Science.gov

Sample records for glazing materials

  1. Advances in glazing materials for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    No one type of glazing is suitable for every application. Many materials are available that serve different purposes. Moreover, consumers may discover that they need two types of glazing for a home because of the directions that the windows face and the local climate. To make wise purchases, consumers should first examine their heating and cooling needs and prioritize desired features such as daylighting, solar heating, shading, ventilation, and aesthetic value. Research and development into types of glazing have created a new generation of materials that offer improved window efficiency and performance for consumers. While this new generation of glazing materials quickly gains acceptance in the marketplace, the research and development of even more efficient technology continues.

  2. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410 Safety-glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be material that will not break...

  3. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be of material that will not break into dangerous fragments if fractured....

  4. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  5. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety-glazing materials. 127.410 Section 127.410... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410 Safety-glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be material that will not break...

  6. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety-glazing materials. 127.410 Section 127.410... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410 Safety-glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be material that will not break...

  7. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety-glazing materials. 127.410 Section 127.410... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410 Safety-glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be material that will not break...

  8. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 116.1010 Section 116.1010... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be of material that will not break into dangerous fragments if fractured....

  9. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 116.1010 Section 116.1010... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows must be of material that will not break into dangerous fragments if fractured....

  10. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows accessible to passengers and crew must be...

  11. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows accessible to passengers and crew must be...

  12. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows accessible to passengers and crew must be...

  13. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other glazing material used in windows accessible to passengers and crew must be...

  14. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  15. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 116.1010 Section 116.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other...

  16. 46 CFR 116.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 116.1010 Section 116.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 116.1010 Safety glazing materials. Glass and other...

  17. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Plastics, may be used anywhere in a motor vehicle except the windshield. S5.1.2.6Item 15B—Tempered Glass... motor vehicle in all locations not requisite for driving visibility. S5.1.2.8Item 16B—Tempered Glass..., laminates, or tempers the glazing material. S6.2Each prime glazing material manufacturer shall certify...

  18. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Plastics, may be used anywhere in a motor vehicle except the windshield. S5.1.2.6Item 15B—Tempered Glass... motor vehicle in all locations not requisite for driving visibility. S5.1.2.8Item 16B—Tempered Glass..., laminates, or tempers the glazing material. S6.2Each prime glazing material manufacturer shall certify...

  19. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Plastics, may be used anywhere in a motor vehicle except the windshield. S5.1.2.6Item 15B—Tempered Glass... motor vehicle in all locations not requisite for driving visibility. S5.1.2.8Item 16B—Tempered Glass..., laminates, or tempers the glazing material. S6.2Each prime glazing material manufacturer shall certify...

  20. 46 CFR 127.410 - Safety-glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety-glazing materials. 127.410 Section 127.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.410...

  1. 46 CFR 177.1010 - Safety glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety glazing materials. 177.1010 Section 177.1010 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1010 Safety...

  2. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... partitions for use in motor vehicles. FMVSS No. 205 was established in the late 1960s to ensure safe driver... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL03 Federal Motor...

  3. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini

    2014-07-01

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  4. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini

    2014-07-10

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  5. Glazing materials for solar and architectural applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes five collaborative research projects on glazings performed by participants in Subtask C of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) Task 10, Materials Research and Testing. The projects include materials characterization, optical and thermal measurements, and durability testing of several types of new glazings Three studies were completed on electrochromic and dispersed liquid crystals for smart windows, and two were completed for low-E coatings and transparent insulation materials for more conventional window and wall applications. In the area of optical switching materials for smart windows, the group developed more uniform characterization parameters that are useful to determine lifetime and performance of electrochromics. The detailed optical properties of an Asahi (Japan) prototype electrochromic window were measured in several laboratories. A one square meter array of prototype devices was tested outdoors and demonstrated significant cooling savings compared to tinted static glazing. Three dispersed liquid crystal window devices from Taliq (USA) were evaluated. In the off state, these liquid crystal windows scatter light greatly. When a voltage of about 100 V ac is applied, these windows become transparent. Undyed devices reduce total visible light transmittance by only .25 when switched, but this can be increased to .50 with the use of dyed liquid crystals. A wide range of solar-optical and emittance measurements were made on low-E coated glass and plastic. Samples of pyrolytic tin oxide from Ford glass (USA) and multilayer metal-dielectric coatings from Interpane (Germany) and Southwall (USA) were evaluated. In addition to optical characterization, the samples were exposure-tested in Switzerland. The thermal and optimal properties of two different types of transparent insulation materials were measured.

  6. Cleanability evaluation of ceramic glazes with nanometer far-infrared materials using contact angle measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Liang, Jinsheng; Di, Xingfu; Tang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    The cleanability of easy-to-clean ceramic glazes doped with nanometer far-infrared materials was compared with that of some high-quality household ceramic glazes from the market. The cleanability was evaluated by the contact angle measurement using a sessile drop method with a Dataphysics OCA-30 contact angle analyzer. The results showed that the difference of contact angles of water on the glazes before soiling and after cleaning could be used as a parameter for evaluating the cleanability of the glazes. The relationship between cleanability and surface properties, such as surface free energy and surface topography, was investigated. The surface free energy of the samples and their components were calculated using van Oss acid-base approach. By measuring advancing and receding contact angles, the contact angle hysteresis of the ceramic glazes due to the surface topography was investigated. It was shown that the cleanability of ceramic glazes containing nanometer far-infrared materials (NFIM) is better than that of household ceramic glazes from market, due to a higher ratio of electron-acceptor parameter to electron-donor parameter, which led to the effect of water hydration as well as better hydrophilic property and increased smoothness. The contact angle measurement not only accurately evaluates the cleanability of the ceramic glazes, but also has a contribution to the study of cleanability theory. Moreover, this method is simple, convenient and less sample-consumption.

  7. The effect of glazing on the biaxial flexural strength of different zirconia core materials.

    PubMed

    Yener, Esra Salihoğlu; Ozcan, Mutlu; Kazazoğlu, Ender

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glazing on biaxial flexural strength of different zirconia core materials. Disc-shaped zirconia (ZirkonZahn, Cercon, Ceramill) specimens (15 mm x 1.15+/-0.02 mm) were prepared according to manufacturers' instructions. The specimens from each system were divided into 2 groups (N= 10): unglazed and glazed. Glaze liquid was applied on the entire surface of the specimens of the glazed group and fired according to manufacturers' instructions. Flexural strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed: 1 mm/min). Data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p= 0.05). The mean flexural strength values for unglazed ZirkonZahn specimens (1388+132 MPa) were significantly higher than those of unglazed Cercon (1104+124 MPa) and unglazed Ceramill (1172+127 MPa) specimens. The mean flexural strength of glazed specimens did not show any statistically significant difference. Glazing decreased the flexural strength results significantly for all systems (p< 0.05). Glazing decreased the flexural strength values for ZirkonZahn, Cercon and Ceramill specimens. Unglazed ZirkonZahn specimens revealed significantly higher mean flexural strength values than that ofunglazed and glazed zirconia materials tested in this study.

  8. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.205(a) Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and... specifies requirements for glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 for use in motor...

  9. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... impact portion of these tests. (14) A material so tested must perform so that: (i) there shall be no... the requirements of this part, shall certify that each type of glazing material being supplied for... all pertinent original data logs and documentation that the selection of material samples, test...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... impact portion of these tests. (14) A material so tested must perform so that: (i) there shall be no... the requirements of this part, shall certify that each type of glazing material being supplied for... all pertinent original data logs and documentation that the selection of material samples, test...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... impact portion of these tests. (14) A material so tested must perform so that: (i) there shall be no... the requirements of this part, shall certify that each type of glazing material being supplied for... all pertinent original data logs and documentation that the selection of material samples, test...

  13. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuo; Wu, Bolin

    2011-12-30

    Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm(3); compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) is obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud.

  14. 77 FR 52625 - Petition Requesting Rulemaking To Revise Test Procedures for Glazing Materials in Architectural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... material to test and certify the compliance of their products to the current ANSI standard. By this notice...; ] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1201 Petition Requesting Rulemaking To Revise Test Procedures for Glazing Materials in Architectural Products AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission....

  15. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  16. Advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications: International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Michael G.

    1992-11-01

    Following a program definition phase of 2 years, Task 18 of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating & Cooling program commenced a 5 year research phase in April 1992. Task 18 investigates a wide range of advanced glazing materials and glazing systems which include monolithic and granular aerogels, transparent insulation materials, chromogenic materials, evacuated glazings, low-emittance coatings, solar collector covers, angular selective transmittance thin films, holographic and light guide materials, and frame and edge seal technology. In addition to materials-centered research, Task 18 concentrates on measurement of key glazing properties such as total energy transmittance, U-value, and spectral directional optical properties, and through the use of building energy analysis software tools the identification of appropriate applications, control strategies, and energy and environmental benefits to be derived from advanced glazing products. Fifteen OECD countries are participating in Task 18 which is led by the United Kingdom.

  17. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the loss of transparency, and instructions for removing frost and ice, and, at the option of the... edges shall be treated in accordance with SEA Recommended Practice J673a, “Automotive Glazing,”...

  18. Wear characteristics of polished and glazed lithium disilicate ceramics opposed to three ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Kodaira, Akihisa; Okamura, Kentaro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the wear characteristics of a heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic material opposed to feldspathic porcelain, a lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and zirconia materials. Ceramic plate specimens were prepared from feldspathic porcelain (EX-3 nA1B), lithium disilicate glass ceramics (e.max CAD MO1/C14), and zirconia (Katana KT 10) and then ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens were fabricated from heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramic (e.max press LT A3) and then glazed or polished. A sliding wear testing apparatus was used for wear testing. Wear of glazed rods was greater than that of polished rods when they were abraded with ground zirconia, ground porcelain, polished porcelain, or polished lithium disilicate ceramics. For both glazed and polished rods, wear was greater when the rods were abraded with ground plates. The findings indicate that application of a polished surface rather than a glazed surface is recommended for single restorations made of heat-pressed lithium disilicate material. In addition, care must be taken when polishing opposing materials, especially those used in occlusal contact areas. (J Oral Sci 58, 117-123, 2016).

  19. Exposure of Polymeric Glazing Materials Using NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.; Jorgensen, G.; Wylie, A.

    2010-01-01

    NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) selectively reflects and concentrates natural sunlight ultraviolet irradiance below 475 nm onto exposed samples to provide accelerated weathering of materials while keeping samples within realistic temperature limits. This paper will explain the design and implementation of the UAWS which allow it to simulate the effect of years of weathering in weeks of exposure. Exposure chamber design and instrumentation will be discussed for both a prototype UAWS used to test glazing samples as well as a commercial version of UAWS. Candidate polymeric glazing materials have been subjected to accelerated exposure testing at a light intensity level of up to 50 UV suns for an equivalent outdoor exposure in Miami, FL exceeding 15 years. Samples include an impact modified acrylic, fiberglass, and polycarbonate having several thin UV-screening coatings. Concurrent exposure is carried out for identical sample sets at two different temperatures to allow thermal effects to be quantified along with resistance to UV.

  20. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-04-10

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes.

  1. Energy Simulation studies in IEA/SHC Task 18 advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Lyons, P.

    1995-04-01

    Researchers participating in IEA/SHC Task 18 on advanced glazing materials have as their primary objective the development of new innovative glazing products such as high performance glazings, wavelength selective glazings, chromogenic optical switching devices, and light transport mechanisms that will lead to significant energy use reductions and increased comfort in commercial and residential buildings. Part of the Task 18 effort involves evaluation of the energy and comfort performance of these new glazings through the use of various performance analysis simulation tools. Eleven countries (Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) are contributing to this multi-year simulation study to better understand the complex heat transfer interactions that determine window performance. Each country has selected particular simulation programs and identified the following items to guide the simulation tasks: (1) geographic locations; (2) building types; (3) window systems and control strategies; and (4) analysis parameters of interest. This paper summarizes the results obtained thus far by several of the research organizations.

  2. GLAZING WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BATES, NEIL W.; AND OTHERS

    THE TECHNICAL INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS PLANNED AND WRITTEN UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE GLAZING TRADE FOR USE AS RELATED CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION IN THE GLAZING APPRENTICE TRAINING PROGRAM. THE UNITS ARE (1) THE APPRENTICE GLAZIER AND HIS TRADE, (2) BASIC MATHEMATICS, (3) APPLIED MATHEMATICS, (4) BLUEPRINT…

  3. Glaze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in glaze are: Hydrocarbons (including basalt, borax frit, and zinc oxide) Lead ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. ...

  4. Cordierite glass-ceramics as glaze materials for refractory forming tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Frank Scott

    1999-11-01

    Glasses of the composition 2MgO·2Al2O 3·5SiO2 were successfully nucleated with additions of up to 8 mol% TiO2 to form fully crystalline glass-ceramic bodies. The predominant crystalline phase is a hexagonal stuffed quartz structure when the glasses are heated to temperatures near 950°C. This phase transforms to the hexagonal indialite phase at higher temperatures. The nucleating effect of the TiO2 addition results in a fine grained glass-ceramic. Both the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm) decreased with a linear dependence on the amount of TiO 2 added to the glass. Glass of the composition 2MgO·2Al 2O3·5SiO2 + 8 mol% TiO2 was ground and air plasma sprayed onto low thermal expansion castable refractory concretes as a glaze. This glaze remained intact on the refractory concretes during crystallization. This behavior was observed during and after limited thermal cycling of the glazed refractory concretes, and also after high temperature heat treatment of the glazed refractory concretes.

  5. Solar glazings: a product review

    SciTech Connect

    Langa, F.; Flower, B.; Sellers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Glazings for solar applications are listed, described, and evaluated. Glasses as well as plastic materials are reviewed. Data presented include manufacturer (and trade name), description, weight (lbs/ft/sup 2/), cost, applications, appearance, installation notes, and miscellaneous information about service life, solar transmittance, impact resistance, etc. The following are listed: (1) glass, tempered-low iron; (2) glass, annealed; (3) acrylic, single and double wall; (4) polycarbonate; (5) cellulose acetate butyrate; (6) fiberglass-reinforced polyester; (7) fluorinated ethylene propylene; (8) polyvinyl fluoride; (9) laminated acrylic/polyester; (10) weatherable polyester; and (11) polyethylene. Visual comparisons (using photographs) are made between various glazing materials. Comparative evaluations of the various glazing materials are summarized in a table in which advantages and disadvantages of each type of glazing are given. A listing of manufacturers with addresses and telephone numbers is included. (MJJ)

  6. Efficiency and bandwidth analysis of holographic glazing materials in the conical diffraction configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Tholl, H.D.

    1994-12-31

    The redirection of light by holographic glazing is based on diffraction. The intensity and the color of the redirected light depend strongly on the direction of the diffracted waves. The paper presents a model for the design of volume holograms as light directing elements which takes into account the three-dimensional character of the diffraction process. Formulas for the Bragg-wavelength, the bandwidth, and the diffraction efficiency are given. It is shown how to use conventional photometric formulas in order to calculate the illuminance and the color distribution on surfaces illuminated by the diffracted light. Finally, the design method is demonstrated for a single volume grating incorporated into a window as a light directing element.

  7. Establishing the value of advanced glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E; Selkowitz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous glazing technologies are under development worldwide to improve the performance of building facades. High-performance glazings can provide substantial energy and related environmental benefits, but often at greatly increased first cost when compared to conventional design solutions. To increase market viability, we discuss strategies to reduce the actual and owner-perceived costs associated with developing and producing advanced window systems, specifically switchable electrochromic glazings, and we also suggest marketing strategies designed to appeal to early adopter and mainstream purchasers. These strategies may be applicable to a broad range of advanced glazing materials.

  8. Non-destructive Analysis of Material Detachments from Polychromatically Glazed Terracotta Artwork by THz Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krügener, Kirsti; Busch, Stefan F.; Soltani, Amin; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Koch, Martin; Viöl, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The damage caused by the environment to exposed glazed terracotta objects is usually not externally visible. For instance, the detachment of the glaze owing to subsurface crack formation or whole cavities in the area of the terracotta cannot be located visually. In this article, we demonstrate that terahertz time-of-flight spectroscopy is suitable to locate and measure the air gaps under the glaze detachments which could only be done by X-ray axial tomography before. This tool will be very useful to guide the restoration process, particularly for pieces that are still attached to buildings or other structures that cannot be transported to a tomography facility.

  9. Non-destructive Analysis of Material Detachments from Polychromatically Glazed Terracotta Artwork by THz Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krügener, Kirsti; Busch, Stefan F.; Soltani, Amin; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Koch, Martin; Viöl, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    The damage caused by the environment to exposed glazed terracotta objects is usually not externally visible. For instance, the detachment of the glaze owing to subsurface crack formation or whole cavities in the area of the terracotta cannot be located visually. In this article, we demonstrate that terahertz time-of-flight spectroscopy is suitable to locate and measure the air gaps under the glaze detachments which could only be done by X-ray axial tomography before. This tool will be very useful to guide the restoration process, particularly for pieces that are still attached to buildings or other structures that cannot be transported to a tomography facility.

  10. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  11. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Hartmann, John L.

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material to be tested (Target Material) shall be a full scale sample of the largest dimension intended to be produced and installed. (2) The Target Material shall be representative of production material and shall be selected on a documented random choice basis. (3) The Target Material shall be securely...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 223 - Certification of Glazing Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... material to be tested (Target Material) shall be a full scale sample of the largest dimension intended to be produced and installed. (2) The Target Material shall be representative of production material and shall be selected on a documented random choice basis. (3) The Target Material shall be securely...

  14. Glazes, the Final Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigrosh, Leon I.

    1977-01-01

    Have you ever wondered, after all the time and work, why your students' glazes did not come out of the kiln as well as those of a professional? One reason could be the glazes themselves. Describes where to find high quality packaged glazes and how to use them productively. (Author/RK)

  15. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Window Caulk, Glazing Compound, Wiring and Other Similar Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Letters that provide guidance on asbestos National Emissions Standard of Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) applicability to linoleum, tar paper, electric wiring, floor tile mastic, caulking compounds, and other similar materials during demolition

  16. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  17. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  18. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  19. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  20. 49 CFR 393.60 - Glazing in specified openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Glazing material. Glazing material used in windshields, windows, and doors on a motor vehicle... material shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 205 (49 CFR 571.205, S6). (b) Windshields required. Each bus, truck and truck-tractor shall be equipped with a windshield. Each windshield or portion of...

  1. Spectrally selective glazings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  2. μ-PIXE mapping of archeological glazed pottery from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, H.

    2015-03-01

    μ-PIXE has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work μ-PIXE used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed pottery from Al-Fustat excavation repository have been chosen to represent different chemical compositions (fluxes and colorants) of glaze depending on its color. The chemical compositions with deterioration factors (humidity and temperature) worked together to make chemical changes on the surface of glaze.

  3. Transmission electron microscopy for archaeo-materials research: Nanoparticles in glazes and red/yellow glass and inorganic pigments in painted context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickx, Peggy

    2004-10-01

    This dissertation addresses the application of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to historic objects, concentrating on colour-causing nanoparticles in vitreous materials and pigments with the focus on substrates in lake pigments used in thin glaze layers, and on manuscript illustrations. TEM is well suited for archaeometry: it gives chemical elemental information, imaging and diffraction information and the amount of material needed is minimal. Sample preparation techniques suitable for historic materials are discussed. Nanoparticles can be incorporated in glass through staining. Yellow coloured glass plates contain Ag particles. Baking temperatures and different Ag-salts determine the density of the nanoparticles. Dense layers cause more saturated colours. Red glass plates can be obtained by staining with Cu-salts. Metallic Cu particles have a diameter of about 24 nm. Comparison with XRF results suggests that often a combination of Cu and Ag was used for warmer colours. Red glass can be "flashed" to the substrate glass. Then, the colour is also caused by metallic Cu particles. The red layer often displays a band structure of stacked red and transparent bands. In the transparent bands, no nanoparticles have been found. In lustre-ware, Ag and metallic Cu occur. Their distribution throughout the material determines the colour of the fragment. In both there is a dense top layer with particles of sizes smaller than 15 nm. If this top layer consists of Ag particles, the resulting colour is golden. In one sample, under this top layer the amount of Cu particles increases. This underlying layer causes the colour to redden. Particles are mainly between 5 and 15 nm in diameter. Using reconstructions, it has been demonstrated that TEM can detect and identify a stacking of thin layers in parchment decorations. A pink powder sample from Pompeii consists of a basis of allophane type clay. The lake substrates consist of Al, O, S and their amorphous structure does not seem to

  4. Amazing Rainbow Glazing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the design for her advanced oil-painting class. In this class, high-school students created a self-portrait painting and learned a glazing technique. The author also describes the students' evaluation of the class.

  5. Double-Glazing Interferometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toal, Vincent; Mihaylova, Emilia M.

    2009-01-01

    This note describes how white light interference fringes can be seen by observing the Moon through a double-glazed window. White light interferometric fringes are normally observed only in a well-aligned interferometer whose optical path difference is less than the coherence length of the light source, which is approximately one micrometer for…

  6. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  7. Selective and simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions in leaching process waters for ceramics glaze raw materials of narutal origin by ion-exclusion chromatography coupled with UV-detection after postcolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Kurachi, Kazumasa; Hu, Wenzhi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    The selective and simultaneous ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with UV-detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column in the H+ -form (TSKgel Super IC-A/C) was developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions as the water quality parameters required for optimizing the water-leaching process for ceramics glaze raw materials of natural origin including feldspar, woods-ash, and straw-ash. Phosphate and silicate ions in these water-leaching process water samples were separated selectively from the coexisting anions such as sulfate, chloride, nitrate and carbonate ions, based on the ion-exclusion separation mechanism. They were detected selectively and simultaneously by a postcolumn derivatization with molybdenum-yellow using the UV-detector. Under the optimized separation and detection conditions (eluent, 0-1 mM sulfuric acid; reactant, 10 mM sodium molybdate-25 mM sulfuric acid; detector, UV at 370 nm; temperature, 45 degrees C), the linearity of calibration was in the range 0.1 - 10 ppm for both phosphate and silicate ions, and the detection limits at S/N = 3 were 2.58 ppb for silicate ions and 4.75 ppb for phosphate ions. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated in practical applications to the water-leaching process for some ceramics glaze raw materials.

  8. Technology reviews: Glazing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology; determine the performance range of available technologies; identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances; examine market forces and market trends; and develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fag into that class.

  9. Chemical durability of glaze on Zsolnay architectural ceramics (Budapest, Hungary) in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; May, Zoltán; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Zsolnay glazed architectural ceramics are among the most famous Hungarian ceramics, however, there is no profound knowledge about the deterioration of these building materials. The present study aims to reveal the influence of acidic solutions in the deterioration of Zsolnay ceramics. The studied ceramics are glazed roof tiles, which originate from two buildings in Budapest: one is located in the densely built-up city centre with high traffic rate and another one is in a city quarter with moderate traffic and more open space. The roof tiles represent the construction and the renovation periods of the buildings. The ceramics were mainly covered by lead glazes in the construction period and mainly alkali glazes in the renovation periods. The glaze of the tiles were coloured with iron (for yellow glaze) or chromium/copper/iron (for green glazes) in the case of the building located in the city centre, whereas cobalt was used as colorant and tin oxide as opacifier for the blue glaze of the ceramics of the other building. Six tiles were selected from each building. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) solutions of pH2 and pH4 were used to measure the durability of the glazes up to 14 days at room temperature. The surfaces of the glazed ceramics after the treatment were measured by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS techniques to determine the precipitated phases on the surface of the glaze. Electron microprobe analysis was used to quantitatively characterise phases found and to determine the chemical composition of the treated glaze. The recovered sulphuric acid solutions were measured with ICP-OES technique in order to quantify the extent of the ion exchange between the glaze and the solutions. There is a significant difference in the dissolution rates in the treatments with sulphuric acid solutions of pH2 and pH4, respectively. The solution of pH2 induced greater ion exchange (approx. 7-10 times) from the glaze compared to the solution of pH4. Alkali and alkali earth

  10. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  11. An Imaginative Approach to Ceramic Glazing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, John A.

    1978-01-01

    Would you like to expand your selection of glazes easily and economically? By using imagination and combinations of pre-mixed glazes and toothbrush spattering, art teachers can discover new and exciting ranges of glaze decorations. Gives a dozen combinations for experimentation. (Author/RK)

  12. Characterization of Low Firing Temperature Ceramic Glaze Using Phuket MSW and Soda Lime Cullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketboonruang, P.; Jinawat, S.; Kashima, D. P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Sujaridworakun, P.; Buggakuptav, W.; Traipol, N.; Jiemsirilers, S.

    2011-10-01

    The normal firing temperature of ceramic products is around 1200 °C. In order to reduce firing temperature, industrial wastes were utilized in ceramic glaze. Phuket municipal solid waste (MSW), soda lime cullet, and borax were used as raw materials for low firing temperature glazes. The glaze compositions were designed using a triaxial diagram. Stoneware ceramic body was glazed then fired at 1000 and 1150 °C for 15 minutes. Morphology and phase composition of glazes were analyzed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal expansion compatibility of Stoneware body and glazes were investigated using a dilatometer. Melting behaviour of selected glaze was analyzed by heating stage microscopy. Phuket MSW and Soda lime glass cullet can be used in high percentage as major raw materials for low firing temperature ceramic glaze that show good texture and vitrified at lower firing temperature without using any commercial ceramic frits. The firing temperature can be reduced up to 150 °C in this study.

  13. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of purple-gold glaze of Jingdezhen imperial kiln].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Ming; Li, Qi-Jiang; Zhang, Mao-Lin; Ding, Yin-Zhong; Cao, Jian-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Jing

    2014-03-01

    Color glaze is one of the four famous traditional ceramics of Jingdezhen, especially for the products from Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns which have rich connotation of technology and culture. The chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of glaze and body of purple-gold glaze samples from Jingdezhen Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns were analyzed by energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and colorimeter. Preliminary study on the composition, formula and chromaticity characteristic of glaze of purple-gold glaze samples of different period was carried out and the intrinsic causes of ifferences were discussed. The result shows that the concentration of magnesium and calcium in purple-gold glaze is different from the other glazes in Jingdezhen in the same time, probably due to the addition of auburn or brown limestone which is rich in magnesium. The purple-gold glaze sample of Ming Dynasty is darker chiefly because the concentration of magnesium and calcium is higher than the sample of Ming Dynasty which led to iron crystal separated, reducing the brightness and glossiness of glaze. In addition, the body of purple-gold glaze samples from Jingdezhen Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns has the characteristics of high silicon and low aluminum and the molar ratio of silicon to aluminum of samples from Ming Dynasty to Qing Dynasty declined, showing that the concentration of kaolin of sample's body of Ming dynasty was increased. The result of this experiment fill deficiency in the ceramic science and technology research in our country about purple-gold glaze from Ming and Qing Dynasties' official kilns and provides scientific material for comprehensive understanding of porcelain marking technology and intrinsic value of Jingdezhen official kiln.

  14. Mössbauer spectroscopic study on glaze of pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Kazutoyo; Haruta, Hiroshi; Honda, Chikako; Katada, Motomi; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakada, Masami; Saeki, Masakatsu; Aratono, Yasuyuki

    1994-12-01

    Iron-barium glaze was prepared from commercially available materials for ceramic arts and from chemical reagents, and investigated by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy and an electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Mössbauer spectra showed a doublet of paramagnetic high-spin Fe(II) and Fe(III) incorporated into aluminosilicate, and the magnetically-split hyperfine structures of hematite and magnetite, depending on the iron content and firing conditions. The EPMA indicated striped patterns on the secondary electron images, and the fluorescent X-ray analysis proved that the patterns are due to the heterogeneous distribution of elements in the glaze.

  15. Characteristics of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic objects from Fatimid and Mamluk periods as revealed by ion beam analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, Hamada; M, Abd El Hady M.

    2012-07-01

    Ion beam analysis (PIXE, μPIXE) has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic from 10th to the 16th centuries (Fatimid and Mamluk periods). Glazed ceramic samples from Al-Fustat Excavation store have been chosen to represent different colours (green, blue, brown, black ...etc), the colours of glaze depend on many factors such as oxides present in the glaze layer, fluxes and the conditions in which objects had been manufactured in the past. Ion Beam allows the identification of elemental composition of the glaze layer i.e., the information about colorants used in glaze, which is of great importance for compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship between ancient cultures with the environment.

  16. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  17. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Glazing. 238.421 Section 238.421 Transportation... window on a passenger car and a power car cab shall comply with the requirements contained in part 223 of this chapter. (b) Particular end-facing exterior glazing requirements. Each end-facing exterior...

  18. Solar absorption in thick and multilayered glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Powles, Rebecca; Curcija, Dragan; Kohler, Christian

    2002-02-01

    Thick and multilayered glazings generally have a nonuniform distribution of absorbed solar radiation which is not taken into account by current methods for calculating the center of glass solar gain and thermal performance of glazing systems. This paper presents a more accurate method for calculating the distribution of absorbed solar radiation inside thick and multilayered glazings and demonstrates that this can result in a small but significant difference in steady-state temperature profile and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient for some types of glazing systems when compared to the results of current methods. This indicates that a more detailed approach to calculating the distribution of absorbed solar radiation inside glazings and resulting thermal performance may be justified for certain applications.

  19. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Michael E.A.; Binions, Russell

    2014-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  20. Impact of ZnO on the structure of aluminosilicate glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniak, M.; Partyka, J.; Sitarz, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of the ZnO content on the microstructure and structure of the internal aluminosilicooxygen network of the glazes from the SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system. In order to examine the real composition of the obtained samples, a chemical analysis was performed. In order to determine the microstructure, research using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS was done. For the inner structural study, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy as well as MIR, FIR spectroscopy and 29Si, 27Al MAS NMR were performed. The study has shown that the experimental glazes are amorphous material. The studies showed that, zinc ions in the structure of the aluminosilicate glazes cause depolymerization of silicon-oxygen network. This means that, the zinc ions Zn2+ in the tested glazes are in octahedral coordination.

  1. Energy Conservation Strategies for Windows and Glazed Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    As with photochromies, a disadvantage with thermochromics is that the threshold for change is fixed. • Electrochromic materials change properties as...adjustment. Controls can be operated manually or linked directly to building operating systems. Electrochromic coatings can be put on various layers of...single- or double-pane units, or combined with other glazings (with or without other coatings). There are two major types of active electrochromic

  2. When to glaze--an electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Barghi, N; Alexander, L; Draugh, R A

    1976-06-01

    1. A smooth porcelain surface can be obtained by glazing after grinding. There is no need for sanding or polishing with a rubber wheel. 2. A low-fusing glaze gives a slightly smoother surface than a natural glaze. The low-fusing glaze may be added at any stage of polishing, and the results will be the same.

  3. The energy performance of prototype holographic glazings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, R.; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, S.; Rubin, M.

    1993-02-01

    We report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototype holographic glazings in commercial office buildings in a California climate. These prototype glazings, installed above conventional side windows, are designed to diffract the transmitted solar radiation and reflect it off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination for typical office tasks up to 10m from the window. In this study, we experimentally determined a comprehensive set of solar-optical properties and characterized the contribution of the prototype holographic glazings to workplane illuminance in a scale model of a typical office space. We then used the scale model measurements to simulate the energy performance of the holographic glazings over the course of an entire year for four window orientations (North, East, South and West) for the inland Los Angeles climate, using the DOE-2.lD building energy analysis computer program. The results of our experimental analyses indicate that these prototype holographic glazings diffract only a small fraction of the incident light. The results of this study indicate that these prototype holographic glazings will not save energy in commercial office buildings. Their performance is very similar to that of clear glass, which, through side windows, cannot efficiently illuminate more than a 4-6 m depth of a building's perimeter, because the cooling penalties due to solar heat gain are greater than the electric lighting savings due to daylighting.

  4. Method and apparatus for an insulating glazing unit and compliant seal for an insulating glazing unit

    DOEpatents

    Francis, IV, William H.; Freebury, Gregg E.; Beidleman, Neal J.; Hulse, Michael

    2016-05-03

    A Vacuum Insulating Glazing Unit (VIGU) comprises two or more glass lites (panes) spaced apart from one another and hermetically bonded to an edge seal assembly therebetween. The resulting cavity between the lites is evacuated to create at least one insulating vacuum cavity within which are disposed a plurality of stand-off members to maintain separation between the lites. The edge seal assembly is preferably compliant in the longitudinal (i.e., edgewise) direction to allow longitudinal relative motion between the two lites (e.g., from thermal expansion). The longitudinal compliance may be obtained by imprinting a three-dimensional pattern into the edge seal material. The edge seal assembly is preferably bonded to the lites with a first bond portion that is hermetic and a second bond portion that is load-resistant. Methods for producing VIGUs and/or compliant edge seal assemblies and VIGU and edge seal apparatus are disclosed.

  5. Golden glazes analysis by PIGE and PIXE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, M.; Luís, H.; Franco, N.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Cruz, J.; Galaviz, D.; Fernandes, N.; Vieira, P.; Ribeiro, J. P.; Jesus, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present the analysis performed on the chemical composition of two golden glazes available in the market using the PIGE and PIXE techniques at the ITN ion beam laboratory. The analysis of the light elements was performed using the Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis (ERYA) code, a standard-free method for PIGE analysis on thick samples. The results were compared to those obtained on an old glaze. Consistently high concentrations of lead and sodium were found in all analyzed golden glazes. The analysis of the samples pointed to Mo and Co as the specific elements responsible of the gold colour at the desired temperature, and allowed Portuguese ceramists to produce a golden glaze at 997 °C. Optical reflection spectra of the glazes are given, showing that the produced glaze has a spectrum similar to the old glaze. Also, in order to help the ceramists, the unknown compositions of four different types of frits (one of the components of glazes) were analysed.

  6. Simulating the energy performance of holographic glazings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, Reto; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, Steven E.; Rubin, Michael

    1994-09-01

    The light diffraction properties of holographic diffractive structures present an opportunity to improve the daylight performance in side-lit office spaces by redirecting and reflecting sunlight off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination up to 30 ft (9.14 m) from the window wall. Prior studies of prototypical holographic glazings, installed above conventional `view' windows, have shown increased daylight levels over a deeper perimeter area than clear glass, for selected sun positions. In this study, we report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototypical holographic glazings assuming a commercial office building in the inland Los Angeles climate. The simulation of the energy performance involved determination of both luminous and thermal performance. Since the optical complexity of holographic glazings prevented the use of conventional algorithms for the simulation of their luminous performance, we used a newly developed method that combines experimentally determined directional workplane illuminance coefficients with computer-based analytical routines to determine a comprehensive set of daylight factors for many sun positions. These daylight factors were then used within the DOE-2.1D energy simulation program to determine hourly daylight and energy performance over the course of an entire year for four window orientations. Since the prototypical holographic diffractive structures considered in this study were applied on single pane clear glass, we also simulated the performance of hypothetical glazings, assuming the daylight performance of the prototype holographic glazings and the thermal performance of double-pane and low-e glazings. Finally, we addressed various design and implementation issues towards potential performance improvement.

  7. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOEpatents

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  8. Compositional and technological features of glazed pottery from Aosta Valley (Italy): a SEM-EDS investigation.

    PubMed

    Gulmini, Monica; Appolonia, Lorenzo; Framarin, Patrizia; Mirti, Piero

    2006-11-01

    Twelve finds from archaeological excavations carried out in the Aosta region (Italy) were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray detection (SEM-EDS). The archaeological samples were shards of glazed pottery dating from the fourth to the seventh century AD. Analysis of ceramic bodies revealed a general homogeneity in composition among the studied samples and the use of a noncalcareous clay for their manufacture; however, two shards stand out due to their high iron contents. Glazes proved to be high-lead products with more than 70% PbO in all of the samples investigated but one. For the latter, a composition poorer in lead and richer in silicon, aluminium and iron was found. SEM observation of the contact region between body and glaze suggests that the vitreous coatings were mostly obtained by applying the glazing components onto the unfired clay body; moreover, a comparison between clay and glaze compositions suggests the use of a lead compound mixed with a silica-rich material, not a lead compound by itself.

  9. Search for glazed surfaces on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The paper summarizes arguments leading to suggestions that Triton's icy surface may be unusual in texture, sith special attention given to the hypothesis of the existence of glazed areas on Triton. Results are presented of a search for an evidence of specular reflection diagnostic of 'glazed' icy surfaces on Triton, using high-resolution Voyager 2 images of three regions on Triton: the South Polar Cap Mottled Unit, the Bright Fringe, and the Frost Band. No such evidence was found in these three different terrains.

  10. A multi-spectroscopic approach to the characterization of early glaze opacifiers: Studies on an Achaemenid glazed brick found at Susa, south-western Iran (mid-first millennium BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holakooei, Parviz

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the results of micro-Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) studies performed on an Achaemenid glazed brick found at Susa (mid-first millennium BC). The results showed that calcium antimonate (CaSb2O6) and lead antimonate (Pb2Sb2O7) were used as white and yellow opacifiers in the white and orange glazes respectively. Moreover, the mixture of calcium antimonate and lead antimonate were used as opacifier in the green glaze. In addition, green, turquoise, blue, and orange colors were achieved by the dissolution of copper, cobalt, and iron-bearing materials in an alkali glaze. A black glazed line, whose color was obtained by copper and iron oxides, was used to separate the colored glazes. The present paper strongly suggests invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy for the identification of the opacifiers used in the early vitreous materials.

  11. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, Michael E. A.; Binions, Russell

    2014-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research.

  12. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... performance by the use of a 0.001-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface during all impact tests. The witness plate shall contain no marks from spalled glazing particles... use of a 0.002-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface...

  13. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... performance by the use of a 0.001-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface during all impact tests. The witness plate shall contain no marks from spalled glazing particles... use of a 0.002-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface...

  14. 49 CFR 238.221 - Glazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Glazing. 238.221 Section 238.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... contained in part 223 of this chapter, if required by that part. (b) Each exterior window on a...

  15. The world of large-area glazing and displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1999-10-01

    This work covers advances in large-area switchable glazing and flat panel displays. Large flat panels and glazing are being developed by a number of company and university groups. Certain novel flat panels display are made for electronic paper applications. Switchable glazing offers a new way of visualizing the function of a window. Switchable glazing can have a range of adjustable visible properties and shading coefficients. Technologies covered for glazing are electrochromism, suspended particles, encapsulated liquid crystals. Technologies being developed for electronic paper and certain flat display panels include electrophoretics, liquid crystals and bichromal balls. Beyond glazing applications, products based on this technology are flexible displays, electronic paper, switchable modulators, mirrors, and eyeglasses. This study covers developments from several companies including the one square meter electrochromic glazing made by Pilkington/Flabeg and Asahi/Nippon Mitsubishi Oil.

  16. Orthodontic bracket bonding to glazed full-contour zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Ji-Young; Jung, Hyo-Kyung; Choi, Il-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to glazed full-zirconia surfaces. Materials and Methods Glazed zirconia (except for the control, Zirkonzahn Prettau) disc surfaces were pre-treated: PO (control), polishing; BR, bur roughening; PP, cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice; HF, hydrofluoric acid etching; AA, air abrasion with aluminum oxide; CJ, CoJet-Sand. The surfaces were examined using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. A zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus, Z) or a silane primer (Monobond-S, S) was then applied to the surfaces, yielding 7 groups (PO-Z, BR-Z, PP-S, HF-S, AA-S, AA-Z, and CJ-S). Metal bracket-bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 hr at 37℃, and thermocycled for 1,000 cycles. Their bond strengths were measured using the wire loop method (n = 10). Results Except for BR, the surface pre-treatments failed to expose the zirconia substructure. A significant difference in bond strengths was found between AA-Z (4.60 ± 1.08 MPa) and all other groups (13.38 ± 2.57 - 15.78 ± 2.39 MPa, p < 0.05). For AA-Z, most of the adhesive remained on the bracket. Conclusions For bracket bonding to glazed zirconia, a simple application of silane to the cleaned surface is recommended. A zirconia primer should be used only when the zirconia substructure is definitely exposed. PMID:27200278

  17. Permanent transparent color-warming glazes for dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie A.

    2014-02-01

    Illuminant metameric failure is frequently experienced when viewing material samples under LED generated light vs. traditional incandescent light. LED light temperatures can be improved with phosphor coatings, but long-wave red light is still generally absent in LED "warm-white" light, resulting in metameric failure of orange-to-red objects. Drawing on techniques developed for the architectural restoration of stained glass, we find that transparent, heat-resistant, permanent, pigmented coatings can be applied to any glass, aluminum or plastic surface of an LED bulb, including the phosphor plate, dome or envelope, to produce warmer visible light than in current warm-light LED bulbs. These glazes can be applied in combination with existing technologies to better tune the LED emitted light or they may be used alone. These pigmented coatings include, but are not limited to, those made by suspending inorganic materials in potassium silicates or durable transparent pigmented resins. The pigmented resin glazes may be produced in either a clear gloss vehicle or an iridescent, light diffusing transparent base. Further, a graduated density of the tinted glazes on dimmable bulbs allow the light to change color as wattage is diminished. The glazes may be applied in the manufacturing of the bulb or marketed to current bulb owners as an after-market product to better tune the thousands of LED light bulbs currently in use.

  18. Investigation of surface water behavior during glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Microvideo observations of glaze ice accretions on 1-in-diameter cylinders in a closed-loop refrigerated wind tunnel were obtained to study factors controlling the behavior of unfrozen surface water during glaze ice accretion. Three zones of surface water behavior were noted, each with a characteristic roughness. The effect of substrate thermal and roughness properties on ice accretions was also studied. The contact angle and hysteresis were found to increase sharply at temperatures just below 0 C, explaining the high resistance to motion of water beads observed on accreting glaze ice surfaces. Based on the results, a simple multizone modification to the current glaze ice accretion model is proposed.

  19. Energy Efficient Glazing for Adaptive Solar Control Fabricated with Photothermotropic Hydrogels Containing Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dowan; Lee, Eunsu; Lee, Heon Sang; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2015-01-01

    Glazing for adaptive solar control is the most promising for energy efficient development, because the use of this technology in buildings can be expected to significantly impact energy use and efficiency by screening sunlight that enters a building in summer. To achieve autonomous adjustable transparency, we have developed photothermotropic material system by combining photothermal materials with thermotropic hydrogels. We found that graphene oxide dispersed within a hydrogel matrix effectively converts the photo energy of sunlight into thermal energy, providing the efficient means to trigger transparency of thermotropic hydrogels. Therefore, we could develop switchable glazing of novel photothermotropic mechanism that screen strong sunlight and heat radiation in response to the sunlight intensity, as well as the temperature. Furthermore, in this study, a prototype device was manufactured with developed materials and successfully operated in outdoor testing. PMID:25561372

  20. Energy efficient glazing for adaptive solar control fabricated with photothermotropic hydrogels containing graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dowan; Lee, Eunsu; Lee, Heon Sang; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2015-01-06

    Glazing for adaptive solar control is the most promising for energy efficient development, because the use of this technology in buildings can be expected to significantly impact energy use and efficiency by screening sunlight that enters a building in summer. To achieve autonomous adjustable transparency, we have developed photothermotropic material system by combining photothermal materials with thermotropic hydrogels. We found that graphene oxide dispersed within a hydrogel matrix effectively converts the photo energy of sunlight into thermal energy, providing the efficient means to trigger transparency of thermotropic hydrogels. Therefore, we could develop switchable glazing of novel photothermotropic mechanism that screen strong sunlight and heat radiation in response to the sunlight intensity, as well as the temperature. Furthermore, in this study, a prototype device was manufactured with developed materials and successfully operated in outdoor testing.

  1. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73981, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113... Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass doors shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used...

  6. Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L

    2008-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple.

  7. Chemical Composition of Ceramic Tile Glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Zhukova, I. I.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out laser emission and x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of glaze before and after its application to ceramic tile produced by Keramin JSC (Belarus). We have studied the internal microstructure of the ceramic samples. It was established that on the surface and within the bulk interior of all the samples, there are micropores of sizes ranging from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and microcracks as long as several hundred micrometers. The presence of micropores on the surface of the ceramic tile leads to an increase in the water absorption level and a decrease in frost resistance. It was found that a decrease in the surface tension of ceramic tile coatings is promoted by substitution of sodium by potassium, silica by boric anhydride, magnesium and barium by calcium, CaO by sodium oxide, and SiO2 by chromium oxide. We carried out a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of glaze samples using S4 Pioneer and ElvaX x-ray fluorescence spectrometers and also an LIBS laser emission analyzer.

  8. PIXE and /μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Giancarlo Lanterna; Lucarelli, Franco; Mandò, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  9. The Influence of Glazing Systems on the Energy Performance of Low-Rise Commercial Buildings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Lampert,1983) in optical switching materials for glazing systems including chromogenic, electrochromic , photochromic, thermochromic, physio-optic and...ASHRAE/IES Standard 90, LBL -16770 Final Report, Berkeley, Ca.: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1983. 5. National Climatic Center, Test Reference Year...Illumination and Energy Analysis, LBL -14863, Berkeley, Ca.: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1982. 12. Selkowitz, S.E. and Lampert, C.M., Advanced Optical and

  10. Study of glazed building ceramics from central Europe (Budapest, Hungary) in aspect of deterioration by environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    The Zsolnay products are one of the most famous Hungarian ceramics. The glazed building ceramics, which were produced by this factory, were often applied in Hungary and the surrounding countries. Since their outplacements the ceramics have suffered from numerous environmental and human influences. There is no profound knowledge about deterioration of these building materials. Beside the characterization of the Zsolnay ceramics, our purpose is to attempt to explain the deterioration caused by environmental factors considering that these ceramics have never been studied in this aspect before. Other goal is to reveal if there is any influence on the deterioration depending on the location of building covered by Zsolnay ceramics. The studied objects were used on buildings of the Museum of Applied Arts (in the center with high traffic) and the Hungarian Geological and Geophysical Institute in Budapest (in a quarter with moderate traffic). We examined the physical and chemical features of the glaze and the ceramic body (e.g., phase composition, texture, microstructure, alteration) and the depositions on the glazed and the unglazed sides of some selected ceramics. Based on the results, three different types of ceramics were used as building materials. We observed several kinds of damage (e.g. cracks, pitting corrosions), black deposition layer and alterations in different extent. Natural and artificial particles (e.g. iron-oxide, mica, calcite and glauberithe) and spherules were deposited on the surface. Traces of biological activity were also found and connected to these organic residues calcium-oxalate was detected. On some objects of the Museum the glaze has started to weather and its lead was leached glaze by rainfall. Weathering also occurs along cracks in the glaze interior together with precipitation of lead-rich phases. Gypsum layer frequently covers the ceramics. In conclusions, the ceramics from the Museum are in worse condition than the ceramics from the

  11. Effect of Iron Oxide and Phase Separation on the Color of Blue Jun Ware Glaze.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Yang, Changan; Zhu, Jianfeng; Lin, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Based on the traditional Jun ware glaze, the imitated Jun ware glazes were prepared by adding iron oxide and introducing phase separation agent apatite through four-angle-method. The effect of iron oxide contents, phase separation and the firing temperature on the color of Jun ware glazes were investigated by a neutral atmosphere experiment, optical microscope and scanning electronic microscope. The results showed that the colorant, mainly Fe2O3, contributed to the Jun ware glaze blue and cyan colors of Jun ware glaze. The light scatter caused by the small droplets in phase separation structure only influenced the shade of the glaze color, intensify or weaken the color, and thus made the glaze perfect and elegant opal visual effects, but was not the origin of general blue or cyan colors of Jun ware glaze. In addition, the firing temperature and the basic glaze composition affected the glaze colors to some extent.

  12. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    SciTech Connect

    Lollini, R.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  13. Applications of a synergic analytical strategy to figure out technologies in medieval glazed pottery with "negative decoration" from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannossa, Lorena Carla; Acquaviva, Marianna; Laganara, Caterina; Laviano, Rocco; Mangone, Annarosa

    2014-09-01

    Glazed pottery with "negative decoration" samples, dating back to the twelfth to thirteenth century ad and coming from three sites along the Adriatic coast, Siponto, Egnatia and Trani (Southern Italy) were characterized from physical-chemical, mineralogical and morphological points of view. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy investigations were carried out on ceramic bodies, pigments and glazes of the fragments. We aimed to outline the technological features, define the nature of decorations and coatings—glazes and engobes—and look for clues to hypothesize provenance. Results obtained show clear differences in raw materials and production technology between the impressed ceramic of Islamic tradition and the incised one of Byzantine tradition. Regarding the latter, evidences of a non-local origin can be found in the compositional diversity of raw materials used for the ceramic bodies of fragments decorated with spiral and pseudo-kufic motifs, which stressed the use of clays so far not recorded in Apulia. At the same time, at least in the case of Siponto, the compositional similarity of both ceramic bodies and materials used under the glaze for impressed ceramic and painted polychrome ceramics (RMR and protomaiolica), more likely local production, could suggest that both were produced in the same workshops.

  14. 25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS AND LOOSE QUARRY TILES WERE STACKED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  15. Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventional glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Moeck, M.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.D.; Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-09-01

    Variable transmission, ``switchable`` electrochromic glazings are compared to conventional static glazings using computer simulations to assess the daylighting quality of a commercial office environment where paper and computer tasks are performed. RADIANCE simulations were made for a west-facing commercial office space under clear and overcast sky conditions. This visualization tool was used to model different glazing types, to compute luminance and illuminance levels, and to generate a parametric set of photorealistic images of typical interior views at various times of the day and year. Privacy and visual display terminal (VDT) visibility is explored. Electrochromic glazings result in a more consistent glare-free daylit environment compared to their static counterparts. However, if the glazing is controlled to minimize glare or to maintain low interior daylight levels for critical visual tasks (e.g, VDT), occupants may object to the diminished quality of the outdoor view due to its low transmission (Tv = 0.08) during those hours. RADIANCE proved to be a very powerful tool to better understand some of the design tradeoffs of this emerging glazing technology. The ability to draw specific conclusions about the relative value of different technologies or control strategies is limited by the lack of agreed upon criteria or standards for lighting quality and visibility.

  16. Long term experience with semi-conductive glaze high voltage post insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.C.; Maney, J.W.; Szilagyi, Z. )

    1990-01-01

    Insulators using semi-conductive glaze have long been known for their superior contamination performance. Early glazes for this type however were not stable and successful use of semi-conductive glazed porcelain insulators was delayed many years until tin-antimony oxide glazes were developed. Service experience of eighteen years is now available for line and station post insulators with this type of glaze. Based on this experience, the aging characteristics of tin-antimony oxide semi-conductive glazes are described and quantified. Several different applications of these insulators are also described.

  17. Finite wing aerodynamics with simulated glaze ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadoust, A.; Bragg, M. B.; Kerho, M.; Wells, S.; Soltani, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a three-dimensional wing is studied experimentally. The model used for these tests was a semi-span wing of effective aspect ratio five, mounted from the sidewall of the UIUC subsonic wind tunnel. The model has an NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular, untwisted planform with interchangeable leading edges to allow for testing both the baseline and the iced wing geometry. A three-component sidewall balance was used to measure lift, drag and pitching moment on the clean and iced model. A four-beam two-color fiberoptic laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to map the flowfield along several spanwise cuts on the model. Preliminary results from LDV scans, which will be the bulk of this paper, are presented following the force balance measurement results. Initial comparison of LDV surveys compare favorably with inviscid theory results and 2D split hot-film measurements near the model surface.

  18. The effect of repeated firings on the color change of dental ceramics using different glazing methods

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Kerem; Ozturk, Caner

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Surface color is one of the main criteria to obtain an ideal esthetic. Many factors such as the type of the material, surface specifications, number of firings, firing temperature and thickness of the porcelain are all important to provide an unchanged surface color in dental ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color changes in dental ceramics according to the material type and glazing methods, during the multiple firings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different types of dental ceramics (IPS Classical metal ceramic, Empress Esthetic and Empress 2 ceramics) were used in the study. Porcelains were evaluated under five main groups according to glaze and natural glaze methods. Color changes (ΔE) and changes in color parameters (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were determined using colorimeter during the control, the first, third, fifth, and seventh firings. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. RESULTS The color changes which occurred upon material-method-firing interaction were statistically significant (P<.05). ΔE, ΔL, Δa and Δb values also demonstrated a negative trend. The MC-G group was less affected in terms of color changes compared to other groups. In all-ceramic specimens, the surface color was significantly affected by multiple firings. CONCLUSION Firing detrimentally affected the structure of the porcelain surface and hence caused fading of the color and prominence of yellow and red characters. Compressible all-ceramics were remarkably affected by repeated firings due to their crystalline structure. PMID:25551001

  19. Energy and daylight performance of angular selective glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Beltran,; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy and daylight performance of anisotropic angular selective glazings. The DOE-2.1E energy simulation program was used to determine the annual cooling, lighting and total electricity use, and peak electric demand. RADIANCE, a lighting simulation program, was used to determine daylight illuminance levels and distribution. We simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Blythe, California. We chose three hypothetical conventional windows for comparison: a single-pane tinted window, a double-pane low-E window, and a double-pane spectrally selective window. Daylighting controls were used. No interior shades were modeled in order to isolate the energy effects of the angular selective glazing. Our results show that the energy performance of the prototype angular selective windows is about the same as conventional windows for a 9.14 m (30 ft) deep south-facing perimeter zone with a large-area window in the hot, sunny climate of Blythe. It is theoretically possible to tune the angular selectivity of the glazing to achieve annual cooling energy reductions of 18%, total electricity use reductions of 15%, and peak electric demand reductions of 11% when compared to a conventional glazing with the same solar-optical properties at normal incidence. Angular selective glazings can provide more uniformly distributed daylight, particularly in the area next to the window, which will result in a more visually comfortable work environment.

  20. Persian turquoise glazed bodies: reproduction and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbahinia, Alimohammad; Rashidi-Huyeh, Majid; Shafiee Afarani, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Ancient turquoise Persian glazed ceramics, which are well known as Khar-Mohreh, belonged to several centuries ago. In this research, reproduction of ancient glazed bodies was performed, and the products were studied by different techniques. Experimental evaluations were focused on elemental, structural, morphological, and colorimetric characteristics. SEM micrographs illustrated a thin (10 μm) uniform composite glazed layer on a porous composite thicker layer (500 μm). The layers consist of microneedle-shaped and nanospherical particles of copper oxide distributed in an amorphous silicate medium. Modeling of this architecture was used for determination of the visual aspect of the ceramic via the reflectance coefficient. Structural and colorimetric results showed that the shape and distribution of copper oxide particles do not play a crucial role on the color of these ceramics.

  1. Development of Craze and Impact Resistance in Glazing Plastics by Multiaxial Stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, G M; Wolock, I; Axilrod, B M; Sherman, M A; George, D A; Cohen, V

    1956-01-01

    The loss of strength of cast polymethyl methacrylate plastic as a result of crazing is of considerable importance to the aircraft industry. Because of the critical need for basic information on the nature of crazing and the effects of various treatments and environmental conditions on its incidence and magnitude, an investigation of this phenomenon was undertaken. The following factors were examined: (1) the effect of stress-solvent crazing on tensile strength of polymethyl methacrylate; (2) the critical stress and strain for onset of crazing at various temperatures; (3) the effect of molecular weight on crazing; and (4) the effect of multiaxial stretching on crazing of polymethyl methacrylate and other acrylic glazing materials.

  2. Potential flow analysis of glaze ice accretions on an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaguli, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical/experimental study of the flow fields about an airfoil with leading edge glaze ice accretion shapes are presented. Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel to measure surface pressure distributions and boundary layer separation reattachment characteristics on a general aviation wing section to which was affixed wooden ice shapes which approximated typical glaze ice accretions. Comparisons were made with predicted pressure distributions using current airfoil analysis codes as well as the Bristow mixed analysis/design airfoil panel code. The Bristow code was also used to predict the separation reattachment dividing streamline by inputting the appropriate experimental surface pressure distribution.

  3. Interior view, detail to show the gold painted and glazed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail to show the gold painted and glazed ceiling of the main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street; bronze chandeliers hang from this ceiling - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Technical Support Document for a Proposed IECC Glazing Orientation Restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a proposed revision to the International Energy Conservation Code that would restrict the amount of west-facing glazing permitted on low-rise residential buildings. The purpose and structure of the proposed change are discussed and its potential impacts on energy consumption and cooling peak load are quantified based on hour-by-hour building energy simulation.

  5. 10. INTERIOR KITCHEN UTILITY AREA SHOWING PARTITION, PANELED AND GLAZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR KITCHEN UTILITY AREA SHOWING PARTITION, PANELED AND GLAZED REAR DOOR, AND ROW OF 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AROUND EAST CORNER OF HOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. Investigation of surface water behavior during glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experimental investigations that focused on isolating the primary factors that control the behavior of unfrozen surface water during glaze ice accretion were conducted. Detailed microvideo observations were made of glaze ice accretions on 2.54 cm diam cylinders in a closed-loop refrigerated wind tunnel. Distinct zones of surface water behavior were observed; a smooth wet zone in the stagnation region with a uniform water film, a rough zone where surface tension effects caused coalescence of surface water into stationary beads, and a zone where surface water ran back as rivulets. The location of the transition from the smooth to the rough zone was found to migrate towards the stagnation point with time. Comparative tests were conducted to study the effect of the substrate thermal and roughness properties on ice accretion. The importance of surface water behavior was evaluated by the addition of a surface tension reducing agent to the icing tunnel water supply, which significantly altered the accreted glaze ice shape. Measurements were made to determine the contact angle behavior of water droplets on ice. A simple multizone modification to current glaze ice accretion models was proposed to include the observed surface roughness behavior.

  7. Modeling of surface roughness effects on glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Yamaguchi, Keiko; Berkowitz, Brian M.; Potapczuk, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A series of experimental investigations focused on studying the cause and effect of roughness on accreting glaze ice surfaces were conducted. Detailed microvideo observations were made of glaze ice accretions on 1 to 4 inch diameter cylinders in three icing wind tunnels (the Data Products of New England six inch test facility, the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel, and the B. F. Goodrich Ice Protection Research Facility). Infrared thermal video recordings were made of accreting ice surfaces in the Goodrich facility. Distinct zones of surface water behavior were observed; a smooth wet zone in the stagnation region with a uniform water film; a rough zone where surface tension effects caused coalescence of surface water into stationary beads; a horn zone where roughness elements grow into horn shapes; a runback zone where surface water ran back as rivulets; and a dry zone where rime feathers formed. The location of the transition from the smooth to the rough zone was found to migrate with time towards the stagnation point. The behavior of the transition appeared to be controlled by boundary layer transition and bead formation mechanisms at the interface between the smooth and rough zones. Regions of wet ice growth and enhanced heat transfer were clearly visible in the infrared video recordings of glaze ice surfaces. A simple multi-zone modification to the current glaze ice accretion model was proposed to include spatial variability in surface roughness.

  8. 28. LINEN CLOSET ON THIRD FLOOR, SHOWING GLAZED OPENINGS WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LINEN CLOSET ON THIRD FLOOR, SHOWING GLAZED OPENINGS WHICH GIVE LIGHT TO THE MAIN HALL Photograph DC-133-27 was taken from the arched opening to the left. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING GLAZED UPPER CABINETS. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING GLAZED UPPER CABINETS. NOTE THE FLOUR BIN IN FOREGROUND (SLIGHTLY AJAR) AND THE WINDOWS AT THE TOP OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the... windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle at 3 degrees,...

  11. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... S5.3.2.1, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from... intersection of the windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle...

  12. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... S5.3.2.1, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from... intersection of the windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle...

  13. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the... windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle at 3 degrees,...

  14. 49 CFR 571.205 - Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the... windshield surface and longitudinal vertical median plane of the vehicle, the lower boundary of shade bands for windshields shall be a plane inclined upwards from the X axis of the vehicle at 3 degrees,...

  15. Stepwise Activation of Switchable Glazing by Compositional Gradient of Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunsu; Kim, Dowan; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2016-10-05

    Thermotropic glazing is one of the most promising developments for adaptive solar control; however, a monotonic transparent-opaque transition limits its practical application. In this work, to render stepwise activation of the switchable glazing, we prepared multicomposition copolymers having a compositional gradient. By slow addition of the monomers in the reaction mixture during free-radical polymerization, the blend of copolymers with each polymer having different compositions of the monomers could be prepared. We found that the developed copolymers exhibit different thermal behaviors according to the monomer composition, yielding the nearly linear transmittance change over a wide temperature range due to the gradient hydrophilic-hydrophobic balances. By combining prepared copolymers with photothermal graphene oxide as a heat transducer, we demonstrated gradual solar control of the smart window in response to sunlight intensity in outdoor testing.

  16. Characterization of Ice Roughness Variations in Scaled Glaze Icing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Because of the significant influence of surface tension in governing the stability and breakdown of the liquid film in flooded stagnation regions of airfoils exposed to glaze icing conditions, the Weber number is expected to be a significant parameter governing the formation and evolution of ice roughness. To investigate the influence of the Weber number on roughness formation, 53.3-cm (21-in.) and 182.9-cm (72-in.) NACA 0012 airfoils were exposed to flow conditions with essentially the same Weber number and varying stagnation collection efficiency to illuminate similarities of the ice roughness created on the different airfoils. The airfoils were exposed to icing conditions in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Following exposure to the icing event, the airfoils were then scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm scanning system. The resulting point clouds were then analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger (2013) to determine the spatial roughness variations along the surfaces of the iced airfoils. The roughness characteristics on each airfoil were then compared using the relative geometries of the airfoil. The results indicate that features of the ice shape and roughness such as glaze-ice plateau limits and maximum airfoil roughness were captured well by Weber number and collection efficiency scaling of glaze icing conditions. However, secondary ice roughness features relating the instability and waviness of the liquid film on the glaze-ice plateau surface are scaled based on physics that were not captured by the local collection efficiency variations.

  17. Influence of Laser Glazing on the Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Jiangwei; Liao, Hanlin; Darut, Geoffrey; Stella, Jorge; Poirier, Thierry; Planche, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia powder was deposited on the substrates by atmospheric plasma spray. The coatings were post-treated by laser glazing under different parameters in order to densify them. The characterization of the laser molten pools under different laser treatment conditions was studied. Preheating processes were also employed. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the surface and cross section of as-sprayed and laser-glazed coatings were carried out to investigate the influence of laser glazing on the microstructure on laser-glazed coatings. The results show that preheating processes improve the coating in terms of deepening the laser-glazed layer, reducing the number of vertical cracks and surface density of cracks and widening the molten pool. Finally, the influences of linear energy density on the characterization of the glazed layer are discussed.

  18. Improvement of sound insulation performance of double-glazed windows by using viscoelastic connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, D.; Sawaki, S.; Mu, R.-L.

    2016-06-01

    A new method for improving the sound insulation performance of double-glazed windows is proposed. This technique uses viscoelastic materials as connectors between the two glass panels to ensure that the appropriate spacing is maintained. An analytical model that makes it possible to discuss the effects of spacing, contact area, and viscoelastic properties of the connectors on the performance in terms of sound insulation is developed. The validity of the model is verified by comparing its results with measured data. The numerical experiments using this analytical model showed the importance of the ability of the connectors to achieve the appropriate spacing and their viscoelastic properties, both of which are necessary for improving the sound insulation performance. In addition, it was shown that the most effective factor is damping: the stronger the damping, the more the insulation performance increases.

  19. Cross Flow Effects on Glaze Ice Roughness Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the impact of large-scale cross flow on the creation of ice roughness elements on the leading edge of a swept wing under glaze icing conditions. A three-dimensional triple-deck structure is developed to describe the local interaction of a 3 D air boundary layer with ice sheets and liquid films. A linear stability analysis is presented here. It is found that, as the sweep angle increases, the local icing instabilities enhance and the most linearly unstable modes are strictly three dimensional.

  20. Performance evaluation of single-glazed and double glazed collectors/regenerators for an open cycle absorption solar cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.; Wang, P.L.

    1998-07-01

    Feasibility for an open-cycle absorption solar cooling system operated in Kaohsiung, Taiwan is studied via a computer simulation program using previous obtained experimental correlations for the collector/regenerator (C/R) performance and the TMY data of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Three C/R models are considered in this study. They are the natural and the forced convection single-glazed Cs/Rs and the forced convection double-glazed C/R. The effects of the C/R area, the C/R solution flow rate, the solution storage, the chilled water temperature and the daily cooling demand on the system performance in terms of seasonal solar fraction are studied and discussed. The results show that the solar C/R is the key component of the cooling system and the open-cycle absorption system is a sound solar cooling system. It is shown that the double glazed forced convection C/R gives a better system performance. The simulation study is to evaluate the seasonal solar fraction, which is defined as F=(solar cooling load)/(total cooling load) Firstly, all three C/R models are simulated under the base case conditions. The seasonal averaged solar fraction for three models are found to be 0.7, 0.75 and 0.79, respectively, while the corresponding seasonal averaged C/R efficiencies are 15.7%, 18.4% and 20.6%. The double-glazed forced convection system performs better than the other two systems. This is consistent with the results of previous experimental studies for the C/R. A nearly linear relationship between the C/R efficiency and the solar fraction is shown. The solar fraction increases slightly with the solution storage volume for the natural convection case, but it is much more sensitive to the solution storage for the forced convection system. The solar fraction is relatively insensitive to the C/R area after a critical value is reached. A similar dependence is also found in other solar absorption air conditioning system alternatives.

  1. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Technique in Identification of Ancient Ceramics Bodies and Glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Khaled; Imam, Hisham; Madkour, Fatma; Meheina, Galila; Gamal, Yosr

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we report a study on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a promising non-destructive technique for the identification of the colored glazes, and clay's bodies of Fatimid ceramics ancient artifacts. The scientific examination of ceramics may be helpful in unraveling the history of ancient shards, particularly as the process of its production such as firing condition and temperatures. The analysis of pottery, ceramic bodies and glazed coatings is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece. Revealing the technical skills of ancient potters has been one of the most important issues for gaining a deep insight of bygone culture and also it is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece of art. LIBS measurements were carried out by focusing a Nd-YAG laser at 1064 nm with pulse width of 10 ns and 50 mJ pulse energy on the surface of the sample by a 100-mm focal length lens. The plasma emission was collected by telescopic system and transferred through a fiber to Echelle spectrometer attached to an ICCD camera. The focal spot diameter is found to be in the range of 100-150 μm. which is small enough to consider this technique as a non-destructive technique. LIBS technique clarified that each piece of archaeological objects has its own finger print. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out on these archaeological ceramic body samples to study raw materials such as clays, which allowed the investigation of the crystal structure and showed the changes in its structure through firing process. This provided information on the ceramic characteristic and composition of the ceramic bodies.

  2. Physical Mechanisms of Glaze Ice Scallop Formations on Swept Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Reshotko, Eli

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to understand the physical mechanisms that lead to the formation of scallops on swept wings. Icing runs were performed on a NACA 0012 swept wing tip at 45 deg, 30 deg, and 15 deg sweep angles. A baseline case was chosen and direct measurements of scallop height and spacing, castings, video data and close-up photographic data were obtained. The results showed the scallops are made of glaze ice feathers that grow from roughness elements that have reached a minimum height and are located beyond a given distance from the attachment line. This distance depends on tunnel conditions and sweep angle, and is the critical parameter in the formation of scallops. It determines if complete scallops, incomplete scallops or no scallops are going to be formed. The mechanisms of growth for complete and incomplete scallops were identified. The effect of velocity, temperature and LWC on scallop formation was studied. The possibility that cross flow instability may be the physical mechanism that triggers the growth of roughness elements into glaze ice feathers is examined.

  3. Development of radiative-cooling materials. Final technical report: FY 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Work on research and development on glazing and selective emitter materials that will enhance day and night sky radiative cooling is described. The emphasis is on glazing development with a secondary interest in the appropriate selective emitter. The testing focused on the individual material properties. (MHR)

  4. Effect of various treatment and glazing (coating) techniques on the roughness and wettability of ceramic dental restorative surfaces.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, G; Polat, H; Polat, M; Coskun, G

    2006-12-01

    Surface treatment procedures such as grinding and polishing are needed to provide the ceramic dental restorative materials with proper fitting and occlusion. The treated surfaces are customarily glazed to improve the strength and smoothness. Though smoothness and wetting of the dental surfaces are important to minimize bacterial plaque retention, influence of the surface treatment and glazing procedures on the final surface roughness and its correlation to wettability are overlooked. In this work, effect of various treatment (diamond fraising, stoning, sanding and aluminum oxide and rubber polishing) and glazing (auto and overglazing) techniques on the final roughness and the resulting wettability of dental ceramic surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and atomic force microscopy (AFM) scans, 75 scans per sample. The surfaces were characterized and assigned an average roughness measure, R(a). The wettability of the same surfaces was evaluated using micro-contact angle measurements (25 micro-bubbles placed on a grid on each surface) to correlate the final surface roughness and wettability. The results show that overglazing prevails over surface irregularities from different treatment procedures and provides homegeneously smooth surfaces with mean R(a)<10 nm. It also produces uniformly wetted surfaces with low contact angles around 20 degrees . The autoglazed surfaces are less smooth (mean R(a) around 50 nm) and displays sporadic topographic irregularities. They display larger and less uniform contact angles ranging between 35 degrees and 50 degrees . The results suggest that overglazing should be preferred after surface treatment to obtain a smooth and well-wetted dental ceramic surface.

  5. Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price

    SciTech Connect

    Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

    2012-06-30

    The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational factory

  6. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 in. and the scale model had a chord of 21 in. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 kn and with MVD's of 85 and 170 micron. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number WeL. The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number Wef. All tests were conducted at 0 deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For nondimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-D ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-D scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  7. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 inches and the scale model had a chord of 21 inches. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 knots and with MVD's of 85 and 170 microns. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number W (sub eL). The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the non-dimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number W (sub ef). All tests were conducted at 0 degrees angle of arrival. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For non-dimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-dimensional ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-dimensional scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  8. A multi-analytical approach for the chemical composition investigation of Byzantine and Mediaeval glazed pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Lighea; Caliri, Claudia; Santos, Hellen Cristine; Catalano, Roberto; Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Imperiale, Marco Leo; Rizzo, Francesca; Romano, Francesco Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Glazed pottery from the mediaeval site at "Cantiere Mitello" in Otranto (Italy) have been investigated by means of several portable and non invasive techniques: X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (micro-XRF) scanning and alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission (alpha-PIXE). The results have been compared with some later sherds of Byzantine glazed pottery from the site of "Giuggianello" in Otranto (Italy). Results show that glazes present an high amount of Pb. Byzantine are also richer in Al compared to the first group. The color is generally given by Fe-Cu-Mn oxides. In general the mediaeval glazes can be considered to be in accordance with the Roman tradition. The presence of a consistent amount of SnO (3%) in a sample belonging to the first group, could suggest the use of tin as opacifier agent even at an early period.

  9. Do Glazed Ceramic Pots in a Mexico-US Border City Still Contain Lead?

    PubMed

    Valles-Medina, Ana M; Osuna-Leal, Angel I; Martinez-Cervantes, Maria Elena; Castillo-Fregoso, Maria Carmen; Vazquez-Erlbeck, Martha; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the presence of lead in glazed ceramic pots in a Mexico-US border city, 41 clay pots were sampled. The pots were purchased in several establishments located in different geographical areas of the city. The presence of lead was determined using LeadCheck Swabs. Most (58.5%) of the pots were from the State of Jalisco and 24.4% were of unknown origin. Only 4 pots did not contain varnish and were lead-negative. Thirty-seven (81.1%) of the glazed pots were lead positive. Among the lead-negative pots, 4 showed the label "this pot is lead-free." Thus, if we consider the remaining 33 glazed pots without the "Lead-Free" label, 90.9% were lead-positive and only 9.1% were lead-negative. We also found that earthenware glazed utensils without the "Lead-Free" label were 1.6 times more likely to contain lead (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.5), P = 0.003. We concluded that lead was detected in almost all acquired food containers. Government interventions in Mexico have focused on training manufacturers to make lead-free glazed ceramics but it has been difficult to eradicate this practice. Educational interventions to make and acquire lead-free glazed ceramics should be targeted to both sellers and buyers.

  10. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  11. Do Glazed Ceramic Pots in a Mexico-US Border City Still Contain Lead?

    PubMed Central

    Valles-Medina, Ana M.; Martinez-Cervantes, Maria Elena; Castillo-Fregoso, Maria Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the presence of lead in glazed ceramic pots in a Mexico-US border city, 41 clay pots were sampled. The pots were purchased in several establishments located in different geographical areas of the city. The presence of lead was determined using LeadCheck Swabs. Most (58.5%) of the pots were from the State of Jalisco and 24.4% were of unknown origin. Only 4 pots did not contain varnish and were lead-negative. Thirty-seven (81.1%) of the glazed pots were lead positive. Among the lead-negative pots, 4 showed the label “this pot is lead-free.” Thus, if we consider the remaining 33 glazed pots without the “Lead-Free” label, 90.9% were lead-positive and only 9.1% were lead-negative. We also found that earthenware glazed utensils without the “Lead-Free” label were 1.6 times more likely to contain lead (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0–2.5), P = 0.003. We concluded that lead was detected in almost all acquired food containers. Government interventions in Mexico have focused on training manufacturers to make lead-free glazed ceramics but it has been difficult to eradicate this practice. Educational interventions to make and acquire lead-free glazed ceramics should be targeted to both sellers and buyers. PMID:27379279

  12. An in vitro investigation to compare the surface roughness of auto glazed, reglazed and chair side polished surfaces of Ivoclar and Vita feldspathic porcelain.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sumit; Kakade, Dilip; Jambhekar, Shantanu; Jain, Vinay

    2013-12-01

    The change in surface roughness after different surface finishing techniques has attracted the attention of several prosthodontists regarding wear of opposing teeth or restorative material and the strength; plaque retention and appearance of the restoration. However, there is considerable controversy concerning the best methods to achieve the smoothest and strongest porcelain restorations after chair side clinical adjustments. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the average surface roughness of a self-glazed surface, a chair side polished surface and a reglazed surface of ceramic. Two feldspathic porcelain, namely VITA VMK94 (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Sachingen, Germany) and IVOCLAR CLASSIC (Vivadent AG, FL-9494 Schaan, Liechtenstein) were selected to fabricate 20 specimens of each in the shape of shade guide tabs. A medium-grit diamond rotary cutting instrument was used to remove the glaze layer, and then the surface of half the specimens were re-glazed and the other half were polished using a well-defined sequence of polishing comprising of: Shofu porcelain polishing system, White gloss disc/polishing wheel, Silicone cone with diamond polishing paste and finally with small buff wheel with pumice slurry. The surface roughness (Ra) (μm) of the specimens was evaluated using a profilometer and scanning electron microscope. The data were statistically analyzed by using Student's t test. The results had shown that there is no statistically significant difference both quantitatively and qualitatively, between the surface roughness of reglazed and chair-side polished surface. In addition, both reglazed and chair-side polished surfaces are better than the autoglazed surface. Within all the groups, there is no significant difference between companies. Polishing an adjusted porcelain surface with the suggested sequence of polishing will lead to a finish similar to a re-glazed surface. Therefore chair-side polishing can be a good alternative to reglazing for

  13. Filament-strung stand-off elements for maintaining pane separation in vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOEpatents

    Bettger, Kenneth J; Stark, David H

    2013-08-20

    A vacuum insulating glazing unit (VIGU) comprises first and second panes of transparent material, first and second anchors, a plurality of filaments, a plurality of stand-off elements, and seals. The first and second panes of transparent material have edges and inner and outer faces, are disposed with their inner faces substantially opposing one another, and are separated by a gap having a predetermined height. The first and second anchors are disposed at opposite edges of one pane of the VIGU. Each filament is attached at one end to the first anchor and at the other end to the second anchor, and the filaments are collectively disposed between the panes substantially parallel to one another. The stand-off elements are affixed to each filament at predetermined positions along the filament, and have a height substantially equal to the predetermined height of the gap such that the each stand-off element touches the inner surfaces of both panes. The seals are disposed about the edges of the panes, enclosing the stand-off elements within a volume between the panes from which the atmosphere may be evacuated to form a partial vacuum.

  14. Smart thermochromic glazing for energy saving window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutjunjan, Ruben; Markova, Tatiana; Halopenen, Ilya; Maksimov, Ivan; Tutunnikov, Anatolii; Yanush, Oleg

    2005-08-01

    Thermochromic laminated glazing (TLG) aids in reducing the energy needs of a building and providing indoor comfort. The polymeric interlayer of TLG is doped with transition metal (Fe, Cr, W, etc.) complexes, which change their coordination and the transmission or color of TLG under the influence of light and heat fluxes. At present we have conversions fiom light gray or brown to dark gray or brown and fiom rosy or yellow to blue or green at our disposal. TLG is able to sense changes in the light and adjust accordingly. It can block out the sunlight during the brightest parts of the day or capitalize on the available light during overcast days. As evaluated on the basis of tests, TLG has a good UV stability. It offers practical benefits of a low cost and easy fabrication. No electrical or any other driving power is needed to operate TLG. The energy modeling of the heat transfer in ventilated facades showed that TLG can provide a 15-30% decrease of the building energy consumption during the winter heating time in the climatic conditions of some regions in Russia. During the summer season the reduction of the solar energy gain reaches 30-40%; this is enough to give up air- cooling systems altogether.

  15. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. ); Soule, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Optical properties database for high performance glazings. Task 12: Building energy analysis and design tools for solar applications, Subtask A.1: High-performance glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-06-30

    The framework used for the data is described; maintain and updating the database is addressed; and covers extensions of the database are covered. The appendices include the glass library (Appendix A) and the glazing system library (Appendix B) which for the foundation of the optical property database, and a spectral data reporting format (Appendix C).

  17. Study of Glazes and Their Effects on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelains from Ugandan Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olupot, Peter W.; Jonsson, Stefan; Byaruhanga, Joseph K.

    2010-11-01

    Kaolin, ball clay, feldspar, and sand were collected from deposits in Uganda, milled and sieved to particle sizes of 45, 45, 53, and 25 μm, respectively. Three porcelain bodies and five glazes were formulated from them. The glazes were applied on porcelain specimens and subsequently evaluated for their effects on properties of porcelain samples. The formulated specimens were investigated using dilatometry, Steger test, FEG-SEM, XRD, 4-point bending, dielectric strength, and fracture toughness tests. A porcelain specimen consisting of 68% SiO2, 19% Al2O3, 4.7% K2O, and a glaze RO:0.57Al2O3:4.86SiO2 exhibited MOR of 105 MPa with Weibull modulus of 5.6 and a dielectric strength of 18 kV/mm upon firing at a heating rate of 6 °C/min to 1250 °C and holding for 2 h. The microstructure of the high-strength specimen exhibited round mullite needles, quartz, and glass. Holding samples for 2 h at peak temperature resulted in a 22% increase in MOR compared to 1 h holding. Glazing further improved strength by 67% for the best sample. Compressive stresses in glaze contributed to the strengthening effect. The dielectric and mechanical strength values obtained qualify the formulated sample for application in electrical insulation.

  18. Experimental evaluation of sound transmission through single, double and laminated glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Rawad; Descombes, Georges; Guillemard, Francis; Elhachem, Elias; Larbi, Walid

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of sound transmission loss through single, double and laminated glazing by respecting the ISO recommendations. They are various methods for measuring the transmission loss of partitions. The laboratory experiments were performed in order to measure the airborne transmission, by placing four configurations of windows (single, double and two laminated glazing) between two reverberation independent rooms. The windows were as close as possible in size to the opening and the edges were sealed. They were subjected to diffuse field characterized by its white band frequency spectrum. The experimental set-up is illustrated, then the results are presented and discussed. The insulation conferred by the glazed is characterized, and the dips of insulation are located.

  19. Simulation of complex glazing products; from optical data measurements to model based predictive controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Christian

    2012-04-01

    Complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds, fritted glass and woven shades require more detailed optical and thermal input data for their components than specular non light-redirecting glazing systems. Various methods for measuring these data sets are described in this paper. These data sets are used in multiple simulation tools to model the thermal and optical properties of complex glazing systems. The output from these tools can be used to generate simplified rating values or as an input to other simulation tools such as whole building annual energy programs, or lighting analysis tools. I also describe some of the challenges of creating a rating system for these products and which factors affect this rating. A potential future direction of simulation and building operations is model based predictive controls, where detailed computer models are run in real-time, receiving data for an actual building and providing control input to building elements such as shades.

  20. A Passion for Pots: A Lesson in Glaze Decoration for Students of All Ages. AMACO[R] Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet; Gamble, David

    This lesson requires attention to the composition and design elements essential to decoration of a curved surface. Skills taught are the techniques and processes of ceramic glazing and underglazing. Supplies required include commercially-made terra cotta flower pots, glazes, and a kiln. The plan includes lesson goals and objectives; background…

  1. The effect of laser glazing on life of ZrO2 TBCs in cyclic burner rig tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of laser glazed zirconia (containing 8 wt% Y2O3) TBC's was evaluated in burner rig cyclic oxidation tests at 1000 and 1050 C. It was found that the cycle duration has no effect on life of TBC's and that the increase in thickness of the glazed layer caused a slight reduction in life.

  2. Character of laser-glazed, plasma-sprayed zirconia coatings on stainless steel substrata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischman, G. S.; Chen, C. H.; Rigsbee, J. M.; Brown, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia was applied as coatings to 316L stainless steel substrata using an 80-kw arc-plasma unit. Some of these coating-substrate systems were subsequently glazed using a 10 kw CO2 continuous-wavelength laser. SEM was used to characterize the microstructures of the coatings and coating-substrate interfaces. Results are reported and discussed.

  3. New milarite/osumilite-type phase formed during ancient glazing of an Egyptian scarab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artioli, G.; Angelini, I.; Nestola, F.

    2013-02-01

    A scarab found in grave 25 of the Monte Prama necropolis, near Cabras, Oristano, Sardinia, is of special importance for the archaeological interpretation and dating of this important archaeological site. The object has been misinterpreted in the past as composed by bone: recent archaeometric analyses showed that it is a glazed steatite of Egyptian origin and that the altered surface contains interesting phases crystallized during the high-temperature interaction of the Mg-rich talc core with the alkali-rich glass used for glazing. A novel single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the phases indicates that it is a new compound having the milarite-osumilite structure type, with a peculiar composition close to (Na1.52K0.12□0.36)(Mg3)(Mg1.72Cu0.16Fe0.12)(Si11.4Al0.6)O30, not reported for naturally occurring minerals. The structural and crystal chemical features of the compound, together with the known high-temperature stability of the series, allow a complete interpretation of the glazing process and conditions, based on direct application of the glaze on the steatite core with subsequent treatment at temperatures above 1000 °C.

  4. Extent of Low-accumulation 'Wind Glaze' Areas on the East Antarctic Plateau: Implications for Continental Ice Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scambos, Theodore A.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Haran, T.; Bohlander, J.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.; Jezek, K.; Long, D.; Urbini, S.; Farness, K.; Neumann, T.; Albert, M.; Winther, J.-G.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent katabatic winds form widely distributed localized areas of near-zero net surface accumulation on the East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) plateau. These areas have been called 'glaze' surfaces due to their polished appearance. They are typically 2-200 square kilometers in area and are found on leeward slopes of ice-sheet undulations and megadunes. Adjacent, leeward high-accumulation regions (isolated dunes) are generally smaller and do not compensate for the local low in surface mass balance (SMB). We use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field-gathered datasets to map the extent of wind glaze in the EAIS above 1500m elevation. Mapping criteria are derived from distinctive surface and subsurface characteristics of glaze areas resulting from many years of intense annual temperature cycling without significant burial. Our results show that 11.2 plus or minus 1.7%, or 950 plus or minus 143 x 10(exp 3) square kilometers, of the EAIS above 1500m is wind glaze. Studies of SMB interpolate values across glaze regions, leading to overestimates of net mass input. Using our derived wind-glaze extent, we estimate this excess in three recent models of Antarctic SMB at 46-82 Gt. The lowest-input model appears to best match the mean in regions of extensive wind glaze.

  5. Resin bonding of metal brackets to glazed zirconia with a porcelain primer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Milim; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare the shear bond strength between orthodontic metal brackets and glazed zirconia using different types of primer before applying resin cement and to determine which primer was more effective. Methods Zirconia blocks were milled and embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned to one of four groups: nonglazed zirconia with sandblasting and zirconia primer (NZ); glazed zirconia with sandblasting, etching, and zirconia primer (GZ); glazed zirconia with sandblasting, etching, and porcelain primer (GP); and glazed zirconia with sandblasting, etching, zirconia primer, and porcelain primer (GZP). A stainless steel metal bracket was bonded to each target surface with resin cement, and all specimens underwent thermal cycling. The shear bond strength of the specimens was measured by a universal testing machine. A scanning electron microscope, three-dimensional optical surface-profiler, and stereoscopic microscope were used to image the zirconia surfaces. The data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance and the Fisher exact test. Results Group GZ showed significantly lower shear bond strength than did the other groups. No statistically significant differences were found among groups NZ, GP, and GZP. All specimens in group GZ showed adhesive failure between the zirconia and resin cement. In groups NZ and GP, bonding failed at the interface between the resin cement and bracket base or showed complex adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusions Porcelain primer is the more appropriate choice for bonding a metal bracket to the surface of a full-contour glazed zirconia crown with resin cement. PMID:26629476

  6. An analysis of the benefits of photovoltaic-coated glazing on owning and operating costs of high rise commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Keith Everette

    Energy efficient glazing is necessary to reduce heat gains or losses that contribute to the high-energy use of buildings. However, high-rise commercial buildings that use energy efficient glazing are still consumptive. To reduce their energy use further, recent studies have integrated photovoltaic glazed window systems into the building shell. With limited light transmittance due to their required production of electricity, photovoltaic glazed windows can be developed with thermal properties similar to Low-E coatings. Consequently, these window systems can reduce operating costs of buildings without reducing the human satisfaction of the built environment. To understand the relationship between photovoltaic windows, energy use and human satisfaction, this study investigates the effects of photovoltaic glazed windows on energy use of large commercial buildings and includes an assessment of the overall human satisfaction of the workers within photovoltaic glazed office spaces. This study targets high-rise commercial buildings and their occupants in urban centers of the four census regions---North, Northeast, South, and Midwest. A prototypical building was used to develop the base case simulations for the DOE-2 energy simulation program and the PV F-Chart photovoltaic analysis program. By substituting the appropriate variable in the base case simulation for each site, building was simulated to evaluate the impact of the PV glazing on the building's heat loss/gaining as well as the amount of electricity that could be expected from the PV. To test for human satisfaction, a survey was performed to assess the overall preference of the subjects to the office spaces using the photovoltaic glazed windows. An analysis of the variance was also conducted to test for significantly different treatment means. Overall, the findings of this study show that photovoltaic windows significantly decrease the energy used by high-rise commercial buildings. Payback periods 11 to 20 years

  7. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon.

  8. In vitro analysis of different properties of acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis submitted to accelerated aging with or without photopolymerized glaze.

    PubMed

    Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos; Nagay, Bruna Egumi; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Bonatto, Liliane da Rocha; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Moreno, Amália; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; da Cruz, Nilson Cristino; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2016-12-01

    The effect of a photopolymerized glaze on different properties of acrylic resin (AR) for ocular prostheses submitted to accelerated aging was investigated. Forty discs were divided into 4 groups: N1 AR without glaze (G1); colorless AR without glaze (G2); N1 AR with glaze (G3); and colorless AR with glaze (G4). All samples were polished with sandpaper (240, 600 and 800-grit). In G1 and G2, a 1200-grit sandpaper was also used. In G3 and G4, samples were coated with MegaSeal glaze. Property analysis of color stability, microhardness, roughness, and surface energy, and assays of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were performed before and after the accelerated aging (1008h). Data were submitted to the ANOVA and Tukey Test (p<0.05). Groups with glaze exhibited statistically higher color change and roughness after aging. The surface microhardness significantly decreased in groups with glaze and increased in groups without glaze. The surface energy increased after the aging, independent of the polishing procedure. All groups showed an increase of surface irregularities. Photopolymerized glaze is an inadequate surface treatment for AR for ocular prostheses and it affected the color stability, roughness, and microhardness. The accelerated aging interfered negatively with the properties of resins.

  9. Evaluation Methods of Contamination Flashover Voltage Performance of Cylindrical Type Semi-conducting Glaze Porcelain Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kazuma; Hayashi, Akio; Saka, Chiharu; Sakanishi, Kenji; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Ito, Susumu; Fujii, Osamu

    Higher contamination flashover voltage of a semi-conducting glaze (SG) insulator owes primarily to the drying effect by leakage current flowing in the glaze. Significant reduction in contamination flashover voltage was confirmed on a cylindrical SG insulator when fog density was increased from 0.5g/m3 to 13g/m3 in clean fog test. The effect of de-energized duration between trip-out and re-energization on the contamination flashover voltage of a cylindrical SG insulator under cold-wet switch-on conditions was investigated. As the de-energized duration becomes shorter, the flashover voltage of a cylindrical SG insulator becomes higher. Higher contamination design voltages may be adopted even under cold-wet switch-on conditions.

  10. Microstructural stability of wrought, laser and electron beam glazed NARloy-Z alloy at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.; Jerman, G.; Bhat, B.; Poorman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructure of wrought, laser, and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z(Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr) was investigated for thermal stability at elevated temperatures (539 to 760 C (1,100 to 1,400 F)) up to 94 h. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were employed for studying microstructural evolution and kinetics of precipitation. Grain boundary precipitation and precipitate free zones (PFZ's) were observed in the wrought alloy after exposing to temperatures above 605 C (1,120 F). The fine-grained microstructure observed in the laser and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z was much more stable at elevated temperatures. Microstructural changes correlated well with hardness measurements.

  11. Water Droplet Impingement on Simulated Glaze, Mixed, and Rime Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadakis, Michael; Rachman, Arief; Wong, See-Cheuk; Yeong, Hsiung-Wei; Hung, Kuohsing E.; Vu, Giao T.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2007-01-01

    Water droplet impingement data were obtained at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) for a 36-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil with and without simulated ice using a dye-tracer method. The simulated ice shapes were defined with the NASA Glenn LEWICE 2.2 ice accretion program and including one rime, four mixed and five glaze ice shapes. The impingement experiments were performed with spray clouds having median volumetric diameters of 20, 52, 111, 154, and 236 micron. Comparisons to the experimental data were generated which showed good agreement for the rime and mixed shapes at lower drop sizes. For larger drops sizes LEWICE 2.2 over predicted the collection efficiencies due to droplet splashing effects which were not modeled in the program. Also for the more complex glaze ice shapes interpolation errors resulted in the over prediction of collection efficiencies in cove or shadow regions of ice shapes.

  12. Rime-, mixed- and glaze-ice evaluations of three scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate three icing scaling relationships or 'laws' for an unheated model. The laws were LWC x time = constant, one proposed by a Swedish-Russian group and one used at ONERA in France. Icing tests were performed in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with cylinders ranging from 2.5- to 15.2-cm diameter. Reference conditions were chosen to provide rime, mixed and glaze ice. Scaled conditions were tested for several scenarios of size and velocity scaling, and the resulting ice shapes compared. For rime-ice conditions, all three of the scaling laws provided scaled ice shapes which closely matched reference ice shapes. For mixed ice and for glaze ice none of the scaling laws produced consistently good simulation of the reference ice shapes. Explanations for the observed results are proposed, and scaling issues requiring further study are identified.

  13. Practical significance and calculation of surface tension of glass, enamels and glazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Surface tension is important in the formation of streaks in the whole procedure of enameling and glazing., in the action of TiO2 as opacifier, in the addition of borax to enamels, or metals to glasses, and in the corrosion of refractories by molten charges. By the use of known methods for measuring surface tension additive constants are found which give correct results within 1% with no discrepancy due to B2O3.

  14. Nongray-radiative and convective-conductive thermal coupling in Teflon-glazed, selective-black, flat-plate solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Rhee, S. J.

    1984-05-01

    An analysis is presented comparing Teflon film with glass for the inner glazing of a double-glazed selective-black, flat-plate solar collector. The effect of spacing between glazings and between the inner glazing and absorber plate is examined. It is shown that a 12.5-micron Teflon film is superior to glass for the inner glazing of a selective-black collector, because the advantage of its high solar transparency overwhelms the disadvantage of its infrared transparency. A too-small spacing between a selective-black absorber and its inner cover short-circuits the desirable thermal radiation resistance offered by a selective-black absorber plate. Account is taken of spectral variations in the radiation properties of glass, Teflon, and the absorber plate. Allowance is made for the fact that critical Rayleigh number is lower for a plastic film inner glazing than for a glass one.

  15. Nondestructive determination of lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    1996-09-01

    Quantitation capabilities of radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (RXRFS) for determining lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes were investigated. Twenty-one air-dried glazes and 85 fired glazes on test tiles were analyzed by using {sup 109}Cd and {sup 57}Co excitation sources. Accurate Pb determinations, with limits of detection (LODs) of about 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} for 5 min counting times, were achieved by using the 75 keV {Kappa}{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} X-ray photopeak and a Pb foil calibration procedure. Cd, Sn, Sb, and Ba concentrations were determined with LODs from about 0.5 to 1.5 mg/cm{sup 2}. For Pb and Ba, results obtained by using absorption corrections based only on element concentrations determined by RXRFS and an iterative approach led to analytical biases of {le}4% relative to results obtained by using corrections based on known total element compositions. Biases were more severe for Cd, Sn, and Sb because lower X-ray energies were involved and sensitivities varied as a function of matrix Pb content. Pb concentrations were above LODs (1.3-40 mg/cm{sup 2}) in 39 of 47 fired {open_quotes}food-safe{close_quotes} glazes and in 33 of the other 38 fired glazes (0.4-39 mg/cm{sup 2}). 15 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Lacunae infills for in situ treatment of historic glazed tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Marta T.; Esteves, Lurdes; Ferreira, Teresa A.; Candeias, António; Tennent, Norman H.; Rodrigues, José Delgado; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic-inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV-Temp-RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability.

  17. Parametric Experimental Study of the Formation of Glaze Ice Shapes on Swept Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Reshotko, Eli

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of velocity and sweep angle on the critical distance in ice accretion formation on swept wings at glaze ice conditions. The critical distance is defined as the distance from the attachment line to the beginning of the zone where roughness elements develop into glaze ice feathers. Icing runs were performed on a NACA 00 1 2 swept wing tip at velocities of 75, 100, 150, and 200 miles per hour. At each velocity and tunnel condition, the sweep angle was changed from 0 deg to 45 deg at 5 deg increments. Casting data, ice shape tracings, and close-up photographic data were obtained. The results showed that at given velocity and tunnel conditions, as the sweep angle is increased from 0 deg to 25 deg the critical distance slowly decreases. As the sweep angle is increased past 25 deg, the critical distance starts decreasing more rapidly. For 75 and 100 mph it reaches a value of 0 millimeters at 35 deg. For 150 and 200 mph it reaches a value of 0 millimeters at 40 deg. On the ice accretion, as the sweep angle is increased from 0 deg to 25 deg, the extent of the attachment line zone slowly decreases. In the glaze ice feathers zone, the angle that the preferred direction of growth of the feathers makes with respect to the attachment line direction increases. But overall, the ice accretions remain similar to the 0 deg sweep angle case. As the sweep angle is increased above 25 deg, the extent of the attachment line zone decreases rapidly and complete scallops form at 35 deg sweep angle for 75 and 100 mph, and at 40 deg for 150 and 200 mph.

  18. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    PubMed

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  19. The Successful Prevention of Lead Poisoning in the Glazing of Earthenware in the North Staffordshire Potteries*

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, A.

    1963-01-01

    In 1572 an extensive epidemic of disease characterized by severe abdominal colic, later identified as lead poisoning, occurred in France in the province of Poitou. Citois named the disease colica Pictonum, that is the colic of the Pictones, the ancient Celtic tribe who inhabited the area. There-after the term was used generically for lead poisoning, otherwise plumbism or saturnism. The origin of the poisoning was traced to the practice of vintners who sophisticated sour acid wines with lead oxide. This adulteration restored the sweetness of the wine by the formation of sugar of lead, lead acetate. Similar outbreaks of poisoning were traced to the same fraudulent practice in the wine-growing districts of Germany and Spain. The preparation and storage of food and drink in containers of pewter and lead glazed earthenware resulted in accidental contamination of the substances, the consumption of which caused acute and chronic plumbism. Among the most frequently lead-contaminated liquors was Devonshire cyder, hence Devonshire colic. Occupational lead poisoning was described among lead miners and smelters in the mid-sixteenth century. Thereafter the disease was observed in a wide variety of trades and processes. The subject was comprehensively reviewed by Tanquerel des Planches in 1839. Among the workmen frequently affected were dippers in the pottery industry where lead oxide and lead carbonate were constituents of the glaze. The disease appeared as a serious problem among dippers and their assistants in North Staffordshire, the centre of the manufacture of earthenware and china in Great Britain. The manifestations of the disease included colic, convulsions, paralysis of limbs, blindness, and general emaciation. Female lead workers suffered excessively from abortions and miscarriages and many of their infants died of fits. The situation became so serious that the Government were compelled to enquire into the problem through a succession of Commissions. Meantime the

  20. Commercialization Plan Support for Development of Low Cost Vacuum Insulating Glazing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-449

    SciTech Connect

    Dameron, Arrelaine

    2015-07-09

    During the duration of this CRADA, V-Glass and NREL will partner in testing, analysis, performance forecasting, costing, and evaluation of V-Glass’s GRIPWELD™ process technology for creating a low cost hermetic seal for conventional and vacuum glazing. Upon successful evaluation of hermeticity, V-Glass’s GRIPWELD™ will be evaluated for its potential use in highly insulating window glazing.

  1. Electrochemical identification of metal ions in archaeological ceramic glazes by stripping voltammetry at graphite/polyester composite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Carbó, A; Doménech-Carbó, M T; Osete-Cortina, L; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Bosch-Reig, F; Mateo-Castro, R

    2002-01-04

    The electrochemical response of metal ions in different samples of coloured ceramic tin-lead glazes attached to graphite/polyester composite electrodes is described. In addition to the ubiquous signals for lead, reductive dissolution processes are followed by anodic stripping peaks for Co, Cu, Sb, Mn, Sn and Fe, enabling the direct identification of such elements in microsamples proceeding from archaeological glazed tiles from Valencia (Spain) workshops (16th-18th century). Additional anodic and cathodic peaks corresponding to redox processes involving metal species in solution generated during stripping processes are also used. Peak potentials, Tafel plots and shape parameters are used for characterising the different species.

  2. An Investigation of the Impact Resistance of Glazing Materials for Railroad Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    plastic . D 1.43 0.56 Tempered glass ; polyvinylbutyl inner layer; tempered glass . . 0.635 0.250 Abrasion resistant polycarbonate plastic , F 1.43 0.56...strengthened glass ; vinyl inner layer; heat-strengthened glass ; vinyl inner layer; heat-strengthened glass . K 1.27 0.50 Glass ; plastic interlayer; glass ...L 1.27 0.50 Glass ; plastic interlayer; polycarbonate plastic . IN1 1.43 0.56 Tempered glass ; interlayer; polycarbonate;

  3. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  4. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows

    PubMed Central

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy (“Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network” (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], “Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates” (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows. PMID:27115028

  5. Two dimensional finite element thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2016-10-01

    A two dimensional (2D) transient thermal model with line-heat-source was developed by Finite Element Method (FEM) for laser surface glazing of H13 tool steel using commercial software-ANSYS 15. The geometry of the model was taken as a transverse circular cross-section of cylindrical specimen. Two different power levels (300W, 200W) were used with 0.2mm width of laser beam and 0.15ms exposure time. Temperature distribution, heating and cooling rates, and the dimensions of modified surface were analysed. The maximum temperatures achieved were 2532K (2259°C) and 1592K (1319°C) for laser power 300W and 200W respectively. The maximum cooling rates were 4.2×107 K/s for 300W and 2×107 K/s for 200W. Depths of modified zone increased with increasing laser power. From this analysis, it can be predicted that for 0.2mm beam width and 0.15ms time exposer melting temperature of H13 tool steel is achieved within 200-300W power range of laser beam in laser surface glazing.

  6. Initial enamel wear of glazed and polished leucite-based porcelains with different fusing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Saiki, Mitiko; de Campos, Tomie Nakakuki; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami

    2009-01-01

    This study used the radiotracer method to measure the initial enamel wear caused by low- and high-fusing porcelains after glazing or polishing. It also tested the correlation between enamel wear and porcelain surface roughness (Ra). Surface morphology was assessed by optical microscopy. Cylindrical specimens of three porcelains (two high-fusing, one low-fusing) were either autoglazed or polished. Flattened enamel specimens were irradiated with neutrons and submitted to the wear assay for 2,500 cycles in distilled water using a 285 g load; the released beta 32P particles were measured for 10 minutes. For all samples, Ra was recorded with a profilometer before and after testing. Enamel wear was not significantly different for porcelain or finishing method but there was a trend of interaction between the two variables (p = 0.08). A positive correlation was found between enamel wear and the initial Ra of porcelain (r = 0.71). The glazed surfaces of high-fusing porcelains were wavy and had a greater Ra, while the polished surfaces had grooves and pores prior to wear testing. The low-fusing porcelain demonstrated lower Ra and a more homogeneous surface. All abraded surfaces had similar morphology after the wear assay.

  7. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  8. A multiproxy approach to evaluate biocidal treatments on biodeteriorated majolica glazed tiles.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, M L; Miller, A Z; Martin-Sanchez, P M; Mirão, J; Gomez-Bolea, A; Machado-Moreira, B; Cerqueira-Alves, L; Jurado, V; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Lima, A; Phillips, A J L; Pina, F; Macedo, M F

    2016-12-01

    The Fishing House located on the grounds of the Marquis of Pombal Palace, Oeiras, Portugal, was built in the 18th century. During this epoch, Portuguese gardens, such as the one surrounding the Fishing House, were commonly ornamented with glazed wall tile claddings. Currently, some of these outdoor tile panels are covered with dark colored biofilms, contributing to undesirable aesthetic changes and eventually inducing chemical and physical damage to the tile surfaces. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the investigated biofilms are mainly composed of green algae, cyanobacteria and dematiaceous fungi. With the aim of mitigating biodeterioration, four different biocides (TiO2 nanoparticles, Biotin(®) T, Preventol(®) RI 80 and Albilex Biostat(®) ) were applied in situ to the glazed wall tiles. Their efficacy was monitored by visual examination, epifluorescence microscopy and DNA-based analysis. Significant changes in the microbial community composition were observed 4 months after treatment with Preventol(®) RI 80 and Biotin(®) T. Although the original community was inactivated after these treatments, an early stage of re-colonization was detected 6 months after the biocide application. TiO2 nanoparticles showed promising results due to their self-cleaning effect, causing the detachment of the biofilm from the tile surface, which remained clean 6 and even 24 months after biocide application. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. XAFS study of copper and silver nanoparticles in glazes of medieval middle-east lustreware (10th-13th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, S.; Puzzovio, D.; Sada, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Borgia, I.; Sgamellotti, A.; Brunetti, B. G.; Cartechini, L.; D'Acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Shokoui, F.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Pantos, E.

    2006-06-01

    It has recently been shown that lustre decoration of medieval and Renaissance pottery consists of silver and copper nanoparticles dispersed in the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. Here the findings of an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study on lustred glazes of shards belonging to 10th and 13rd century pottery from the National Museum of Iran are reported. Absorption spectra in the visible range have been also measured in order to investigate the relations between colour and glaze composition. Gold colour is mainly due to Ag nanoparticles, though Ag+, Cu+ and Cu2+ ions can be also dispersed within the glassy matrix, with different ratios. Red colour is mainly due to Cu nanoparticles, although some Ag nanoparticles, Ag+ and Cu+ ions can be present. The achievement of metallic Cu and the absence of Cu2+ indicate a higher reduction of copper in red lustre. These findings are in substantial agreement with previous results on Italian Renaissance pottery. In spite of the large heterogeneity of cases, the presence of copper and silver ions in the glaze confirms that lustre formation is mediated by a copper- and silver-alkali ion exchange, followed by nucleation and growth of metal nanoparticles.

  10. A XANES study of the structural role of lead in glazes from decorated tiles, XVI to XVIII century manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

    2006-05-01

    Aged lead-rich, tin-opacified glazes from polychrome tiles manufactured in the 16th 18th century were studied to ascertain the structural role of lead. Glaze fragments with white, blue, yellow, brown and green colouring were analysed using non-destructive X-ray techniques, both laboratorial X-ray diffraction to identify crystalline components and synchrotron-based. Elemental analyses by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence were performed at the former LURE photon microprobe (line D15A at DCI, in Orsay). The instrumental set-up of beamline BM29 at the ESRF, in Grenoble, was applied to collect X-ray absorption spectra at the Pb L3-edge. Natural minerals and synthetics with known crystal structure were used as model oxy-compounds to configure different formal valences and coordinations of lead ions by oxygen anions, and to interpret the effects upon details of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra. Experimental evidence supports the general conclusion that lead is hosted by the glassy matrix, irrespective of the glaze colour. Furthermore, it was concluded that lead ions assume coordinations higher than usual for silica glasses, acting as network modifiers in the silica-lime-alkali glasses of ancient tile glazes.

  11. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661-1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735-1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated.

  12. CO2 Laser Glazing Treatment of a Veneering Porcelain: Effects on Porosity, Translucency, and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Sgura, R; dos Reis, M C; Salvadori, M C; Hernandes, A C; Cesar, P F; Medeiros, I S

    2015-01-01

    This work tested CO2 laser as a glazing agent and investigated the effects of irradiation on the porosity, translucency, and mechanical properties of veneering porcelain. Sixty discs (diameter 3.5 × 2.0 mm) of veneering porcelain for Y-TZP frameworks (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik) were sintered and had one of their faces mirror polished. The specimens were divided into six groups (n=10/group) according to surface treatment, as follows: no treatment-control; auto-glaze in furnace following manufacturer's instructions (G); and CO2 laser (45 or 50 W/cm(2)) applied for four or five minutes (L45/4, L45/5, L50/4, L50/5). Optical microscopy (Shimadzu, 100×) was conducted and the images were analyzed with Image J software for the determination of the following porosity parameters: area fraction, average size, and Feret diameter. The translucency parameter studied was masking ability, determined by color difference (ΔE) over black and white backgrounds (CM3370d, Konica Minolta). Microhardness and fracture toughness (indentation fracture) were measured with a Vickers indenter (HMV, Shimadzu). Contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) (50 × 50 μm(2), Nanoscope IIIA, Veeco) was performed at the center of one sample from each group, except in the case of L45/5. With regard to porosity and translucency parameters, auto-glazed and laser-irradiated specimens presented statistical similarity. The area fraction of the surface pores ranged between 2.4% and 5.4% for irradiated specimens. Group L50/5 presented higher microhardness when compared to the G group. The higher (1.1) and lower (0.8) values for fracture toughness (MPa.m(1/2)) were found in laser-irradiated groups (L50/4 and L45/4, respectively). AFM performed after laser treatment revealed changes in porcelain surface profile at a submicrometric scale, with the presence of elongated peaks and deep valleys.

  13. Performance of laser glazed Zr02 TBCs in cyclic oxidation and corrosion burner test rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of laser glazed zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated in cyclic oxidation and cyclic corrosion tests. Plasma sprayed zirconia coatings of two thicknesses were partially melted with a CO2 laser. The power density of the focused laser beam was varied from 35 to 75 W/sq mm, while the scanning speed was about 80 cm per minute. In cyclic oxidation tests, the specimens were heated in a burner rig for 6 minutes and cooled for 3 minutes. It is indicated that the laser treated samples have the same life as the untreated ones. However, in corrosion tests, in which the burner rig flame contained 100 PPM sodium fuel equivalent, the laser treated samples exhibit nearly a fourfold life improvement over that of the reference samples vary. In both tests, the lives of the samples inversely with the thickness of the laser melted layer of zirconia.

  14. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilherme, A.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Zegzouti, A.; Elaatmani, M.; Bendaoud, R.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2013-02-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  15. Experimental measurements in a large separation bubble due to a simulated glaze ice shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Khodadoust, A.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a NACA 0012 airfoil was studied experimentally. Two ice shapes were tested, one from an experimentally measured accretion and one from an accretion predicted using a computer model given the same icing conditions. Lift, drag and moment coefficients were measured for the airfoil with both ice shapes, smooth and rough. The aerodynamic performance of the two shapes compared well at positive, but not negative, angles of attack. Split hot-film probe velocity data were presented in the upper surface boundary layer and in the wake. Boundary layer parameters were presented for the separation bubble and in the reattached turbulent boundary layer.

  16. Evaluation of the Water Film Weber Number in Glaze Icing Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Kreeger, Richard E.; Feo, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Icing scaling tests were performed in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel to evaluate a new scaling method, developed and proposed by Feo for glaze icing, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number. For comparison purpose, tests were also conducted using the constant We(sub L) method for velocity scaling. The reference tests used a full-span, fiberglass, 91.4-cm-chord NACA 0012 model with velocities of 76 and 100 knot and MVD sizes of 150 and 195 microns. Scale-to-reference model size ratio was 1:2.6. All tests were made at 0deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation point freezing fractions of 0.3 and 0.5.

  17. Gamma Ray and X-ray Spectroscopy of Fiesta Ware and Knowles Uranium Glaze Pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek

    2002-10-01

    In the mid-20th century, several china manufacturers produced a popular monotone series of pottery. In order to obtain the orange-red color, such as FiestaWare's "Fiesta Red", a glaze containing naturally occurring uranium was used. These pieces of radioactive china have become popular demonstration tools for health physicists and nuclear scientists. This work analyzes emissions from two such pieces of differing origin. The gamma ray and x-ray spectra from a FiestaWare pitcher and Edward M. Knowles plate were measured with HPGe detectors. The content of uranium and uranium daughter products was identified. Estimates of the percentage content of U-235 in the plates were estimated in order to deduce the era of manufacture.

  18. The effect of glazed and polished ceramics on human enamel wear.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Anna Belsuzarri; Matson, Edmir; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2006-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the effect of glazed and polished dental ceramic on the wear of human enamel. Five ceramics were tested under standard load after 150,000 and 300,000 simulated chewing cycles. Wear was determined from collected digital data and analyzed before and after loading. Statistical comparisons were analyzed. Polished ceramics produced less enamel wear. The amount of enamel wear for opposing IPS Empress ceramic was significantly higher (P < .001) than wear provoked by the other ceramics. The enamel wear rate was higher at the first 150,000 cycles, and polishing increased ceramic roughness, except for the IPS Empress ceramic. Polishing of dental ceramics at the contact area produces less antagonistic enamel wear.

  19. Variations in snow and firn chemistry along US ITASE traverses and the effect of surface glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, D. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Korotkikh, E.; Sneed, S. B.; Handley, M. J.; Introne, D. S.; Scambos, T. A.

    2013-03-01

    This study provides a baseline from which changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere over Antarctica can be monitored under expected warming scenarios and continued intensification of industrial activities in the Southern Hemisphere. It is the first study to measure more than 25 chemical constituents in the surface snow and firn across extensive regions of Antarctica. We present major ion, trace element, heavy metal, rare earth element and oxygen isotope data from a series of surface snow samples and shallow firn sections collected along four US ITASE traverses across East and West Antarctica. In each sample we measure dissolved concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3+, SO42-, and MS- using ion chromatography and total concentrations of Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Na, Mg, Li, and K using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). We also measure δ18O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Satellite remote sensing measurements of microwave backscatter and grain size are used to assist in the identification of glaze/dune areas across Antarctica and determine if these areas can possibly contain useful chemical climate records. The majority of the non-glaze/dune samples in this study exhibit similar, or lower, concentrations to those from previous studies. Consequently, the results presented here comprise a conservative baseline for Antarctic surface snow chemical concentrations. The elements Cd, Pb, As and Bi are enriched across Antarctica relative to both ocean and upper crust elemental ratios. Local and global volcanic outgassing may account for the majority of the Bi measured in East and West Antarctica and for a significant fraction of the Cd and As. However, significant concentrations of Cd, Pb, and As remain across much of Antarctica.

  20. LWC and Temperature Effects on Ice Accretion Formation on Swept Wings at Glaze Ice Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Reshotko, Eli

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of liquid water content and temperature on the critical distance in ice accretion formation on swept wings at glaze ice conditions. The critical distance is defined as the distance from the attachment line to tile beginning of the zone where roughness elements develop into glaze ice feathers. A baseline case of 150 mph, 25 F, 0.75 g/cu m. Cloud Liquid Water Content (LWC) and 20 micrometers in Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) was chosen. Icing runs were performed on a NACA 0012 swept wing tip at 150 mph and MVD of 20 micrometers for liquid water contents of 0.5 g/cu m, 0.75 g/cu m, and 1.0 g/cu m, and for total temperatures of 20 F, 25 F and 30 F. At each tunnel condition, the sweep angle was changed from 0 deg to 45 deg in 5 deg increments. Casting data, ice shape tracings, and close-up photographic data were obtained. The results showed that decreasing the LWC to 0.5 g/cu m decreases the value of the critical distance at a given sweep angle compared to the baseline case, and starts the formation of complete scallops at 30 sweep angle. Increasing the LWC to 1.0 g/cu m increases the value of the critical distance compared to the baseline case, the critical distance remains always above 0 millimeters and complete scallops are not formed. Decreasing the total temperature to 20 F decreases the critical distance with respect to the baseline case and formation of complete scallops begins at 25 deg sweep angle. When the total temperature is increased to 30 F, bumps covered with roughness elements appear on the ice accretion at 25 deg and 30 deg sweep angles, large ice structures appear at 35 deg and 40 deg sweep angles, and complete scallops are formed at 45 deg sweep angle.

  1. Effect of Glaze Cooling Rate on Mechanical Properties of Conventional and Pressed Porcelain on Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Longhini, Diogo; Rocha, Cibele Oliveira de Melo; Medeiros, Igor Studart; Fonseca, Renata Garcia; Adabo, Gelson Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a conventional and a pressed porcelain for zirconia core as to biaxial flexural strength (BFS), apparent fracture toughness (FT) and microstructure composition, and to investigate the effect of glaze cooling rate on the BFS of the zirconia/porcelain bilayers. Monolayers of conventional porcelain Vita VM9 and pressed porcelain Vita PM9 (n=15) (12 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thick) were prepared for the BFS test (MPa). Apparent fracture toughness (MPa.m1/2) was measured by indentation technique (n=15). t-Student test was performed for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to analyze the porcelain's microstructure. For the BFS of bilayers, zirconia discs (12 mm diameter x 1 mm thick) (Vita In-Ceram YZ) were veneered with the two porcelains (1 mm thick). After the glaze firing simulation, the specimens were submitted to fast or slow cooling (n=15). Apparent fracture toughness (MPa.m1/2) was measured on the porcelain surface of bilayers (n=15) and residual stress was calculated. Two-way ANOVA (porcelain and cooling method) was used for the bilayer analysis (a=0.05). Vita PM9 monolayer exhibited significantly higher BFS (p<0.01), but there was no significant difference (p=0.41) in the FT between the porcelains. For bilayer specimens, the two-way ANOVA for BFS was significant for the porcelain variable only (p<0.01) better for Vita PM9/zirconia. Two-way ANOVA for the FT for the bilayers was not significant for any variable. All groups showed compressive residual stresses. The pressed porcelain seems to be mechanically more effective for zirconia veneering.

  2. Magnetic Investigation of Ancestral Puebloan Rio Grande (New Mexico) Glaze Wares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, J. B.; Geissman, J. W.; Ramenofsky, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    In geologically heterogeneous regions, such as the Rio Grande, archaeologists typically rely on petrographic analyses to determine ceramic provenance and reconstruct prehistoric trade patterns. Even in these regions, other methods are useful for elucidating trade patterns and/or resolving ambiguities from the petrographic data. Magnetic properties of Ancestral central Rio Grande Puebloan ceramics are being acquired to assess their use in identifying provenance, trade patterns, composition, manufacturing techniques, and firing conditions of ceramics, before and during the early European contact period (ca. A.D. 1325-1700) in New Mexico. Similar to the study of Moskowitz et al. (1987), we use a combination of bulk susceptibility, NRM, ARM, and SIRM intensity, AF response by NRM, ARM, and SIRM, thermal demagnetization of NRM and SIRM, and coercivity of remanence, to study temporal change in Rio Grande glaze wares from four archaeological sites in the northern Rio Grande (approximately 90 sherds per site). Rio Grande glaze wares were widely traded among Ancestral Puebloan groups before and during the European contact period. The ceramics are from the two earliest Spanish administrative centers in New Mexico, San Gabriel del Yungue and Palace of the Governors, and two mission pueblos, Pecos Pueblo and San Marcos Pueblo. Magnetic property data are being compared with petrographic observations to test the effectiveness of several magnetic measurements to identify, among other things, ceramic provenance. A tentative observation in our study is that bulk susceptibility values correlate with different ceramic provenances. The mean bulk susceptibility values for Galisteo Basin ceramics, tempered with augite monzonite and hornblende latite, are significantly higher (5.56E-04 and 4.91E-04 SI mass, respectively) than those for Pajarito Plateau ceramics, tempered with glassy tuff, tuff rocks, and andesite, (1.79E-04, 2.53E-04, and 2.58E-04 SI mass, respectively). This study is

  3. 77 FR 70538 - Final Decision That Certain Canadian-Certified Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... control rearward CMVSS 204--Steering Column displacement. Rearward Displacement. 205--Glazing materials CMVSS 205--Glazing Materials.... 205a--Glazing materials before September CMVSS 205--Glazing Materials.... 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles manufactured before November 1, 2006....

  4. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, M. L.; Muralha, V. S. F.; Mirão, J.; Veiga, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara- a- Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified.

  5. Production of luster glaze on opal tableware using zarinfam technique and characterization of its structure and color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Fahime; Rashidi Huyeh, Majid; Ghahari, Mahdi

    2016-05-01

    Lusters are potters that have attracted much attention due to their specific optical features, one of the most important of which is their sparkle that appears in various colors at different angles. This effect linked to the multilayer structure of luster and the presence of metallic nanoparticles in enamel layer. In this research, luster glaze was produced on Opal tableware, manufactured in Mahfam Jam Co., using Zarinfam technique. SEM micrograph image of the samples indicated that the glaze forms a multilayer structure, on the Opal tableware surface, consisting of a glassy superficial layer of some tens of nanometers and a composite layer of some hundreds of nanometers. The enamel composite layer contains silver nanoparticles embedded in a silica medium. Employing a multilayer model, we studied the influence of different parameters such as luster enamel thickness, nanoparticles volume fraction in enamel, nanoparticle size, observe angle, and glass layer thickness on luster color.

  6. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  7. Lead-glazed ceramic ware and blood lead levels of children in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Azcona-Cruz, M I; Rothenberg, S J; Schnaas, L; Zamora-Muñoz, J S; Romero-Placeres, M

    2000-01-01

    Although Mexico substantially reduced use of leaded gasoline during the 1990s, lead-glazed pottery remains a significant source of population exposure. Most previous studies of lead in nonoccupationally exposed groups in Mexico have been conducted in the Mexico City metropolitan area. Oaxaca, a poor southern state of Mexico, has a centuries-old tradition of use of low temperature lead-glazed ceramic ware manufactured mainly by small family businesses. We measured blood lead levels in 220 8-10-y-old children (i.e., not from pottery-making families) who were students in the innercity of Oaxaca and in the mothers of all children. The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 10.5 microg/dl (+7.0/-4.3 microg/dl standard deviation; range = 1.3-35.5 microg/dl). The corresponding mean value for the mothers was 13.4 (+9.0/-5.4 microg/dl standard deviation; range = 2.8-45.3 microg/dl). We used cutoffs that were greater than or equal to 10 microg/dl, 20 microg/dl, and 30 microg/dl, and we determined that 54.9%, 10.3%, and 3.0% of the children were at or above the respective criteria. We accounted for 25.2% of the variance in blood lead levels of the children, using maternal responses to a questionnaire that assessed possible lead sources in a linear multiple-regression model. The most important factors related to lead levels were family use of lead-glazed pottery, use of animal fat in cooking, and family income. The addition of maternal blood lead level to the model increased accounted variance in blood lead to 48.0%. In logistic-regression modeling of children's blood lead levels, we used a cutoff of greater than or equal to 10 microg/dl, and we found that use of lead-glazed pottery was the most important of all questionnaire items that were predictive of blood lead levels (odds ratio = 2.98). In Oaxaca, as is the case elsewhere in Mexico, lead-glazed ceramic ware remains a significant risk factor for elevated blood lead levels in children.

  8. Prediction of the multicellular flow regime of natural convection in fenestration glazing cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Goss, W.P.; Curcija, D.

    1997-12-31

    In this work, gas-filled tall rectangular cavities, typically found in insulating glazing units (IGUs) of fenestration systems, with constant temperatures at the side walls and zero heat flux at the top and bottom, were investigated. Critical Rayleigh numbers, Ra{sub c}, at which multicellular flow begins to form were determined for aspect ratios from 10.7 to 80. Using a general-purpose fluid flow and heat transfer finite-element analysis computer program (FDI 1993), numerical calculations were performed over the range of aspect ratios, A, from 10 to 80 with Rayleigh numbers, Ra, varying within the laminar flow regime. The calculations revealed that for aspect ratios between 10.7 and 30, the multicellular flow pattern dies out before the flow enters the turbulent flow regime. In addition, the lowest aspect ratio at which multicellular flow patterns existed was 10.7, which is lower than the lowest limit (A = 12) published by other researchers. The resulting critical Rayleigh numbers are plotted on a graph as a function of the aspect ratio and the Rayleigh numbers. The overall heat transfer results in terms of the average, or integrated, Nusselt numbers, Nu, are compared with available numerical and experimental data on multicellular flow in rectangular cavities, and good agreement was found. Also, streamline contour plots and temperature profiles are plotted for selected cases.

  9. Sustainable cultivation of microalgae by an insulated glazed glass plate photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Ashiwin; Moheimani, Navid R; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Cosgrove, Jeffrey J; Alameh, Kamal; Parlevliet, David

    2016-03-01

    Microalgae growth in closed photobioreactors is greatly inhibited by elevated temperatures caused mainly by the infra-red portion of light. Current passive evaporative cooling systems for temperature control in outdoor photobioreactors are neither economical nor sustainable. Here we built a novel flat plate photobioreactor with its illumination surface customized with insulated glazing units (IGP). The IGP design enabled transmission of more than 50% of visible light while blocking 90% of ultraviolet and infrared radiations. The growth and productivity of Nannochloropsis sp. (MUR 267) in the IGP was compared against conventional flat plate photobioreactors subjected to the full spectrum (HLP) and also externally modified spectrum (CLP) of halogen lights. High temperature (up to 42°C) resulted in no growth in the HLP. Biomass productivities of Nannochloropsis sp. grown in the CLP was significantly higher than the IGP due to higher light transmission and lower temperature profiles recorded in the CLP. Lipid content of Nannochloropsis was highest in the CLP (60.23%) while protein was highest in the IGP (42.43%). All photosynthesis parameters were negatively affected in the HLP. The IGP's ability to remove infrared (heat) makes this newly developed photobioreactor a promising and sustainable cultivation system for mass algal production especially for high value products.

  10. Electrochromic and thermochromic materials for solar energy applications with emphasis on niobium and vanadium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, G.

    1984-08-01

    Based on this literature search on electrochromic and thermochromic materials for use in solar energy control, recommendations are made for future development activity. The possibilities for using doped VO/sub 2/ to control solar energy influx through building glazing should be investigated. Most of the research on electrochromic materials is directed at their use in displays. To determine their usefulness for solar energy control through building glazing requires performance of further investigations which are outlined. Building glazing comprised of EC devices with fluidic electrolytes are probably impractical. There is good, but not irrefutable, evidence that bulk NbO/sub 2/ will switch electrically when an electric field is applied in the right direction relative to the crystal orientation. Honeywell Systems and Research Center has been working on depositing thin film NbO/sub 2/ that will switch electrically. Although there has been some success, much work is still needed to have good devices. 131 refs.

  11. Impact of Megadunes and Glaze Areas on Estimates of East Antarctic Mass Balance and Accumulation Rate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambos, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Shuman, C.; Haran, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    Recent mapping of megadune extent via satellite images indicates they cover 1.27 million km2, or approximately 18% of the East Antarctic Plateau surface above 2000 m. Glaze regions cover an additional 5 to 10% of the surface. Ground-based ice radar profiles collected in 2002 and 2004 have shown these features exhibit large accumulation variations. Megadunes show alternating kilometer-wide stripes of accumulation (measured at 3.4 to 4.2 cm/yr w.e. at the crests), grading to 'glaze' regions of near-zero accumulation and several km width. The typical fraction of the surface with near-zero accumulation in a megadune field is 63%. Glaze regions are larger areas of near-zero or slightly negative surface mass flux, identifed and mapped by their coarser mean optical grain size and lower albedo using the recent Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) grain size and surface morphology image maps. The actual net accumulation of megadune regions, approx. 1.5 to 2.5 cm/yr w.e. is far below the value attributed to these regions in the currently-used compilations of surface mass balance (avg. of megadune areas is 4 cm/yr; see Vaughan et al., 1999; Giovinetto and Zwally, 2000). These compilations also attribute positive accumulation to the extensive glaze areas within the plateau. The value attriuted to these regions is close to the crest, or maximum, local accumulation value, possibly because the compilations did not incorporate null accumulation measurements. Because the combination of megadune and glaze regions comprise such a large area, these errors have a significant cumulative effect. An initial estimate is that net surface flux for East Antarctica is lower by 32 Gt/yr than is calculated from the surface flux compilations due to megadunes alone; glaze areas likely account for an additional 10 to 20 Gt/yr. This is a large fraction of current estimates of total East Antarctic mass imbalance (e.g. net +22 Gt/yr, Rignot and Thomas, 2002). The strong local accumulation variations observed

  12. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  13. Lead-glazed ceramics as major determinants of blood lead levels in Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Avila, M; Romieu, I; Rios, C; Rivero, A; Palazuelos, E

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main contributors to blood lead levels in a population of women from middle to low socioeconomic status in the southwestern part of Mexico City. Within this area, the authors selected a random sample of 200 women. Age ranged from 21 to 57 years, with a mean of 36 years. Among 99 women who agreed to participate in this study, blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 52 micrograms/dL, with a mean of 10.6 micrograms/dL. Five percent of the women had a blood lead level over 25 micrograms/dL and 22% over 15 micrograms/dL. There was no significant trend in blood levels according to age. The main determinants of blood lead levels were higher socioeconomic status (presence of telephone in the house, t-test, p = 0.01) and using lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to prepare food (t-test, p less than 0.005). There was a significant increasing trend in blood lead levels with increasing frequency of consumption of food prepared in LGC (test for trend, p = 0.0008). Among the dishes prepared in LGC, the main determinant was the consumption of stew. Time spent outdoors and consumption of tap water and of canned food were not important determinants of blood lead levels. The population attributable risk of high blood level (less than 15 micrograms/dL) due to the use of LGC was 58%. These findings demonstrate the major role of traditional pottery as a contributor to blood lead levels in this population and emphasize the need for interventions to produce lead-free pottery. PMID:1954921

  14. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  15. Combination of glazing, nisin treatment and radiation processing for shelf-life extension of seer fish (Scomberomorous guttatus) steaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakatkar, Aarti S.; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Shashidhar, Ravindranath

    2017-01-01

    Fish and fishery products are most perishable. Combination of chilling with gamma irradiation, edible coatings, addition of antimicrobials etc has been applied to extend the shelf life. In the present study, a process to enhance the shelf life of seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks using combination of coating prepared from gel dispersion of same fish; incorporated with nisin and gamma irradiation is described. A combination of glazing incorporated with nisin and irradiation at 2 kGy and 5 kGy increased the shelf life of the steaks from 7 days up to 34 and 42 days respectively on chilled storage.

  16. An experimental mapping of the flow field behind a glaze ice shape on a NACA 0012 airfoil. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spring, Samuel A.

    1988-01-01

    The flow field about a NACA 0012 airfoil with a simulated glaze ice shape was studied. Split hot-film anemometry was used to measure the streamwise velocity component in the upper and lower separation bubbles aft of the glaze ice horns. Velocity profiles were presented as well as the boundary layer momentum and displacement thickness distributions through the bubbles. Data were presented at angles of attack of 0, 2 and 4 deg and clearly showed the large region of reverse flow. A detailed discussion of split hot-film acquisition and data reduction, and possible sources of error has been included.

  17. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    attributable to a range of process improvements implemented as a result of this work. It is anticipated that the yield will increase further as a result of these ongoing programs. The manufacturability of these advanced glazing systems has also been significantly improved, by a variety of different measures such as in-situ monitoring, system integration, and measurements taken to reduce the incidence of defects caused by contamination. It is therefore anticipated that the transfer of this performance to the new coating equipment to be introduced during scale-up to the first manufacturing plant will be reasonably straightforward.

  18. Learning from the past: Rare ε-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares

    PubMed Central

    Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noé, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored “Hare's Fur” (HF) strips and the silvery “Oil Spot” (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ε-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ε-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ε-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ε-Fe2O3 synthesis. PMID:24820819

  19. Learning from the past: Rare ɛ-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noé, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored ``Hare's Fur'' (HF) strips and the silvery ``Oil Spot'' (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ɛ-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ɛ-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ɛ-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ɛ-Fe2O3 synthesis.

  20. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  1. The effect of SiO₂/Al₂O₃ ratio on the structure and microstructure of the glazes from SiO₂-Al₂O₃-CaO-MgO-Na₂O-K₂O system.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Janusz; Sitarz, Maciej; Leśniak, Magdalena; Gasek, Katarzyna; Jeleń, Piotr

    2015-01-05

    Ceramic glazes are commonly used to covering of the facing surface of ceramics ware. A well-chosen oxide composition and firing conditions of glazes causes significant improvement of technical parameters of ceramic products. Modern glazes are classified as glass-ceramic composites with different crystalline phases arising during firing. The presence of crystals in the glass matrix is influenced by many factors, especially by oxides molar composition. A crucial role is played by the molar ratio of SiO₂/Al₂O₃. In this work the six composition of glazes from SiO₂-Al₂O₃-CaO-MgO-Na₂O-K₂O system were examined. The only variable is the ratio of the silicon oxideto alumina at a constant content of other components: MgO, CaO, K₂O, Na₂O, ZnO. In order to determine the real phase composition of the obtained glazes research on fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) were done. For structural studies X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic in the middle infrared (MIR) were performed. In order to determine the state of the surface (microstructure) research on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX. The research allowed to determine the influence of SiO₂/Al₂O₃ ratio on the structure and phase composition of glazes and the nature, and type of formed crystalline phases.

  2. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng; Meitian, Li; Youshi, Kim; Changsheng, Fan; Shanghai, Wang; Qiuli, Pan; Zhiguo, Liu; Rongwu, Li

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  3. Switchable window modeling. Task 12: Building energy analysis and design tools for solar applications, Subtask A.1: High-performance glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-06-30

    This document presents the work conducted as part of Subtask A.1, High-Performance Glazing, of Task 12 of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. At the start of the task, the participants agreed that chromogenic technology (switchable glazing) held considerable promise, and that algorithms to accurately model their dynamic behavior were needed. The purpose of this subtask was to develop algorithms that could be incorporated into building energy analysis programs for predicting the thermal and optical performance of switchable windows. The work entailed a review of current techniques for modelling switchable glazing in windows and switchable windows in buildings and methods for improving upon existing modeling approaches. The proposed approaches correct some of the shortcomings in the existing techniques, and could be adapted for use in other similar programs. The proposed approaches generally provide more detailed calculations needed for evaluating the short-term (hourly and daily) impact of switchable windows on the energy and daylighting performance of a building. Examples of the proposed algorithms are included.

  4. Microanalysis of organic pigments and glazes in polychrome works of art by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Leona, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at which these compounds are used and by the interference of the protein-, gum-, or oil-binding media present in pigment and glaze samples. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) was successfully used to identify natural organic colorants in archaeological objects, polychrome sculptures, and paintings from samples smaller than 25 μm in diameter. The key factors in achieving the necessary sensitivity were a highly active stabilized silver colloid, obtained by the reproducible microwave-supported reduction of silver sulfate with glucose and sodium citrate, and a non-extractive hydrolysis sample treatment procedure that maximizes dye adsorption on the colloid. Among the examples presented are the earliest so far found occurrence of madder lake (in a 4,000 years old Egyptian object dating to the Middle Kingdom period), and the earliest known occurrence in Europe of the South Asian dyestuff lac (in the Morgan Madonna, a 12th century polychrome sculpture from Auvergne, France). PMID:19667181

  5. Microanalysis of organic pigments and glazes in polychrome works of art by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Leona, Marco

    2009-09-01

    Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at which these compounds are used and by the interference of the protein-, gum-, or oil-binding media present in pigment and glaze samples. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) was successfully used to identify natural organic colorants in archaeological objects, polychrome sculptures, and paintings from samples smaller than 25 microm in diameter. The key factors in achieving the necessary sensitivity were a highly active stabilized silver colloid, obtained by the reproducible microwave-supported reduction of silver sulfate with glucose and sodium citrate, and a non-extractive hydrolysis sample treatment procedure that maximizes dye adsorption on the colloid. Among the examples presented are the earliest so far found occurrence of madder lake (in a 4,000 years old Egyptian object dating to the Middle Kingdom period), and the earliest known occurrence in Europe of the South Asian dyestuff lac (in the Morgan Madonna, a 12th century polychrome sculpture from Auvergne, France).

  6. Materials aspects of solar energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.W.; McFarland, R.D.

    1984-05-01

    Advances in materials for solar energy utilization have the potential to produce large performance improvements (both present and future concepts) in use of solar energy or conservation. Because approximately 26 quads of the total national energy budget of 75 quads is consumed by buildings, solar and conservation improvements can have a large effect on our overall energy consumption. There have been a large number of materials research programs funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) in an attempt to expand the use of solar energy. These materials programs have covered the areas of sealants and gaskets, insulations, glazings, glazing-surface treatments, polymers, selective absorber surfaces, phase-change storage, and heat mirrors. In addition to developing the materials, a large effort has been directed toward determining the reliability and durability of solar materials. The present state of the art and status of these solar materials are discussed. Although much progress has been made in recent years, many improvements are still needed. For many of the more routine materials, simple cost reductions or durability improvements would suffice. For the more advanced concepts of controlling energy flow into or out of buildings, basic materials research remains a necessity. There are a large number of potentially viable concepts that appear promising but have not yet been developed into usable materials.

  7. LBNL 2011 Inter-Laboratory Comparison for Laboratories Submitting Specular Data to the International Glazings Database (IGDB)

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Jacob C.

    2012-08-01

    Laboratories that submit data to the International Glazings Database (IGDB) have to participate in an inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) every four years. This is a procedure that allow both contributors and database maintainers to confirm that the measurement capabilities of the laboratories are of high quality. All laminate and applied film samples are manufactured using the same batch of clear glass to allow for an investigation of the accuracy in the Optics 5 laminate deconstruction process. The IGDB contains optical information in the wavelength region between 300-2500 nm where transmittance as well as reflectance for both the front and the back surface is recorded. In addition to that emissivity, obtained through measurement of reflectance between 5 and 25 m, is recorded for both the front and back surface. The goal for submitters is to pass within the tolerances dictated by NFRC document 302 which states that transmittances should be within 1% and reflectance/emissivity withing 2%. As an organizing entity LBNL aims to educate and help submitters troubleshoot any issues that give rise to systematic errors. The ILC is a living ILC and does not necessarily contain the first result submitted by a lab. As errors are found submitters are encouraged to correct procedures or update equipment so that they are allowed to submit data to the IGDB. The risk of this practice is that if any of the recommended solutions introduces new systematic errors this will start to influence the average. Therefore this report tries to highlight the recommendations made so that they can be challenged.

  8. Comprehensive study on the light shielding potential of thermotropic layers for the development of new materials.

    PubMed

    Gruber, D P; Winkler, G; Resch, K

    2015-01-10

    In recent years thermotropic overheating protection glazings have been the focus for both solar thermal collector technology and architecture. A thermotropic glazing changes its light transmittance from highly transparent to light diffusing upon reaching a certain threshold temperature autonomously and reversibly. In thermotropic systems with fixed domains (TSFD) the scattering domains are embedded in a polymer matrix, which exhibits a sudden change of the refractive index upon reaching a threshold temperature. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively investigate the light shielding characteristics and potential of TSFD materials by applying simulation of light scattering in particle-filled layers. In random walk simulations a variety of parameters were varied systematically, and the effect on the light transmission behavior of TSFD was studied. The calculation steps of the simulation process are shown in detail. The simulations demonstrate that there is great potential for the production of functional materials with high overheating protection efficiency.

  9. Forget the Glaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Ashley; Sweeney, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Anytime an art teacher mentions clay projects to elementary students, they immediately get excited. The problem is doing a clay project can oftentimes be expensive and time consuming. This article describes an art project that provides an interesting way to apply the concept of crayon resist to ceramics. This project is fun, easy and inexpensive.…

  10. Microstructure study of opaque glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-K2O-Na2O system by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniak, M.; Partyka, J.; Pasiut, K.; Sitarz, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is focused on the relationship between the phase composition and opaque of glass-ceramic glazes from the SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-K2O-Na2O system by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3. The phase composition obtained from the glazes was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the glaze morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy with elemental composition analyser in the microregions (SEM-EDS). Additional information on the microstructure was provided by spectroscopic investigation in the mid- and far-infrared regions as well as by Raman spectroscopy. In order to correlate the phase composition of the optical properties of experimental glazes were measured by their opacity. The increase of molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 in experimental glazes caused to decrease of opacity glazes. At the highest content of Al2O3 was obtained transparent glaze.

  11. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1992-01-01

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x (0.33.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.0 and x.ltoreq.2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li.sup.+ ion conductors.

  12. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1992-01-14

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] (0.33[le]y[le]2.0 and x[le]2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li[sup +] ion conductors. 12 figs.

  13. A flow visualization study of the leading edge separation bubble on a NACA 0012 airfoil with simulated glaze ice. Final Report M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadoust, Abdollah

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing research in aircraft icing, the leading edge separation bubble on the NACA 0012 model with a 5-min simulated glaze ice was investigated. The flow visualization methods used oil, tuft, splitter plate, smoke, and liquid crystals to get reattachment line data for the leading edge separation bubble on both surfaces of the airfoil. On the upper surface, the bubble was found to grow larger with increasing negative angles of attack and reduce in size with increasing angles of attack. The separated flow fails to reattach beyond 6 deg for the upper surface and -5 deg for the lower surface. The results of this study compared well with those of other experiments and computational results.

  14. The effect of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and microstructure of the glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, Janusz; Sitarz, Maciej; Leśniak, Magdalena; Gasek, Katarzyna; Jeleń, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic glazes are commonly used to covering of the facing surface of ceramics ware. A well-chosen oxide composition and firing conditions of glazes causes significant improvement of technical parameters of ceramic products. Modern glazes are classified as glass-ceramic composites with different crystalline phases arising during firing. The presence of crystals in the glass matrix is influenced by many factors, especially by oxides molar composition. A crucial role is played by the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3. In this work the six composition of glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system were examined. The only variable is the ratio of the silicon oxideto alumina at a constant content of other components: MgO, CaO, K2O, Na2O, ZnO. In order to determine the real phase composition of the obtained glazes research on fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) were done. For structural studies X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic in the middle infrared (MIR) were performed. In order to determine the state of the surface (microstructure) research on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX. The research allowed to determine the influence of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and phase composition of glazes and the nature, and type of formed crystalline phases.

  15. An in vitro study to evaluate the difference in shade between commercially available shade guides and glazed porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, P.; Sadan, D. Sai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Smile is one of the most important interactive communication skills of a person. A smile is the key factor for an aesthetic appearance. Hence aesthetics is one of the motivating factor for the patients to seek dental care. Correction of unaesthetic appearance gives a positive effect to the self esteem of the patient. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the difference in the shade between the commercially available shade guides namely Vita Classical And Ivoclar Chromascop and the fired porcelain samples fabricated using Vita Zahnfabrik VMK 95 and Ivoclar Classic Materials respectively. Objectives: The objective of this study was to obtain a matching brand of material that has a particular shade tab among the brands used. Conclusion: To conclude, Ivoclar material matched the chromascop shade guide better than the vita material matched the vita classic shade guide. PMID:27829759

  16. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  17. Structural characterization and colour of Ni3VxP2-xO8 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Ni2VyP2-yO7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 2) materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tena, M. A.; Mendoza, Rafael; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    Structural characterization of Ni3VxP2-xO8 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Ni2VyP2-yO7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 2) compositions was made and colour parameters of these materials measured. Ni(II) diphosphate and divanadate crystalline phases are not stables at high temperature. Solid solutions in Ni3P2O8 and Ni3V2O8 are obtained by incorporation of V(V) in Ni orthophosphate and P(V) in Ni orthovanadate structures. Solid solutions with Ni3V2O8 structure are formed in a greater compositional interval than solid solutions with Ni3P2O8 structure. These materials might be used as ceramic pigments because of its thermal and chemical stability. Tan brown colorations were obtained in glazed tiles when the fired compositions were 4% weight enamelled with a commercial glaze.

  18. Procedure for measuring simultaneously the solar and visible properties of glazing with complex internal or external structures.

    PubMed

    Gentle, A R; Smith, G B

    2014-10-20

    Accurate solar and visual transmittances of materials in which surfaces or internal structures are complex are often not easily amenable to standard procedures with laboratory-based spectrophotometers and integrating spheres. Localized "hot spots" of intensity are common in such materials, so data on small samples is unreliable. A novel device and simple protocols have been developed and undergone validation testing. Simultaneous solar and visible transmittance and reflectance data have been acquired for skylight components and multilayer polycarbonate roof panels. The pyranometer and lux sensor setups also directly yield "light coolness" in lumens/watt. Sample areas must be large, and, although mainly in sheet form, some testing has been done on curved panels. The instrument, its operation, and the simple calculations used are described. Results on a subset of diffuse and partially diffuse materials with no hot spots have been cross checked using 150 mm integrating spheres with a spectrophotometer and the Air Mass 1.5 spectrum. Indications are that results are as good or better than with such spheres for transmittance, but reflectance techniques need refinement for some sample types.

  19. The shielding effect of the protective glazing of historical stained glass windows from an atmospheric chemistry perspective: Case study Sainte Chapelle, Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton; Kontozova, Velichka; Van Grieken, René

    Atmospheric pollutants, gases as well as particulate, have been pointed out as a major cause of weathering of historic stained glass windows. Although conservators did not succeed in stopping or reversing the ensuing damage up to date, a slower rate of destruction to maintain the grandeur of the artifact is certainly achievable, by installing a protective glazing (PG). Measurements were carried out for a period of 1 year in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, France, in order to integrate the influence of some major pollutants and acidifying substances indoors, and outdoors, as well as in the interspace, created by the PG. The concentrations of SO 2, NO 2 and O 3 were assessed using passive diffusion tubes. The PG reduced SO 2 and O 3 pollutant exposure of the stained glass windows by 80% relative to the outdoor concentrations. NO 2 concentrations remained almost the same inside, outside and in the interspace; however, previous studies showed that even in high concentrations of NO 2 accompanied by low concentrations of SO 2 the degradation of this kind of glass is modest. The results of bulk particle analyses by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence indicated the accumulation and re-suspension of particles as the main factor of elevated concentration of elements inside of Sainte Chapelle. The abundance and type of particles obtained by electron probe X-ray micro analysis were slightly different in the three measured areas. The main distinction is the occurrence of CaSO 4 particles inside and in the interspace. In conclusion, the installation of a PG in Sainte Chapelle seems to be appropriate.

  20. Enamel wear caused by three different restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J D; Goldstein, G R; Georgescu, M

    1995-12-01

    The ideal restorative material should cause minimal wear of opposing enamel. This study compared the effects of gold alloy, glazed porcelain, and a laboratory-processed composite on opposing enamel. Ten samples of a type III gold alloy, a porcelain, and a visible-light, heat, and vacuum-processed composite were abraded against cusps of extracted molars for 10,000 cycles on an abrading machine. Pretest and posttest profilometric measurements of the restorative materials demonstrated no statistical difference. Pretest and posttest tracings of the cusps were made on an optical comparator to determine loss of vertical height and surface area. The porcelain caused significantly more loss of vertical height and surface area than the gold alloy or the composite, which were similar.

  1. An Experimental Study of the Flowfield on a Semispan Rectangular Wing with a Simulated Glaze Ice Accretion. Ph.D. Thesis, 1993 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadoust, Abdollah

    1994-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were conducted in order to study the effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the flowfield of a semispan, reflection-plane, rectangular wing at Re = 1.5 million and M = 0.12. A laser Doppler velocimeter was used to map the flowfield on the upper surface of the model in both the clean and iced configurations at alpha = 0, 4, and 8 degrees angle of attack. At low angles of attack, the massive separation bubble aft of the leading edge ice horn was found to behave in a manner similar to laminar separation bubbles. At alpha = 0 and 4 degrees, the locations of transition and reattachment, as deduced from momentum thickness distributions, were found to be in good agreement with transition and reattachment locations in laminar separation bubbles. These values at y/b = 0.470, the centerline measurement location, matched well with data obtained on a similar but two dimensional model. The measured velocity profiles on the iced wing compared reasonably with the predicted profiles from Navier-Stokes computations. The iced-induced separation bubble was also found to have features similar to the recirculating region aft of rearward-facing steps. At alpha = 0 degrees and 4 degrees, reverse flow magnitudes and turbulence intensity levels were typical of those found in the recirculating region aft of rearward-facing steps. The calculated separation streamline aft of the ice horn at alpha = 4 degrees, y/b = 0.470 coincided with the locus of the maximum Reynolds normal stress. The maximum Reynolds normal stress peaked at two locations along the separation streamline. The location of the first peak-value coincided with the transition location, as deduced from the momentum thickness distributions. The location of the second peak was just upstream of reattachment, in good agreement with measurements of flows over similar obstacles. The intermittency factor in the vicinity of reattachment at alpha = 4 degrees, y/b = 0.470, revealed the time-dependent nature of

  2. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2013-06-01

    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  3. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  4. Composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood": a new material for fresh water production from atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Avadhesh

    2016-04-01

    In this study a novel composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood" have been synthesized and tested for the water generation from atmospheric air. The vermiculite- saw wood used as a host matrix and CaCl2 as a hygroscopic salt. A solar glass desiccant box type system with a collector area of 0.36 m2 has been used. Design parameters for water generation are height of glass from the desiccant material bed as 0.22 m, inclination in angle as 30º, the effective thickness of glass as 3 mm and number of glazing as single. It has been found that the concentration of calcium chloride is the most influencing factor for fresh water generation from atmospheric air. The maximum amount of water produced by using novel composite desiccant material is 195 ml/kg/day.

  5. Cerec anterior crowns: restorative options with monolithic ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Fiedlar, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the different types of monolithic ceramic crowns that can be placed on anterior teeth with existing shoulder preparations. Anterior crowns were indicated for the teeth 12 to 22 in the present case. The patient, a 65-year-old male, had received all-ceramic crowns 20 years earlier, which had started to develop cracks and palatal fractures over the last few years. The patient's teeth were prepared and four sets of crowns were fabricated using different monolithic ceramic materials: IPS e.max CAD, Cerec Blocs C In, VITABLOCS Real Life, and ENAMIC. Both shade characterization and crystallization firing were performed on the monolithic lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns. The silicate ceramic crowns received glaze firing alone. The crowns made of hybrid ceramic (ENAMIC) were treated with a polymer sealant.

  6. Thermochromic materials and devices: Inorganic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, G.V.; Lee, J.C.

    1990-12-31

    This chapter discusses the technological application of a class of materials with a chameleon-like nature, that is, they exhibit the properties of metals under certain conditions of temperature and pressure, and semiconductor-to-dielectric properties under other conditions. Many materials exhibit this behavior, most notably the transition metal oxides and sulfides. Typically, the transition from one state to another in transition metal oxides is accompanied by a sharp change in electrical conductivity (as large as 10{sup 7} in some oxides of vanadium), as well as changes in other physical properties such as crystalline symmetry. The changes in electrical conductivity alter, in turn, IR transmittance, and some of these effects extend into the visible spectrum. A material such as this, whose transition occurs at the appropriate temperature, would be useful for solar energy control in buildings. For example, a coating of thermochromic (TC) material on glass would transmit solar energy at temperatures below its transition temperature (T{sub t}), and when the temperature rises above T{sub t}, the TC material would reflect the incident solar energy. Thus, solar influx would be high at low ambient temperature and low at high temperature. Though very few of these materials have T{sub t} in the range required for such an application, one can adjust T{sub t} by using dopants. Many models have been developed to explain the transition mechanism in TC materials, especially in the vanadium oxides, and the authors review some of these theories here. They also discuss thermochromism in stoichiometric compounds and in doped compounds and present the results of a program to dope VO{sub 2} for a solar control glazing applications. Tungsten-doped VO{sub 2} thin films with useful T{sub t} ({approx} 10 to 18 C) were routinely deposited on glass substrates. The chapter closes with a discussion of the performance of these films and their commercial applicability.

  7. The Infrared Emittance Of Semi-Transparent Materials Measured At Cold Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, S. J.

    1984-03-01

    The infrared emittance of semi-transparent glazing materials used in passive solar building construction was measured over the temperature range -5.6°C to +15°C at 2 - 5.6 μm wavelength. A table of measured apparent emittance values is presented. Absolute values of emittance are not provided due to the conclusion that no adequate model describing three-dimensional emittance in terms of thickness, rectilinear transmittance, and broadband detector sensitivity has yet been formulated. A rough rule-of-thumb for thermographers appears to be that a high emittance value can be assumed for most thick sheets of these materials but the emittance of thin films drops rapidly below a certain critical thickness.

  8. On-site XRF characterization of archaeological materials in CERA center of Rissani (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amraoui, M.; Haddad, M.; Bejjit, L.; Ait Lyazidi, S.; Lakhal, R.

    2017-03-01

    Different glazed ceramics and glass artifacts, coming from the excavations of the Sijilmassa site and exhibited in CERA (center for Alaouite studies and research) in Rissani (Morocco), were analysed by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. All glazed ceramics are lead glaze and their ceramic bodies are calcareous clay. Glass objects are different nature: lead-glass, lead-lime-alkaline and potassium-lime glass. Classical elements were used to colour glaze and glass: tin for white, cobalt ore for blue, copper for green, manganese and iron for black and iron for yellow.

  9. Understanding Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Almost everything people have ever done has involved materials. Historical evidence indicates that "engineered materials" have been available and utilized for the benefit of humankind since the Neolithic period, beginning about 10,000 BC. Some of these materials have been in existence for thousands of years. At first, materials consisted of wood,…

  10. Beautiful forms and compositions are not made by chance: Exploring the efficacy of portable X-ray fluorescence to sort and source English lead glazed ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarich, Steven J.

    Advances in portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) technology have made it a viable option for the non-destructive exploration of the underlying chemical composition of ceramic artifacts for the purposes of classification. However, because the literature regarding the use of this instrument on historic artifacts is limited, it is necessary to begin with a broad scale exploratory assessment that might act as a jumping off point for future studies on this topic. Toward that end, this research uses a collection of British and Continental European ceramics ranging from 1650-1920, owned and curated by the Chipstone Foundation in Fox Point, WI, to explore the efficacy of using pXRF to sort and source those materials. The chemical patterns in the data are tested against the known provenance of these artifacts which has been pre-determined by ceramic experts and material culture analysts. Of the 102 samples that have been tested, primary focus is given to items crafted in London and Staffordshire which account for the largest portion of artifacts in the dataset. Principle component analysis is used to better understand the underlying structure of the entire dataset to ultimately reduce the number of chemical variables to those that best distinguish each group. Using those particular chemical variables, a separate dataset of London and Staffordshire mean intensity readings is subjected to factor analysis which resulted in two components being identified. The calculated factor scores are incorporated into a binary logistic regression model to determine if the samples can be correctly sorted into their pre-established provenance categories. A second model that incorporates the year of production is also presented which shows an improved ability to classify those samples. These results are ultimately situated within the historic context of the pottery making industry in England which was highly influenced by the Industrial Revolution and developments in ceramic technology.

  11. Effects of different surface finishing procedures on the change in surface roughness and color of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network material

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Merve; Türker, Nurullah; Barutcigil, Kubilay

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials, also called hybrid ceramics, are new materials in dental market. The manufacturer of the PICN material VITA Enamic suggests 3 different finishing procedures for this new material. In the present study, surface roughness and color differences caused from different finishing procedures of VITA Enamic were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 specimens were prepared in dimensions 2 × 10 × 12 mm from VITA Enamic hybrid ceramic blocks with 'high translucency' and 'translucency 2M2' shades. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. For each group, different finishing procedures suggested by the manufacturer were performed. Surface roughness values were determined by a tactile portable profilometer. Color changes were evaluated using a clinical spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The significance level was set at α=0.05. RESULTS The roughest surfaces were observed in Glaze Groups. Their surface roughness values were similar to that of the control group. Clinical Kit and Technical Kit groups did not show a statistically significant difference regarding surface roughness (P>.05). The largest color difference regarding ΔE00 was observed in Clinical Kit finishing groups. There were also statistically significant color changes between the groups (P<.05). However, all the groups showed clinically acceptable color change (ΔE00<2.25) except Clinical Kit Groups (ΔE00>2.25). CONCLUSION Within the limitations of the present study, it may be suggested that finishing the VITA Enamic restorations by Technical Kit instead of Glaze and Clinical Kit gives better clinical performance in regard to surface roughness and shade matching. PMID:26949483

  12. Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Rubin, Mike

    2008-08-01

    Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BSDFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.

  13. Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Jacob; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Rubin, Mike

    2008-08-01

    Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BADFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.

  14. Analytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Graeme W.

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90° rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  15. Contrast Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... veins of the body, including vessels in the brain, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and legs soft tissues of the body, including the muscles, fat and skin brain breast Microbubble Contrast Materials Microbubble contrast materials are ...

  16. Analytic materials.

    PubMed

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  17. Nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, Philip

    2001-03-01

    Nanostructured materials may be defined as those materials whose structural elements - clusters, crystallites or molecules - have dimensions in the 1 to 100 nm range. The explosion in both academic and industrial interest in these materials over the past decade arises from the remarkable variations in fundamental electrical, optical and magnetic properties that occur as one progresses from an `infinitely extended' solid to a particle of material consisting of a countable number of atoms. This review details recent advances in the synthesis and investigation of functional nanostructured materials, focusing on the novel size-dependent physics and chemistry that results when electrons are confined within nanoscale semiconductor and metal clusters and colloids. Carbon-based nanomaterials and nanostructures including fullerenes and nanotubes play an increasingly pervasive role in nanoscale science and technology and are thus described in some depth. Current nanodevice fabrication methods and the future prospects for nanostructured materials and nanodevices are discussed.

  18. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  19. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  20. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  1. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  2. Nano Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Nano Materials Henne van Heeren enablingMNT Drakensteynlaan 34 3319 RG Dordrecht The Netherlands Henne@enablingMNT.com Introduction... micro sized particles. Nanotubes From a Mancef patent investigation it was learned that carbon nanotechnology (mainly nanotubes, but also...for high purity nanotubes. RTO-EN-AVT-129bis 3 - 1 van Heeren, H. (2007) Nano Materials. In Nanotechnology Aerospace Applications

  3. Materials Repurposed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Orvil L.; Townsend, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Few teachers find themselves with the support to purchase all of the materials they ideally need to supply their classrooms. Buying one or two simple, ready-made items can put a serious strain on anyone's budget. However, materials for science in the classroom need not be prefabricated or expensive. By looking at the function and purpose of any…

  4. Bioresponsive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yue; Aimetti, Alex A.; Langer, Robert; Gu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    'Smart' bioresponsive materials that are sensitive to biological signals or to pathological abnormalities, and interact with or are actuated by them, are appealing therapeutic platforms for the development of next-generation precision medications. Armed with a better understanding of various biologically responsive mechanisms, researchers have made innovations in the areas of materials chemistry, biomolecular engineering, pharmaceutical science, and micro- and nanofabrication to develop bioresponsive materials for a range of applications, including controlled drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and biomedical devices. This Review highlights recent advances in the design of smart materials capable of responding to the physiological environment, to biomarkers and to biological particulates. Key design principles, challenges and future directions, including clinical translation, of bioresponsive materials are also discussed.

  5. Composite material

    DOEpatents

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  6. Periodontal materials.

    PubMed

    Darby, I

    2011-06-01

    Periodontics is more associated with debridement of periodontal pockets and not generally thought of as using dental materials in the treatment of patients. However, the last 30 years have seen the development of materials used in regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease, guided tissue regeneration, and the use of these materials in bone regeneration more recently, guided bone regeneration. The materials used include bone grafts and membranes, but also growth factors and cells-based therapies. This review provides an overview of the materials currently used and looks at contemporary research with a view to what may be used in the future. It also looks at the clinical effectiveness of these regenerative therapies with an emphasis on what is available in Australia.

  7. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    PubMed

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  8. Insulation Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Manufactured by Hitco Materials Division of Armco, Inc. a ceramic fiber insulation material known as Refrasil has been used extensively as a heat-absorbing ablative reinforcement for such space systems as rocket motor nozzles, combustion chambers, and re-entry shields. Refrasil fibers are highly porous and do not melt or vaporize until fibers exceed 3,100 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to these and other properties, Refrasil has found utility in a number of industrial high temperature applications where glass, asbestos and other materials fail. Hitco used this insulation to assist Richardson Co., Inc. in the manufacturing of hard rubber and plastic molded battery cases.

  9. Deformed Shape Analysis of Coupled Glazing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    blast tests, the mullions were covered with the speckle pattern and discrete markers to track the deformed shape of the mullion. However, only limited...to track areas of interest, thereby providing thousands of strain and 3D displacement measure- ments; or to track discrete targets, which provides a...mounted in a stereoscopic orientation on two tripods and were tethered together to ensure synchronized frame capture. Various combinations of speckle

  10. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Cooper, Valentino

    2016-07-12

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  11. Contrast Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other medical conditions history of asthma and hay fever history of heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid ... materials if: you have a history of asthma, hay fever, or other allergies, which will increase your risk ...

  12. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... for words like: Acid Alkali Carcinogenic Caution Corrosive Danger Explosive Flammable Irritant Radioactive Unstable Warning A label ... leak occurs What to do if there is danger from the material mixing with other substances How ...

  13. CURRICULUM MATERIALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    MATERIALS ARE LISTED BY 36 TOPICS ARRANGED IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER. TOPICS INCLUDE APPRENTICE TRAINING, BAKING, DRAFTING, ENGLISH, GLASSBLOWING, HOME ECONOMICS, INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY, MACHINE SHOP, NEEDLE TRADES, REFRIGERATION, AND UPHOLSTERY. PRICES ARE GIVEN FOR EACH ITEM. (EL)

  14. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  15. Parachute materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present guidelines for the use of Kevlar and nylon materials in modern parachute systems. Nylon has been used in parachutes for many years, so this discussion will place emphasis upon Kevlar material properties and their application to parachute design and construction. Kevlar-29 is an aramid fiber manufactured by DuPont and is being used on parachute systems requiring high strength-to-weight ratios or sustained strength at high temperatures. Tests of parachutes using Kevlar webbing, braided cords, ribbons, and thread have demonstrated that these Kevlar materials can be used successfully in ribbon parachutes with no detrimental effects on performance. A few changes must be made in the design of a ribbon parachute to accommodate Kevlar's high modulus. Examples of parachutes that use Kevlar suspension lines, radials, ribbons, reefing lines, bridles, and skirt bands are presented to show that they are much lighter and more resistant to aerodynamic heating than all-nylon parachutes. Nylon continues to be an important material for high-performance parachute systems, however. New nylon weaves have resulted in lighter weight, stronger ribbon materials with excellent sewability characteristics.

  16. Hardfacing material

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J [Iona, ID

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  17. THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Preparation of materials: Multiple oxides: Additions of TiO2, ZrO2 , CeO2 and SnO2 to YCrO3 were prepared. X-ray diffrac ion data established the...La2O3 and Nb2O5 to CeO2; CdO, Bi2O3, Sb2O5, MoO3 and WO3 to PbNb2O6 or Pb2N6207. Percentage compositions and ceramic properties of the materials are

  18. Squishy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habdas, Piotr; Weeks, Eric R.; Lynn, David G.

    2006-05-01

    Most people do not realize that many substances they use in the kitchen and the bathroom are not simple liquids or solids. Everyone is familiar with three states of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. However, creams, shampoo, toothpaste, and ketchup all have properties of both liquids and solids. This paper describes demonstrations and laboratory exercises1 that show intriguing properties of squishy substances, defined as materials that are not unambiguously solid, liquid, or gas. Unlike some areas of physics, the concepts behind squishy materials are understandable even by beginning students. Squishy physics can be used to show physics questions arising from everyday life and to convey the excitement of current research.

  19. 78 FR 71030 - Ford Motor Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Glazing materials for use in motor vehicles must conform to ANSI/SAE Z26.1-1996 (incorporated by reference... vehicles shall conform to the requirements for glazing for use in trucks as specified in ANSI/SAE...

  20. Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. HEATH/Closer Look Resource Center.

    The fact sheet presents a suggested evaluation framework for use in previewing audiovisual materials, a list of selected resources, and an annotated list of films which were shown at the AHSSPPE '83 Media Fair as part of the national conference of the Association on Handicapped Student Service Programs in Postsecondary Education. Evaluation…

  1. BIOBASED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biobased materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Following a strict definition, many common m...

  2. Strategic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    to meet their obligations. Competition requires maintaining a lean cost structure, managing raw material requirements, improving the quality of products and...competitive reputations in the market through the quality of products and the ability to meet defense ballistic performance specifications and delivery

  3. Superconducting Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    After working with Lewis Research Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Superconducting Technologies, Inc. (STI) adapted NASA requirements and refined its own standard production recipe. STI uses high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in its basic products: high quality thin films, circuits and components. Applications include microwave circuits for radar to reduce interference.

  4. Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  5. Strategic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    temperature superconductors may one day open the door to magnetic levitation vehicles. And, medical technology is expected to increase the use of...telemedicine, telemaintenance, new internet-based music formats and unified messaging will demand the additional bandwidth that only fiber optic cables...controllers that create new functionality, such as vibration control and health monitoring. One approach used to develop smart materials is to “create

  6. Magnetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Defense supported the development of microwave ferrites , and today 85 percent of that market is still military. Magnetostrictive sensors for sonar...or hard ferrite , Although both cobalt and samarium are expensive and the production process is difficult v4,*-°’. because of the strong tendency of...plentiful materials supply and low magnet cost. This calls for automated mass-production methods for ferrites and, perhaps, Nd-Fe-based REPMs. But for

  7. Ceramic Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-02

    A ceramic material which is (1) ceramics based on monoclinic BaO.Al2O3.2SiO2; (2) ceramics based on monoclinic SrO.Al2O3.2SiO2; or (3) ceramics based on monoclinic solid solution of BaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 and SrO.Al2O3.2SiO2.

  8. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this photograph, James Carden uses a NASA-developed prosthesis to moved planks around his home. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  9. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photograph, Amputee Amie Bradly uses a NASA-developed prosthesis to paint her fingernails. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  10. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this photograph, Sandra Rossi user her NASA-developed prosthesis for the first time. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  11. Strategic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Sears, US Navy Lt Col Mark Williams, US Air Force Dr. Sylvia Babus , Faculty Dr. Maureen Crandall, Faculty Mr. Bill Jones, Faculty Strategic...graying rapidly, populated predominantly with baby- boomers over 40 years of age. Aggravating this demographic shift, the number of workforce S&E...Transnational Environment. [Student Essay from Strategic Materials Industry Study 2005, available from Dr. Sylvia Babus , Industrial College of the Armed

  12. Fullerene materials

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, R.; Ruoff, R.S.; Lorents, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Fullerenes are all-carbon cage molecules. The most celebrated fullerene is the soccer-ball shaped C{sub 60}, which is composed of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons. Because its structure is reminiscent of the geodesic domes of architect R. Buckminster Fuller, C{sub 60} is called buckminsterfullerene, and all the materials in the family are designated fullerenes. Huffman and Kraetschmer`s discovery unleashed activity around the world as scientists explored production methods, properties, and potential uses of fullerenes. Within a short period, methods for their production in electric arcs, plasmas, and flames were discovered, and several companies began selling fullerenes to the research market. What is remarkable is that in all these methods, carbon atoms assemble themselves into cage structures. The capability for self-assembly points to some inherent stability of these structures that allows their formation. The unusual structure naturally leads to unusual properties. Among them are ready solubility in solvents and a relatively high vapor pressure for a pure carbon material. The young fullerene field has already produced a surprising array of structures for the development of carbon-base materials having completely new and different properties from any that were previously possible.

  13. High-power diode laser marking and engraving of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Lawrence, Jonathan; Spencer, Julian T.

    1997-08-01

    A Diomed 60W-cw high power diode laser (HPDL) has been used for the marking and engraving of various building materials, including; marble, granite, clay tiles, ceramic tiles, roof tiles, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and clay bricks. Morphological and microstructural characteristics have been investigated. The basic mechanism of marking/engraving and the characteristics of the beam absorption are discussed. The effects of material texture, color and laser processing parameters are reported. The work shows that engraving depths of over 2 mm (0.75 mm for a single pass) can be achieved on marble substrates by thermal disintegration of CaCO3 into loose CaO powder and CO2 gas. Uniform amorphous glazed lines (1 - 3 mm line width) of a color different from the untreated materials can be generated on clay tiles, ceramic tiles, roof tiles, clay bricks and OPC by solidification phase formation after laser melting of these materials. Effects of atmospheric conditions, for instance using O2 and Ar gas shrouds, have been examined, with different colored marks being observed when different shroud gases are used. To demonstrate the practical worth of the process a UMIST crest has been marked on a ceramic tile using the system. Laser beam reflectivity is found to depend not only on material composition but also its color. Reflectivity has been found to range between 12% to 18% for the various construction materials used in the experiment, except for marble (grey) which showed over 27% reflectivity. Since the HPDL is a portable device, on-site application of these processing techniques can be realized, which would be either impossible or difficult when using other types of lasers.

  14. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  15. Construction material

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  16. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  17. Materializing superghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, V.; Krotov, D.; Losev, A.; Lysov, V.

    2007-12-01

    The off-shell Batalin-Vilkovysky (BV) realization has been constructed for N = 1, d = 10 super-Yang-Mills theory with seven auxiliary fields. This becomes possible due to the materialized ghost phenomenon. Namely, supersymmetry ghosts are coordinates on a manifold B of ten-dimensional spinors with the pure spinors cut out. Auxiliary fields are sections of a bundle over B, and supersymmetry transformations are nonlinear in ghosts. By integrating out the auxiliary fields, we obtain an on-shell supersymmetric BV action with quadratic terms in the antifields. Exactly this on-shell BV action was obtained in our previous paper after integration out of auxiliary fields in the framework of a pure spinor superfield formalism.

  18. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  19. PREFACE: Superconducting materials Superconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charfi Kaddour, Samia; Singleton, John; Haddad, Sonia

    2011-11-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in 1911 was a great milestone in condensed matter physics. This discovery has resulted in an enormous amount of research activity. Collaboration among chemists and physicists, as well as experimentalists and theoreticians has given rise to very rich physics with significant potential applications ranging from electric power transmission to quantum information. Several superconducting materials have been synthesized. Crucial progress was made in 1987 with the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in copper-based compounds (cuprates) which have revealed new fascinating properties. Innovative theoretical tools have been developed to understand the striking features of cuprates which have remained for three decades the 'blue-eyed boy' for researchers in superconductor physics. The history of superconducting materials has been notably marked by the discovery of other compounds, particularly organic superconductors which despite their low critical temperature continue to attract great interest regarding their exotic properties. Last but not least, the recent observation of superconductivity in iron-based materials (pnictides) has renewed hope in reaching room temperature superconductivity. However, despite intense worldwide studies, several features related to this phenomenon remain unveiled. One of the fundamental key questions is the mechanism by which superconductivity takes place. Superconductors continue to hide their 'secret garden'. The new trends in the physics of superconductivity have been one of the two basic topics of the International Conference on Conducting Materials (ICoCoM2010) held in Sousse,Tunisia on 3-7 November 2010 and organized by the Tunisian Physical Society. The conference was a nice opportunity to bring together participants from multidisciplinary domains in the physics of superconductivity. This special section contains papers submitted by participants who gave an oral contribution at ICoCoM2010

  20. Practical Implications of Electron-Beam Surface Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Brian G.; Strutt, Peter R.

    1982-11-01

    The use of laser/electron-beam techniques to glaze large surface areas is briefly reviewed. The properties thus obtained for a range of iron-based alloys is discussed. Recent results show that electron-beam glazing can extend the wear life of certain cemented carbide materials and preliminary results indicate that glazed tool steels show enhanced corrosion resistance.

  1. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  2. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: pigments and glazes characterization.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Casimiro, T M; Colomban, Ph

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co(3)O(4) (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co(2)SiO(4), Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the 17th C.) - 824 cm(-1) band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl(2)O(4), Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm(-1) bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  3. Biointegrating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amédée, J.; Bordenave, L.; Durrieu, M.-C.; Fricain, J.-C.; Pothuaud, L.

    The extraordinary increase in human longevity explains the growing need for replacement organs. The remarkable successes of conventional transplants (associated with the development of effective antirejection drugs and improved control of their administration) are also accompanied by certain drawbacks. First on the list is an inadequate supply of replacement organs: the number of candidates for transplants grows larger, opposition to the removal of organs increases, and the number of transplants has reached a ceiling. Furthermore, it has come to light over the past few years that organ transplants carry a significant risk of transmitting pathogens. Finally, the main drawback lies in the need to pursue an immunosuppression treatment. Scientists and doctors have long been in search of alternatives to human organ transplants. According to the definition drawn up in Chester in 1986 at the Consensus Conference organised under the aegis of the European Society for Biomaterials, biomaterials are non-viable materials used in a medical device and destined to interact with biological systems, whether they contribute to the constitution of a diagnostic device, a tissue or organ substitute, or a device designed to provide functional assistance or replacement.

  4. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  5. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  6. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  7. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  8. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  9. Materials Project: A Materials Genome Approach

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ceder, Gerbrand [MIT; Persson, Kristin [LBNL

    Technological innovation - faster computers, more efficient solar cells, more compact energy storage - is often enabled by materials advances. Yet, it takes an average of 18 years to move new materials discoveries from lab to market. This is largely because materials designers operate with very little information and must painstakingly tweak new materials in the lab. Computational materials science is now powerful enough that it can predict many properties of materials before those materials are ever synthesized in the lab. By scaling materials computations over supercomputing clusters, this project has computed some properties of over 80,000 materials and screened 25,000 of these for Li-ion batteries. The computations predicted several new battery materials which were made and tested in the lab and are now being patented. By computing properties of all known materials, the Materials Project aims to remove guesswork from materials design in a variety of applications. Experimental research can be targeted to the most promising compounds from computational data sets. Researchers will be able to data-mine scientific trends in materials properties. By providing materials researchers with the information they need to design better, the Materials Project aims to accelerate innovation in materials research.[copied from http://materialsproject.org/about] You will be asked to register to be granted free, full access.

  10. Composite material dosimeters

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  11. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  12. Transporting particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Aldred, Derek Leslie; Rader, Jeffrey A.; Saunders, Timothy W.

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  13. Coated electroactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  14. Introductory Materials Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, John E., Jr.

    Described is an introductory materials science laboratory program which emphasizes crystal structure both on the atomistic and microscopic scale and the dependence of materials properties on structure. The content of this program is classified into four major areas: (1) materials science, (2) mechanical behavior of materials, (3) materials testing…

  15. Materials Informatics: Statistical Modeling in Material Science.

    PubMed

    Yosipof, Abraham; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2016-12-01

    Material informatics is engaged with the application of informatic principles to materials science in order to assist in the discovery and development of new materials. Central to the field is the application of data mining techniques and in particular machine learning approaches, often referred to as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling, to derive predictive models for a variety of materials-related "activities". Such models can accelerate the development of new materials with favorable properties and provide insight into the factors governing these properties. Here we provide a comparison between medicinal chemistry/drug design and materials-related QSAR modeling and highlight the importance of developing new, materials-specific descriptors. We survey some of the most recent QSAR models developed in materials science with focus on energetic materials and on solar cells. Finally we present new examples of material-informatic analyses of solar cells libraries produced from metal oxides using combinatorial material synthesis. Different analyses lead to interesting physical insights as well as to the design of new cells with potentially improved photovoltaic parameters.

  16. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Julian M.; Ashby, Michael F.; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations— for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards—is likely to have a more immediate effect. PMID:23359746

  17. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Gutowski, Timothy G; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations-- for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards--is likely to have a more immediate effect.

  18. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons and methods for making such materials. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  19. Thermoelectric materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Talcott, Noel A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    New thermoelectric materials comprise highly [111]-oriented twinned group IV alloys on the basal plane of trigonal substrates, which exhibit a high thermoelectric figure of merit and good material performance, and devices made with these materials.

  20. Closed cellular materials for smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Satoshi

    2008-11-01

    New methods to fabricate a metallic closed cellular material for smart materials using an isostatic pressing, spark plasma sintering (SPS) method and penetrating method are introduced. Powder particles of polymer or ceramics coated with a metal layer using electro-less plating were pressed into pellets and sintered at high temperatures by sintering at high temperature. Also these powder particles were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. Also a many kinds of closed cellular materials with different materials of cell walls and different materials inside of the cell were tried to fabricate. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of this material were measured. The results of the compressive tests show that this material has the different stress-strain curves among the specimens that have different thickness of the cell walls and the sintering temperatures of the specimens affect the compressive strength of each specimen. Also, the results of the compressive tests show that this material has high-energy absorption and Young's modulus of this material depends on the thickness of the cell walls and sintering conditions. The internal friction of this material was measured and the results show that this internal friction is same as that of pure aluminum.

  1. Nonmetallic materials handbook. Volume 1: Epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podlaseck, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Thermochemical and other properties data is presented for the following types of epoxy materials: adhesives, coatings finishes, inks, electrical insulation, encapsulants, sealants, composite laminates, tapes, and thermal insulators.

  2. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  3. Advanced Ceramic Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-11

    materials, toughened alumina, fiber -reinforced glass matrix composites, and multilayer-gradient materials for ballistic testing. Fabrication and...material systems: Multilayer advanced armor materials consisting of a hard ceramic faceplate bonded to a graphite fiber -reinforced glass matrix...toughened alumina, and fiber - applied studies of advanced reinforced ceramic matrix glass and glass -ceramic composites for ballistic testing. technologies

  4. Tritium breeding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.

  5. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  6. Materials Analysis and Modeling of Underfill Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, Nicholas B; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-01

    The thermal-mechanical properties of three potential underfill candidate materials for PBGA applications are characterized and reported. Two of the materials are a formulations developed at Sandia for underfill applications while the third is a commercial product that utilizes a snap-cure chemistry to drastically reduce cure time. Viscoelastic models were calibrated and fit using the property data collected for one of the Sandia formulated materials. Along with the thermal-mechanical analyses performed, a series of simple bi-material strip tests were conducted to comparatively analyze the relative effects of cure and thermal shrinkage amongst the materials under consideration. Finally, current knowledge gaps as well as questions arising from the present study are identified and a path forward presented.

  7. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  8. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  9. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  10. Solar collectors: Technical progress report No. 2, 5 March 1979-5 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, B.; Binette, M.

    1980-03-14

    The following work is reviewed: accelerated ultraviolet exposure of glazing and housing materials, the evaluation of ultraviolet protective coatings and films, and investigation of antireflective coatings.

  11. Orbital foamed material extruder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    This invention is a process for producing foamed material in space comprising the steps of: rotating the material to simulate the force of gravity; heating the rotating material until it is molten; extruding the rotating, molten material; injecting gas into the extruded, rotating, molten material to produce molten foamed material; allowing the molten foamed material to cool to below melting temperature to produce the foamed material. The surface of the extruded foam may be heated to above melting temperature and allowed to cool to below melting temperature. The extruded foam may also be cut to predetermined length. The starting material may be metal or glass. Heating may be accomplished by electrical heating elements or by solar heating.

  12. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  13. Joining of dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  14. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

  15. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  16. Nondestructive material characterization

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

  17. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  18. Materials Discovery: Informatic Strategies for Optical Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, Kim F.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Jones, Dumont M.

    2007-01-15

    Information-based materials discovery offers a structured method to evolve materials signatures based upon their physical properties, and to direct searches using performance-based criteria. In this current paper, we focus on the crystal structure aspects of an optical material and construct an information-based model to determine the proclivity of a particular AB composition to exhibit multiple crystal system behavior. Exploratory data methods used both supervised (support-vector machines) and unsupervised (disorder-reduction and principal-component) classification methods for structural signature development; revealing complementary valid signatures. Examination of the relative contributions of the materials chemistry descriptors within these signatures indicates a strong role for Mendeleev number chemistry which must be balanced against the cationic/anionic radius ratio and electronegativity differences of constituents within the unit cell.

  19. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D R

    1998-01-01

    During FY-97, work within the Materials Science and Engineering thrust area was focused on material modeling. Their motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as materials processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, which support many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Recent examples of structural response problems studied include material fracture (such as interface failure), damage in laser optics, the response of weapons components (such as high explosives) and the failure of composite materials. For materials processing, typical problems studied include metal forming, laser processing, casting, and heat treating. To improve our ability to model material behavior, much of the work involves developing new material models and failure models, as well as applying the codes to new problems. Most investigations involve experimental studies to gather basic information on material response and to validate codes or material models. Projects are inherently multi-disciplinary, involving several investigators with expertise in materials and mechanics. The thrust area studies for FY-97 are described in the following three articles: (1) Evolution of Anisotropic Yield Behavior; (2) Modeling of She Localization in Materials; and (3) Modeling of Casting Microstructures and Defects.

  20. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  1. Renewable smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-01

    The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.

  2. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  3. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  4. Sustainable Materials Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To introduce businesses, NGOs, and government officials to the concept of Sustainable Materials Management (SMM). To provide tools to allow stakeholders to take a lifecycle approach managing their materials, & to encourage them to join a SMM challenge.

  5. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  6. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  7. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  8. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  9. Materials modelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciudad, David

    2016-04-01

    Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.

  10. Improvisation: Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzmich, John A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The past, present and future of music improvisation is discussed. Resources for piano, guitar, elementary general music materials, and electronic music materials are included, along with addresses of publishers. The emphasis is on jazz. (KC)

  11. Silicone azide fireproof material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Finely powdered titanium oxide was added to silicone azide as the sintering agent to produce a nonflammable material. Mixing proportions, physical properties, and chemical composition of the fireproofing material are included.

  12. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  13. Impact tolerant material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A material is protected from acoustic shock waves generated by impacting projectiles by means of a backing. The backing has an acoustic impedance that efficiently couples the acoustic energy out of the material.

  14. Bibliography of AV Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedstein, Harriet, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Lists commercially available audiovisual materials by subject area. Includes title, producer (addresses given), catalog number, format (film, filmstrip, cassette, slides), and prices. Subject areas include: elements; equilibrium; gases; laboratory techniques and experiments; general chemistry; introductory materials (including mathematics); and…

  15. Lightweight Materials & Structures

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Lightweight Materials and Structures (LMS) project will mature high-payoff structures and materials technologies that have direct application to NASA’s future space exploration needs.One of the...

  16. Smart materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.; Heyman, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Embedded optical fibers allow not only the cure-monitoring and in-service lifetime measurements of composite materials, but the NDE of material damage and degradation with aging. The capabilities of such damage-detection systems have been extended to allow the quantitative determination of 2D strain in materials by several different methods, including the interferometric and the numerical. It remains to be seen, what effect the embedded fibers have on the strength of the 'smart' materials created through their incorporation.

  17. Materials Genome Initiative Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is committed to developing new materials and manufacturing methods that can enable new missions with ever increasing mission demands. Typically, the development and certification of new materials and manufacturing methods in the aerospace industry has required more than 20 years of development time with a costly testing and certification program. To reduce the cost and time to mature these emerging technologies, NASA is developing computational materials tools to improve understanding of the material and guide the certification process.

  18. Electronics materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  19. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    electrically insulating materials filled to the point of incipient wetness (paste consistency) with liquids containing dissolved ions. This work...109. This strongly supports the fundamental hypothesis of SDM: In the presence of an electric field any electrically insulating, porous material...ABSTRACT The results of this study establish that powder-based super dielectric materials (SDM) are a large family of porous electrically

  20. Bibliography of Citizenship Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 CASAS "Bibliography of Citizenship Materials" lists available instructional resources for citizenship education. It focuses on materials appropriate for preparing people for the naturalization process and the standardized citizenship examination. Resources include textbooks, audio materials, software and Videos/DVDs. The bibliography also…

  1. Portuguese Language Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Henry W.

    This annotated bibliography is a selective list of the most useful reference and teaching materials for Portuguese language study. The listing includes both traditional materials and the few items available which reflect the current advances of linguistic theory. Commercially prepared materials known to be out of print have not been included.…

  2. Materials Flow and Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sznopek, John L.; Brown, William M.

    1998-01-01

    Materials extracted from the Earth are necessary to produce our most fundamental needs – food, clothing, and shelter. Materials are needed to maintain and improve our standard of living. Understanding the whole system of materials flow, from source to ultimate disposition, can help us better manage the use of natural resources and protect the environment.

  3. Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials are now generally known as the "Cinderella" materials of the magnetic world. However, susceptibility measurements made on these materials in the past have revealed many details about the molecular bonding and the atomic structure of the so-called "transition" elements. Indeed, the magnetic moment of neodymium…

  4. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  5. Energy Education Materials Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    This is an annotated bibliography of selected energy education materials. The materials included in this document are indexed according to grade level and according to whether they are background materials or classroom activities. Each of the 100 items listed were evaluated and included into either the "A" list or the "B" list.…

  6. Advanced Materials Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Composites, polymer science, metallic materials (aluminum, titanium, and superalloys), materials processing technology, materials durability in the aerospace environment, ceramics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, tribology, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are discussed. Research and development activities are introduced to the nonaerospace industry. In order to provide a convenient means to help transfer aerospace technology to the commercial mainstream in a systematic manner.

  7. Advances in dental materials.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  8. Fingerprinting Of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Collection of three reports surveys emerging technology of chemical fingerprinting, which can be defined, loosely, as systematic application of modern methods of analysis to determine elemental or molecular compositions of materials, measure relative amounts of constituents of materials, and/or measure other relevant properties of materials.

  9. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young`s modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  10. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young's modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  11. Survival Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert M.; Barnes, Marcia M.

    This booklet is designed to provide some starter ideas for teachers to use in developing their own packet of learning materials. The procedures suggested and the examples included are literally starters. "Introduction to Survival Learning Materials" presents some procedures to help teachers get started in developing materials. "Following…

  12. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  13. Materials for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Topics include a lab overview, testing and processing equipment, hemochromic hydrogen sensors, antimicrobial materials, wire system materials, CNT ink formulations, CNT ink dust screens, CNT ink printed circuitry, cryogenic materials development, fire and polymers, the importance of lighting, electric lighting systems, LED for plant growth, and carbon nanotube fiber filaments.

  14. [Refugee Materials Center Bibliography].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Kansas City, MO. Regional Office 7.

    The citations in this bibliography include textbooks, other instructional materials, and resource materials that can be used in teaching refugees in the United States. The title entries are grouped in series consisting of: (1) textbooks, workbooks, and other instuctional materials on teaching English to non-English speakers; (2) curricular and…

  15. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  16. Tailored Porous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  17. Self-healing materials.

    PubMed

    Hager, Martin D; Greil, Peter; Leyens, Christoph; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2010-12-14

    Self-healing materials are able to partially or completely heal damage inflicted on them, e.g., crack formation; it is anticipated that the original functionality can be restored. This article covers the design and generic principles of self-healing materials through a wide range of different material classes including metals, ceramics, concrete, and polymers. Recent key developments and future challenges in the field of self-healing materials are summarised, and generic, fundamental material-independent principles and mechanism are discussed and evaluated.

  18. Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

    2009-07-01

    Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

  19. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Komashko, Aleksey M.; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Perry, Michael D.

    2000-05-01

    The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biological materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

  20. Femtosecond Laser Materials Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P.S.; Stuart, B.C.; Komashko, A.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    2000-03-06

    The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biologic materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

  1. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

  2. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  3. Materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Theodore T.; Langenbeck, Sharon L.; Al-Jamily, Ghanim; Arnold, Joe; Barbee, Troy; Coulter, Dan; Dolgin, Ben; Fichter, Buck; George, Patricia; Gorenstein, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Materials and structures technology covers a wide range of technical areas. Some of the most pertinent issues for the Astrotech 21 missions include dimensionally stable structural materials, advanced composites, dielectric coatings, optical metallic coatings for low scattered light applications, low scattered light surfaces, deployable and inflatable structures (including optical), support structures in 0-g and 1-g environments, cryogenic optics, optical blacks, contamination hardened surfaces, radiation hardened glasses and crystals, mono-metallic telescopes and instruments, and materials characterization. Some specific examples include low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) structures (0.01 ppm/K), lightweight thermally stable mirror materials, thermally stable optical assemblies, high reliability/accuracy (1 micron) deployable structures, and characterization of nanometer level behavior of materials/structures for interferometry concepts. Large filled-aperture concepts will require materials with CTE's of 10(exp 9) at 80 K, anti-contamination coatings, deployable and erectable structures, composite materials with CTE's less than 0.01 ppm/K and thermal hysteresis, 0.001 ppm/K. Gravitational detection systems such as LAGOS will require rigid/deployable structures, dimensionally stable components, lightweight materials with low conductivity, and high stability optics. The Materials and Structures panel addressed these issues and the relevance of the Astrotech 21 mission requirements by dividing materials and structures technology into five categories. These categories, the necessary development, and applicable mission/program development phasing are summarized. For each of these areas, technology assessments were made and development plans were defined.

  4. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  5. Material behavior and materials problems in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dylla, H. F.; Ulrickson, M. A.; Owens, D. K.; Heifetz, D. B.; Mills, B. E.; Pontau, A. E.; Wampler, W. R.; Doyle, B. L.; Lee, S. R.; Watson, R. D.; Croessmann, C. D.

    1988-07-01

    This paper reviews the experience with first-wall materials in TFTR over a 20 month period of operatiori during 1985-1987. Experience with the axisymmetric inner wall limiter, constructed of graphite tiles, is described, including the necessary conditioning procedures needed for impurity and particle control of high power (≤ 20 MW) neutral injection experiments. The thermal effects in disruptions have been quantified and no significant damage to the bumper limiter has occurred as a result of disruptions. Carbon and metal impurity redeposition effects have been quantified through surface analysis of wall samples. Estimates of the tritium retention in the graphite limiter tiles and redeposited carbon films have been made, based on analysis of deuterium retention in removed graphite tiles and wall samples. New limiter structures have been designed using a 2D carbon/carbon ( {C}/{C}) composite material for RF antenna protection. Laboratory tests of the important thermal, mechanical, and vacuum properties of {C}/{C} materials are described. Finally, the last series of experiments in TFTR with in-situ {Zr}/{Al} surface pumps are discussed. Problems with {Zr}/{Al} embrittlement have led to the removal of the getter material from the in-torus environment.

  6. Geothermal materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among the most pressing problems constraining the development of geothermal energy is the lack of satisfactory component and system reliability. This is due to the unavailability, on a commercial scale, of cost-effective materials that can function in a wide range of geothermal environments and to the unavailability of a comprehensive body of directly relevant test data or materials selection experience. Suitable materials are needed for service in geothermal wells and in process plant equipment. For both situations, this requires materials that can withstand high-temperature, highly-corrosive, and scale-forming geothermal fluids. In addition to requiring a high degree of chemical and thermal resistance, the downhole environment places demands on the physical/mechanical properties of materials for components utilized in well drilling, completion, pumping, and logging. Technical and managerial assistance provided by Brookhaven in the program for studying these materials problems is described.

  7. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  8. NUCLEAR FUEL MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Goeddel, W.V.

    1962-06-26

    An improved method is given for making the carbides of nuclear fuel material. The metal of the fuel material, which may be a fissile and/or fertile material, is transformed into a silicide, after which the silicide is comminuted to the desired particle size. This silicide is then carburized at an elevated temperature, either above or below the melting point of the silicide, to produce an intimate mixture of the carbide of the fuel material and the carbide of silicon. This mixture of the fuel material carbide and the silicon carbide is relatively stable in the presence of moisture and does not exhibit the highly reactive surface condition which is observed with fuel material carbides made by most other known methods. (AEC)

  9. Benzimidazole Based Aerogel Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhine, Wendell E. (Inventor); Mihalcik, David (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides aerogel materials based on imidazoles and polyimidazoles. The polyimidazole based aerogel materials can be thermally stable up to 500 C or more, and can be carbonized to produce a carbon aerogel having a char yield of 60% or more, specifically 70% or more. The present invention also provides methods of producing polyimidazole based aerogel materials by reacting at least one monomer in a suitable solvent to form a polybenzimidazole gel precursor solution, casting the polybenzimidazole gel precursor solution into a fiber reinforcement phase, allowing the at least one gel precursor in the precursor solution to transition into a gel material, and drying the gel materials to remove at least a portion of the solvent, to obtain an polybenzimidazole-based aerogel material.

  10. Characterization of Nanophase Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2000-01-01

    Engineering of nanophase materials and devices is of vital interest in electronics, semiconductors and optics, catalysis, ceramics and magnetism. Research associated with nanoparticles has widely spread and diffused into every field of scientific research, forming a trend of nanocrystal engineered materials. The unique properties of nanophase materials are entirely determined by their atomic scale structures, particularly the structures of interfaces and surfaces. Development of nanotechnology involves several steps, of which characterization of nanoparticles is indespensable to understand the behavior and properties of nanoparticles, aiming at implementing nanotechnolgy, controlling their behavior and designing new nanomaterials systems with super performance. The book will focus on structural and property characterization of nanocrystals and their assemblies, with an emphasis on basic physical approach, detailed techniques, data interpretation and applications. Intended readers of this comprehensive reference work are advanced graduate students and researchers in the field, who are specialized in materials chemistry, materials physics and materials science.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B

    1998-08-05

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area. Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to precision cuts in composites are possible by using this technology. For material removal at reasonable rates, we have developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  14. Material for Fast Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, A.

    1986-01-01

    New material for cutting tools increases productivity of machining processes. Material, called Iscanite (or equivalent), based on silicon nitride contains more than 90 percent silicon. Combines impact resistance close to that of coated carbides with heat and wear resistance close to those of aluminum oxide ceramics. Material used for cutting on old or new machine tools and makes it possible to exploit fully power and speed of machine.

  15. Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Dooling, D.

    1999-01-01

    Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines provides data on multilayer insulation materials used by previous spacecraft such as Spacelab and the Long-Duration Exposure Facility and outlines other concerns. The data presented in the document are presented for information only. They can be used as guidelines for multilayer insulation design for future spacecraft provided the thermal requirements of each new design and the environmental effects on these materials are taken into account.

  16. Infrared fiber optic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of IR fiber optics for use in astronomical and other space applications is summarized. Candidate materials were sought for use in the 1 to 200 micron and the 200 to 1000 micron wavelength range. Synthesis and optical characterization were carried out on several of these materials in bulk form. And the fabrication of a few materials in single crystal fiber optic form were studied.

  17. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B. C., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  18. ANS materials databook

    SciTech Connect

    Marchbanks, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Technical development in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) project is dynamic, and a continuously updated information source is necessary to provide readily usable materials data to the designer, analyst, and materials engineer. The Advanced Neutron Source Materials Databook (AMBK) is being developed as a part of the Advanced Neutron Source Materials Information System (AMIS). Its purpose is to provide urgently needed data on a quick-turnaround support basis for those design applications whose schedules demand immediate estimates of material properties. In addition to the need for quick materials information, there is a need for consistent application of data throughout the ANS Program, especially where only limited data exist. The AMBK is being developed to fill this need as well. It is the forerunner to the Advanced Neutron Source Materials Handbook (AMHB). The AMHB, as reviewed and approved by the ANS review process, will serve as a common authoritative source of materials data in support of the ANS Project. It will furnish documented evidence of the materials data used in the design and construction of the ANS system and will serve as a quality record during any review process whose objective is to establish the safety level of the ANS complex. The information in the AMBK and AMHB is also provided in electronic form in a dial-up computer database known as the ANS Materials Database (AMDB). A single consensus source of materials information prepared and used by all national program participants has several advantages. Overlapping requirements and data needs of various sub-projects and subcontractors can be met by a single document which is continuously revised. Preliminary and final safety analysis reports, stress analysis reports, equipment specifications, materials service reports, and many other project-related documents can be substantially reduced in size and scope by appropriate reference to a single data source.

  19. Wear of engineering materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    Nearly 60 papers discuss fundamental and applied research in the areas of wear, erosion and wear-corrosion of materials. Focus is on ceramics, ceramic and polymer-matrix composites, and coatings; the effect of sliding wear and wear-corrosion of materials in manufacturing processes, automobiles and bearings; and wear and erosion of materials used in fossil-fuel power plants, minerals processing and heavy manufacturing.

  20. Materials for Slack Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puschmann, Traute

    1940-01-01

    This report deals with systematic experiments carried out on five diaphragm materials with different pretreatment, for the purpose of ascertaining the suitability of such materials for slack diaphragms. The relationship of deflection and load, temperature and moisture, was recorded. Of the explored materials, synthetic leather, balloon cloth, goldbeaters skin, Igelit and Buna, synthetic leather treated with castor oil is the most suitable material for the small pressure range required. Balloon cloth is nearly as good, while goldbeaters skin, Igelit and Buna were found to be below the required standards.

  1. Fluorinated elastomeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Lagow, Richard J.; Dumitru, Earl T.

    1990-02-13

    This invention relates to a method of making perfluorinated elastomeric materials, and to materials made by such methods. In the full synthetic scheme, a partially fluorinated polymeric compound, with moieties to prevent crystallization, is created. It is then crosslinked to a desired degree, then perfluorinated. Various intermediate materials, such as partially fluorinated crosslinked polymers, have useful properties, and are or may become commercially available. One embodiment of this invention therefore relates to perfluorination of a selected partially fluorinated, crosslinked material, which is one step of the full synthetic scheme.

  2. Fluorinated elastomeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Lagow, Richard J.; Dumitru, Earl T.

    1986-11-04

    This invention relates to a method of making perfluorinated elastomeric materials, and to materials made by such methods. In the full synthetic scheme, a partially fluorinated polymeric compound, with moieties to prevent crystallization, is created. It is then crosslinked to a desired degree, then perfluorinated. Various intermediate materials, such as partially fluorinated crosslinked polymers, have useful properties, and are or may become commercially available. One embodiment of this invention therefore relates to perfluorination of a selected partially fluorinated, crosslinked material, which is one step of the full synthetic scheme.

  3. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  4. Ceramic breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Kummerer, K.R.; Roth, E.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramic materials are under investigation as potential breeder material in fusion reactors. This paper will review candidate materials with respect to fabrication routes and characterization, properties in as-fabricated and irradiated condition, and experimental results from laboratory and inpile investigations on tritium transport and release. Also discussed are the resources of beryllium, which is being considered as a neutron multiplier. The comparison of ceramic properties that is attempted here aims at the identification of the most-promising material for use in a tritium breeding blanket. 82 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  6. Thermoelectric materials having porosity

    DOEpatents

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

    2014-08-05

    A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

  7. The Materials Genome Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aourag, H.

    2008-09-01

    In the past, the search for new and improved materials was characterized mostly by the use of empirical, trial- and-error methods. This picture of materials science has been changing as the knowledge and understanding of fundamental processes governing a material's properties and performance (namely, composition, structure, history, and environment) have increased. In a number of cases, it is now possible to predict a material's properties before it has even been manufactured thus greatly reducing the time spent on testing and development. The objective of modern materials science is to tailor a material (starting with its chemical composition, constituent phases, and microstructure) in order to obtain a desired set of properties suitable for a given application. In the short term, the traditional "empirical" methods for developing new materials will be complemented to a greater degree by theoretical predictions. In some areas, computer simulation is already used by industry to weed out costly or improbable synthesis routes. Can novel materials with optimized properties be designed by computers? Advances in modelling methods at the atomic level coupled with rapid increases in computer capabilities over the last decade have led scientists to answer this question with a resounding "yes'. The ability to design new materials from quantum mechanical principles with computers is currently one of the fastest growing and most exciting areas of theoretical research in the world. The methods allow scientists to evaluate and prescreen new materials "in silico" (in vitro), rather than through time consuming experimentation. The Materials Genome Project is to pursue the theory of large scale modeling as well as powerful methods to construct new materials, with optimized properties. Indeed, it is the intimate synergy between our ability to predict accurately from quantum theory how atoms can be assembled to form new materials and our capacity to synthesize novel materials atom

  8. Mechanics of materials model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Jeffrey P.

    1987-01-01

    The Mechanics of Materials Model (MOMM) is a three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis code for use as an early design stage tool for hot section components. MOMM is a stiffness method finite element code that uses a network of beams to characterize component behavior. The MOMM contains three material models to account for inelastic material behavior. These include the simplified material model, which assumes a bilinear stress-strain response; the state-of-the-art model, which utilizes the classical elastic-plastic-creep strain decomposition; and Walker's viscoplastic model, which accounts for the interaction between creep and plasticity that occurs under cyclic loading conditions.

  9. Innovative Solar Optical Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1984-02-01

    A variety of optical coatings are discussed in the context of solar energy utilization. Well-known coatings such as transparent conductors (heat mirrors), selective absorbers, and reflective films are surveyed briefly. Emphasis is placed on the materials' limitations and on use of lesser-known optical coatings and materials. Physical and optical properties are detailed for protective antireflection films, cold mirrors, fluorescent concentrator materials, radiative cooling surfaces, and optical switching films including electrochromic, thermochromic, photochromic, and liquid crystal types. For many of these materials, research has only recently been considered, so various design and durability issues need to be addressed.

  10. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  11. LDEF materials overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Bland A.

    1993-01-01

    The flight and retrieval of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided an opportunity for the study of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment and long-duration space environmental effects (SEE) on materials that is unparalleled in the history of the U.S. Space Program. The 5-year, 9-month flight of LDEF greatly enhanced the potential value of all materials on LDEF to the international SEE community, compared to that of the original 1-year flight plan. The remarkable flight attitude stability of LDEF enables specific analyses of individual and combined effects of LEO environmental parameters on identical materials on the same space vehicle. NASA recognized this potential by forming the LDEF Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) to address the greatly expanded materials and LEO space environment analysis opportunities available in the LDEF structure, experiment trays, and corollary measurements so that the combined value of all LDEF materials data to current and future space missions will be addressed and documented. An overview of the interim LDEF materials findings of the principal investigators and the Materials Special Investigation Group is provided. These revelations are based on observations of LEO environmental effects on materials made in space during LDEF retrieval and during LDEF tray deintegration at the Kennedy Space Center, and on findings of approximately 1.5 years of laboratory analyses of LDEF materials by the LDEF materials scientists. These findings were extensively reviewed and discussed at the MSIG-sponsored LDEF Materials Workshop '91. The results are presented in a format that categorizes the revelations as 'clear findings' or 'obscure preliminary findings' (and progress toward their resolution), plus resultant needs for new space materials developments and ground simulation testing/analytical modeling, in seven categories: materials

  12. Solar Glaze Hazard Analysis Tool v. 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Clifford K.; Sims, Cianan A.

    2015-08-25

    SGHAT predicts the occurrence and intensity of glare caused by a user-specified solar panel array when viewed from one or more observation points. An interactive mapping interface is used to determine the latitude, longitude and elevation of the array and observation points. The presence and intensity of glare is then calculated along a given time interval throughout the year, based on the position of the sun. The potential ocular hazard is also reported. The maximum energy production of the solar array is also estimated so that alternative designs can be compared to determine the design that yields the most energy production while mitigating glare.

  13. Stability of antireflection coatings for large area glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Chinyama, G.K. ); Roos, A. ); Karlsson, B. )

    1993-02-01

    The authors draw attention to the excellent stability of the antireflection (AR) coatings on glass prepared by liquid-phase etching in a silica supersaturated flousilicic acid in comparison to dipping in a teflon sol. Both methods resulted in both sides of the glass being coated with antireflection films. For the best samples the transmission of the original glass was increased by as much as 5.5%. The samples have then been exposed to weathering for about seven years to test their durability, after which their optical properties were measured again. Even after this long period of outdoor exposure, the acid-etched samples show remarkable stability in their antireflection properties. After cleaning, their transmittance is restored to almost pre-exposure levels. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Triple-glazed insulating unit with improved edge insulation

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, George B.; Buchanan, Michael J.

    2016-06-07

    An insulating unit includes a first spacer frame between first and second sheets, e.g. glass sheets, and a second spacer frame between the second sheet and a third sheet. A first surface of the first spacer frame is adhered to inner surface of the first sheet, and an opposite second surface of the first spacer frame is adhered to a first surface of the second sheet, by a moisture impervious adhesive layer. A first outer surface of the second spacer frame is adhered to a second surface of the second sheet, and an opposite second outer surface of the second spacer frame is adhered to an inner surface of the third sheet, by the adhesive layer. The first spacer frame and the second spacer frame have an offset of greater than zero.

  15. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reports results from recent icing scaling tests in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling method recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions.

  16. Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Houping

    2005-07-01

    Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to

  17. Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

  18. Frame and edge seal technology: A state of the art survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyholt, Marit; Andresen, Inger; Hugdal, Berit; Aschehoug, Oeyvind

    1994-04-01

    In windows, the glazing is traditionally mounted in an operable or fixed frame, made of wood, metal (steel or aluminum), or PVC. The glazing component in solar collectors and solar walls is also typically mounted in a frame. The purpose of the frame is to protect the vulnerable edge of the glazing and give structural stability, which is especially important in operable windows. Sealed multipane glazings are almost exclusively fabricated with a metal (aluminum or galvanized steel) spacer bar along the edges. New advanced glazings will require new types of frame and edge seal products. As the insulation properties of the glazing itself reach a performance close to that of well-insulated opaque walls, the thermal bridging caused by the spacer bars and the frames will be unacceptable, even for wooden windows. The new glazings will also integrate other functions, which again will influence the design of the frames. There are already quite a few new technological developments in this field. New materials and products for the edge seal and the frame are being developed, and computer calculations gradually take over the manual analysis and laboratory testing of new products. The objective of this IEA Task 18 Case Study is to investigate the influence of the frame and glazing edge seal on the total U-value of a glazing system, to develop improved test and calculation methods, and to design, construct, and test low thermal loss frames for use in advanced glazing applications.

  19. 75 FR 30863 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  20. 76 FR 62856 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  1. 76 FR 35918 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Materials; Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum, a division of...

  2. Materials Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piippo, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a materials science and technology course for high school students, which combines chemistry, physics, engineering, math, technology education, and crafts to introduce students to the atomic make-up and physical properties of materials and to apply this knowledge in creative activities. (SK)

  3. Social character of materialism.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Hunt, J M; Kernan, J B

    2000-06-01

    Scores for 170 undergraduates on Richins and Dawson's Materialism scale were correlated with scores on Kassarjian's Social Preference Scale, designed to measure individuals' character structure. A correlation of .26 between materialism and other-directed social character suggested that an externally oriented reference system guides materialists' perceptions, judgments, acquisitions, and possessions.

  4. Material Writer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays on the writing of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks and other instructional materials. Articles include: "Writing and Publishing Textbooks (Patricia Byrd); "The Craft of Materials Writing" (Fraida Dubin); "Considering Culture: Guidelines for ESL/EFL Textbook Writers" (Gayle Nelson); "Issues in the…

  5. Gravitation in Material Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…

  6. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  7. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  8. Scintillator materials for calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Requirements for fast, dense scintillator materials for calorimetry in high energy physics and approaches to satisfying these requirements are reviewed with respect to possible hosts and luminescent species. Special attention is given to cerium-activated crystals, core-valence luminescence, and glass scintillators. The present state of the art, limitations, and suggestions for possible new scintillator materials are presented.

  9. Carbon Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-14

    behavior, interfacial energies, and surface molecular orientation (surface anchoring states) for mesophase pitch on carbon fibers and other...Mochida (2) extended it to the production of mesophase pitch by dramatically raising Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution...involved i.e. it is a very insoluble material. Mochida, however, recognized that this material was liquid-crystalline mesophase pitch , which was

  10. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

  11. NBS: Materials measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of materials properties and thermophysical properties is described. The topics discussed are: surface tensions and their variations with temperature and impurities; convection during unidirectional solidification: measurement of high temperature thermophysical properties of tungsten liquid and solid; thermodynamic properties of refractory materials at high temperatures; and experimental and theoretical studies in wetting and multilayer adsorption.

  12. Strongly correlated materials.

    PubMed

    Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Si, Qimiao

    2012-09-18

    Strongly correlated materials are profoundly affected by the repulsive electron-electron interaction. This stands in contrast to many commonly used materials such as silicon and aluminum, whose properties are comparatively unaffected by the Coulomb repulsion. Correlated materials often have remarkable properties and transitions between distinct, competing phases with dramatically different electronic and magnetic orders. These rich phenomena are fascinating from the basic science perspective and offer possibilities for technological applications. This article looks at these materials through the lens of research performed at Rice University. Topics examined include: Quantum phase transitions and quantum criticality in "heavy fermion" materials and the iron pnictide high temperature superconductors; computational ab initio methods to examine strongly correlated materials and their interface with analytical theory techniques; layered dichalcogenides as example correlated materials with rich phases (charge density waves, superconductivity, hard ferromagnetism) that may be tuned by composition, pressure, and magnetic field; and nanostructure methods applied to the correlated oxides VO₂ and Fe₃O₄, where metal-insulator transitions can be manipulated by doping at the nanoscale or driving the system out of equilibrium. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting prospects for this class of materials.

  13. Hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method

    DOEpatents

    Brecher, Lee E.; Mones, Charles G.; Guffey, Frank D.

    2015-06-02

    A hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method may involve a novel combination of heating, vaporizing and chemically reacting hydrocarbonaceous feedstock that is substantially unpumpable at pipeline conditions, and condensation of vapors yielded thereby, in order to upgrade that feedstock to a hydrocarbonaceous material condensate that meets crude oil pipeline specification.

  14. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  15. Selection of Music Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luttmann, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The conscientious selection of music materials requires an understanding of the needs of the public being served at least as much as it requires subject competence on the part of the selector. Online and print resources are available to aid in the selection of music materials in all formats, the most important of which are books, scores, audio and…

  16. Materials Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    Five papers are included: processing/characterization of laminated metal composites, casting process modeling, characterizing the failure of composite materials, fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for cure monitoring of advanced polymer composites, and modeling superplastic materials. The papers are processed separately for the data base.

  17. Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are required to protect a vehicle returning from space or entering an atmosphere. The selection of the material depends on the heat flux, heat load, pressure, and shear and other mechanical loads imposed on the material, which are in turn determined by the vehicle configuration and size, location on the vehicle, speed, a trajectory, and the atmosphere. In all cases the goal is to use a material that is both reliable and efficient for the application. Reliable materials are well understood and have sufficient test data under the appropriate conditions to provide confidence in their performance. Efficiency relates to the behavior of a material under the specific conditions that it encounters TPS that performs very well at high heat fluxes may not be efficient at lower heat fluxes. Mass of the TPS is a critical element of efficiency. This talk will review the major classes of TPS, reusable or insulating materials and ablators. Ultra high temperature ceramics for sharp leading edges will also be reviewed. The talk will focus on the properties and behavior of these materials.

  18. Materials inventory management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  19. Impacted material placement plans

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, M.J.

    1997-01-29

    Impacted material placement plans (IMPP) are documents identifying the essential elements in placing remediation wastes into disposal facilities. Remediation wastes or impacted material(s) are those components used in the construction of the disposal facility exclusive of the liners and caps. The components might include soils, concrete, rubble, debris, and other regulatory approved materials. The IMPP provides the details necessary for interested parties to understand the management and construction practices at the disposal facility. The IMPP should identify the regulatory requirements from applicable DOE Orders, the ROD(s) (where a part of a CERCLA remedy), closure plans, or any other relevant agreements or regulations. Also, how the impacted material will be tracked should be described. Finally, detailed descriptions of what will be placed and how it will be placed should be included. The placement of impacted material into approved on-site disposal facilities (OSDF) is an integral part of gaining regulatory approval. To obtain this approval, a detailed plan (Impacted Material Placement Plan [IMPP]) was developed for the Fernald OSDF. The IMPP provides detailed information for the DOE, site generators, the stakeholders, regulatory community, and the construction subcontractor placing various types of impacted material within the disposal facility.

  20. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  1. Millwright Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Laborn J.; Pierce, Greg

    This manual contains instructional materials for use in training millwrights working in industrial and commercial construction sites. Intended as an innovative complement to on-the-job training in construction, the material is written in terms of student performance using behavioral objectives and measured by criterion-referenced evaluation…

  2. Supramolecular biofunctional materials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2017-06-01

    This review discusses supramolecular biofunctional materials, a novel class of biomaterials formed by small molecules that are held together via noncovalent interactions. The complexity of biology and relevant biomedical problems not only inspire, but also demand effective molecular design for functional materials. Supramolecular biofunctional materials offer (almost) unlimited possibilities and opportunities to address challenging biomedical problems. Rational molecular design of supramolecular biofunctional materials exploit powerful and versatile noncovalent interactions, which offer many advantages, such as responsiveness, reversibility, tunability, biomimicry, modularity, predictability, and, most importantly, adaptiveness. In this review, besides elaborating on the merits of supramolecular biofunctional materials (mainly in the form of hydrogels and/or nanoscale assemblies) resulting from noncovalent interactions, we also discuss the advantages of small peptides as a prevalent molecular platform to generate a wide range of supramolecular biofunctional materials for the applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunology, cancer therapy, fluorescent imaging, and stem cell regulation. This review aims to provide a brief synopsis of recent achievements at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and biomedical science in hope of contributing to the multidisciplinary research on supramolecular biofunctional materials for a wide range of applications. We envision that supramolecular biofunctional materials will contribute to the development of new therapies that will ultimately lead to a paradigm shift for developing next generation biomaterials for medicine.

  3. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the RPI composites program is to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability and life prediction. Concommitant goals are to educate engineers to design and use composite materials as normal or conventional materials. A multifaceted program was instituted to achieve these objectives.

  4. Environmental materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig.

  5. Smart materials in dentistry.

    PubMed

    McCabe, J F; Yan, Z; Al Naimi, O T; Mahmoud, G; Rolland, S L

    2011-06-01

    Most dental materials are designed to have a relatively 'neutral' existence in the mouth. It is considered that if they are 'passive' and do not react with the oral environment they will be more stable and have a greater durability. At the same time, it is hoped that our materials will be well accepted and will cause neither harm nor injury. This is an entirely negative approach to material tolerance and biocompatibility and hides the possibility that some positive gains can be achieved by using materials which behave in a more dynamic fashion in the environment in which they are placed. An example of materials which have potential for 'dynamic' behaviour exists with structures which are partly water-based or have phases or zones with significant water content and for which the water within the material can react to changes in the ambient conditions. Such materials may even be said to have the potential for 'smart' behaviour, i.e. they can react to changes in the environment to bring about advantageous changes in properties, either within the material itself or in the material-tooth complex. The controlled movement of water or aqueous media through the material may cause changes in dimensions, may be the carrier for various dissolved species, and may influence the potential for the formation of biofilms at the surface. Some of these issues may be closely interrelated. Clearly, materials which do not have the capacity for water transport or storage do not have the potential for this sort of behaviour. Some materials which are normally resistant to the healthy oral environment can undergo controlled degradation at low pH in order to release ions which may prove beneficial or protective. It is doubtful whether such behaviour should be classified as 'smart' because the material cannot readily return to its original condition when the stimulus is removed. Other materials, such as certain alloys, having no means of transporting water through their structure, can display

  6. Fingerprinting of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L

    1992-01-01

    Recent issues emerging in our fiscal and ecological environments have promulgated that federal agencies shall promote activities which respond to the improvement of both. In response to these developments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken an innovative approach to improve the control of materials used in all NASA manufacturing activities. In concert with this goal, NASA is requiring that its contractors and their sub-contractors perform a more intensive consolidation of technologies that can provide an accounting of materials, which includes in-coming materials, materials in process, end-products and waste materials. The purpose of this handbook is to provide guidelines to NASA and its contractor personnel for the planning and implementation of chemical fingerprinting programs and to illustrate the chemical and statistical fundamentals needed for successful use of chemical fingerprinting.

  7. Material-based Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-05-31

    A simple probability model was applied to detection sampling in a room or space in which different surface materials are present. The model assesses the overall detection capability when the sampling and analytical methods have different performance properties for the different materials. The results suggest that some common sampling strategies may not be ideal. In particular: (1) In a single room or area that includes different surface types with different detection properties, do not use a single sampling grid with a common spacing throughout. (2) If it is known or strongly suspected that one material has better detection properties than the other, place all samples on that material. (3) When it is completely unknown which material has the better detection properties, allocate the samples equally between them.

  8. Extraterrestrial materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The first year results of a multi-year study of processing extraterrestrial materials for use in space are summarized. Theoretically, there are potential major advantages to be derived from the use of such materials for future space endeavors. The types of known or postulated starting raw materials are described including silicate-rich mixed oxides on the Moon, some asteroids and Mars; free metals in some asteroids and in small quantities in the lunar soil; and probably volatiles like water and CO2 on Mars and some asteroids. Candidate processes for space materials are likely to be significantly different from their terrestrial counterparts largely because of: absence of atmosphere; lack of of readily available working fluids; low- or micro-gravity; no carbon-based fuels; readily available solar energy; and severe constraints on manned intervention. The extraction of metals and oxygen from lunar material by magma electrolysis or by vapor/ion phase separation appears practical.

  9. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  10. KLEGECELL: a new lightweight insulating material with superior properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Klegecell -- the brand name of a rigid polyvinyl chloride foam used extensively in the marine and aviation industries -- has substantial advantages over other rigid insulation for certain passive solar applications, particularly as movable insulation. It comes in lightweight rigid panels with high insulating values (R = 7 per inch) so that thin panels are adequate. Its low water vapor permeability makes it suitable for use on the inside of glazing in cold climates, since it prevents condensation from occurring. Its nonflammability is a particularly desirable property for interior use.

  11. Materials Research Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Andrew J.

    1986-01-01

    Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites, ceramics, coatings, processing techniques, etc., which are now also in use by U.S. industry. This brochure highlights selected past accomplishments of our materials research and technology staff. It also provides many examples of the facilities available with which we can conduct materials research. The nation is now beginning to consider integrating technology for high-performance supersonic/hypersonic aircraft, nuclear space power systems, a space station, and new research areas such as materials processing in space. As we proceed, I am confident that our materials research staff will continue to provide important contributions which will help our nation maintain a strong technology position in these areas of growing world competition. Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites

  12. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Ferreira Machado, I.; Ferraria, A. M.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-11-01

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the "Mata da Machada" kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time.

  13. Materials at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Antoinette J

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the physics, chemistry, and metallurgy of materials has been a primary focus of Los Alamos National Laboratory since its inception. In the early 1940s, very little was known or understood about plutonium, uranium, or their alloys. In addition, several new ionic, polymeric, and energetic materials with unique properties were needed in the development of nuclear weapons. As the Laboratory has evolved, and as missions in threat reduction, defense, energy, and meeting other emerging national challenges have been added, the role of materials science has expanded with the need for continued improvement in our understanding of the structure and properties of materials and in our ability to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. Materials science and engineering continues to be central to this Laboratory's success, and the materials capability truly spans the entire laboratory - touching upon numerous divisions and directorates and estimated to include >1/3 of the lab's technical staff. In 2006, Los Alamos and LANS LLC began to redefine our future, building upon the laboratory's established strengths and promoted by strongly interdependent science, technology and engineering capabilities. Eight Grand Challenges for Science were set forth as a technical framework for bridging across capabilities. Two of these grand challenges, Fundamental Understanding of Materials and Superconductivity and Actinide Science. were clearly materials-centric and were led out of our organizations. The complexity of these scientific thrusts was fleshed out through workshops involving cross-disciplinary teams. These teams refined the grand challenge concepts into actionable descriptions to be used as guidance for decisions like our LDRD strategic investment strategies and as the organizing basis for our external review process. In 2008, the Laboratory published 'Building the Future of Los Alamos. The Premier National Security Science Laboratory,' LA-UR-08

  14. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  15. Bioinspired structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.; Bai, Hao; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Natural structural materials are built at ambient temperature from a fairly limited selection of components. They usually comprise hard and soft phases arranged in complex hierarchical architectures, with characteristic dimensions spanning from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The resulting materials are lightweight and often display unique combinations of strength and toughness, but have proven difficult to mimic synthetically. Here, we review the common design motifs of a range of natural structural materials, and discuss the difficulties associated with the design and fabrication of synthetic structures that mimic the structural and mechanical characteristics of their natural counterparts.

  16. Bioinspired structural materials.

    PubMed

    Wegst, Ulrike G K; Bai, Hao; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P; Ritchie, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    Natural structural materials are built at ambient temperature from a fairly limited selection of components. They usually comprise hard and soft phases arranged in complex hierarchical architectures, with characteristic dimensions spanning from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The resulting materials are lightweight and often display unique combinations of strength and toughness, but have proven difficult to mimic synthetically. Here, we review the common design motifs of a range of natural structural materials, and discuss the difficulties associated with the design and fabrication of synthetic structures that mimic the structural and mechanical characteristics of their natural counterparts.

  17. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, T.M.

    1995-10-01

    The science-based stockpile stewardship program emphasizes a better understanding of how complex components function through advanced computer calculations. Many of the problem areas are in the behavior of materials making up the equipment. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) can contribute to solving these problems by providing diagnostic tools to examine parts noninvasively and by providing the experimental tools to understand material behavior in terms of both the atomic structure and the microstructure. Advanced computer codes need experimental information on material behavior in response to stress, temperature, and pressure as input, and they need benchmarking experiments to test the model predictions for the finished part.

  18. ATS materials/manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. On material fracture criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremnev, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear mechanics of material fracture, a model of the fracture of materials with actual (discrete) structures has been constructed. The model is supported by proofs that crack resistance K 1 c and fracture toughness G 1 c obtained from the energy conservation law without using the assumptions adopted in the linear material fracture mechanics serve as the force and energy criteria in the nonlinear fracture mechanics. It has been shown that energy criterion G 1 c in the nonlinear mechanics is much greater than G 1 c in the linear fracture mechanics.

  20. Solid breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Clemmer, R.G.; Hollenber, G.w.

    1981-01-01

    Increased attention is being given to the consideration of lithium-containing ceramic materials for use as breeder blankets in fusion devices. These materials, e.g., Li/sub 2/O, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, etc., are attractive because of their inherent safety advantages. At present, there is a broad scope of laboratory and irradiation activities in force to provide the requisite data enabling selection of th prime-candidate solid breeder material.

  1. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, R.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    Overall emphasis is on basic long-term research in the following categories: constituent materials, composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology; and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Research in basic composition, characteristics, and processing science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to present and future problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of this comprehensive program are presented.

  2. Investigating Encrypted Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe

    When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.

  3. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  4. Encapsulation materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Encapsulation materials for solar cells were investigated. The different phases consisted of: (1) identification and development of low cost module encapsulation materials; (2) materials reliability examination; and (3) process sensitivity and process development. It is found that outdoor photothermal aging devices (OPT) are the best accelerated aging methods, simulate worst case field conditions, evaluate formulation and module performance and have a possibility for life assessment. Outdoor metallic copper exposure should be avoided, self priming formulations have good storage stability, stabilizers enhance performance, and soil resistance treatment is still effective.

  5. Electrically conductive composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  6. Composite Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of filamentary composite materials, is considered. Such interest is based on the possibility of using relatively brittle materials with high modulus, high strength, but low density in composites with good durability and high tolerance to damage. Fiber reinforced composite materials of this kind offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been made since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. There were only limited applied to the primary structure of operational vehicles, mainly as aircrafts.

  7. Gravity and Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, R. P.; Hovell, Daniel; Kondic, Lou; Tennakoon, Sarath; Veje, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We describe experiments that probe a number of different types of granular flow where either gravity is effectively eliminated or it is modulated in time. These experiments include the shaking of granular materials both vertically and horizontally, and the shearing of a 2D granular material. For the shaken system, we identify interesting dynamical phenomena and relate them to standard simple friction models. An interesting application of this set of experiments is to the mixing of dissimilar materials. For the sheared system we identify a new kind of dynamical phase transition.

  8. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  9. The Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect Studied for All 209 PCB Congeners

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk was developed; with application to a set of caulk and window glazing material samples. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, and including quality...

  10. Materials research at CMAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  11. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The promise of filamentary composite materials, whose development may be considered as entering its second generation, continues to generate intense interest and applications activity. Fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been achieved since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. Rather limited applications to primary aircraft structure have been made, however, mainly in a material-substitution mode on military aircraft, except for a few experiments currently underway on large passenger airplanes in commercial operation. To fulfill the promise of composite materials completely requires a strong technology base. NASA and AFOSR recognize the present state of the art to be such that to fully exploit composites in sophisticated aerospace structures, the technology base must be improved. This, in turn, calls for expanding fundamental knowledge and the means by which it can be successfully applied in design and manufacture.

  12. Cookoff of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J.; Schmitt, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    An overview of cookoff modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented aimed at assessing the violence of reaction following cookoff of confined energetic materials. During cookoff, the response of energetic materials is known to involve coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical processes which induce thermal damage to the energetic material prior to the onset of ignition. These damaged states enhance shock sensitivity and lead to conditions favoring self-supported accelerated combustion. Thus, the level of violence depends on the competition between pressure buildup and stress release due to the loss of confinement. To model these complex processes, finite element-based analysis capabilities are being developed which can resolve coupled heat transfer with chemistry, quasi-static structural mechanics and dynamic response. Numerical simulations that assess the level of violence demonstrate the importance of determining material damage in pre- and post-ignition cookoff events.

  13. Mesoporous carbon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  14. Mesoporous carbon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2012-02-14

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  15. Materials research at CMAM

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-18

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  16. Unusual spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Jonathan V.

    1990-01-01

    For particularly innovative space exploration missions, unusual requirements are levied on the structural components of the spacecraft. In many cases, the preferred solution is the utilization of unusual materials. This trend is forecast to continue. Several hypothetic examples are discussed.

  17. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  18. Semiconductivity in Organoarsenic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    A general investigation of the macromolecule formation abilities of the hypothetical monomeric unit, RE, where R is an organic group and E either arsenic or antimony, resulted in the development of several novel crystalline materials possessing

  19. Photoconductivity in Dirac materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-11-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity.

  20. Evaluation of sorbent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.; Gomillion, S.L.; Luckenbach, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The sorption efficiency of different types of liquid sorbent materials was determined under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Results show that the sorption capacity is affected both by the type of material and by the form of the material. Attractive alternate sorbents to ''atomic wipes'' and Oil-Dry were identified. Small pillows of shredded synthetic sorbents are an attractive alternative to Oil-Dry as a sorbent and to ''atomic wipes'' as both a sorbent and in decontamination by wiping. Synthetic sorbents in cloth form offer an attractive alternative to ''atomic wipes'' in decontamination by wiping because these materials are compatible with nitric acid and they may be more fire resistant. A larger-scale evaluation is planned with the most promising sorbents. In addition, development is planned of a sorbent that will be efficient, compatible with nitric acid and fire resistant. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Evaluation of sorbent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W N; Gomillion, S L; Luckenbach, R L

    1989-01-01

    The sorption efficiency of different types of liquid sorbent materials was determined under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Results show that the sorption capacity is affected both by the type of material and by the form of the material. Attractive alternate sorbents to atomic wipes'' and Oil-Dry were identified. Small pillows of shredded synthetic sorbents are an attractive alternative to Oil-Dry as a sorbent and to atomic wipes'' as both a sorbent and in decontamination by wiping. Synthetic sorbents in cloth form offer an attractive alternative to atomic wipes'' in decontamination by wiping because theses materials are compatible with nitric acid and they may be more fire resistant. A larger-scale evaluation is planned with the most promising sorbents. In addition, development is planned of a sorbent that will be efficient, compatible with nitric acid, fire resistant. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  3. Dynamics of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.

    1996-01-01

    Granular materials exhibit a rich variety of dynamical behavior, much of which is poorly understood. Fractal-like stress chains, convection, a variety of wave dynamics, including waves which resemble capillary waves, l/f noise, and fractional Brownian motion provide examples. Work beginning at Duke will focus on gravity driven convection, mixing and gravitational collapse. Although granular materials consist of collections of interacting particles, there are important differences between the dynamics of a collections of grains and the dynamics of a collections of molecules. In particular, the ergodic hypothesis is generally invalid for granular materials, so that ordinary statistical physics does not apply. In the absence of a steady energy input, granular materials undergo a rapid collapse which is strongly influenced by the presence of gravity. Fluctuations on laboratory scales in such quantities as the stress can be very large-as much as an order of magnitude greater than the mean.

  4. Tough Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vosteen, L. F. (Compiler); Johnson, N. J. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries are presented which address composite material behavior and performance improvement. Topic areas include composite fracture toughness and impact characterization, constituent properties and interrelationships, and matrix synthesis and characterization.

  5. Designing Printed Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the importance of identifying the audience and determining specific objectives when designing printed instructional materials that will communicate effectively and provides detailed guidelines for dealing with such design factors as content, writing style, typography, illustrations, and page organization. (MBR)

  6. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  7. Computational Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    High temperature thermoplastic polyimide polymers are incorporated in engineering structures in the form of matrix materials in advanced fiber composites and adhesives in bonded joints. Developing analytical tools to predict long term performance and screen for final materials selection for polymers is the impetus for intensive studies at NASA and major industry based airframe developers. These fiber-reinforced polymeric composites (FRPCs) combine high strength with lightweight. In addition, they offer corrosion and fatigue resistance, a reduction in parts count, and new possibilities for control through aeroelastic tailoring and "smart" structures containing fully-integrated sensors and actuators. However, large-scale acceptance and use of polymer composites has historically been extremely slow. Reasons for this include a lack of familiarity of designers with the materials; the need for new tooling and new inspection and repair infrastructures; and high raw materials and fabrication costs.

  8. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technology utilization of fiber reinforced composite materials is discussed in the areas of physical properties, and life prediction. Programs related to the Composite Aircraft Program are described in detail.

  9. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; Banks, Bruce; deGroh, Kim; Miller, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of specific space environmental threats to exterior spacecraft materials. The scope will be confined to effects on exterior spacecraft surfaces, and will not, therefore, address environmental effects on interior spacecraft systems, such as electronics. Space exposure studies and laboratory simulations of individual and combined space environemntal threats will be summarized. A significant emphasis is placed on effects of Earth orbit environments, because the majority of space missions have been flown in Earth orbits which have provided a significant amount of data on materials effects. Issues associated with interpreting materials degradation results will be discussed, and deficiencies of ground testing will be identified. Recommendations are provided on reducing or preventing space environmental degradation through appropriate materials selection.

  10. Materials engineering data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The various types of materials related data that exist at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and compiled into databases which could be accessed by all the NASA centers and by other contractors, are presented.

  11. Burn Wise - Outreach Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  12. Holographic Recording Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Schwerzel, R. E.; Perry, P. J.; Craig, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Organic photorefractive materials were evaluated for application in a reversible holographic memory system. Representative indigo and thioindigo derivatives and several stilbene derivatives were studied as well as 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives the following goals were achieved: (1) the successful writing of phase holograms in a thioindigo/polymer gel system, (2) the successful writing and erasing of phase holograms in a variety of indigo/polymer gel and indigo/solid polymer systems, and (3) the identification of indigoid dyes and 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives as materials potentially suitable for utilization in an operational system. Photochemical studies of the stilbene, indigo, thioindigo, and dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives in solution and in a variety of polymer matrix materials were conducted with the goal of optimizing the photorefractive behavior of the chemical system as a whole. The spectroscopic properties required of optimal photorefractive materials were identified, and it was shown that both the indigoid dyes and the dialkyldihydropyrenes closely match the required properties.

  13. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are the following: to investigate the feasibility of the use of local lunar resources for construction of a lunar base structure; to develop a material processing method and integrate the method with design and construction of a pressurized habitation structure; to estimate specifications of the support equipment necessary for material processing and construction; and to provide parameters for systems models of lunar base constructions, supply, and operations. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: comparison of various lunar structures; guidelines for material processing methods; cast lunar regolith; examples of cast basalt components; cast regolith process; processing equipment; mechanical properties of cast basalt; material properties and structural design; and future work.

  14. Developments in carbon materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchell, Timothy D.

    1994-01-01

    The following carbon-based materials are reviewed and their applications discussed: fullerenes; graphite (synthetic and manufactured); activated carbon fibers; and carbon-carbon composites. Carbon R&D activities at ORNL are emphasized.

  15. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  16. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  17. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  18. Sustainable Materials Management Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SMM is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources and environmental protection

  19. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  20. Moldable cork ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.