mm/min). Data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p= 0.05). The mean flexural strength values for unglazed ZirkonZahn specimens (1388+132 MPa) were significantly higher than those of unglazed Cercon (1104+124 MPa) and unglazed Ceramill (1172+127 MPa) specimens. The mean flexural strength of glazed specimens did not show any statistically significant difference. Glazing decreased the flexural strength results significantly for all systems (p< 0.05). Glazing decreased the flexural strength values for ZirkonZahn, Cercon and Ceramill specimens. Unglazed ZirkonZahn specimens revealed significantly higher mean flexural strength values than that ofunglazed and glazed zirconia materials tested in this study.

  4. Cleanability evaluation of ceramic glazes with nanometer far-infrared materials using contact angle measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Liang, Jinsheng; Di, Xingfu; Tang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    The cleanability of easy-to-clean ceramic glazes doped with nanometer far-infrared materials was compared with that of some high-quality household ceramic glazes from the market. The cleanability was evaluated by the contact angle measurement using a sessile drop method with a Dataphysics OCA-30 contact angle analyzer. The results showed that the difference of contact angles of water on the glazes before soiling and after cleaning could be used as a parameter for evaluating the cleanability of the glazes. The relationship between cleanability and surface properties, such as surface free energy and surface topography, was investigated. The surface free energy of the samples and their components were calculated using van Oss acid-base approach. By measuring advancing and receding contact angles, the contact angle hysteresis of the ceramic glazes due to the surface topography was investigated. It was shown that the cleanability of ceramic glazes containing nanometer far-infrared materials (NFIM) is better than that of household ceramic glazes from market, due to a higher ratio of electron-acceptor parameter to electron-donor parameter, which led to the effect of water hydration as well as better hydrophilic property and increased smoothness. The contact angle measurement not only accurately evaluates the cleanability of the ceramic glazes, but also has a contribution to the study of cleanability theory. Moreover, this method is simple, convenient and less sample-consumption.

  5. Use of industrial waste and local raw materials for preparing low-temperature glazes

    SciTech Connect

    Fedin, A.A.; Korneeva, V.N.; Suslov, A.A.

    1985-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to obtain low-temperature, unfritted glaze coatings for facade finishing materials. The synthesis of the glazes was based on the use of waste from the production of colored TV sets in the form of mixtures of cone glass and screens, window and container glass; white burning, aluminum-oxide containing wastes formed during the etching of aluminum alloys, and tripoli from the Nizhnedevitsk locations. The chemical compositions of the raw components are shown. The presence of large reserves of natural raw materials and industrial waste products, the simplicity of preparation, the excellent physical and mechanical and chemical properties, and also the economic effectiveness prove that the authors can recommend the new glazes for industrial use. On the basis of glass cullet, alumina-containing waste, and tripoli, it is possible to obtain low-temperature brilliant glazes of beige color for ceramic articles without incorporating, additionally, pigments and opacifiers.

  6. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... impact portion of these tests. (14) A material so tested must perform so that: (i) there shall be no... the requirements of this part, shall certify that each type of glazing material being supplied for... all pertinent original data logs and documentation that the selection of material samples, test...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... impact portion of these tests. (14) A material so tested must perform so that: (i) there shall be no... the requirements of this part, shall certify that each type of glazing material being supplied for... all pertinent original data logs and documentation that the selection of material samples, test...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... impact portion of these tests. (14) A material so tested must perform so that: (i) there shall be no... the requirements of this part, shall certify that each type of glazing material being supplied for... all pertinent original data logs and documentation that the selection of material samples, test...

  10. 77 FR 52625 - Petition Requesting Rulemaking To Revise Test Procedures for Glazing Materials in Architectural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... material to test and certify the compliance of their products to the current ANSI standard. By this notice...; ] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1201 Petition Requesting Rulemaking To Revise Test Procedures for Glazing Materials in Architectural Products AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission....

  11. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuo; Wu, Bolin

    2011-12-30

    Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm(3); compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) is obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud.

  12. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  13. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  14. Advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications: International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Michael G.

    1992-11-01

    Following a program definition phase of 2 years, Task 18 of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating & Cooling program commenced a 5 year research phase in April 1992. Task 18 investigates a wide range of advanced glazing materials and glazing systems which include monolithic and granular aerogels, transparent insulation materials, chromogenic materials, evacuated glazings, low-emittance coatings, solar collector covers, angular selective transmittance thin films, holographic and light guide materials, and frame and edge seal technology. In addition to materials-centered research, Task 18 concentrates on measurement of key glazing properties such as total energy transmittance, U-value, and spectral directional optical properties, and through the use of building energy analysis software tools the identification of appropriate applications, control strategies, and energy and environmental benefits to be derived from advanced glazing products. Fifteen OECD countries are participating in Task 18 which is led by the United Kingdom.

  15. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the loss of transparency, and instructions for removing frost and ice, and, at the option of the... edges shall be treated in accordance with SEA Recommended Practice J673a, “Automotive Glazing,”...

  16. Wear characteristics of polished and glazed lithium disilicate ceramics opposed to three ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Kodaira, Akihisa; Okamura, Kentaro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the wear characteristics of a heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic material opposed to feldspathic porcelain, a lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and zirconia materials. Ceramic plate specimens were prepared from feldspathic porcelain (EX-3 nA1B), lithium disilicate glass ceramics (e.max CAD MO1/C14), and zirconia (Katana KT 10) and then ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens were fabricated from heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramic (e.max press LT A3) and then glazed or polished. A sliding wear testing apparatus was used for wear testing. Wear of glazed rods was greater than that of polished rods when they were abraded with ground zirconia, ground porcelain, polished porcelain, or polished lithium disilicate ceramics. For both glazed and polished rods, wear was greater when the rods were abraded with ground plates. The findings indicate that application of a polished surface rather than a glazed surface is recommended for single restorations made of heat-pressed lithium disilicate material. In addition, care must be taken when polishing opposing materials, especially those used in occlusal contact areas. (J Oral Sci 58, 117-123, 2016).

  17. Exposure of Polymeric Glazing Materials Using NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.; Jorgensen, G.; Wylie, A.

    2010-01-01

    NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) selectively reflects and concentrates natural sunlight ultraviolet irradiance below 475 nm onto exposed samples to provide accelerated weathering of materials while keeping samples within realistic temperature limits. This paper will explain the design and implementation of the UAWS which allow it to simulate the effect of years of weathering in weeks of exposure. Exposure chamber design and instrumentation will be discussed for both a prototype UAWS used to test glazing samples as well as a commercial version of UAWS. Candidate polymeric glazing materials have been subjected to accelerated exposure testing at a light intensity level of up to 50 UV suns for an equivalent outdoor exposure in Miami, FL exceeding 15 years. Samples include an impact modified acrylic, fiberglass, and polycarbonate having several thin UV-screening coatings. Concurrent exposure is carried out for identical sample sets at two different temperatures to allow thermal effects to be quantified along with resistance to UV.

  18. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-04-10

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes.

  19. Energy Simulation studies in IEA/SHC Task 18 advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Lyons, P.

    1995-04-01

    Researchers participating in IEA/SHC Task 18 on advanced glazing materials have as their primary objective the development of new innovative glazing products such as high performance glazings, wavelength selective glazings, chromogenic optical switching devices, and light transport mechanisms that will lead to significant energy use reductions and increased comfort in commercial and residential buildings. Part of the Task 18 effort involves evaluation of the energy and comfort performance of these new glazings through the use of various performance analysis simulation tools. Eleven countries (Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) are contributing to this multi-year simulation study to better understand the complex heat transfer interactions that determine window performance. Each country has selected particular simulation programs and identified the following items to guide the simulation tasks: (1) geographic locations; (2) building types; (3) window systems and control strategies; and (4) analysis parameters of interest. This paper summarizes the results obtained thus far by several of the research organizations.

  20. GLAZING WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BATES, NEIL W.; AND OTHERS

    THE TECHNICAL INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS PLANNED AND WRITTEN UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE GLAZING TRADE FOR USE AS RELATED CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION IN THE GLAZING APPRENTICE TRAINING PROGRAM. THE UNITS ARE (1) THE APPRENTICE GLAZIER AND HIS TRADE, (2) BASIC MATHEMATICS, (3) APPLIED MATHEMATICS, (4) BLUEPRINT…

  1. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (d) Interior partitions. (e) Openings in the roof. (f) Flexible curtains or readily removable windows.... S5.1.2.3Item 13—Flexible plastics. Safety plastic materials that comply with Tests Nos. 16, 19, 20... windows in buses. (d) Interior partitions. (e) Openings in the roof. (f) Flexible curtains or readily...

  2. Cordierite glass-ceramics as glaze materials for refractory forming tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Frank Scott

    1999-11-01

    Glasses of the composition 2MgO·2Al2O 3·5SiO2 were successfully nucleated with additions of up to 8 mol% TiO2 to form fully crystalline glass-ceramic bodies. The predominant crystalline phase is a hexagonal stuffed quartz structure when the glasses are heated to temperatures near 950°C. This phase transforms to the hexagonal indialite phase at higher temperatures. The nucleating effect of the TiO2 addition results in a fine grained glass-ceramic. Both the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm) decreased with a linear dependence on the amount of TiO 2 added to the glass. Glass of the composition 2MgO·2Al 2O3·5SiO2 + 8 mol% TiO2 was ground and air plasma sprayed onto low thermal expansion castable refractory concretes as a glaze. This glaze remained intact on the refractory concretes during crystallization. This behavior was observed during and after limited thermal cycling of the glazed refractory concretes, and also after high temperature heat treatment of the glazed refractory concretes.

  3. Solar glazings: a product review

    SciTech Connect

    Langa, F.; Flower, B.; Sellers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Glazings for solar applications are listed, described, and evaluated. Glasses as well as plastic materials are reviewed. Data presented include manufacturer (and trade name), description, weight (lbs/ft/sup 2/), cost, applications, appearance, installation notes, and miscellaneous information about service life, solar transmittance, impact resistance, etc. The following are listed: (1) glass, tempered-low iron; (2) glass, annealed; (3) acrylic, single and double wall; (4) polycarbonate; (5) cellulose acetate butyrate; (6) fiberglass-reinforced polyester; (7) fluorinated ethylene propylene; (8) polyvinyl fluoride; (9) laminated acrylic/polyester; (10) weatherable polyester; and (11) polyethylene. Visual comparisons (using photographs) are made between various glazing materials. Comparative evaluations of the various glazing materials are summarized in a table in which advantages and disadvantages of each type of glazing are given. A listing of manufacturers with addresses and telephone numbers is included. (MJJ)

  4. Efficiency and bandwidth analysis of holographic glazing materials in the conical diffraction configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Tholl, H.D.

    1994-12-31

    The redirection of light by holographic glazing is based on diffraction. The intensity and the color of the redirected light depend strongly on the direction of the diffracted waves. The paper presents a model for the design of volume holograms as light directing elements which takes into account the three-dimensional character of the diffraction process. Formulas for the Bragg-wavelength, the bandwidth, and the diffraction efficiency are given. It is shown how to use conventional photometric formulas in order to calculate the illuminance and the color distribution on surfaces illuminated by the diffracted light. Finally, the design method is demonstrated for a single volume grating incorporated into a window as a light directing element.

  5. Non-destructive Analysis of Material Detachments from Polychromatically Glazed Terracotta Artwork by THz Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krügener, Kirsti; Busch, Stefan F.; Soltani, Amin; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Koch, Martin; Viöl, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    The damage caused by the environment to exposed glazed terracotta objects is usually not externally visible. For instance, the detachment of the glaze owing to subsurface crack formation or whole cavities in the area of the terracotta cannot be located visually. In this article, we demonstrate that terahertz time-of-flight spectroscopy is suitable to locate and measure the air gaps under the glaze detachments which could only be done by X-ray axial tomography before. This tool will be very useful to guide the restoration process, particularly for pieces that are still attached to buildings or other structures that cannot be transported to a tomography facility.

  6. Non-destructive Analysis of Material Detachments from Polychromatically Glazed Terracotta Artwork by THz Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krügener, Kirsti; Busch, Stefan F.; Soltani, Amin; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Koch, Martin; Viöl, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The damage caused by the environment to exposed glazed terracotta objects is usually not externally visible. For instance, the detachment of the glaze owing to subsurface crack formation or whole cavities in the area of the terracotta cannot be located visually. In this article, we demonstrate that terahertz time-of-flight spectroscopy is suitable to locate and measure the air gaps under the glaze detachments which could only be done by X-ray axial tomography before. This tool will be very useful to guide the restoration process, particularly for pieces that are still attached to buildings or other structures that cannot be transported to a tomography facility.

  7. Establishing the value of advanced glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E; Selkowitz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous glazing technologies are under development worldwide to improve the performance of building facades. High-performance glazings can provide substantial energy and related environmental benefits, but often at greatly increased first cost when compared to conventional design solutions. To increase market viability, we discuss strategies to reduce the actual and owner-perceived costs associated with developing and producing advanced window systems, specifically switchable electrochromic glazings, and we also suggest marketing strategies designed to appeal to early adopter and mainstream purchasers. These strategies may be applicable to a broad range of advanced glazing materials.

  8. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  9. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Hartmann, John L.

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  10. The development and testing of glaze materials for application to the fit surface of dental ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Cattell, Michael J; Chadwick, Thomas C; Knowles, Jonathan C; Clarke, Richard L

    2009-04-01

    The aims of the study were to develop and test overglaze materials for application to the fit surface of dental ceramic restorations, which could be etched and adhesively bonded and increase the flexural strength of the ceramic substrate. Three glaze materials were developed using commercial glass powders (P25 and P54, Pemco, Canada). P25 (90 wt%) was mixed with P54 (10 wt%) to produce (P25/P54). P54 (90 wt%) was mixed with P25 (10 wt%) to produce (P54/P25). P25 (90 wt%) was mixed with 10 wt% of an experimental glass powder (P25/frit). Eighty-two disc specimens (14 mm x 2 mm) were produced by heat pressing a leucite glass-ceramic and were sandblasted with 50 microm glass beads. Group 1 control specimens (10) were sandblasted. Groups 2-4 (10 per group) were coated using P25/frit (Group 2), P25/P54 (Group 3) and P54/P25 (Group 4) overglazes before sintering. Groups 1-4 were etched for 2 min using 9.5% HF (Gresco, USA). Composite cylinders (Marathon v, Den-Mat) were light cured and bonded to the glazed and prepared disc surfaces and groups water stored for 8 days. Groups were tested using shear bond strength (SBS) testing at 0.5mm/min. Disc specimens (42) were tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test at a crosshead speed of 0.15 mm/min. Group 1 was tested as sandblasted (21) and Group 2 (21) after coating the tensile surface with P25/frit. Xrd, Eds and Sem analyzes were carried out. Mean SBS (MPa+/-S.D.) were: Group 1: 10.7+/-2.1; Group 2: 9.8+/-1.9; Group 3: 1.8+/-1.0 and Group 4: 2.6+/-1.7. Groups 1 and 2 were statistically different to Groups 3 and 4 (p<0.001), but there was no difference between Groups 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 (p>0.05). The mean BFS (MPa+/-S.D.) of the overglazed Group 2 (200.2+/-22.9) was statistically different (p<0.001) to Group 1 (150.4+/-14.3). The P25/frit overglaze significantly (p<0.001) increased the biaxial flexural strength of the leucite glass-ceramic substrate and produced comparable shear bond strengths to an etched and

  11. Glazes, the Final Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigrosh, Leon I.

    1977-01-01

    Have you ever wondered, after all the time and work, why your students' glazes did not come out of the kiln as well as those of a professional? One reason could be the glazes themselves. Describes where to find high quality packaged glazes and how to use them productively. (Author/RK)

  12. Glazes, the Final Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigrosh, Leon I.

    1977-01-01

    Have you ever wondered, after all the time and work, why your students' glazes did not come out of the kiln as well as those of a professional? One reason could be the glazes themselves. Describes where to find high quality packaged glazes and how to use them productively. (Author/RK)

  13. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Window Caulk, Glazing Compound, Wiring and Other Similar Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Letters that provide guidance on asbestos National Emissions Standard of Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) applicability to linoleum, tar paper, electric wiring, floor tile mastic, caulking compounds, and other similar materials during demolition

  14. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  15. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  16. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  17. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  18. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  19. Spectrally selective glazings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  20. μ-PIXE mapping of archeological glazed pottery from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, H.

    2015-03-01

    μ-PIXE has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work μ-PIXE used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed pottery from Al-Fustat excavation repository have been chosen to represent different chemical compositions (fluxes and colorants) of glaze depending on its color. The chemical compositions with deterioration factors (humidity and temperature) worked together to make chemical changes on the surface of glaze.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy for archaeo-materials research: Nanoparticles in glazes and red/yellow glass and inorganic pigments in painted context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickx, Peggy

    2004-10-01

    This dissertation addresses the application of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to historic objects, concentrating on colour-causing nanoparticles in vitreous materials and pigments with the focus on substrates in lake pigments used in thin glaze layers, and on manuscript illustrations. TEM is well suited for archaeometry: it gives chemical elemental information, imaging and diffraction information and the amount of material needed is minimal. Sample preparation techniques suitable for historic materials are discussed. Nanoparticles can be incorporated in glass through staining. Yellow coloured glass plates contain Ag particles. Baking temperatures and different Ag-salts determine the density of the nanoparticles. Dense layers cause more saturated colours. Red glass plates can be obtained by staining with Cu-salts. Metallic Cu particles have a diameter of about 24 nm. Comparison with XRF results suggests that often a combination of Cu and Ag was used for warmer colours. Red glass can be "flashed" to the substrate glass. Then, the colour is also caused by metallic Cu particles. The red layer often displays a band structure of stacked red and transparent bands. In the transparent bands, no nanoparticles have been found. In lustre-ware, Ag and metallic Cu occur. Their distribution throughout the material determines the colour of the fragment. In both there is a dense top layer with particles of sizes smaller than 15 nm. If this top layer consists of Ag particles, the resulting colour is golden. In one sample, under this top layer the amount of Cu particles increases. This underlying layer causes the colour to redden. Particles are mainly between 5 and 15 nm in diameter. Using reconstructions, it has been demonstrated that TEM can detect and identify a stacking of thin layers in parchment decorations. A pink powder sample from Pompeii consists of a basis of allophane type clay. The lake substrates consist of Al, O, S and their amorphous structure does not seem to

  2. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia M.

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for…

  3. Amazing Rainbow Glazing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the design for her advanced oil-painting class. In this class, high-school students created a self-portrait painting and learned a glazing technique. The author also describes the students' evaluation of the class.

  4. Amazing Rainbow Glazing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the design for her advanced oil-painting class. In this class, high-school students created a self-portrait painting and learned a glazing technique. The author also describes the students' evaluation of the class.

  5. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia M.

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for…

  6. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  7. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Treesearch

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  8. Selective and simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions in leaching process waters for ceramics glaze raw materials of narutal origin by ion-exclusion chromatography coupled with UV-detection after postcolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Kurachi, Kazumasa; Hu, Wenzhi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    The selective and simultaneous ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with UV-detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column in the H+ -form (TSKgel Super IC-A/C) was developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions as the water quality parameters required for optimizing the water-leaching process for ceramics glaze raw materials of natural origin including feldspar, woods-ash, and straw-ash. Phosphate and silicate ions in these water-leaching process water samples were separated selectively from the coexisting anions such as sulfate, chloride, nitrate and carbonate ions, based on the ion-exclusion separation mechanism. They were detected selectively and simultaneously by a postcolumn derivatization with molybdenum-yellow using the UV-detector. Under the optimized separation and detection conditions (eluent, 0-1 mM sulfuric acid; reactant, 10 mM sodium molybdate-25 mM sulfuric acid; detector, UV at 370 nm; temperature, 45 degrees C), the linearity of calibration was in the range 0.1 - 10 ppm for both phosphate and silicate ions, and the detection limits at S/N = 3 were 2.58 ppb for silicate ions and 4.75 ppb for phosphate ions. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated in practical applications to the water-leaching process for some ceramics glaze raw materials.

  9. Technology reviews: Glazing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology; determine the performance range of available technologies; identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances; examine market forces and market trends; and develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fag into that class.

  10. Chemical durability of glaze on Zsolnay architectural ceramics (Budapest, Hungary) in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; May, Zoltán; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Zsolnay glazed architectural ceramics are among the most famous Hungarian ceramics, however, there is no profound knowledge about the deterioration of these building materials. The present study aims to reveal the influence of acidic solutions in the deterioration of Zsolnay ceramics. The studied ceramics are glazed roof tiles, which originate from two buildings in Budapest: one is located in the densely built-up city centre with high traffic rate and another one is in a city quarter with moderate traffic and more open space. The roof tiles represent the construction and the renovation periods of the buildings. The ceramics were mainly covered by lead glazes in the construction period and mainly alkali glazes in the renovation periods. The glaze of the tiles were coloured with iron (for yellow glaze) or chromium/copper/iron (for green glazes) in the case of the building located in the city centre, whereas cobalt was used as colorant and tin oxide as opacifier for the blue glaze of the ceramics of the other building. Six tiles were selected from each building. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) solutions of pH2 and pH4 were used to measure the durability of the glazes up to 14 days at room temperature. The surfaces of the glazed ceramics after the treatment were measured by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS techniques to determine the precipitated phases on the surface of the glaze. Electron microprobe analysis was used to quantitatively characterise phases found and to determine the chemical composition of the treated glaze. The recovered sulphuric acid solutions were measured with ICP-OES technique in order to quantify the extent of the ion exchange between the glaze and the solutions. There is a significant difference in the dissolution rates in the treatments with sulphuric acid solutions of pH2 and pH4, respectively. The solution of pH2 induced greater ion exchange (approx. 7-10 times) from the glaze compared to the solution of pH4. Alkali and alkali earth

  11. [Preliminary Research on Bubble Characteristics of Ancient Glaze Using OCT Technology].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Dong, Jun-qing; Li, Qing-hui; Guo, Mu-sen; Bu, Gong; Hu, Yong-qing

    2015-08-01

    The bubble is one of the most common feature in ancient glaze. The size and distribution of bubbles are closely associated with recipes of the raw materials for the body and glaze and the making process. To characterize the bubbles is essential for the study of ceramic production process, production places, times characteristics and so on. In order to explore the possibility of using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technology to characterize the bubbles and the bubble distribution characteristic in glaze of ancient porcelain, sweep frequency OCT imaging system is used to detect five different types ancient porcelain chips. According to the two dimensional sectional images and three dimensional tomographic images of the transparent layer of glaze obtained by the OCT imaging system, the two dimensional sectional images characteristics and three dimensional slices characteristics of the bubbles in glaze are studied. The bubble characteristics in the glaze and its possible causes that gases in the body of the ceramic overflow to the glaze layer in the firing process are comprehensively analyzed. Meantime, the size of bubble is calculated according to the two dimensional sectional images based on pixel, and the result is compared with the traditional microscopic test result. The bubble size, two dimensional sectional characteristics and three dimensional tomographic image characteristics of opaque glaze are also studied. Experimental results show that the bubble characteristics in glaze of different ancient porcelain chips are obvious difference, the result of the bubble size calculated based on pixel coincides with the result of the bubble size observed by traditional microscope with ten times magnification, slices of the body near the body-glaze binding region based on OCT imaging technology three dimensional tomography can effectively reflect the bubble characteristics in glaze. The measurement of using OCT imaging technology to characterize bubble

  12. Synchrotron radiation micro-XRD in the study of glaze technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Salvadó, N.; Labrador, A.

    2010-05-01

    The production of glass represented an important technological achievement, and it was the starting point for the invention of a large variety of materials, produced by processes involving melting, partial or total, and precipitation of new crystalline compounds during cooling. In particular, those crystallites built-in the glaze due to partial or total insolubility of some elements originally present in the melt (for instance some colourants and opacifiers), as well as those crystallites formed in the glazes resulting from the interaction of the melt and the ceramic surface are subject of the highest interest in the study of glaze technology. Finally, devitrification and weathering gives rise to precipitation of new crystalline compounds closer to the surfaces and interfaces. SEM-EDX and WDX have been traditionally used to obtain the chemistry of the glazes and the identification of the crystalline compounds present. However, it has some limitations identifying minute crystallites (below 0.5 micrometers) and polymorphs, which are of the highest interest in the study of historical glazes. Synchrotron Radiation micro-X-ray Diffraction has a small beam size adequate to obtain the structural information of submicron crystalline compounds and high brilliance, optimal for determining the crystallites even when present in low amounts. In addition the spatial distribution of the crystalline compounds present in the glazes fundamental for the study of the interaction between the ceramic and the glaze may be easily obtained. The identification of the microcrystallites formed in the glazes and their distribution across the glazes gives direct information on trends of the technology of production, stability and weathering of ancient glazes. In this study a collection of Islamic glazes from the 9th to the 13th century AD from different origins and obtained with different raw materials and production routes are studied. Unreacted grains, reaction compounds, crystallisations and

  13. An Imaginative Approach to Ceramic Glazing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, John A.

    1978-01-01

    Would you like to expand your selection of glazes easily and economically? By using imagination and combinations of pre-mixed glazes and toothbrush spattering, art teachers can discover new and exciting ranges of glaze decorations. Gives a dozen combinations for experimentation. (Author/RK)

  14. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  15. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  16. An Imaginative Approach to Ceramic Glazing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, John A.

    1978-01-01

    Would you like to expand your selection of glazes easily and economically? By using imagination and combinations of pre-mixed glazes and toothbrush spattering, art teachers can discover new and exciting ranges of glaze decorations. Gives a dozen combinations for experimentation. (Author/RK)

  17. Characterization of Low Firing Temperature Ceramic Glaze Using Phuket MSW and Soda Lime Cullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketboonruang, P.; Jinawat, S.; Kashima, D. P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Sujaridworakun, P.; Buggakuptav, W.; Traipol, N.; Jiemsirilers, S.

    2011-10-01

    The normal firing temperature of ceramic products is around 1200 °C. In order to reduce firing temperature, industrial wastes were utilized in ceramic glaze. Phuket municipal solid waste (MSW), soda lime cullet, and borax were used as raw materials for low firing temperature glazes. The glaze compositions were designed using a triaxial diagram. Stoneware ceramic body was glazed then fired at 1000 and 1150 °C for 15 minutes. Morphology and phase composition of glazes were analyzed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal expansion compatibility of Stoneware body and glazes were investigated using a dilatometer. Melting behaviour of selected glaze was analyzed by heating stage microscopy. Phuket MSW and Soda lime glass cullet can be used in high percentage as major raw materials for low firing temperature ceramic glaze that show good texture and vitrified at lower firing temperature without using any commercial ceramic frits. The firing temperature can be reduced up to 150 °C in this study.

  18. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of purple-gold glaze of Jingdezhen imperial kiln].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Ming; Li, Qi-Jiang; Zhang, Mao-Lin; Ding, Yin-Zhong; Cao, Jian-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Jing

    2014-03-01

    Color glaze is one of the four famous traditional ceramics of Jingdezhen, especially for the products from Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns which have rich connotation of technology and culture. The chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of glaze and body of purple-gold glaze samples from Jingdezhen Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns were analyzed by energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and colorimeter. Preliminary study on the composition, formula and chromaticity characteristic of glaze of purple-gold glaze samples of different period was carried out and the intrinsic causes of ifferences were discussed. The result shows that the concentration of magnesium and calcium in purple-gold glaze is different from the other glazes in Jingdezhen in the same time, probably due to the addition of auburn or brown limestone which is rich in magnesium. The purple-gold glaze sample of Ming Dynasty is darker chiefly because the concentration of magnesium and calcium is higher than the sample of Ming Dynasty which led to iron crystal separated, reducing the brightness and glossiness of glaze. In addition, the body of purple-gold glaze samples from Jingdezhen Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns has the characteristics of high silicon and low aluminum and the molar ratio of silicon to aluminum of samples from Ming Dynasty to Qing Dynasty declined, showing that the concentration of kaolin of sample's body of Ming dynasty was increased. The result of this experiment fill deficiency in the ceramic science and technology research in our country about purple-gold glaze from Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns and provides scientific material for comprehensive understanding of porcelain marking technology and intrinsic value of Jingdezhen official kiln.

  19. Mössbauer spectroscopic study on glaze of pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Kazutoyo; Haruta, Hiroshi; Honda, Chikako; Katada, Motomi; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakada, Masami; Saeki, Masakatsu; Aratono, Yasuyuki

    1994-12-01

    Iron-barium glaze was prepared from commercially available materials for ceramic arts and from chemical reagents, and investigated by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy and an electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Mössbauer spectra showed a doublet of paramagnetic high-spin Fe(II) and Fe(III) incorporated into aluminosilicate, and the magnetically-split hyperfine structures of hematite and magnetite, depending on the iron content and firing conditions. The EPMA indicated striped patterns on the secondary electron images, and the fluorescent X-ray analysis proved that the patterns are due to the heterogeneous distribution of elements in the glaze.

  20. Characteristics of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic objects from Fatimid and Mamluk periods as revealed by ion beam analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, Hamada; M, Abd El Hady M.

    2012-07-01

    Ion beam analysis (PIXE, μPIXE) has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic from 10th to the 16th centuries (Fatimid and Mamluk periods). Glazed ceramic samples from Al-Fustat Excavation store have been chosen to represent different colours (green, blue, brown, black ...etc), the colours of glaze depend on many factors such as oxides present in the glaze layer, fluxes and the conditions in which objects had been manufactured in the past. Ion Beam allows the identification of elemental composition of the glaze layer i.e., the information about colorants used in glaze, which is of great importance for compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship between ancient cultures with the environment.

  1. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  2. Laser sealed evacuated window glazings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. K.; Tracy, C. E.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    1984-10-01

    The design and fabrication of a highly insulating, evacuated window glazing were investigated. A thermal network model was used to parametrically predict the thermal performance of such a window. Achievable design options are predicted to provide a glazing with a thermal conductance less than 0.6 W/sq m K which is compact, lightweight and durable. A CO2 laser was used to produce a continuous, leak tight, welded glass perimeter seal around 25 x 25 sq cm test specimens. Various diameters of regularly spaced spherical support spacers were incorporated in the specimens as well as an integral SnO2:F transparent, low emissivity coating for suppression of radiative heat transfer. Laser sealing rates of .06 cm/s were achieved at a 580 C glass working temperature with 400 W of continouous wave (CW) laser power.

  3. Fusible glaze for technical ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, V.V.; Spirina, O.V.

    1986-05-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize and investigate fusible borosilicate glazes with a high B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ concentration, and to develop a glaze composition with a firing temperature of 730-760/sup 0/ C for use in obtaining joints between platinum and the ceramic ''Sinoxal''. Nine glaze compositions were synthesized with increasing contents of B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from 18.2 to 46.8, which corresponded to a reduction in the ratio SiO/sub 2/:B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from 2.8 to 0.72. The components were ground, screened and batched. It was established that with an increase in the B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content the loss in mass during boiling of the glass is at first reduced and then reaches a minimum (1%) with a content of 26-30% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The recommended fusible compositions, whose firing temperature is 720-760/sup 0/ C, are good wetting agents and adhere well to ceramic and platinum.

  4. Indoor Recreational Places as Glazed Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cold, Birgit

    This paper describes how creation of a varied, imaginative, and cultivated environment can recreate the pleasure of learning. The development of an indoor-outdoor, public-private, and half-climatized glazed (glass covered) space at the University of Dragvoll in Trondheim, Norway, is described. Well-planned glazed spaces can increase social…

  5. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Glazing. 238.421 Section 238.421 Transportation... window on a passenger car and a power car cab shall comply with the requirements contained in part 223 of this chapter. (b) Particular end-facing exterior glazing requirements. Each end-facing exterior...

  6. Solar absorption in thick and multilayered glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Powles, Rebecca; Curcija, Dragan; Kohler, Christian

    2002-02-01

    Thick and multilayered glazings generally have a nonuniform distribution of absorbed solar radiation which is not taken into account by current methods for calculating the center of glass solar gain and thermal performance of glazing systems. This paper presents a more accurate method for calculating the distribution of absorbed solar radiation inside thick and multilayered glazings and demonstrates that this can result in a small but significant difference in steady-state temperature profile and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient for some types of glazing systems when compared to the results of current methods. This indicates that a more detailed approach to calculating the distribution of absorbed solar radiation inside glazings and resulting thermal performance may be justified for certain applications.

  7. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröberg, Linda; Hupa, Leena

    2008-01-01

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface.

  8. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Michael E.A.; Binions, Russell

    2014-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  9. Impact of ZnO on the structure of aluminosilicate glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniak, M.; Partyka, J.; Sitarz, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of the ZnO content on the microstructure and structure of the internal aluminosilicooxygen network of the glazes from the SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system. In order to examine the real composition of the obtained samples, a chemical analysis was performed. In order to determine the microstructure, research using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS was done. For the inner structural study, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy as well as MIR, FIR spectroscopy and 29Si, 27Al MAS NMR were performed. The study has shown that the experimental glazes are amorphous material. The studies showed that, zinc ions in the structure of the aluminosilicate glazes cause depolymerization of silicon-oxygen network. This means that, the zinc ions Zn2+ in the tested glazes are in octahedral coordination.

  10. Energy Conservation Strategies for Windows and Glazed Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    As with photochromies, a disadvantage with thermochromics is that the threshold for change is fixed. • Electrochromic materials change properties as...adjustment. Controls can be operated manually or linked directly to building operating systems. Electrochromic coatings can be put on various layers of...single- or double-pane units, or combined with other glazings (with or without other coatings). There are two major types of active electrochromic

  11. When to glaze--an electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Barghi, N; Alexander, L; Draugh, R A

    1976-06-01

    1. A smooth porcelain surface can be obtained by glazing after grinding. There is no need for sanding or polishing with a rubber wheel. 2. A low-fusing glaze gives a slightly smoother surface than a natural glaze. The low-fusing glaze may be added at any stage of polishing, and the results will be the same.

  12. Laser glazing of lanthanum magnesium hexaaluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Wang, Yaomin; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Zhong, Xinghua; Li, Qin; Cao, Xueqiang

    2008-08-01

    Lanthanum magnesium hexaalumminate (LMA) is an important candidate for thermal barrier coatings due to its thermal stability and low thermal conductivity. On the other hand, laser glazing method can potentially make thermal barrier coatings impermeable, resistant to corrosion on the surface and porous at bulk. LMA powder was synthesized at 1600 °C by solid-state reaction, pressed into tablet and laser glazed with a 5-kW continuous wave CO2 laser. Dendritic structures were observed on the surface of the laser-glazed specimen. The thicker the tablet, the easier the sample cracks. Cracking during laser glazing is attributed to the low thermal expansion coefficient and large thickness of the sample.

  13. The energy performance of prototype holographic glazings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, R.; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, S.; Rubin, M.

    1993-02-01

    We report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototype holographic glazings in commercial office buildings in a California climate. These prototype glazings, installed above conventional side windows, are designed to diffract the transmitted solar radiation and reflect it off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination for typical office tasks up to 10m from the window. In this study, we experimentally determined a comprehensive set of solar-optical properties and characterized the contribution of the prototype holographic glazings to workplane illuminance in a scale model of a typical office space. We then used the scale model measurements to simulate the energy performance of the holographic glazings over the course of an entire year for four window orientations (North, East, South and West) for the inland Los Angeles climate, using the DOE-2.lD building energy analysis computer program. The results of our experimental analyses indicate that these prototype holographic glazings diffract only a small fraction of the incident light. The results of this study indicate that these prototype holographic glazings will not save energy in commercial office buildings. Their performance is very similar to that of clear glass, which, through side windows, cannot efficiently illuminate more than a 4-6 m depth of a building's perimeter, because the cooling penalties due to solar heat gain are greater than the electric lighting savings due to daylighting.

  14. Method and apparatus for an insulating glazing unit and compliant seal for an insulating glazing unit

    DOEpatents

    Francis, IV, William H.; Freebury, Gregg E.; Beidleman, Neal J.; Hulse, Michael

    2016-05-03

    A Vacuum Insulating Glazing Unit (VIGU) comprises two or more glass lites (panes) spaced apart from one another and hermetically bonded to an edge seal assembly therebetween. The resulting cavity between the lites is evacuated to create at least one insulating vacuum cavity within which are disposed a plurality of stand-off members to maintain separation between the lites. The edge seal assembly is preferably compliant in the longitudinal (i.e., edgewise) direction to allow longitudinal relative motion between the two lites (e.g., from thermal expansion). The longitudinal compliance may be obtained by imprinting a three-dimensional pattern into the edge seal material. The edge seal assembly is preferably bonded to the lites with a first bond portion that is hermetic and a second bond portion that is load-resistant. Methods for producing VIGUs and/or compliant edge seal assemblies and VIGU and edge seal apparatus are disclosed.

  15. Golden glazes analysis by PIGE and PIXE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, M.; Luís, H.; Franco, N.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Cruz, J.; Galaviz, D.; Fernandes, N.; Vieira, P.; Ribeiro, J. P.; Jesus, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present the analysis performed on the chemical composition of two golden glazes available in the market using the PIGE and PIXE techniques at the ITN ion beam laboratory. The analysis of the light elements was performed using the Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis (ERYA) code, a standard-free method for PIGE analysis on thick samples. The results were compared to those obtained on an old glaze. Consistently high concentrations of lead and sodium were found in all analyzed golden glazes. The analysis of the samples pointed to Mo and Co as the specific elements responsible of the gold colour at the desired temperature, and allowed Portuguese ceramists to produce a golden glaze at 997 °C. Optical reflection spectra of the glazes are given, showing that the produced glaze has a spectrum similar to the old glaze. Also, in order to help the ceramists, the unknown compositions of four different types of frits (one of the components of glazes) were analysed.

  16. Simulating the energy performance of holographic glazings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, Reto; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, Steven E.; Rubin, Michael

    1994-09-01

    The light diffraction properties of holographic diffractive structures present an opportunity to improve the daylight performance in side-lit office spaces by redirecting and reflecting sunlight off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination up to 30 ft (9.14 m) from the window wall. Prior studies of prototypical holographic glazings, installed above conventional `view' windows, have shown increased daylight levels over a deeper perimeter area than clear glass, for selected sun positions. In this study, we report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototypical holographic glazings assuming a commercial office building in the inland Los Angeles climate. The simulation of the energy performance involved determination of both luminous and thermal performance. Since the optical complexity of holographic glazings prevented the use of conventional algorithms for the simulation of their luminous performance, we used a newly developed method that combines experimentally determined directional workplane illuminance coefficients with computer-based analytical routines to determine a comprehensive set of daylight factors for many sun positions. These daylight factors were then used within the DOE-2.1D energy simulation program to determine hourly daylight and energy performance over the course of an entire year for four window orientations. Since the prototypical holographic diffractive structures considered in this study were applied on single pane clear glass, we also simulated the performance of hypothetical glazings, assuming the daylight performance of the prototype holographic glazings and the thermal performance of double-pane and low-e glazings. Finally, we addressed various design and implementation issues towards potential performance improvement.

  17. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOEpatents

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  18. Search for glazed surfaces on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The paper summarizes arguments leading to suggestions that Triton's icy surface may be unusual in texture, sith special attention given to the hypothesis of the existence of glazed areas on Triton. Results are presented of a search for an evidence of specular reflection diagnostic of 'glazed' icy surfaces on Triton, using high-resolution Voyager 2 images of three regions on Triton: the South Polar Cap Mottled Unit, the Bright Fringe, and the Frost Band. No such evidence was found in these three different terrains.

  19. Compositional and technological features of glazed pottery from Aosta Valley (Italy): a SEM-EDS investigation.

    PubMed

    Gulmini, Monica; Appolonia, Lorenzo; Framarin, Patrizia; Mirti, Piero

    2006-11-01

    Twelve finds from archaeological excavations carried out in the Aosta region (Italy) were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray detection (SEM-EDS). The archaeological samples were shards of glazed pottery dating from the fourth to the seventh century AD. Analysis of ceramic bodies revealed a general homogeneity in composition among the studied samples and the use of a noncalcareous clay for their manufacture; however, two shards stand out due to their high iron contents. Glazes proved to be high-lead products with more than 70% PbO in all of the samples investigated but one. For the latter, a composition poorer in lead and richer in silicon, aluminium and iron was found. SEM observation of the contact region between body and glaze suggests that the vitreous coatings were mostly obtained by applying the glazing components onto the unfired clay body; moreover, a comparison between clay and glaze compositions suggests the use of a lead compound mixed with a silica-rich material, not a lead compound by itself.

  20. Extended glaze firing on ceramics for hard machining: Crack healing, residual stresses, optical and microstructural aspects.

    PubMed

    Aurélio, Iana L; Dorneles, Lucio S; May, Liliana G

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of extended and conventional (manufacturer-recommended) glaze firings on crack healing, residual stresses, optical characteristics and crystalline structure of four ceramics for hard machining. Rectangular specimens were obtained by sectioning densely sintered feldspathic (FEL), leucite- (LEU), lithium disilicate- (DIS), and zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate-based (ZLS) prefabricated ceramic blocks and divided into groups according to the applied glaze firing (n=5): conventional glaze/manufacturer-recommended (G), extended glaze (EG) and control/no heat treatment (C). Defects generated by indentation were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy before and after firing (n=1) to evaluate crack healing. Residual stresses were determined by the indentation technique. Color differences (ΔE) after firing were measured by CIEDE2000 formula, and translucency variations were quantified by contrast ratio. Stability of crystalline microstructure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Regardless of the material, EG had greater ability than G to heal defects, and produced compressive residual stresses, while G generated tensile stresses. Color differences produced by EG were: imperceptible for FEL and LEU ceramics; perceptible, but still clinically acceptable for DIS; clinically unacceptable for ZLS. G produced no perceptible color change. The DIS and ZLS ceramics became ≈1% more opaque after G, ≈4% and ≈15%, respectively, after EG. The crystalline phase of all the ceramics remained stable after G and EG. Extended glaze firing could be an alternative to finish feldspathic, leucite-, and lithium disilicate-based ceramic restorations, since it provides greater crack healing than the conventional glaze firing. It develops tolerable residual stresses, and produces clinically acceptable color alterations, without altering the microstructure of these materials. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. A multi-spectroscopic approach to the characterization of early glaze opacifiers: Studies on an Achaemenid glazed brick found at Susa, south-western Iran (mid-first millennium BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holakooei, Parviz

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the results of micro-Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) studies performed on an Achaemenid glazed brick found at Susa (mid-first millennium BC). The results showed that calcium antimonate (CaSb2O6) and lead antimonate (Pb2Sb2O7) were used as white and yellow opacifiers in the white and orange glazes respectively. Moreover, the mixture of calcium antimonate and lead antimonate were used as opacifier in the green glaze. In addition, green, turquoise, blue, and orange colors were achieved by the dissolution of copper, cobalt, and iron-bearing materials in an alkali glaze. A black glazed line, whose color was obtained by copper and iron oxides, was used to separate the colored glazes. The present paper strongly suggests invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy for the identification of the opacifiers used in the early vitreous materials.

  2. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, Michael E. A.; Binions, Russell

    2014-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research.

  3. Soft tissue adhesion of polished versus glazed lithium disilicate ceramic for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Brunot-Gohin, C; Duval, J-L; Azogui, E-E; Jannetta, R; Pezron, I; Laurent-Maquin, D; Gangloff, S C; Egles, C

    2013-09-01

    Ceramics are widely used materials for prosthesis, especially in dental fields. Despite multiple biomedical applications, little is known about ceramic surface modifications and the resulting cell behavior at its contact. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biological response of polished versus glazed surface treatments on lithium disilicate dental ceramic. We studied a lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max(®) Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) with 3 different surface treatments: raw surface treatment, hand polished surface treatment, and glazed surface treatment (control samples are Thermanox(®), Nunc). In order to evaluate the possible modulation of cell response at the surface of ceramic, we compared polished versus glazed ceramics using an organotypic culture model of chicken epithelium. Our results show that the surface roughness is not modified as demonstrated by equivalent Ra measurements. On the contrary, the contact angle θ in water is very different between polished (84°) and glazed (33°) samples. The culture of epithelial tissues allowed a very precise assessment of histocompatibility of these interfaces and showed that polished samples increased cell adhesion and proliferation as compared to glazed samples. Lithium disilicate polished ceramic provided better adhesion and proliferation than lithium disilicate glazed ceramic. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time, how it is possible to use simple surface modifications to finely modulate the adhesion of tissues. Our results will help dental surgeons to choose the most appropriate surface treatment for a specific clinical application, in particular for the ceramic implant collar. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... performance by the use of a 0.001-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface during all impact tests. The witness plate shall contain no marks from spalled glazing particles... use of a 0.002-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface...

  5. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... performance by the use of a 0.001-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface during all impact tests. The witness plate shall contain no marks from spalled glazing particles... use of a 0.002-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface...

  6. 49 CFR 238.221 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Glazing. 238.221 Section 238.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... contained in part 223 of this chapter, if required by that part. (b) Each exterior window on a...

  7. Development and testing of multi-phase glazes for adhesive bonding to zirconia substrates.

    PubMed

    Ntala, Polyxeni; Chen, Xiaohui; Niggli, Jason; Cattell, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The aims of the study were to develop and test multi-phase glaze coatings for zirconia restorations, so that the surface could be etched and adhesively bonded. Zirconia disc specimens (n=125, 16 mm x 1 mm) were cut from cylinders of Y-TZP (yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals) ZS-Blanks (Kavo, Everest) and sintered overnight. Specimens were subjected to the recommended firing cycles, and next sandblasted. The specimens were divided into 5 groups of 25, with Group 1 as the sandblasted control. Groups 2-5 were coated with overglaze materials (P25 and IPS e.max Ceram glazes) containing secondary phases. Group 2 was (wt%): 10% hydroxyapatite (HA)/P25 glaze, Group 3: 20% IPS Empress 2 glass-ceramic/glaze, Group 4: 20% IPS Empress 2 glass/glaze and Group 5: 30% IPS Empress 2 glass/glaze. After sintering and etching, Monobond-S and composite resin cylinders (Variolink II, Ivoclar-Vivadent) were applied and light cured on the test surfaces. Specimens were water stored for 7 days. Groups were tested using the shear bond strength (SBS) test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Overglazed and the fractured specimen surfaces were viewed using secondary electron microscopy. Room and high temperature XRD and DSC were carried out to characterize the materials. The mean (SD) SBS (MPa) of the test groups were: Group 1: 7.7 (3.2); Group 2: 5.6 (1.7); Group 3: 11.0 (3.0); Group 4: 8.8 (2.6) and Group 5: 9.1 (2.6). Group 3 was significantly different to the control Group 1 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean SBS values between Group 1 and Groups 2, 4 and 5 (p>0.05). Group 2 showed statistically lower SBS than Groups 3-5 (p<0.05). Lithium disilicate fibres were present in Groups 3-5 and fine scale fibres were grown in the glaze following a porcelain firing cycle (Groups 4 and 5). XRD indicated a lithium disilicate/minor lithium orthophosphate phase (Group 3), and a tetragonal zirconia phase for the sintered Y-TZP ZS-Blanks. DSC and high temperature

  8. Orthodontic bracket bonding to glazed full-contour zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Ji-Young; Jung, Hyo-Kyung; Choi, Il-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to glazed full-zirconia surfaces. Materials and Methods Glazed zirconia (except for the control, Zirkonzahn Prettau) disc surfaces were pre-treated: PO (control), polishing; BR, bur roughening; PP, cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice; HF, hydrofluoric acid etching; AA, air abrasion with aluminum oxide; CJ, CoJet-Sand. The surfaces were examined using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. A zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus, Z) or a silane primer (Monobond-S, S) was then applied to the surfaces, yielding 7 groups (PO-Z, BR-Z, PP-S, HF-S, AA-S, AA-Z, and CJ-S). Metal bracket-bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 hr at 37℃, and thermocycled for 1,000 cycles. Their bond strengths were measured using the wire loop method (n = 10). Results Except for BR, the surface pre-treatments failed to expose the zirconia substructure. A significant difference in bond strengths was found between AA-Z (4.60 ± 1.08 MPa) and all other groups (13.38 ± 2.57 - 15.78 ± 2.39 MPa, p < 0.05). For AA-Z, most of the adhesive remained on the bracket. Conclusions For bracket bonding to glazed zirconia, a simple application of silane to the cleaned surface is recommended. A zirconia primer should be used only when the zirconia substructure is definitely exposed. PMID:27200278

  9. Extended glaze firing improves flexural strength of a glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Aurélio, Iana L; Fraga, Sara; Dorneles, Lucio S; Bottino, Marco A; May, Liliana G

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of firing protocols on flexural strength, surface roughness, and crystalline structure of a leucite-based glass ceramic. Discs produced by automated machining were distributed into five groups (n=30) according to the applied firing protocols, conducted above (790°C) or below (575°C) the ceramic transition temperature (Tg) (625±20°C): C - control, no heat treatment; G790 - glaze firing (790°C) for 1.5 min (manufacturer-recommended); G790-SC - G790 modified by slow cooling; EGF790-SC - extended G790 for 15 min, with slow cooling; and EF575-SC - extended firing below Tg at 575°C for 15 min, with slow cooling. Discs were subjected to biaxial flexural tests and results were assessed using Weibull analysis. Surface roughness was measured before and after treatments. One specimen from each group was used for X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highest values of characteristic strength (σ0) were obtained for EGF790-SC (211.7MPa). Regimens EF575-SC, G790-SC, and G790 produced σ0 values (167.9, 157.7, and 153.7MPa, respectively) lower than the control (C) (187.7MPa). The Weibull modulus (m) was statistically similar between groups. All treatments reduced the mean roughness (Ra) of the specimens. Extended cycles (EGF790-SC, EF575-SC) decreased the mean amplitude (Rz). XRD revealed no crystalline phase transformation and slight changes in size of leucite crystallites. Increased values of fracture strength and decreased surface roughness for a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic are achieved by extended glaze firing after machining. Crystalline structure is not modified. Glaze cycles, manufacturer-recommended or modified by slow cooling, and firing below Tg, significantly reduce fracture strength. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The world of large-area glazing and displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1999-10-01

    This work covers advances in large-area switchable glazing and flat panel displays. Large flat panels and glazing are being developed by a number of company and university groups. Certain novel flat panels display are made for electronic paper applications. Switchable glazing offers a new way of visualizing the function of a window. Switchable glazing can have a range of adjustable visible properties and shading coefficients. Technologies covered for glazing are electrochromism, suspended particles, encapsulated liquid crystals. Technologies being developed for electronic paper and certain flat display panels include electrophoretics, liquid crystals and bichromal balls. Beyond glazing applications, products based on this technology are flexible displays, electronic paper, switchable modulators, mirrors, and eyeglasses. This study covers developments from several companies including the one square meter electrochromic glazing made by Pilkington/Flabeg and Asahi/Nippon Mitsubishi Oil.

  11. Finite element analysis as a design tool for thermoplastic vulcanizate glazing seals

    SciTech Connect

    Gase, K.M.; Hudacek, L.L.; Pesevski, G.T.

    1998-12-31

    There are three materials that are commonly used in commercial glazing seals: EPDM, silicone and thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs). TPVs are a high performance class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), where TPEs have elastomeric properties with thermoplastic processability. TPVs have emerged as materials well suited for use in glazing seals due to ease of processing, economics and part design flexibility. The part design and development process is critical to ensure that the chosen TPV provides economics, quality and function in demanding environments. In the design and development process, there is great value in utilizing dual durometer systems to capitalize on the benefits of soft and rigid materials. Computer-aided design tools, such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA), are effective in minimizing development time and predicting system performance. Examples of TPV glazing seals will illustrate the benefits of utilizing FEA to take full advantage of the material characteristics, which results in functional performance and quality while reducing development iterations. FEA will be performed on two glazing seal profiles to confirm optimum geometry.

  12. Glazing of frozen fish: analytical and economic challenges.

    PubMed

    Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; De Brabander, Hubert F

    2010-07-05

    Adequate glazing (6-10%) of fish fillets prior to frozen storage protects the final product from dehydration, oxidation and quality loss. Excessive glazing (>12%) on the other hand may significantly affect the economic value and end user satisfaction of frozen fish fillets. This paper describes the optimization, validation and application of a gravimetric procedure for the quantification of the ice-glaze content of frozen fish fillets (accredited under ISO 17025). This procedure has been utilized to determine the glazing percentage of multiple batches (n=50) of 11 different fish species sampled from 2005 until 2009. Average glazing percentages were 8.7+/-2.0% for the pooled samples (n=712), and ranged between 6.6+/-2.2% (salmon/cod) and 10.6+/-1.6% (plaice). The lower threshold value of 6% glazing for sufficient protection was violated in only one batch, whereas none of the batches exceeded the 12% excessive glazing threshold. The annual market place value of one %-point glazing is estimated at 1 million Euro in a low to moderate fish consumption market like Belgium. The large variability of glazing, combined with this technology's possible implications with respect to end-product-quality and economic value urges for technology improvement, monitoring and more controlled application of the glazing process in the frozen fish industry. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An integrated approach for assessing the bioreceptivity of glazed tiles to phototrophic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, M L; Miller, A Z; Rogerio-Candelera, M A; Mirão, J; Cerqueira Alves, L; Veiga, J P; Águas, H; Pereira, S; Lyubchyk, A; Macedo, M F

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-based methodology was designed to assess the bioreceptivity of glazed tiles. The experimental set-up consisted of multiple steps: manufacturing of pristine and artificially aged glazed tiles, enrichment of phototrophic microorganisms, inoculation of phototrophs on glazed tiles, incubation under optimal conditions and quantification of biomass. In addition, tile intrinsic properties were assessed to determine which material properties contributed to tile bioreceptivity. Biofilm growth and biomass were appraised by digital image analysis, colorimetry and chlorophyll a analysis. SEM, micro-Raman and micro-particle induced X-ray emission analyses were carried out to investigate the biodeteriorating potential of phototrophic microorganisms on the glazed tiles. This practical and multidisciplinary approach showed that the accelerated colonization conditions allowed different types of tile bioreceptivity to be distinguished and to be related to precise characteristics of the material. Aged tiles showed higher bioreceptivity than pristine tiles due to their higher capillarity and permeability. Moreover, biophysical deterioration caused by chasmoendolithic growth was observed on colonized tile surfaces.

  14. Permanent transparent color-warming glazes for dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie A.

    2014-02-01

    Illuminant metameric failure is frequently experienced when viewing material samples under LED generated light vs. traditional incandescent light. LED light temperatures can be improved with phosphor coatings, but long-wave red light is still generally absent in LED "warm-white" light, resulting in metameric failure of orange-to-red objects. Drawing on techniques developed for the architectural restoration of stained glass, we find that transparent, heat-resistant, permanent, pigmented coatings can be applied to any glass, aluminum or plastic surface of an LED bulb, including the phosphor plate, dome or envelope, to produce warmer visible light than in current warm-light LED bulbs. These glazes can be applied in combination with existing technologies to better tune the LED emitted light or they may be used alone. These pigmented coatings include, but are not limited to, those made by suspending inorganic materials in potassium silicates or durable transparent pigmented resins. The pigmented resin glazes may be produced in either a clear gloss vehicle or an iridescent, light diffusing transparent base. Further, a graduated density of the tinted glazes on dimmable bulbs allow the light to change color as wattage is diminished. The glazes may be applied in the manufacturing of the bulb or marketed to current bulb owners as an after-market product to better tune the thousands of LED light bulbs currently in use.

  15. Spectrally selective glazings for residential retrofits in cooling-dominated climates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Hopkins, D.; Rubin, M.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1993-04-01

    Spectrally selective glazings can substantially reduce energy consumption and peak demand in residences by significantly reducing solar gains with minimal loss of illumination and view. In cooling-dominated climates, solar gains contribute 24--31% to electricity consumption and 40--43% to peak demand in homes with single pane clear glazing - standard practice for residential construction built before the implementation of building energy efficiency standards. The existing residential housing stock therefore offers a prime opportunity for significant demand-side management (DSM),but the energy and cost savings must be weighed against retrofit first costs in order for the technology to achieve full market penetration. Using DOE-2.1D for numerical simulation of building energy performance, we quantify the energy and peak demand reductions, cost savings, and HVAC capacity reductions using spectrally selective glazings for five cooling-dominated climates in California. The cost-effectiveness of various material and installation retrofit options is discussed. Glazing material improvements for retrofit applications that are needed to achieve a prescribed cost savings are also given.

  16. The art of Bernard Palissy (1510-1590): influence of firing conditions on the microstructure of iron-coloured high-lead glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roisine, Gauthier; Capobianco, Natan; Caurant, Daniel; Wallez, Gilles; Bouquillon, Anne; Majérus, Odile; Cormier, Laurent; Gilette, Solène; Gerbier, Aurélie

    2017-08-01

    During the French Renaissance, a well-known ceramist, Bernard Palissy (1510-1590), succeeded to create amazing lead-glazed ceramics, the recipe of which he kept totally secret. The present study is a first step to try to understand the process of manufacture of Palissy's honey iron-coloured high-lead aluminosilicate glazes through examination of both ancient glazes—discovered in Palissy's workshop (Paris, garden of Tuileries), during archaeological excavations—and replicate glazes of similar composition prepared in the laboratory from raw materials mixtures under controlled conditions (different firing temperatures T_p and cooling rates). These replicate glazes were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). According to laboratory experimentations, three iron-rich crystalline phases are likely to be formed in the glaze after firing (hematite {Fe2O3}, melanotekite {Pb2Fe2Si2O9} and magnetoplumbite PbFe_{12}O_{19}) and their nature, abundance and microstructure strongly depend on both temperature T_p and cooling rate. Comparing the microstructures of replicate glazes and authentic Palissy's glazes allowed to better understand the artist technique in terms of firing process: he would have probably fired most of his production around 1000°C, above liquidus temperature, and would have used a reasonably fast cooling rate (faster than 5° C/h), which enables both to melt all raw materials and to prevent crystallisation during cooling.

  17. Investigation of surface water behavior during glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Microvideo observations of glaze ice accretions on 1-in-diameter cylinders in a closed-loop refrigerated wind tunnel were obtained to study factors controlling the behavior of unfrozen surface water during glaze ice accretion. Three zones of surface water behavior were noted, each with a characteristic roughness. The effect of substrate thermal and roughness properties on ice accretions was also studied. The contact angle and hysteresis were found to increase sharply at temperatures just below 0 C, explaining the high resistance to motion of water beads observed on accreting glaze ice surfaces. Based on the results, a simple multizone modification to the current glaze ice accretion model is proposed.

  18. Energy Efficient Glazing for Adaptive Solar Control Fabricated with Photothermotropic Hydrogels Containing Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dowan; Lee, Eunsu; Lee, Heon Sang; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2015-01-01

    Glazing for adaptive solar control is the most promising for energy efficient development, because the use of this technology in buildings can be expected to significantly impact energy use and efficiency by screening sunlight that enters a building in summer. To achieve autonomous adjustable transparency, we have developed photothermotropic material system by combining photothermal materials with thermotropic hydrogels. We found that graphene oxide dispersed within a hydrogel matrix effectively converts the photo energy of sunlight into thermal energy, providing the efficient means to trigger transparency of thermotropic hydrogels. Therefore, we could develop switchable glazing of novel photothermotropic mechanism that screen strong sunlight and heat radiation in response to the sunlight intensity, as well as the temperature. Furthermore, in this study, a prototype device was manufactured with developed materials and successfully operated in outdoor testing. PMID:25561372

  19. Energy efficient glazing for adaptive solar control fabricated with photothermotropic hydrogels containing graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dowan; Lee, Eunsu; Lee, Heon Sang; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2015-01-06

    Glazing for adaptive solar control is the most promising for energy efficient development, because the use of this technology in buildings can be expected to significantly impact energy use and efficiency by screening sunlight that enters a building in summer. To achieve autonomous adjustable transparency, we have developed photothermotropic material system by combining photothermal materials with thermotropic hydrogels. We found that graphene oxide dispersed within a hydrogel matrix effectively converts the photo energy of sunlight into thermal energy, providing the efficient means to trigger transparency of thermotropic hydrogels. Therefore, we could develop switchable glazing of novel photothermotropic mechanism that screen strong sunlight and heat radiation in response to the sunlight intensity, as well as the temperature. Furthermore, in this study, a prototype device was manufactured with developed materials and successfully operated in outdoor testing.

  20. Fatigue strength of yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystals: Effects of grinding, polishing, glazing, and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Zucuni, Camila Pauleski; Guilardi, Luís Felipe; Rippe, Marilia Pivetta; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of different surface post-processing treatments (polishing, heat treatment, glazing, polishing + heat treatment and polishing + glazing) on the superficial characteristics (micromorphology and roughness), phase transformation and fatigue strength of a Y-TZP ceramic ground with diamond bur. Discs of Y-TZP ceramic were manufactured (ISO:6872-2015; final dimensions of 15mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2mm in thickness) and randomly allocated according to the surface condition: Ctrl - as-sintered; Gr - ground with coarse diamond bur; Gr+HT - ground and subjected to the heat treatment; Gr+Pol - ground and polished; Gr+Pol+HT - ground, polished and heat treated; Gr+Gl - ground and glazed; Gr+Pol+Gl - ground, polished and glazed. The following analyses were performed: roughness (n = 25), surface topography (n = 2), phase transformation (n = 2) and fatigue strength by staircase method (n = 20). All treatments influenced to some extent the surface characteristics of Y-TZP, being that polishing reduced the surface roughness, the m-phase content and improved the fatigue strength; glazing led to the lowest roughness values (Ra and Rz), although it showed the worst fatigue strength; heat treatment showed limited effect on surface roughness, led to complete reversion of the existing m-phase content to t-phase, without enhancing fatigue performance. Thus, a polishing protocol after clinic adjustment (grinding) of monolithic restorations based on polycrystalline zirconia material is mandatory for surface characteristics and fatigue performance improvements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a SiYAlON glaze for improved osteoconductivity of implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ryan M; Marin, Elia; Rondinella, Alfredo; Boschetto, Francesco; Adachi, Tetsuya; McEntire, Bryan J; Bal, B Sonny; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2017-05-15

    The application of bioactive coatings onto orthopaedic appliances is commonly performed to compensate for the otherwise bioinert nature of medical devices and to improve their osseointegration. Calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite (HAp), and bioglasses are commercially available for this purpose. Until recently, few other inorganic compounds have been identified with similar biofunctionality. However, silicon nitride (Si3 N4 ) has emerged as a new orthopaedic material whose unique surface chemistry also enhances osteoconductivity. Recent research has confirmed that its minority intergranular phase, consisting of silicon yttrium aluminum oxynitride (SiYAlON), is principally responsible for this improvement. As a result, it was hypothesized that SiYAlON itself might serve as an effective osteoconductive coating or glaze for medical devices. To test this hypothesis, a process inspired by traditional ceramic whiteware glazing was developed. A slurry containing ingredients similar to the intergranular SiYAlON composition was applied to a Si3 N4 surface, which was then subjected to a heat treatment to form a glaze. Various analytical tools were employed to assess its chemistry and morphology. It was found that the glaze was comprised predominately of Y5 Si3 O12 N, a compound commonly referred to as N-apatite, which is isostructural to native HAp. Subsequent exposure of the glazed surface to acellular simulated body fluid led to increased deposition of biomimetic HAp-like crystals, while exposure to Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells in vitro resulted in greater HAp deposition relative to control samples. The observation that SiYAlON exhibits enhanced osteoconductivity portends its potential as a therapeutic aid in bone and tissue repair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Archaeometry of sicilian glazed pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaimo, R.; Bultrini, G.; Fragalà, I.; Giarrusso, R.; Iliopoulos, I.; Montana, G.

    Petrographic and chemical analyses of the ``ceramic body'' of 114 majolica artefacts manufactured in Sicily over a wide time range (16th--19th century) are presented. All the analysed samples, which belong to museums and private collections, were previously attributed to Sicilian workshops based on stylistic features evaluated by expert historians of art. Unambiguous identification of the production sites of majolica handicrafts in Sicily remains, however, open to question when this relies only on purely stylistic considerations. To this end compositional and/or textural markers have been searched for in the ``ceramic body'' of the majolica artefacts in order to differentiate between the centres of manufacture which were active in Sicily in previous centuries. The study of thin sections has allowed the characterization of the raw materials as well as the microscopic ``fabric'' of manufacture from four of the more relevant Sicilian production sites, namely: Caltagirone, Sciacca, Palermo and Santo Stefano di Camastra. Chemical data, including minor and trace elements, have been submitted to computer assisted multivariate statistical techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) have defined compositional ``ceramic reference groups'' and, consequently, have enabled a more realistic discrimination of provenance. These data have documented several imports of majolica from Naples, while the same artefacts were previously attributed to Sicilian workshops, based on stylistic considerations .

  3. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used in...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73981, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used in...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used...

  7. Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L

    2008-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple.

  8. Chemical Composition of Ceramic Tile Glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Zhukova, I. I.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out laser emission and x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of glaze before and after its application to ceramic tile produced by Keramin JSC (Belarus). We have studied the internal microstructure of the ceramic samples. It was established that on the surface and within the bulk interior of all the samples, there are micropores of sizes ranging from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and microcracks as long as several hundred micrometers. The presence of micropores on the surface of the ceramic tile leads to an increase in the water absorption level and a decrease in frost resistance. It was found that a decrease in the surface tension of ceramic tile coatings is promoted by substitution of sodium by potassium, silica by boric anhydride, magnesium and barium by calcium, CaO by sodium oxide, and SiO2 by chromium oxide. We carried out a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of glaze samples using S4 Pioneer and ElvaX x-ray fluorescence spectrometers and also an LIBS laser emission analyzer.

  9. The Influence of Glazing Systems on the Energy Performance of Low-Rise Commercial Buildings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Lampert,1983) in optical switching materials for glazing systems including chromogenic, electrochromic , photochromic, thermochromic, physio-optic and...ASHRAE/IES Standard 90, LBL -16770 Final Report, Berkeley, Ca.: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1983. 5. National Climatic Center, Test Reference Year...Illumination and Energy Analysis, LBL -14863, Berkeley, Ca.: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1982. 12. Selkowitz, S.E. and Lampert, C.M., Advanced Optical and

  10. PIXE and /μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Giancarlo Lanterna; Lucarelli, Franco; Mandò, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  11. Study of glazed building ceramics from central Europe (Budapest, Hungary) in aspect of deterioration by environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    The Zsolnay products are one of the most famous Hungarian ceramics. The glazed building ceramics, which were produced by this factory, were often applied in Hungary and the surrounding countries. Since their outplacements the ceramics have suffered from numerous environmental and human influences. There is no profound knowledge about deterioration of these building materials. Beside the characterization of the Zsolnay ceramics, our purpose is to attempt to explain the deterioration caused by environmental factors considering that these ceramics have never been studied in this aspect before. Other goal is to reveal if there is any influence on the deterioration depending on the location of building covered by Zsolnay ceramics. The studied objects were used on buildings of the Museum of Applied Arts (in the center with high traffic) and the Hungarian Geological and Geophysical Institute in Budapest (in a quarter with moderate traffic). We examined the physical and chemical features of the glaze and the ceramic body (e.g., phase composition, texture, microstructure, alteration) and the depositions on the glazed and the unglazed sides of some selected ceramics. Based on the results, three different types of ceramics were used as building materials. We observed several kinds of damage (e.g. cracks, pitting corrosions), black deposition layer and alterations in different extent. Natural and artificial particles (e.g. iron-oxide, mica, calcite and glauberithe) and spherules were deposited on the surface. Traces of biological activity were also found and connected to these organic residues calcium-oxalate was detected. On some objects of the Museum the glaze has started to weather and its lead was leached glaze by rainfall. Weathering also occurs along cracks in the glaze interior together with precipitation of lead-rich phases. Gypsum layer frequently covers the ceramics. In conclusions, the ceramics from the Museum are in worse condition than the ceramics from the

  12. Effect of Iron Oxide and Phase Separation on the Color of Blue Jun Ware Glaze.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Yang, Changan; Zhu, Jianfeng; Lin, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Based on the traditional Jun ware glaze, the imitated Jun ware glazes were prepared by adding iron oxide and introducing phase separation agent apatite through four-angle-method. The effect of iron oxide contents, phase separation and the firing temperature on the color of Jun ware glazes were investigated by a neutral atmosphere experiment, optical microscope and scanning electronic microscope. The results showed that the colorant, mainly Fe2O3, contributed to the Jun ware glaze blue and cyan colors of Jun ware glaze. The light scatter caused by the small droplets in phase separation structure only influenced the shade of the glaze color, intensify or weaken the color, and thus made the glaze perfect and elegant opal visual effects, but was not the origin of general blue or cyan colors of Jun ware glaze. In addition, the firing temperature and the basic glaze composition affected the glaze colors to some extent.

  13. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    SciTech Connect

    Lollini, R.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  14. Applications of a synergic analytical strategy to figure out technologies in medieval glazed pottery with "negative decoration" from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannossa, Lorena Carla; Acquaviva, Marianna; Laganara, Caterina; Laviano, Rocco; Mangone, Annarosa

    2014-09-01

    Glazed pottery with "negative decoration" samples, dating back to the twelfth to thirteenth century ad and coming from three sites along the Adriatic coast, Siponto, Egnatia and Trani (Southern Italy) were characterized from physical-chemical, mineralogical and morphological points of view. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy investigations were carried out on ceramic bodies, pigments and glazes of the fragments. We aimed to outline the technological features, define the nature of decorations and coatings—glazes and engobes—and look for clues to hypothesize provenance. Results obtained show clear differences in raw materials and production technology between the impressed ceramic of Islamic tradition and the incised one of Byzantine tradition. Regarding the latter, evidences of a non-local origin can be found in the compositional diversity of raw materials used for the ceramic bodies of fragments decorated with spiral and pseudo-kufic motifs, which stressed the use of clays so far not recorded in Apulia. At the same time, at least in the case of Siponto, the compositional similarity of both ceramic bodies and materials used under the glaze for impressed ceramic and painted polychrome ceramics (RMR and protomaiolica), more likely local production, could suggest that both were produced in the same workshops.

  15. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used in...

  16. 25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS AND LOOSE QUARRY TILES WERE STACKED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  17. Use of glazed ceramic waste as additive in mortar and the mathematical modelling of its strength.

    PubMed

    Altin, Zehra Gulten; Erturan, Seyfettin; Tepecik, Abdulkadir

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated the reusability of waste material from the tile manufacturing industry as an alternative material to natural pozzolan trass. Yield strength values of mortar made from Portland cement (CEM 142.5), were measured by adding glazed ceramic waste and trass at various weight ratios (5 to 40%). The test results proved that the strength values at 2, 7, and 28 days gave good results for concentrations of waste materials less than 5-10% in the cement. A decrease in strength was observed at higher concentrations. Mathematical modelling results showed a logarithmic correlation between the mortar strength and weight fraction of cement.

  18. Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventional glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Moeck, M.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.D.; Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-09-01

    Variable transmission, ``switchable`` electrochromic glazings are compared to conventional static glazings using computer simulations to assess the daylighting quality of a commercial office environment where paper and computer tasks are performed. RADIANCE simulations were made for a west-facing commercial office space under clear and overcast sky conditions. This visualization tool was used to model different glazing types, to compute luminance and illuminance levels, and to generate a parametric set of photorealistic images of typical interior views at various times of the day and year. Privacy and visual display terminal (VDT) visibility is explored. Electrochromic glazings result in a more consistent glare-free daylit environment compared to their static counterparts. However, if the glazing is controlled to minimize glare or to maintain low interior daylight levels for critical visual tasks (e.g, VDT), occupants may object to the diminished quality of the outdoor view due to its low transmission (Tv = 0.08) during those hours. RADIANCE proved to be a very powerful tool to better understand some of the design tradeoffs of this emerging glazing technology. The ability to draw specific conclusions about the relative value of different technologies or control strategies is limited by the lack of agreed upon criteria or standards for lighting quality and visibility.

  19. Cost-efficient manufacturing process of switchable glazing based on twisted nematic LC cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Eberhard; Rau, Lothar; Frühauf, Norbert; Haase, Walter; Prskalo, Marijo; Sobek, Werner

    2011-10-01

    Large-area glass facades are widely spread in contemporary architecture. They meet demands for natural light illumination of rooms and satisfy esthetic requirements of modern architecture. However, larger glass facades increase transfer of energy into the building. Since this has to be compensated by the intense use of air conditioning, modulation of the energy passing through the glazing is essential. The authors have been developing a corresponding system. It consists of a modified twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal (LC) cell which is embedded in a double glazing. Since a conventional outside film polarizer is susceptible to heat, the authors substituted this component for an inside coatable polarizer. Long term outdoor weathering tests demonstrated that the concept is viable. Part of the current research is the integration of the TN LC cell into double-glazing. A further demand for such a system is a cost-efficient manufacturing process. It has been investigated to use the coatable polarizer at the same time as an alignment layer for the liquid crystal. Aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) is to be used for the electrode material substituting conventionally used indium tin oxide (ITO) which is expensive. Currently the authors are looking into the coating process for the inside polarizer.

  20. Chemical and mineralogical characterization on glazes of ceramics from Coimbra (Portugal) from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, A; Coroado, J; Carvalho, M L

    2009-12-01

    Chemical, mineralogical and textural characterizations were performed on glazed pieces prepared in laboratory as well as on faiences fragments collected from the existing remains in "Santa Clara-a-Velha" monastery (Coimbra, Portugal). The chemical investigation was carried out using micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-EDXRF) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF); the mineralogical results using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the textural profile was obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system (SEM-EDS). Attention has been drawn to the glaze mineralogical changes during the firing temperature process, where three different types of glazes were submitted to three different firing temperatures (800 degrees C, 900 degrees C and 1,000 degrees C). Under these conditions, it is possible to relate the mineralogical content of the fragments to their firing temperature. Furthermore, we focused our purposes on identifying the technological aspects of the ceramic production in Coimbra, such as the raw materials, manufacture techniques and firing temperature adopted for the glaze. The latter aspect is highly dependent on the ceramic materials. In the framework of a more general project, this survey has as premise the recognition of a pattern, which is thought to be exclusively typical from the region of Coimbra. The perspective developed in the present work is towards reliable archaeometric criteria, which can be used to characterise scientifically the ceramics from Coimbra.

  1. Surface characterization of polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses after treatment with photopolymerized glaze.

    PubMed

    Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos; Commar, Betina Chiarelo; da Rocha Bonatto, Liliane; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Sônego, Mariana Vilela; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Pesqueira, Aldieris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2017-02-01

    The material used for interim prostheses fabrication must present excellent physical properties for greater longevity in the face of environmental conditions, which can occur in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a photopolymerized glaze on the physical and mechanical properties of polymers used for the fabrication of interim prostheses, before and after thermocycling and immersion in staining solutions. One hundred samples of composite and acrylic resins were fabricated: Dencor chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) (n=20) and heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) (n=20), Charisma (n=20), Structur (n=20), and Protemp (n=20). A mechanical polishing was performed on half of the samples, and a chemical polishing was performed on the remaining samples. Subsequently, all samples were submitted to thermocycling and immersion in coffee staining solution for 21days. Analysis of color and microhardness, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed. The data were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test (α=0.05) and the Student t-test (α=0.05). It was verified that the glaze decreased the chromatic alteration values, and increased the microhardness values of the samples, with the exception of the Charisma resin. The samples that did not receive chemical polishing had the greatest number of surface irregularities. This study concluded that the groups with glaze presented less color alteration. In addition, Charisma and Structur resins exhibited the greatest chromatic stability. As to the microhardness, the values were greater when the samples were treated with the glaze, with the exception of the Charisma group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Long term experience with semi-conductive glaze high voltage post insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.C.; Maney, J.W.; Szilagyi, Z. )

    1990-01-01

    Insulators using semi-conductive glaze have long been known for their superior contamination performance. Early glazes for this type however were not stable and successful use of semi-conductive glazed porcelain insulators was delayed many years until tin-antimony oxide glazes were developed. Service experience of eighteen years is now available for line and station post insulators with this type of glaze. Based on this experience, the aging characteristics of tin-antimony oxide semi-conductive glazes are described and quantified. Several different applications of these insulators are also described.

  3. Finite wing aerodynamics with simulated glaze ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadoust, A.; Bragg, M. B.; Kerho, M.; Wells, S.; Soltani, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a three-dimensional wing is studied experimentally. The model used for these tests was a semi-span wing of effective aspect ratio five, mounted from the sidewall of the UIUC subsonic wind tunnel. The model has an NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular, untwisted planform with interchangeable leading edges to allow for testing both the baseline and the iced wing geometry. A three-component sidewall balance was used to measure lift, drag and pitching moment on the clean and iced model. A four-beam two-color fiberoptic laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to map the flowfield along several spanwise cuts on the model. Preliminary results from LDV scans, which will be the bulk of this paper, are presented following the force balance measurement results. Initial comparison of LDV surveys compare favorably with inviscid theory results and 2D split hot-film measurements near the model surface.

  4. The effect of repeated firings on the color change of dental ceramics using different glazing methods

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Kerem; Ozturk, Caner

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Surface color is one of the main criteria to obtain an ideal esthetic. Many factors such as the type of the material, surface specifications, number of firings, firing temperature and thickness of the porcelain are all important to provide an unchanged surface color in dental ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color changes in dental ceramics according to the material type and glazing methods, during the multiple firings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different types of dental ceramics (IPS Classical metal ceramic, Empress Esthetic and Empress 2 ceramics) were used in the study. Porcelains were evaluated under five main groups according to glaze and natural glaze methods. Color changes (ΔE) and changes in color parameters (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were determined using colorimeter during the control, the first, third, fifth, and seventh firings. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. RESULTS The color changes which occurred upon material-method-firing interaction were statistically significant (P<.05). ΔE, ΔL, Δa and Δb values also demonstrated a negative trend. The MC-G group was less affected in terms of color changes compared to other groups. In all-ceramic specimens, the surface color was significantly affected by multiple firings. CONCLUSION Firing detrimentally affected the structure of the porcelain surface and hence caused fading of the color and prominence of yellow and red characters. Compressible all-ceramics were remarkably affected by repeated firings due to their crystalline structure. PMID:25551001

  5. Energy and daylight performance of angular selective glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Beltran,; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy and daylight performance of anisotropic angular selective glazings. The DOE-2.1E energy simulation program was used to determine the annual cooling, lighting and total electricity use, and peak electric demand. RADIANCE, a lighting simulation program, was used to determine daylight illuminance levels and distribution. We simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Blythe, California. We chose three hypothetical conventional windows for comparison: a single-pane tinted window, a double-pane low-E window, and a double-pane spectrally selective window. Daylighting controls were used. No interior shades were modeled in order to isolate the energy effects of the angular selective glazing. Our results show that the energy performance of the prototype angular selective windows is about the same as conventional windows for a 9.14 m (30 ft) deep south-facing perimeter zone with a large-area window in the hot, sunny climate of Blythe. It is theoretically possible to tune the angular selectivity of the glazing to achieve annual cooling energy reductions of 18%, total electricity use reductions of 15%, and peak electric demand reductions of 11% when compared to a conventional glazing with the same solar-optical properties at normal incidence. Angular selective glazings can provide more uniformly distributed daylight, particularly in the area next to the window, which will result in a more visually comfortable work environment.

  6. The effect of repeated firings on the color change of dental ceramics using different glazing methods.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Kerem; Gonuldas, Fehmi; Ozturk, Caner

    2014-12-01

    Surface color is one of the main criteria to obtain an ideal esthetic. Many factors such as the type of the material, surface specifications, number of firings, firing temperature and thickness of the porcelain are all important to provide an unchanged surface color in dental ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color changes in dental ceramics according to the material type and glazing methods, during the multiple firings. Three different types of dental ceramics (IPS Classical metal ceramic, Empress Esthetic and Empress 2 ceramics) were used in the study. Porcelains were evaluated under five main groups according to glaze and natural glaze methods. Color changes (ΔE) and changes in color parameters (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were determined using colorimeter during the control, the first, third, fifth, and seventh firings. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. The color changes which occurred upon material-method-firing interaction were statistically significant (P<.05). ΔE, ΔL, Δa and Δb values also demonstrated a negative trend. The MC-G group was less affected in terms of color changes compared to other groups. In all-ceramic specimens, the surface color was significantly affected by multiple firings. Firing detrimentally affected the structure of the porcelain surface and hence caused fading of the color and prominence of yellow and red characters. Compressible all-ceramics were remarkably affected by repeated firings due to their crystalline structure.

  7. Ceramic lead glaze ingestions in nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Roberge, R J; Martin, T G; Dean, B S; Lasek, R W

    1994-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead ceramic glaze ingestions that occurred in elderly patients during art therapy classes in nursing homes are reported. Initial blood lead levels were 109 micrograms/dL (5.23 mumol/L), 259 micrograms/dL (10.43 mumol/L), and 85 micrograms/dL (4.08 mumol/L), respectively, and all patients underwent chelation therapy. Two individuals tolerated therapy well and showed no discernable changes from baseline state. One patient with a lead encephalopathy died and is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of a death directly related to a ceramic lead glaze ingestion. Ceramic lead glaze ingestions among institutionalized patients may be more common than generally appreciated and occasionally are associated with significant morbidity or, rarely, mortality. Simple preventive measures could eliminate the majority of such occurrences.

  8. Persian turquoise glazed bodies: reproduction and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbahinia, Alimohammad; Rashidi-Huyeh, Majid; Shafiee Afarani, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Ancient turquoise Persian glazed ceramics, which are well known as Khar-Mohreh, belonged to several centuries ago. In this research, reproduction of ancient glazed bodies was performed, and the products were studied by different techniques. Experimental evaluations were focused on elemental, structural, morphological, and colorimetric characteristics. SEM micrographs illustrated a thin (10 μm) uniform composite glazed layer on a porous composite thicker layer (500 μm). The layers consist of microneedle-shaped and nanospherical particles of copper oxide distributed in an amorphous silicate medium. Modeling of this architecture was used for determination of the visual aspect of the ceramic via the reflectance coefficient. Structural and colorimetric results showed that the shape and distribution of copper oxide particles do not play a crucial role on the color of these ceramics.

  9. Development of Craze and Impact Resistance in Glazing Plastics by Multiaxial Stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, G M; Wolock, I; Axilrod, B M; Sherman, M A; George, D A; Cohen, V

    1956-01-01

    The loss of strength of cast polymethyl methacrylate plastic as a result of crazing is of considerable importance to the aircraft industry. Because of the critical need for basic information on the nature of crazing and the effects of various treatments and environmental conditions on its incidence and magnitude, an investigation of this phenomenon was undertaken. The following factors were examined: (1) the effect of stress-solvent crazing on tensile strength of polymethyl methacrylate; (2) the critical stress and strain for onset of crazing at various temperatures; (3) the effect of molecular weight on crazing; and (4) the effect of multiaxial stretching on crazing of polymethyl methacrylate and other acrylic glazing materials.

  10. Clinical effects of glazing denture acrylic resin bases using an ultraviolet curing method.

    PubMed

    Budtz-Jörgensen, E; Kaaber, S

    1986-12-01

    Control of denture plaque accumulation is essential to obtain and maintain a healthy oral mucosa in denture wearers. The present study was designed to study the effect on denture plaque accumulation and denture stomatitis of coating the fitting denture surface by a glaze. Twenty-one subjects wearing complete dentures participated in the study. Glazing of the denture surface was performed using a Perma Cure System. Plaque accumulation was studied clinically and using a semiquantitative microbiologic technique. Plaque accumulation on the glazed and the non-glazed halves of the fitting denture surface was compared after 1 wk. There was significantly less plaque on the glazed half of the denture (P less than 0.001), and the calculated number of CFU of bacteria/cm2 was significantly lower from the test area of the glazed half than from the test area of the non-glazed half of the denture (P less than 0.001). When the patients were re-examined 1 month after the entire fitting denture surface had been glazed plaque scores, yeast scores and number of CFU of bacteria/cm2 were not significantly different from those observed before glazing. There was a reduction of the erythema of the palatal mucosa in 14/19 patients with denture-induced stomatitis. The study indicates that coating of the fitting denture surface by a glaze may be a means to improve denture cleanliness; however, the present glazing system should be further developed to produce a more uniform glazing.

  11. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian

    2008-04-09

    Three layer insulating glass units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center-of-glass U-factors as low as 0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K (0.10 Btu/h-ft{sup 2}- F). Such units have historically been built with center layers of glass or plastic which extend all the way through the spacer system. This paper shows that triple glazing systems with non-structural center layers which do not create a hermetic seal at the edge have the potential to be as thermally efficient as standard designs, while potentially removing some of the production and product integration issues that have discouraged the use of triples.

  12. Potential flow analysis of glaze ice accretions on an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaguli, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical/experimental study of the flow fields about an airfoil with leading edge glaze ice accretion shapes are presented. Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel to measure surface pressure distributions and boundary layer separation reattachment characteristics on a general aviation wing section to which was affixed wooden ice shapes which approximated typical glaze ice accretions. Comparisons were made with predicted pressure distributions using current airfoil analysis codes as well as the Bristow mixed analysis/design airfoil panel code. The Bristow code was also used to predict the separation reattachment dividing streamline by inputting the appropriate experimental surface pressure distribution.

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING GLAZED UPPER CABINETS. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING GLAZED UPPER CABINETS. NOTE THE FLOUR BIN IN FOREGROUND (SLIGHTLY AJAR) AND THE WINDOWS AT THE TOP OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 10. INTERIOR KITCHEN UTILITY AREA SHOWING PARTITION, PANELED AND GLAZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR KITCHEN UTILITY AREA SHOWING PARTITION, PANELED AND GLAZED REAR DOOR, AND ROW OF 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AROUND EAST CORNER OF HOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  15. Increasing the frost resistance of facade glazed tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Egerev, V.M.; Zotov, S.N.; Romanova, G.P.

    1986-09-01

    The authors investigate the protective properties of a coating of boron oxides and zirconium oxides applied as a glaze to ceramic tiles by conducting a series of tests to determine the frost resistance, the propensity to absorb water, the moisture expansion coefficient, the fracture behavior, and the effect of thermal cycling on the oxides. Results are graphed and tabulated.

  16. Lead ingestion associated with ceramic glaze--Alaska, 1992.

    PubMed

    1992-10-23

    In August 1992, a physician notified the Alaska Division of Public Health (ADPH) that three patients at a psychiatric hospital had consumed ceramic glaze during ceramic therapy (i.e., recreation therapy involving the production of ceramic ware), and two of these patients had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs). This report summarizes the ADPH's investigation of these ingestions.

  17. Investigation of surface water behavior during glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experimental investigations that focused on isolating the primary factors that control the behavior of unfrozen surface water during glaze ice accretion were conducted. Detailed microvideo observations were made of glaze ice accretions on 2.54 cm diam cylinders in a closed-loop refrigerated wind tunnel. Distinct zones of surface water behavior were observed; a smooth wet zone in the stagnation region with a uniform water film, a rough zone where surface tension effects caused coalescence of surface water into stationary beads, and a zone where surface water ran back as rivulets. The location of the transition from the smooth to the rough zone was found to migrate towards the stagnation point with time. Comparative tests were conducted to study the effect of the substrate thermal and roughness properties on ice accretion. The importance of surface water behavior was evaluated by the addition of a surface tension reducing agent to the icing tunnel water supply, which significantly altered the accreted glaze ice shape. Measurements were made to determine the contact angle behavior of water droplets on ice. A simple multizone modification to current glaze ice accretion models was proposed to include the observed surface roughness behavior.

  18. 28. LINEN CLOSET ON THIRD FLOOR, SHOWING GLAZED OPENINGS WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LINEN CLOSET ON THIRD FLOOR, SHOWING GLAZED OPENINGS WHICH GIVE LIGHT TO THE MAIN HALL Photograph DC-133-27 was taken from the arched opening to the left. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Microscopic observation of laser glazed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morks, M. F.; Berndt, C. C.; Durandet, Y.; Brandt, M.; Wang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are frequently used as insulation system for hot components in gas-turbine, combustors and power plant industries. The corrosive gases which come from combustion of low grade fuels can penetrate into the TBCs and reach the metallic components and bond coat and cause hot corrosion and erosion damage. Glazing the top coat by laser beam is advanced approach to seal TBCs surface. The laser beam has the advantage of forming a dense thin layer composed of micrograins. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating was glazed with Nd-YAG laser at different operating conditions. The surface morphologies, before and after laser treatment, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Laser beam assisted the densification of the surface by remelting a thin layer of the exposed surface. The laser glazing converted the rough surface of TBCs into smooth micron-size grains with size of 2-9 μm and narrow grain boundaries. The glazed surfaces showed higher Vickers hardness compared to as-sprayed coatings. The results revealed that the hardness increases as the grain size decreases.

  20. Modeling of surface roughness effects on glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Yamaguchi, Keiko; Berkowitz, Brian M.; Potapczuk, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A series of experimental investigations focused on studying the cause and effect of roughness on accreting glaze ice surfaces were conducted. Detailed microvideo observations were made of glaze ice accretions on 1 to 4 inch diameter cylinders in three icing wind tunnels (the Data Products of New England six inch test facility, the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel, and the B. F. Goodrich Ice Protection Research Facility). Infrared thermal video recordings were made of accreting ice surfaces in the Goodrich facility. Distinct zones of surface water behavior were observed; a smooth wet zone in the stagnation region with a uniform water film; a rough zone where surface tension effects caused coalescence of surface water into stationary beads; a horn zone where roughness elements grow into horn shapes; a runback zone where surface water ran back as rivulets; and a dry zone where rime feathers formed. The location of the transition from the smooth to the rough zone was found to migrate with time towards the stagnation point. The behavior of the transition appeared to be controlled by boundary layer transition and bead formation mechanisms at the interface between the smooth and rough zones. Regions of wet ice growth and enhanced heat transfer were clearly visible in the infrared video recordings of glaze ice surfaces. A simple multi-zone modification to the current glaze ice accretion model was proposed to include spatial variability in surface roughness.

  1. Interior view, detail to show the gold painted and glazed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail to show the gold painted and glazed ceiling of the main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street; bronze chandeliers hang from this ceiling - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Technical Support Document for a Proposed IECC Glazing Orientation Restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a proposed revision to the International Energy Conservation Code that would restrict the amount of west-facing glazing permitted on low-rise residential buildings. The purpose and structure of the proposed change are discussed and its potential impacts on energy consumption and cooling peak load are quantified based on hour-by-hour building energy simulation.

  3. Effect of polishing and glazing on the color and spectral distribution of monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polishing and glazing on the color and spectral distribution of monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (16.3 mm × 16.4 mm × 2.0 mm) were fabricated and divided into 5 groups according to the number of A2-coloring liquid applications (Group I to V). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to the method of surface treatments (n=3): N: no treatment; P: polishing; G: glazing. Color and spectral distribution of five different areas of each specimen were measured according to CIELAB color space in the reflectance mode relative to the standard illuminant D65 on a reflection spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test, Pearson correlation and regression analysis (α=.05). RESULTS There was a significant difference in CIE L* between Subgroup N and P, and in CIE b* between Subgroup P and G in each group. Spectral reflectance generally decreased in Subgroup P and G in comparison with Subgroup N. Color differences between Subgroup P and G were within the perceptibility threshold (ΔE*ab< 3.7) in most groups. Highly significant correlation was found between CIE b*and each subgroups as the number of coloring liquid applications increased (R2>0.88, P<.001). CONCLUSION A perceptible color difference can be detected after polishing of monolithic zirconia. Polishing decreases the lightness, and glazing also decreases the lightness, but increases the yellowness of monolithic zirconia. PMID:24049571

  4. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the... windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle at 3 degrees,...

  5. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... S5.3.2.1, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from... intersection of the windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle...

  6. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... S5.3.2.1, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from... intersection of the windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle...

  7. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the... windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle at 3 degrees,...

  8. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the... windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle at 3 degrees,...

  9. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... the United States, entered into force in 2000 and is administered by the UN Economic Commission for... harmonize vehicle safety standards under the United Nations/Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) \\1... section of this preamble. \\1\\ The Economic Commission for Europe was established by the United Nations...

  10. Electron Beam/Laser Glazing of Iron-Base Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    determining delta ferrite formation and he peritectic reaction of this phase to form austensite and carbide phases. I contrast to M2 (where the carbon...were M2, M7, and M42 and the effect of increasing the carbon content from 0.85 to 1.lMt% is to supress delta ferrite formation and the peritectic...elements in producing solid solution hardening of ferrite and this work indicates carbon and nitrogen followed by phosphorous and silicon, the inter

  11. Effects of Surface Abrasion on the Flexural Strength of Glazed and Re-glazed Metal Ceramics: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Siddharth; Awinashe, Vaibhav; Palekar, Umesh; Gupta, Ambika Shrivastava

    2014-03-01

    The functional surfaces of the porcelain fused to metal fixed partial dentures are often abraded to adjust occlusion, such restorations are often found to fail in service. This study was therefore conducted to study the effect of surface abrasion on flexural strength of glazed porcelain fused to metal samples. It was also the aim of this study to find the effect of re-glazing on flexural strength of abraded samples. A total of ninety glazed porcelain fused to metal bar samples of the dimension 15 mm × 2 mm × 1.5 mm were fabricated. These samples were then divided into three groups (30 samples each) according to the surface treatments: group A-glazed (control); group B-abraded and group C-abraded and then re-glazed (self-glazed). Flexural strength was measured by using three point bend test on universal testing machine (texture analyser) with a cross-head speed of 0.6 mm/min. Peak force at the time of failure for all the samples was recorded. Statistical analysis found that mean flexural strength was highest for group A-80.65 ± 12.81 MPa; as compared to group B-74.18 ± 10.74 MPa and group C-77.85 ± 9.39 MPa. Student's t test indicated that the difference in the flexural strength between groups A and B was significant while it was non-significant between groups B and C and also between groups A and C. The 'f' test indicated that the difference between the groups was non-significant. This study therefore showed that there is a marked decrease in the flexural strength of the porcelain fused to metal restorations after occlusal abrasion. The study also found that reglazing of these restorations may not restore their flexural strength significantly.

  12. Fireplace insert and its parameters depend on the used glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papučík, Štefan; Čaja, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The contribution deals with the analysis of the impact of using double glass to change the performance and emission parameters of the fireplace insert. Conventional fireplace inserts are equipped with heat-resistant glass, which is resistant to high temperatures. For this type of inserts are required to be radiant constituent maximized. Prevailing part of heat is into the interior gets just by radiation through the glazed part. The hot water fireplace inserts is the requirement that the radiant constituent to the environment to a minimum. Therefore, instead of a single glass using double glazing which is intended to reduce this part of heat transfer. The temperature in the furnace is increased, and transmitted most of the heat into the water.

  13. Stepwise Activation of Switchable Glazing by Compositional Gradient of Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunsu; Kim, Dowan; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2016-10-05

    Thermotropic glazing is one of the most promising developments for adaptive solar control; however, a monotonic transparent-opaque transition limits its practical application. In this work, to render stepwise activation of the switchable glazing, we prepared multicomposition copolymers having a compositional gradient. By slow addition of the monomers in the reaction mixture during free-radical polymerization, the blend of copolymers with each polymer having different compositions of the monomers could be prepared. We found that the developed copolymers exhibit different thermal behaviors according to the monomer composition, yielding the nearly linear transmittance change over a wide temperature range due to the gradient hydrophilic-hydrophobic balances. By combining prepared copolymers with photothermal graphene oxide as a heat transducer, we demonstrated gradual solar control of the smart window in response to sunlight intensity in outdoor testing.

  14. Characterization of Ice Roughness Variations in Scaled Glaze Icing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Because of the significant influence of surface tension in governing the stability and breakdown of the liquid film in flooded stagnation regions of airfoils exposed to glaze icing conditions, the Weber number is expected to be a significant parameter governing the formation and evolution of ice roughness. To investigate the influence of the Weber number on roughness formation, 53.3-cm (21-in.) and 182.9-cm (72-in.) NACA 0012 airfoils were exposed to flow conditions with essentially the same Weber number and varying stagnation collection efficiency to illuminate similarities of the ice roughness created on the different airfoils. The airfoils were exposed to icing conditions in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Following exposure to the icing event, the airfoils were then scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm scanning system. The resulting point clouds were then analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger (2013) to determine the spatial roughness variations along the surfaces of the iced airfoils. The roughness characteristics on each airfoil were then compared using the relative geometries of the airfoil. The results indicate that features of the ice shape and roughness such as glaze-ice plateau limits and maximum airfoil roughness were captured well by Weber number and collection efficiency scaling of glaze icing conditions. However, secondary ice roughness features relating the instability and waviness of the liquid film on the glaze-ice plateau surface are scaled based on physics that were not captured by the local collection efficiency variations.

  15. Gas impermeable glaze for sealing a porous ceramic surface

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Scott T.; Stone, Ronald G.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Trudell, Daniel E.; Thoma, Steven G.

    2004-04-06

    A process for fabricating a gas impermeable seal on a porous ceramic surface using a thin, glass-based, pinhole free glaze. The process can be used to fabricate gas impermeable end seals on porous alumina tubes used as filter media. The porous alumina tubes can have an inorganic microporous thin film separation membrane on the inner surface, which can be used for high temperature gas separation processes.

  16. Surface temperatures of insulated glazing units: Infrared thermography laboratory measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.T.; Tuerler, D.; Arasteh, D.

    1995-12-01

    Data are presented for the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm-side surface of seven different insulated glazing units. Surface temperatures are measured using infrared thermography and an external referencing technique. This technique allows detailed mapping of surface temperatures that is non-intrusive. The glazings were placed between warm and cold environmental chambers that were operated at conditions corresponding to standard design conditions for winter heating. The temperatures conditions are 2 1.1{degrees}C (70{degrees}F) and -17.8{degrees}C (0{degrees}F) on the warm and cold sides, respectively. Film coefficients varied somewhat with average conditions of about 7.6 W/m{sup 2}{circ}K (1.34 Btu/h-ft{sup 2}{circ}{degrees}F) for the warm-side and 28.9 W/m{sup 2}{circ}K (5.1 Btu/h{circ}ft{sup 2}{circ}{degrees}F) for the cold-side. Surface temperature data are plotted for the vertical distribution along the centerline of the IG and for the horizontal distribution along the centerline. This paper is part of larger collaborative effort that studied the same set of glazings.

  17. Influence of Laser Glazing on the Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Jiangwei; Liao, Hanlin; Darut, Geoffrey; Stella, Jorge; Poirier, Thierry; Planche, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia powder was deposited on the substrates by atmospheric plasma spray. The coatings were post-treated by laser glazing under different parameters in order to densify them. The characterization of the laser molten pools under different laser treatment conditions was studied. Preheating processes were also employed. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the surface and cross section of as-sprayed and laser-glazed coatings were carried out to investigate the influence of laser glazing on the microstructure on laser-glazed coatings. The results show that preheating processes improve the coating in terms of deepening the laser-glazed layer, reducing the number of vertical cracks and surface density of cracks and widening the molten pool. Finally, the influences of linear energy density on the characterization of the glazed layer are discussed.

  18. Low-vacuum SEM analyses of ceramic tiles with emphasis on glaze defects characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopar, Tinkara Ducman, Vilma

    2007-11-15

    The behaviour of glazed building ceramics exposed to different environment (weathering, chemicals, etc.) is determined by microstructural features; in many cases structural and surface defects at the micro- or nanometre scale are crucial for the functional properties of products. Many testing methods for materials characterization of a variety of ceramic products, physical and chemical methods, are time-consuming, large quantities of samples are needed, and are usually destructive. This paper illustrates the use of low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) as fast and almost non-destructive, as only a small amount of sample is needed. Examples are given of various surface and structural properties of building ceramics, for the identification of the material deterioration process as a result of environmental impact.

  19. Comparison of porcelain surface and flexural strength obtained by microwave and conventional oven glazing.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Soni; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil; Davis, Elaine L; Brewer, Jane D

    2009-01-01

    Although the superior qualities of microwave technology are common knowledge in the industry, effects of microwave glazing of dental ceramics have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface roughness and flexural strength achieved by glazing porcelain specimens in a conventional and microwave oven. Thirty specimens of each type of porcelain (Omega 900 and IPS d.Sign) were fabricated and sintered in a conventional oven. The specimens were further divided into 3 groups (n=10): hand polished (using diamond rotary ceramic polishers), microwave glazed, and conventional oven glazed. Each specimen was evaluated for surface roughness using a profilometer. The flexural strength of each specimen was measured using a universal testing machine. A 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc analysis were used to determine significant intergroup differences in surface roughness (alpha=.05). Flexural strength results were also analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, and the Weibull modulus was determined for each of the 6 groups. The surfaces of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for cracks and porosities using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A significant difference in surface roughness was found among the surface treatments (P=.02). Follow-up tests showed a significant difference in surface roughness between oven-glazed and microwave-glazed treatments (P=.02). There was a significant difference in flexural strength between the 2 porcelains (P<.005), but no significant difference in flexural strength by surface treatment (P=.48). The Weibull modulus value for the Omega 900 microwave-glazed group was the highest (1.9) as compared to the other groups. The surface character of microwave-glazed porcelain was superior to oven-glazed porcelain. Omega 900 had an overall higher flexural strength than IPS d.Sign. Weibull distributions of flexural strengths for Omega 900 oven-glazed and microwave-glazed specimens were similar. SEM analysis demonstrated a

  20. Improvement of sound insulation performance of double-glazed windows by using viscoelastic connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, D.; Sawaki, S.; Mu, R.-L.

    2016-06-01

    A new method for improving the sound insulation performance of double-glazed windows is proposed. This technique uses viscoelastic materials as connectors between the two glass panels to ensure that the appropriate spacing is maintained. An analytical model that makes it possible to discuss the effects of spacing, contact area, and viscoelastic properties of the connectors on the performance in terms of sound insulation is developed. The validity of the model is verified by comparing its results with measured data. The numerical experiments using this analytical model showed the importance of the ability of the connectors to achieve the appropriate spacing and their viscoelastic properties, both of which are necessary for improving the sound insulation performance. In addition, it was shown that the most effective factor is damping: the stronger the damping, the more the insulation performance increases.

  1. Hard machining, glaze firing and hydrofluoric acid etching: Do these procedures affect the flexural strength of a leucite glass-ceramic?

    PubMed

    Fraga, Sara; Valandro, Luiz F; Bottino, Marco A; May, Liliana G

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of hard machining, glaze firing and hydrofluoric acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength and roughness of a CAD/CAM leucite glass-ceramic; to investigate if ceramic post-machining surface roughness is influenced by the machining order and by the pair of burs used for it. A hundred forty four discs were machined by six nominally identical pairs of burs and divided into groups (n=24): (1) machining-M, (2) machining and glaze firing-MG, (3) machining and hydrofluoric acid etching-MA, (4) machining, glaze firing and hydrofluoric acid etching-MGA, (5) machining followed by polishing, as a control-MP, (6) machining, polishing and hydrofluoric acid etching-MPA. The roughness after each treatment (Ra and Rz) was measured. The discs were submitted to a piston-on-three ball flexure test (ISO 6872/2008) and strength data analyzed through Weibull statistics (95% CI). M resulted in lower characteristic strength (σ0) (128.2MPa) than MP (177.2MPa). The glaze firing reduced σ0 (109MPa), without affecting roughness. Hydrofluoric acid etching increased the roughness without affecting σ0. Spearman's coefficient (rs) indicated strong and significant correlation between machining order and roughness (rsRa=-0.66; rsRz=-0.73). The ceramic post-machining surface roughness differed significantly according to the pair of burs employed (p<0.05). hard machining and glaze firing reduced the leucite ceramic strength, while hydrofluoric acid etching did not affect the strength. Variability in the roughness might be expected after machining, since it was influenced by the machining order and by the bur pairing. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy performance of evacuated glazings in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Beck, F.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of evacuated glazings or glazings which maintain a vacuum between two panes of glass. Their performance is determined by comparing results to prototype highly insulated superwindows as well as a more conventional insulating glass unit with a low-E coating and argon gas fill. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy analysis simulation program to analyze the annual and hourly heating energy use due to the windows of a prototypical single-story house located in Madison, Wisconsin. Cooling energy performance was also investigated. The results show that for highly insulating windows, the solar heat gain coefficient is as important as the window`s U-factor in determining heating performance for window orientations facing west-south-east. For other orientations in which there is not much direct solar radiation, the window`s U-factor primarily governs performance. The vacuum glazings had lower heating requirements than the superwindows for most window orientations. The conventional low-E window outperformed the superwindows for southwest-south-southeast orientations. These performance differences are directly related to the solar heat gain coefficients of the various windows analyzed. The cooling performance of the windows was inversely related to the heating performance. The lower solar heat gain coefficients of the superwindows resulted in the best cooling performance. However, the authors were able to mitigate the cooling differences of the windows by using an interior shading device that reduced the amount of solar gain at appropriate times.

  3. Energy performance of evacuated glazings in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Beck, F.; arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of evacuated glazings or glazings which maintain a vacuum between two panes of glass. Their performance is determined by comparing results to prototype highly insulated superwindows as well as a more conventional. insulating glass unit with a low-E coating and argon gas fill. We used the DOE2.1E energy analysis simulation program to analyze the annual and hourly heating energy use due to the windows of a prototypical single-story house located in Madison, Wisconsin. Cooling energy performance was also investigated. Our results show that for highly insulating windows, the solar heat gain coefficient is as important as the window`s U-factor in determining heating performance for window orientations facing west-south-east. For other orientations in which there is not much direct solar radiation, the window`s U-factor primarily governs performance. The vacuum glazings had lower heating requirements than the superwindows for most window orientations. The conventional low-E window outperformed the superwindows for southwest-south-southeast orientations These performance differences are directly related to the solar heat gain coefficients of the various windows analyzed. The cooling performance of the windows was inversely related to the heating performance. The lower solar heat gain coefficients of the superwindows resulted in the best cooling performance. However, we were able to mitigate the cooling differences of the windows by using an interior shading device that reduced the amount of solar gain at appropriate times.

  4. Ethanol emission factors for glazing during candy production.

    PubMed

    Wadden, R A; Baird, D I; Franke, J E; Scheff, P A; Conroy, L M

    1994-04-01

    This study determined emission rates of ethyl alcohol from a candy glazing operation and, from observation of source activities, expressed these emission rates as emission factors. A mass balance modeling approach was used in conjunction with on-site field testing. The candy was processed in a row of 24 rotating open-faced pans, each with a capacity of approximately 250 lb candy/batch. Twelve 1-hour periods were monitored during production over two days. Ethanol vapor samples were collected on charcoal tubes simultaneously at four locations at different distances from the pan line. Continuous monitoring also was carried out at one location with a gas analyzer. The tube samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Ventilation measurements and source activity observations were collected at the same time as the gas samples. The average concentration 1.5 m in front of the line was above 1000 ppm. Average emission rates for 12 one-hour periods, determined from the concentration measurements and three different forms of the ethanol mass balance around the space, were 38.4 kg/hour, 42.5 kg/hour, and 49.6 kg/hour. When emission rates were compared with the number of batches the resulting emission factors were 500 g/batch, 291 g/batch, and 453 g/batch, respectively. These values were in good agreement with the estimate of 446 g/batch developed from the glaze mixture composition and the approximate amount of glaze mixture added to each batch. Testing using the emission factor approach removes the effect of the particular interior space in which the data are collected and reproduces changes in emissions and exposures.

  5. Cross Flow Effects on Glaze Ice Roughness Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the impact of large-scale cross flow on the creation of ice roughness elements on the leading edge of a swept wing under glaze icing conditions. A three-dimensional triple-deck structure is developed to describe the local interaction of a 3 D air boundary layer with ice sheets and liquid films. A linear stability analysis is presented here. It is found that, as the sweep angle increases, the local icing instabilities enhance and the most linearly unstable modes are strictly three dimensional.

  6. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of Jilan glaze of Ming and Qing official kilns].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Mao-lin; Li, Qi-jiang; Wu, Juan; Quan, Kui-shan; Cao, Jian-wen

    2012-08-01

    Color glazes of Ming and Qing official kilns are excellent representatives of the famous ancient Chinese porcelains. The study of official ware with Jilan glaze has been an important topic. But it made slow progress due to the rarity of samples with strict production management and using system. The recipes, chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of the Jilan samples excavated from official kilns in the Ming and Qing dynasties were first discussed by systematical testing with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and color difference meter. The results showed that the porcelain stone content in Jilan bodies of official kiln in the Ming dynasty is higher than the samples of the Qing dynasty. The manganese content in Jilan glazes of the Ming dynasty is higher than that in the Qing dynasty, while the glaze ash addition and the lightness value in the glaze are opposite.

  7. [Mass Spectrometric Methods for Colorative Mechanism Analysis of Yaozhou Porcelain Glaze].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuan-fang; He, Miao-hong; Zhang, Shu-di; Hang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    An in-house-built femtosecond laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (fs-LI-TOFMS) has been applied to the multi-elemental analysis of porcelain glaze from Yaozhou kiln. The samples are selected representing products of different dynasties, including Tang, Five, Song, Jin, and Ming Dynasty. For exploring the colorative mechanism of Yaozhou porcelain through the elemental analysis of the glaze, the effects of all potential coloring elements, especially transition elements, were considered. There was a speculation that the typical Co-Cr-Fe-Mn recipe was used in the fabrication of Yaozhou black glaze; the low content of Fe and high content of Ni resulted in the porcelain of white glaze; an increase content of P could lead the porcelain to be yellow-glazed. Undoubtedly, this research is an important supplement to the study of the colorative mechanism of the Yaozhou porcelain system.

  8. Performance evaluation of single-glazed and double glazed collectors/regenerators for an open cycle absorption solar cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.; Wang, P.L.

    1998-07-01

    Feasibility for an open-cycle absorption solar cooling system operated in Kaohsiung, Taiwan is studied via a computer simulation program using previous obtained experimental correlations for the collector/regenerator (C/R) performance and the TMY data of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Three C/R models are considered in this study. They are the natural and the forced convection single-glazed Cs/Rs and the forced convection double-glazed C/R. The effects of the C/R area, the C/R solution flow rate, the solution storage, the chilled water temperature and the daily cooling demand on the system performance in terms of seasonal solar fraction are studied and discussed. The results show that the solar C/R is the key component of the cooling system and the open-cycle absorption system is a sound solar cooling system. It is shown that the double glazed forced convection C/R gives a better system performance. The simulation study is to evaluate the seasonal solar fraction, which is defined as F=(solar cooling load)/(total cooling load) Firstly, all three C/R models are simulated under the base case conditions. The seasonal averaged solar fraction for three models are found to be 0.7, 0.75 and 0.79, respectively, while the corresponding seasonal averaged C/R efficiencies are 15.7%, 18.4% and 20.6%. The double-glazed forced convection system performs better than the other two systems. This is consistent with the results of previous experimental studies for the C/R. A nearly linear relationship between the C/R efficiency and the solar fraction is shown. The solar fraction increases slightly with the solution storage volume for the natural convection case, but it is much more sensitive to the solution storage for the forced convection system. The solar fraction is relatively insensitive to the C/R area after a critical value is reached. A similar dependence is also found in other solar absorption air conditioning system alternatives.

  9. 10 CFR 40.13 - Unimportant quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., solution, or alloy in which the source material is by weight less than one-twentieth of 1 percent (0.05... and compounds, mixtures, and products containing not more than 0.25 percent by weight thorium, uranium... products: (i) Glazed ceramic tableware, provided that the glaze contains not more than 20 percent by weight...

  10. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Technique in Identification of Ancient Ceramics Bodies and Glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Khaled; Imam, Hisham; Madkour, Fatma; Meheina, Galila; Gamal, Yosr

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we report a study on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a promising non-destructive technique for the identification of the colored glazes, and clay's bodies of Fatimid ceramics ancient artifacts. The scientific examination of ceramics may be helpful in unraveling the history of ancient shards, particularly as the process of its production such as firing condition and temperatures. The analysis of pottery, ceramic bodies and glazed coatings is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece. Revealing the technical skills of ancient potters has been one of the most important issues for gaining a deep insight of bygone culture and also it is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece of art. LIBS measurements were carried out by focusing a Nd-YAG laser at 1064 nm with pulse width of 10 ns and 50 mJ pulse energy on the surface of the sample by a 100-mm focal length lens. The plasma emission was collected by telescopic system and transferred through a fiber to Echelle spectrometer attached to an ICCD camera. The focal spot diameter is found to be in the range of 100-150 μm. which is small enough to consider this technique as a non-destructive technique. LIBS technique clarified that each piece of archaeological objects has its own finger print. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out on these archaeological ceramic body samples to study raw materials such as clays, which allowed the investigation of the crystal structure and showed the changes in its structure through firing process. This provided information on the ceramic characteristic and composition of the ceramic bodies.

  11. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M. L.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Coroado, J.

    2010-04-01

    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (µ-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial µ-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 µm diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of µm lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  12. Convective heat transfer correlations for fenestration glazing cavities: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Curcija, D.; Goss, W.P.

    1999-07-01

    Convective heat transfer in insulated glazing unit (IGU) cavities is a major component of the overall heat transfer in fenestration systems. Accurately quantifying the heat-transfer coefficient within the cavity is of great significance in calculating the center-of-glass U factor, the edge-of-glass U factor, and therefore the overall U factor. Over the past 40 years, along with the rapid development of experimental techniques and numerical methods as well as the powerful computer systems, the heat-transfer correlations have been updated either from experimental data or from numerical data from time to time. The literature reviewed here covers correlations based on simplified analytical studies, on the experimental data, and on the numerical results. In addition, most of the correlation equations cover the typical design range of fenestration glazing cavities, e.g., Ra < 20,000. Inconsistencies and discrepancies existing between different experimental observations, and between derived numerical/analytical correlations and available experimental data, are discussed.

  13. Physical Mechanisms of Glaze Ice Scallop Formations on Swept Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Reshotko, Eli

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to understand the physical mechanisms that lead to the formation of scallops on swept wings. Icing runs were performed on a NACA 0012 swept wing tip at 45 deg, 30 deg, and 15 deg sweep angles. A baseline case was chosen and direct measurements of scallop height and spacing, castings, video data and close-up photographic data were obtained. The results showed the scallops are made of glaze ice feathers that grow from roughness elements that have reached a minimum height and are located beyond a given distance from the attachment line. This distance depends on tunnel conditions and sweep angle, and is the critical parameter in the formation of scallops. It determines if complete scallops, incomplete scallops or no scallops are going to be formed. The mechanisms of growth for complete and incomplete scallops were identified. The effect of velocity, temperature and LWC on scallop formation was studied. The possibility that cross flow instability may be the physical mechanism that triggers the growth of roughness elements into glaze ice feathers is examined.

  14. Development of radiative-cooling materials. Final technical report: FY 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Work on research and development on glazing and selective emitter materials that will enhance day and night sky radiative cooling is described. The emphasis is on glazing development with a secondary interest in the appropriate selective emitter. The testing focused on the individual material properties. (MHR)

  15. Effect of various treatment and glazing (coating) techniques on the roughness and wettability of ceramic dental restorative surfaces.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, G; Polat, H; Polat, M; Coskun, G

    2006-12-01

    Surface treatment procedures such as grinding and polishing are needed to provide the ceramic dental restorative materials with proper fitting and occlusion. The treated surfaces are customarily glazed to improve the strength and smoothness. Though smoothness and wetting of the dental surfaces are important to minimize bacterial plaque retention, influence of the surface treatment and glazing procedures on the final surface roughness and its correlation to wettability are overlooked. In this work, effect of various treatment (diamond fraising, stoning, sanding and aluminum oxide and rubber polishing) and glazing (auto and overglazing) techniques on the final roughness and the resulting wettability of dental ceramic surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and atomic force microscopy (AFM) scans, 75 scans per sample. The surfaces were characterized and assigned an average roughness measure, R(a). The wettability of the same surfaces was evaluated using micro-contact angle measurements (25 micro-bubbles placed on a grid on each surface) to correlate the final surface roughness and wettability. The results show that overglazing prevails over surface irregularities from different treatment procedures and provides homegeneously smooth surfaces with mean R(a)<10 nm. It also produces uniformly wetted surfaces with low contact angles around 20 degrees . The autoglazed surfaces are less smooth (mean R(a) around 50 nm) and displays sporadic topographic irregularities. They display larger and less uniform contact angles ranging between 35 degrees and 50 degrees . The results suggest that overglazing should be preferred after surface treatment to obtain a smooth and well-wetted dental ceramic surface.

  16. Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price

    SciTech Connect

    Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

    2012-06-30

    The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational factory

  17. Modeling of building integrated low concentration photovoltaic glazing windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruchi, Itay; Ben Chorin, Moshe; Freedman, Barak; Sovran, Ido

    2010-08-01

    We have developed a transparent photovoltaic double glazed unit which exhibits three main features - concentrating direct solar rays on PV cells, allowing a viewer to see through the window a non-distorted image and having good thermal isolation properties. We describe the structure of the unit, and explain its fundamental optical properties. A model which simulates seasonal and day/night variations of the optical and thermal behavior of the window as a function of installation location is presented. The outputs of the model include the PV power generation and the change in the required power for heating/cooling due to the elimination of direct irradiation into the room. These outputs are used to optimize the optical design in order to achieve best overall energy saving performance.

  18. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 inches and the scale model had a chord of 21 inches. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 knots and with MVD's of 85 and 170 microns. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number W (sub eL). The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the non-dimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number W (sub ef). All tests were conducted at 0 degrees angle of arrival. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For non-dimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-dimensional ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-dimensional scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  19. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 in. and the scale model had a chord of 21 in. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 kn and with MVD's of 85 and 170 micron. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number WeL. The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number Wef. All tests were conducted at 0 deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For nondimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-D ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-D scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  20. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference, see § 571.5) shall be: (a) One percent solution of nonabrasive soap. (b) Kerosene... are completely removable. S5.1.2.5Item 15A—Annealed Glass-Plastic for Use in All Positions in a... windshield. S5.1.2.7Item 16A—Annealed Glass-Plastic for Use in All Positions in a Vehicle Not Requisite for...

  1. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference, see § 571.5) shall be: (a) One percent solution of nonabrasive soap. (b) Kerosene... are completely removable. S5.1.2.5Item 15A—Annealed Glass-Plastic for Use in All Positions in a... windshield. S5.1.2.7Item 16A—Annealed Glass-Plastic for Use in All Positions in a Vehicle Not Requisite for...

  2. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference, see § 571.5) shall be: (a) One percent solution of nonabrasive soap. (b) Kerosene... are completely removable. S5.1.2.5Item 15A—Annealed Glass-Plastic for Use in All Positions in a... windshield. S5.1.2.7Item 16A—Annealed Glass-Plastic for Use in All Positions in a Vehicle Not Requisite for...

  3. Surface modification of Raw and Frit glazes by non-thermal helium plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, M.; Sohbatzadeh, F.; Mirzanejhad, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was utilized to improve the adhesion of Raw and Frit glazes. These glazes are widely used in industry to make chinaware, decorative dishes and tiles applied at wall and floor. As they should be painted before use, increasing their adhesive properties leads to a better paint durability. Electrical and optical characteristics of the plasma jet are investigated to optimize for efficient treatment. Contact angle measurement and surface energy calculation demonstrate a drastic increase after the plasma treatment indicating wettability and paintability enhancement. Moreover, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were performed on the specimens to explore the influence of helium plasma jet on the physical and chemical properties of the glazes, microscopically. AFM analysis reveals surface etching resulted from the bombardment of the solid surfaces by the APPJ using helium fed gas. The process aims to enhance adhesive properties of glaze surfaces.

  4. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  5. A multi-analytical approach for the chemical composition investigation of Byzantine and Mediaeval glazed pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Lighea; Caliri, Claudia; Santos, Hellen Cristine; Catalano, Roberto; Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Imperiale, Marco Leo; Rizzo, Francesca; Romano, Francesco Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Glazed pottery from the mediaeval site at "Cantiere Mitello" in Otranto (Italy) have been investigated by means of several portable and non invasive techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (micro-XRF) scanning and alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission (alpha-PIXE). The results have been compared with some later sherds of Byzantine glazed pottery from the site of "Giuggianello" in Otranto (Italy). Results show that glazes present an high amount of Pb. Byzantine are also richer in Al compared to the first group. The color is generally given by Fe-Cu-Mn oxides. In general the mediaeval glazes can be considered to be in accordance with the Roman tradition. The presence of a consistent amount of SnO (3%) in a sample belonging to the first group, could suggest the use of tin as opacifier agent even at an early period.

  6. Do Glazed Ceramic Pots in a Mexico-US Border City Still Contain Lead?

    PubMed Central

    Valles-Medina, Ana M.; Martinez-Cervantes, Maria Elena; Castillo-Fregoso, Maria Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the presence of lead in glazed ceramic pots in a Mexico-US border city, 41 clay pots were sampled. The pots were purchased in several establishments located in different geographical areas of the city. The presence of lead was determined using LeadCheck Swabs. Most (58.5%) of the pots were from the State of Jalisco and 24.4% were of unknown origin. Only 4 pots did not contain varnish and were lead-negative. Thirty-seven (81.1%) of the glazed pots were lead positive. Among the lead-negative pots, 4 showed the label “this pot is lead-free.” Thus, if we consider the remaining 33 glazed pots without the “Lead-Free” label, 90.9% were lead-positive and only 9.1% were lead-negative. We also found that earthenware glazed utensils without the “Lead-Free” label were 1.6 times more likely to contain lead (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0–2.5), P = 0.003. We concluded that lead was detected in almost all acquired food containers. Government interventions in Mexico have focused on training manufacturers to make lead-free glazed ceramics but it has been difficult to eradicate this practice. Educational interventions to make and acquire lead-free glazed ceramics should be targeted to both sellers and buyers. PMID:27379279

  7. Do Glazed Ceramic Pots in a Mexico-US Border City Still Contain Lead?

    PubMed

    Valles-Medina, Ana M; Osuna-Leal, Angel I; Martinez-Cervantes, Maria Elena; Castillo-Fregoso, Maria Carmen; Vazquez-Erlbeck, Martha; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the presence of lead in glazed ceramic pots in a Mexico-US border city, 41 clay pots were sampled. The pots were purchased in several establishments located in different geographical areas of the city. The presence of lead was determined using LeadCheck Swabs. Most (58.5%) of the pots were from the State of Jalisco and 24.4% were of unknown origin. Only 4 pots did not contain varnish and were lead-negative. Thirty-seven (81.1%) of the glazed pots were lead positive. Among the lead-negative pots, 4 showed the label "this pot is lead-free." Thus, if we consider the remaining 33 glazed pots without the "Lead-Free" label, 90.9% were lead-positive and only 9.1% were lead-negative. We also found that earthenware glazed utensils without the "Lead-Free" label were 1.6 times more likely to contain lead (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.5), P = 0.003. We concluded that lead was detected in almost all acquired food containers. Government interventions in Mexico have focused on training manufacturers to make lead-free glazed ceramics but it has been difficult to eradicate this practice. Educational interventions to make and acquire lead-free glazed ceramics should be targeted to both sellers and buyers.

  8. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  9. Filament-strung stand-off elements for maintaining pane separation in vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOEpatents

    Bettger, Kenneth J; Stark, David H

    2013-08-20

    A vacuum insulating glazing unit (VIGU) comprises first and second panes of transparent material, first and second anchors, a plurality of filaments, a plurality of stand-off elements, and seals. The first and second panes of transparent material have edges and inner and outer faces, are disposed with their inner faces substantially opposing one another, and are separated by a gap having a predetermined height. The first and second anchors are disposed at opposite edges of one pane of the VIGU. Each filament is attached at one end to the first anchor and at the other end to the second anchor, and the filaments are collectively disposed between the panes substantially parallel to one another. The stand-off elements are affixed to each filament at predetermined positions along the filament, and have a height substantially equal to the predetermined height of the gap such that the each stand-off element touches the inner surfaces of both panes. The seals are disposed about the edges of the panes, enclosing the stand-off elements within a volume between the panes from which the atmosphere may be evacuated to form a partial vacuum.

  10. An in vitro investigation to compare the surface roughness of auto glazed, reglazed and chair side polished surfaces of Ivoclar and Vita feldspathic porcelain.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sumit; Kakade, Dilip; Jambhekar, Shantanu; Jain, Vinay

    2013-12-01

    The change in surface roughness after different surface finishing techniques has attracted the attention of several prosthodontists regarding wear of opposing teeth or restorative material and the strength; plaque retention and appearance of the restoration. However, there is considerable controversy concerning the best methods to achieve the smoothest and strongest porcelain restorations after chair side clinical adjustments. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the average surface roughness of a self-glazed surface, a chair side polished surface and a reglazed surface of ceramic. Two feldspathic porcelain, namely VITA VMK94 (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Sachingen, Germany) and IVOCLAR CLASSIC (Vivadent AG, FL-9494 Schaan, Liechtenstein) were selected to fabricate 20 specimens of each in the shape of shade guide tabs. A medium-grit diamond rotary cutting instrument was used to remove the glaze layer, and then the surface of half the specimens were re-glazed and the other half were polished using a well-defined sequence of polishing comprising of: Shofu porcelain polishing system, White gloss disc/polishing wheel, Silicone cone with diamond polishing paste and finally with small buff wheel with pumice slurry. The surface roughness (Ra) (μm) of the specimens was evaluated using a profilometer and scanning electron microscope. The data were statistically analyzed by using Student's t test. The results had shown that there is no statistically significant difference both quantitatively and qualitatively, between the surface roughness of reglazed and chair-side polished surface. In addition, both reglazed and chair-side polished surfaces are better than the autoglazed surface. Within all the groups, there is no significant difference between companies. Polishing an adjusted porcelain surface with the suggested sequence of polishing will lead to a finish similar to a re-glazed surface. Therefore chair-side polishing can be a good alternative to reglazing for

  11. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. ); Soule, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Smart thermochromic glazing for energy saving window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutjunjan, Ruben; Markova, Tatiana; Halopenen, Ilya; Maksimov, Ivan; Tutunnikov, Anatolii; Yanush, Oleg

    2005-08-01

    Thermochromic laminated glazing (TLG) aids in reducing the energy needs of a building and providing indoor comfort. The polymeric interlayer of TLG is doped with transition metal (Fe, Cr, W, etc.) complexes, which change their coordination and the transmission or color of TLG under the influence of light and heat fluxes. At present we have conversions fiom light gray or brown to dark gray or brown and fiom rosy or yellow to blue or green at our disposal. TLG is able to sense changes in the light and adjust accordingly. It can block out the sunlight during the brightest parts of the day or capitalize on the available light during overcast days. As evaluated on the basis of tests, TLG has a good UV stability. It offers practical benefits of a low cost and easy fabrication. No electrical or any other driving power is needed to operate TLG. The energy modeling of the heat transfer in ventilated facades showed that TLG can provide a 15-30% decrease of the building energy consumption during the winter heating time in the climatic conditions of some regions in Russia. During the summer season the reduction of the solar energy gain reaches 30-40%; this is enough to give up air- cooling systems altogether.

  13. Optical properties database for high performance glazings. Task 12: Building energy analysis and design tools for solar applications, Subtask A.1: High-performance glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-06-30

    The framework used for the data is described; maintain and updating the database is addressed; and covers extensions of the database are covered. The appendices include the glass library (Appendix A) and the glazing system library (Appendix B) which for the foundation of the optical property database, and a spectral data reporting format (Appendix C).

  14. Analysis of the Microstructure and Thermal Shock Resistance of Laser Glazed Nanostructured Zirconia TBCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Hao, Yunfei; Wang, Hongying; Tang, Weijie

    2010-03-01

    Nanostructured zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying using the reconstituted nanosized yttria partially stabilized zirconia powder. Field emission scanning electron microscope was applied to examine the microstructure of the resulting TBCs. The results showed that the TBCs exhibited a unique, complex structure including nonmelted or partially melted nanosized particles and columnar grains. A CO2 continuous wave laser beam has been applied to laser glaze the nanostructured zirconia TBCs. The effect of laser energy density on the microstructure and thermal shock resistance of the as-glazed coatings has been systematically investigated. SEM observation indicated that the microstructure of the as-glazed coatings was very different from the microstructure of the as-sprayed nanostructured TBCs. It changed from single columnar grain to a combination of columnar grains in the fracture surface and equiaxed grains on the surface with increasing laser energy density. Thermal shock resistance tests have showed that laser glazing can double the lifetime of TBCs. The failure of the as-glazed coatings was mainly due to the thermal stress caused by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the ceramic coat and metallic substrate.

  15. Study of Glazes and Their Effects on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelains from Ugandan Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olupot, Peter W.; Jonsson, Stefan; Byaruhanga, Joseph K.

    2010-11-01

    Kaolin, ball clay, feldspar, and sand were collected from deposits in Uganda, milled and sieved to particle sizes of 45, 45, 53, and 25 μm, respectively. Three porcelain bodies and five glazes were formulated from them. The glazes were applied on porcelain specimens and subsequently evaluated for their effects on properties of porcelain samples. The formulated specimens were investigated using dilatometry, Steger test, FEG-SEM, XRD, 4-point bending, dielectric strength, and fracture toughness tests. A porcelain specimen consisting of 68% SiO2, 19% Al2O3, 4.7% K2O, and a glaze RO:0.57Al2O3:4.86SiO2 exhibited MOR of 105 MPa with Weibull modulus of 5.6 and a dielectric strength of 18 kV/mm upon firing at a heating rate of 6 °C/min to 1250 °C and holding for 2 h. The microstructure of the high-strength specimen exhibited round mullite needles, quartz, and glass. Holding samples for 2 h at peak temperature resulted in a 22% increase in MOR compared to 1 h holding. Glazing further improved strength by 67% for the best sample. Compressive stresses in glaze contributed to the strengthening effect. The dielectric and mechanical strength values obtained qualify the formulated sample for application in electrical insulation.

  16. A study of green-glazed ware from England and South Carolina, USA (1760-1780)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Kate I.; Carlson, Janice H.; Swann, Charles P.

    2002-04-01

    Green-glazed earthenware objects were used throughout Britain and the American colonies in the 18th century. Archaeological sherds from three known manufacturing sites (Greatbatch and Whieldon in Britain and Cain Hoy, SC in America) have been analyzed. Techniques used to characterize compositional features of the glazes include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis (SEM-EDX) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The clay bodies as thin sections and as bulk were also examined applying these same techniques. The compositional features of each were then compared; the conclusions drawn were applied to the study of similar green-glazed earthenware objects in the collection of the Winterthur Museum.

  17. Simulation of complex glazing products; from optical data measurements to model based predictive controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Christian

    2012-04-01

    Complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds, fritted glass and woven shades require more detailed optical and thermal input data for their components than specular non light-redirecting glazing systems. Various methods for measuring these data sets are described in this paper. These data sets are used in multiple simulation tools to model the thermal and optical properties of complex glazing systems. The output from these tools can be used to generate simplified rating values or as an input to other simulation tools such as whole building annual energy programs, or lighting analysis tools. I also describe some of the challenges of creating a rating system for these products and which factors affect this rating. A potential future direction of simulation and building operations is model based predictive controls, where detailed computer models are run in real-time, receiving data for an actual building and providing control input to building elements such as shades.

  18. Experimental evaluation of sound transmission through single, double and laminated glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Rawad; Descombes, Georges; Guillemard, Francis; Elhachem, Elias; Larbi, Walid

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of sound transmission loss through single, double and laminated glazing by respecting the ISO recommendations. They are various methods for measuring the transmission loss of partitions. The laboratory experiments were performed in order to measure the airborne transmission, by placing four configurations of windows (single, double and two laminated glazing) between two reverberation independent rooms. The windows were as close as possible in size to the opening and the edges were sealed. They were subjected to diffuse field characterized by its white band frequency spectrum. The experimental set-up is illustrated, then the results are presented and discussed. The insulation conferred by the glazed is characterized, and the dips of insulation are located.

  19. A Passion for Pots: A Lesson in Glaze Decoration for Students of All Ages. AMACO[R] Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet; Gamble, David

    This lesson requires attention to the composition and design elements essential to decoration of a curved surface. Skills taught are the techniques and processes of ceramic glazing and underglazing. Supplies required include commercially-made terra cotta flower pots, glazes, and a kiln. The plan includes lesson goals and objectives; background…

  20. The effect of laser glazing on life of ZrO2 TBCs in cyclic burner rig tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of laser glazed zirconia (containing 8 wt% Y2O3) TBC's was evaluated in burner rig cyclic oxidation tests at 1000 and 1050 C. It was found that the cycle duration has no effect on life of TBC's and that the increase in thickness of the glazed layer caused a slight reduction in life.

  1. Influence of glazed zirconia on dual-cure luting agent bond strength.

    PubMed

    Valentino, T A; Borges, G A; Borges, L H; Platt, J A; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of a novel surface treatment that uses a low-fusing porcelain glaze for promoting a bond between zirconia-based ceramic and a dual-cure resin luting agent. Bond strengths were compared with those from airborne particle abrasion, hydrofluoric acid etching, and silanization-treated surfaces. Twenty-four yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Cercon Smart Ceramics, Degudent, Hanau, Germany) discs were fabricated and received eight surface treatments: group 1: 110 μm aluminum oxide air-borne particle abrasion; group 2: 110 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 3: 50 μm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; group 4: 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane; group 5: glaze and hydrofluoric acid;group 6: glaze, hydrofluoric acid, and silane;group 7: glaze and 50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion; and group 8: glaze,50 pm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion and silane. After treatment, Enforce resin cement (Dentsply, Caulk, Milford, DE, USA) was used to fill an iris cut from microbore Tygontubing that was put on the ceramic surface to create 30 cylinders of resin cement in each treatment group (n=30). Micro shear bond test-ing was performed at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. One-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were made using Tukey's test (p<0.5). The bond strength was affected only by surface treatments other than silanization. The groups that utilized the low-fusing porcelain glaze with airborne particle abrasion or hydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to groups that utilized conventional airborne particle abrasion treatments with 50 or 110 pm aluminum oxide (p<0.001). The treatment that utilized low-fusing porcelain glaze and hydrofluoric acid showed bond strength values statistically superior to remaining groups (p<0.001). Treatment of zirconia ceramic surfaces with a glaze of low-fusing porcelain

  2. SEM analysis of the in situ early bacterial colonization on two novel feldspathic ceramics submitted to different types of glazing.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Brentel, Aline Scalone; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ, the early bacterial colonization on feldspar-ceramics submitted to different glazing. Fourteen standardized disc specimens (diameter: 5 mm, thickness: 1.5 mm) of each of two micro-particulate feldspathic ceramics (VM7 and VM13, Vita) were produced according to manufacturers' specifications for a total of 28 specimens (24 for the analysis of biofilm and 4 for topographic analysis analyzing the ceramic surfaces). Specimens from each type of ceramic were submitted to two different glazing methods composing four groups: VM7 glazed using glazing liquid Vita Akzent 25 (G1) and glaze firing (G2), VM13 glazed using glazing liquid (G3) and glaze firing (G4). Six individuals (n=6) wore oral appliances with four ceramic specimens, fixed on the buccal face of the appliances. After 8 hours, each sample was evaluated for the presence (1) or absence (0) of bacterial colonization under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on five randomly selected fields. The value for each sample was cumulative of the results observed in the fields. One sample from each group was evaluated under a SEM to verify the topographic pattern. There was no difference with regard to bacterial colonization between the feldspar-ceramics and between the glazing types (Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test). Feldspar-ceramics submitted to firing or glaze firing with Vita Akzent 25 present a similar condition for in situ bacterial colonization. The similar topographic pattern of the ceramic surfaces seems to have influenced the bacterial colonization.

  3. Characterization of the glaze and in-glaze pigments of the nineteenth-century relief tiles from the Pena National Palace, Sintra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, M. L.; Veiga, J. P.; Alves, L. C.; Mirão, J.; Dias, L.; Lima, A. M.; Muralha, V. S.; Macedo, M. F.

    2016-07-01

    The glaze and in-glaze pigments of the historical nineteenth-century glazed tiles from the Pena National Palace (Sintra, Portugal) were characterized using a multi-analytical approach. Chemical composition and microstructural characterization were ascertained by µ-PIXE, µ-Raman, optical microscopy and VP-SEM-EDS. The manufacturing technique and colour palette in these tiles were found to be close to the ceramic pigments used in traditional majolica. The blue and purple colours derive from cobalt oxide and manganese oxide, respectively. A mixture of Pb-Sn-Sb yellow with cobalt oxide and iron oxide was used for green and dark yellow, respectively, while grey tonalities consist of a complex mixture of cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and Pb-Sn-Sb yellow in different proportions. Results obtained allowed the determination of the oxides and elements used in pigments as well as production techniques, resorting to traditional majolica manufacture, although the tiles were produced by the end of the nineteenth century.

  4. Correction of small imperfections on white glazed china surfaces by laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Képíró, I.; Osvay, K.; Divall, M.

    2007-07-01

    A laser-assisted technique has been developed for correction of small diameter (1 mm) and shallow (0.5 mm) imperfections on the surface of gloss fired porcelain. To study the physics and establish the important parameters, artificially made holes in a porcelain sample have been first filled with correction material, then covered with raw glaze and treated by a pulsed, 7 kHz repetition rate CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. The modification of the surface and the surrounding area have been quantified and studied with a large range of parameters of incident laser power (1-10 W), width of the laser pulses (10-125 μs) and duration of laser heating (60-480 s). Although the shine of the treated area, defined as the distribution of micro-droplets on the surface, is very similar to the untreated surfaces, the surroundings of the treated area usually show cracks. The measurement of both the spatial temperature distribution and the temporal cooling rate of the treated surface has revealed that a simple melting process always results in high gradient temperature distribution within the irradiated zone. Its inhomogeneous and fast cooling always generate at least micro-cracks on the surface within a few seconds after the laser was turned off. The duration and intensity of the laser irradiation have been then optimized in order to achieve the fastest possible melting of the surface, but without producing such high temperature gradients. To eliminate the cracks, more elaborated pre-heating and slowed-cooling-rate processes have been tried with prosperous results. These achievements complete our previous study, making possible to repair the most common surface imperfections and holes of gloss fired china samples.

  5. Los Alamos optical-materials reliability, maintainability, and exposure testing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. W.

    1983-04-01

    Methods and results are presented of exposure testing of developmental or advanced materials, nonselective coatings, selective paints, antireflection-treated glass, and heat mirror glazing for the DOE Active Heating and Cooling Materials testing program. Results of investigations of collectors from a number of solar facilities relative to the durability and degradation of their optical materials are also presented. These include: black chrome durability study; Norton Air Force Base polycarbonate glazing study; Perl-Mac/Miromit black nickel study; and black paint investigations.

  6. The use of micro-XRD for the study of glaze color decorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradell, T.; Molina, G.; Molera, J.; Pla, J.; Labrador, A.

    2013-04-01

    The compounds responsible for the colors and decorations in glass and glazed ceramics include: coloring agents (transition-metal ions), pigments (micro- and nanoprecipitates of compounds that either do not dissolve or recrystallize in the glassy matrix) and opacifiers (microcrystalline compounds with high light scattering capability). Their composition, structure and range of stability are highly dependent not only on the composition but also on the procedures followed to obtain them. Chemical composition of the colorants and crystallites may be obtained by means of SEM-EDX and WDX. Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray diffraction (SR-micro-XRD) has a small beam size adequate (10 to 50 microns footprint size) to obtain the structural information of crystalline compounds and high brilliance, optimal for determining the crystallites even when present in low amounts. In addition, in glass decorations the crystallites often appear forming thin layers (from 10 to 100 micrometers thick) and they show a depth-dependent composition and crystal structure. Their nature and distribution across the glass/glaze decorations gives direct information on the technology of production and stability and may be related to the color and appearance. A selection of glass and glaze coloring agents and decorations are studied by means of SR-micro-XRD and SEM-EDX including: manganese brown, antimony yellow, red copper lusters and cobalt blue. The selection includes Medieval (Islamic, and Hispano Moresque) and Renaissance tin-glazed ceramics from the 10th to the 17th century AD.

  7. New milarite/osumilite-type phase formed during ancient glazing of an Egyptian scarab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artioli, G.; Angelini, I.; Nestola, F.

    2013-02-01

    A scarab found in grave 25 of the Monte Prama necropolis, near Cabras, Oristano, Sardinia, is of special importance for the archaeological interpretation and dating of this important archaeological site. The object has been misinterpreted in the past as composed by bone: recent archaeometric analyses showed that it is a glazed steatite of Egyptian origin and that the altered surface contains interesting phases crystallized during the high-temperature interaction of the Mg-rich talc core with the alkali-rich glass used for glazing. A novel single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the phases indicates that it is a new compound having the milarite-osumilite structure type, with a peculiar composition close to (Na1.52K0.12□0.36)(Mg3)(Mg1.72Cu0.16Fe0.12)(Si11.4Al0.6)O30, not reported for naturally occurring minerals. The structural and crystal chemical features of the compound, together with the known high-temperature stability of the series, allow a complete interpretation of the glazing process and conditions, based on direct application of the glaze on the steatite core with subsequent treatment at temperatures above 1000 °C.

  8. Growth ring response in shortleaf pine following glaze icing conditions in western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma

    Treesearch

    Douglas J. Stevenson; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2013-01-01

    Width reduction in growth rings in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) following glaze ice conditions produces a characteristic pattern dependent on live-crown ratio and extent of crown loss. Ring widths of 133 trees for 3 years preceding and 7 years following the December 2000 ice storm (Bragg and others 2002) in western Arkansas and eastern...

  9. Character of laser-glazed, plasma-sprayed zirconia coatings on stainless steel substrata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischman, G. S.; Chen, C. H.; Rigsbee, J. M.; Brown, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia was applied as coatings to 316L stainless steel substrata using an 80-kw arc-plasma unit. Some of these coating-substrate systems were subsequently glazed using a 10 kw CO2 continuous-wavelength laser. SEM was used to characterize the microstructures of the coatings and coating-substrate interfaces. Results are reported and discussed.

  10. Character of laser-glazed, plasma-sprayed zirconia coatings on stainless steel substrata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischman, G. S.; Chen, C. H.; Rigsbee, J. M.; Brown, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia was applied as coatings to 316L stainless steel substrata using an 80-kw arc-plasma unit. Some of these coating-substrate systems were subsequently glazed using a 10 kw CO2 continuous-wavelength laser. SEM was used to characterize the microstructures of the coatings and coating-substrate interfaces. Results are reported and discussed.

  11. Extent of Low-accumulation 'Wind Glaze' Areas on the East Antarctic Plateau: Implications for Continental Ice Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scambos, Theodore A.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Haran, T.; Bohlander, J.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.; Jezek, K.; Long, D.; Urbini, S.; Farness, K.; Neumann, T.; Albert, M.; Winther, J.-G.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent katabatic winds form widely distributed localized areas of near-zero net surface accumulation on the East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) plateau. These areas have been called 'glaze' surfaces due to their polished appearance. They are typically 2-200 square kilometers in area and are found on leeward slopes of ice-sheet undulations and megadunes. Adjacent, leeward high-accumulation regions (isolated dunes) are generally smaller and do not compensate for the local low in surface mass balance (SMB). We use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field-gathered datasets to map the extent of wind glaze in the EAIS above 1500m elevation. Mapping criteria are derived from distinctive surface and subsurface characteristics of glaze areas resulting from many years of intense annual temperature cycling without significant burial. Our results show that 11.2 plus or minus 1.7%, or 950 plus or minus 143 x 10(exp 3) square kilometers, of the EAIS above 1500m is wind glaze. Studies of SMB interpolate values across glaze regions, leading to overestimates of net mass input. Using our derived wind-glaze extent, we estimate this excess in three recent models of Antarctic SMB at 46-82 Gt. The lowest-input model appears to best match the mean in regions of extensive wind glaze.

  12. Comparison of alternative adhesive cementation concepts for zirconia ceramic: glaze layer vs zirconia primer.

    PubMed

    Cura, Cenk; Özcan, Mutlu; Isik, Gül; Saracoglu, Ahmet

    2012-02-01

    Zirconia-based ceramics offer strong restorations in dentistry, but the adhesive bond strength of resin cements to such ceramics is not optimal. This study evaluated the bond strength of silane/adhesive/resin cement and zirconia primer/resin cement combinations on non-glazed and glazed zirconia surfaces before and after aging. Disk-shaped zirconia ceramic specimens (diameter: 8 mm; thickness: 2 mm) (N = 80, n = 10 per group) were randomly divided into 2 groups. While half of the specimens received one coat of glaze and were later finished by grinding, the other half was only ground using 1200-grit silicone carbide abrasives under water. The glazed specimens were then conditioned with 9.5% HF acid gel for 60 s, rinsed with water for 90 s, and neutralized. The glazed and non-glazed specimens were further divided into two groups. Two resin cements, namely, Variolink II and Multilink Automix were adhered onto the zirconia surfaces with their corresponding adhesive systems. In the Variolink II group, zirconia surfaces were silanized (Monobond-S), and adhesive resin (Heliobond) was applied and photopolymerized. In the Multilink Automix group, one coat of Metal/Zirconia Primer was applied with a microbrush, left to react for 180 s, and dried using oil-free air. Half of the specimens in each cement group were subjected to 5000 thermocycles (5°C to 55°C) and the other half was kept in the dark for 24 h at 37°C prior to testing. Specimens were mounted in the jig of the universal testing machine, and force was applied to the ceramic/cement interface until failure occurred (1 mm/min). After evaluating all debonded specimens under SEM, the failure types were defined as either "adhesive" with no cement left on the zirconia (score 0) or "mixed" with less than half of the cement left on the surface with no cohesive failure of the substrate (score 1). Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Dunnett-T3 post-hoc tests. Application of a glaze layer significantly improved the

  13. Improved bonding of zirconia substructures to resin using a "glaze-on" technique.

    PubMed

    Everson, Peter; Addison, Owen; Palin, William M; Burke, F J Trevor

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the influence of applying thin intermediary coatings of acid-etchable glasses on the shear bond strength between a methacrylate resin based cement and an yttria-stabilized zirconia dental ceramic substrate. The upper and lower surfaces of 110 sintered yttria-stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline disc-shaped specimens were polished using sequential grades of Silicon Carbide, then air-abraded with 25 μm diameter alumina particles. Specimens were randomly allocated to 11 groups (A-K) (n=10), group A acting as control. The upper surface of Group A specimens was subjected to a tribochemical coating regime (CoJet, 3M ESPE). Five glazing ceramics were applied and fired according to the manufacturer's recommended firing regime. The glaze was etched with 10% HF acid and all specimens coated with a silane primer. Two differing storage regimes were employed (wet storage vs thermocycling). Shear bond strength testing specimens were created by cementing resin-based composite cylinders to the centre of the prepared ceramic surface using Rely-X Unicem (3M ESPE) resin based cement. Shear bond strength testing was performed and load at failure recorded. A factorial analysis of variance at a 95% significance level demonstrated that all glazing techniques resulted in a significant increase in the shear bond strength compared with using the resin based cement alone (P<0.01), with the different glazing ceramics resulting in significant differences in mean shear bond strength (P=0.008). The differences were a function of the storage state (wet storage vs thermocycling (P=0.013)). The glazing techniques used in the current investigation resulted in a significantly enhanced shear bond stress to the resin based cement when compared with the current 'gold standard' - tribochemical coating. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Resin bonding of metal brackets to glazed zirconia with a porcelain primer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Milim; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare the shear bond strength between orthodontic metal brackets and glazed zirconia using different types of primer before applying resin cement and to determine which primer was more effective. Methods Zirconia blocks were milled and embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned to one of four groups: nonglazed zirconia with sandblasting and zirconia primer (NZ); glazed zirconia with sandblasting, etching, and zirconia primer (GZ); glazed zirconia with sandblasting, etching, and porcelain primer (GP); and glazed zirconia with sandblasting, etching, zirconia primer, and porcelain primer (GZP). A stainless steel metal bracket was bonded to each target surface with resin cement, and all specimens underwent thermal cycling. The shear bond strength of the specimens was measured by a universal testing machine. A scanning electron microscope, three-dimensional optical surface-profiler, and stereoscopic microscope were used to image the zirconia surfaces. The data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance and the Fisher exact test. Results Group GZ showed significantly lower shear bond strength than did the other groups. No statistically significant differences were found among groups NZ, GP, and GZP. All specimens in group GZ showed adhesive failure between the zirconia and resin cement. In groups NZ and GP, bonding failed at the interface between the resin cement and bracket base or showed complex adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusions Porcelain primer is the more appropriate choice for bonding a metal bracket to the surface of a full-contour glazed zirconia crown with resin cement. PMID:26629476

  15. An analysis of the benefits of photovoltaic-coated glazing on owning and operating costs of high rise commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Keith Everette

    Energy efficient glazing is necessary to reduce heat gains or losses that contribute to the high-energy use of buildings. However, high-rise commercial buildings that use energy efficient glazing are still consumptive. To reduce their energy use further, recent studies have integrated photovoltaic glazed window systems into the building shell. With limited light transmittance due to their required production of electricity, photovoltaic glazed windows can be developed with thermal properties similar to Low-E coatings. Consequently, these window systems can reduce operating costs of buildings without reducing the human satisfaction of the built environment. To understand the relationship between photovoltaic windows, energy use and human satisfaction, this study investigates the effects of photovoltaic glazed windows on energy use of large commercial buildings and includes an assessment of the overall human satisfaction of the workers within photovoltaic glazed office spaces. This study targets high-rise commercial buildings and their occupants in urban centers of the four census regions---North, Northeast, South, and Midwest. A prototypical building was used to develop the base case simulations for the DOE-2 energy simulation program and the PV F-Chart photovoltaic analysis program. By substituting the appropriate variable in the base case simulation for each site, building was simulated to evaluate the impact of the PV glazing on the building's heat loss/gaining as well as the amount of electricity that could be expected from the PV. To test for human satisfaction, a survey was performed to assess the overall preference of the subjects to the office spaces using the photovoltaic glazed windows. An analysis of the variance was also conducted to test for significantly different treatment means. Overall, the findings of this study show that photovoltaic windows significantly decrease the energy used by high-rise commercial buildings. Payback periods 11 to 20 years

  16. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of flaw size and auto-glaze treatment on porcelain strength.

    PubMed

    Griggs, J A; Thompson, J Y; Anusavice, K J

    1996-06-01

    The functional surfaces of porcelain restorations are often ground to adjust occlusion. This removes the surface glaze and introduces flaws. Re-firing the restoration before final placement produces a self-glaze layer on the surface that may reduce the extent of damage caused by grinding. The objectives of this study were to determine whether re-firing after grinding increases the strength of dental porcelain and to determine whether the effectiveness of this treatment was dependent on the initial flaw size. Six groups, each containing 12 disk specimens, were prepared from experimental body porcelain (No. 36, J.F. Jelenko & Co., Armonk, NY). The specimens were fired under vacuum, ground to a thickness of 1 mm with 240-grit SiC abrasive, and polished through 600-grit on the surface to be subjected to tensile stress. Control Group A consisted of 12 non-indented specimens. Flaws were induced in the remaining groups by means of a Vickers indenter under the following loads: 3.9 N (Group B), 7.8 N (Group C), 11.8 N (Group D), 15.7 N (Group E), and 19.6 N (Group F). Following indentation, half of the specimens from each group were re-fired. The flexure strength of each specimen was determined by means of a piston-on-three-ball biaxial fixture. The TTEST procedure of SAS (1985) indicated a significant difference between the mean strength values of glazed and non-glazed specimens in Group E only (p = 0.55, 0.24, 0.13, 0.07, 0.01, and 0.69 for Groups A to F, respectively). ANOVA with the GLM procedure of SAS (1985) revealed that the mean strength values of groups subjected to five indentation loads were not significantly different (p = 0.45 for glazed specimens and p = 1.00 for non-glazed specimens). These findings support those of Fairhurst et al. (1992) for specimens with smaller flaws that were induced by grinding with 1 micron abrasive grit. The results of the current study indicate that re-firing of porcelain with large surface flaws does not significantly increase the

  18. In vitro analysis of different properties of acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis submitted to accelerated aging with or without photopolymerized glaze.

    PubMed

    Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos; Nagay, Bruna Egumi; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Bonatto, Liliane da Rocha; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Moreno, Amália; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; da Cruz, Nilson Cristino; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2016-12-01

    The effect of a photopolymerized glaze on different properties of acrylic resin (AR) for ocular prostheses submitted to accelerated aging was investigated. Forty discs were divided into 4 groups: N1 AR without glaze (G1); colorless AR without glaze (G2); N1 AR with glaze (G3); and colorless AR with glaze (G4). All samples were polished with sandpaper (240, 600 and 800-grit). In G1 and G2, a 1200-grit sandpaper was also used. In G3 and G4, samples were coated with MegaSeal glaze. Property analysis of color stability, microhardness, roughness, and surface energy, and assays of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were performed before and after the accelerated aging (1008h). Data were submitted to the ANOVA and Tukey Test (p<0.05). Groups with glaze exhibited statistically higher color change and roughness after aging. The surface microhardness significantly decreased in groups with glaze and increased in groups without glaze. The surface energy increased after the aging, independent of the polishing procedure. All groups showed an increase of surface irregularities. Photopolymerized glaze is an inadequate surface treatment for AR for ocular prostheses and it affected the color stability, roughness, and microhardness. The accelerated aging interfered negatively with the properties of resins.

  19. Water Droplet Impingement on Simulated Glaze, Mixed, and Rime Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadakis, Michael; Rachman, Arief; Wong, See-Cheuk; Yeong, Hsiung-Wei; Hung, Kuohsing E.; Vu, Giao T.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2007-01-01

    Water droplet impingement data were obtained at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) for a 36-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil with and without simulated ice using a dye-tracer method. The simulated ice shapes were defined with the NASA Glenn LEWICE 2.2 ice accretion program and including one rime, four mixed and five glaze ice shapes. The impingement experiments were performed with spray clouds having median volumetric diameters of 20, 52, 111, 154, and 236 micron. Comparisons to the experimental data were generated which showed good agreement for the rime and mixed shapes at lower drop sizes. For larger drops sizes LEWICE 2.2 over predicted the collection efficiencies due to droplet splashing effects which were not modeled in the program. Also for the more complex glaze ice shapes interpolation errors resulted in the over prediction of collection efficiencies in cove or shadow regions of ice shapes.

  20. Microstructural stability of wrought, laser and electron beam glazed NARloy-Z alloy at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.; Jerman, G.; Bhat, B.; Poorman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructure of wrought, laser, and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z(Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr) was investigated for thermal stability at elevated temperatures (539 to 760 C (1,100 to 1,400 F)) up to 94 h. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were employed for studying microstructural evolution and kinetics of precipitation. Grain boundary precipitation and precipitate free zones (PFZ's) were observed in the wrought alloy after exposing to temperatures above 605 C (1,120 F). The fine-grained microstructure observed in the laser and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z was much more stable at elevated temperatures. Microstructural changes correlated well with hardness measurements.

  1. [Environmental lead poisoning from lead-glazed earthenware used for storing drinks].

    PubMed

    Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J

    2009-12-01

    Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.

  2. Evaluation Methods of Contamination Flashover Voltage Performance of Cylindrical Type Semi-conducting Glaze Porcelain Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kazuma; Hayashi, Akio; Saka, Chiharu; Sakanishi, Kenji; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Ito, Susumu; Fujii, Osamu

    Higher contamination flashover voltage of a semi-conducting glaze (SG) insulator owes primarily to the drying effect by leakage current flowing in the glaze. Significant reduction in contamination flashover voltage was confirmed on a cylindrical SG insulator when fog density was increased from 0.5g/m3 to 13g/m3 in clean fog test. The effect of de-energized duration between trip-out and re-energization on the contamination flashover voltage of a cylindrical SG insulator under cold-wet switch-on conditions was investigated. As the de-energized duration becomes shorter, the flashover voltage of a cylindrical SG insulator becomes higher. Higher contamination design voltages may be adopted even under cold-wet switch-on conditions.

  3. Rime-, mixed- and glaze-ice evaluations of three scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate three icing scaling relationships or 'laws' for an unheated model. The laws were LWC x time = constant, one proposed by a Swedish-Russian group and one used at ONERA in France. Icing tests were performed in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with cylinders ranging from 2.5- to 15.2-cm diameter. Reference conditions were chosen to provide rime, mixed and glaze ice. Scaled conditions were tested for several scenarios of size and velocity scaling, and the resulting ice shapes compared. For rime-ice conditions, all three of the scaling laws provided scaled ice shapes which closely matched reference ice shapes. For mixed ice and for glaze ice none of the scaling laws produced consistently good simulation of the reference ice shapes. Explanations for the observed results are proposed, and scaling issues requiring further study are identified.

  4. Spectroellipsometric and ion beam analytical studies on a glazed ceramic object with metallic lustre decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohner, T.; Agócs, E.; Petrik, P.; Zolnai, Z.; Szilágyi, E.; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Tóth, L.; Tóth, A. L.; Illés, L.; Bársony, I.

    2014-11-01

    In this work recently produced and commercially available glazed ceramic object with metallic lustre decoration was studied by using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with rotating compensator. The thickness and metal content of the surface lustre layers are determined by ion beam analytical techniques, i.e., Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and external beam particle-induced X-ray emission and the results were utilized in the construction of multilayer optical models for the evaluation and interpretation of the spectroellipsometric measurements.

  5. Practical significance and calculation of surface tension of glass, enamels and glazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Surface tension is important in the formation of streaks in the whole procedure of enameling and glazing., in the action of TiO2 as opacifier, in the addition of borax to enamels, or metals to glasses, and in the corrosion of refractories by molten charges. By the use of known methods for measuring surface tension additive constants are found which give correct results within 1% with no discrepancy due to B2O3.

  6. Anti-icing performance in glaze ice of nanostructured film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ruijin; Zuo, Zhiping; Guo, Chao; Zhuang, Aoyun; Zhao, Xuetong; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Ice accumulation on insulators may inflict problems of flashover accidents, tower collapse and power failure. In this work, the nanostructured film on glass was fabricated by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The wettability, surface morphology, chemical composition and XRD pattern were analyzed by corresponding methods. The anti-icing performance in ;glaze ice; was investigated in an artificial climate chamber. It was found that the as-prepared superhydrophobic (SHP) surface exhibited a prominent superhydrophobicity with a contact angle (CA) of 165.6° and sliding angle smaller than 1°. The superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared SHP surface was attributed to the low surface energy of hexadecyltrimethoxy silane and ZnO nanorods along with the presence of high fraction of air pockets. Besides, the as-prepared SHP surface demonstrated excellent anti-icing behavior in glaze ice and could effectively reduce the freezing area. The results showed that 70.4% of the as-prepared SHP surface remained free of ice after spraying for 90 min in glaze. This method proposed a way to design an anti-icing surface and may have potential in application on glass insulators against ice accumulation.

  7. Nongray-radiative and convective-conductive thermal coupling in Teflon-glazed, selective-black, flat-plate solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Rhee, S. J.

    1984-05-01

    An analysis is presented comparing Teflon film with glass for the inner glazing of a double-glazed selective-black, flat-plate solar collector. The effect of spacing between glazings and between the inner glazing and absorber plate is examined. It is shown that a 12.5-micron Teflon film is superior to glass for the inner glazing of a selective-black collector, because the advantage of its high solar transparency overwhelms the disadvantage of its infrared transparency. A too-small spacing between a selective-black absorber and its inner cover short-circuits the desirable thermal radiation resistance offered by a selective-black absorber plate. Account is taken of spectral variations in the radiation properties of glass, Teflon, and the absorber plate. Allowance is made for the fact that critical Rayleigh number is lower for a plastic film inner glazing than for a glass one.

  8. Nondestructive determination of lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    1996-09-01

    Quantitation capabilities of radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (RXRFS) for determining lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes were investigated. Twenty-one air-dried glazes and 85 fired glazes on test tiles were analyzed by using {sup 109}Cd and {sup 57}Co excitation sources. Accurate Pb determinations, with limits of detection (LODs) of about 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} for 5 min counting times, were achieved by using the 75 keV {Kappa}{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} X-ray photopeak and a Pb foil calibration procedure. Cd, Sn, Sb, and Ba concentrations were determined with LODs from about 0.5 to 1.5 mg/cm{sup 2}. For Pb and Ba, results obtained by using absorption corrections based only on element concentrations determined by RXRFS and an iterative approach led to analytical biases of {le}4% relative to results obtained by using corrections based on known total element compositions. Biases were more severe for Cd, Sn, and Sb because lower X-ray energies were involved and sensitivities varied as a function of matrix Pb content. Pb concentrations were above LODs (1.3-40 mg/cm{sup 2}) in 39 of 47 fired {open_quotes}food-safe{close_quotes} glazes and in 33 of the other 38 fired glazes (0.4-39 mg/cm{sup 2}). 15 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Lacunae infills for in situ treatment of historic glazed tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Marta T.; Esteves, Lurdes; Ferreira, Teresa A.; Candeias, António; Tennent, Norman H.; Rodrigues, José Delgado; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic-inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV-Temp-RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability.

  10. Thermal performance analysis of an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor; Hewitt, Neil; Eames, Philip C.; Norton, Brian

    2010-04-15

    Thermal performance of an electrochromic (EC) vacuum glazing (VG) was modelled under ASTM standard winter conditions. The EC VG comprised three 0.5 m by 0.5 m glass panes with a 0.12 mm wide evacuated space between two 4 mm thick panes sealed contiguously by a 6 mm wide indium based edge seal with either one or two low-emittance (low-e) coatings supported by a 0.32 mm diameter square pillar grid spaced at 25 mm. The third glass pane on which the 0.1 mm thick EC layer was deposited was sealed to the evacuated glass unit. The whole unit was rebated by 10 mm within a solid wood frame. The low-e coating absorbed 10% of solar energy incident on it. With the EC VG installed with the EC component facing the outdoor environment, for an incident solar radiation of 300 W m{sup -2}, simulations demonstrated that when the EC layer is opaque for winter conditions, the temperature of the inside glass pane is higher than the indoor air temperature, due to solar radiation absorbed by the low-e coatings and the EC layer, the EC VG is a heat source with heat transferred from the glazing to the interior environment. When the emittance was lower to 0.02, the outdoor and indoor glass pane temperatures of the glazing with single and two low-e coatings are very close to each other. For an insolation of 1000 W m{sup -2}, the outdoor glass pane temperature exceeds the indoor glass pane temperature, consequentially the outdoor glass pane transfers heat to the indoor glass pane. (author)

  11. Tensile bond strength of metal bracket bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces with different surface conditionings.

    PubMed

    Akhoundi, Ms Ahmad; Kamel, M Rahmati; Hashemi, Sh Mahmood; Imani, M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments. Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA). Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primer and adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively. The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (P<0.01). In spite of limitations in laboratory studies it may be concluded that in application of Scotch bond multipurpose plus adhesive, phosphoric acid can be used instead of HFA for bonding brackets to the glazed ceramic restorations with enough tensile bond strength.

  12. Parametric Experimental Study of the Formation of Glaze Ice Shapes on Swept Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Reshotko, Eli

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of velocity and sweep angle on the critical distance in ice accretion formation on swept wings at glaze ice conditions. The critical distance is defined as the distance from the attachment line to the beginning of the zone where roughness elements develop into glaze ice feathers. Icing runs were performed on a NACA 00 1 2 swept wing tip at velocities of 75, 100, 150, and 200 miles per hour. At each velocity and tunnel condition, the sweep angle was changed from 0 deg to 45 deg at 5 deg increments. Casting data, ice shape tracings, and close-up photographic data were obtained. The results showed that at given velocity and tunnel conditions, as the sweep angle is increased from 0 deg to 25 deg the critical distance slowly decreases. As the sweep angle is increased past 25 deg, the critical distance starts decreasing more rapidly. For 75 and 100 mph it reaches a value of 0 millimeters at 35 deg. For 150 and 200 mph it reaches a value of 0 millimeters at 40 deg. On the ice accretion, as the sweep angle is increased from 0 deg to 25 deg, the extent of the attachment line zone slowly decreases. In the glaze ice feathers zone, the angle that the preferred direction of growth of the feathers makes with respect to the attachment line direction increases. But overall, the ice accretions remain similar to the 0 deg sweep angle case. As the sweep angle is increased above 25 deg, the extent of the attachment line zone decreases rapidly and complete scallops form at 35 deg sweep angle for 75 and 100 mph, and at 40 deg for 150 and 200 mph.

  13. Technology Advancements to Lower Costs of Electrochromic Window Glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2008-07-13

    An Electrochromic (EC) Window is a solar control device that can electronically regulate the flow of sunlight and heat. In the case of the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC window, this property derives from a proprietary all-ceramic, intrinsically durable thin-film stack applied to an inner surface of a glass double-pane window. As solar irradiation and temperatures change, the window can be set to an appropriate level of tint to optimize the comfort and productivity of the occupants as well as to minimize building energy usage as a result of HVAC and lighting optimization. The primary goal of this project is to replace certain batch processes for EC thin film deposition resulting in a complete in-line vacuum process that will reduce future capital and labor coats, while increasing throughput and yields. This will require key technology developments to replace the offline processes. This project has enabled development of the next generation of electrochromic devices suitable for large-scale production. Specifically, the requirements to produce large area devices cost effectively require processes amenable to mass production, using a variety of different substrate materials, having minimal handling and capable of being run at high yield. The present SageGlass{reg_sign} production process consists of two vacuum steps separated by an atmospheric process. This means that the glass goes through several additional handling steps, including venting and pumping down to go from vacuum to atmosphere and back, which can only serve to introduce additional defects associated with such processes. The aim of this project therefore was to develop a process which would eliminate the need for the atmospheric process. The overall project was divided into several logical tasks which would result in a process ready to be implemented in the present SAGE facility. Tasks 2 and 3 were devoted to development and the optimization of a new thin film material process. These tasks are more complicated

  14. The Successful Prevention of Lead Poisoning in the Glazing of Earthenware in the North Staffordshire Potteries*

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, A.

    1963-01-01

    In 1572 an extensive epidemic of disease characterized by severe abdominal colic, later identified as lead poisoning, occurred in France in the province of Poitou. Citois named the disease colica Pictonum, that is the colic of the Pictones, the ancient Celtic tribe who inhabited the area. There-after the term was used generically for lead poisoning, otherwise plumbism or saturnism. The origin of the poisoning was traced to the practice of vintners who sophisticated sour acid wines with lead oxide. This adulteration restored the sweetness of the wine by the formation of sugar of lead, lead acetate. Similar outbreaks of poisoning were traced to the same fraudulent practice in the wine-growing districts of Germany and Spain. The preparation and storage of food and drink in containers of pewter and lead glazed earthenware resulted in accidental contamination of the substances, the consumption of which caused acute and chronic plumbism. Among the most frequently lead-contaminated liquors was Devonshire cyder, hence Devonshire colic. Occupational lead poisoning was described among lead miners and smelters in the mid-sixteenth century. Thereafter the disease was observed in a wide variety of trades and processes. The subject was comprehensively reviewed by Tanquerel des Planches in 1839. Among the workmen frequently affected were dippers in the pottery industry where lead oxide and lead carbonate were constituents of the glaze. The disease appeared as a serious problem among dippers and their assistants in North Staffordshire, the centre of the manufacture of earthenware and china in Great Britain. The manifestations of the disease included colic, convulsions, paralysis of limbs, blindness, and general emaciation. Female lead workers suffered excessively from abortions and miscarriages and many of their infants died of fits. The situation became so serious that the Government were compelled to enquire into the problem through a succession of Commissions. Meantime the

  15. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    PubMed

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  16. Commercialization Plan Support for Development of Low Cost Vacuum Insulating Glazing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-449

    SciTech Connect

    Dameron, Arrelaine

    2015-07-09

    During the duration of this CRADA, V-Glass and NREL will partner in testing, analysis, performance forecasting, costing, and evaluation of V-Glass’s GRIPWELD™ process technology for creating a low cost hermetic seal for conventional and vacuum glazing. Upon successful evaluation of hermeticity, V-Glass’s GRIPWELD™ will be evaluated for its potential use in highly insulating window glazing.

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following tests: (i) Ballistic Impact in which a standard 22 caliber long rifle lead bullet of 40 grains in... locations shall be subjected to a Type II test regimen consisting of the following tests: (i) Ballistic... in ASTM C33L or ASTM C90. (12) Three different test specimens must be subjected to the ballistic...

  18. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  19. An Investigation of the Impact Resistance of Glazing Materials for Railroad Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    plastic . D 1.43 0.56 Tempered glass ; polyvinylbutyl inner layer; tempered glass . . 0.635 0.250 Abrasion resistant polycarbonate plastic , F 1.43 0.56...strengthened glass ; vinyl inner layer; heat-strengthened glass ; vinyl inner layer; heat-strengthened glass . K 1.27 0.50 Glass ; plastic interlayer; glass ...L 1.27 0.50 Glass ; plastic interlayer; polycarbonate plastic . IN1 1.43 0.56 Tempered glass ; interlayer; polycarbonate;

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... surface. (7) The Test Specimen will be positioned so that the defined projectile impacts it at an angle of 90 degrees to the Test Specimen surface. (8) The point of impact of the defined projectile will be... projectile within a 10% accuracy tolerance, with test modifications made to guarantee that the stipulated...

  1. Electrochemical identification of metal ions in archaeological ceramic glazes by stripping voltammetry at graphite/polyester composite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Carbó, A; Doménech-Carbó, M T; Osete-Cortina, L; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Bosch-Reig, F; Mateo-Castro, R

    2002-01-04

    The electrochemical response of metal ions in different samples of coloured ceramic tin-lead glazes attached to graphite/polyester composite electrodes is described. In addition to the ubiquous signals for lead, reductive dissolution processes are followed by anodic stripping peaks for Co, Cu, Sb, Mn, Sn and Fe, enabling the direct identification of such elements in microsamples proceeding from archaeological glazed tiles from Valencia (Spain) workshops (16th-18th century). Additional anodic and cathodic peaks corresponding to redox processes involving metal species in solution generated during stripping processes are also used. Peak potentials, Tafel plots and shape parameters are used for characterising the different species.

  2. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows

    PubMed Central

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy (“Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network” (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], “Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates” (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows. PMID:27115028

  3. A multiproxy approach to evaluate biocidal treatments on biodeteriorated majolica glazed tiles.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, M L; Miller, A Z; Martin-Sanchez, P M; Mirão, J; Gomez-Bolea, A; Machado-Moreira, B; Cerqueira-Alves, L; Jurado, V; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Lima, A; Phillips, A J L; Pina, F; Macedo, M F

    2016-12-01

    The Fishing House located on the grounds of the Marquis of Pombal Palace, Oeiras, Portugal, was built in the 18th century. During this epoch, Portuguese gardens, such as the one surrounding the Fishing House, were commonly ornamented with glazed wall tile claddings. Currently, some of these outdoor tile panels are covered with dark colored biofilms, contributing to undesirable aesthetic changes and eventually inducing chemical and physical damage to the tile surfaces. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the investigated biofilms are mainly composed of green algae, cyanobacteria and dematiaceous fungi. With the aim of mitigating biodeterioration, four different biocides (TiO2 nanoparticles, Biotin(®) T, Preventol(®) RI 80 and Albilex Biostat(®) ) were applied in situ to the glazed wall tiles. Their efficacy was monitored by visual examination, epifluorescence microscopy and DNA-based analysis. Significant changes in the microbial community composition were observed 4 months after treatment with Preventol(®) RI 80 and Biotin(®) T. Although the original community was inactivated after these treatments, an early stage of re-colonization was detected 6 months after the biocide application. TiO2 nanoparticles showed promising results due to their self-cleaning effect, causing the detachment of the biofilm from the tile surface, which remained clean 6 and even 24 months after biocide application. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Initial enamel wear of glazed and polished leucite-based porcelains with different fusing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Saiki, Mitiko; de Campos, Tomie Nakakuki; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami

    2009-01-01

    This study used the radiotracer method to measure the initial enamel wear caused by low- and high-fusing porcelains after glazing or polishing. It also tested the correlation between enamel wear and porcelain surface roughness (Ra). Surface morphology was assessed by optical microscopy. Cylindrical specimens of three porcelains (two high-fusing, one low-fusing) were either autoglazed or polished. Flattened enamel specimens were irradiated with neutrons and submitted to the wear assay for 2,500 cycles in distilled water using a 285 g load; the released beta 32P particles were measured for 10 minutes. For all samples, Ra was recorded with a profilometer before and after testing. Enamel wear was not significantly different for porcelain or finishing method but there was a trend of interaction between the two variables (p = 0.08). A positive correlation was found between enamel wear and the initial Ra of porcelain (r = 0.71). The glazed surfaces of high-fusing porcelains were wavy and had a greater Ra, while the polished surfaces had grooves and pores prior to wear testing. The low-fusing porcelain demonstrated lower Ra and a more homogeneous surface. All abraded surfaces had similar morphology after the wear assay.

  5. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  6. Two dimensional finite element thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2016-10-01

    A two dimensional (2D) transient thermal model with line-heat-source was developed by Finite Element Method (FEM) for laser surface glazing of H13 tool steel using commercial software-ANSYS 15. The geometry of the model was taken as a transverse circular cross-section of cylindrical specimen. Two different power levels (300W, 200W) were used with 0.2mm width of laser beam and 0.15ms exposure time. Temperature distribution, heating and cooling rates, and the dimensions of modified surface were analysed. The maximum temperatures achieved were 2532K (2259°C) and 1592K (1319°C) for laser power 300W and 200W respectively. The maximum cooling rates were 4.2×107 K/s for 300W and 2×107 K/s for 200W. Depths of modified zone increased with increasing laser power. From this analysis, it can be predicted that for 0.2mm beam width and 0.15ms time exposer melting temperature of H13 tool steel is achieved within 200-300W power range of laser beam in laser surface glazing.

  7. 10 CFR 40.13 - Unimportant quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., solution, or alloy in which the source material is by weight less than one-twentieth of 1 percent (0.05... containing not more than 0.25 percent by weight thorium, uranium, or any combination of these, or (vii... that the glaze contains not more than 20 percent by weight source material; (ii) Piezoelectric ceramic...

  8. 10 CFR 40.13 - Unimportant quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., solution, or alloy in which the source material is by weight less than one-twentieth of 1 percent (0.05...) rare earth metals and compounds, mixtures, and products containing not more than 0.25 percent by weight... glaze contains not more than 20 percent by weight source material; (ii) Piezoelectric ceramic containing...

  9. 10 CFR 40.13 - Unimportant quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., solution, or alloy in which the source material is by weight less than one-twentieth of 1 percent (0.05... containing not more than 0.25 percent by weight thorium, uranium, or any combination of these, or (vii... that the glaze contains not more than 20 percent by weight source material; (ii) Piezoelectric ceramic...

  10. Glaze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ...

  11. XAFS study of copper and silver nanoparticles in glazes of medieval middle-east lustreware (10th-13th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, S.; Puzzovio, D.; Sada, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Borgia, I.; Sgamellotti, A.; Brunetti, B. G.; Cartechini, L.; D'Acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Shokoui, F.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Pantos, E.

    2006-06-01

    It has recently been shown that lustre decoration of medieval and Renaissance pottery consists of silver and copper nanoparticles dispersed in the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. Here the findings of an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study on lustred glazes of shards belonging to 10th and 13rd century pottery from the National Museum of Iran are reported. Absorption spectra in the visible range have been also measured in order to investigate the relations between colour and glaze composition. Gold colour is mainly due to Ag nanoparticles, though Ag+, Cu+ and Cu2+ ions can be also dispersed within the glassy matrix, with different ratios. Red colour is mainly due to Cu nanoparticles, although some Ag nanoparticles, Ag+ and Cu+ ions can be present. The achievement of metallic Cu and the absence of Cu2+ indicate a higher reduction of copper in red lustre. These findings are in substantial agreement with previous results on Italian Renaissance pottery. In spite of the large heterogeneity of cases, the presence of copper and silver ions in the glaze confirms that lustre formation is mediated by a copper- and silver-alkali ion exchange, followed by nucleation and growth of metal nanoparticles.

  12. Glaze Damage In 13- To 18-Year-Old, Natural, Even-Aged Stands of Loblolly Pines in Southeastern Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2002-01-01

    In late December 1998, a severe winter storm deposited 2.1 inches of precipitation on the Crossett Experimental Forest in southeastern Arkansas. Ice, in the form of glaze, accumulated on needles and branches of trees, and resulted in visual damage to sapling and pulpwood-sized pines. Within 60 days after the storm, damage was assessed within naturally regenerated,...

  13. A XANES study of the structural role of lead in glazes from decorated tiles, XVI to XVIII century manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

    2006-05-01

    Aged lead-rich, tin-opacified glazes from polychrome tiles manufactured in the 16th 18th century were studied to ascertain the structural role of lead. Glaze fragments with white, blue, yellow, brown and green colouring were analysed using non-destructive X-ray techniques, both laboratorial X-ray diffraction to identify crystalline components and synchrotron-based. Elemental analyses by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence were performed at the former LURE photon microprobe (line D15A at DCI, in Orsay). The instrumental set-up of beamline BM29 at the ESRF, in Grenoble, was applied to collect X-ray absorption spectra at the Pb L3-edge. Natural minerals and synthetics with known crystal structure were used as model oxy-compounds to configure different formal valences and coordinations of lead ions by oxygen anions, and to interpret the effects upon details of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra. Experimental evidence supports the general conclusion that lead is hosted by the glassy matrix, irrespective of the glaze colour. Furthermore, it was concluded that lead ions assume coordinations higher than usual for silica glasses, acting as network modifiers in the silica-lime-alkali glasses of ancient tile glazes.

  14. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661-1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735-1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated.

  15. CO2 Laser Glazing Treatment of a Veneering Porcelain: Effects on Porosity, Translucency, and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Sgura, R; dos Reis, M C; Salvadori, M C; Hernandes, A C; Cesar, P F; Medeiros, I S

    2015-01-01

    This work tested CO2 laser as a glazing agent and investigated the effects of irradiation on the porosity, translucency, and mechanical properties of veneering porcelain. Sixty discs (diameter 3.5 × 2.0 mm) of veneering porcelain for Y-TZP frameworks (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik) were sintered and had one of their faces mirror polished. The specimens were divided into six groups (n=10/group) according to surface treatment, as follows: no treatment-control; auto-glaze in furnace following manufacturer's instructions (G); and CO2 laser (45 or 50 W/cm(2)) applied for four or five minutes (L45/4, L45/5, L50/4, L50/5). Optical microscopy (Shimadzu, 100×) was conducted and the images were analyzed with Image J software for the determination of the following porosity parameters: area fraction, average size, and Feret diameter. The translucency parameter studied was masking ability, determined by color difference (ΔE) over black and white backgrounds (CM3370d, Konica Minolta). Microhardness and fracture toughness (indentation fracture) were measured with a Vickers indenter (HMV, Shimadzu). Contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) (50 × 50 μm(2), Nanoscope IIIA, Veeco) was performed at the center of one sample from each group, except in the case of L45/5. With regard to porosity and translucency parameters, auto-glazed and laser-irradiated specimens presented statistical similarity. The area fraction of the surface pores ranged between 2.4% and 5.4% for irradiated specimens. Group L50/5 presented higher microhardness when compared to the G group. The higher (1.1) and lower (0.8) values for fracture toughness (MPa.m(1/2)) were found in laser-irradiated groups (L50/4 and L45/4, respectively). AFM performed after laser treatment revealed changes in porcelain surface profile at a submicrometric scale, with the presence of elongated peaks and deep valleys.

  16. Evaluation of the Water Film Weber Number in Glaze Icing Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Kreeger, Richard E.; Feo, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Icing scaling tests were performed in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel to evaluate a new scaling method, developed and proposed by Feo for glaze icing, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number. For comparison purpose, tests were also conducted using the constant We(sub L) method for velocity scaling. The reference tests used a full-span, fiberglass, 91.4-cm-chord NACA 0012 model with velocities of 76 and 100 knot and MVD sizes of 150 and 195 microns. Scale-to-reference model size ratio was 1:2.6. All tests were made at 0deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation point freezing fractions of 0.3 and 0.5.

  17. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilherme, A.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Zegzouti, A.; Elaatmani, M.; Bendaoud, R.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2013-02-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  18. Compositional analysis of Ceramic Glaze by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedr, A.; Abdel-kareem, O.; Elnabi, S. H.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied for the analysis of Egyptian Islamic glaze ceramic sample. The sample dating back to Fatimid period (969-1169AD), and collected from Al-Fustat excavation store in Cairo. The analysis of contaminated pottery sample has been performed to draw mapping for the elemental compositions by LIBS technique. LIBS measurements have been done by the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) of Nd: YAG laser for the elemental analysis and performing the cleaning processes of the pottery sample. In addition, complementary analyses were carried out by scanning electron microscopy linked with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) to obtain verification of chemical results. The morphological surfaces before and after cleaning has been done by Optical Microscopy (OM).

  19. Gamma Ray and X-ray Spectroscopy of Fiesta Ware and Knowles Uranium Glaze Pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek

    2002-10-01

    In the mid-20th century, several china manufacturers produced a popular monotone series of pottery. In order to obtain the orange-red color, such as FiestaWare's "Fiesta Red", a glaze containing naturally occurring uranium was used. These pieces of radioactive china have become popular demonstration tools for health physicists and nuclear scientists. This work analyzes emissions from two such pieces of differing origin. The gamma ray and x-ray spectra from a FiestaWare pitcher and Edward M. Knowles plate were measured with HPGe detectors. The content of uranium and uranium daughter products was identified. Estimates of the percentage content of U-235 in the plates were estimated in order to deduce the era of manufacture.

  20. The effect of glazed and polished ceramics on human enamel wear.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Anna Belsuzarri; Matson, Edmir; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2006-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the effect of glazed and polished dental ceramic on the wear of human enamel. Five ceramics were tested under standard load after 150,000 and 300,000 simulated chewing cycles. Wear was determined from collected digital data and analyzed before and after loading. Statistical comparisons were analyzed. Polished ceramics produced less enamel wear. The amount of enamel wear for opposing IPS Empress ceramic was significantly higher (P < .001) than wear provoked by the other ceramics. The enamel wear rate was higher at the first 150,000 cycles, and polishing increased ceramic roughness, except for the IPS Empress ceramic. Polishing of dental ceramics at the contact area produces less antagonistic enamel wear.

  1. Performance of laser glazed Zr02 TBCs in cyclic oxidation and corrosion burner test rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of laser glazed zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated in cyclic oxidation and cyclic corrosion tests. Plasma sprayed zirconia coatings of two thicknesses were partially melted with a CO2 laser. The power density of the focused laser beam was varied from 35 to 75 W/sq mm, while the scanning speed was about 80 cm per minute. In cyclic oxidation tests, the specimens were heated in a burner rig for 6 minutes and cooled for 3 minutes. It is indicated that the laser treated samples have the same life as the untreated ones. However, in corrosion tests, in which the burner rig flame contained 100 PPM sodium fuel equivalent, the laser treated samples exhibit nearly a fourfold life improvement over that of the reference samples vary. In both tests, the lives of the samples inversely with the thickness of the laser melted layer of zirconia.

  2. Experimental measurements in a large separation bubble due to a simulated glaze ice shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Khodadoust, A.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a NACA 0012 airfoil was studied experimentally. Two ice shapes were tested, one from an experimentally measured accretion and one from an accretion predicted using a computer model given the same icing conditions. Lift, drag and moment coefficients were measured for the airfoil with both ice shapes, smooth and rough. The aerodynamic performance of the two shapes compared well at positive, but not negative, angles of attack. Split hot-film probe velocity data were presented in the upper surface boundary layer and in the wake. Boundary layer parameters were presented for the separation bubble and in the reattached turbulent boundary layer.

  3. Magnetic Investigation of Ancestral Puebloan Rio Grande (New Mexico) Glaze Wares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, J. B.; Geissman, J. W.; Ramenofsky, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    In geologically heterogeneous regions, such as the Rio Grande, archaeologists typically rely on petrographic analyses to determine ceramic provenance and reconstruct prehistoric trade patterns. Even in these regions, other methods are useful for elucidating trade patterns and/or resolving ambiguities from the petrographic data. Magnetic properties of Ancestral central Rio Grande Puebloan ceramics are being acquired to assess their use in identifying provenance, trade patterns, composition, manufacturing techniques, and firing conditions of ceramics, before and during the early European contact period (ca. A.D. 1325-1700) in New Mexico. Similar to the study of Moskowitz et al. (1987), we use a combination of bulk susceptibility, NRM, ARM, and SIRM intensity, AF response by NRM, ARM, and SIRM, thermal demagnetization of NRM and SIRM, and coercivity of remanence, to study temporal change in Rio Grande glaze wares from four archaeological sites in the northern Rio Grande (approximately 90 sherds per site). Rio Grande glaze wares were widely traded among Ancestral Puebloan groups before and during the European contact period. The ceramics are from the two earliest Spanish administrative centers in New Mexico, San Gabriel del Yungue and Palace of the Governors, and two mission pueblos, Pecos Pueblo and San Marcos Pueblo. Magnetic property data are being compared with petrographic observations to test the effectiveness of several magnetic measurements to identify, among other things, ceramic provenance. A tentative observation in our study is that bulk susceptibility values correlate with different ceramic provenances. The mean bulk susceptibility values for Galisteo Basin ceramics, tempered with augite monzonite and hornblende latite, are significantly higher (5.56E-04 and 4.91E-04 SI mass, respectively) than those for Pajarito Plateau ceramics, tempered with glassy tuff, tuff rocks, and andesite, (1.79E-04, 2.53E-04, and 2.58E-04 SI mass, respectively). This study is

  4. Variations in snow and firn chemistry along US ITASE traverses and the effect of surface glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, D. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Korotkikh, E.; Sneed, S. B.; Handley, M. J.; Introne, D. S.; Scambos, T. A.

    2013-03-01

    This study provides a baseline from which changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere over Antarctica can be monitored under expected warming scenarios and continued intensification of industrial activities in the Southern Hemisphere. It is the first study to measure more than 25 chemical constituents in the surface snow and firn across extensive regions of Antarctica. We present major ion, trace element, heavy metal, rare earth element and oxygen isotope data from a series of surface snow samples and shallow firn sections collected along four US ITASE traverses across East and West Antarctica. In each sample we measure dissolved concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3+, SO42-, and MS- using ion chromatography and total concentrations of Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Na, Mg, Li, and K using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). We also measure δ18O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Satellite remote sensing measurements of microwave backscatter and grain size are used to assist in the identification of glaze/dune areas across Antarctica and determine if these areas can possibly contain useful chemical climate records. The majority of the non-glaze/dune samples in this study exhibit similar, or lower, concentrations to those from previous studies. Consequently, the results presented here comprise a conservative baseline for Antarctic surface snow chemical concentrations. The elements Cd, Pb, As and Bi are enriched across Antarctica relative to both ocean and upper crust elemental ratios. Local and global volcanic outgassing may account for the majority of the Bi measured in East and West Antarctica and for a significant fraction of the Cd and As. However, significant concentrations of Cd, Pb, and As remain across much of Antarctica.

  5. Effect of Glaze Cooling Rate on Mechanical Properties of Conventional and Pressed Porcelain on Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Longhini, Diogo; Rocha, Cibele Oliveira de Melo; Medeiros, Igor Studart; Fonseca, Renata Garcia; Adabo, Gelson Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a conventional and a pressed porcelain for zirconia core as to biaxial flexural strength (BFS), apparent fracture toughness (FT) and microstructure composition, and to investigate the effect of glaze cooling rate on the BFS of the zirconia/porcelain bilayers. Monolayers of conventional porcelain Vita VM9 and pressed porcelain Vita PM9 (n=15) (12 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thick) were prepared for the BFS test (MPa). Apparent fracture toughness (MPa.m1/2) was measured by indentation technique (n=15). t-Student test was performed for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to analyze the porcelain's microstructure. For the BFS of bilayers, zirconia discs (12 mm diameter x 1 mm thick) (Vita In-Ceram YZ) were veneered with the two porcelains (1 mm thick). After the glaze firing simulation, the specimens were submitted to fast or slow cooling (n=15). Apparent fracture toughness (MPa.m1/2) was measured on the porcelain surface of bilayers (n=15) and residual stress was calculated. Two-way ANOVA (porcelain and cooling method) was used for the bilayer analysis (a=0.05). Vita PM9 monolayer exhibited significantly higher BFS (p<0.01), but there was no significant difference (p=0.41) in the FT between the porcelains. For bilayer specimens, the two-way ANOVA for BFS was significant for the porcelain variable only (p<0.01) better for Vita PM9/zirconia. Two-way ANOVA for the FT for the bilayers was not significant for any variable. All groups showed compressive residual stresses. The pressed porcelain seems to be mechanically more effective for zirconia veneering.

  6. LWC and Temperature Effects on Ice Accretion Formation on Swept Wings at Glaze Ice Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Reshotko, Eli

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of liquid water content and temperature on the critical distance in ice accretion formation on swept wings at glaze ice conditions. The critical distance is defined as the distance from the attachment line to tile beginning of the zone where roughness elements develop into glaze ice feathers. A baseline case of 150 mph, 25 F, 0.75 g/cu m. Cloud Liquid Water Content (LWC) and 20 micrometers in Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) was chosen. Icing runs were performed on a NACA 0012 swept wing tip at 150 mph and MVD of 20 micrometers for liquid water contents of 0.5 g/cu m, 0.75 g/cu m, and 1.0 g/cu m, and for total temperatures of 20 F, 25 F and 30 F. At each tunnel condition, the sweep angle was changed from 0 deg to 45 deg in 5 deg increments. Casting data, ice shape tracings, and close-up photographic data were obtained. The results showed that decreasing the LWC to 0.5 g/cu m decreases the value of the critical distance at a given sweep angle compared to the baseline case, and starts the formation of complete scallops at 30 sweep angle. Increasing the LWC to 1.0 g/cu m increases the value of the critical distance compared to the baseline case, the critical distance remains always above 0 millimeters and complete scallops are not formed. Decreasing the total temperature to 20 F decreases the critical distance with respect to the baseline case and formation of complete scallops begins at 25 deg sweep angle. When the total temperature is increased to 30 F, bumps covered with roughness elements appear on the ice accretion at 25 deg and 30 deg sweep angles, large ice structures appear at 35 deg and 40 deg sweep angles, and complete scallops are formed at 45 deg sweep angle.

  7. The effect of milling and postmilling procedures on the surface roughness of CAD/CAM materials.

    PubMed

    Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Smidt, Laura Nunes; Fracasso, Lisiane Martins; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and analyze the surface topography of five different CAD/CAM ceramics and one CAD/CAM composite resin for CEREC after milling and postmilling procedures. Blocks of the ceramics Mark II, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, Suprinity and Enamic, and blocks of the composite resin Lava Ultimate were milled at CEREC MCXL. Ten flat samples of each material were obtained. The surface roughness (Ra) test was performed before and after milling, crystallization, polishing, and glaze when indicated, followed by SEM and AFM analysis. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA with repeated measures and the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). The milling step significantly increased the roughness of all the tested materials (P < .05). Lithium-based ceramics (IPS e.max CAD and Suprinity) were more suitable to roughness than the other tested materials (P < .05). The polishing methods were able to reduce roughness to baseline values, except for lithium-based ceramics. Glaze reduced significantly the roughness of lithium-based ceramics without a difference from the baseline. SEM and AFM images revealed that glazed surfaces are smoother than polished surfaces. All hard-milling CAD/CAM materials, that is, fully sintered, should be only hand polished. The glaze step can be suppressed resulting in time saving. However, the glaze step in soft-milling lithium disilicate is imperative. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. X-ray fluorescence (conventional and 3D) and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of Portuguese polychrome glazed ceramics: Advances in the knowledge of the manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilherme, A.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Lühl, L.; Wolff, T.; Kanngießer, B.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2011-05-01

    This work shows the first analytical results obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) (conventional and 3D) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive System (SEM-EDS) on original Portuguese ceramic pieces produced between the 16th and 18th centuries in Coimbra and Lisbon. Experts distinguished these productions based only on the color, texture and brightness, which originates mislabeling in some cases. Thanks to lateral and spatial resolution in the micrometer regime, the results obtained with μ-XRF were essential in determining the glaze and pigment thicknesses by monitoring the profile of the most abundant element in each "layer". Furthermore, the dissemination of these elements throughout the glaze is different depending on the glaze composition, firing temperature and on the pigment itself. Hence, the crucial point of this investigation was to analyze and understand the interfaces color/glaze and glaze/ceramic support. Together with the XRF results, images captured by SEM and the corresponding semi-quantitative EDS data revealed different manufacturing processes used by the two production centers. Different capture modes were suitable to distinguish different crystals from the minerals that confer the color of the pigments used and to enhance the fact that some of them are very well spread through the glassy matrix, sustaining the theory of an evolved and careful procedure in the manufacturing process of the glaze.

  9. SiO 2-CaO-B 2O 3-Al 2O 3 ceramic glaze as sealant for planar ITSOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, R.; Wang, S. R.; Nie, H. W.; Wen, T.-L.

    A series of ceramic glazes based on the SiO 2-CaO-B 2O 3-Al 2O 3 system as sealant for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (ITSOFC) were investigated. Different ratios of B 2O 3/SiO 2 and Al 2O 3/CaO were investigated to control softening process, phase separation, and crystallization. When B 2O 3/SiO 2 ratio was in the range of 0.14-0.27, the glazes showed good wetting and bonding behavior with both 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) electrolyte and stainless steel interconnect which could satisfy the sealing demand at 850 °C. And the dimension stability can be kept for over 100 h by introducing ceramic felt and controlling the glazes viscosity in the range of 10 4 to 10 6 Pa s. By means of controlling Al 2O 3/CaO ratio in the range of 0.4-0.68, phase separation and crystallization were restrained effectively. After holding at 850 °C for 100 h, non-crystalline network in the glazes could be found, and a suitable viscous flow could well relax thermal stress. The sealing was effective even after 10 thermal cycles. Element analysis showed a good chemical stability at the ceramic glazes/stainless steel interconnect and ceramic glazes/8YSZ electrolyte interfaces.

  10. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, M. L.; Muralha, V. S. F.; Mirão, J.; Veiga, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara- a- Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified.

  11. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  12. Non-destructive identification of green and yellow pigments: the case of some Sicilian Renaissance glazed pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Pezzino, A.; La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Bardelli, F.

    2010-09-01

    Selected decorated Renaissance ceramic fragments, found during the excavation of a Sicilian archaeological site (Caltagirone, Sicily, South Italy), have been studied by combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray absorbance spectroscopy (XAS). The study was aimed at providing microchemical and microstructural characterization of the colored glazed coatings in order to elucidate the nature of the pigments in the decorative layers, and in the glaze itself. From the obtained results, the general perspective has been the identification of information to be used for a reliable recognition of the production techniques. In particular, XAS measurements, performed using synchrotron radiation (SR) as the source at the Cu K-edge, in the case of green decorations, provided structural information of the oxidation states and the local chemical environment of copper (neighboring atoms and bond distances).

  13. Production of luster glaze on opal tableware using zarinfam technique and characterization of its structure and color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Fahime; Rashidi Huyeh, Majid; Ghahari, Mahdi

    2016-05-01

    Lusters are potters that have attracted much attention due to their specific optical features, one of the most important of which is their sparkle that appears in various colors at different angles. This effect linked to the multilayer structure of luster and the presence of metallic nanoparticles in enamel layer. In this research, luster glaze was produced on Opal tableware, manufactured in Mahfam Jam Co., using Zarinfam technique. SEM micrograph image of the samples indicated that the glaze forms a multilayer structure, on the Opal tableware surface, consisting of a glassy superficial layer of some tens of nanometers and a composite layer of some hundreds of nanometers. The enamel composite layer contains silver nanoparticles embedded in a silica medium. Employing a multilayer model, we studied the influence of different parameters such as luster enamel thickness, nanoparticles volume fraction in enamel, nanoparticle size, observe angle, and glass layer thickness on luster color.

  14. Extensive lead exposure in children living in an area with production of lead-glazed tiles in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Vahter, M; Counter, S A; Laurell, G; Buchanan, L H; Ortega, F; Schütz, A; Skerfving, S

    1997-01-01

    We have determined the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) in the blood of children living in two Andean villages in Ecuador with many family-owned cottage-type industries using Pb from discarded car batteries and occasionally, utility batteries containing Cd and Hg for the production of glazed tiles. The battery metals are ground together with water to a suspension, which is applied manually onto the tiles and then fused at about 1,200 degrees C in sawdust-fired kilns. Children aged 4-15 years were recruited from the schools with the assistance of the school-teachers. Children from homes with and without tile-glazing activities were to be included. Blood metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The children had extremely high blood lead concentrations (B-Pb), which ranged between 100 and 1,100 micrograms/l (median 510 micrograms/l, n = 82). Children from families engaged in tile-glazing production had significantly higher B-Pb (median 600 micrograms/l) than those living in homes with no such activity (median 210 micrograms/l), although the B-Pb of the latter were nonetheless clearly elevated. B-Cd and B-Hg were low (medians 0.25 microgram Cd/l and 1.6 micrograms Hg/l, respectively), indicating that the exposure from utility batteries containing Cd and Hg was low. The blood hemoglobin concentrations decreased significantly with rising B-Pb, indicating an effect on the heme synthesis. This was supported by a marked increase in the blood concentration of protoporphyrins with increasing B-Pb. It can be concluded that children from families with cottage industries producing glazed tiles are at risk for severe health effects due to high lead exposure.

  15. Low-Fusing Porcelain Glaze Application on 3Y-TZP Surfaces can Enhance Zirconia-Porcelain Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Lígia Tiaki; Rodrigues, Vinícius Anéas; Dornelles, Lucio Strazzabosco; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Melo, Renata Marques de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether surface treatment improves zirconia-porcelain adhesion. The 3Y-TZP blocks were cut into squares, then polished and sintered. The zirconia surface treatments were performed as follows: no treatment (C); tribochemical silica coating (TBS); glaze application + hydrofluoric acid etching (GA); glaze application + hydrofluoric acid etching + silanization (GAS); deposition of silica nanofilm (NF). After treatments, veneering porcelain cylinders (3.3 x 3.3 mm) were built up on all specimens and fired. Then the specimens were subjected to thermal cycling (6000 cycles), and subjected to shear test. Fractures were analyzed by stereomicroscopy and SEM. Data were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). Zirconia-porcelain bond strength was affected by the ceramic surface treatments (p=0.0001). GA (19.5±3 MPa) and GAS (16.2±4 MPa) recorded the highest bond strength values, while control group had the lowest bond value (10.1±4 MPa). Adhesive failure of the samples predominated. Therefore, glaze application as 3Y-TZP treatment before veneering porcelain stratification may enhance zirconia-porcelain adhesion.

  16. Experimental study for a double glazed forced-convection solar collector/regenerator for open-cycle absorption cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.; Wang, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    Experimental study of a double-glazed forced-convection solar collector/regenerator for absorption solar cooling is presented. The south facing experimental solar collector/regenerator with 10{degree} slope is located at Kaohsiung, Taiwan at 120{degree}18minuteE longitude and 22{degree}34minuteN latitude. The size of the collector is 1m wide and 7m long. Previous study for single-glazed forced-convection solar collector/regenerator operated at the same location has shown to have a best day-average efficiency of 17%. In order to raise the system performance, a double-glazed collector/regenerator is constructed such that air can be pre-heated in the upper channel flow. The pre-heated air is then conducted into the lower channel where it contacts with the film flow of solar heated lithium-chloride solutions and regenerates the solution by carrying out the evaporated water vapor. Since the preheated air has lower relative humidity ratio, the regeneration driving potential is increased. The present study shows that the best day-average efficiency can reach 20% which increases the feasibility of the open-cycle absorption solar cooling system. Effects of controlling parameters on the collector/regenerator performance are studied, and heat and mass transfer correlations are also presented for design purposes.

  17. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia.

    PubMed

    Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia.

  18. An evaluation of wear when enamel is opposed by various ceramic materials and gold.

    PubMed

    Elmaria, Asmaa; Goldstein, Gary; Vijayaraghavan, Therizhandur; Legeros, Raquel Z; Hittelman, Eugene L

    2006-11-01

    Ceramic restorations have been known to cause wear of opposing enamel. The purpose of this study was to evaluate enamel wear caused by 3 ceramic substrates in the glazed and polished conditions. Sixty ceramic discs (10 x 2 mm)-20 each of Finesse, All-Ceram, and IPS-Empress-were prepared and glazed. Each group of 20 was divided into 2 groups of 10. The surfaces of one group were ground and polished using a porcelain polishing kit (Dialite). The remaining 10 were left as glazed. Ten specimens of a type III gold alloy were cast into rectangular shapes of 10 x 12 x 2 mm and polished. Seventy human cusps were prepared from sound, caries-free, extracted teeth and abraded against the substrates in a wear machine for a total of 10,000 cycles. The cusp height loss was traced before and after the wear test using a profile projector. Mean surface roughness (R(a)) values for the substrates were also recorded with a profilometer before testing. Differences in R(a) were evaluated using 1- and 2-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test (alpha = .05). One-way ANOVA indicated that enamel height loss was significantly different by material (P < .001) and surface condition (glazed and polished or glazed; P < .05). Gold, polished Finesse, and polished All-Ceram were the least abrasive, whereas glazed IPS-Empress was the most abrasive. There was no significant interaction effect between substrate type and surface condition. Significant differences were found when R(a) of the substrate condition was compared with enamel wear (P < .01). Gold, polished Finesse, and polished All-Ceram caused the least enamel wear, whereas IPS-Empress caused the most wear. Cast gold was significantly different than glazed IPS-Empress (P < .05), whereas other groups overlapped. There was significant correlation between R(a) and enamel wear (P < .01).

  19. Lead-glazed ceramic ware and blood lead levels of children in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Azcona-Cruz, M I; Rothenberg, S J; Schnaas, L; Zamora-Muñoz, J S; Romero-Placeres, M

    2000-01-01

    Although Mexico substantially reduced use of leaded gasoline during the 1990s, lead-glazed pottery remains a significant source of population exposure. Most previous studies of lead in nonoccupationally exposed groups in Mexico have been conducted in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Oaxaca, a poor southern state of Mexico, has a centuries-old tradition of use of low temperature lead-glazed ceramic ware manufactured mainly by small family businesses. We measured blood lead levels in 220 8-10-y-old children (i.e., not from pottery-making families) who were students in the innercity of Oaxaca and in the mothers of all children. The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 10.5 microg/dl (+7.0/-4.3 microg/dl standard deviation; range = 1.3-35.5 microg/dl). The corresponding mean value for the mothers was 13.4 (+9.0/-5.4 microg/dl standard deviation; range = 2.8-45.3 microg/dl). We used cutoffs that were greater than or equal to 10 microg/dl, 20 microg/dl, and 30 microg/dl, and we determined that 54.9%, 10.3%, and 3.0% of the children were at or above the respective criteria. We accounted for 25.2% of the variance in blood lead levels of the children, using maternal responses to a questionnaire that assessed possible lead sources in a linear multiple-regression model. The most important factors related to lead levels were family use of lead-glazed pottery, use of animal fat in cooking, and family income. The addition of maternal blood lead level to the model increased accounted variance in blood lead to 48.0%. In logistic-regression modeling of children's blood lead levels, we used a cutoff of greater than or equal to 10 microg/dl, and we found that use of lead-glazed pottery was the most important of all questionnaire items that were predictive of blood lead levels (odds ratio = 2.98). In Oaxaca, as is the case elsewhere in Mexico, lead-glazed ceramic ware remains a significant risk factor for elevated blood lead levels in children.

  20. Electrochromic and thermochromic materials for solar energy applications with emphasis on niobium and vanadium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, G.

    1984-08-01

    Based on this literature search on electrochromic and thermochromic materials for use in solar energy control, recommendations are made for future development activity. The possibilities for using doped VO/sub 2/ to control solar energy influx through building glazing should be investigated. Most of the research on electrochromic materials is directed at their use in displays. To determine their usefulness for solar energy control through building glazing requires performance of further investigations which are outlined. Building glazing comprised of EC devices with fluidic electrolytes are probably impractical. There is good, but not irrefutable, evidence that bulk NbO/sub 2/ will switch electrically when an electric field is applied in the right direction relative to the crystal orientation. Honeywell Systems and Research Center has been working on depositing thin film NbO/sub 2/ that will switch electrically. Although there has been some success, much work is still needed to have good devices. 131 refs.

  1. Sustainable cultivation of microalgae by an insulated glazed glass plate photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Ashiwin; Moheimani, Navid R; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Cosgrove, Jeffrey J; Alameh, Kamal; Parlevliet, David

    2016-03-01

    Microalgae growth in closed photobioreactors is greatly inhibited by elevated temperatures caused mainly by the infra-red portion of light. Current passive evaporative cooling systems for temperature control in outdoor photobioreactors are neither economical nor sustainable. Here we built a novel flat plate photobioreactor with its illumination surface customized with insulated glazing units (IGP). The IGP design enabled transmission of more than 50% of visible light while blocking 90% of ultraviolet and infrared radiations. The growth and productivity of Nannochloropsis sp. (MUR 267) in the IGP was compared against conventional flat plate photobioreactors subjected to the full spectrum (HLP) and also externally modified spectrum (CLP) of halogen lights. High temperature (up to 42°C) resulted in no growth in the HLP. Biomass productivities of Nannochloropsis sp. grown in the CLP was significantly higher than the IGP due to higher light transmission and lower temperature profiles recorded in the CLP. Lipid content of Nannochloropsis was highest in the CLP (60.23%) while protein was highest in the IGP (42.43%). All photosynthesis parameters were negatively affected in the HLP. The IGP's ability to remove infrared (heat) makes this newly developed photobioreactor a promising and sustainable cultivation system for mass algal production especially for high value products.

  2. Glazed clay pottery and lead exposure in Mexico: Current experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristán-López, Luis Antonio; Medrano-Gómez, Karen Itzel; Torres-Domínguez, Juan Alejandro; Ríos, Camilo; Montes, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Lead exposure remains a significant environmental problem; lead is neurotoxic, especially in developing humans. In Mexico, lead in human blood is still a concern. Historically, much of the lead exposure is attributed to the use of handcrafted clay pottery for cooking, storing and serving food. However, experimental cause-and-effect demonstration is lacking. The present study explores this issue with a prospective experimental approach. We used handcrafted clay containers to prepare and store lemonade, which was supplied as drinking water to pregnant rats throughout the gestational period. We found that clay pots, jars, and mugs leached on average 200 µg/l lead, and exposure to the lemonade resulted in 2.5 µg/dl of lead in the pregnant rats' blood. Neonates also showed increased lead content in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Caspase-3 activity was found to be statistically increased in the hippocampus in prenatally exposed neonates, suggesting increased apoptosis in that brain region. Glazed ceramics are still an important source of lead exposure in Mexico, and our results confirm that pregnancy is a vulnerable period for brain development.

  3. Prediction of the multicellular flow regime of natural convection in fenestration glazing cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Goss, W.P.; Curcija, D.

    1997-12-31

    In this work, gas-filled tall rectangular cavities, typically found in insulating glazing units (IGUs) of fenestration systems, with constant temperatures at the side walls and zero heat flux at the top and bottom, were investigated. Critical Rayleigh numbers, Ra{sub c}, at which multicellular flow begins to form were determined for aspect ratios from 10.7 to 80. Using a general-purpose fluid flow and heat transfer finite-element analysis computer program (FDI 1993), numerical calculations were performed over the range of aspect ratios, A, from 10 to 80 with Rayleigh numbers, Ra, varying within the laminar flow regime. The calculations revealed that for aspect ratios between 10.7 and 30, the multicellular flow pattern dies out before the flow enters the turbulent flow regime. In addition, the lowest aspect ratio at which multicellular flow patterns existed was 10.7, which is lower than the lowest limit (A = 12) published by other researchers. The resulting critical Rayleigh numbers are plotted on a graph as a function of the aspect ratio and the Rayleigh numbers. The overall heat transfer results in terms of the average, or integrated, Nusselt numbers, Nu, are compared with available numerical and experimental data on multicellular flow in rectangular cavities, and good agreement was found. Also, streamline contour plots and temperature profiles are plotted for selected cases.

  4. Impact of Megadunes and Glaze Areas on Estimates of East Antarctic Mass Balance and Accumulation Rate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambos, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Shuman, C.; Haran, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    Recent mapping of megadune extent via satellite images indicates they cover 1.27 million km2, or approximately 18% of the East Antarctic Plateau surface above 2000 m. Glaze regions cover an additional 5 to 10% of the surface. Ground-based ice radar profiles collected in 2002 and 2004 have shown these features exhibit large accumulation variations. Megadunes show alternating kilometer-wide stripes of accumulation (measured at 3.4 to 4.2 cm/yr w.e. at the crests), grading to 'glaze' regions of near-zero accumulation and several km width. The typical fraction of the surface with near-zero accumulation in a megadune field is 63%. Glaze regions are larger areas of near-zero or slightly negative surface mass flux, identifed and mapped by their coarser mean optical grain size and lower albedo using the recent Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) grain size and surface morphology image maps. The actual net accumulation of megadune regions, approx. 1.5 to 2.5 cm/yr w.e. is far below the value attributed to these regions in the currently-used compilations of surface mass balance (avg. of megadune areas is 4 cm/yr; see Vaughan et al., 1999; Giovinetto and Zwally, 2000). These compilations also attribute positive accumulation to the extensive glaze areas within the plateau. The value attriuted to these regions is close to the crest, or maximum, local accumulation value, possibly because the compilations did not incorporate null accumulation measurements. Because the combination of megadune and glaze regions comprise such a large area, these errors have a significant cumulative effect. An initial estimate is that net surface flux for East Antarctica is lower by 32 Gt/yr than is calculated from the surface flux compilations due to megadunes alone; glaze areas likely account for an additional 10 to 20 Gt/yr. This is a large fraction of current estimates of total East Antarctic mass imbalance (e.g. net +22 Gt/yr, Rignot and Thomas, 2002). The strong local accumulation variations observed

  5. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Lead-glazed ceramics as major determinants of blood lead levels in Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Avila, M; Romieu, I; Rios, C; Rivero, A; Palazuelos, E

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main contributors to blood lead levels in a population of women from middle to low socioeconomic status in the southwestern part of Mexico City. Within this area, the authors selected a random sample of 200 women. Age ranged from 21 to 57 years, with a mean of 36 years. Among 99 women who agreed to participate in this study, blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 52 micrograms/dL, with a mean of 10.6 micrograms/dL. Five percent of the women had a blood lead level over 25 micrograms/dL and 22% over 15 micrograms/dL. There was no significant trend in blood levels according to age. The main determinants of blood lead levels were higher socioeconomic status (presence of telephone in the house, t-test, p = 0.01) and using lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to prepare food (t-test, p less than 0.005). There was a significant increasing trend in blood lead levels with increasing frequency of consumption of food prepared in LGC (test for trend, p = 0.0008). Among the dishes prepared in LGC, the main determinant was the consumption of stew. Time spent outdoors and consumption of tap water and of canned food were not important determinants of blood lead levels. The population attributable risk of high blood level (less than 15 micrograms/dL) due to the use of LGC was 58%. These findings demonstrate the major role of traditional pottery as a contributor to blood lead levels in this population and emphasize the need for interventions to produce lead-free pottery. PMID:1954921

  7. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  8. Dispersion stability of a ceramic glaze achieved through ionic surfactant adsorption.

    PubMed

    Panya, Preecha; Arquero, Orn-anong; Franks, George V; Wanless, Erica J

    2004-11-01

    The adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) onto a ceramic glaze mixture composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, and kaolin has been investigated. Both adsorption isotherms and the average particle zeta potential have been studied in order to understand the suspension stability as a function of pH, ionic strength, and surfactant concentration. The adsorption of small amounts of cationic CPC onto the primarily negatively charged surfaces of the particles at pH 7 and 9 results in strong attraction and flocculation due to hydrophobic interactions. At higher surfactant concentrations a zeta potential of more than +60 mV results from the bilayered adsorbed surfactant, providing stability at salt concentrations < or = 0.01 M. At 0.1 M salt poor stability results despite substantial zeta potential values. Three mechanisms for SDBS adsorption have been identified. When anionic SDBS monomers either adsorb by electrostatic interactions with the few positive surface sites at high pH or adsorb onto like charged negative surface sites due to dispersion or hydrophobic interactions, the magnitude of the negative zeta potential increases slightly. At pH 9 this increase is enough to promote stability with an average zeta potential of more than -55 mV, whereas at pH 7 the zeta potential is lower at about -45 mV. The stability of suspensions at pH 7 is additionally due to steric repulsion caused by the adsorption of thick layers of neutrally charged Ca(DBS)2 complexes created when the surfactant interacts with dissolved calcium ions from the calcium carbonate component.

  9. Combination of glazing, nisin treatment and radiation processing for shelf-life extension of seer fish (Scomberomorous guttatus) steaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakatkar, Aarti S.; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Shashidhar, Ravindranath

    2017-01-01

    Fish and fishery products are most perishable. Combination of chilling with gamma irradiation, edible coatings, addition of antimicrobials etc has been applied to extend the shelf life. In the present study, a process to enhance the shelf life of seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks using combination of coating prepared from gel dispersion of same fish; incorporated with nisin and gamma irradiation is described. A combination of glazing incorporated with nisin and irradiation at 2 kGy and 5 kGy increased the shelf life of the steaks from 7 days up to 34 and 42 days respectively on chilled storage.

  10. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, A. Polvorinos; Castaing, J.; Aucouturier, M.

    2006-08-01

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics.

  11. Three-body wear potential of dental yttrium-stabilized zirconia ceramic after grinding, polishing, and glazing treatments.

    PubMed

    Amer, Rafat; Kürklü, Duygu; Kateeb, Elham; Seghi, Robert R

    2014-11-01

    Zirconia complete-coverage crowns are being widely used as restorations because of their improved esthetic characteristics. Data about the enamel wear potential of this ceramic after chair side adjustments are sparse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the 3-body wear of enamel opposing 3 types of ceramic (dense sintered yttrium-stabilized zirconia; Crystal Zirconia; DLMS) (Z), a lithium disilicate (IPS e-max CAD; Ivoclar Vivadent) (E), and a conventional low-fusing feldspathic porcelain (VitaVMK-Master; Vita Zahnfabrik) (P), treated to impart a rough, smooth, or glazed surface. Twenty-four specimens of each of the zirconia and the lithium disilicate ceramic were sectioned from computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing blocks into rectangular plates (15×12×2 mm). Twenty-four specimens of the feldspathic porcelain were formed into disks (12 mm diameter) from powders compressed in a silicone mold. All specimens (n=72) were prepared according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Specimens of each ceramic group were placed into 1 of 3 groups: group R, rough surface finish; group S, smooth surface finish; and group G, glazed surface finish. A total of 9 groups with 8 specimens each were placed in a 3-body wear simulator, with standardized enamel specimens (n=72) acting as the substrate. The wear of the enamel specimens was evaluated after 50,000 cycles. The data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD multiple comparison test (α=.05). The data showed that the smooth zirconia group (ZS) was associated with the least amount of enamel wear (1.26 ±0.55 mm(2)). The most antagonistic enamel wear was associated with the glazed groups ZG (5.58 ±0.66 mm(2)), EG (3.29 ±1.29 mm(2)), and PG (4.2 ±1.27 mm(2)). The degree of enamel wear associated with monolithic zirconia was similar to conventional feldspathic porcelain. Smoothly polished ceramic surfaces resulted in less wear of antagonistic enamel than glazing. Copyright © 2014 Editorial

  12. An experimental mapping of the flow field behind a glaze ice shape on a NACA 0012 airfoil. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spring, Samuel A.

    1988-01-01

    The flow field about a NACA 0012 airfoil with a simulated glaze ice shape was studied. Split hot-film anemometry was used to measure the streamwise velocity component in the upper and lower separation bubbles aft of the glaze ice horns. Velocity profiles were presented as well as the boundary layer momentum and displacement thickness distributions through the bubbles. Data were presented at angles of attack of 0, 2 and 4 deg and clearly showed the large region of reverse flow. A detailed discussion of split hot-film acquisition and data reduction, and possible sources of error has been included.

  13. Material Science and Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traugott, Alan

    2009-03-01

    We will review the new materials and technologies that are being applied in the construction of high performance (green) buildings to improve energy efficiency, Indoor Air and Environmental Quality, water conservation and reclamation, and resource conservation. We present an introduction to state-of-the-art building concepts, including ``Net-Zero'' buildings, which generate as much energy as they use, reclaim water, and minimize waste; and ``Waste as Resource,'' including waste to energy plants, biofuels, materials reclamation and recycling. The role of advanced materials and technologies, such as spectrally selective glazing, photocatalytic concrete, solar heating and cooling, and organic solar collectors will be discussed. We also give an overview of advanced analytic tools used in building design, including Computational Fluid Dynamics, energy, and lighting/daylighting computer-based simulation programs.

  14. Wear of enamel opposing zirconia and lithium disilicate after adjustment, polishing and glazing.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Janyavula, Sridhar; Syklawer, Sarah; McLaren, Edward A; Burgess, John O

    2014-12-01

    To compare the wear and opposing enamel wear of adjusted (A); adjusted and polished (AP); and adjusted and glazed (AG) zirconia and lithium disilicate. Specimens (n=8) were prepared of lithium disilicate (A, AP, and AG), zirconia (A, AP, and AG), veneering porcelain, and enamel (control). Surface roughness was measured for each ceramic. In vitro wear was conducted in the UAB-chewing simulator (10 N vertical load/2mm slide/20 cycles/min) with lubricant (33% glycerin) for 400,000 cycles. Isolated cusps of extracted molars were used as antagonists. Scans of the cusps and ceramics were taken at baseline and 400,000 cycles with a non-contact profilometer and super-imposed to determine wear. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post hoc tests (alpha=0.05). A and AP zirconia showed no detectable signs of wear, and the veneering porcelain demonstrated the most wear. All other ceramics showed significantly less volumetric loss than the veneering porcelain, comparable to enamel-enamel wear. Veneering porcelain produced the most opposing enamel wear (2.15 ± 0.58 mm(3)). AP lithium disilicate and zirconia showed the least amount of enamel wear (0.36 ± 0.09 mm(3) and 0.33 ± 0.11 mm(3) respectively). AG lithium disilicate had statistically similar enamel wear as AP lithium disilicate, but A lithium disilicate had more enamel wear. A and AG zirconia had more enamel wear than AP zirconia. No statistically significant difference was seen between the enamel-enamel group and any other group except the veneering porcelain. Zirconia has less wear than lithium disilicate. Wear of enamel opposing adjusted lithium disilicate and zirconia decreased following polishing. Zirconia experiences less and lithium disilicate experiences equivalent occlusal wear as natural enamel. It is preferable to polish zirconia and lithium disilicate after adjustment to make them wear compatible with enamel. Veneering of zirconia and lithium disilicate should be avoided in areas of occlusal

  15. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    attributable to a range of process improvements implemented as a result of this work. It is anticipated that the yield will increase further as a result of these ongoing programs. The manufacturability of these advanced glazing systems has also been significantly improved, by a variety of different measures such as in-situ monitoring, system integration, and measurements taken to reduce the incidence of defects caused by contamination. It is therefore anticipated that the transfer of this performance to the new coating equipment to be introduced during scale-up to the first manufacturing plant will be reasonably straightforward.

  16. Bacterial communities in Fe/Mn films, sulphate crusts, and aluminium glazes from Swedish Lapland: implications for astrobiology on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnocha, Cassandra L.; Dixon, John C.

    2013-10-01

    Rock coatings have been observed on Mars by Mars Pathfinder, Viking and the Mars Exploration Rovers. Although rock varnish has been studied for its potential as a biosignature, other types of rock coating have been largely ignored. In Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland, sulphate crusts, aluminium glazes and Fe/Mn films occur with mineralogies mimicking those observed on the surface of Mars. Molecular analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with these rock coatings. Molecular techniques revealed differences in community structure and metabolisms associated with the production of secondary minerals between the three coating types. SEM analysis showed evidence of encrustation in mineral coatings in the Fe/Mn films and aluminium glazes, and evidence of abundant microbial communities in all three coating types. These observations provide evidence for bacterial participation in the genesis of rock coatings. For astrobiology on Mars, rock coatings are an attractive biosignature target scientifically and logistically: they are surface environments easily accessible by rovers, endoliths are afforded protection from surface conditions, and evidence of life could potentially be preserved through biomineralization and lithification. This study describes the bacterial communities from rock coatings compatible with martian mineralogy, explores the potential for biologically facilitated rock-coating formation, and supports rock coatings as targets of astrobiological interest on Mars.

  17. Learning from the past: Rare ε-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares

    PubMed Central

    Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noé, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored “Hare's Fur” (HF) strips and the silvery “Oil Spot” (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ε-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ε-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ε-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ε-Fe2O3 synthesis. PMID:24820819

  18. Learning from the past: Rare ɛ-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noé, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored ``Hare's Fur'' (HF) strips and the silvery ``Oil Spot'' (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ɛ-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ɛ-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ɛ-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ɛ-Fe2O3 synthesis.

  19. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  20. [Use of lead-glazed ceramic as a source of exposure in children of marginalized indigenous zones of Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Terrazas-Meraz, María Alejandra; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Rueda-Hernández, Gabriela E; Romano-Riquer, Sonia Patricia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Téllez-Rojo Solís, Martha Ma; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    To find out whether the use of lead-glazed ceramic (LGC) is associated with blood lead levels in indigenous schoolchildren from Oaxaca, México. We evaluated LGC use at home as a primary source of lead exposure in 387 indigenous schoolchildren in Oaxaca in May 2001. We found an adjusted difference of 3.9μg/dl (p<0.01) in blood lead levels (BLL) among children reporting to use (82%) LGC at home vs those who didn't. BL levels greater or equal than 10 and 20 μg/dl were observed in 60 and 27% of children, respectively. Lead poisoning from LGC use could remain a concern for public health in Mexico, where there is a need to provide care and further study to verify its effect on BLL.

  1. The effect of SiO₂/Al₂O₃ ratio on the structure and microstructure of the glazes from SiO₂-Al₂O₃-CaO-MgO-Na₂O-K₂O system.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Janusz; Sitarz, Maciej; Leśniak, Magdalena; Gasek, Katarzyna; Jeleń, Piotr

    2015-01-05

    Ceramic glazes are commonly used to covering of the facing surface of ceramics ware. A well-chosen oxide composition and firing conditions of glazes causes significant improvement of technical parameters of ceramic products. Modern glazes are classified as glass-ceramic composites with different crystalline phases arising during firing. The presence of crystals in the glass matrix is influenced by many factors, especially by oxides molar composition. A crucial role is played by the molar ratio of SiO₂/Al₂O₃. In this work the six composition of glazes from SiO₂-Al₂O₃-CaO-MgO-Na₂O-K₂O system were examined. The only variable is the ratio of the silicon oxideto alumina at a constant content of other components: MgO, CaO, K₂O, Na₂O, ZnO. In order to determine the real phase composition of the obtained glazes research on fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) were done. For structural studies X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic in the middle infrared (MIR) were performed. In order to determine the state of the surface (microstructure) research on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX. The research allowed to determine the influence of SiO₂/Al₂O₃ ratio on the structure and phase composition of glazes and the nature, and type of formed crystalline phases.

  2. Super Smooth Modification of Al2O3 Ceramic Substrate by High Temperature Glaze of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Zhen, Shanxue; Yang, Lijun; Lou, Feizhi; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren

    2011-01-01

    The rough surface of ceramic substrate is an obstacle for the scale down of line-width for thin film passive integrated devices (PID). In this paper, a modification method for Al2O3 ceramic substrate with super smooth in surface was proposed. Coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) glass was performed to flat the rough surface of alumina substrate by sol-gel method. It was found that addition of 0.06% V2O5 can inhibit the recrystallization of the glaze. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the glazed substrates reached a surprising flatness as small as 0.5 nm, and its melting temperature is higher than 1300 °C. This substrate with super flatness and high temperature endurance may be promising for high performance thin film devices.

  3. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng; Meitian, Li; Youshi, Kim; Changsheng, Fan; Shanghai, Wang; Qiuli, Pan; Zhiguo, Liu; Rongwu, Li

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  4. [Influence of different designs and porcelain/glaze firing on the marginal and internal fit of implant-supported zirconia crowns].

    PubMed

    Cuiling, Liu; Xu, Gao; Yuping, Qi; Liyuan, Yang

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the influence of different designs and porcelain/glaze firing on the marginal and internal fit of three kinds of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia ceramic implant-supported crowns. Three groups of zirconia ceramic implant-supported crowns with different designs were produced from copings by using a Cercon CAD/CAM system (n = 8). The first two groups comprised double-layer crowns (zirconia coping + veneer) with regular (Group A) and full circumferential zirconia-collar marginal designs (Group B). The third group was composed of anatomic single-layer zirconia crowns without cores (Group C). Initially, the marginal and internal gaps of the copings and crowns were individually replicated by light-body silicon and then measured by micro-computed tomography scanning before and after porcelain/glaze firing. Five measurements were employed: vertical marginal gap (MG); horizontal marginal discrepancy (HMD); chamfer area (CA); axial wall (AW); and axial-occlusal transition area (AOT). Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 17.0. HMD measurements in Group A were statistically higher than those in Groups B and C (P < 0.05), regardless of whether the values were obtained before or after porcelain/glaze firing. By contrast, the HIMD measurements in Groups B and C showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Moreover, no differences were noted in MG, CA, AW, and AOT among the three groups (P > 0.05). All the measurements in the three groups showed no significant change after porcelain/glaze firing (P > 0.05), except for MG in Group A, which significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The marginal fits of the double-layer crowns with full circumferential zirconia-collar and the anatomic single-layer zirconia crowns were superior to that of the double-layer crowns with regular margins. The MG of the crowns with regular margins was obviously influenced by porcelain firing.

  5. Switchable window modeling. Task 12: Building energy analysis and design tools for solar applications, Subtask A.1: High-performance glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-06-30

    This document presents the work conducted as part of Subtask A.1, High-Performance Glazing, of Task 12 of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. At the start of the task, the participants agreed that chromogenic technology (switchable glazing) held considerable promise, and that algorithms to accurately model their dynamic behavior were needed. The purpose of this subtask was to develop algorithms that could be incorporated into building energy analysis programs for predicting the thermal and optical performance of switchable windows. The work entailed a review of current techniques for modelling switchable glazing in windows and switchable windows in buildings and methods for improving upon existing modeling approaches. The proposed approaches correct some of the shortcomings in the existing techniques, and could be adapted for use in other similar programs. The proposed approaches generally provide more detailed calculations needed for evaluating the short-term (hourly and daily) impact of switchable windows on the energy and daylighting performance of a building. Examples of the proposed algorithms are included.

  6. Microanalysis of organic pigments and glazes in polychrome works of art by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Leona, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at which these compounds are used and by the interference of the protein-, gum-, or oil-binding media present in pigment and glaze samples. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) was successfully used to identify natural organic colorants in archaeological objects, polychrome sculptures, and paintings from samples smaller than 25 μm in diameter. The key factors in achieving the necessary sensitivity were a highly active stabilized silver colloid, obtained by the reproducible microwave-supported reduction of silver sulfate with glucose and sodium citrate, and a non-extractive hydrolysis sample treatment procedure that maximizes dye adsorption on the colloid. Among the examples presented are the earliest so far found occurrence of madder lake (in a 4,000 years old Egyptian object dating to the Middle Kingdom period), and the earliest known occurrence in Europe of the South Asian dyestuff lac (in the Morgan Madonna, a 12th century polychrome sculpture from Auvergne, France). PMID:19667181

  7. Microanalysis of organic pigments and glazes in polychrome works of art by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Leona, Marco

    2009-09-01

    Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at which these compounds are used and by the interference of the protein-, gum-, or oil-binding media present in pigment and glaze samples. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) was successfully used to identify natural organic colorants in archaeological objects, polychrome sculptures, and paintings from samples smaller than 25 microm in diameter. The key factors in achieving the necessary sensitivity were a highly active stabilized silver colloid, obtained by the reproducible microwave-supported reduction of silver sulfate with glucose and sodium citrate, and a non-extractive hydrolysis sample treatment procedure that maximizes dye adsorption on the colloid. Among the examples presented are the earliest so far found occurrence of madder lake (in a 4,000 years old Egyptian object dating to the Middle Kingdom period), and the earliest known occurrence in Europe of the South Asian dyestuff lac (in the Morgan Madonna, a 12th century polychrome sculpture from Auvergne, France).

  8. Hydrophilicity, photocatalytic activity and stability of tetraethyl orthosilicate modified TiO2 film on glazed ceramic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Tian, Jie; Xu, Ruifen; Ma, Guojun

    2013-02-01

    A new, simple, and low-cost method has been developed to enhance the surface properties of TiO2 film. Degussa P25-TiO2 nanoparticles were modified by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) on glazed ceramic tiles. Effects of tetraethyl orthosilicate modification on microstructure, crystal structure, hydrophilicity, photocatalytic activity and stability of the film were investigated. The obtained results showed that P25-TiO2/TEOS particles exhibited better dispersion, higher surface area, bigger surface roughness and smaller particle size comparing to pure P25-TiO2 particles, which resulted in better hydrophilicity after 10 days in a dark place and higher photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. 68% of Rhodamine B was degraded by P25-TiO2/TEOS film in 25 h with the light intensity of 5000 ± 500 lx, and degradation rate reached to 82% with the light intensity of 10,000 ± 1000 lx. Furthermore, two fundamentally different systems, in which the films recycle for repetitive degradation after soaked in dye solution and for discoloration after depositing dye on the surfaces, respectively, were measured to confirm that P25-TiO2/TEOS film showed excellently stable performances. Therefore the P25-TiO2/TEOS film we obtained has good washing resistance and would be a promising candidate for practical applications.

  9. Materials aspects of solar energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.W.; McFarland, R.D.

    1984-05-01

    Advances in materials for solar energy utilization have the potential to produce large performance improvements (both present and future concepts) in use of solar energy or conservation. Because approximately 26 quads of the total national energy budget of 75 quads is consumed by buildings, solar and conservation improvements can have a large effect on our overall energy consumption. There have been a large number of materials research programs funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) in an attempt to expand the use of solar energy. These materials programs have covered the areas of sealants and gaskets, insulations, glazings, glazing-surface treatments, polymers, selective absorber surfaces, phase-change storage, and heat mirrors. In addition to developing the materials, a large effort has been directed toward determining the reliability and durability of solar materials. The present state of the art and status of these solar materials are discussed. Although much progress has been made in recent years, many improvements are still needed. For many of the more routine materials, simple cost reductions or durability improvements would suffice. For the more advanced concepts of controlling energy flow into or out of buildings, basic materials research remains a necessity. There are a large number of potentially viable concepts that appear promising but have not yet been developed into usable materials.

  10. LBNL 2011 Inter-Laboratory Comparison for Laboratories Submitting Specular Data to the International Glazings Database (IGDB)

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Jacob C.

    2012-08-01

    Laboratories that submit data to the International Glazings Database (IGDB) have to participate in an inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) every four years. This is a procedure that allow both contributors and database maintainers to confirm that the measurement capabilities of the laboratories are of high quality. All laminate and applied film samples are manufactured using the same batch of clear glass to allow for an investigation of the accuracy in the Optics 5 laminate deconstruction process. The IGDB contains optical information in the wavelength region between 300-2500 nm where transmittance as well as reflectance for both the front and the back surface is recorded. In addition to that emissivity, obtained through measurement of reflectance between 5 and 25 m, is recorded for both the front and back surface. The goal for submitters is to pass within the tolerances dictated by NFRC document 302 which states that transmittances should be within 1% and reflectance/emissivity withing 2%. As an organizing entity LBNL aims to educate and help submitters troubleshoot any issues that give rise to systematic errors. The ILC is a living ILC and does not necessarily contain the first result submitted by a lab. As errors are found submitters are encouraged to correct procedures or update equipment so that they are allowed to submit data to the IGDB. The risk of this practice is that if any of the recommended solutions introduces new systematic errors this will start to influence the average. Therefore this report tries to highlight the recommendations made so that they can be challenged.

  11. Comprehensive study on the light shielding potential of thermotropic layers for the development of new materials.

    PubMed

    Gruber, D P; Winkler, G; Resch, K

    2015-01-10

    In recent years thermotropic overheating protection glazings have been the focus for both solar thermal collector technology and architecture. A thermotropic glazing changes its light transmittance from highly transparent to light diffusing upon reaching a certain threshold temperature autonomously and reversibly. In thermotropic systems with fixed domains (TSFD) the scattering domains are embedded in a polymer matrix, which exhibits a sudden change of the refractive index upon reaching a threshold temperature. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively investigate the light shielding characteristics and potential of TSFD materials by applying simulation of light scattering in particle-filled layers. In random walk simulations a variety of parameters were varied systematically, and the effect on the light transmission behavior of TSFD was studied. The calculation steps of the simulation process are shown in detail. The simulations demonstrate that there is great potential for the production of functional materials with high overheating protection efficiency.

  12. Nanoparticle-doped Polymer Foils for Use in Solar Control Glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. B.; Deller, C. A.; Swift, P. D.; Gentle, A.; Garrett, P. D.; Fisher, W. K.

    2002-04-01

    Since nanoparticles can provide spectrally selective absorption without scattering they can be used to dope polymers for use in windows, to provide a clear view while strongly attenuating both solar heat gain and UV, at lower cost than alternative technologies. The underlying physics and how it influences the choice and concentration of nanoparticle materials is outlined. Spectral data, visible and solar transmittance, and solar heat gain coefficient are measured for clear polymers and some laminated glass, in which the polymer layer is doped with conducting oxide nanoparticles. Simple models are shown to apply making general optical design straightforward. Use with clear glass and tinted glass is considered and performance shown to match existing solar control alternatives. A potential for widespread adoption in buildings and cars is clearly demonstrated, and scopes for further improvements are identified, so that ultimately both cost and performance are superior.

  13. The advances and characteristics of high-power diode laser materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents a review of the direct applications of high-power diode lasers for materials processing including soldering, surface modification (hardening, cladding, glazing and wetting modifications), welding, scribing, sheet metal bending, marking, engraving, paint stripping, powder sintering, synthesis, brazing and machining. The specific advantages and disadvantages of diode laser materials processing are compared with CO 2, Nd:YAG and excimer lasers. An effort is made to identify the fundamental differences in their beam/material interaction characteristics and materials behaviour. Also an appraisal of the future prospects of the high-power diode lasers for materials processing is given.

  14. Solid-state electrochromic switchable window glazings, FY 1984 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Ruth, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    Multilayer, solid-state electrochromic coatings have been prepared and characterized. The electrochromic activity is based on hydrogen-ion insertion into a microcrystalline tungsten oxide (H/sub x/WO/sub y/) layer from a hydrated microcrystalline magnesium fluoride layer. The coatings typically consist of four layers deposited sequentially onto glass: transparent conductor (tin-doped indium oxide, ITO) 330 nm; electrochromic material (H/sub x/WO/sub y/) 500 nm; hydrated fast-ion conductor/electron current blocking layer (MgF/sub 2/) 100 nm; and transparent conductor (gold) 13 nm. Solar-weighted and photopic-weighted optical properties are reported for individual layers and complete multilayer coatings. The electrooptic response of complete solid-state coatings is also reported. Maximum transmittance through the four layer coatings with gold conductive layers was limited to 32% solar and 56% visible. Replacing the gold conductive layer with a tin-doped indium oxide layer increased the maximum transmittance to 59% solar and 64% visible but impaired the electrochromic response. Large area coatings were fabricated (700 cm/sup 2/) and shown to operate in the same manner as the 12 cm/sup 2/ test specimens. Preliminary analyses were made of possible production costs and possible energy savings benefits which would be derived from optimal use of such switchable window coatings.

  15. The voltammetric behaviour of lead at a microband screen-printed carbon electrode and its determination in acetate leachates from glazed ceramic plates.

    PubMed

    Honeychurch, Kevin C; Al-Berezanchi, Saman; Hart, John P

    2011-05-15

    Microband screen-printed carbon electrodes (μBSPCEs) without further modification have been investigated as disposable sensors for the measurement of lead in acetate leachates from ceramic glazed plates. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to elucidate the electrochemical behaviour of Pb(2+) at these electrodes in a variety of supporting electrolytes. The anodic peaks obtained on the reverse scans, showed that Pb had been deposited as a thin layer on the surface of the μBSPCE. The anodic peak of greatest magnitude was obtained in 0.1M pH 4.1 acetate buffer containing 13 mM Cl(-). The effect of chromium, copper, phosphate, sulphate and tin was examined and under the conditions employed, no significant change in current was found. The μBSPCEs were evaluated by carrying out lead determinations for acetate leachates from glazed ceramic plates. A highly decorated ornamental plate was found to leach 400 μg Pb(2+) (%CV=1.91%). A second plate, designed for dinnerware was found not to leach any detectable levels of Pb(2+). However, once fortified with 2.10 μg of Pb (equivalent to 100 ng/ml in the leachate), a mean recovery of 82.08% (%CV=4.07%) was obtained. The performance characteristics indicate that reliable data has been obtained for this application which could identify potentially toxic sources of lead. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forget the Glaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Ashley; Sweeney, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Anytime an art teacher mentions clay projects to elementary students, they immediately get excited. The problem is doing a clay project can oftentimes be expensive and time consuming. This article describes an art project that provides an interesting way to apply the concept of crayon resist to ceramics. This project is fun, easy and inexpensive.…

  17. Forget the Glaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Ashley; Sweeney, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Anytime an art teacher mentions clay projects to elementary students, they immediately get excited. The problem is doing a clay project can oftentimes be expensive and time consuming. This article describes an art project that provides an interesting way to apply the concept of crayon resist to ceramics. This project is fun, easy and inexpensive.…

  18. Microstructure and dielectric properties of (Ba 0.6Sr 0.4)TiO 3 thin films grown on super smooth glazed-Al 2O 3 ceramics substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren; Zheng, Shanxue; Zhang, Jihua; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Lei, Guanhuan; Lou, Feizhi; Yang, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Modified substrates with nanometer scale smooth surface were obtained via coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CaAlSi) high temperature glaze with proper additives on the rough-95% Al2O3 ceramics substrates. (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited on modified Al2O3 substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, dielectric, and insulating properties of BST thin films grown on glazed-Al2O3 substrates were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), and dielectric properties measurement. These results showed that microstructure and dielectric properties of BST thin films grown on glazed-Al2O3 substrates were almost consistent with that of BST thin films grown on LaAlO3 (1 0 0) single-crystal substrates. Thus, the expensive single-crystal substrates may be substituted by extremely cheap glazed-Al2O3 substrates.

  19. Surface Evaluation of Polishing Techniques for New Resilient CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J; Neiva, Gisele F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the surface roughness of milled chairside computer-assisted design/computer assisted machining (CAD/CAM) restorations using several contouring/polishing systems as to their effectiveness for creating a clinically acceptable surface. One hundred onlays were milled from monolithic CAD/CAM blocks with an MCXL milling chamber (Sirona Dental) as follows: 30 resin nano-ceramic (Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE), 30 hybrid ceramic (Enamic, Vita) and 40 leucite-reinforced ceramic (EmpressCAD, Ivoclar). A single group of EmpressCAD onlays was glazed-fired in a porcelain oven (Programat CS2, Ivoclar). Finishing and polishing systems consisted of either an abrasive-polish technique or a brush-polish technique. Roughness values were measured using a three-dimensional measuring laser microscope (OLS4000 LEXT by Olympus). There was a significant difference in the baseline surface roughness of the CAD/CAM materials (p ≤ 0.05), with the resin nano-ceramic (Lava Ultimate) being smoother than the hybrid ceramic (Enamic), and both being smoother than the leucite-reinforced ceramic (EmpressCAD). All polishing techniques resulted in a smoother surface compared with the baseline surface for the leucite-reinforced ceramic (p ≤ 0.05), with both techniques resulting in a significantly smoother surface than glazing in a porcelain oven (p ≤ 0.05). Both polishing techniques resulted in a smoother surface compared with the baseline surface for both the nano-ceramic and hybrid ceramic materials (p ≤ 0.05). It is possible to create an equally smooth surface for chairside CAD/CAM resilient materials compared with milled ceramics using several finishing and polishing techniques. In general, the polished ceramic surfaces were smoother than the glazed ceramic surfaces. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to create an equally smooth surface for chairside CAD/CAM resilient materials compared with milled ceramics using several

  20. Microstructure study of opaque glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-K2O-Na2O system by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniak, M.; Partyka, J.; Pasiut, K.; Sitarz, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is focused on the relationship between the phase composition and opaque of glass-ceramic glazes from the SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-K2O-Na2O system by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3. The phase composition obtained from the glazes was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the glaze morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy with elemental composition analyser in the microregions (SEM-EDS). Additional information on the microstructure was provided by spectroscopic investigation in the mid- and far-infrared regions as well as by Raman spectroscopy. In order to correlate the phase composition of the optical properties of experimental glazes were measured by their opacity. The increase of molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 in experimental glazes caused to decrease of opacity glazes. At the highest content of Al2O3 was obtained transparent glaze.

  1. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1992-01-14

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] (0.33[le]y[le]2.0 and x[le]2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li[sup +] ion conductors. 12 figs.

  2. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1992-01-01

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x (0.33.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.0 and x.ltoreq.2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li.sup.+ ion conductors.

  3. A flow visualization study of the leading edge separation bubble on a NACA 0012 airfoil with simulated glaze ice. Final Report M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadoust, Abdollah

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing research in aircraft icing, the leading edge separation bubble on the NACA 0012 model with a 5-min simulated glaze ice was investigated. The flow visualization methods used oil, tuft, splitter plate, smoke, and liquid crystals to get reattachment line data for the leading edge separation bubble on both surfaces of the airfoil. On the upper surface, the bubble was found to grow larger with increasing negative angles of attack and reduce in size with increasing angles of attack. The separated flow fails to reattach beyond 6 deg for the upper surface and -5 deg for the lower surface. The results of this study compared well with those of other experiments and computational results.

  4. The effect of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and microstructure of the glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, Janusz; Sitarz, Maciej; Leśniak, Magdalena; Gasek, Katarzyna; Jeleń, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic glazes are commonly used to covering of the facing surface of ceramics ware. A well-chosen oxide composition and firing conditions of glazes causes significant improvement of technical parameters of ceramic products. Modern glazes are classified as glass-ceramic composites with different crystalline phases arising during firing. The presence of crystals in the glass matrix is influenced by many factors, especially by oxides molar composition. A crucial role is played by the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3. In this work the six composition of glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system were examined. The only variable is the ratio of the silicon oxideto alumina at a constant content of other components: MgO, CaO, K2O, Na2O, ZnO. In order to determine the real phase composition of the obtained glazes research on fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) were done. For structural studies X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic in the middle infrared (MIR) were performed. In order to determine the state of the surface (microstructure) research on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX. The research allowed to determine the influence of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and phase composition of glazes and the nature, and type of formed crystalline phases.

  5. A two-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process using a high power diode laser—Grout development and materials characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J.; Li, L.; Spencer, J. T.

    1998-04-01

    Work has been conducted using a 60 Wcw high power diode laser (HPDL) in order to determine the feasibility and characteristics of sealing the void between adjoining ceramic tiles with a specially developed grout material having an impermeable enamel surface glaze. A two-stage process has been developed using a new grout material which consists of two distinct components: an amalgamated compound substrate and a glazed enamel surface; the amalgamated compound seal providing a tough, heat resistant bulk substrate, whilst the enamel provides an impervious surface. HPDL processing has resulted in crack free seals produced in normal atmospheric conditions. The basic process phenomena are investigated and the laser effects in terms of seal morphology, composition and microstructure are presented. Also, the resultant heat affects are analysed and described, as well as the effects of the shield gases, O 2 and Ar, during laser processing. Tiles were successfully sealed with power densities as low as 500 W/cm 2 and at rates up to 600 mm/min. Contact angle measurements revealed that due to the wettability characteristics of the amalgamated oxide compound grout (AOCG), laser surface treatment was necessary in order to alter the surface from a polycrystalline to a semi-amorphous structure, thus allowing the enamel to adhere. Bonding of the enamel to the AOCG and the ceramic tiles was identified as being principally due to van der Waals forces, and on a very small scale, some of the base AOCG material dissolving into the glaze.

  6. An in vitro study to evaluate the difference in shade between commercially available shade guides and glazed porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, P.; Sadan, D. Sai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Smile is one of the most important interactive communication skills of a person. A smile is the key factor for an aesthetic appearance. Hence aesthetics is one of the motivating factor for the patients to seek dental care. Correction of unaesthetic appearance gives a positive effect to the self esteem of the patient. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the difference in the shade between the commercially available shade guides namely Vita Classical And Ivoclar Chromascop and the fired porcelain samples fabricated using Vita Zahnfabrik VMK 95 and Ivoclar Classic Materials respectively. Objectives: The objective of this study was to obtain a matching brand of material that has a particular shade tab among the brands used. Conclusion: To conclude, Ivoclar material matched the chromascop shade guide better than the vita material matched the vita classic shade guide. PMID:27829759

  7. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  8. Effects of different kinds of beers on the surface roughness of glazed and polished methacrylate and Silorane-based composites: a 1-month study.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ugur; Tiryaki, Murat; Saygi, Gunce; Yücel, Taner; Yildiz, Sevda Ozel; Yıldız, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different kind of beers on the surface roughness of glazed and polished methacrylate- and Silorane-based resin composites after different immersion periods. Methacrylate-based resin composites (Tetric N-Ceram, Ceram-X) and a Silorane-based resin composite (Filtek Silorane) were tested in the study. A total of 126 specimens (n=42 for each composite) were fabricated using a cylindrical custom metal mould. Surface roughness measurement was performed using a profilometer at baseline and after a 1-week and 1-month immersion in different kind of beers or distilled water. The results were analysed using repeated measure ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Repeated measure ANOVA results revealed that immersion period was a significant factor in the surface roughness of the tested specimens (p<0.001). The lowest surface roughness values were obtained with the specimens' polished Optidisc+BisCover LV. Regardless of the polishing systems used, Tetric N-Ceram showed the statistically lowest surface roughness values (p<0.05), whereas Filtek Silorane showed the highest surface roughness (p<0.001). The surface roughness values of the tested resin composites were affected by the polishing procedure used, the exposure time in the solutions and the type of composite resin.

  9. Structural characterization and colour of Ni3VxP2-xO8 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Ni2VyP2-yO7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 2) materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tena, M. A.; Mendoza, Rafael; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    Structural characterization of Ni3VxP2-xO8 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Ni2VyP2-yO7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 2) compositions was made and colour parameters of these materials measured. Ni(II) diphosphate and divanadate crystalline phases are not stables at high temperature. Solid solutions in Ni3P2O8 and Ni3V2O8 are obtained by incorporation of V(V) in Ni orthophosphate and P(V) in Ni orthovanadate structures. Solid solutions with Ni3V2O8 structure are formed in a greater compositional interval than solid solutions with Ni3P2O8 structure. These materials might be used as ceramic pigments because of its thermal and chemical stability. Tan brown colorations were obtained in glazed tiles when the fired compositions were 4% weight enamelled with a commercial glaze.

  10. Procedure for measuring simultaneously the solar and visible properties of glazing with complex internal or external structures.

    PubMed

    Gentle, A R; Smith, G B

    2014-10-20

    Accurate solar and visual transmittances of materials in which surfaces or internal structures are complex are often not easily amenable to standard procedures with laboratory-based spectrophotometers and integrating spheres. Localized "hot spots" of intensity are common in such materials, so data on small samples is unreliable. A novel device and simple protocols have been developed and undergone validation testing. Simultaneous solar and visible transmittance and reflectance data have been acquired for skylight components and multilayer polycarbonate roof panels. The pyranometer and lux sensor setups also directly yield "light coolness" in lumens/watt. Sample areas must be large, and, although mainly in sheet form, some testing has been done on curved panels. The instrument, its operation, and the simple calculations used are described. Results on a subset of diffuse and partially diffuse materials with no hot spots have been cross checked using 150 mm integrating spheres with a spectrophotometer and the Air Mass 1.5 spectrum. Indications are that results are as good or better than with such spheres for transmittance, but reflectance techniques need refinement for some sample types.

  11. The shielding effect of the protective glazing of historical stained glass windows from an atmospheric chemistry perspective: Case study Sainte Chapelle, Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton; Kontozova, Velichka; Van Grieken, René

    Atmospheric pollutants, gases as well as particulate, have been pointed out as a major cause of weathering of historic stained glass windows. Although conservators did not succeed in stopping or reversing the ensuing damage up to date, a slower rate of destruction to maintain the grandeur of the artifact is certainly achievable, by installing a protective glazing (PG). Measurements were carried out for a period of 1 year in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, France, in order to integrate the influence of some major pollutants and acidifying substances indoors, and outdoors, as well as in the interspace, created by the PG. The concentrations of SO 2, NO 2 and O 3 were assessed using passive diffusion tubes. The PG reduced SO 2 and O 3 pollutant exposure of the stained glass windows by 80% relative to the outdoor concentrations. NO 2 concentrations remained almost the same inside, outside and in the interspace; however, previous studies showed that even in high concentrations of NO 2 accompanied by low concentrations of SO 2 the degradation of this kind of glass is modest. The results of bulk particle analyses by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence indicated the accumulation and re-suspension of particles as the main factor of elevated concentration of elements inside of Sainte Chapelle. The abundance and type of particles obtained by electron probe X-ray micro analysis were slightly different in the three measured areas. The main distinction is the occurrence of CaSO 4 particles inside and in the interspace. In conclusion, the installation of a PG in Sainte Chapelle seems to be appropriate.

  12. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of lead in pottery-glaze workers using micronucleus assay, alkaline comet assay and DNA diffusion assay.

    PubMed

    Kašuba, V; Rozgaj, R; Milić, M; Zelježić, D; Kopjar, N; Pizent, A; Kljaković-Gašpić, Z; Jazbec, A

    2012-10-01

    We investigated genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to lead acetate in pottery-glaze ceramic workers. The study was carried out in 30 exposed workers and 30 matched controls, to whom several biochemical parameters-the blood lead (B-Pb; range: exposed, 41.68-404.77; controls, 12-52) and cadmium (B-Cd) level, the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), the level of vitamin B(12) and folate in serum-were measured. The genotoxic effects were evaluated by the alkaline comet assay, the DNA diffusion assay and micronucleus test in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Subjects exposed to lead had significantly higher B-Pb level and, consequently, increased values of tail intensity (TI), frequency of apoptotic and necrotic cells, and frequency of micronuclei (MN). In contrast, their activity of ALAD, the level of vitamin B(12) and folate in serum were significantly lower compared to controls. Poisson regression analysis showed a significant correlation of profession, duration of exposure, smoking, level of cadmium in blood, ALAD and EP with primary DNA damage. A majority of primary damage repairs in a short period after exposure to a genotoxic agent. In addition, the influence of gender and level of vitamin B(12) and folate in serum MN frequency in exposed group was observed. In this study, DNA diffusion and micronucleus test showed higher influence of tested parameters to DNA damage. The results indicate a need for concomitant use of at least two different biomarkers of exposure when estimating a genetic risk of lead exposure.

  13. Adjusting dental ceramics: An in vitro evaluation of the ability of various ceramic polishing kits to mimic glazed dental ceramic surface.

    PubMed

    Steiner, René; Beier, Ulrike S; Heiss-Kisielewsky, Irene; Engelmeier, Robert; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Dhima, Matilda

    2015-06-01

    During the insertion appointment, the practitioner is often faced with the need to adjust ceramic surfaces to fit a restoration to the adjacent or opposing dentition and soft tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the ceramic surface smoothness achieved with various commercially available ceramic polishing kits on different commonly used ceramic systems. The reliability of the cost of a polishing kit as an indicator of improved surface smoothness was assessed. A total of 350 ceramic surfaces representing 5 commonly available ceramic systems (IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS e.max Press, Cergo Kiss, Vita PM 9, Imagine PressX) were treated with 5 types of ceramic polishing systems (Cerapreshine, 94006C, Ceramiste, Optrafine, Zenostar) by following the manufacturers' guidelines. The surface roughness was measured with a profilometer (Taylor Hobson; Precision Taylor Hobson Ltd). The effects of ceramic systems and polishing kits of interest on surface roughness were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, paired t test, and Bonferroni corrected significance level. The ceramic systems and polishing kits statistically affected surface roughness (P<.001).The polishing kit Zenostar on IPS e.max Press created the smoothest ceramic surface. No correlation could be established between the high cost of the polishing kit and low surface roughness. None of the commonly used ceramic polishing kits could create a surface smoother than that of glazed ceramic (P<.001). The inclusion of a diamond polishing paste step is recommended to improve surface smoothness (P<.001). The cost of ceramic polishing kits is not recommended as a reliable indicator of better performance of ceramic polishing kits (P>.30). Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enamel wear caused by three different restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J D; Goldstein, G R; Georgescu, M

    1995-12-01

    The ideal restorative material should cause minimal wear of opposing enamel. This study compared the effects of gold alloy, glazed porcelain, and a laboratory-processed composite on opposing enamel. Ten samples of a type III gold alloy, a porcelain, and a visible-light, heat, and vacuum-processed composite were abraded against cusps of extracted molars for 10,000 cycles on an abrading machine. Pretest and posttest profilometric measurements of the restorative materials demonstrated no statistical difference. Pretest and posttest tracings of the cusps were made on an optical comparator to determine loss of vertical height and surface area. The porcelain caused significantly more loss of vertical height and surface area than the gold alloy or the composite, which were similar.

  15. An Experimental Study of the Flowfield on a Semispan Rectangular Wing with a Simulated Glaze Ice Accretion. Ph.D. Thesis, 1993 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadoust, Abdollah

    1994-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were conducted in order to study the effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the flowfield of a semispan, reflection-plane, rectangular wing at Re = 1.5 million and M = 0.12. A laser Doppler velocimeter was used to map the flowfield on the upper surface of the model in both the clean and iced configurations at alpha = 0, 4, and 8 degrees angle of attack. At low angles of attack, the massive separation bubble aft of the leading edge ice horn was found to behave in a manner similar to laminar separation bubbles. At alpha = 0 and 4 degrees, the locations of transition and reattachment, as deduced from momentum thickness distributions, were found to be in good agreement with transition and reattachment locations in laminar separation bubbles. These values at y/b = 0.470, the centerline measurement location, matched well with data obtained on a similar but two dimensional model. The measured velocity profiles on the iced wing compared reasonably with the predicted profiles from Navier-Stokes computations. The iced-induced separation bubble was also found to have features similar to the recirculating region aft of rearward-facing steps. At alpha = 0 degrees and 4 degrees, reverse flow magnitudes and turbulence intensity levels were typical of those found in the recirculating region aft of rearward-facing steps. The calculated separation streamline aft of the ice horn at alpha = 4 degrees, y/b = 0.470 coincided with the locus of the maximum Reynolds normal stress. The maximum Reynolds normal stress peaked at two locations along the separation streamline. The location of the first peak-value coincided with the transition location, as deduced from the momentum thickness distributions. The location of the second peak was just upstream of reattachment, in good agreement with measurements of flows over similar obstacles. The intermittency factor in the vicinity of reattachment at alpha = 4 degrees, y/b = 0.470, revealed the time-dependent nature of

  16. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of

  17. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2013-06-01

    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  18. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  19. Composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood": a new material for fresh water production from atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Avadhesh

    2016-04-01

    In this study a novel composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood" have been synthesized and tested for the water generation from atmospheric air. The vermiculite- saw wood used as a host matrix and CaCl2 as a hygroscopic salt. A solar glass desiccant box type system with a collector area of 0.36 m2 has been used. Design parameters for water generation are height of glass from the desiccant material bed as 0.22 m, inclination in angle as 30º, the effective thickness of glass as 3 mm and number of glazing as single. It has been found that the concentration of calcium chloride is the most influencing factor for fresh water generation from atmospheric air. The maximum amount of water produced by using novel composite desiccant material is 195 ml/kg/day.

  20. Composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood": a new material for fresh water production from atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Avadhesh

    2017-09-01

    In this study a novel composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood" have been synthesized and tested for the water generation from atmospheric air. The vermiculite- saw wood used as a host matrix and CaCl2 as a hygroscopic salt. A solar glass desiccant box type system with a collector area of 0.36 m2 has been used. Design parameters for water generation are height of glass from the desiccant material bed as 0.22 m, inclination in angle as 30º, the effective thickness of glass as 3 mm and number of glazing as single. It has been found that the concentration of calcium chloride is the most influencing factor for fresh water generation from atmospheric air. The maximum amount of water produced by using novel composite desiccant material is 195 ml/kg/day.

  1. Cerec anterior crowns: restorative options with monolithic ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Fiedlar, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the different types of monolithic ceramic crowns that can be placed on anterior teeth with existing shoulder preparations. Anterior crowns were indicated for the teeth 12 to 22 in the present case. The patient, a 65-year-old male, had received all-ceramic crowns 20 years earlier, which had started to develop cracks and palatal fractures over the last few years. The patient's teeth were prepared and four sets of crowns were fabricated using different monolithic ceramic materials: IPS e.max CAD, Cerec Blocs C In, VITABLOCS Real Life, and ENAMIC. Both shade characterization and crystallization firing were performed on the monolithic lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns. The silicate ceramic crowns received glaze firing alone. The crowns made of hybrid ceramic (ENAMIC) were treated with a polymer sealant.

  2. Thermochromic materials and devices: Inorganic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, G.V.; Lee, J.C.

    1990-12-31

    This chapter discusses the technological application of a class of materials with a chameleon-like nature, that is, they exhibit the properties of metals under certain conditions of temperature and pressure, and semiconductor-to-dielectric properties under other conditions. Many materials exhibit this behavior, most notably the transition metal oxides and sulfides. Typically, the transition from one state to another in transition metal oxides is accompanied by a sharp change in electrical conductivity (as large as 10{sup 7} in some oxides of vanadium), as well as changes in other physical properties such as crystalline symmetry. The changes in electrical conductivity alter, in turn, IR transmittance, and some of these effects extend into the visible spectrum. A material such as this, whose transition occurs at the appropriate temperature, would be useful for solar energy control in buildings. For example, a coating of thermochromic (TC) material on glass would transmit solar energy at temperatures below its transition temperature (T{sub t}), and when the temperature rises above T{sub t}, the TC material would reflect the incident solar energy. Thus, solar influx would be high at low ambient temperature and low at high temperature. Though very few of these materials have T{sub t} in the range required for such an application, one can adjust T{sub t} by using dopants. Many models have been developed to explain the transition mechanism in TC materials, especially in the vanadium oxides, and the authors review some of these theories here. They also discuss thermochromism in stoichiometric compounds and in doped compounds and present the results of a program to dope VO{sub 2} for a solar control glazing applications. Tungsten-doped VO{sub 2} thin films with useful T{sub t} ({approx} 10 to 18 C) were routinely deposited on glass substrates. The chapter closes with a discussion of the performance of these films and their commercial applicability.

  3. An in vitro evaluation of fit of zirconium-oxide-based ceramic four-unit fixed partial dentures, generated with three different CAD/CAM systems, before and after porcelain firing cycles and after glaze cycles.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Fonzi, Fulvio

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the marginal fit of four-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) produced using three different computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) all-ceramic systems before and after porcelain firing cycles and after glaze cycles. An acrylic resin model of a maxillary arch was fabricated. Teeth #6 and 9 were prepared; teeth #7 and 8 were absent. Forty-five four-unit zirconium-oxide-based ceramic FPDs were made following conventional impression and master cast techniques: 15 were made with the Everest system, 15 with the Procera system, and 15 with the Lava system. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured for each bridge before (Time 0) and after (Time 1) porcelain firing cycles and after glaze cycles (Time 2) using a total of 8 landmarks (4 for tooth #6 and 4 for tooth #9) by means of a microscope at a magnification of x50. MANOVA was performed to determine whether the 8 landmarks, jointly considered, differed between CAD/CAM systems and time phases. Two-way ANOVA was performed to investigate in detail, for each landmark, how gap measurements were related to CAD/CAM systems and time phases. Differences were considered to be significant at p < 0.05. The mean values of the Everest system (microm) were: 63.37 (Time 0), 65.34 (Time 1), and 65.49 (Time 2); the mean values of the Lava system (microm) were: 46.30 (Time 0), 46.79 (Time 1), and 47.28 (Time 2); the mean values of the Procera system (microm) were: 61.08 (Time 0), 62.46 (Time 1), and 63.46 (Time 2). MANOVA revealed quantitative differences of the 8 landmarks, jointly considered, between the three CAD/CAM systems (p < 0.0001), but it did not reveal any quantitative differences among the three time phases (p > 0.4). Two-way ANOVA revealed that the Lava system produced gap measurements statistically smaller than the Everest and Procera systems (p < 0.0001 for each landmark). Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the three

  4. Gamma emitting radioactive materials in household dinnerware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Fawzia Ahmad

    A variety of commonly available household and tableware items and some specialty glass materials commonly found in everyday life were examined for their radioactivity content with two different detection and measurement methods. Dinnerware is produced mainly from clay and sand at high temperatures. Therefore, it should be expected to have some degree of radioactivity. It is also stored in confined places, which permits radon accumulation. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K in dinnerware used in houses was measured. Many dinnerware items from various origins that are sold on the open market were studied. Measurements of specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclide for the samples were carried out. The measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry having a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer and a computer system. The average values of specific activities were (6.03 ± 0.54 to 223.67 ± 22.37 for 238U; 2.87 ± 0.14 to 513.85 ± 15.42 for 232Th; 28.67 ± 2.01 to 2726.70 ± 54.53 for 40K; and 0.592 ± 0.037 to 3.549 ± 0.248 for 137Cs) Bq kg-1, respectively. The glazed samples seemed to contribute most of the activity, although also unglazed samples showed some activity. The absorbed dose rates, radium equivalent and external hazard index were also calculated and tabulated. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to measure the radon track density, exhalation rate and effective radium content for the investigated samples. The exhalation rate was found to vary from 4.376 to 8.144 Bq m-2 d-1. It appears that foreign ceramic products, especially Chinese ones with high uranium content, eventually enter the country. The results from the two methods are compared and their combined uncertainties were estimated from the relation of relative combined variance. In Egypt, no special regulations exist concerning radioactivity in glazed earthenware. On the basis of the previous

  5. Comparison of four monolithic zirconia materials with conventional ones: Contrast ratio, grain size, four-point flexural strength and two-body wear.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Frevert, Kathrin; Ender, Andreas; Roos, Malgorzata; Sener, Beatrice; Wimmer, Timea

    2016-06-01

    To test the mechanical and optical properties of monolithic zirconia in comparison to conventional zirconia. Specimens were prepared from: monolithic zirconia: Zenostar (ZS), DD Bio ZX(2) hochtransluzent (DD), Ceramill Zolid (CZ), InCoris TZI (IC) and a conventional zirconia Ceramill ZI (CZI). Contrast ratio (N=75/n=15) was measured according to ISO 2471:2008. Grain sizes (N=75/n=15) were investigated with scanning electron microscope. Four-point flexural strength (N=225/n=15/zirconia and aging regime) was measured initially, after aging in autoclave or chewing simulator (ISO 13356:2008). Two-body wear of polished and glazed/veneered specimens (N=108/n=12) was analyzed in a chewing simulator using human teeth as antagonists. Data were analyzed using 2-/1-way ANOVA with post-hoc Scheffé, Kruskal-Wallis-H, Mann-Whitney-U, Spearman-Rho, Weibull statistics and linear mixed models (p<0.05). The lowest contrast ratio values were found for ZS and IC and CZ. IC showed the largest grain size followed by DD and CZI. The smallest grain size was observed for ZS followed by CZ. There was no correlation between grain size and contrast ratio. The aging regime showed no impact on flexural strength. All non-aged and autoclave-aged specimens showed lower flexural strengths than the control group CZI. Within groups aged in chewing simulator, ZS showed significantly lower flexural strength than CZI. CZI showed higher material and antagonist wear than monolithic polished and glazed groups. Glazed specimens showed higher material and antagonist loss compared to polished ones. There was no correlation between roughness and wear. Monolithic zirconia showed higher optical, but lower mechanical properties than conventional zirconia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Infrared Emittance Of Semi-Transparent Materials Measured At Cold Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, S. J.

    1984-03-01

    The infrared emittance of semi-transparent glazing materials used in passive solar building construction was measured over the temperature range -5.6°C to +15°C at 2 - 5.6 μm wavelength. A table of measured apparent emittance values is presented. Absolute values of emittance are not provided due to the conclusion that no adequate model describing three-dimensional emittance in terms of thickness, rectilinear transmittance, and broadband detector sensitivity has yet been formulated. A rough rule-of-thumb for thermographers appears to be that a high emittance value can be assumed for most thick sheets of these materials but the emittance of thin films drops rapidly below a certain critical thickness.

  7. Recommended Hazard Classification Procedures for In-Process Propellant and Explosive Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Glazing, coating, and batch drum operations • Dryer , dry house, oven e Melt pour, coating • Reactors • Wash, mix, and hold tanks (in chemical process...Glazing, coating and batch drum operations Dryer , dry house, oven Melt pour, casting Reactors * Wash, mix and hold tanks Gravity separator...conveyor, screw conveyor, hoppers, tote bins, screening, mills, glazing, coating, batch drum operations, dryers , chutes, gravity separators, filters

  8. On-site XRF characterization of archaeological materials in CERA center of Rissani (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amraoui, M.; Haddad, M.; Bejjit, L.; Ait Lyazidi, S.; Lakhal, R.

    2017-03-01

    Different glazed ceramics and glass artifacts, coming from the excavations of the Sijilmassa site and exhibited in CERA (center for Alaouite studies and research) in Rissani (Morocco), were analysed by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. All glazed ceramics are lead glaze and their ceramic bodies are calcareous clay. Glass objects are different nature: lead-glass, lead-lime-alkaline and potassium-lime glass. Classical elements were used to colour glaze and glass: tin for white, cobalt ore for blue, copper for green, manganese and iron for black and iron for yellow.

  9. Ceramic materials for solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankeny, A.E.

    1982-09-29

    The purpose of this project was to identify ceramic materials which exhibit solar absorption properties which are appropriate for flat plate solar collectors. To accomplish this, various glaze formulations and clay combinations were produced and evaluated for their potential as solar absorbers. For purposes of comparison a black coated copper sheet was also tested concurrently with the ceramic materials. Thirty-five different coatings were prepared on fifty-six tiles. Two different clays, a porcelain and a stoneware clay, were used to make the tiles. From the tiles prepared, thirty of the most promising coatings were chosen for evaluation. The test apparatus consisted of a wooden frame which enclosed four mini-collectors. Each mini-collector was a rectangular ceramic heat exchanger on which a test tile could be mounted. The working fluid, water, was circulated into the collector, passed under the test tile where it gained heat, and then was discharged out of the collector. Thermometers were installed in the inlet and discharge areas to indicate the temperature increase of the water. The quantity of heat absorbed was determined by measuring the water flow (pounds per minute) and multiplying it by the temperature increase (/sup 0/F). The control sample, a copper wheet painted flat black, provided a base by which to compare the performance of the test tiles installed in the other three mini-collectors. Testing was conducted on various days during August and September, 1982. The test results indicate that coatings with very satisfactory solar absorbing properties can be made with ceramic materials. The results suggest that an economically viable ceramic solar collector could be constructed if engineered to minimize the effects of relatively low thermal conductivity of clay.

  10. Utilization of by-products from western (US) coal combustion in the manufacture of mineral wool and other ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, O.E.

    1984-07-01

    The ash by-products from combustion or gasification of western US coals have chemical and mineralogical characteristics that lend themselves to utilisation in ceramic materials. Laboratory and pilot-scale fabrication of four such materials has been studied. Cyclone slag from four lignite-fired power plants and a dry scrubber ash has been fabricated into mineral wool insulation in a pilot-scale cupola. Extended and fired mixtures of fly ash, clay and ground glass have produced ceramics with very high flexural strength. Ceramic glazed wall tiles utilising fly ash in place of clay have been prepared and shown to meet most specifications for fired clay tile. Both fired and unfired dry-pressed brick containing 100% western fly ash have met ASTM specifications for fired clay brick.

  11. Understanding Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Almost everything people have ever done has involved materials. Historical evidence indicates that "engineered materials" have been available and utilized for the benefit of humankind since the Neolithic period, beginning about 10,000 BC. Some of these materials have been in existence for thousands of years. At first, materials consisted of wood,…

  12. Understanding Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Almost everything people have ever done has involved materials. Historical evidence indicates that "engineered materials" have been available and utilized for the benefit of humankind since the Neolithic period, beginning about 10,000 BC. Some of these materials have been in existence for thousands of years. At first, materials consisted of wood,…

  13. Contribution of postpolymerization conditioning and storage environments to the mechanical properties of three interim restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geoffrey A; Luo, Qing

    2014-09-01

    differences Student t tests (α=.05). All experimental treatments investigated had significant effects on flexural strength, with material (P<.001) and thermocycling (P<.001) being dominant. Moreover, all experimental treatments investigated had a significant overall impact on Vickers microhardness with material (P<.001) and Palaseal glaze (P<.001) showing large effects. Material (P<.001) and age (P=.010) had a significant effect on impact strength. Mechanical properties of some interim polymeric materials can be improved by postpolymerization heat treatments or surface glazing. This procedure may extend the useful lifetime of some bis-acryl interim restorations. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Beautiful forms and compositions are not made by chance: Exploring the efficacy of portable X-ray fluorescence to sort and source English lead glazed ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarich, Steven J.

    Advances in portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) technology have made it a viable option for the non-destructive exploration of the underlying chemical composition of ceramic artifacts for the purposes of classification. However, because the literature regarding the use of this instrument on historic artifacts is limited, it is necessary to begin with a broad scale exploratory assessment that might act as a jumping off point for future studies on this topic. Toward that end, this research uses a collection of British and Continental European ceramics ranging from 1650-1920, owned and curated by the Chipstone Foundation in Fox Point, WI, to explore the efficacy of using pXRF to sort and source those materials. The chemical patterns in the data are tested against the known provenance of these artifacts which has been pre-determined by ceramic experts and material culture analysts. Of the 102 samples that have been tested, primary focus is given to items crafted in London and Staffordshire which account for the largest portion of artifacts in the dataset. Principle component analysis is used to better understand the underlying structure of the entire dataset to ultimately reduce the number of chemical variables to those that best distinguish each group. Using those particular chemical variables, a separate dataset of London and Staffordshire mean intensity readings is subjected to factor analysis which resulted in two components being identified. The calculated factor scores are incorporated into a binary logistic regression model to determine if the samples can be correctly sorted into their pre-established provenance categories. A second model that incorporates the year of production is also presented which shows an improved ability to classify those samples. These results are ultimately situated within the historic context of the pottery making industry in England which was highly influenced by the Industrial Revolution and developments in ceramic technology.

  15. Analytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Graeme W.

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90° rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  16. Analytic materials.

    PubMed

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  17. Contrast Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... veins of the body, including vessels in the brain, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and legs soft tissues of the body, including the muscles, fat and skin brain breast Microbubble Contrast Materials Microbubble contrast materials are ...

  18. Contrast Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... of page Side effects and adverse and allergic reactions Barium Sulfate Contrast Materials You should tell your ... You are at greater risk of an adverse reaction to barium-sulfate contrast materials if: you have ...

  19. Effects of different surface finishing procedures on the change in surface roughness and color of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network material

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Merve; Türker, Nurullah; Barutcigil, Kubilay

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials, also called hybrid ceramics, are new materials in dental market. The manufacturer of the PICN material VITA Enamic suggests 3 different finishing procedures for this new material. In the present study, surface roughness and color differences caused from different finishing procedures of VITA Enamic were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 specimens were prepared in dimensions 2 × 10 × 12 mm from VITA Enamic hybrid ceramic blocks with 'high translucency' and 'translucency 2M2' shades. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. For each group, different finishing procedures suggested by the manufacturer were performed. Surface roughness values were determined by a tactile portable profilometer. Color changes were evaluated using a clinical spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The significance level was set at α=0.05. RESULTS The roughest surfaces were observed in Glaze Groups. Their surface roughness values were similar to that of the control group. Clinical Kit and Technical Kit groups did not show a statistically significant difference regarding surface roughness (P>.05). The largest color difference regarding ΔE00 was observed in Clinical Kit finishing groups. There were also statistically significant color changes between the groups (P<.05). However, all the groups showed clinically acceptable color change (ΔE00<2.25) except Clinical Kit Groups (ΔE00>2.25). CONCLUSION Within the limitations of the present study, it may be suggested that finishing the VITA Enamic restorations by Technical Kit instead of Glaze and Clinical Kit gives better clinical performance in regard to surface roughness and shade matching. PMID:26949483

  20. Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Rubin, Mike

    2008-08-01

    Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BSDFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.

  1. Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Jacob; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Rubin, Mike

    2008-08-01

    Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BADFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.

  2. Nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, Philip

    2001-03-01

    Nanostructured materials may be defined as those materials whose structural elements - clusters, crystallites or molecules - have dimensions in the 1 to 100 nm range. The explosion in both academic and industrial interest in these materials over the past decade arises from the remarkable variations in fundamental electrical, optical and magnetic properties that occur as one progresses from an `infinitely extended' solid to a particle of material consisting of a countable number of atoms. This review details recent advances in the synthesis and investigation of functional nanostructured materials, focusing on the novel size-dependent physics and chemistry that results when electrons are confined within nanoscale semiconductor and metal clusters and colloids. Carbon-based nanomaterials and nanostructures including fullerenes and nanotubes play an increasingly pervasive role in nanoscale science and technology and are thus described in some depth. Current nanodevice fabrication methods and the future prospects for nanostructured materials and nanodevices are discussed.

  3. Effects of different surface finishing procedures on the change in surface roughness and color of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network material.

    PubMed

    Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Büyükkaplan, Ulviye Şebnem; Barutcigil, Çağatay; Arslan, Merve; Türker, Nurullah; Barutcigil, Kubilay

    2016-02-01

    Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials, also called hybrid ceramics, are new materials in dental market. The manufacturer of the PICN material VITA Enamic suggests 3 different finishing procedures for this new material. In the present study, surface roughness and color differences caused from different finishing procedures of VITA Enamic were investigated. 120 specimens were prepared in dimensions 2 × 10 × 12 mm from VITA Enamic hybrid ceramic blocks with 'high translucency' and 'translucency 2M2' shades. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. For each group, different finishing procedures suggested by the manufacturer were performed. Surface roughness values were determined by a tactile portable profilometer. Color changes were evaluated using a clinical spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The significance level was set at α=0.05. The roughest surfaces were observed in Glaze Groups. Their surface roughness values were similar to that of the control group. Clinical Kit and Technical Kit groups did not show a statistically significant difference regarding surface roughness (P>.05). The largest color difference regarding ΔE00 was observed in Clinical Kit finishing groups. There were also statistically significant color changes between the groups (P<.05). However, all the groups showed clinically acceptable color change (ΔE00<2.25) except Clinical Kit Groups (ΔE00>2.25). Within the limitations of the present study, it may be suggested that finishing the VITA Enamic restorations by Technical Kit instead of Glaze and Clinical Kit gives better clinical performance in regard to surface roughness and shade matching.

  4. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  5. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  6. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  7. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  8. Magnetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    recommends more research in the areas of rare-earth permanent magnets, amorphous mag t~ic materials and recording alleges -P/~ media and lists a number of...magnets ) Soft magnetic materialsI Storage media ) Magnetic bubbles, -’.- Transducers (magnetostriction and magnetoresistance). Electrophotography...magnets, amorphous magnetic materials, and recording media , and it lists a number of specific scientific challenges. .5, 5%; vi"e ,,S CONTENTS 1

  9. Thin-film material research for low-cost solar collectors: Final report for the period March 1984-November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, D.R.; Muller, T.K.; Hull, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes research on thin-film polymer materials for solar collectors. A thorough materials search and screening was performed of off-the-shelf polymer materials for use in the absorber and glazing of low-temperature, flat-plate collectors. A testing series was conducted on the most promising material candidates. Of the absorber material candidates, only the fluorocarbons successfully passed the tests. However, due to their high cost, they exceed the cost goals established. Efforts at ''engineering'' a material to fit the application were encouraging. The best material was a phenolic resin modified by addition of phenoxy and epoxy to make it more flexible. Evaluations were performed to compare pressurized versus trickle-type collector designs. The trickle-type design was selected. Subscale absorber sections were fabricated and tested to verify the trickle-type absorber concept. A large size field study was conducted to assess field layout and system flow control requirements of a trickle-type collector in comparison to a rigid metal, flat-plate collector. Somewhat larger piping sizes are required for good flow distribution, but cost reduction gains from the low-cost, thin-film absorber are still significant.

  10. Nano Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Nano Materials Henne van Heeren enablingMNT Drakensteynlaan 34 3319 RG Dordrecht The Netherlands Henne@enablingMNT.com Introduction... micro sized particles. Nanotubes From a Mancef patent investigation it was learned that carbon nanotechnology (mainly nanotubes, but also...for high purity nanotubes. RTO-EN-AVT-129bis 3 - 1 van Heeren, H. (2007) Nano Materials. In Nanotechnology Aerospace Applications

  11. Materials Repurposed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Orvil L.; Townsend, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Few teachers find themselves with the support to purchase all of the materials they ideally need to supply their classrooms. Buying one or two simple, ready-made items can put a serious strain on anyone's budget. However, materials for science in the classroom need not be prefabricated or expensive. By looking at the function and purpose of any…

  12. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-09

    Materials with a smaller mean atomic mass, such as lithium (Li) hydride and polyethylene, make the best radiation shields for astronauts. The materials have a higher density of nuclei and are better able to block incoming radiation. Also, they tend to produce fewer and less dangerous secondary particles after impact with incoming radiation.

  13. Materials Repurposed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Orvil L.; Townsend, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Few teachers find themselves with the support to purchase all of the materials they ideally need to supply their classrooms. Buying one or two simple, ready-made items can put a serious strain on anyone's budget. However, materials for science in the classroom need not be prefabricated or expensive. By looking at the function and purpose of any…

  14. Bioresponsive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yue; Aimetti, Alex A.; Langer, Robert; Gu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    'Smart' bioresponsive materials that are sensitive to biological signals or to pathological abnormalities, and interact with or are actuated by them, are appealing therapeutic platforms for the development of next-generation precision medications. Armed with a better understanding of various biologically responsive mechanisms, researchers have made innovations in the areas of materials chemistry, biomolecular engineering, pharmaceutical science, and micro- and nanofabrication to develop bioresponsive materials for a range of applications, including controlled drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and biomedical devices. This Review highlights recent advances in the design of smart materials capable of responding to the physiological environment, to biomarkers and to biological particulates. Key design principles, challenges and future directions, including clinical translation, of bioresponsive materials are also discussed.

  15. Bioresponsive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yue; Aimetti, Alex A.; Langer, Robert; Gu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    'Smart' bioresponsive materials that are sensitive to biological signals or to pathological abnormalities, and interact with or are actuated by them, are appealing therapeutic platforms for the development of next-generation precision medications. Armed with a better understanding of various biologically responsive mechanisms, researchers have made innovations in the areas of materials chemistry, biomolecular engineering, pharmaceutical science, and micro- and nanofabrication to develop bioresponsive materials for a range of applications, including controlled drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and biomedical devices. This Review highlights recent advances in the design of smart materials capable of responding to the physiological environment, to biomarkers and to biological particulates. Key design principles, challenges and future directions, including clinical translation, of bioresponsive materials are also discussed.

  16. Periodontal materials.

    PubMed

    Darby, I

    2011-06-01

    Periodontics is more associated with debridement of periodontal pockets and not generally thought of as using dental materials in the treatment of patients. However, the last 30 years have seen the development of materials used in regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease, guided tissue regeneration, and the use of these materials in bone regeneration more recently, guided bone regeneration. The materials used include bone grafts and membranes, but also growth factors and cells-based therapies. This review provides an overview of the materials currently used and looks at contemporary research with a view to what may be used in the future. It also looks at the clinical effectiveness of these regenerative therapies with an emphasis on what is available in Australia.

  17. Composite material

    DOEpatents

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  18. Material technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Mcpherson, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced high pressure O2/H2 propulsion systems as exemplified by the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) create challenging operating environments for materials. Many components operate in either hydrogen or hydrogen-steam environments which may significantly degrade the performance of common alloys. The objective of the materials technology projects is to develop and evaluate candidate materials for application in advanced high pressure O2/H2 propulsion systems. These new and improved materials are to improve the durability or performance of the SSME or derivative engine. The program includes projects on the following topics: (1) Hydrogen Resistant Alloys; (2) High Pressure O2 Ignition and Burning; (3) Improved Turbine Blades; (4) Improved Turbine Disk Material; (5) Impact Reactivity in High Pressure O2; and Fiber Reinforced Superalloys.

  19. Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Langley Research Center researchers invented an advanced polymer, a chemical compound formed by uniting many small molecules to create a complex molecule with different chemical properties. The material is a thermoplastic polyimide that resists solvents. Other polymers of this generic type are soluble in solvents, thus cannot be used where solvents are present. High Technology Services (HTS), Inc. licensed technology and is engaged in development and manufacture of high performance plastics, resins and composite materials. Techimer Materials Division is using technology for composite matrix resins that offer heat resistance and protection from radiation, electrical and chemical degradation. Applications of new polymer include molding resins, adhesives and matrix resins for fiber reinforced composites.

  20. Photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Perez-Albuerne, E A; Tyan, Y S

    1980-05-23

    Solid-state photovoltaic cells are feasible devices for converting solar energy directly to electricity. Recent cost reductions have spurred an incipient industry, but further advances in materials science and technology are needed before photovoltaic cells can compete with other sources for the supply of large amounts of energy. In this article energy loss mechanisms in solid-state photovoltaic cells are examined and related to materials properties. Various systems under development are reviewed which illustrate some key concepts, opportunities, and problems of this most promising emerging technology. Areas where contributions from innovative materials research would have a significant effect are also indicated.

  1. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-22

    Dr. Richard Grugel, a materials scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight in Huntsville, Ala., examines the furnace used to conduct his Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation -- one of the first two materials science experiments to be conducted on the International Space Station. This experiment studies materials processes similar to those used to make components used in jet engines. Grugel's furnace was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox through the circular port on the side. In space, crewmembers are able to change out samples using the gloves on the front of the facility's work area.

  2. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-22

    Video images sent to the ground allow scientists to watch the behavior of the bubbles as they control the melting and freezing of the material during the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox aboard the International Space Station. While the investigation studies the way that metals behave at the microscopic scale on Earth -- and how voids form -- the experiment uses a transparent material called succinonitrile that behaves like a metal to study this problem. The bubbles do not float to the top of the material in microgravity, so they can study their interactions.

  3. Insulation Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Manufactured by Hitco Materials Division of Armco, Inc. a ceramic fiber insulation material known as Refrasil has been used extensively as a heat-absorbing ablative reinforcement for such space systems as rocket motor nozzles, combustion chambers, and re-entry shields. Refrasil fibers are highly porous and do not melt or vaporize until fibers exceed 3,100 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to these and other properties, Refrasil has found utility in a number of industrial high temperature applications where glass, asbestos and other materials fail. Hitco used this insulation to assist Richardson Co., Inc. in the manufacturing of hard rubber and plastic molded battery cases.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of a home-bleaching agent on the surface characteristics of indirect esthetic restorative materials: part I--roughness.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Rasaeipour, Sasan; Khaledi, Amir Alireza; Vojdani, Mahroo; Ghodsi, Safoura

    2014-05-01

    Pressing esthetic demands of good looking make people undergo bleaching procedures. However, the effect of bleaching agents on esthetic restorative materials with different surface preparations has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a homebleaching agent (carbamide peroxide: CP 38%) on the surface roughness of the polished fiber reinforced composite (FRC), overglazed, autoglazed, or polished ceramic samples. Twenty standardized cylindrical specimens were made of each of the following groups: over-glazed, autoglazed, polished porcelain and also FRC. The test specimens exposed to the CP 38%, 15 minutes, twice a day for 2 weeks according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Six samples from each group were selected randomly to form negative controls. Surface roughness measurements (Ra, micrometer) for baseline, test and control specimens were performed by use of a profilometer. Paired t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analyses. The data showed that bleaching with CP 38% significantly increased the surface roughness of all the test samples (p < 0.05). The type of surface preparation caused significant differences between the susceptibility of porcelain subgroups to bleaching (p < 0.05). The polished porcelain specimens showed the highest changes after bleaching. CP 38% significantly increases the surface roughness of the porcelains and FRC. The type of surface condition affects the amenability of the porcelain surface to the bleaching agent. Glazed porcelains were more resistant to roughness than the polished porcelains and also the composite. Roughening of porcelain and FRC occur following bleaching procedure. No special surface preparation of indirect esthetic restorative materials can completely preserve these materials from adverse effects of bleaching agents.

  5. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    PubMed

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  6. CURRICULUM MATERIALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    MATERIALS ARE LISTED BY 36 TOPICS ARRANGED IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER. TOPICS INCLUDE APPRENTICE TRAINING, BAKING, DRAFTING, ENGLISH, GLASSBLOWING, HOME ECONOMICS, INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY, MACHINE SHOP, NEEDLE TRADES, REFRIGERATION, AND UPHOLSTERY. PRICES ARE GIVEN FOR EACH ITEM. (EL)

  7. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be in a room with good airflow Work Safely If you find a spill, treat it like ... Hazard communication; Material Safety Data Sheet; MSDS References Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Healthcare. Available at: www.osha. ...

  8. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-22

    Pores and voids often form in metal castings on Earth (above) making them useless. A transparent material that behaves at a large scale in microgravity the way that metals behave at the microscopic scale on Earth, will help show how voids form and learn how to prevent them. Scientists are using the microgravity environment on the International Space Station to study how these bubbles form, move and interact. The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox aboard the International Space Station uses a transparent material called succinonitrile that behaves like a metal to study this problem. Video images sent to the ground allow scientists to watch the behavior of the bubbles as they control the melting and freezing of the material. The bubbles do not float to the top of the material in microgravity, so they can study their interactions.

  9. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Cooper, Valentino

    2016-07-12

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  10. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  11. Deformed Shape Analysis of Coupled Glazing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    blast tests, the mullions were covered with the speckle pattern and discrete markers to track the deformed shape of the mullion. However, only limited...to track areas of interest, thereby providing thousands of strain and 3D displacement measure- ments; or to track discrete targets, which provides a...mounted in a stereoscopic orientation on two tripods and were tethered together to ensure synchronized frame capture. Various combinations of speckle

  12. Solid state electrochromic switchable window glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Ruth, M.R.

    1984-08-01

    Multilayer, solid state electrochromic coatings based on a-WO/sub 3/ (amorphous WO/sub 3/) have been tested. A typical coating on glass consists of indium-tin oxide (520 nm), WO/sub 3/ (410 nm), MgF/sub 2/ (170 nm) and gold (15 nm) all deposited by vacuum evaporation. Optical spectra and solar weighted, integrated transmission values are given for the component films and complete multilayer devices. Electrical characterisitcs and electrooptic responses are reported. Devices with MgF/sub 2/ layers deposited at low pressures have high internal resistances and exhibit long term optical term memories suitable for diurnal switching. The replacement of the gold electrode layer with an indium-tin oxide layer greatly increases the transmittance of the electrochromic coating stack (from solar weighted transmission of 22% to 53%). Electrochromic coatings have promise for solar gain control windows, but further improvements in optical and electrical efficiencies are needed.

  13. 49 CFR 238.221 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of this chapter; and (2) The forces due to air pressure differences caused when two trains pass at the minimum separation for two adjacent tracks, while traveling in opposite directions, each train...

  14. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... car: (1) Resist the impact of a 12-pound solid steel sphere traveling (i) at the maximum speed at... sphere traveling (i) at the maximum speed at which the vehicle will operate (ii) at an impact angle no...

  15. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... car: (1) Resist the impact of a 12-pound solid steel sphere traveling (i) at the maximum speed at... sphere traveling (i) at the maximum speed at which the vehicle will operate (ii) at an impact angle no...

  16. Studies of material and process compatibility in developing compact silicon vapor chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qingjun; Bhunia, Avijit; Tsai, Chialun; Kendig, Martin W.; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.

    2013-06-01

    The performance and long-term reliability of a silicon vapor chamber (SVC) developed for thermal management of high-power electronics critically depend on compatibility of the component materials. A hermetically sealed SVC presented in this paper is composed of bulk silicon, glass-frit as a bonding agent, lead/tin solder as an interface sealant and a copper charging tube. These materials, in the presence of a water/vapor environment, may chemically react and release noncondensable gas (NCG), which can weaken structural strength and degrade the heat transfer performance with time. The present work reports detailed studies on chemical compatibility of the components and potential solutions to avoid the resulting thermal performance degradation. Silicon surface oxidation and purification of operating liquid are necessary steps to reduce performance degradation in the transient period. A lead-based solder with its low reflow temperature is found to be electrochemically stable in water/vapor environment. High glazing temperature solidifies molecular bonding in glass-frit and mitigates PbO precipitation. Numerous liquid flushes guarantee removal of chemical residual after the charging tube is soldered to SVC. With these improvements on the SVC material and process compatibility, high effective thermal conductivity and steady heat transfer performance are obtained.

  17. Parachute materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present guidelines for the use of Kevlar and nylon materials in modern parachute systems. Nylon has been used in parachutes for many years, so this discussion will place emphasis upon Kevlar material properties and their application to parachute design and construction. Kevlar-29 is an aramid fiber manufactured by DuPont and is being used on parachute systems requiring high strength-to-weight ratios or sustained strength at high temperatures. Tests of parachutes using Kevlar webbing, braided cords, ribbons, and thread have demonstrated that these Kevlar materials can be used successfully in ribbon parachutes with no detrimental effects on performance. A few changes must be made in the design of a ribbon parachute to accommodate Kevlar's high modulus. Examples of parachutes that use Kevlar suspension lines, radials, ribbons, reefing lines, bridles, and skirt bands are presented to show that they are much lighter and more resistant to aerodynamic heating than all-nylon parachutes. Nylon continues to be an important material for high-performance parachute systems, however. New nylon weaves have resulted in lighter weight, stronger ribbon materials with excellent sewability characteristics.

  18. Hardfacing material

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J [Iona, ID

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  19. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-22

    On Earth when scientists melt metals, bubbles that form in the molten material can rise to the surface, pop and disappear. In microgravity -- the near-weightless environment created as the International Space Station orbits Earth -- the lighter bubbles do not rise and disappear. Prior space experiments have shown that bubbles often become trapped in the final metal or crystal sample -similar to the bubbles trapped in this sample. In the solid, these bubbles, or porosity, are defects that diminish both the material's strength and usefulness. The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation will melt samples of a transparent modeling material, succinonitrile and succinonitrile water mixtures, shown here in an ampoule being examined by Dr. Richard Grugel, the principal investigator for the experiment at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. As the samples are processed in space, Grugel will be able to observe how bubbles form in the samples and study their movements and interactions.

  20. Layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  1. Squishy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habdas, Piotr; Weeks, Eric R.; Lynn, David G.

    2006-05-01

    Most people do not realize that many substances they use in the kitchen and the bathroom are not simple liquids or solids. Everyone is familiar with three states of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. However, creams, shampoo, toothpaste, and ketchup all have properties of both liquids and solids. This paper describes demonstrations and laboratory exercises1 that show intriguing properties of squishy substances, defined as materials that are not unambiguously solid, liquid, or gas. Unlike some areas of physics, the concepts behind squishy materials are understandable even by beginning students. Squishy physics can be used to show physics questions arising from everyday life and to convey the excitement of current research.

  2. THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Preparation of materials: Multiple oxides: Additions of TiO2, ZrO2 , CeO2 and SnO2 to YCrO3 were prepared. X-ray diffrac ion data established the...La2O3 and Nb2O5 to CeO2; CdO, Bi2O3, Sb2O5, MoO3 and WO3 to PbNb2O6 or Pb2N6207. Percentage compositions and ceramic properties of the materials are

  3. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-12

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) in Cambridge, MA, a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Depicted here is one of the many here complex geometric shapes which make them highly absorbent. Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station

  4. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-12

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP), a NASA-sponsored Research Partnership Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Shown here are zeolite crystals (top) grown in a ground control experiment and grown in microgravity on the USML-2 mission (bottom). Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  5. Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. HEATH/Closer Look Resource Center.

    The fact sheet presents a suggested evaluation framework for use in previewing audiovisual materials, a list of selected resources, and an annotated list of films which were shown at the AHSSPPE '83 Media Fair as part of the national conference of the Association on Handicapped Student Service Programs in Postsecondary Education. Evaluation…

  6. BIOBASED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biobased materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Following a strict definition, many common m...

  7. BIOBASED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biobased materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Following a strict definition, many common m...

  8. Superconducting Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    After working with Lewis Research Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Superconducting Technologies, Inc. (STI) adapted NASA requirements and refined its own standard production recipe. STI uses high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in its basic products: high quality thin films, circuits and components. Applications include microwave circuits for radar to reduce interference.

  9. 49 CFR 393.62 - Emergency exits for buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Test No. 25, Egress, of American National Standard for Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Operating on Land Highways—Safety Standards ANSI/SAE Z26.1/96, August...

  10. 49 CFR 393.62 - Emergency exits for buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Test No. 25, Egress, of American National Standard for Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Operating on Land Highways—Safety Standards ANSI/SAE Z26.1/96, August...

  11. Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  12. Materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This presentation on materials will concentrate on dielectric and electrical insulation materials and the directions and needs for research and development. Some examples will also be given on amorphous metals and metal oxide varistor developments which can have significant impact on future equipment designs. Under the existing situation of the limited load growth projections in the utility industry, no single manufacturer of power equipment can justify a broad-based, fundamental and coordinated research program to develop electrical insulation systems to meet the long term needs. The trend is, therefore, towards a weakening of the US competitive position and the potential for a lack of availability of key products from domestic sources needed by the utility industry.

  13. Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  14. Strategic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Sears, US Navy Lt Col Mark Williams, US Air Force Dr. Sylvia Babus , Faculty Dr. Maureen Crandall, Faculty Mr. Bill Jones, Faculty Strategic...graying rapidly, populated predominantly with baby- boomers over 40 years of age. Aggravating this demographic shift, the number of workforce S&E...Transnational Environment. [Student Essay from Strategic Materials Industry Study 2005, available from Dr. Sylvia Babus , Industrial College of the Armed

  15. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    Khalid Alshibli of Louisiana State University, project scientist for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM-III) experiment, uses a jar of sand and a training model of the MGM apparatus to explain the experiment to two young Virginia students. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  16. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    Twila Schneider of Infinity Technology in Huntsville, AL, uses a small sand displacement box to explain the principles of the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM-III) experiment to two young Virginia students. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  17. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this photograph, James Carden uses a NASA-developed prosthesis to moved planks around his home. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  18. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photograph, Amputee Amie Bradly uses a NASA-developed prosthesis to paint her fingernails. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  19. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this photograph, Sandra Rossi user her NASA-developed prosthesis for the first time. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  20. Ceramic Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-02

    A ceramic material which is (1) ceramics based on monoclinic BaO.Al2O3.2SiO2; (2) ceramics based on monoclinic SrO.Al2O3.2SiO2; or (3) ceramics based on monoclinic solid solution of BaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 and SrO.Al2O3.2SiO2.

  1. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this photograph, James Carden uses a NASA-developed prosthesis to moved planks around his home. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  2. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this photograph, Sandra Rossi user her NASA-developed prosthesis for the first time. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  3. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photograph, Amputee Amie Bradly uses a NASA-developed prosthesis to paint her fingernails. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  4. DENTAL MATERIALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure

  5. Fullerene materials

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, R.; Ruoff, R.S.; Lorents, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Fullerenes are all-carbon cage molecules. The most celebrated fullerene is the soccer-ball shaped C{sub 60}, which is composed of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons. Because its structure is reminiscent of the geodesic domes of architect R. Buckminster Fuller, C{sub 60} is called buckminsterfullerene, and all the materials in the family are designated fullerenes. Huffman and Kraetschmer`s discovery unleashed activity around the world as scientists explored production methods, properties, and potential uses of fullerenes. Within a short period, methods for their production in electric arcs, plasmas, and flames were discovered, and several companies began selling fullerenes to the research market. What is remarkable is that in all these methods, carbon atoms assemble themselves into cage structures. The capability for self-assembly points to some inherent stability of these structures that allows their formation. The unusual structure naturally leads to unusual properties. Among them are ready solubility in solvents and a relatively high vapor pressure for a pure carbon material. The young fullerene field has already produced a surprising array of structures for the development of carbon-base materials having completely new and different properties from any that were previously possible.

  6. Radiometric analysis of raw materials and end products in the Turkish ceramics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, Ş.; Arıkan, İ. H.; Demirel, H.; Güngör, N.

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the findings of radiometric analysis carried out to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (clay, kaolin, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, alumina, bauxite, zirconium minerals, red mud and frit) and end products (glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) in the Turkish ceramics industry. Hundred forty-six samples were obtained from various manufacturers and suppliers throughout the country and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detectors. Radiological parameters such as radium equivalent activity, activity concentration index and alpha index were calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplaces and industrial buildings in Turkey is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  7. Nanocryl Coating of PMMA Complete Denture Base Materials to Prevent Scratching.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Hawa M; Benonn, Hajer A; Johnson, Anthony

    2017-09-01

    The surface of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is vulnerable to indentation by hard objects that may contribute to abrade the material surface and subject it to wear. This phenomenon promotes an increase in the surface roughness leading to microbial colonisation which can endanger the general health of wearers and damage the intra-oral prosthesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of three different nanocryl coating agents (Easy Glaze, G-Coat Plus and Formulation XP) on surface roughness and thickness of PMMA material after a simulating cleaning process utilizing an electric toothbrush and three different dentifrices (pastes and immersion). Acrylic uncoated discs were used as a control group. The results showed that the G-Coat Plus coating agent had less changes in the surface roughness and thickness layer whereas the immersion cleaner revealed less abrasion effect compared with the paste cleaners which could be considered the most suitable cleaner to provide lower abrasivenes and good removal of organic debris. However, using nanofilled sealants did not demonstrate significant improvement in reducing surface roughness p ⟩ 0.05. Nevertheless, it could provide some protection against wearing to the acrylic resin surface during tooth brushing and may provide better resistance to microbial colonisation. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  8. High power CO II lasers and their material processing applications at Centre for Advanced Technology, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, A. K.; Paul, C. P.; Rao, B. T.; Kau, R.; Raghu, T.; Mazumdar, J. Dutta; Dayal, R. K.; Mudali, U. Kamachi; Sastikumar, D.; Gandhi, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed high power transverse flow (TF) CW CO II lasers up to 15kW, a high repetition rate TEA CO II laser of 500Hz, 500W average power and a RF excited fast axial flow CO II laser at the Centre for Advanced Technology and have carried out various material processing applications with these lasers. We observed very little variation of discharge voltage with electrode gap in TF CO II lasers. With optimally modulated laser beam we obtained better results in laser piercing and cutting of titanium and resolidification of 3 16L stainless steel weld-metal for improving intergranular corrosion resistance. We carried out microstructure and phase analysis of laser bent 304 stainless steel sheet and optimum process zones were obtained. We carried out laser cladding of 316L stainless steel and Al-alloy substrates with Mo, WC, and Cr IIC 3 powder to improve their wear characteristics. We developed a laser rapid manufacturing facility and fabricated components of various geometries with minimum surface roughness of 5-7 microns Ra and surface waviness of 45 microns between overlapped layers using Colmonoy-6, 3 16L stainless steel and Inconel powders. Cutting of thick concrete blocks by repeated laser glazing followed by mechanical scrubbing process and drilling holes on a vertical concrete with laser beam incident at an optimum angle allowing molten material to flow out under gravity were also done. Some of these studies are briefly presented here.

  9. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  10. High-power diode laser marking and engraving of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Lawrence, Jonathan; Spencer, Julian T.

    1997-08-01

    A Diomed 60W-cw high power diode laser (HPDL) has been used for the marking and engraving of various building materials, including; marble, granite, clay tiles, ceramic tiles, roof tiles, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and clay bricks. Morphological and microstructural characteristics have been investigated. The basic mechanism of marking/engraving and the characteristics of the beam absorption are discussed. The effects of material texture, color and laser processing parameters are reported. The work shows that engraving depths of over 2 mm (0.75 mm for a single pass) can be achieved on marble substrates by thermal disintegration of CaCO3 into loose CaO powder and CO2 gas. Uniform amorphous glazed lines (1 - 3 mm line width) of a color different from the untreated materials can be generated on clay tiles, ceramic tiles, roof tiles, clay bricks and OPC by solidification phase formation after laser melting of these materials. Effects of atmospheric conditions, for instance using O2 and Ar gas shrouds, have been examined, with different colored marks being observed when different shroud gases are used. To demonstrate the practical worth of the process a UMIST crest has been marked on a ceramic tile using the system. Laser beam reflectivity is found to depend not only on material composition but also its color. Reflectivity has been found to range between 12% to 18% for the various construction materials used in the experiment, except for marble (grey) which showed over 27% reflectivity. Since the HPDL is a portable device, on-site application of these processing techniques can be realized, which would be either impossible or difficult when using other types of lasers.

  11. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  12. Construction material

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  13. Novel Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-12

    Final Report ONR Grant No. N00014-91-J-1269 C$_ December 1, 1990 to November 30, 1993 1 " Novel Materials" May 12, 1994 D T IC work performed under...also had to be developed . We prepared such phases by several methods including: reaction of pressed powders of binary nitrides in N2 gas, reaction of...metals or ternary oxides with NH 3, and the use of super critical NH3 at high temperatures (up to 8001C). General thermodynamic principles were developed

  14. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-03

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or "thickness" of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  15. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    Khalid Alshibli of Louisiana State University, project scientist for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM-III) experiment, uses a jar of sand as he explains MGM to NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. A training model of an MGM test cell is in the foreground. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  16. Materials Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-09-30

    Dr. Jan Rogers, project scientist for the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center(MSFC). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an obejct (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials sciences program.

  17. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-12

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or "thickness" of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  18. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    Khalid Alshibli of Louisiana State University, project scientist for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM-III) experiment, explains the MGM experiment to Kristen Erickson, acting deputy associate administrator in NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. A training model of the test cell is at right. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  19. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  20. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-01-22

    This metal sample, which is approximately 1 cm in diameter, is typical of the metals that were studied using the German designed electromagnetic containerless processing facility. The series of experiments that use this device is known as TEMPUS which is the acronym that stands for the German Tiegelfreies Elektromanetisches Prozessieren Unter Schwerelosigkeit. Most of the TEMPUS experiments focused on various aspects of undercooling liquid metal and alloys. Undercooling is the process of melting a material and then cooling it to a temperature that is below its normal freezing or solidification point. The TEMPUS experiments that used the metal cages as shown in the photograph, often studied bulk metallic glass, a solid material with no crystalline structures. We study metals and alloys not only to build things in space, but to improve things that are made on Earth. Metals and alloys are everywhere around us; in our automobiles, in the engines of aircraft, in our power-plants, and elsewhere. Despite their presence in everyday life, there are many scientific aspects of metals that we do not understand.

  1. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-22

    One of the first materials science experiments on the International Space Station -- the Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) -- will be conducted during Expedition Five inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The glovebox is the first dedicated facility delivered to the Station for microgravity physical science research, and this experiment will be the first one operated inside the glovebox. The glovebox's sealed work environment makes it an ideal place for the furnace that will be used to melt semiconductor crystals. Astronauts can change out samples and manipulate the experiment by inserting their hands into a pair of gloves that reach inside the sealed box. Dr. Aleksandar Ostrogorsky, a materials scientist from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y., and the principal investigator for the SUBSA experiment, uses the gloves to examine an ampoule like the ones used for his experiment inside the glovebox's work area. The Microgravity Science Glovebox and the SUBSA experiment are managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  2. Materializing superghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, V.; Krotov, D.; Losev, A.; Lysov, V.

    2007-12-01

    The off-shell Batalin-Vilkovysky (BV) realization has been constructed for N = 1, d = 10 super-Yang-Mills theory with seven auxiliary fields. This becomes possible due to the materialized ghost phenomenon. Namely, supersymmetry ghosts are coordinates on a manifold B of ten-dimensional spinors with the pure spinors cut out. Auxiliary fields are sections of a bundle over B, and supersymmetry transformations are nonlinear in ghosts. By integrating out the auxiliary fields, we obtain an on-shell supersymmetric BV action with quadratic terms in the antifields. Exactly this on-shell BV action was obtained in our previous paper after integration out of auxiliary fields in the framework of a pure spinor superfield formalism.

  3. Material Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-06

    This is a macro photograph of an etched surface of the Mundrabilla meteorite, a small piece of the approximately 3.9 billion-year-old meteorite that was first discovered in Western Australia in 1911. Two more giant chunks, together weighing about 17 tons, were found in 1966. Researchers can learn much from this natural crystal growth experiment since it has spent several hundred million years cooling, and would be impossible to emulate in a lab. This single slice, taken from a 6 ton piece recovered in 1966, measures only 2 square inches. The macro photograph shows a metallic iron-nickel alloy phase of kamcite (38% Ni) and taenite (6% Ni) at bottom right, bottom left, and top left. The darker material is an iron sulfide (FeS or troilite) with a parallel precipitates of duabreelite (iron chromium sulfide (FeCr2S4).

  4. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  5. PREFACE: Superconducting materials Superconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charfi Kaddour, Samia; Singleton, John; Haddad, Sonia

    2011-11-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in 1911 was a great milestone in condensed matter physics. This discovery has resulted in an enormous amount of research activity. Collaboration among chemists and physicists, as well as experimentalists and theoreticians has given rise to very rich physics with significant potential applications ranging from electric power transmission to quantum information. Several superconducting materials have been synthesized. Crucial progress was made in 1987 with the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in copper-based compounds (cuprates) which have revealed new fascinating properties. Innovative theoretical tools have been developed to understand the striking features of cuprates which have remained for three decades the 'blue-eyed boy' for researchers in superconductor physics. The history of superconducting materials has been notably marked by the discovery of other compounds, particularly organic superconductors which despite their low critical temperature continue to attract great interest regarding their exotic properties. Last but not least, the recent observation of superconductivity in iron-based materials (pnictides) has renewed hope in reaching room temperature superconductivity. However, despite intense worldwide studies, several features related to this phenomenon remain unveiled. One of the fundamental key questions is the mechanism by which superconductivity takes place. Superconductors continue to hide their 'secret garden'. The new trends in the physics of superconductivity have been one of the two basic topics of the International Conference on Conducting Materials (ICoCoM2010) held in Sousse,Tunisia on 3-7 November 2010 and organized by the Tunisian Physical Society. The conference was a nice opportunity to bring together participants from multidisciplinary domains in the physics of superconductivity. This special section contains papers submitted by participants who gave an oral contribution at ICoCoM2010

  6. Biointegrating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amédée, J.; Bordenave, L.; Durrieu, M.-C.; Fricain, J.-C.; Pothuaud, L.

    The extraordinary increase in human longevity explains the growing need for replacement organs. The remarkable successes of conventional transplants (associated with the development of effective antirejection drugs and improved control of their administration) are also accompanied by certain drawbacks. First on the list is an inadequate supply of replacement organs: the number of candidates for transplants grows larger, opposition to the removal of organs increases, and the number of transplants has reached a ceiling. Furthermore, it has come to light over the past few years that organ transplants carry a significant risk of transmitting pathogens. Finally, the main drawback lies in the need to pursue an immunosuppression treatment. Scientists and doctors have long been in search of alternatives to human organ transplants. According to the definition drawn up in Chester in 1986 at the Consensus Conference organised under the aegis of the European Society for Biomaterials, biomaterials are non-viable materials used in a medical device and destined to interact with biological systems, whether they contribute to the constitution of a diagnostic device, a tissue or organ substitute, or a device designed to provide functional assistance or replacement.

  7. Superconducting materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ruvalds, J.

    1992-01-01

    Our research on high temperatures superconductors has produced novel insights for the normal state properties of copper oxides that have been discovered in the last few years. Advances in materials preparation have produced singly crystal samples, and sophisticated surface cleavage techniques have unveiled truly metallic behavior in many respects. Thus, the recent confirmation of a Fermi surface in several cuprate superconductors by photoemission spectroscopy has aroused interest in experimental features which heretofore were in apparent contrast to the expectations for a conventional Fermi Liquid. Our group has discovered that nested'' nearly parallel sections of the electron orbits yields an anomalous response which influences the electrical resistivity, optical reflectance, Raman spectrum, and neutron scattering cross section. Our analysis has provided an explanation for seemingly disparate experimental features of high temperature superconductors using consistent values for the electron-electron coupling and the plasma frequency. Our results include the following properties of high temperature superconductors: Nested Fermi Liquid Response in High Temperature Superconductors, Optical Reflectivity and Electron Energy Loss Data, Raman Spectra, Neutron Scattering Cross Section and Scaling, and Prospects for New Superconductors.

  8. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  9. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  10. Practical Implications of Electron-Beam Surface Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Brian G.; Strutt, Peter R.

    1982-11-01

    The use of laser/electron-beam techniques to glaze large surface areas is briefly reviewed. The properties thus obtained for a range of iron-based alloys is discussed. Recent results show that electron-beam glazing can extend the wear life of certain cemented carbide materials and preliminary results indicate that glazed tool steels show enhanced corrosion resistance.

  11. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  12. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: pigments and glazes characterization.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Casimiro, T M; Colomban, Ph

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co(3)O(4) (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co(2)SiO(4), Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the 17th C.) - 824 cm(-1) band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl(2)O(4), Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm(-1) bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  14. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  15. Effects of different repolishing techniques on colour change of provisional prosthetic materials.

    PubMed

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sabaliauskas, Vaidotas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To investigate repolishing effect of stained provisional prosthetic materials in vitro. METHODS. Thirty two cylindrical specimens (10 x 2 mm) were prepared for each of light-polymerized composites (Revotek LC, Rx-Create), bis-acryl composites (Structur Premium, Protemp Garant3, Luxatemp Fluorescence), methyl-methacrylate (UnifastTRAD) and ethyl-methacrylate (DentalonPlus) based provisional material using a mould. The specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=8) according to different repolishing techniques. The specimens were stored for 24 hours at 37 degrees C in distilled water, and then transferred into 4 different staining agents. The colour was measured with a spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade) before exposure and after repolishing procedures, and colour changes (DeltaE) were calculated. three-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD post-hoc test (p<0.05). RESULTS. The influence of type of provisional material, polishing procedure, food colorants and combinations of them on colour change was significant (p<0.05). After the repolishing procedures, all the specimens stored in distilled water achieved an unnoticeable colour change (DeltaE<3.7), except Dentalon Plus, Rx Create, Unifast TRAD. A similar tendency was observed in artificial food colourant solution following subsequent repolishing of the specimens. As for the red wine, all repolished specimens attained unnoticeable colour change (DeltaE<3.7), except Dentalon Plus using Rx polishing paste, Enhance polishing set or repeated glazing procedure. CONCLUSION. Repolishing was found to be an effective way to improve aesthetic appearance for provisional prosthetic materials by partially removing staining observed on the surface of the restorations.

  16. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  17. Materials Project: A Materials Genome Approach

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ceder, Gerbrand [MIT; Persson, Kristin [LBNL

    Technological innovation - faster computers, more efficient solar cells, more compact energy storage - is often enabled by materials advances. Yet, it takes an average of 18 years to move new materials discoveries from lab to market. This is largely because materials designers operate with very little information and must painstakingly tweak new materials in the lab. Computational materials science is now powerful enough that it can predict many properties of materials before those materials are ever synthesized in the lab. By scaling materials computations over supercomputing clusters, this project has computed some properties of over 80,000 materials and screened 25,000 of these for Li-ion batteries. The computations predicted several new battery materials which were made and tested in the lab and are now being patented. By computing properties of all known materials, the Materials Project aims to remove guesswork from materials design in a variety of applications. Experimental research can be targeted to the most promising compounds from computational data sets. Researchers will be able to data-mine scientific trends in materials properties. By providing materials researchers with the information they need to design better, the Materials Project aims to accelerate innovation in materials research.[copied from http://materialsproject.org/about] You will be asked to register to be granted free, full access.

  18. Composite material dosimeters

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  19. Composite material dosimeters

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  20. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R [Idaho Falls, ID; Clark, Denis E [Idaho Falls, ID; Smartt, Herschel B [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Karen S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  1. Refractory ceramic fiber composites and high emissivity materials for energy savings in the industry: A state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect

    Palco, S.; Rigaud, M.

    1995-10-01

    Due to a series of continuous improvements in the manufacturing know-how of ceramic fiber, effective composition compounds, use of protective and high emissivity coatings, and innovative anchoring methods for lining, utilization of ceramic fiber products is nowadays extremely diversified. The advantages of all-fiber linings for industrial furnaces can be briefly summarized as: short heating-up and cooling-down periods, low energy consumption, high production capacity, optimum temperature balance, and more uniform quality of finished products. The major disadvantage is that the use of fiber is questionable with the production of aggressive fuel gases and/or glaze vapors. This is because the fibrous materials are less resistant to the attack of aggressive environment than the other insulating products, and thus quickly lose their properties. The application of high emissivity ceramic coatings on the working surface of fibrous insulating lining can improve the resistance of these materials against the aggressive environment. And as a result of increasing the radiating efficiency of the refractory lining, more energy is directed to the work load, thus requiring less fuel to be fired. Ceramic fiber products is a perfect example of what composite materials are.

  2. Transporting particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Aldred, Derek Leslie [North Hollywood, CA; Rader, Jeffrey A [North Hollywood, CA; Saunders, Timothy W [North Hollywood, CA

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  3. Introductory Materials Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, John E., Jr.

    Described is an introductory materials science laboratory program which emphasizes crystal structure both on the atomistic and microscopic scale and the dependence of materials properties on structure. The content of this program is classified into four major areas: (1) materials science, (2) mechanical behavior of materials, (3) materials testing…

  4. Nonlinear optical materials.

    PubMed

    Eaton, D F

    1991-07-19

    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  5. Coated electroactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  6. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  7. Materials Informatics: Statistical Modeling in Material Science.

    PubMed

    Yosipof, Abraham; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2016-12-01

    Material informatics is engaged with the application of informatic principles to materials science in order to assist in the discovery and development of new materials. Central to the field is the application of data mining techniques and in particular machine learning approaches, often referred to as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling, to derive predictive models for a variety of materials-related "activities". Such models can accelerate the development of new materials with favorable properties and provide insight into the factors governing these properties. Here we provide a comparison between medicinal chemistry/drug design and materials-related QSAR modeling and highlight the importance of developing new, materials-specific descriptors. We survey some of the most recent QSAR models developed in materials science with focus on energetic materials and on solar cells. Finally we present new examples of material-informatic analyses of solar cells libraries produced from metal oxides using combinatorial material synthesis. Different analyses lead to interesting physical insights as well as to the design of new cells with potentially improved photovoltaic parameters.

  8. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Gutowski, Timothy G; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations-- for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards--is likely to have a more immediate effect.

  9. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Julian M.; Ashby, Michael F.; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations— for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards—is likely to have a more immediate effect. PMID:23359746

  10. Thermoelectric materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Talcott, Noel A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    New thermoelectric materials comprise highly [111]-oriented twinned group IV alloys on the basal plane of trigonal substrates, which exhibit a high thermoelectric figure of merit and good material performance, and devices made with these materials.

  11. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons and methods for making such materials. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  12. Chemistry and physics of rapidly solidified materials. Proceedings of the Symposium, St. Louis, MO, October 26, 27, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, B.J.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Various topics on the thermodynamics and kinetics, chemical and physical properties, and characterization and processing of rapidly solidified materials are considered. The subjects addressed include: rapid solidification of highly undercooled alloy droplets, formation of coarse intermetallics in rapidly solidified Al-Co alloys, structure development in melt-spun superalloy ribbons, production of alternative phases during liquid-to-solid nucleation in small droplets, solute distribution in highly-supercooled Fe-25 percent Ni alloy, and transformation characteristics of rapidly solidified shape-memory alloys. Also discussed are: precipitation and phase stability in some rapidly solidified steels, amorphous metal coatings as corrosion barriers, electronic structure of metallic glasses, corrosion resistance of rapidly quenched alloys, mechanical properties of rapidly quenched metals and alloys, corrosion of amorphous Ni40Co20Cr12Mo6Fe6B16 alloy, AES and XPS analysis of corrosion layers formed on amorphous FeCrNiPb, laser glazing of Ni60Nb40, and a comprehensive model of a plasma spraying process.

  13. Numerical analysis of the effects of non-conventional laser beam geometries during laser melting of metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdar, Shakeel; Li, Lin; Sheikh, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Laser melting is an important industrial activity encountered in a variety of laser manufacturing processes, e.g. selective laser melting, welding, brazing, soldering, glazing, surface alloying, cladding etc. The majority of these processes are carried out by using either circular or rectangular beams. At present, the melt pool characteristics such as melt pool geometry, thermal gradients and cooling rate are controlled by the variation of laser power, spot size or scanning speed. However, the variations in these parameters are often limited by other processing conditions. Although different laser beam modes and intensity distributions have been studied to improve the process, no other laser beam geometries have been investigated. The effect of laser beam geometry on the laser melting process has received very little attention. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of different beam geometries including circular, rectangular and diamond shapes on laser melting of metallic materials. The finite volume method has been used to simulate the transient effects of a moving beam for laser melting of mild steel (EN-43A) taking into account Marangoni and buoyancy convection. The temperature distribution, melt pool geometry, fluid flow velocities and heating/cooling rates have been calculated. Some of the results have been compared with the experimental data.

  14. Calculation of thermal fields in a graphite mold during spark-plasma sintering of non-conductive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinkovskiy, N. A.; Zholnin, A. G.; Grigoryev, E. G.

    2017-07-01

    The research provides modeling of spark-plasma sintering process of aluminum oxide, specifically the distribution of temperature fields over the sample volume and mold at various stages of heating. Calculation was based on the experimental data on the measurement of temperature on the surface of the mold, inside the mold cavity and in its various internal parts including punches (diameter of 15 mm), in the absence of insulation felt. Experiments established that the main source of heat emission at temperatures less than 1300°C to 1400 °C is contact resistance at the borders of the punches and the matrix molds. Then heat emission zone moves towards the punches. Based on the received data, the temperature and electric parameters were selected for the materials used for the press mold, providing a good agreement between the observed and calculated distribution patterns at different temperatures. Obtained parameters were used in calculations of temperature fields in the press molds with insulation felt and for the press molds with diameter of 15 mm and 10 mm for the production of tablets as well as glazing beads.

  15. Closed cellular materials for smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Satoshi

    2008-11-01

    New methods to fabricate a metallic closed cellular material for smart materials using an isostatic pressing, spark plasma sintering (SPS) method and penetrating method are introduced. Powder particles of polymer or ceramics coated with a metal layer using electro-less plating were pressed into pellets and sintered at high temperatures by sintering at high temperature. Also these powder particles were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. Also a many kinds of closed cellular materials with different materials of cell walls and different materials inside of the cell were tried to fabricate. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of this material were measured. The results of the compressive tests show that this material has the different stress-strain curves among the specimens that have different thickness of the cell walls and the sintering temperatures of the specimens affect the compressive strength of each specimen. Also, the results of the compressive tests show that this material has high-energy absorption and Young's modulus of this material depends on the thickness of the cell walls and sintering conditions. The internal friction of this material was measured and the results show that this internal friction is same as that of pure aluminum.

  16. Multifunctional materials and composites

    DOEpatents

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Jeon, Ki-Wan

    2017-08-22

    Forming multifunctional materials and composites thereof includes contacting a first material having a plurality of oxygen-containing functional groups with a chalcogenide compound, and initiating a chemical reaction between the first material and the chalcogenide compound, thereby replacing oxygen in some of the oxygen-containing functional groups with chalcogen from the chalcogen-containing compound to yield a second material having chalcogen-containing functional groups and oxygen-containing functional groups. The first material is a carbonaceous material or a macromolecular material. A product including the second material is collected and may be processed further to yield a modified product or a composite.

  17. Nonmetallic materials handbook. Volume 1: Epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podlaseck, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Thermochemical and other properties data is presented for the following types of epoxy materials: adhesives, coatings finishes, inks, electrical insulation, encapsulants, sealants, composite laminates, tapes, and thermal insulators.

  18. Tissue conditioning materials as functional impression materials.

    PubMed

    Chander, Satinder; Hill, Mark; Moore, Derek; Morrow, Leean

    2007-06-01

    There has been much written on the subject of tissue conditioner materials. In the context of functional impressions however there exists a lack of consensus opinion. In this article various aspects of functional impression materials have been considered. These include the effects of powder to liquid mixing ratio (P/L) on the visco elastic properties, effects on the surface hardness of dental stone when these materials are cast, undercut reproducibility, compressibility and dimensional stability. Definitive conclusions are difficult to draw however it seems the evidence supports the use of tissue conditioners as functional impression materials.

  19. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  20. Tritium breeding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.