Science.gov

Sample records for glial heparan sulfate

  1. Differential Sulfation Remodelling of Heparan Sulfate by Extracellular 6-O-sulfatases Regulates Fibroblast Growth Factor-induced Boundary Formation By Glial Cells: Implications for Glial Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Higginson, Jennifer R; Thompson, Sophie M; Santos-Silva, Alessandra; Guimond, Scott E; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Barnett, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that rat Schwann cells (SCs), but not olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), form a boundary with astrocytes, due to a SC-specific secreted factor. Here, we identify highly sulfated heparan sulfates (HS), and fibroblast growth factors (FGF) 1 and FGF9, as possible determinants of boundary formation induced by rat SCs. Disaccharide analysis of HS in SC and rat OEC conditioned medium showed that SCs secrete more highly sulfated HS than OECs. The dependence of the boundary-forming activity on high levels of sulfation was confirmed using a panel of semi-synthetic modified heparins with variable levels of sulfation. Furthermore, extracellular HS 6-O-endosulfatase enzymes, Sulf 1 and Sulf 2, were expressed at a significantly lower level by SCs compared to OECs and siRNA reduction of Sulfs in OECs was, in itself, sufficient to induce boundary formation. This demonstrates a key role for remodelling (reduction) of HS 6-O-sulfation by OECs to suppress boundary formation, in comparison to SCs. Furthermore, specific anti-FGF1 and FGF9 antibodies disrupted SC/astrocyte boundary formation, supporting a role for an HS sulfation-dependent FGF signalling mechanism via FGF receptors (FGFR) on astrocytes. We propose a model in which FGF1 and FGF9 signalling is differentially modulated by patterns of glial cell HS sulfation, dependent on Sulf 1 and Sulf 2 expression, to control FGFR3-IIIb mediated astrocytic responses. Moreover, these data suggest manipulation of HS sulfation after CNS injury as a potential novel approach for therapeutic intervention in CNS repair. PMID:23136428

  2. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  3. Modulators of axonal growth and guidance at the brain midline with special reference to glial heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Leny A; Garcia-Abreu, Jos; Moura Neto, Vivaldo; Silva, Luiz Claudio; Weissmüller, Gilberto

    2002-12-01

    Bilaterally symmetric organisms need to exchange information between the left and right sides of their bodies to integrate sensory input and to coordinate motor control. Thus, an important choice point for developing axons is the Central Nervous System (CNS) midline. Crossing of this choice point is influenced by highly conserved, soluble or membrane-bound molecules such as the L1 subfamily, laminin, netrins, slits, semaphorins, Eph-receptors and ephrins, etc. Furthermore, there is much circumstantial evidence for a role of proteoglycans (PGs) or their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) moieties on axonal growth and guidance, most of which was derived from simplified models. A model of intermediate complexity is that of cocultures of young neurons and astroglial carpets (confluent cultures) obtained from medial and lateral sectors of the embryonic rodent midbrain soon after formation of its commissures. Neurite production in these cocultures reveals that, irrespective of the previous location of neurons in the midbrain, medial astrocytes exerted an inhibitory or non-permissive effect on neuritic growth that was correlated to a higher content of both heparan and chondroitin sulfates (HS and CS). Treatment with GAG lyases shows minor effects of CS and discloses a major inhibitory or non-permissive role for HS. The results are discussed in terms of available knowledge on the binding of HSPGs to interative proteins and underscore the importance of understanding glial polysaccharide arrays in addition to its protein complement for a better understanding of neuron-glial interactions.

  4. Bioengineered heparins and heparan sulfates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Suflita, Matthew; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfates are closely related linear anionic polysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, which exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of animal cells. While heparan sulfate is a widely distributed membrane and extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin is found primarily intracellularly in the granules of mast cells. While heparin has historically received most of the scientific attention for its anticoagulant activity, interest has steadily grown in the multi-faceted role heparan sulfate plays in normal and pathophysiology. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is largely precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on livestock animal tissues for the isolation and the annual commercial production of hundred ton quantities of heparin used in the manufacture of anticoagulant drugs and medical device coatings. The variability of animal-sourced heparin and heparan sulfates, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials and their manufacturing processes, suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans, driven by both therapeutic applications and as probes to study their natural functions. This review focuses on the complex biology of these glycosaminoglycans in human health and disease, and the use of recombinant technology in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and metabolic engineering of heparin and heparan sulfates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in glomerular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rops, Angelique L W M M; van der Vlag, Johan; Lensen, Joost F M; Wijnhoven, Tessa J M; van den Heuvel, Lambert P W J; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Berden, Jo H M

    2004-03-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are glycoproteins consisting of a core protein to which linear heparan sulfate side chains are covalently attached. These heparan sulfate side chains can be modified at different positions by several enzymes, which include N-deacetylases, N- and O-sulfotransferases, and an epimerase. These heparan sulfate modifications give rise to an enormous structural diversity, which corresponds to the variety of biologic functions mediated by heparan sulfate, including its role in inflammation. The HSPGs in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII, play an important role in the charge-selective permeability of the glomerular filter. In addition to these HSPGs, various cell types express HSPGs at their cell surface, which include syndecans, glypicans, CD44, and betaglycan. During inflammation, HSPGs, especially heparan sulfate, in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and at the surface of endothelial cells bind chemokines, which establishes a local concentration gradient recruiting leukocytes. Endothelial and leukocyte cell surface HSPGs also play a role in their direct adhesive interactions via other cell surface adhesion molecules, such as selectins and beta2 integrin. Activated leukocytes and endothelial cells exert heparanase activity, resulting in degradation of heparan sulfate moieties in the ECM, which facilitates leukocyte passage into tissues and the release of heparan sulfate-bound factors. In various renal inflammatory diseases the expression of agrin and GBM-associated heparan sulfate is decreased, while the expression of CD44 is increased. Heparan sulfate or heparin preparations affect inflammatory cell behavior and have promising therapeutic, anti-inflammatory properties by preventing leukocyte adhesion/influx and tissue damage.

  6. Divergent Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfates are implicated in a wide range of biological processes. A major challenge in deciphering their structure and activity relationship is the synthetic difficulties to access diverse heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with well-defined sulfation patterns. In order to expedite the synthesis, a divergent synthetic strategy was developed. By integrating chemical synthesis and two types of O-sulfo transferases, seven different hexasaccharides were obtained from a single hexasaccharide precursor. This approach combined the flexibility of chemical synthesis with the selectivity of enzyme-catalyzed sulfations, thus simplifying the overall synthetic operations. In an attempt to establish structure activity relationships of heparan sulfate binding with its receptor, the synthesized oligosaccharides were incorporated onto a glycan microarray, and their bindings with a growth factor FGF-2 were examined. The unique combination of chemical and enzymatic approaches expanded the capability of oligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the well-defined heparan sulfate structures helped shine light on the fine substrate specificities of biosynthetic enzymes and confirm the potential sequence of enzymatic reactions in biosynthesis. PMID:26574650

  7. Engineering sulfotransferases to modify heparan sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ding; Moon, Andrea F.; Song, Danyin; Pedersen, Lars C.; Liu, Jian

    2008-03-19

    The biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves an array of specialized sulfotransferases. Here, we present a study aimed at engineering the substrate specificity of different HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms. Based on the crystal structures, we identified a pair of amino acid residues responsible for selecting the substrates. Mutations of these residues altered the substrate specificities. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of tailoring the specificity of sulfotransferases to modify HS with desired functions.

  8. Artemin Crystal Structure Reveals Insights into Heparan Sulfate Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Silvian,L.; Jin, P.; Carmillo, P.; Boriack-Sjodin, P.; Pelletier, C.; Rushe, M.; Gong, B.; Sah, D.; Pepinsky, B.; Rossomando, A.

    2006-01-01

    Artemin (ART) promotes the growth of developing peripheral neurons by signaling through a multicomponent receptor complex comprised of a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (cRET) and a specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked co-receptor (GFR{alpha}3). Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a similar ternary complex but requires heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for full activity. HSPG has not been demonstrated as a requirement for ART signaling. We crystallized ART in the presence of sulfate and solved its structure by isomorphous replacement. The structure reveals ordered sulfate anions bound to arginine residues in the pre-helix and amino-terminal regions that were organized in a triad arrangement characteristic of heparan sulfate. Three residues in the pre-helix were singly or triply substituted with glutamic acid, and the resulting proteins were shown to have reduced heparin-binding affinity that is partly reflected in their ability to activate cRET. This study suggests that ART binds HSPGs and identifies residues that may be involved in HSPG binding.

  9. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  10. Surfen, a small molecule antagonist of heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Schuksz, Manuela; Fuster, Mark M.; Brown, Jillian R.; Crawford, Brett E.; Ditto, David P.; Lawrence, Roger; Glass, Charles A.; Wang, Lianchun; Tor, Yitzhak; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    In a search for small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate, we examined the activity of bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide, also known as surfen. Fluorescence-based titrations indicated that surfen bound to glycosaminoglycans, and the extent of binding increased according to charge density in the order heparin > dermatan sulfate > heparan sulfate > chondroitin sulfate. All charged groups in heparin (N-sulfates, O-sulfates, and carboxyl groups) contributed to binding, consistent with the idea that surfen interacted electrostatically. Surfen neutralized the anticoagulant activity of both unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins and inhibited enzymatic sulfation and degradation reactions in vitro. Addition of surfen to cultured cells blocked FGF2-binding and signaling that depended on cell surface heparan sulfate and prevented both FGF2- and VEGF165-mediated sprouting of endothelial cells in Matrigel. Surfen also blocked heparan sulfate-mediated cell adhesion to the Hep-II domain of fibronectin and prevented infection by HSV-1 that depended on glycoprotein D interaction with heparan sulfate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of identifying small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate and raise the possibility of developing pharmacological agents to treat disorders that involve glycosaminoglycan–protein interactions. PMID:18725627

  11. Heparan sulfate and heparin interactions with proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meneghetti, Maria C. Z.; Hughes, Ashley J.; Rudd, Timothy R.; Nader, Helena B.; Powell, Andrew K.; Yates, Edwin A.; Lima, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous components of the cell surface and extracellular matrix of all multicellular animals, whereas heparin is present within mast cells and can be viewed as a more sulfated, tissue-specific, HS variant. HS and heparin regulate biological processes through interactions with a large repertoire of proteins. Owing to these interactions and diverse effects observed during in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments, manifold biological/pharmacological activities have been attributed to them. The properties that have been thought to bestow protein binding and biological activity upon HS and heparin vary from high levels of sequence specificity to a dependence on charge. In contrast to these opposing opinions, we will argue that the evidence supports both a level of redundancy and a degree of selectivity in the structure–activity relationship. The relationship between this apparent redundancy, the multi-dentate nature of heparin and HS polysaccharide chains, their involvement in protein networks and the multiple binding sites on proteins, each possessing different properties, will also be considered. Finally, the role of cations in modulating HS/heparin activity will be reviewed and some of the implications for structure–activity relationships and regulation will be discussed. PMID:26289657

  12. Heparan sulfate and heparin interactions with proteins.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Maria C Z; Hughes, Ashley J; Rudd, Timothy R; Nader, Helena B; Powell, Andrew K; Yates, Edwin A; Lima, Marcelo A

    2015-09-06

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous components of the cell surface and extracellular matrix of all multicellular animals, whereas heparin is present within mast cells and can be viewed as a more sulfated, tissue-specific, HS variant. HS and heparin regulate biological processes through interactions with a large repertoire of proteins. Owing to these interactions and diverse effects observed during in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments, manifold biological/pharmacological activities have been attributed to them. The properties that have been thought to bestow protein binding and biological activity upon HS and heparin vary from high levels of sequence specificity to a dependence on charge. In contrast to these opposing opinions, we will argue that the evidence supports both a level of redundancy and a degree of selectivity in the structure-activity relationship. The relationship between this apparent redundancy, the multi-dentate nature of heparin and HS polysaccharide chains, their involvement in protein networks and the multiple binding sites on proteins, each possessing different properties, will also be considered. Finally, the role of cations in modulating HS/heparin activity will be reviewed and some of the implications for structure-activity relationships and regulation will be discussed.

  13. Chemical Tumor Biology of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play vital roles in every step of tumor progression allowing cancer cells to proliferate, escape from immune response, invade neighboring tissues, and metastasize to distal sites away from the primary site. Several cancers including breast, lung, brain, pancreatic, skin, and colorectal cancers show aberrant modulation of several key HS biosynthetic enzymes such as 3-O Sulfotransferase and 6-O Sulfotransferase, and also catabolic enzymes such as HSulf-1, HSulf-2 and heparanase. The resulting tumor specific HS fine structures assist cancer cells to breakdown ECM to spread, misregulate signaling pathways to facilitate their proliferation, promote angiogenesis to receive nutrients, and protect themselves against natural killer cells. This review focuses on the changes in the expression of HS biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes in several cancers, the resulting changes in HS fine structures, and the effects of these tumor specific HS signatures on promoting invasion, proliferation, and metastasis. It is possible to retard tumor progression by modulating the deregulated biosynthetic and catabolic pathways of HS chains through novel chemical biology approaches. PMID:20596243

  14. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. ); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  15. Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Enhancement of Henipavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Cyrille; Dhondt, Kévin P.; Châlons, Marie; Mély, Stéphane; Raoul, Hervé; Negre, Didier; Cosset, François-Loïc; Gerlier, Denis; Vivès, Romain R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nipah virus and Hendra virus are emerging, highly pathogenic, zoonotic paramyxoviruses that belong to the genus Henipavirus. They infect humans as well as numerous mammalian species. Both viruses use ephrin-B2 and -B3 as cell entry receptors, and following initial entry into an organism, they are capable of rapid spread throughout the host. We have previously reported that Nipah virus can use another attachment receptor, different from its entry receptors, to bind to nonpermissive circulating leukocytes, thereby promoting viral dissemination within the host. Here, this attachment molecule was identified as heparan sulfate for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Cells devoid of heparan sulfate were not able to mediate henipavirus trans-infection and showed reduced permissivity to infection. Virus pseudotyped with Nipah virus glycoproteins bound heparan sulfate and heparin but no other glycosaminoglycans in a surface plasmon resonance assay. Furthermore, heparin was able to inhibit the interaction of the viruses with the heparan sulfate and to block cell-mediated trans-infection of henipaviruses. Moreover, heparin was shown to bind to ephrin-B3 and to restrain infection of permissive cells in vitro. Consequently, treatment with heparin devoid of anticoagulant activity improved the survival of Nipah virus-infected hamsters. Altogether, these results reveal heparan sulfate as a new attachment receptor for henipaviruses and as a potential therapeutic target for the development of novel approaches against these highly lethal infections. PMID:25759505

  16. Combinatorial Roles of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans and Heparan Sulfates in Caenorhabditis elegans Neural Development

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Tarja K.

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play critical roles in the development and adult physiology of all metazoan organisms. Most of the known molecular interactions of HSPGs are attributed to the structurally highly complex heparan sulfate (HS) glycans. However, whether a specific HSPG (such as syndecan) contains HS modifications that differ from another HSPG (such as glypican) has remained largely unresolved. Here, a neural model in C. elegans is used to demonstrate for the first time the relationship between specific HSPGs and HS modifications in a defined biological process in vivo. HSPGs are critical for the migration of hermaphrodite specific neurons (HSNs) as genetic elimination of multiple HSPGs leads to 80% defect of HSN migration. The effects of genetic elimination of HSPGs are additive, suggesting that multiple HSPGs, present in the migrating neuron and in the matrix, act in parallel to support neuron migration. Genetic analyses suggest that syndecan/sdn-1 and HS 6-O-sulfotransferase, hst-6, function in a linear signaling pathway and glypican/lon-2 and HS 2-O-sulfotransferase, hst-2, function together in a pathway that is parallel to sdn-1 and hst-6. These results suggest core protein specific HS modifications that are critical for HSN migration. In C. elegans, the core protein specificity of distinct HS modifications may be in part regulated at the level of tissue specific expression of genes encoding for HSPGs and HS modifying enzymes. Genetic analysis reveals that there is a delicate balance of HS modifications and eliminating one HS modifying enzyme in a compromised genetic background leads to significant changes in the overall phenotype. These findings are of importance with the view of HS as a critical regulator of cell signaling in normal development and disease. PMID:25054285

  17. Ca2+-mediated association of human serum amyloid P component with heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, H

    1987-02-05

    The serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a precursor glycoprotein of amyloid P component found in all types of amyloid deposits. The binding of human SAP to heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate was studied using Sepharose-immobilized SAP. The apparent dissociation constants of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate for immobilized-SAP were estimated to be approximately 2 X 10(-7) M in the presence of 2 mM CaCl2 at neutral pH and physiological ionic strength. Both the binding affinity of SAP for these glycosaminoglycans and the numbers of binding sites of SAP depended on calcium concentration. Cadmium partially substituted for calcium as an activator of glycosaminoglycan binding to SAP. No binding occurs in the absence of added metal, or in the presence of barium, copper, magnesium, manganese, and strontium. The calcium-dependent binding of [3H]heparan sulfate and [3H]dermatan sulfate to SAP was strongly inhibited by heparan sulfate, heparin, and dermatan sulfate. Chondroitin 6-sulfate was a moderate inhibitor, whereas hyaluronic acid, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and keratan sulfate were not potent inhibitors. The calcium-dependent binding of amyloid P component to heparan sulfate and/or dermatan sulfate may be a cause of the coexistence of the particular glycoprotein and these glycosaminoglycans in amyloid tissues.

  18. Structure and properties of an under-sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by a rat hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A rat hepatoma cell line was shown to synthesize heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Unlike cultured hepatocytes, the hepatoma cells did not deposit these proteoglycans into an extracellular matrix, and most of the newly synthesized heparan sulfate proteoglycans were secreted into the culture medium. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans were also found associated with the cell surface. These proteoglycans could be solubilized by mild trypsin or detergent treatment of the cells but could not be displaced from the cells by incubation with heparin. The detergent-solubilized heparan sulfate proteoglycan had a hydrophobic segment that enabled it to bind to octyl- Sepharose. This segment could conceivably anchor the molecule in the lipid interior of the plasma membrane. The size of the hepatoma heparan sulfate proteoglycans was similar to that of proteoglycans isolated from rat liver microsomes or from primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel indicated that the hepatoma heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a lower average charge density than the rat liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The lower charge density of the hepatoma heparan sulfate can be largely attributed to a reduced number of N-sulfated glucosamine units in the polysaccharide chain compared with that of rat liver heparan sulfate. Hepatoma heparan sulfate proteoglycans purified from the culture medium had a considerably lower affinity for fibronectin-Sepharose compared with that of rat liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Furthermore, the hepatoma proteoglycan did not bind to the neoplastic cells, whereas heparan sulfate from normal rat liver bound to the hepatoma cells in a time-dependent reaction. The possible consequences of the reduced sulfation of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan produced by the hepatoma cells are discussed in terms of the postulated roles of heparan sulfate in the regulation of cell growth and extracellular matrix formation. PMID

  19. Heparan Sulfate Regulates VEGF165- and VEGF121-mediated Vascular Hyperpermeability*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ding; Fuster, Mark M.; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    VEGF was first described as vascular permeability factor, a potent inducer of vascular leakage. Genetic evidence indicates that VEGF-stimulated endothelial proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo depend on heparan sulfate, but a requirement for heparan sulfate in vascular hyperpermeability has not been explored. Here we show that altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate biosynthesis in vivo decreases hyperpermeability induced by both VEGF165 and VEGF121. Because VEGF121 does not bind heparan sulfate, the requirement for heparan sulfate suggested that it interacted with VEGF receptors rather than the ligand. By applying proximity ligation assays to primary brain endothelial cells, we show a direct interaction in situ between heparan sulfate and the VEGF receptor, VEGFR2. Furthermore, the number of heparan sulfate-VEGFR2 complexes increased in response to both VEGF165 and VEGF121. Genetic or heparin lyase-mediated alteration of endothelial heparan sulfate attenuated phosphorylation of VEGFR2 in response to VEGF165 and VEGF121, suggesting that the functional VEGF receptor complex contains heparan sulfate. Pharmacological blockade of heparan sulfate-protein interactions inhibited hyperpermeability in vivo, suggesting heparan sulfate as a potential target for treating hyperpermeability associated with ischemic disease. PMID:20974861

  20. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ashley J; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A; Rudd, Timothy R

    2012-09-07

    The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled β-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased β-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 °C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thrombin adhesive properties: induction by plasmin and heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that chemically modified thrombin preparations induce endothelial cell (EC) adhesion, spreading and cytoskeletal reorganization via an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence and the alpha v beta 3 integrin. Native thrombin, however, did not exhibit adhesive properties, consistent with crystal structure analysis, showing that Gly-Asp residues of the RGD epitope are buried within the molecule. We have now identified a possible physiological mean of converting thrombin to an adhesive protein. Plasmin, the major end product of the fibrinolytic system, converted thrombin to an adhesive protein for EC in a time and dose-dependent manner. EC adhesion and spreading was also induced by a low molecular weight (approximately 3,000 D) cleavage fragment generated upon incubation of thrombin with plasmin. Cell adhesion mediated by this fragment was completely inhibited by the synthetic peptide GRGDSP. Conversion of thrombin to an adhesive molecule was significantly enhanced in the presence of heparin or heparan sulfate, while other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (e.g., dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate) had no effect. The role of cell surface heparan sulfate in thrombin conversion to EC adhesive protein was investigated using CHO cell mutants defective in various aspects of GAG synthesis. Incubation of both thrombin and a suboptimal amount of plasmin on the surface of formaldehyde fixed wild- type CHO-KI cells resulted in an efficient conversion of thrombin to an adhesive molecule, as indicated by subsequent induction of EC attachment. In contrast, there was no effect to incubation of thrombin and plasmin with fixed CHO mutant cells lacking both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, or with cells expressing no heparan sulfate and a three-fold increase in chondroitin sulfate. A similar gain of adhesive properties was obtained upon incubation of thrombin and plasmin in contact with native, but not heparinase-treated extracellular matrix (ECM

  2. Urinary chondroitin sulfates, heparan sulfate and total sulfated glycosaminoglycans in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Ordille, S; Martin, A; Bhavanandan, V P

    1997-01-01

    We compared urinary glycosaminoglycan levels in patients with interstitial cystitis and healthy controls. Total sulfated glycosaminoglycans assayed by dimethylmethylene blue binding and individual glycosaminoglycans analyzed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis were compared in patients with interstitial cystitis and healthy controls. Also, multiple urine samples were obtained from healthy female controls for 2 months to assess the relationship of urinary glycosaminoglycan and creatinine concentrations, and to determine whether glycosaminoglycan excretion changes during the menstrual cycle. Total sulfated glycosaminoglycan and creatinine concentrations correlated well in random voided samples. Menstrual cycle day did not affect total sulfated glycosaminoglycan levels. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis revealed 3 bands corresponding to chondroitin sulfates, heparan sulfate and acidic glycoprotein. Patients with interstitial cystitis had decreased urinary concentrations of each of these individual components and total sulfated glycosaminoglycans. However, glycosaminoglycan-to-creatinine ratios were similar in interstitial cystitis and control urine. Using these assays total and individual urinary glycosaminoglycan levels normalized to creatinine were not altered in interstitial cystitis.

  3. Gucosamine-6-sulfamate Analogs of Heparan Sulfate as Inhibitors of Endosulfatases

    PubMed Central

    Schelwies, Mathias; Brinson, Diana; Otsuki, Shuhei; Hong, Young-Hoon; Lotz, Martin K.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Hanson, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Keeping Sulfate. The extracellular endosulfatases, which modulate signalling pathways by removing sulfate groups from heparan, can be inhibited by replacing the 6-sulfate destined for cleavage with an inhibitory sulfamate motif, as demonstrated by simple glucosamine-6-sulfamate analogs of heparan sulfate. PMID:20973023

  4. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Ashley J.; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A.; Rudd, Timothy R.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  5. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: a sugar code for vertebrate development?

    PubMed Central

    Poulain, Fabienne E.; Yost, H. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have long been implicated in a wide range of cell-cell signaling and cell-matrix interactions, both in vitro and in vivo in invertebrate models. Although many of the genes that encode HSPG core proteins and the biosynthetic enzymes that generate and modify HSPG sugar chains have not yet been analyzed by genetics in vertebrates, recent studies have shown that HSPGs do indeed mediate a wide range of functions in early vertebrate development, for example during left-right patterning and in cardiovascular and neural development. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the various roles of HSPGs in these systems and explore the concept of an instructive heparan sulfate sugar code for modulating vertebrate development. PMID:26487777

  6. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: a sugar code for vertebrate development?

    PubMed

    Poulain, Fabienne E; Yost, H Joseph

    2015-10-15

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have long been implicated in a wide range of cell-cell signaling and cell-matrix interactions, both in vitro and in vivo in invertebrate models. Although many of the genes that encode HSPG core proteins and the biosynthetic enzymes that generate and modify HSPG sugar chains have not yet been analyzed by genetics in vertebrates, recent studies have shown that HSPGs do indeed mediate a wide range of functions in early vertebrate development, for example during left-right patterning and in cardiovascular and neural development. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the various roles of HSPGs in these systems and explore the concept of an instructive heparan sulfate sugar code for modulating vertebrate development.

  7. Heparan sulfate regulates ADAM12 through a molecular switch mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Vivès, Romain R; Manetopoulos, Christina; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Lydolph, Magnus C; Jacobsen, Jonas; Couchman, John R; Wewer, Ulla M

    2008-11-14

    The disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) are emerging as therapeutic targets in human disease, but specific drug design is hampered by potential redundancy. Unlike other metzincins, ADAM prodomains remain bound to the mature enzyme to regulate activity. Here ADAM12, a protease that promotes tumor progression and chondrocyte proliferation in osteoarthritic cartilage, is shown to possess a prodomain/catalytic domain cationic molecular switch, regulated by exogenous heparan sulfate and heparin but also endogenous cell surface proteoglycans and the polyanion, calcium pentosan polysulfate. Sheddase functions of ADAM12 are regulated by the switch, as are proteolytic functions in placental tissue and sera of pregnant women. Moreover, human heparanase, an enzyme also linked to tumorigenesis, can promote ADAM12 sheddase activity at the cell surface through cleavage of the inhibitory heparan sulfate. These data present a novel concept that might allow targeting of ADAM12 and suggest that other ADAMs may have specific regulatory activity embedded in their prodomain and catalytic domain structures.

  8. Heparan sulfate chains potentiate cadmium cytotoxicity in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Chika; Yoshida, Eiko; Kumagai, Yoshito; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    The monolayer of vascular endothelial cells, which is rich in heparan sulfate chains, is an important target of cadmium cytotoxicity. To investigate the effects of heparan sulfate chains on cadmium cytotoxicity, bovine aortic endothelial cells were cultured in the presence of cadmium, with or without exogenous heparan sulfate. The following results were obtained: (1) Heparan sulfate chains potentiated cadmium cytotoxicity. (2) Such a potentiation did not occur in bovine aortic smooth muscle cells. (3) Heparin chains as well as heparan sulfate chains potentiated cadmium cytotoxicity, while other glycosaminoglycan chains failed to exhibit such an activity. (4) The disaccharide units of heparan sulfate chains did not potentiate cadmium cytotoxicity in the endothelial cells. (5) Heparan sulfate chains did not potentiate mercury and arsenite cytotoxicity. (6) Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) also potentiated cadmium cytotoxicity in the endothelial cells. (7) Heparan sulfate chains significantly increased intracellular cadmium accumulation by inducing the expression of metallothionein. Taken together, these results suggest that heparan sulfate chains activate FGF-2, which in turn elevates the expression and/or activity of metal transporter(s) that facilitate cadmium influx from the extracellular space into the cytoplasm.

  9. Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation: a rare modification in search of a function.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Bryan E; Xu, Ding; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2014-04-01

    Many protein ligands bind to heparan sulfate, which results in their presentation, protection, oligomerization or conformational activation. Binding depends on the pattern of sulfation and arrangement of uronic acid epimers along the chains. Sulfation at the C3 position of glucosamine is a relatively rare, yet biologically significant modification, initially described as a key determinant for binding and activation of antithrombin and later for infection by type I herpes simplex virus. In mammals, a family of seven heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases installs sulfate groups at this position and constitutes the largest group of sulfotransferases involved in heparan sulfate formation. However, to date very few proteins or biological systems have been described that are influenced by 3-O-sulfation. This review describes our current understanding of the prevalence and structure of 3-O-sulfation sites, expression and substrate specificity of the 3-O-sulfotransferase family and the emerging roles of 3-O-sulfation in biology. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Infection Requires Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Giroglou, Tzenan; Florin, Luise; Schäfer, Frank; Streeck, Rolf E.; Sapp, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Using pseudoinfection of cell lines, we demonstrate that cell surface heparan sulfate is required for infection by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-33 pseudovirions. Pseudoinfection was inhibited by heparin but not dermatan or chondroitin sulfate, reduced by reducing the level of surface sulfation, and abolished by heparinase treatment. Carboxy-terminally deleted HPV-33 virus-like particles still bound efficiently to heparin. The kinetics of postattachment neutralization by antiserum or heparin indicated that pseudovirions were shifted on the cell surface from a heparin-sensitive into a heparin-resistant mode of binding, possibly involving a secondary receptor. Alpha-6 integrin is not a receptor for HPV-33 pseudoinfection. PMID:11152531

  11. Renal localization of heparan sulfate proteoglycan by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, D. J.; Oegema, T. R.; Eisenstein, R.; Furcht, L.; Michael, A. F.; Brown, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Glomerular localization of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS-proteoglycan) has been studied immunohistochemically with a highly purified antiserum to bovine aorta HS-proteoglycan core protein. The specificity of the antiserum was enhanced by consecutive fibronectin and chondroitin sulfate-dermatan sulfate proteoglycan (CS-DS proteoglycan) affinity chromatography. The affinity-purified HS-proteoglycan antibody lacked cross-reactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with CS-DS proteoglycan, fibronectin, laminin, and Type IV collagen. Reactivity of the antiserum with HS-proteoglycan antigen by ELISA was inhibited by HS core protein derived from CsCl density gradient centrifugation after heparinase treatment of the HS-proteoglycan. Immunofluorescent reactivity of the HS-proteoglycan antiserum was observed with bovine glomerular basement membrane, renal interstitium, Bowman's capsule, renal arterioles, and bovine aorta. No staining was seen with rat, mouse, or human glomeruli. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6222657

  12. Stromal heparan sulfate differentiates neuroblasts to suppress neuroblastoma growth.

    PubMed

    Knelson, Erik H; Gaviglio, Angela L; Nee, Jasmine C; Starr, Mark D; Nixon, Andrew B; Marcus, Stephen G; Blobe, Gerard C

    2014-07-01

    Neuroblastoma prognosis is dependent on both the differentiation state and stromal content of the tumor. Neuroblastoma tumor stroma is thought to suppress neuroblast growth via release of soluble differentiating factors. Here, we identified critical growth-limiting components of the differentiating stroma secretome and designed a potential therapeutic strategy based on their central mechanism of action. We demonstrated that expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), including TβRIII, GPC1, GPC3, SDC3, and SDC4, is low in neuroblasts and high in the Schwannian stroma. Evaluation of neuroblastoma patient microarray data revealed an association between TGFBR3, GPC1, and SDC3 expression and improved prognosis. Treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines with soluble HSPGs promoted neuroblast differentiation via FGFR1 and ERK phosphorylation, leading to upregulation of the transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). HSPGs also enhanced FGF2-dependent differentiation, and the anticoagulant heparin had a similar effect, leading to decreased neuroblast proliferation. Dissection of individual sulfation sites identified 2-O, 3-O-desulfated heparin (ODSH) as a differentiating agent, and treatment of orthotopic xenograft models with ODSH suppressed tumor growth and metastasis without anticoagulation. These studies support heparan sulfate signaling intermediates as prognostic and therapeutic neuroblastoma biomarkers and demonstrate that tumor stroma biology can inform the design of targeted molecular therapeutics.

  13. Heparin-like heparan sulfate from rabbit cartilage.

    PubMed

    Parra, Alessandro; Veraldi, Noemi; Locatelli, Manuela; Fini, Milena; Martini, Lucia; Torri, Giangiacomo; Sangiorgi, Luca; Bisio, Antonella

    2012-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans were extracted from both young rabbit growth plate (GRP) and articular (ART) cartilage tissues and enzymatically treated to selectively eliminate chondroitin sulfates and hyaluronic acid. The procedure avoided any fractionation step that could enrich the extract with over- or under-sulfated species. Isolated heparan sulfate (HS) was characterized by mono- and bidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to quantify their specific structural features and/or by mass spectrometry to establish the disaccharide composition. Both GRP and ART HSs, despite differing in their yield (GRP at least 100 times greater than ART), exhibited a surprisingly high degree of sulfation. Quantitative two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence-NMR analysis of GRP HS revealed unusually high N-sulfated glucosamine and 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid contents, similar to heparin. The unique pentasaccharide sequence of the binding site for antithrombin was also detected in a significant amount. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of the enzymatic digests with a cocktail of heparin lyases of both cartilaginous HSs confirmed the NMR results. As well as the discovery of an unusual HS structure in the two different types of rabbit cartilage, the feasibility of the analytical method adopted here has been demonstrated within this study. Such a method can be used to isolate and analyze HS from both normal and pathologic tissues. Characterization of healthy and pathological HS structures will contribute to improve the understanding of diseases related to malfunctions of HS biosynthesis and/or metabolism.

  14. Changes in glomerular heparan sulfate in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Groggel, G. C.; Hovingh, P.; Border, W. A.; Linker, A.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in glomerular anionic sites in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN) in the rat are controversial. The authors examined glomerular anionic sites in PAN by in vivo staining with polyethyleneimine (PEI). They also quantitated and characterized glomerular heparan sulfate (HS), which is known to be a major glomerular polyanion in PAN, using in vivo incorporation of 35S-sulfate. PAN rats had a mean protein excretion of 96 +/- 23 mg per 24 hours. Staining of anionic sites with PEI showed 15.3 +/- 2.8 sites per 1000-nm length of glomerular basement membrane in controls, 13.7 +/- 1.9 sites in PAN rats (P greater than 0.05), and 50% of rats with early PAN had absent staining. Total 35S-sulfate incorporation was similar in both the controls and established PAN rats (2900 +/- 150 dpm/mg dry wt of glomeruli versus 3005 +/- 260, P greater than 0.05) but decreased in early PAN rats (2025 +/- 148). The percentage of 35S-sulfate incorporated into chondroitin sulfate was similar in all three groups of animals. HS uronic acid was also similar (1.8 +/- 0.2 g/mg dry wt of glomeruli versus 1.7 +/- 0.3, P greater than 0.05) but decreased in early PAN (1.1 +/- 0.2). The distribution of 35S-sulfate activity within the HS subfractions was examined by ion-exchange chromatography and showed a shift in percent present from 1.0 M to 1.25 M fraction in established and early PAN animals (control 1.0 M 37% +/- 3.2% versus PAN 19% +/- 3.4%, P less than 0.01, and 1.25 M 36% +/- 2.9% versus 53% +/- 2.9%, P less than 0.01). These results demonstrate that glomerular heparan sulfate is unchanged in established PAN but decreased in early PAN. SO4 incorporation is unchanged in established PAN and diminished in early PAN. Thus, early in PAN HS synthesis is impaired, but in established PAN the HS is normal, and changes in glomerular HS cannot explain the increased permeability. Images Figure 1 PMID:2443012

  15. Epac1 promotes melanoma metastasis via modification of heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Baljinnyam, Erdene; Umemura, Masanari; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Iwatsubo, Mizuka; Chen, Suzie; Goydos, James S; Iwatsubo, Kousaku

    2011-08-01

    Our previous report suggested the potential role of the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) in melanoma metastasis via heparan sulfate (HS)-mediated cell migration. In order to obtain conclusive evidence that Epac1 plays a critical role in modification of HS and melanoma metastasis, we extensively investigated expression and function of Epac1 in human melanoma samples and cell lines. We have found that, in human melanoma tissue microarray, protein expression of Epac1 was higher in metastatic melanoma than in primary melanoma. In addition, expression of Epac1 positively correlated with that of N-sulfated HS, and N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1), an enzyme that increases N-sulfation of HS. Further, an Epac agonist increased, but ablation of Epac1 decreased, expressions of NDST-1, N-sulfated HS, and cell migration in various melanoma cell lines. Finally, C8161 cells with stable knockdown of Epac1 showed a decrease in cell migration, and metastasis in mice. These data suggest that Epac1 plays a critical role in melanoma metastasis presumably because of modification of HS. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Location of N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues in heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Westling, Camilla; Lindahl, Ulf

    2002-12-20

    Functional properties of heparan sulfate (HS) are generally ascribed to the sulfation pattern of the polysaccharide. However, recently reported functional implications of rare N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcNH(2)) residues in native HS prompted our structural characterization of sequences around such residues. HS preparations were cleaved with nitrous acid at either N-sulfated or N-unsubstituted glucosamine units followed by reduction with NaB(3)H(4). The labeled products were characterized following complementary deamination steps. The proportion of GlcNH(2) units varied from 0.7-4% of total glucosamine in different HS preparations. The GlcNH(2) units occurred largely clustered at the polysaccharide-protein linkage region in intestinal HS, also more peripherally in aortic HS. They were preferentially located within N-acetylated domains, or in transition sequences between N-acetylated and N-sulfated domains, only 20-30% of the adjacent upstream and downstream disaccharide units being N-sulfated. The nearest downstream (toward the polysaccharide-protein linkage) hexuronic acid was invariably GlcUA, whereas the upstream neighbor could be either GlcUA or IdoUA. The highly sulfated but N-unsubstituted disaccharide unit, -IdoUA2S-GlcNH(2)6S-, was detected in human renal and porcine intestinal HS, but not in HS from human aorta. These results are interpreted in terms of a biosynthetic mechanism, whereby GlcNH(2) residues are formed through regulated, incomplete action of an N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase enzyme.

  17. A role for heparan sulfate in viral surfing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myung-Jin; Akhtar, Jihan; Desai, Prashant; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) moieties on cell surfaces are known to provide attachment sites for many viruses including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Here, we demonstrate that cells respond to HSV-1 infection by enhancing filopodia formation. Filopodia express HS and are subsequently utilized for the transport of HSV-1 virions to cell bodies in a surfing-like phenomenon, which is facilitated by the underlying actin cytoskeleton and is regulated by transient activation of a small Rho GTPase, Cdc42. We also demonstrate that interaction between a highly conserved herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and HS is required for surfing. A HSV-1 mutant that lacks gB fails to surf and quantum dots conjugated with gB demonstrate surfing-like movements. Our data demonstrates a novel use of a common receptor, HS, which could also be exploited by multiple viruses and quite possibly, many additional ligands for transport along the plasma membrane.

  18. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: A GAGgle of Skeletal-Hematopoietic Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Kathryn D.; San Antonio, James D.; Jacenko, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Summary This review summarizes our current understanding of the presence and function of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in skeletal development and hematopoiesis. Although proteoglycans (PGs) comprise a large and diverse group of cell surface and matrix molecules, we chose to focus on HSPGs owing to their many proposed functions in skeletogenesis and hematopoiesis. Specifically, we discuss how HSPGs play predominant roles in establishing and regulating niches during skeleto-hematopoietic development by participating in distinct developmental processes such as patterning, compartmentalization, growth, differentiation, and maintenance of tissues. Special emphasis is placed on our novel hypothesis that mechanistically links endochondral skeletogenesis to the establishment of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the marrow. HSPGs may contribute to these developmental processes through their unique abilities to establish and mediate morphogen, growth factor, and cytokine gradients, facilitate signaling, provide structural stability to tissues, and act as molecular filters and barriers. PMID:18629873

  19. A role for heparan sulfate in viral surfing

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Myung-Jin; Akhtar, Jihan; Desai, Prashant; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) moieties on cell surfaces are known to provide attachment sites for many viruses including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Here, we demonstrate that cells respond to HSV-1 infection by enhancing filopodia formation. Filopodia express HS and are subsequently utilized for the transport of HSV-1 virions to cell bodies in a surfing-like phenomenon, which is facilitated by the underlying actin cytoskeleton and is regulated by transient activation of a small Rho GTPase, Cdc42. We also demonstrate that interaction between a highly conserved herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and HS is required for surfing. A HSV-1 mutant that lacks gB fails to surf and quantum dots conjugated with gB demonstrate surfing-like movements. Our data demonstrates a novel use of a common receptor, HS, which could also be exploited by multiple viruses and quite possibly, many additional ligands for transport along the plasma membrane.

  20. Cell surface receptors for herpes simplex virus are heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The role of cell surface heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was investigated using CHO cell mutants defective in various aspects of glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Binding of radiolabeled virus to the cells and infection were assessed in mutant and wild-type cells. Virus bound efficiently to wild-type cells and initiated an abortive infection in which immediate-early or alpha viral genes were expressed, despite limited production of late viral proteins and progeny virus. Binding of virus to heparan sulfate-deficient mutant cells was severely impaired and mutant cells were resistant to HSV infection. Intermediate levels of binding and infection were observed for a CHO cell mutant that produced undersulfated heparan sulfate. These results show that heparan sulfate moieties of cell surface proteoglycans serve as receptors for HSV. PMID:1310996

  1. Heparan sulfation is essential for the prevention of cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Jung, S H; Lee, H C; Yu, D-M; Kim, B C; Park, S M; Lee, Y-S; Park, H J; Ko, Y-G; Lee, J-S

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is considered as an important tumor-suppressive mechanism. Here, we demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS) prevents cellular senescence by fine-tuning of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway. We found that depletion of 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate synthetase 2 (PAPSS2), a synthetic enzyme of the sulfur donor PAPS, led to premature cell senescence in various cancer cells and in a xenograft tumor mouse model. Sodium chlorate, a metabolic inhibitor of HS sulfation also induced a cellular senescence phenotype. p53 and p21 accumulation was essential for PAPSS2-mediated cellular senescence. Such senescence phenotypes were closely correlated with cell surface HS levels in both cancer cells and human diploid fibroblasts. The determination of the activation of receptors such as FGFR1, Met, and insulin growth factor 1 receptor β indicated that the augmented FGFR1/AKT signaling was specifically involved in premature senescence in a HS-dependent manner. Thus, blockade of either FGFR1 or AKT prohibited p53 and p21 accumulation and cell fate switched from cellular senescence to apoptosis. In particular, desulfation at the 2-O position in the HS chain contributed to the premature senescence via the augmented FGFR1 signaling. Taken together, we reveal, for the first time, that the proper status of HS is essential for the prevention of cellular senescence. These observations allowed us to hypothesize that the FGF/FGFR signaling system could initiate novel tumor defenses through regulating premature senescence. PMID:26250908

  2. Heparin sequences in the heparan sulfate chains of an endothelial cell proteoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Nader, H.B.; Dietrich, C.P.; Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P.

    1987-06-01

    The structure of the glycosaminoglycan chain of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan isolated from the conditioned medium of an endothelial cell line has been analyzed by using various degradative enzymes (heparitinase I, heparitinase II, heparinase, glycuronidase, sulfatases) from Flavobacterium heparinum. (/sup 35/S)sulfuric acid and/or (/sup 3/H) glucosamine ucre used in preparing heparan sulfate proteoglycan. This proteoglycan inhibits the thromboplastin-activated pathway of coagulation; as a consequence, the catalytic conversion of prothrombin to thrombin is arrested. Heparitinase I, an enzyme with specificity restricted to the heparan sulfate portion of the polysaccharide, releases fragments with the electrophoretic mobility and the structure of heparin. Conversely, as assessment of the size and distribution of the heparan sulfate regions has been provided by the use of heparinase, which, by degrading the heparin sections of the chain, releases two segments that exhibit the structure of heparan sulfate. One of these segments is attached to the protein core. On the basis of these findings, the heparan sulfate chain can be defined as a copolymer containing heparin regions in its structure. The combined use of these enzymes has made it possible to establish the disaccharide sequence of parts of the glycosaminoglycan moiety of this proteoglycan.

  3. Epithelial heparan sulfate regulates Sonic Hedgehog signaling in lung development.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Huang, Meina; Sun, Shenfei; Wu, Yihui; Lin, Xinhua

    2017-08-01

    The tree-like structure of the mammalian lung is generated from branching morphogenesis, a reiterative process that is precisely regulated by numerous factors. How the cell surface and extra cellular matrix (ECM) molecules regulate this process is still poorly understood. Herein, we show that epithelial deletion of Heparan Sulfate (HS) synthetase Ext1 resulted in expanded branching tips and reduced branching number, associated with several mesenchymal developmental defects. We further demonstrate an expanded Fgf10 expression and increased FGF signaling activity in Ext1 mutant lungs, suggesting a cell non-autonomous mechanism. Consistent with this, we observed reduced levels of SHH signaling which is responsible for suppressing Fgf10 expression. Moreover, reactivating SHH signaling in mutant lungs rescued the tip dilation phenotype and attenuated FGF signaling. Importantly, the reduced SHH signaling activity did not appear to be caused by decreased Shh expression or protein stability; instead, biologically active form of SHH proteins were reduced in both the Ext1 mutant epithelium and surrounding wild type mesenchymal cells. Together, our study highlights the epithelial HS as a key player for dictating SHH signaling critical for lung morphogenesis.

  4. Epithelial heparan sulfate regulates Sonic Hedgehog signaling in lung development

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shenfei; Wu, Yihui; Lin, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    The tree-like structure of the mammalian lung is generated from branching morphogenesis, a reiterative process that is precisely regulated by numerous factors. How the cell surface and extra cellular matrix (ECM) molecules regulate this process is still poorly understood. Herein, we show that epithelial deletion of Heparan Sulfate (HS) synthetase Ext1 resulted in expanded branching tips and reduced branching number, associated with several mesenchymal developmental defects. We further demonstrate an expanded Fgf10 expression and increased FGF signaling activity in Ext1 mutant lungs, suggesting a cell non-autonomous mechanism. Consistent with this, we observed reduced levels of SHH signaling which is responsible for suppressing Fgf10 expression. Moreover, reactivating SHH signaling in mutant lungs rescued the tip dilation phenotype and attenuated FGF signaling. Importantly, the reduced SHH signaling activity did not appear to be caused by decreased Shh expression or protein stability; instead, biologically active form of SHH proteins were reduced in both the Ext1 mutant epithelium and surrounding wild type mesenchymal cells. Together, our study highlights the epithelial HS as a key player for dictating SHH signaling critical for lung morphogenesis. PMID:28859094

  5. Adeno-associated virus type 2 binding study on model heparan sulfate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Atsuko; Liu, Jian; McCarty, Douglas; Samulski, Jude; Superfine, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms involved in virus infections is useful in its application in areas such as gene therapy, drug development and delivery, and biosensors. In collaboration with UNC Gene Therapy Center and School of Pharmacy, we are specifically looking at the interaction between human parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), a potential viral vector, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), a known cell surface receptor for AAV2. Recent development in glycobiology has shown that some protein-polysaccharide binding is sugar sequence dependent. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide chain of sulfated iduronic/glucuronic and sulfate glucosamine residues and can be differentiated into sequence specific structures by enzymes. These enzymatic modifications, known as heparan sulfate sulfotransferase modified modifications, have been shown to change the biological nature of heparan sulfate such as specific binding to proteins and viruses. For understanding HS-assisted viral infection mechanisms, we are interested in investigating the binding affinity and stability of AAV to different HS structures. We have developed a model heparan sulfate surface in which AAV adsorption studies are done and analyzed using the atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, a miniArray assay has been created to facilitate to this study. Adsorption studies are done in 4 white LED wells with approximately 3 mm2 reaction areas which minimize sample use and waste.

  6. Distinct heparan sulfate compositions in wild-type and pipe-mutant eggshell matrix

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youmie; Zhang, Zhenqing; Linhardt, Robert J.; LeMosy, Ellen K.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial information embedded in the extracellular matrix establishes the dorsoventral polarity of the Drosophila embryo through the ventral activity of a serine protease cascade. Pipe is a Golgi-localized protein responsible for generating this spatial information during oogenesis through sulfation of unknown glycans. Although Pipe has sequence homology to glycosaminoglycan 2-O-sulfotransferases, its activity and authentic substrates have not been demonstrated and genetic evidence has argued against a role for glycosaminoglycans in dorsoventral polarity establishment. Here, direct examination of matrix glycosaminoglycans demonstrates that pipe-mutant matrix shows decreased tri-sulfated heparan sulfate compared to wild-type matrix, with correspondingly increased 2-O-sulfated heparan sulfate. Chondroitin sulfate was not detected in this matrix. These results suggest that Pipe promotes 6-O- and/or N-sulfation of heparan sulfate but is not required for heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfation. We discuss the possible significance of these unexpected findings and how they might be reconciled with the genetic data. PMID:18719407

  7. Differentiation-associated modulation of heparan sulfate structure and function in CaCo-2 colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Salmivirta, M; Safaiyan, F; Prydz, K; Andresen, M S; Aryan, M; Kolset, S O

    1998-10-01

    Heparan sulfate species expressed by different cell and tissue types differ in their structural and functional properties. Limited information is available on differences in regulation of heparan sulfate biosynthesis within a single tissue or cell population under different conditions. We have approached this question by studying the effect of cell differentiation on the biosynthesis and function of heparan sulfate in human colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2). These cells undergo spontaneous differentiation in culture when grown on semipermeable supports; the differentiated cells show phenotypic similarity to small intestine enterocytes. Metabolically labeled heparan sulfate was isolated from the apical and basolateral media from cultures of differentiated and undifferentiated cells. Compositional analysis of disaccharides, derived from the contiguous N-sulfated regions of heparan sulfate, indicated a greater proportion of 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid units and a smaller amount of 6-O-sulfated glucosamine units in differentiated than in undifferentiated cells. By contrast, the overall degree of sulfation, the chain length and the size distribution of the N-acetylated regions were similar regardless the differentiation status of the cells. The structural changes were found to affect the binding of heparan sulfate to the long isoform of platelet-derived growth factor A chain but not to fibroblast growth factor 2. These findings show that heparan sulfate structures change during cell differentiation and that heparan sulfate-growth factor interactions may be affected by such changes.

  8. Developmental changes in heparan sulfate expression: in situ detection with mAbs

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Two mAbs that are specific for heparan sulfate-related epitopes have been raised and used to analyze the cellular and tissular distribution of this glycosaminoglycan during development. mAb 10E4 reacts with an epitope that occurs in native heparan sulfate chains and that is destroyed by N-desulfation of the glycosaminoglycan. The antibody does not react with hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, or DNA, and reacts only poorly with heparin. The reactivity of proteoglycan extracts or tissue sections with the 10E4 antibody is completely abolished by heparitinase, but is only partially affected by heparinase. mAb 3G10, in contrast, reacts only with heparitinase-treated heparan sulfate chains, proteoglycans, or tissue sections. The 3G10 epitope is destroyed by treatment with mercuric acetate, which indicates that the desaturated uronate generated by the lyase is essential for the reactivity of the antibody. The 3G10 epitope is not generated by treating heparan sulfate proteoglycans with heparinase or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans with chondroitin sulfate lyases, which indicates that the 3G10 antibody recognizes desaturated uronates that occur in specific structural contexts. The antibody 10E4 and, after heparitinase treatment, the antibody 3G10 decorate the surfaces of many cell types and the extracellular matrix in proximity of the cells, in particular, the basement membranes. The analysis of embryonic and adult tissues reveals important temporal and regional differences in the abundance of the 10E4 and 3G10 epitopes at these sites. Moreover, the staining pattern of the two antibodies is not always superimposable, which is indicative of regional differences in the exposure or structure of the tissular heparan sulfates. As a whole the results suggest that heparan sulfate abounds at sites of active morphogenesis and that the expression of this glycosaminoglycan is developmentally regulated. PMID:1385449

  9. Heparan sulfate biosynthetic gene Ndst1 is required for FGF signaling in early lens development.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Woodbury, Andrea; Esko, Jeffrey D; Grobe, Kay; Zhang, Xin

    2006-12-01

    Multiple signaling molecules, including bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) and fibroblast growth factors (FGF), play important roles in early lens development. However, how these morphogens are regulated is still largely unknown. Heparan sulfate participates in both morphogen transport and morphogen-receptor interaction. In this study, we demonstrate that inactivation of the heparan sulfate biosynthetic gene Ndst1 resulted in invagination defects of the early lens and in the disruption of lens-determination gene expression, leading to severe lens hypoplasia or anophthalmia. Ndst1 mutants exhibited reduced sulfation of heparan sulfate, but both BMP- and Wnt-signaling remained unchanged. Instead, these embryos showed diminished binding of a subset of FGF proteins to FGF receptors. Consistent with disruption of FGF signaling, expression of phospho-Erk and ERM were also downregulated in Ndst1-mutant lenses. Taken together, these results establish an important role of Ndst1 function in FGF signaling during lens development.

  10. Isolation of low-molecular-weight heparin/heparan sulfate from marine sources.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of heparan sulfate in spinal spheroids of beta, beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Wada, M; Kato, T; Kurita, K; Shikama, Y; Toyoshima, I; Sasaki, H

    1995-12-29

    Beta,beta'-Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) is known to produce a massive accumulation of neurofilaments in the proximal portion of axons of spinal anterior horn cells. The spinal cords of 20 Wistar rats treated with IDPN were examined immunohistochemically with a monoclonal antibody against heparan sulfate (HepSS-1). Virtually all axonal swellings were intensely labeled with HepSS-1. This immunoreactivity was almost completely absorbed by the presence of CDSNS-HS (completely desulfated, N-sulfated heparan sulfate). Western blot study revealed that HepSS-1 recognized four distinct bands at the positions of approximately 17 kDa, approximately 20 kDa, approximately 21 kDa, and approximately 25 kDa. The present study suggests that the deposit of heparan sulfate in spheroids is related to the pathomechanism for the formation of axonal swelling.

  12. Complex Cooperative Functions of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Shape Nervous System Development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; Tecle, Eillen; Gomez, Nathali; Bülow, Hannes E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the nervous system is a complex process requiring the integration of numerous molecular cues to form functional circuits. Many cues are regulated by heparan sulfates, a class of linear glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides. These sugars contain distinct modification patterns that regulate protein–protein interactions. Misexpressing the homolog of KAL-1/anosmin-1, a neural cell adhesion molecule mutant in Kallmann syndrome, in Caenorhabditis elegans causes a highly penetrant, heparan sulfate–dependent axonal branching phenotype in AIY interneurons. In an extended forward genetic screen for modifiers of this phenotype, we identified alleles in new as well as previously identified genes involved in HS biosynthesis and modification, namely the xylosyltransferase sqv-6, the HS-6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6, and the HS-3-O-sulfotransferase hst-3.2. Cell-specific rescue experiments showed that different HS biosynthetic and modification enzymes can be provided cell-nonautonomously by different tissues to allow kal-1-dependent branching of AIY. In addition, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycan core proteins that carry the heparan sulfate chains act genetically in a highly redundant fashion to mediate kal-1-dependent branching in AIY neurons. Specifically, lon-2/glypican and unc-52/perlecan act in parallel genetic pathways and display synergistic interactions with sdn-1/syndecan to mediate kal-1 function. Because all of these heparan sulfate core proteins have been shown to act in different tissues, these studies indicate that KAL-1/anosmin-1 requires heparan sulfate with distinct modification patterns of different cellular origin for function. Our results support a model in which a three-dimensional scaffold of heparan sulfate mediates KAL-1/anosmin-1 and intercellular communication through complex and cooperative interactions. In addition, the genes we have identified could contribute to the etiology of Kallmann syndrome in humans. PMID:25098771

  13. Ovarian carcinoma cells synthesize both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate cell surface proteoglycans that mediate cell adhesion to interstitial matrix.

    PubMed

    Kokenyesi, R

    Metastatic ovarian carcinoma metastasizes by intra-peritoneal, non-hematogenous dissemination. The adhesion of the ovarian carcinoma cells to extracellular matrix components, such as types I and III collagen and cellular fibronectin, is essential for intra-peritoneal dissemination. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cell surface proteoglycans (a class of matrix receptors) are produced by ovarian carcinoma cells, and whether these proteoglycans have a role in the adhesion of ovarian carcinoma cells to types I and III collagen and fibronectin. Proteoglycans were metabolically labeled for biochemical studies. Both phosphatidylinositol-anchored and integral membrane-type cell surface proteoglycans were found to be present on the SK-OV-3 and NIH:OVCAR-3 cell lines. Three proteoglycan populations of differing hydrodynamic size were detected in both SK-OV-3 and NIH:OVCAR-3 cells. Digestions with heparitinase and chondroitinase ABC showed that cell surface proteoglycans of SK-OV-3 cells had higher proportion of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (75:25 of chondroitin sulfate:heparan sulfate ratio), while NIH:OVCAR-3 cells had higher proportion of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (10:90 of chondroitin sulfate:heparan sulfate ratio). RT-PCR indicated the synthesis of a unique assortment of syndecans, glypicans, and CD44 by the two cell lines. In adhesion assays performed on matrix-coated titer plates both cell lines adhered to types I and III collagen and cellular fibronectin, and cell adhesion was inhibited by preincubation of the matrix with heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, or chondroitin glycosaminoglycans. Treatment of the cells with heparitinase, chondroitinase ABC, or methylumbelliferyl xyloside also interfered with adhesion confirming the role of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate cell surface proteoglycans as matrix receptors on ovarian carcinoma cells.

  14. Cytokines and growth factors cross-link heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Migliorini, Elisa; Thakar, Dhruv; Kühnle, Jens; Sadir, Rabia; Dyer, Douglas P.; Li, Yong; Sun, Changye; Volkman, Brian F.; Handel, Tracy M.; Coche-Guerente, Liliane; Fernig, David G.; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Richter, Ralf P.

    2015-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS), present at the surface of most cells and ubiquitous in extracellular matrix, binds many soluble extracellular signalling molecules such as chemokines and growth factors, and regulates their transport and effector functions. It is, however, unknown whether upon binding HS these proteins can affect the long-range structure of HS. To test this idea, we interrogated a supramolecular model system, in which HS chains grafted to streptavidin-functionalized oligoethylene glycol monolayers or supported lipid bilayers mimic the HS-rich pericellular or extracellular matrix, with the biophysical techniques quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We were able to control and characterize the supramolecular presentation of HS chains—their local density, orientation, conformation and lateral mobility—and their interaction with proteins. The chemokine CXCL12α (or SDF-1α) rigidified the HS film, and this effect was due to protein-mediated cross-linking of HS chains. Complementary measurements with CXCL12α mutants and the CXCL12γ isoform provided insight into the molecular mechanism underlying cross-linking. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), which has three HS binding sites, was also found to cross-link HS, but FGF-9, which has just one binding site, did not. Based on these data, we propose that the ability to cross-link HS is a generic feature of many cytokines and growth factors, which depends on the architecture of their HS binding sites. The ability to change matrix organization and physico-chemical properties (e.g. permeability and rigidification) implies that the functions of cytokines and growth factors may not simply be confined to the activation of cognate cellular receptors. PMID:26269427

  15. Heparan sulfate and syndecan-1 are essential in maintaining murine and human intestinal epithelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Lars; Salvestrini, Camilla; Park, Pyong Woo; Li, Jin-Ping; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Yamaguchi, Yu; Murch, Simon; Freeze, Hudson H.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) fail to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function and develop an excessive and potentially fatal efflux of plasma proteins. PLE occurs in ostensibly unrelated diseases, but emerging commonalities in clinical observations recently led us to identify key players in PLE pathogenesis. These include elevated IFN-γ, TNF-α, venous hypertension, and the specific loss of heparan sulfate proteoglycans from the basolateral surface of intestinal epithelial cells during PLE episodes. Here we show that heparan sulfate and syndecan-1, the predominant intestinal epithelial heparan sulfate proteoglycan, are essential in maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier function. Heparan sulfate– or syndecan-1–deficient mice and mice with intestinal-specific loss of heparan sulfate had increased basal protein leakage and were far more susceptible to protein loss induced by combinations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and increased venous pressure. Similarly, knockdown of syndecan-1 in human epithelial cells resulted in increased basal and cytokine-induced protein leakage. Clinical application of heparin has been known to alleviate PLE in some patients but its unknown mechanism and severe side effects due to its anticoagulant activity limit its usefulness. We demonstrate here that non-anticoagulant 2,3-de-O-sulfated heparin could prevent intestinal protein leakage in syndecan-deficient mice, suggesting that this may be a safe and effective therapy for PLE patients. PMID:18064305

  16. Sonic hedgehog processing and release are regulated by glypican heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Corinna; Pickhinke, Ute; Exner, Sebastian; Ohlig, Stefanie; Lawrence, Roger; Jboor, Hamodah; Dreier, Rita; Grobe, Kay

    2015-06-15

    All Hedgehog morphogens are released from producing cells, despite being synthesized as N- and C-terminally lipidated molecules, a modification that firmly tethers them to the cell membrane. We have previously shown that proteolytic removal of both lipidated peptides, called shedding, releases bioactive Sonic hedgehog (Shh) morphogens from the surface of transfected Bosc23 cells. Using in vivo knockdown together with in vitro cell culture studies, we now show that glypican heparan sulfate proteoglycans regulate this process, through their heparan sulfate chains, in a cell autonomous manner. Heparan sulfate specifically modifies Shh processing at the cell surface, and purified glycosaminoglycans enhance the proteolytic removal of N- and C-terminal Shh peptides under cell-free conditions. The most likely explanation for these observations is direct Shh processing in the extracellular compartment, suggesting that heparan sulfate acts as a scaffold or activator for Shh ligands and the factors required for their turnover. We also show that purified heparan sulfate isolated from specific cell types and tissues mediates the release of bioactive Shh from pancreatic cancer cells, revealing a previously unknown regulatory role for these versatile molecules in a pathological context.

  17. Autism-like socio-communicative deficits and stereotypies in mice lacking heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Fumitoshi; Badie-Mahdavi, Hedieh; Yamaguchi, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate regulates diverse cell-surface signaling events, and its roles in the development of the nervous system recently have been increasingly uncovered by studies using genetic models carrying mutations of genes encoding enzymes for its synthesis. On the other hand, the role of heparan sulfate in the physiological function of the adult brain has been poorly characterized, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting its role in the regulation of synaptic function. To address this issue, we eliminated heparan sulfate from postnatal neurons by conditionally inactivating Ext1, the gene encoding an enzyme essential for heparan sulfate synthesis. Resultant conditional mutant mice show no detectable morphological defects in the cytoarchitecture of the brain. Remarkably, these mutant mice recapitulate almost the full range of autistic symptoms, including impairments in social interaction, expression of stereotyped, repetitive behavior, and impairments in ultrasonic vocalization, as well as some associated features. Mapping of neuronal activation by c-Fos immunohistochemistry demonstrates that neuronal activation in response to social stimulation is attenuated in the amygdala in these mice. Electrophysiology in amygdala pyramidal neurons shows an attenuation of excitatory synaptic transmission, presumably because of the reduction in the level of synaptically localized AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Our results demonstrate that heparan sulfate is critical for normal functioning of glutamatergic synapses and that its deficiency mediates socio-communicative deficits and stereotypies characteristic for autism. PMID:22411800

  18. Enterovirus 71 Uses Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan as an Attachment Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chee Wah; Poh, Chit Laa; Sam, I-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor. PMID:23097443

  19. Immunohistochemical expression of heparan sulfate correlates with stromal cell proliferation in breast phyllodes tumors.

    PubMed

    Koo, Chuay-Yeng; Bay, Boon-Huat; Lui, Philip Chi-Wai; Tse, Gary Man-Kit; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Yip, George Wai-Cheong

    2006-10-01

    Phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms typified by stromal proliferation. We have previously shown the role of pathologic parameters and the prognostic significance of p53 and CD117 protein expression in these tumors. In this study, we evaluated the expression of heparan sulfate, which has been implicated in many biological processes such as cell adhesion, embryogenesis, and tumorigenesis (including malignant transformation of mammary cells) in 232 breast phyllodes tumors. We used a monoclonal antibody, 10E4, to examine the localization of heparan sulfate in phyllodes tumors by immunohistochemistry. The immunoreactivity of both epithelial and stromal components was examined and analyzed with pathological parameters and other immunohistochemical markers, including p53, MIB1, bcl2, and CD117. Stromal 10E4 expression was significantly associated with tumor grade, stromal p53, and MIB1 expression in proliferating cells, suggesting that heparan sulfate may participate in malignant tumor growth.

  20. Heparan Sulfate Degradation: Relation to Tumor Invasive and Metastatic Properties of Mouse B16 Melanoma Sublines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Motowo; Irimura, Tatsuro; di Ferrante, Daniela; di Ferrante, Nicola; Nicolson, Garth L.

    1983-05-01

    After transport in the blood and implantation in the microcirculation, metastatic tumor cells must invade the vascular endothelium and underlying basal lamina. Mouse B16 melanoma sublines were used to determine the relation between metastatic properties and the ability of the sublines to degrade enzymatically the sulfated glycosaminoglycans present in the extracellular matrix of cultured vascular endothelial cells. Highly invasive and metastatic B16 sublines degraded matrix glycosaminoglycans faster than did sublines of lower metastatic potential. The main products of this matrix degradation were heparan sulfate fragments. Intact B16 cells (or their cell-free homogenates) with a high potential for lung colonization degraded purified heparan sulfate from bovine lung at higher rates than did B16 cells with a poor potential for lung colonization. Analysis of the degradation fragments indicated that B16 cells have a heparan sulfate endoglycosidase. Thus the abilities of B16 melanoma cells to extravasate and successfully colonize the lung may be related to their capacities to degrade heparan sulfate in the walls of pulmonary blood vessels.

  1. Fractone-heparan sulfates mediate BMP-7 inhibition of cell proliferation in the adult subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Douet, Vanessa; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Mercier, Frederic

    2012-10-24

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is a heparin-binding growth factor that inhibits cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, the primary neurogenic niche in the adult brain. However, the physiological mechanisms regulating the activity of BMP-7 in the SVZ are unknown. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation through the anterior SVZ after intracerebroventricular injection in the adult mouse. To determine whether the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by BMP-7 is dependant on heparin-binding, heparitinase-1 was intracerebroventricularly injected to N-desulfate heparan sulfate proteoglycans before BMP-7 was injected. Heparatinase-1 drastically reduced the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation in the SVZ. To determine where BMP-7 binds within the niche, we visualized biotinylated-BMP-7 after intracerebroventricular injection, using streptavidin Texas red on frozen brain sections. BMP-7 binding was seen as puncta in the SVZ at the location of fractones, the particulate specialized extracellular matrix of the SVZ, which have been identified primarily by N-sulfated heparan sulfate immunoreactivity (NS-HS+). BMP binding was also seen in NS-HS+ blood vessels of the SVZ. Injection of heparitinase-1 prior to biotinylated BMP-7 resulted in the absence of signal for biotinylated-BMP-7 in the fractones and blood vessels, indicating that the binding is heparan sulfate dependant. These results indicate that BMP-7 requires heparan sulfates to bind and inhibit cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic niche. Heparan sulfates concentrated in fractones and SVZ blood vessels emerge as a functional stem cell niche component involved in growth factor activity.

  2. Heparan sulfate deficiency disrupts developmental angiogenesis and causes congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Wenyuan; Qiu, Hong; Zhang, Fuming; Moniz, Heather A.; Jaworski, Alexander; Condac, Eduard; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Heiss, Christian; Clugston, Robin D.; Azadi, Parastoo; Greer, John J.; Bergmann, Carl; Moremen, Kelley W.; Li, Dean; Linhardt, Robert J.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Lianchun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common birth malformation with a heterogeneous etiology. In this study, we report that ablation of the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme NDST1 in murine endothelium (Ndst1ECKO mice) disrupted vascular development in the diaphragm, which led to hypoxia as well as subsequent diaphragm hypoplasia and CDH. Intriguingly, the phenotypes displayed in Ndst1ECKO mice resembled the developmental defects observed in slit homolog 3 (Slit3) knockout mice. Furthermore, introduction of a heterozygous mutation in roundabout homolog 4 (Robo4), the gene encoding the cognate receptor of SLIT3, aggravated the defect in vascular development in the diaphragm and CDH. NDST1 deficiency diminished SLIT3, but not ROBO4, binding to endothelial heparan sulfate and attenuated EC migration and in vivo neovascularization normally elicited by SLIT3-ROBO4 signaling. Together, these data suggest that heparan sulfate presentation of SLIT3 to ROBO4 facilitates initiation of this signaling cascade. Thus, our results demonstrate that loss of NDST1 causes defective diaphragm vascular development and CDH and that heparan sulfate facilitates angiogenic SLIT3-ROBO4 signaling during vascular development. PMID:24355925

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of the Biosynthesis & Enzymatic Modification of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Implications for Tumorigenesis and Cancer Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hull, Elizabeth E; Montgomery, McKale R; Leyva, Kathryn J

    2017-06-26

    Emerging evidence suggests that the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway for the synthesis of heparan sulfate moieties of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are epigenetically regulated at many levels. As the exact composition of the heparan sulfate portion of the resulting HSPG molecules is critical to the broad spectrum of biological processes involved in oncogenesis, the epigenetic regulation of heparan sulfate biosynthesis has far-reaching effects on many cellular activities related to cancer progression. Given the current focus on developing new anti-cancer therapeutics focused on epigenetic targets, it is important to understand the effects that these emerging therapeutics may have on the synthesis of HSPGs as alterations in HSPG composition may have profound and unanticipated effects. As an introduction, this review will briefly summarize the variety of important roles which HSPGs play in a wide-spectrum of cancer-related cellular and physiological functions and then describe the biosynthesis of the heparan sulfate chains of HSPGs, including how alterations observed in cancer cells serve as potential biomarkers. This review will then focus on detailing the multiple levels of epigenetic regulation of the enzymes in the heparan sulfate synthesis pathway with a particular focus on regulation by miRNA and effects of epigenetic therapies on HSPGs. We will also explore the use of lectins to detect differences in heparan sulfate composition and preview their potential diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinic.

  4. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and structural characterization of 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid-containing heparan sulfate hexasaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Xu, Yongmei; Keire, David A; Liu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate and heparin are highly sulfated polysaccharides that consist of a repeating disaccharide unit of glucosamine and glucuronic or iduronic acid. The 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid (IdoA2S) residue is commonly found in heparan sulfate and heparin; however, 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid (GlcA2S) is a less abundant monosaccharide (∼<5% of total saccharides). Here, we report the synthesis of three GlcA2S-containing hexasaccharides using a chemoenzymatic approach. For comparison purposes, additional IdoA2S-containing hexasaccharides were synthesized. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were performed to obtain full chemical shift assignments for the GlcA2S- and IdoA2S-hexasaccharides. These data show that GlcA2S is a more structurally rigid saccharide residue than IdoA2S. The antithrombin (AT) binding affinities of a GlcA2S- and an IdoA2S-hexasaccharide were determined by affinity co-electrophoresis. In contrast to IdoA2S-hexasaccharides, the GlcA2S-hexasaccharide does not bind to AT, confirming that the presence of IdoA2S is critically important for the anticoagulant activity. The availability of pure synthetic GlcA2S-containing oligosaccharides will allow the investigation of the structure and activity relationships of individual sites in heparin or heparan sulfate. PMID:24770491

  5. Identification of the heparan sulfate binding sites in the cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Warner, Richard G; Hundt, Christoph; Weiss, Stefan; Turnbull, Jeremy E

    2002-05-24

    Data from cell culture and animal models of prion disease support the separate involvement of both heparan sulfate proteoglycans and copper (II) ions in prion (PrP) metabolism. Though direct interactions between prion protein and heparin have been recorded, little is known of the structural features implicit in this interaction or of the involvement of copper (II) ions. Using biosensor and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology we report direct heparin and heparan sulfate-binding activity in recombinant cellular prion protein (PrP(c)). We also demonstrate that the interaction of recombinant PrP(c) with heparin is weakened in the presence of Cu(II) ions and is particularly sensitive to competition with dextran sulfate. Competitive inhibition experiments with chemically modified heparins also indicate that 2-O-sulfate groups (but not 6-O-sulfate groups) are essential for heparin recognition. We have also identified three regions of the prion protein capable of independent binding to heparin and heparan sulfate: residues 23-52, 53-93, and 110-128. Interestingly, the interaction of an octapeptide-spanning peptide motif amino acids 53-93 with heparin is enhanced by Cu(II) ions. Significantly, a peptide of this sequence is able to inhibit the binding of full-length prion molecule to heparin, suggesting a direct role in heparin recognition within the intact protein. The collective data suggest a complex interaction between prion protein and heparin/heparan sulfate and has implications for the cellular and pathological functions of prion proteins.

  6. Extracellular modulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling through heparan sulfate proteoglycans in mammalian development.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Isao; Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu

    2013-08-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling plays crucial roles in multiple cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration during mammalian embryogenesis. In the extracellular matrix, as well as at the cell surface, the movement of FGF ligands to target cells and the subsequent complex formations with their receptors are positively and negatively controlled extracellularly by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) such as syndecans, glypicans, and perlecan. Additionally, spreading of HSPGs by cleavage with sheddases such as proteinases and heparanases, and the overall length and sulfation level of specific heparan sulfate structures further generate a great diversity of FGF signaling outcomes. This review presents our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of FGF signaling in extracellular spaces through HSPGs in mammalian development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis by Schwann cells of basal lamina and membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Primary cultures that contain only Schwann cells and sensory nerve cells synthesize basal lamina. The assembly of this basal lamina appears to be essential for normal Schwann cell development. In this study, we demonstrate that Schwann cells synthesize two major heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans. Both proteoglycans band in dissociative CsCl gradients at densities less than 1.4 g/ml, and therefore, presumably, have relatively low carbohydrate-to-protein ratios. The larger of these proteoglycans elutes from Sepharose CL-4B in 4 M guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) at a Kav of 0.21 and contains heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains of Mr 21,000 in a ratio of approximately 3:1. This proteoglycan is extracted from cultures by 4 M GuHCl but not Triton X-100 and accumulates only when Schwann cells are actively synthesizing basal lamina. The smaller proteoglycan elutes from Sepharose CL-4B at a Kav of 0.44 and contains heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains of Mr 18,000 in a ratio of approximately 4:1. This proteoglycan is extracted by 4 M GuHCl or by Triton X-100. The accumulation of this proteoglycan is independent of basal lamina production. PMID:3160714

  8. Expanding the role of 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus type-1 entry

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Kovacs, Maria; Akhtar, Jihan; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-02-20

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are commonly exploited by multiple viruses for initial attachment to host cells. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is unique because it can use HS for both attachment and penetration, provided specific binding sites for HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein gD are present. The interaction with gD is mediated by specific HS moieties or 3-O sulfated HS (3-OS HS), which are generated by all but one of the seven isoforms of 3-O sulfotransferases (3-OSTs). Here we demonstrate that several common experimental cell lines express unique sets of 3-OST isoforms. While the isoforms 3-OST-3, -5 and -6 were most commonly expressed, isoforms 3-OST-2 and -4 were undetectable in the cell lines examined. Since most cell lines expressed multiple 3-OST isoforms, we addressed the significance of 3-OS HS in HSV-1 entry by down-regulating 2-O-sulfation, a prerequisite for 3-OS HS formation, by knocking down 2-OST expression by RNA interference (RNAi). 2-OST knockdown was verified by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot analysis, while 3-OS HS knockdown was verified by immunofluorescence. Cells showed a significant decrease in viral entry, suggesting an important role for 3-OS HS. Implicating 3-OS HS further, cells knocked down for 2-OST expression also demonstrated decreased cell-cell fusion when cocultivated with effector cells transfected with HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our findings suggest that 3-OS HS may play an important role in HSV-1 entry into many different cell lines.

  9. Heparan sulfate mimetics can efficiently mobilize long-term hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Giacomo, Fabio; Lewandowski, Daniel; Cabannes, Eric; Nancy-Portebois, Vanessa; Petitou, Maurice; Fichelson, Serge; Romeo, Paul-Henri

    2012-01-01

    Background Although mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells can be achieved with a combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and plerixafor (AMD3100), improving approaches for hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization is clinically important. Design and Methods Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the extracellular matrix that regulates biology of hematopoietic stem cells. We studied the effects of a new family of synthetic oligosaccharides mimicking heparan sulfate on hematopoietic stem cell mobilization. These oligosaccharides were administered intravenously alone or in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and/or AMD3100 in mice. Mobilized hematopoietic cells were counted and phenotyped at different times and the ability of mobilized hematopoietic stem cells to reconstitute long-term hematopoiesis was determined by competitive transplantation into syngenic lethally irradiated mice followed by secondary transplantation. Results Mimetics of heparan sulfate induced rapid mobilization of B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. They increased the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells more than 3-fold when added to the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/AMD3100 association. Hematopoietic stem cells mobilized by mimetics of heparan sulfate or by the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/AMD3100/mimetics association were as effective as hematopoietic stem cells mobilized by the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/AMD3100 association for primary and secondary hematopoietic reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice. Conclusions This new family of mobilizing agents could alone or in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and/or AMD3100 mobilize a high number of hematopoietic stem cells that were able to maintain long-term hematopoiesis. These results strengthen

  10. Homocysteine, a thrombogenic agent, suppresses anticoagulant heparan sulfate expression in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nishinaga, M; Ozawa, T; Shimada, K

    1993-09-01

    Previous studies showed that homocysteine, a thrombo-atherogenic and atherogenic agent, inhibits an endothelial thrombomodulin-protein C anticoagulant pathway. We examined whether homocysteine might affect another endothelial anticoagulant mechanism; i.e., heparin-like glycosaminoglycan-antithrombin III interactions. Incubations of porcine aortic endothelial cell cultures with homocysteine reduced the amount of antithrombin III bound to the cell surface in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. The inhibitory effect was observed at a homocysteine concentration as low as 0.1 mM, and the maximal suppression occurred at 1 mM of homocysteine after 24 h. In contrast with a marked reduction in the maximal antithrombin III binding capacity (approximately 30% of control), the radioactivity of [35S]sulfate incorporated into heparan sulfate on the cell surface was minimally (< 15%) reduced. The cells remained viable after homocysteine treatment. Although neither net negative charge nor proportion in total glycosaminoglycans of cell surface heparan sulfate was altered by homocysteine treatment, a substantial reduction in antithrombin III binding capacity of heparan sulfate isolated from homocysteine-treated endothelial cells was found using both affinity chromatography and dot blot assay techniques. The antithrombin III binding activity of endothelial cells decreased after preincubation with 1 mM homocysteine, cysteine, or 2-mercaptoethanol; no reduction in binding activity was observed after preincubation with the same concentration of methionine, alanine, or valine. This sulfhydryl effect may be caused by generation of hydrogen peroxide, as incubation of catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, with homocysteine-treated endothelial cells prevented this reduction, whereas copper augmented the inhibitory effects of the metabolite. Thus, our data suggest that the inhibited expression of anticoagulant heparan sulfate may contribute to the thrombogenic property resulting from the

  11. ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION OF SYNTHETIC HEPARAN SULFATE GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN TETRASACCHARIDES VARYING IN DEGREE OF SULFATION AND HEXURONIC ACID STEREOCHEMISTRY.

    PubMed

    Leach, Franklin E; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I Jonathan

    2012-12-15

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates provide a challenging analytical target for structural determination due to their polydisperse nature, non-template biosynthesis, and labile sulfate modifications. The resultant structures, although heterogeneous, contain domains which indicate a sulfation pattern or code that correlates to specific function. Mass spectrometry, in particular electron detachment dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (EDD FT-ICR MS), provides a highly sensitive platform for GAG structural analysis by providing cross-ring cleavages for sulfation location and product ions specific to hexuronic acid stereochemistry. To investigate the effect of sulfation pattern and variations in stereochemistry on EDD spectra, a series of synthetic heparan sulfate (HS) tetrasaccharides are examined. Whereas previous studies have focused on lowly sulfated compounds (0.5-1 sulfate groups per disaccharide), the current work extends the application of EDD to more highly sulfated tetrasaccharides (1-2 sulfate groups per disaccharide) and presents the first EDD of a tetrasaccharide containing a sulfated hexuronic acid. For these more highly sulfated HS oligomers, alternative strategies are shown to be effective for extracting full structural details. These strategies inlcude sodium cation replacement of protons, for determining the sites of sulfation, and desulfation of the oligosaccharides for the generation of product ions for assigning uronic acid stereochemistry.

  12. ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION OF SYNTHETIC HEPARAN SULFATE GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN TETRASACCHARIDES VARYING IN DEGREE OF SULFATION AND HEXURONIC ACID STEREOCHEMISTRY

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Franklin E.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates provide a challenging analytical target for structural determination due to their polydisperse nature, non-template biosynthesis, and labile sulfate modifications. The resultant structures, although heterogeneous, contain domains which indicate a sulfation pattern or code that correlates to specific function. Mass spectrometry, in particular electron detachment dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (EDD FT-ICR MS), provides a highly sensitive platform for GAG structural analysis by providing cross-ring cleavages for sulfation location and product ions specific to hexuronic acid stereochemistry. To investigate the effect of sulfation pattern and variations in stereochemistry on EDD spectra, a series of synthetic heparan sulfate (HS) tetrasaccharides are examined. Whereas previous studies have focused on lowly sulfated compounds (0.5–1 sulfate groups per disaccharide), the current work extends the application of EDD to more highly sulfated tetrasaccharides (1–2 sulfate groups per disaccharide) and presents the first EDD of a tetrasaccharide containing a sulfated hexuronic acid. For these more highly sulfated HS oligomers, alternative strategies are shown to be effective for extracting full structural details. These strategies inlcude sodium cation replacement of protons, for determining the sites of sulfation, and desulfation of the oligosaccharides for the generation of product ions for assigning uronic acid stereochemistry. PMID:23230388

  13. Heparan sulfates in the lung: structure, diversity, and role in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Smits, Nicole C; Shworak, Nicholas W; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2010-06-01

    There is an emerging interest in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the lung, especially in the role it plays in development and disease. There is a rapid change from the classical view of the ECM as a supporting structure towards a view of the ECM as a regulatory entity with profound effects on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of pulmonary cells. In the ECM, a variety of molecules is present in a highly organized pattern. Next to the abundant fiber-forming molecules such as collagens and elastin, a large number of less abundant molecules are part of the ECM, including proteoglycans. In this review, we will focus on one class of proteoglycans, the heparan sulfate proteoglycans. We will particularly address the structure, biosynthesis, and function of their saccharide moiety, the heparan sulfates, including their role in development and (patho)physiology.

  14. Usage of heparan sulfate, integrins, and FAK in HPV16 infection

    PubMed Central

    Abban, Cynthia Y.; Meneses, Patricio I.

    2010-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) is the major causative agent of cervical cancer. Studies regarding the early binding and signaling molecules that play a significant role in infection are still lacking. The current study analyses the role of heparan sulfate, integrins, and the signaling molecule FAK in HPV16 infection of human adult keratinocytes cell line (HaCaTs). Our data demonstrate that infection requires the binding of viral particles to heparan sulfate followed by activation of focal adhesion kinase through an integrin. Infections were reduced in the presence of the FAK inhibitor, TAE226. TAE226 was observed to inhibit viral entry to the early endosome a known infectious route. These findings suggest that FAK can serve as a novel target for antiviral therapy. PMID:20441998

  15. Incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate and /sup 3/H-glucosamine into heparan and chondroitin sulfates during the cell cycle of B16-F10 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, O.C.; Sartorelli, A.C.

    1984-05-01

    Changes in glycosaminoglycan composition occurring during the cell cycle were determined in B16-F10 cells sorted flow cytometrically with respect to DNA content. Incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate into heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate of unsorted and G1,S, and G2 +M sorted cells was determined following chondroitinase ABC or nitrous acid treatment; the incorporation into surface material was measured as the difference between the radioactivity of control and trypsin-treated cells. Incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate and /sup 3/H-glucosamine into cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC)-precipitable material was characterized before and after chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment by Sephadex G50 chromatography. Long-term (48 h) and short-term (1 h) labeling studies demonstrate that (a) the amount of total cellular chondroitin sulfate is greater than that of heparan sulfate, with larger amounts of unsulfated heparan than chondroitin being present; (b) the rate of turnover of heparan sulfate is greater than that of chondroitin sulfate; (c) greatest short-term incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into CPC-precipitable material occurs during S phase; and (d) the rate of turnover of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate is decreased in S phase relative to G1 and G2 + M.

  16. Functional Requirements for Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis in Morphogenesis and Nervous System Development in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Cassandra R.; Thackeray, Andrea; Perrat, Paola N.; Hekimi, Siegfried; Bénard, Claire Y.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation. In humans, mutations in either of the exostosin genes EXT1 and EXT2 lead to osteosarcomas or multiple exostoses. Complete loss of any of the exostosin glycosyltransferases in mouse, fish, flies and worms leads to drastic morphogenetic defects and embryonic lethality. Here we identify and study previously unavailable viable hypomorphic mutations in the two C. elegans exostosin glycosyltransferases genes, rib-1 and rib-2. These partial loss-of-function mutations lead to a severe reduction of HS levels and result in profound but specific developmental defects, including abnormal cell and axonal migrations. We find that the expression pattern of the HS copolymerase is dynamic during embryonic and larval morphogenesis, and is sustained throughout life in specific cell types, consistent with HSPGs playing both developmental and post-developmental roles. Cell-type specific expression of the HS copolymerase shows that HS elongation is required in both the migrating neuron and neighboring cells to coordinate migration guidance. Our findings provide insights into general principles underlying HSPG function in development. PMID:28068429

  17. Inhibiting stromal cell heparan sulfate synthesis improves stem cell mobilization and enables engraftment without cytotoxic conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Borja; Ferraro, Francesca; Yusuf, Rushdia Z.; Cook, Colleen M.; Yu, Vionnie W. C.; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Sykes, Stephen M.; Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Schajnovitz, Amir; Lotinun, Sutada; Lymperi, Stefania; Mendez-Ferrer, Simon; del Toro, Raquel; Day, Robyn; Vasic, Radovan; Acharya, Sanket S.; Baron, Roland; Lin, Charles P.; Yamaguchi, Yu; Wagers, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The glycosyltransferase gene, Ext1, is essential for heparan sulfate production. Induced deletion of Ext1 selectively in Mx1-expressing bone marrow (BM) stromal cells, a known population of skeletal stem/progenitor cells, in adult mice resulted in marked changes in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) localization. HSPC egressed from BM to spleen after Ext1 deletion. This was associated with altered signaling in the stromal cells and with reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 production by them. Further, pharmacologic inhibition of heparan sulfate mobilized qualitatively more potent and quantitatively more HSPC from the BM than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone, including in a setting of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor resistance. The reduced presence of endogenous HSPC after Ext1 deletion was associated with engraftment of transfused HSPC without any toxic conditioning of the host. Therefore, inhibiting heparan sulfate production may provide a means for avoiding the toxicities of radiation or chemotherapy in HSPC transplantation for nonmalignant conditions. PMID:25202142

  18. The role of heparan sulfate and perlecan in bone-regenerative procedures.

    PubMed

    DeCarlo, A A; Whitelock, J M

    2006-02-01

    Tissue engineering, grafting procedures, regeneration, and tissue remodeling are developing therapeutic modalities with great potential medical value, but these regenerative modalities are not as effective or predictable as clinicians and patients would like. Greater understanding of growth factors, cytokines, extracellular matrix molecules, and their roles in cell-mediated healing processes have made these regenerative therapies more clinically viable and will continue advancing the fields of tissue engineering and grafting. However, millions of oral and non-oral bone-grafting procedures are performed annually, and only a small percentage yield the most desirable results. Here we review the heparan-sulfate-decorated extracellular biomolecule named perlecan and the research relating to its potential as an adjunct in bone-regenerative procedures. The review includes an overview of bone graft substitutes and biological adjuncts to bone-regenerative procedures in medicine as they apply to periodontal disease, alveolar ridge augmentation, and barrier membrane therapy. Perlecan is discussed as a potential biological adjunct in terms of growth factor sequestration and delivery, and promoting cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. Further, we propose delivery and application schemes for perlecan and/or its domains in bone-regenerative procedures, with particular emphasis on its heparan-sulfate-decorated domain I. The perlecan molecule, with its heparan sulfate glycosylation, may provide a multi-faceted approach for the delivery of a more comprehensive stimulus than other single potential adjuncts currently available for bone-regenerative procedures.

  19. Fluorescent Tagged Heparan Sulfate Precursor Oligosaccharides to Probe the Enzymatic Action of Heparitinase I

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2009-01-01

    Heparitinase I, a key lyase enzyme essential for structural analysis of heparan sulfate (HS), degrades HS domains which are undersulfated at glucuronyl residues through an elimination mechanism. Earlier studies employed viscosimetric measurements and electrophoresis to deduce the mechanism of action of heparitinase I and two other related lyases, heparitinase II and heparitinase III. However, these findings lack molecular evidence for the intermediates formed and could not distinguish whether the cleavage occurred from the reducing end or non-reducing end. In this report, 2-aminoacridone (2-AMAC) labeled HS precursor oligosaccharides of various sizes were prepared to investigate the mechanism of heparitinase I mediated depolymerization using sensitive and quantitative methodologies. Furthermore, fluorescence (2-AMAC) tagging of heparan sulfate precursor oligosaccharides allowed us to distinguish fragments that result from cleavage of the substrates at various time intervals and sites further away from the reducing and non-reducing ends of oligosaccharide substrates. This study provides first direct molecular evidence for a predominantly random endolytic mechanism of elimination of HS precursor oligosaccharides by heparitinase I. This robust strategy can be adapted to deduce the mechanism of action of other heparitinases and also to deduce structural information of complex heparan sulfate oligosaccharides of biological importance. PMID:19732739

  20. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    SciTech Connect

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-03-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium (35S)sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of (35S)heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-((cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio)-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane.

  1. Sulf loss influences N-, 2-O-, and 6-O-sulfation of multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans and modulates fibroblast growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, William C; Frese, Marc-André; Balleininger, Martina; Dierks, Thomas

    2008-10-10

    Sulf1 and Sulf2 are two heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases that regulate the activity of multiple growth factors, such as fibroblast growth factor and Wnt, and are essential for mammalian development and survival. In this study, the mammalian Sulfs were functionally characterized using overexpressing cell lines, in vitro enzyme assays, and in vivo Sulf knock-out cell models. Analysis of subcellular Sulf localization revealed significant differences in enzyme secretion and detergent solubility between the human isoforms and their previously characterized quail orthologs. Further, the activity of the Sulfs toward their native heparan sulfate substrates was determined in vitro, demonstrating restricted specificity for S-domain-associated 6S disaccharides and an inability to modify transition zone-associated UA-GlcNAc(6S). Analysis of heparan sulfate composition from different cell surface, shed, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored and extracellular matrix proteoglycan fractions of Sulf knock-out cell lines established differential effects of Sulf1 and/or Sulf2 loss on nonsubstrate N-, 2-O-, and 6-O-sulfate groups. These findings indicate a dynamic influence of Sulf deficiency on the HS biosynthetic machinery. Real time PCR analysis substantiated differential expression of the Hs2st and Hs6st heparan sulfate sulfotransferase enzymes in the Sulf knock-out cell lines. Functionally, the changes in heparan sulfate sulfation resulting from Sulf loss were shown to elicit significant effects on fibroblast growth factor signaling. Taken together, this study implicates that the Sulfs are involved in a potential cellular feed-back mechanism, in which they edit the sulfation of multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans, thereby regulating cellular signaling and modulating the expression of heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes.

  2. Purification of heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Shworak, N W; Fritze, L M; Edelberg, J M; Rosenberg, R D

    1996-10-25

    The cellular generation of proteoglycans with anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSPGact) is determined by microsomal "HSact conversion activity" that functions in concert with the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to convert nonanticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSinact) to anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact) (Shworak, N. W., Fritze, L. M. S., Liu, J., Butler, L. D., and Rosenberg, R. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 27063-27071). Suspension cultures of L-33(+) cells in serum-free medium produce HSPGact and secrete HSact conversion activity. The secreted protein exhibiting HSact conversion activity was isolated by subjecting large volumes of conditioned suspension culture medium to heparin-AF Toyopearl affinity chromatography, Mono Q-FPLC, TSK SW3000-HPLC, and 3',5'-ADP-agarose affinity chromatography. The final product was purified approximately 700,000-fold relative to cellular material with a 5% overall recovery of HSact conversion activity. The isolated protein migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a broad band of Mr = 46,000 and co-migrated on nondenaturing acidic pH gel electrophoresis with HSact conversion activity. The purified component was identified as heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase because it transferred sulfate from [35S]PAPS to the 3-O-position of D-glucosamine and D-glucosamine 6-O-sulfate of HSact precursor and HSinact precursor to produce nearly equivalent amounts of labeled HSact and HSinact. The exhaustive modification of wild-type LTA cell [35S]HS with either microsomal HSact conversion activity or purified enzyme increased HSact content from 9 to approximately 36%, which indicates that microsomal HSact conversion activity predominantly reflects the level of a 3-O-sulfotransferase that converts HSact precursor into HSact. The kinetic parameters of purified 3-O-sulfotransferase were determined for modification of HSact precursor and HSinact precursor. The apparent KM* and Vmax* with respect to

  3. Heparan sulfate is essential for high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) signaling by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ding; Young, Jeffrey; Song, Danyin; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2011-12-02

    In a proteomic search for heparan sulfate-binding proteins on monocytes, we identified HMGB1 (high mobility group protein B1). The extracellular role of HMGB1 as a cytokine has been studied intensively and shown to be important as a danger-associated molecular pattern protein. Here, we report that the activity of HMGB1 depends on heparan sulfate. Binding and competition studies demonstrate that HMGB1 interacts with CHO and endothelial cell heparan sulfate. By site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a loop region that connects the A-box and B-box domains of HMGB1 as responsible for heparan sulfate binding. HMGB1-induced Erk1/2 and p38 phosphorylation is abolished when endothelial heparan sulfate is removed or blocked pharmacologically, resulting in decreased HMGB1-induced endothelial sprouting. However, mutated HMGB1 that lacks the heparan sulfate-binding site retained its signaling activity. We show the major receptor for HMGB1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), also binds to heparan sulfate and that RAGE and heparan sulfate forms a complex. Our data establishes that the functional receptor for HMGB1 consists of a complex of RAGE and cell surface heparan sulfate.

  4. Liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independently of LDL receptor family members

    PubMed Central

    MacArthur, Jennifer M.; Bishop, Joseph R.; Stanford, Kristin I.; Wang, Lianchun; Bensadoun, André; Witztum, Joseph L.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role of hepatic heparan sulfate in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism by inactivating the biosynthetic gene GlcNAc N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (Ndst1) in hepatocytes using the Cre-loxP system, which resulted in an approximately 50% reduction in sulfation of liver heparan sulfate. Mice were viable and healthy, but they accumulated triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles containing apoB-100, apoB-48, apoE, and apoCI-IV. Compounding the mutation with LDL receptor deficiency caused enhanced accumulation of both cholesterol- and triglyceride-rich particles compared with mice lacking only LDL receptors, suggesting that heparan sulfate participates in the clearance of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins as well. Mutant mice synthesized VLDL normally but showed reduced plasma clearance of human VLDL and a corresponding reduction in hepatic VLDL uptake. Retinyl ester excursion studies revealed that clearance of intestinally derived lipoproteins also depended on hepatocyte heparan sulfate. These findings show that under normal physiological conditions, hepatic heparan sulfate proteoglycans play a crucial role in the clearance of both intestinally derived and hepatic lipoprotein particles. PMID:17200715

  5. Heparanase and a synthetic peptide of heparan sulfate-interacting protein recognize common sites on cell surface and extracellular matrix heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, D; Liu, S; Spohn, W C; Carson, D D

    1997-06-20

    Heparanase is an endo-beta-D-glucuronidase that degrades the glycosaminoglycan chains of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans at specific sites. Elevated levels of heparanase are associated with the metastatic potential of melanoma and other types of tumor cells. We previously reported heparanase degradation of cell surface HS subpopulations of the human adenocarcinoma cell line RL95. In the present study, heparanase activity was examined on RL95 cell surface HS subpopulations in the presence of a synthetic peptide (CRPKAKAKAKAKDQTK) of heparin/heparan sulfate-interacting protein (HIP; Liu, S., Smith, S. E., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., Karin, N. J., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11817-11823). Heparanase digestion generated HS fragments from cell surface- or extracellular matrix-derived HS of approximately 25 and 9 kDa, respectively. In contrast, HS of various size classes isolated from proteoglycans secreted or released by RL95 and endothelial cells in culture were not susceptible to heparanase digestion. Incubation of heparanase-containing melanoma cellular extracts or partially purified heparanase preparations with cell surface- or ECM-derived HS and HIP peptide, but not a scrambled sequence of this peptide or other HS-binding proteins present in ECM, completely inhibited heparanase action. Conversely, predigestion of cell surface HS with either heparanase-containing cellular extracts or with secreted or partially purified heparanase destroyed binding to HIP peptide. Preincubation of HS with HIP peptide prevented subsequent heparanase digestion. Collectively, these data demonstrate that HIP peptide and heparanase recognize specific, common motifs within HS chains at cell surfaces and in ECM and may mutually modulate HS-dependent activities.

  6. Investigating the mechanism of the assembly of FGF1-binding heparan sulfate motifs

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao Kim Nu; Raman, Karthik; Trana, Vy My; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) chains play crucial biological roles by binding to various signaling molecules including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Distinct sulfation patterns of HS chains are required for their binding to FGFs/FGF receptors (FGFRs). These sulfation patterns are putatively regulated by biosynthetic enzyme complexes, called GAGOSOMES, in the Golgi. While the structural requirements of HS-FGF interactions have been described previously, it is still unclear how the FGF-binding motif is assembled in vivo. In this study, we generated HS structures using biosynthetic enzymes in a sequential or concurrent manner to elucidate the potential mechanism by which the FGF1-binding HS motif is assembled. Our results indicate that the HS chains form ternary complexes with FGF1/FGFR when enzymes carry out modifications in a specific manner. PMID:21803043

  7. A 3-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Binding Peptide Preferentially Targets Herpes Simplex Virus 2-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Karasneh, Ghadah A.; Jarding, Min Jung; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the primary cause of genital herpes, which is one of the most common sexually transmitted viral infections worldwide and a major cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The lack of an effective vaccine or treatment and the emergence of drug-resistant strains highlight the need for developing new antivirals for HSV-2. Here, we demonstrate that a low-molecular-weight peptide isolated against 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) can efficiently block HSV-2 infection. Treatment with the peptide inhibited viral entry and cell-to-cell spread both in vitro and in vivo using a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection. Quite interestingly, the peptide showed a preferential binding to HSV-2-infected cells, with more than 200% increased binding compared to uninfected cells. Our additional results show that heparan sulfate expression is upregulated by 25% upon HSV-2 infection, which is a significant new finding that could be exploited for designing new diagnostic tests and treatment strategies against HSV-2-infected cells. In addition, our results also raise the possibility that 3-OS HS modifications within HS may be upregulated even more to accommodate for a significantly higher increase in the peptide binding to the infected cells. PMID:22491462

  8. Combining measurements to estimate properties and characterization extent of complex biochemical mixtures; applications to Heparan Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradines, Joël R.; Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Farutin, Victor; Huang, Yongqing; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Capila, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Complex mixtures of molecular species, such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, have important biological and therapeutic functions. Characterization of these mixtures with analytical chemistry measurements is an important step when developing generic drugs such as biosimilars. Recent developments have focused on analytical methods and statistical approaches to test similarity between mixtures. The question of how much uncertainty on mixture composition is reduced by combining several measurements still remains mostly unexplored. Mathematical frameworks to combine measurements, estimate mixture properties, and quantify remaining uncertainty, i.e. a characterization extent, are introduced here. Constrained optimization and mathematical modeling are applied to a set of twenty-three experimental measurements on heparan sulfate, a mixture of linear chains of disaccharides having different levels of sulfation. While this mixture has potentially over two million molecular species, mathematical modeling and the small set of measurements establish the existence of nonhomogeneity of sulfate level along chains and the presence of abundant sulfate repeats. Constrained optimization yields not only estimations of sulfate repeats and sulfate level at each position in the chains but also bounds on these levels, thereby estimating the extent of characterization of the sulfation pattern which is achieved by the set of measurements.

  9. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans and Their Binding Proteins in Embryo Implantation and Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Kirn-Safran, Catherine; D’Souza, Sonia S.; Carson, Daniel D.

    2008-01-01

    Complex interactions occur among embryonic, placental and maternal tissues during embryo implantation. Many of these interactions are controlled by growth factors, extracellular matrix and cell surface components that share the ability to bind heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides. HS is carried by several classes of cell surface and secreted proteins called HS proteoglycan that are expressed in restricted patterns during implantation and placentation. This review will discuss the expression of HS proteoglycans and various HS binding growth factors as well as extracellular matrix components and HS-modifying enzymes that can release HS-bound proteins in the context of implantation and placentation. PMID:17766150

  10. Evidence that cell surface heparan sulfate is involved in the high affinity thrombin binding to cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, K; Ozawa, T

    1985-01-01

    It has been postulated that thrombin binds to endothelial cells through, at least in part, cell surface glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate, which could serve as antithrombin cofactor on the endothelium. In the present study, we have directly evaluated the binding of 125I-labeled bovine thrombin to cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells. The thrombin binding to the cell surface was rapid, reversible, and displaced by enzymatically inactive diisopropylphosphoryl-thrombin. The concentration of thrombin at half-maximal binding was approximately 20 nM. Both specific and nonspecific binding of 125I-thrombin to the endothelial cell surface was partially inhibited in the presence of protamine sulfate, after the removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by the treatment of cells with crude Flavobacterium heparinum enzyme or purified heparitinase. The binding as a function of the concentration of thrombin revealed that the maximal amount of specific binding was reduced by approximately 50% with little alteration in binding affinity by these enzymatic treatments. The reversibility and active-site independence as well as the rate of the binding did not change after heparitinase treatment. Whereas removal of chondroitin sulfates by chondroitin ABC lyase treatment of cells did not affect the binding, identical enzymatic treatments of [35S]sulfate-labeled cells showed that either heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate was selectively and completely removed from the cell surface by heparitinase or chondroitin ABC lyase treatment, respectively. Furthermore, proteolysis of cell surface proteins by the purified glycosaminoglycan lyases was excluded by the identical enzymatic treatments of [3H]leucine-labeled or cell surface radioiodinated cells. Our results provide the first direct evidence that heparan sulfate on the cell surface is involved in the high-affinity, active site-independent thrombin binding by endothelial cells, and also suggest the presence of thrombin

  11. Influencing hematopoietic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells using soluble heparin and heparan sulfate saccharides.

    PubMed

    Holley, Rebecca J; Pickford, Claire E; Rushton, Graham; Lacaud, Georges; Gallagher, John T; Kouskoff, Valerie; Merry, Catherine L R

    2011-02-25

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) encompass some of the most abundant macromolecules on the surface of almost every cell type. Heparan sulfate (HS) chains provide a key interaction surface for the binding of numerous proteins such as growth factors and morphogens, helping to define the ability of a cell to respond selectively to environmental cues. The specificity of HS-protein interactions are governed predominantly by the order and positioning of sulfate groups, with distinct cell types expressing unique sets of HS epitopes. Embryos deficient in HS-synthesis (Ext1(-/-)) exhibit pre-gastrulation lethality and lack recognizable organized mesoderm and extraembryonic tissues. Here we demonstrate that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from Ext1(-/-) embryos are unable to differentiate into hematopoietic lineages, instead retaining ESC marker expression throughout embryoid body (EB) culture. However hematopoietic differentiation can be restored by the addition of soluble heparin. Consistent with specific size and composition requirements for HS:growth factor signaling, chains measuring at least 12 saccharides were required for partial rescue of hematopoiesis with longer chains (18 saccharides or more) required for complete rescue. Critically N- and 6-O-sulfate groups were essential for rescue. Heparin addition restored the activity of multiple signaling pathways including bone morphogenic protein (BMP) with activation of phospho-SMADs re-established by the addition of heparin. Heparin addition to wild-type cultures also altered the outcome of differentiation, promoting hematopoiesis at low concentrations, yet inhibiting blood formation at high concentrations. Thus altering the levels of HS and HS sulfation within differentiating ESC cultures provides an attractive and accessible mechanism for influencing cell fate.

  12. Characterization of the N-deacetylase domain from the heparan sulfate N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Michael B.; Liu, May; Fox, Courtney; Liu, Jian . E-mail: jian_liu@unc.edu

    2006-01-27

    Heparin and heparan sulfate are linear sulfated polysaccharides that exert a multitude of biological functions. Heparan sulfate glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase isoform 2 (NDST-2), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of heparin, contains two distinct activities. This bifunctional enzyme removes the acetyl group from N-acetylated glucosamine (N-deacetylase activity) and transfers a sulfuryl group to the unsubstituted amino position (N-sulfotransferase activity). The N-sulfotransferase activity of NDST has been unambiguously localized to the C-terminal domain of NDST. Here, we report that the N-terminal domain of NDST-2 retains N-deacetylase activity. The N-terminal domain (A66-P604) of human NDST-2, designated as N-deacetylase (NDase), was cloned as a (His){sub 6}-fusion protein, and protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli. Heparosan treated with NDase contains N-unsubstituted glucosamine and is highly susceptible to N-sulfation by N-sulfotransferase. Our results conclude that the N-terminal domain of NDST-2 contains functional N-deacetylase activity. This finding helps further elucidate the mechanism of action of heparan sulfate N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases and the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate in general.

  13. Double-blind controlled study of the efficacy and pharmacological properties of heparan sulfate in patients with occlusive arterial disease of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Strano, A; Pinto, A; Galati, D

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a 60 day administration of 200 mg heparan sulfate (Hemovasal 100 b.i.d.) or 100 mg mesoglycan (50 mg b.i.d.) was assessed under double blind design in forty patients (thirty-six males and four females) with peripheral occlusive arterial disease with respect to pain-free walking distance and various haemorheological and haemostasiological variables, platelet aggregation and blood chemistry. The pain-free walking distance significantly improved with heparan sulfate (up 67% from baseline 200.0 +/- 22.5 m and up 34%, with mesoglycan from baseline 207.7 +/- 23.4 m). Heparan sulfate significantly stimulated fibrinolysis and reduced platelet aggregability: these findings suggest an action of heparan sulfate on the endothelial cells, thus reducing their thrombogenicity. The results of the study thus confirm the activity of heparan sulfate in peripheral vascular disease, correcting the conditions which constitute the basis of increased thrombotic risk.

  14. Liposomal delivery of doxorubicin to hepatocytes in vivo by targeting heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.; Haynes, Sherry M.; Baratta, Janie L.; Kasabwalla, Natasha; Robertson, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that liposomes, containing an amino acid sequence that binds to hepatic heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan, show effective targeting to liver hepatocytes. These liposomes were tested to determine whether they can deliver doxorubicin selectively to liver and hepatocytes in vivo. Fluid-phase liposomes contained a lipid-anchored 19-amino acid glycosaminoglycan targeting peptide. Liposomes were loaded with doxorubicin and were non-leaky in the presence of serum. After intravenous administration to mice, organs were harvested and the doxorubicin content extracted and measured by fluorescence intensity and by fluorescence microscopy. The liposomal doxorubicin was recovered almost entirely from liver, with only trace amounts detectable in heart, lung, and kidney. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated doxorubicin preferentially in hepatocytes, also in non-parenchymal cells of the liver, but not in cells of heart, lung or kidney. The doxorubicin was localized within liver cell nuclei within five minutes after intravenous injection. These studies demonstrated that liposomal doxorubicin can be effectively delivered to hepatocytes by targeting the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan of liver tissue. With the composition described here, the doxorubicin was rapidly released from the liposomes without the need for an externally supplied stimulus. PMID:19664697

  15. Heparan Sulfate in the Nucleus and its Control of Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mark D.; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are present on the cell surface, within the extracellular matrix, and as soluble molecules in tissues and blood. HSPGs are known to regulate a wide range of cellular functions predominantly by serving as co-receptors for growth factors, chemokines, and other regulatory proteins that control inflammation, wound healing and tumorigenesis. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of heparan sulfate (HS) or HSPGs in the cell nucleus, but little attention has been focused on their role there. However, evidence is mounting that nuclear HS and HSPGs have important regulatory functions that impact the cell cycle, proliferation, transcription and transport of cargo to the nucleus. The discovery of proteoglycans in the nucleus extends the list of “non-traditional nuclear proteins” that includes, for example, cytoskeletal proteins such as actin and tubulin, and growth factors and their receptors. In this review we discuss the discovery and fascinating roles of HS and HSPGs in the nucleus and propose a number of key questions that remain to be addressed. PMID:24309018

  16. The role of heparan sulfate as determining pathogenic factor in complement factor H-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Loeven, Markus A; Rops, Angelique L W M M; Berden, Jo H M; Daha, Mohamed R; Rabelink, Ton J; van der Vlag, Johan

    2015-02-01

    Complement factor H (FH) systemically inhibits excessive complement activation in the microenvironment of host cells, but for instance not on microbes. This self-recognition is mediated by two binding sites that recognize distinctly sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) domains. The interaction with HS not only concentrates FH on host cells, but directly affects its activity, evoking novel models of conformational activation. Genetic aberrations in the HS-binding domains systemically disturb the protective function of FH, yet the resulting loss of complement control affects mainly ocular and renal tissues. Recent results suggest that the specific expression of HS domains in these tissues restricts the interaction of HS to a single binding site within FH. This lack of redundancy could predispose eyes and kidneys to complement-mediated damage, making HS a central determinant for FH-associated diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactions between heparan sulfate and proteins-design and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Ulf; Li, Jin-ping

    2009-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans at cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix of most animal tissues are essential in development and homeostasis, and variously implicated in disease processes. Functions of HS polysaccharide chains depend on ionic interactions with a variety of proteins including growth factors and their receptors. Negatively charged sulfate and carboxylate groups are arranged in various types of domains, generated through strictly regulated biosynthetic reactions and with enormous potential for structural variability. The level of specificity of HS-protein interactions is assessed through binding experiments in vitro using saccharides of defined composition, signaling assays in cell culture, and targeted disruption of genes for biosynthetic enzymes followed by phenotype analysis. While some protein ligands appear to require strictly defined HS structure, others bind to variable saccharide domains without any apparent dependence on distinct saccharide sequence. These findings raise intriguing questions concerning the functional significance of regulation in HS biosynthesis.

  18. The Solution Structure of Heparan Sulfate Differs from That of Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sanaullah; Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Patel, Rima; Gor, Jayesh; Mulloy, Barbara; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The highly sulfated polysaccharides heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) play key roles in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Despite its importance, no molecular structures of free HS have been reported up to now. By combining analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle x-ray scattering, and constrained scattering modeling recently used for heparin, we have analyzed the solution structures for eight purified HS fragments degree of polymerization 6–18 (dp6–dp18) and dp24, corresponding to the predominantly unsulfated GlcA-GlcNAc domains of heparan sulfate. Unlike heparin, the sedimentation coefficient s20,w of HS dp6–dp24 showed a small rotor speed dependence, where similar s20,w values of 0.82–1.26 S (absorbance optics) and 1.05–1.34 S (interference optics) were determined. The corresponding x-ray scattering measurements of HS dp6–dp24 gave radius of gyration (RG) values from 1.03 to 2.82 nm, cross-sectional radius of gyration (RXS) values from 0.31 to 0.65 nm, and maximum lengths (L) from 3.0 to 10.0 nm. These data showed that HS has a longer and more bent structure than heparin. Constrained scattering modeling starting from 5000–8000 conformationally randomized HS structures gave best fit dp6–dp16 molecular structures that were longer and more bent than their equivalents in heparin. No fits were obtained for HS dp18 or dp24, indicating their higher flexibility. We conclude that HS displays an extended bent conformation that is significantly distinct from that for heparin. The difference is attributed to the different predominant monosaccharide sequence and reduced sulfation of HS, indicating that HS may interact differently with proteins compared with heparin. PMID:21576246

  19. The Solution Structure of Heparan Sulfate Differs from That of Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sanaullah; Fung, Ka Wai; Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Patel, Rima; Gor, Jayesh; Mulloy, Barbara; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The highly sulfated polysaccharides heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) play key roles in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Despite its importance, no molecular structures of free HS have been reported up to now. By combining analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle x-ray scattering, and constrained scattering modeling recently used for heparin, we have analyzed the solution structures for eight purified HS fragments dp6–dp24 corresponding to the predominantly unsulfated GlcA-GlcNAc domains of heparan sulfate. Unlike heparin, the sedimentation coefficient s20,w of HS dp6–dp24 showed a small rotor speed dependence, where similar s20,w values of 0.82–1.26 S (absorbance optics) and 1.05–1.34 S (interference optics) were determined. The corresponding x-ray scattering measurements of HS dp6–dp24 gave radii of gyration RG values from 1.03 to 2.82 nm, cross-sectional radii of gyration RXS values from 0.31 to 0.65 nm, and maximum lengths L from 3.0 to 10.0 nm. These data showed that HS has a longer and more bent structure than heparin. Constrained scattering modeling starting from 5,000 to 12,000 conformationally randomized HS structures gave best fit dp6–dp24 molecular structures that were longer and more bent than their equivalents in heparin. Alternative fits were obtained for HS dp18 and dp24, indicating their higher bending and flexibility. We conclude that HS displays bent conformations that are significantly distinct from that for heparin. The difference is attributed to the different predominant monosaccharide sequence and reduced sulfation of HS, indicating that HS may interact differently with proteins compared with heparin. PMID:23921391

  20. Heparan sulfate inhibits hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell migration and engraftment in mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    PubMed

    Watson, H Angharad; Holley, Rebecca J; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Wilkinson, Fiona L; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Wynn, Robert F; Wraith, J Edmond; Merry, Catherine L R; Bigger, Brian W

    2014-12-26

    Mucopolysaccharidosis I Hurler (MPSI-H) is a pediatric lysosomal storage disease caused by genetic deficiencies in IDUA, coding for α-l-iduronidase. Idua(-/-) mice share similar clinical pathology with patients, including the accumulation of the undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate (HS), and dermatan sulfate (DS), progressive neurodegeneration, and dysostosis multiplex. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective treatment for Hurler patients, but reduced intensity conditioning is a risk factor in transplantation, suggesting an underlying defect in hematopoietic cell engraftment. HS is a co-receptor in the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) migration to the bone marrow (BM), but the effect of HS alterations on HSPC migration, or the functional role of HS in MPSI-H are unknown. We demonstrate defective WT HSPC engraftment and migration in Idua(-/-) recipient BM, particularly under reduced intensity conditioning. Both intra- but especially extracellular Idua(-/-) BM HS was significantly increased and abnormally sulfated. Soluble heparinase-sensitive GAGs from Idua(-/-) BM and specifically 2-O-sulfated HS, elevated in Idua(-/-) BM, both inhibited CXCL12-mediated WT HSPC transwell migration, while DS had no effect. Thus we have shown that excess overly sulfated extracellular HS binds, and sequesters CXCL12, limiting hematopoietic migration and providing a potential mechanism for the limited scope of HSCT in Hurler disease.

  1. Heparan sulfate domains on cultured activated glomerular endothelial cells mediate leukocyte trafficking.

    PubMed

    Rops, A L; van den Hoven, M J; Baselmans, M M; Lensen, J F; Wijnhoven, T J; van den Heuvel, L P; van Kuppevelt, T H; Berden, J H; van der Vlag, J

    2008-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans by playing key roles in the leukocyte-endothelial interactions are thought to mediate inflammatory cell influx in proliferative glomerulonephritis. Here, we evaluated the specific features within glomerular endothelial HS that promote leukocyte adhesion. Mouse and human glomerular endothelial cells activated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or interleukin (IL)-1beta increased expression of inflammatory N- and 6-O-sulfated HS domains. In addition, altered expression of HS-modifying enzymes occurred, a feature also found in mouse kidneys with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease or lupus nephritis. Inhibition of the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway repressed cytokine-induced alterations in HS and gene expression of modifying enzymes. Firm adhesion of leukocytes to activated mouse glomerular endothelial cells decreased after removal of endothelial HS or addition of sulfated heparinoids. Specific antibodies that block N- and 6-O-sulfated HS domains on activated mouse endothelial cells reduced the number of rolling and firmly adhering leukocytes under dynamic flow conditions, while they increased the average leukocyte-rolling velocity. Our study shows that N- and 6-O-sulfated domains in HS on activated glomerular endothelium are crucial for leukocyte trafficking and are possible therapeutic targets.

  2. "Coding" and "Decoding": hypothesis for the regulatory mechanism involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Fengshan; Sheng, Juzheng

    2016-06-16

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is widely distributed in mammalian tissues in the form of HS proteoglycans, which play essential roles in various physiological and pathological processes. In contrast to the template-guided processes involved in the synthesis of DNA and proteins, HS biosynthesis is not believed to involve a template. However, it appears that the final structure of HS chains was strictly regulated. Herein, we report research based hypothesis that two major steps, namely "coding" and "decoding" steps, are involved in the biosynthesis of HS, which strictly regulate its chemical structure and biological activity. The "coding" process in this context is based on the distribution of sulfate moieties on the amino groups of the glucosamine residues in the HS chains. The sulfation of these amine groups is catalyzed by N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase, which has four isozymes. The composition and distribution of sulfate groups and iduronic acid residues on the glycan chains of HS are determined by several other modification enzymes, which can recognize these coding sequences (i.e., the "decoding" process). The degree and pattern of the sulfation and epimerization in the HS chains determines the extent of their interactions with several different protein factors, which further influences their biological activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pectin of Prunus domestica L. alters sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate in differentiated Caco-2 cells through stimulation of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase-2.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Murata, Kazuma; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Although previous reports have suggested that pectin induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. As heparan sulfate plays important roles in development of the small intestine, to verify the involvement of heparan sulfate (HS) in the pectin-induced morphological changes of the small intestine, the effects of pectin from Prunus domestica L. on cell-surface HS were investigated using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Disaccharide compositional analysis revealed that sulfated structures of HS were markedly changed by pectin administration. Real-time RT-PCR showed that pectin upregulated human HS 6-O-endosulfatase-2 (HSulf-2) expression and markedly inhibited HSulf-1 expression. Furthermore, inhibition analysis suggested that pretreatment with fibronectin III1C fragment, RGD peptide, and ERK1/2 inhibitor suppressed pectin-induced HSulf-2 expression. These observations indicate that pectin induced the expression of HSulf-2 through the interaction with fibronectin, α5β1 integrin, and ERK1/2, thereby regulating the sulfated structure of HS on differentiated Caco-2 cells.

  4. Divalent cations and heparin/heparan sulfate cooperate to control assembly and activity of the fibroblast growth factor receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Kan, M; Wang, F; To, B; Gabriel, J L; McKeehan, W L

    1996-10-18

    Polypeptides of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family are ubiquitous bioregulators within tissues whose activity is controlled by heparan sulfates within the pericellular matrix. FGF and the ectodomain of their transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFR) exhibit heparin-binding domains that when juxtaposed in a FGF middle dotFGFR complex can accommodate a single, potentially bivalent, decameric polysaccharide chain in a ternary complex. Here we show that the interaction of heparin with FGF ligands is not affected by divalent cations. In contrast, the high affinity interaction (apparent Kd = 10 nM) of heparin with FGFR requires Ca2+ or Mg2+ at physiological concentrations. Divalent cations maintain FGFR in a heparan sulfate-dependent state in respect to FGF binding and an FGF- and heparan sulfate-dependent state in respect to autophosphorylation. A model is proposed where divalent cations and heparan sulfate cooperate to maintain FGFR in a conformation that restricts trans-phosphorylation between intracellular kinase domains. The restriction is overcome by FGF or constitutively as a common consequence of diverse mutations in FGFR associated with skeletal and craniofacial abnormalities.

  5. Heparan sulfate regulates the number and centrosome positioning of Drosophila male germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Daniel C.; Arashiro, Takeshi; Nakato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell division is tightly controlled via secreted signaling factors and cell adhesion molecules provided from local niche structures. Molecular mechanisms by which each niche component regulates stem cell behaviors remain to be elucidated. Here we show that heparan sulfate (HS), a class of glycosaminoglycan chains, regulates the number and asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila testis. We found that GSC number is sensitive to the levels of 6-O sulfate groups on HS. Loss of 6-O sulfation also disrupted normal positioning of centrosomes, a process required for asymmetric division of GSCs. Blocking HS sulfation specifically in the niche, termed the hub, led to increased GSC numbers and mispositioning of centrosomes. The same treatment also perturbed the enrichment of Apc2, a component of the centrosome-anchoring machinery, at the hub–GSC interface. This perturbation of the centrosome-anchoring process ultimately led to an increase in the rate of spindle misorientation and symmetric GSC division. This study shows that specific HS modifications provide a novel regulatory mechanism for stem cell asymmetric division. The results also suggest that HS-mediated niche signaling acts upstream of GSC division orientation control. PMID:26792837

  6. Heparan sulfate regulates the number and centrosome positioning of Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Levings, Daniel C; Arashiro, Takeshi; Nakato, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Stem cell division is tightly controlled via secreted signaling factors and cell adhesion molecules provided from local niche structures. Molecular mechanisms by which each niche component regulates stem cell behaviors remain to be elucidated. Here we show that heparan sulfate (HS), a class of glycosaminoglycan chains, regulates the number and asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila testis. We found that GSC number is sensitive to the levels of 6-O sulfate groups on HS. Loss of 6-O sulfation also disrupted normal positioning of centrosomes, a process required for asymmetric division of GSCs. Blocking HS sulfation specifically in the niche, termed the hub, led to increased GSC numbers and mispositioning of centrosomes. The same treatment also perturbed the enrichment of Apc2, a component of the centrosome-anchoring machinery, at the hub-GSC interface. This perturbation of the centrosome-anchoring process ultimately led to an increase in the rate of spindle misorientation and symmetric GSC division. This study shows that specific HS modifications provide a novel regulatory mechanism for stem cell asymmetric division. The results also suggest that HS-mediated niche signaling acts upstream of GSC division orientation control.

  7. Hypoxia induces NO-dependent release of heparan sulfate in fibroblasts from the Alzheimer mouse Tg2576 by activation of nitrite reduction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Bourseau-Guilmain, Erika; Belting, Mattias; Fransson, Lars-Åke; Mani, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    There is a functional relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1 and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer disease. In wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts, expression and processing of the APP is required for endosome-to-nucleus translocation of anhydromannose-containing heparan sulfate released from S-nitrosylated glypican-1 by ascorbate-induced, nitrosothiol-catalyzed deaminative cleavage. In fibroblasts from the transgenic Alzheimer mouse Tg2576, there is increased processing of the APP to amyloid-β peptides. Simultaneously, there is spontaneous formation of anhydromannose-containing heparan sulfate by an unknown mechanism. We have explored the effect of hypoxia on anhydromannose-containing heparan sulfate formation in wild-type and Tg2576 fibroblasts by deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry using an anhydromannose-specific monoclonal antibody and by (35)SO4-labeling experiments. Hypoxia prevented ascorbate-induced heparan sulfate release in wild-type fibroblasts, but induced an increased formation of anhydromannose-positive and (35)S-labeled heparan sulfate in Tg2576 fibroblasts. This appeared to be independent of glypican-1 S-nitrosylation as demonstrated by using a monoclonal antibody specific for S-nitrosylated glypican-1. In hypoxic wild-type fibroblasts, addition of nitrite to the medium restored anhydromannose-containing heparan sulfate formation. The increased release of anhydromannose-containing heparan sulfate in hypoxic Tg2576 fibroblasts did not require addition of nitrite. However, it was suppressed by inhibition of the nitrite reductase activity of xanthine oxidoreductase/aldehyde oxidase or by inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or by chelation of iron. We propose that normoxic Tg2576 fibroblasts maintain a high level of anhydromannose-containing heparan sulfate production by a stress-activated generation of nitric oxide from endogenous nitrite. This activation is enhanced

  8. Characterization of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan-positive Recycling Endosomes Isolated from Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    A. PODYMA-INOUE, KATARZYNA; MORIWAKI, TAKUYA; R. RAJAPAKSHE, ANUPAMA; TERASAWA, KAZUE; HARA-YOKOYAMA, MIKI

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs)-dependent endocytic events have been involved in glioma progression. Thus, comprehensive understanding of the intracellular trafficking complexes formed in presence of HSPGs would be important for development of glioma treatments. Materials and Methods: Subcellular fractionation was used to separate vesicles containing HSPGs from the rat C6 glioma cell line. Isolated HSPG-positive vesicles were further characterized with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The HSPG-positive vesicular fractions, distinct from plasma membrane-derived material, were enriched in endocytic marker, Rab11. Proteomic analysis identified more than two hundred proteins to be associated with vesicular membrane, among them, over eighty were related to endosomal uptake, recycling or vesicular transport. Conclusion: Part of HSPGs in glioma cells is internalized through clathrin-dependent endocytosis and undergo recycling. The development of compounds regulating HSPG-mediated trafficking will likely enable design of effective glioma treatment. PMID:27807067

  9. Purification and characterization of heparinase that degrades both heparin and heparan sulfate from Bacillus circulans.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiichi; Sakai, Kazuya; Tokuyama, Shinji; Miyazono, Hirofumi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Keiichi; Tahara, Yasutaka

    2002-05-01

    A heparinase that degrades both heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) was purified to homogeneity from the cell-free extract of Bacillus circulans HpT298. The purified enzyme had a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an estimated molecular mass of 111,000. The enzyme showed optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 45 degrees C, and its activity was stimulated in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2, BaCl2, or MgCl2. Analysis of substrate specificity and degraded disaccharides demonstrated that the enzyme acts on both heparin and HS, similar to heparinase II from Flavobacterium heparinum.

  10. Functions of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Development: Insights From Drosophila Models.

    PubMed

    Nakato, H; Li, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are a class of carbohydrate-modified proteins involved in key biological processes, including growth factor signaling, cell adhesion, and enzymatic catalysis. HSPGs serve as coreceptors for a number of ligand molecules to regulate their signaling and distribution. These HS-dependent factors include fibroblast growth factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnt-related factors, hedgehog, and cytokines. Several classes of HSPGs are evolutionarily conserved from humans to the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila. Sophisticated molecular genetic tools available in Drosophila provide for a powerful system to address unanswered questions regarding in vivo functions of HSPGs. These studies have highlighted the functions of HSPGs in the regulation of significant developmental events, such as morphogen gradient formation, nervous system formation, and the stem cell niche. Drosophila genetics has also established HSPGs as key factors in feedback controls that ensure robustness in developmental systems.

  11. Important role of heparan sulfate in postnatal islet growth and insulin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Iwao; Noguchi, Naoya; Nata, Koji; Yamada, Shuhei; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Mizumoto, Shuji; Ikeda, Takayuki; Sugihara, Kazushi; Asano, Masahide; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Shervani, Nausheen Jamal; Uruno, Akira; Kato, Ichiro; Unno, Michiaki; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Takasawa, Shin; and others

    2009-05-22

    Heparan sulfate (HS) binds with several signaling molecules and regulates ligand-receptor interactions, playing an essential role in embryonic development. Here we showed that HS was intensively expressed in pancreatic islet {beta}-cells after 1 week of age in mice. The enzymatic removal of HS in isolated islets resulted in attenuated glucose-induced insulin secretion with a concomitant reduction in gene expression of several key components in the insulin secretion machinery. We further depleted islet HS by inactivating the exostosin tumor-like 3 gene specifically in {beta}-cells. These mice exhibited abnormal islet morphology with reduced {beta}-cell proliferation after 1 week of age and glucose intolerance due to defective insulin secretion. These results demonstrate that islet HS is involved in the regulation of postnatal islet maturation and required to ensure normal insulin secretion.

  12. Enzyme overexpression – an exercise toward understanding regulation of heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jianping; Song, Tianyi; Lindahl, Ulf; Li, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves conversion of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA) units catalyzed by glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi). IdoA units are the favored substrate for 2-O-sulfotransferase (2OST). We used HEK293 cells as a model to investigate the effects of overexpression of these enzymes on HS structure. Overexpression of Hsepi alone resulted in an unexpected increase in HS chain length. A Hsepi point-mutant (Y168A), devoid of catalytic activity, failed to affect chain length. Moreover, the effect of Hsepi overexpression on HS chain length was abolished by simultaneous overexpression of 2OST. These findings raise novel aspects on regulation of HS biosynthesis. We propose a hypothetical enzyme-binding protein (EBP) with distinct, specific and partly overlapping binding sites, the interactions of which will determine levels of enzymes available to the biosynthetic process. PMID:27511124

  13. Removal of heparan sulfate from the glomerular basement membrane blocks protein passage.

    PubMed

    Wijnhoven, Tessa J M; Lensen, Joost F M; Wismans, Ronnie G P; Lefeber, Dirk J; Rops, Angelique L W M M; van der Vlag, Johan; Berden, Jo H M; van den Heuvel, Lambert P W J; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2007-12-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) within the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is thought to play a major role in the charge-selective properties of the glomerular capillary wall. Recent data, however, raise questions regarding the direct role of HS in glomerular filtration. For example, in situ studies suggest that HS may prevent plasma macromolecules from clogging the GBM, keeping it in an "open" state. We evaluated this potential role of HS in vivo by studying the passage of protein through the glomerular capillary wall in the presence and absence of HS. Intravenous administration of neuraminidase removed neuraminic acid--but not HS--from the GBM, and this led to albuminuria. Concomitant removal of HS with heparinase III, confirmed by ultrastructural imaging, prevented the development of albuminuria in response to neuraminidase treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that HS keeps the GBM in an open state, facilitating passage of proteins through the glomerular capillary wall.

  14. Carrier of Wingless (Cow), a Secreted Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan, Promotes Extracellular Transport of Wingless

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yung-Heng; Sun, Yi Henry

    2014-01-01

    Morphogens are signaling molecules that regulate growth and patterning during development by forming a gradient and activating different target genes at different concentrations. The extracellular distribution of morphogens is tightly regulated, with the Drosophila morphogen Wingless (Wg) relying on Dally-like (Dlp) and transcytosis for its distribution. However, in the absence of Dlp or endocytic activity, Wg can still move across cells along the apical (Ap) surface. We identified a novel secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that binds to Wg and promotes its extracellular distribution by increasing Wg mobility, which was thus named Carrier of Wg (Cow). Cow promotes the Ap transport of Wg, independent of Dlp and endocytosis, and this function addresses a previous gap in the understanding of Wg movement. This is the first example of a diffusible HSPG acting as a carrier to promote the extracellular movement of a morphogen. PMID:25360738

  15. Role of heparan sulfates and glycosphingolipids in the pore formation of basic polypeptides of cobra cardiotoxin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Guey; Tjong, Siu-Cin; Wu, Po-Long; Kuo, Je-Hung; Wu, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Cobra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. CTX-induced membrane pore formation is one of the major mechanisms responsible for the venom's designated cytotoxicity. This chapter examines how glycoconjugates such as heparan sulfates (HS) and glycosphingolipids, located respectively in the extracellular matrix and lipid bilayers of the cell membranes, facilitate CTX pore formation. Evidences for HS-facilitated cell surface retention and glycosphingolipid-facilitated membrane bilayer insertion of CTX are reviewed. We suggest that similar physical steps could play a role in the mediation of other pore forming toxins (PFT). The membrane pores formed by PFT are expected to have limited lifetime on biological cell surface as a result of membrane dynamics during endocytosis and/or rearrangement of lipid rafts.

  16. Propolis modulates vitronectin, laminin, and heparan sulfate/heparin expression during experimental burn healing.

    PubMed

    Olczyk, Paweł; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Koźma, Ewa M; Wisowski, Grzegorz; Stojko, Jerzy; Klimek, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Krystyna

    2012-11-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the dynamics of vitronectin (VN), laminin (LN), and heparan sulfate/heparin (HS/HP) content changes during experimental burn healing. VN, LN, and HS/HP were isolated and purified from normal and injured skin of domestic pigs, on the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, and 21st days following thermal damage. The wounds were treated with apitherapeutic agent (propolis), silver sulfadiazine (SSD), physiological salt solution, and propolis vehicle. VN and LN were quantified using an immunoenzymatic assay and HS/HP was estimated by densitometric analysis. Propolis treatment stimulated significant increases in VN, LN, and HS/HP contents during the initial phase of study, followed by a reduction in the estimated extracellular matrix molecules. Similar patterns, although less extreme, were observed after treatment with SSD. The beneficial effects of propolis on experimental wounds make it a potential apitherapeutic agent in topical burn management.

  17. Single‐Molecule Fluorescence Detection of a Synthetic Heparan Sulfate Disaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Charlotte E.; Quinn, Steven D.; Rafferty, Aidan; Morten, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The first single‐molecule fluorescence detection of a structurally‐defined synthetic carbohydrate is reported: a heparan sulfate (HS) disaccharide fragment labeled with Alexa488. Single molecules have been measured whilst freely diffusing in solution and controlled encapsulation in surface‐tethered lipid vesicles has allowed extended observations of carbohydrate molecules down to the single‐molecule level. The diverse and dynamic nature of HS–protein interactions means that new tools to investigate pure HS fragments at the molecular level would significantly enhance our understanding of HS. This work is a proof‐of‐principle demonstration of the feasibility of single‐molecule studies of synthetic carbohydrates which offers a new approach to the study of pure glycosaminoglycan (GAG) fragments. PMID:27538128

  18. Differential Interactions of FGFs with Heparan Sulfate Control Gradient Formation and Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Makarenkova, Helen P.; Hoffman, Matthew P.; Beenken, Andrew; Eliseenkova, Anna V.; Meech, Robyn; Tsau, Cindy; Patel, Vaishali N.; Lang, Richard A.; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2010-01-01

    The developmental activities of morphogens are controlled by the gradients that they form in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this report, we show that differences in the binding of fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) and FGF10 to heparan sulfate (HS) underlie the formation of different gradients that dictate distinct activities during branching morphogenesis. Reducing the binding affinity of FGF10 for HS by mutating a single residue in its HS-binding pocket converted FGF10 into a functional mimic of FGF7 with respect to gradient formation and regulation of branching morphogenesis; in particular by causing lacrimal and salivary gland epithelium to branch rather than elongate. In contrast, mutations that reduced the affinity of the FGF10 for its receptor affected the extent, but not the nature, of the response. Our data may provide a general model for understanding how binding to HS regulates other morphogenetic gradients. PMID:19755711

  19. Preparation and characterization of 15N-enriched, size-defined heparan sulfate precursor oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Sigulinsky, Crystal; Babu, Ponnusamy; Victor, Xylophone V.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2009-01-01

    We report the preparation of size-defined [15N]N-acetylheparosan oligosaccharides from Escherichia coli-derived 15N-enriched N-acetylheparosan. Optimized growth conditions of E. coli in minimal media containing 15NH4Cl yielded [15N]N-acetylheparosan on a preparative scale. Depolymerization of [15N]N-acetylheparosan by heparitinase I yielded resolvable, even-numbered oligosaccharides ranging from disaccharide to icosaccharide. Anion-exchange chromatography-assisted fractionation afforded size-defined [15N]N-acetylheparosan oligosaccharides identifiable by ESI-TOFMS. These isotopically labeled oligosaccharides will prove to be valuable research tools for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate oligosaccharides and for the study of their structural biology. PMID:19945695

  20. Loss of Corneal Epithelial Heparan Sulfate Leads to Corneal Degeneration and Impaired Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Coulson-Thomas, Vivien Jane; Chang, Shao-Hsuan; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette May; Yamaguchi, Yu; Esko, Jeffrey; Liu, Chia-Yang; Kao, Winston

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a highly modified glycosaminoglycan (GAG) bound to a core protein to form heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) that are vital in many cellular processes ranging from development to adult physiology, as well as in disease, through interactions with various protein ligands. This study aimed to elucidate the role of HS in corneal epithelial homeostasis and wound healing. Methods. An inducible quadruple transgenic mouse model was generated to excise Ext1 and Ndst1, which encode the critical HS chain elongation enzyme and N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase, respectively, in keratin 14-positive cells upon doxycycline induction. Results. EXTΔ/ΔCEpi mice (deletion of Ext1 in corneal epithelium) induced at P20 presented progressive thinning of the corneal epithelium with a significant loss in the number of epithelial layers by P55. EXTΔ/ΔCEpi mice presented tight junction disruption, loss of cell–basement membrane adhesion complexes, and impaired wound healing. Interestingly, EXTΔ/ΔCEpi and NDSTΔ/ΔCEpi mice presented an increase in cell proliferation, which was assayed by both Ki67 staining and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation. Moreover, EXTΔ/ΔCEpi mice presented compromised epithelial stratification 7 days after a debridement wound. The conditional knockout of HS from keratocytes using the keratocan promoter led to no corneal abnormalities or any disruption in wound healing. Conclusions. Corneal epithelial cells require HS for maintaining corneal homeostasis, and the loss of epithelial HS leads to both impaired wound healing and impaired corneal stratification. PMID:26024086

  1. Intermediate heparan sulfate binding during HPV-16 infection in HaCaTs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Annandita; Jacob, Taylor; Abban, Cynthia Y; Meneses, Patricio I

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in the United States and can cause cancer with persistent infection. The most common cancer caused by HPV is cervical carcinoma with an average of 12,000 cases reported every year in the United States. Worldwide, over 500,000 cases of cervical cancer are reported yearly with over 250,000 deaths attributed to the disease. Although much is known about the serious health risks associated with HPV infection, there is still much to be discovered about how HPV binds and enters target cells. Understanding is required on how HPV infections will lead to strategies and therapies for reducing the number of infections and HPV-related diseases, including cancers. The HPV viral particle is composed of 2 viral proteins, L1 and L2. Data suggest that binding of the viral capsid to cells is dependent on the L1 protein. We hypothesize that this initial binding to a heparan sulfate is composed of 2 independent events: the first results in a structural change that exposes a hidden portion of the L1 protein leading to a second binding event on the heparan sulfate. Our experiments tested if this "hidden" portion of L1 is necessary for infection and explored the nature of this binding. We generated a peptide with the sequence of the "hidden" portion of L1. Infection of HaCaT cells in the presence of this peptide is highly reduced. Our results suggest that the binding of the L1 C-terminal domain is dependent on amino acid sequence and is necessary for infection.

  2. Lung heparan sulfates modulate Kfc during increased vascular pressure: evidence for glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Cluff, Mark; Kingston, Joseph; Hill, Denzil; Chen, Haiyan; Hoehne, Soeren; Malleske, Daniel T.; Kaur, Rajwinederjit

    2012-01-01

    Lung endothelial cells respond to changes in vascular pressure through mechanotransduction pathways that alter barrier function via non-Starling mechanism(s). Components of the endothelial glycocalyx have been shown to participate in mechanotransduction in vitro and in systemic vessels, but the glycocalyx's role in mechanosensing and pulmonary barrier function has not been characterized. Mechanotransduction pathways may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention during states of elevated pulmonary pressure such as acute heart failure, fluid overload, and mechanical ventilation. Our objective was to assess the effects of increasing vascular pressure on whole lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) and characterize the role of endothelial heparan sulfates in mediating mechanotransduction and associated increases in Kfc. Isolated perfused rat lung preparation was used to measure Kfc in response to changes in vascular pressure in combination with superimposed changes in airway pressure. The roles of heparan sulfates, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species were investigated. Increases in capillary pressure altered Kfc in a nonlinear relationship, suggesting non-Starling mechanism(s). nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and heparanase III attenuated the effects of increased capillary pressure on Kfc, demonstrating active mechanotransduction leading to barrier dysfunction. The nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitrosoglutathione exacerbated pressure-mediated increase in Kfc. Ventilation strategies altered lung NO concentration and the Kfc response to increases in vascular pressure. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for the glycocalyx in whole lung mechanotransduction and has important implications in understanding the regulation of vascular permeability in the context of vascular pressure, fluid status, and ventilation strategies. PMID:22160307

  3. Structurally specific heparan sulfates support primitive human hematopoiesis by formation of a multimolecular stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P; Oegema, T R; Brazil, J J; Dudek, A Z; Slungaard, A; Verfaillie, C M

    1998-12-15

    Stem cell localization, conservation, and differentiation is believed to occur in niches in the marrow stromal microenvironment. Our recent observation that long-term in vitro human hematopoiesis requires a stromal heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) led us to hypothesize that such HSPG may orchestrate the formation of the stem cell niche. We compared the structure and function of HS from M2-10B4, a hematopoiesis-supportive cell line, with HS from a nonsupportive cell line, FHS-173-We. Long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) maintenance was enhanced by PG from supportive cells but not by PG from nonsupportive cells (P <.005). The supportive HS were significantly larger and more highly sulfated than the nonsupportive HS. Specifically, supportive HS contained higher 6-O-sulfation on the glucosamine residues. In agreement with these observations, purified 6-O-sulfated heparin and highly 6-O-sulfated bovine kidney HS similarly maintained LTC-IC. In contrast, completely desulfated heparin, N-sulfated heparin, and unmodified heparin did not support LTC-IC maintenance. Moreover, the supportive HS promoted LTC-IC maintenance but not differentiation of CD34(+)/HLA-DR- cells into colony-forming cells (CFCs) and mature blood cells. The supportive HS but not the nonsupportive HS bound both cytokines and matrix components critical for hematopoiesis, including interleukin-3 (IL-3), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1), and thrombospondin (TSP). Significantly more CD34(+) cells adhered directly to immobilized O-sulfated heparin than to N-sulfated or desulfated heparin. Thus, hematopoiesis-supportive stromal HSPG possessing large, highly 6-O-sulfated HS mediate the juxtaposition of hematopoietic progenitors with stromal cells, specific growth-promoting (IL-3) and growth-inhibitory (MIP-1 and platelet factor 4 [PF4]) cytokines, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as TSP. We conclude that the structural specificity of stromal HSPG that determines the selective

  4. Heparan sulfate alterations in extracellular matrix structures and fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling impairment in the aged neurogenic niche.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Taihei; Kerever, Aurelien; Yoshimura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Nonaka, Risa; Higashi, Kyohei; Toida, Toshihiko; Mercier, Frederic; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri

    2017-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle decreases with age. In the subventricular zone, the specialized extracellular matrix structures, known as fractones, contact neural stem cells and regulate neurogenesis. Fractones are composed of extracellular matrix components, such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans. We previously found that fractones capture and store fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) via heparan sulfate binding, and may deliver FGF-2 to neural stem cells in a timely manner. The heparan sulfate (HS) chains in the fractones of the aged subventricular zone are modified based on immunohistochemistry. However, how aging affects fractone composition and subsequent FGF-2 signaling and neurogenesis remains unknown. The formation of the FGF-fibroblast growth factor receptor-HS complex is necessary to activate FGF-2 signaling and induce the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2). In this study, we observed a reduction in HS 6-O-sulfation, which is critical for FGF-2 signal transduction, and failure of the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in the aged subventricular zone. In addition, we observed increased HS 6-O-endo-sulfatase, an enzyme that may be responsible for the HS modifications in aged fractones. In conclusion, the data revealed that heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfation is reduced and FGF-2-dependent Erk1/2 signaling is impaired in the aged subventricular zone. HS modifications in fractones might play a role in the reduced neurogenic activity in aging brains. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Hepatocyte Heparan Sulfate Is Required for Adeno-Associated Virus 2 but Dispensable for Adenovirus 5 Liver Transduction In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Anne K.; Foley, Erin M.; Lawrence, Roger; Schneider, Lina S.; Hoveida, Hamidreza; Secrest, Patrick; Catapang, Arthur B.; Yamaguchi, Yu; Alemany, Ramon; Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) and adenovirus 5 (Ad5) are promising gene therapy vectors. Both display liver tropism and are currently thought to enter hepatocytes in vivo through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). To test directly this hypothesis, we created mice that lack Ext1, an enzyme required for heparan sulfate biosynthesis, in hepatocytes. Ext1HEP mutant mice exhibit an 8-fold reduction of heparan sulfate in primary hepatocytes and a 5-fold reduction of heparan sulfate in whole liver tissue. Conditional hepatocyte Ext1 gene deletion greatly reduced AAV2 liver transduction following intravenous injection. Ad5 transduction requires blood coagulation factor X (FX); FX binds to the Ad5 capsid hexon protein and bridges the virus to HSPGs on the cell surface. Ad5.FX transduction was abrogated in primary hepatocytes from Ext1HEP mice. However, in contrast to the case with AAV2, Ad5 transduction was not significantly reduced in the livers of Ext1HEP mice. FX remained essential for Ad5 transduction in vivo in Ext1HEP mice. We conclude that while AAV2 requires HSPGs for entry into mouse hepatocytes, HSPGs are dispensable for Ad5 hepatocyte transduction in vivo. This study reopens the question of how adenovirus enters cells in vivo. IMPORTANCE Our understanding of how viruses enter cells, and how they can be used as therapeutic vectors to manage disease, begins with identification of the cell surface receptors to which viruses bind and which mediate viral entry. Both adeno-associated virus 2 and adenovirus 5 are currently thought to enter hepatocytes in vivo through heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). However, direct evidence for these conclusions is lacking. Experiments presented herein, in which hepatic heparan sulfate synthesis was genetically abolished, demonstrated that HSPGs are not likely to function as hepatocyte Ad5 receptors in vivo. The data also demonstrate that HSPGs are required for hepatocyte transduction by AAV2. These

  6. Heparan Sulfates and Coxsackievirus-Adenovirus Receptor: Each One Mediates Coxsackievirus B3 PD Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zautner, A. E.; Körner, U.; Henke, A.; Badorff, C.; Schmidtke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid exchanges in the virus capsid protein VP1 allow the coxsackievirus B3 variant PD (CVB3 PD) to replicate in decay accelerating factor (DAF)-negative and coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR)-negative cells. This suggests that molecules other than DAF and CAR are involved in attachment of this CVB3 variant to cell surfaces. The observation that productive infection associated with cytopathic effect occurred in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, whereas heparinase-treated CHO-K1 cells, glucosaminoglycan-negative pgsA-745, heparan sulfate (HS)-negative pgsD-677, and pgsE-606 cells with significantly reduced N-sulfate expression resist CVB3 PD infection, indicates a critical role of highly sulfated HS. 2-O-sulfate-lacking pgsF-17 cells represented the cell line with minimum HS modifications susceptible for CVB3 PD. Inhibition of virus replication in CHO-K1 cells by polycationic compounds, pentosan polysulfate, lung heparin, and several intestinal but not kidney HS supported the hypothesis that CVB3 PD uses specific modified HS for entry. In addition, recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor blocked CVB3 PD infection. However, CAR also mediates CVB3 PD infection, because this CVB3 variant replicates in HS-lacking but CAR-bearing Raji cells, infection could be prevented by pretreatment of cells with CAR antibody, and HS-negative pgsD-677 cells transfected with CAR became susceptible for CVB3 PD. These results demonstrate that the amino acid substitutions in the viral capsid protein VP1 enable CVB3 PD to use specific modified HS as an entry receptor in addition to CAR. PMID:12941917

  7. Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Shu-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Wen; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found to function as an HSV-1 entry receptor. Achieving a complete understanding of these interactions requires the chemical synthesis of such oligosaccharides, but this remains challenging. Here, we present a convenient approach for the synthesis of two irregular 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides, making use of a key disaccharide intermediate to acquire different building blocks for the oligosaccharide chain assembly. Despite substantial structural differences, the prepared 3-O-sulfonated sugars blocked viral infection in a dosage-dependent manner with remarkable similarity to one another.

  8. Modulatory effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) on alterations in kidney heparan sulfate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Suresh; Shetty, A K; Salimath, P V

    2008-01-17

    Glycoconjugates in the kidney play an important role in the maintenance of glomerular filtration barrier. Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is well characterized in diabetic nephropathy. Changes in GBM mainly include reduction and undersulfation of heparan sulfate, and laminin with accumulation of type IV collagen leading to kidney dysfunction and there is a need to identify therapies that arrest disease progression to end-stage renal failure. In the present investigation, effect of bitter gourd on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with particular emphasis on kidney heparan sulfate (HS) was studied. Earlier, our study showed partial reversal of all the diabetes-induced effects by bitter gourd. Increase in the components of glycoconjugates during diabetes was significantly decreased by bitter gourd feeding. Diabetes associated elevation in the activities of enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were significantly lowered by bitter gourd supplementation. GAGs composition revealed decrease in amino sugar, and uronic acid contents during diabetes and bitter gourd feeding was effective in countering this reduction. Decrease in sulfate content in the GAGs during diabetes was ameliorated by bitter gourd feeding. HS decreased by 43% in diabetic rats while bitter gourd feeding to diabetic rats showed 28% reduction. These results clearly indicate beneficial role of bitter gourd in controlling glycoconjugate and heparan sulfate related kidney complications during diabetes thus prolonging late complications of diabetes.

  9. Inhibitory Peptides of the Sulfotransferase Domain of the Heparan Sulfate Enzyme, N-Deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase-1

    PubMed Central

    Gesteira, Tarsis F.; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J.; Taunay-Rodrigues, Alessandro; Oliveira, Vitor; Thacker, Bryan E.; Juliano, Maria A.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Tersariol, Ivarne L. S.; Nader, Helena B.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Pinhal, Maria A. S.

    2011-01-01

    N-Deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase 1 (Ndst1) catalyzes the initial modification of heparan sulfate and heparin during their biosynthesis by removal of acetyl groups from subsets of N-acetylglucosamine units and subsequent sulfation of the resulting free amino groups. In this study, we used a phage display library to select peptides that interact with Ndst1, with the aim of finding inhibitors of the enzyme. The phage library consisted of cyclic random 10-mer peptides expressed in the phage capsid protein pIII. Selection was based on the ability of engineered phage to bind to recombinant murine Ndst1 (mNdst1) and displacement with heparin. Peptides that were enriched through multiple cycles of binding and disassociation displayed two specific sequences, CRGWRGEKIGNC and CNMQALSMPVTC. Both peptides inhibited mNdst1 activity in vitro, however, by distinct mechanisms. The peptide CRGWRGEKIGNC presents a chemokine-like repeat motif (BXX, where B represents a basic amino acid and X is a noncharged amino acid) and binds to heparan sulfate, thus blocking the binding of substrate to the enzyme. The peptide NMQALSMPVT inhibits mNdst1 activity by direct interaction with the enzyme near the active site. The discovery of inhibitory peptides in this way suggests a method for developing peptide inhibitors of heparan sulfate biosynthesis. PMID:20129923

  10. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan in diffuse plaques of hippocampus but not of cerebellum in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Snow, A D; Sekiguchi, R T; Nochlin, D; Kalaria, R N; Kimata, K

    1994-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) known as perlecan, co-localized to beta-amyloid protein (A beta)-containing amyloid deposits in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome. Although HSPG was localized to diffuse A beta plaques in hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex, it is not known whether they are present in diffuse A beta plaques in cerebellum. In the present study, Alcian blue staining and immunocytochemical techniques were used to determine whether highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and/or HSPG (perlecan) were also present in diffuse A beta plaques of cerebellum. Tissues from cases of AD were examined for the co-localization of highly sulfated GAGs, HSPGs, and A beta in diffuse plaques in cerebellum in comparison with hippocampus. Consecutive serial sections of AD brain tissue were stained or immunostained with 1) the modified Bielschowsky stain; 2) a polyclonal antibody directed against synthetic A beta (1-40); 3) Congo red; 4) Alcian blue (pH 5.7) with varying concentrations of magnesium chloride for identification of sulfated and highly sulfated GAGs; and 5) polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies recognizing either the core protein or a specific GAG epitope on perlecan. All cases (7 of 7) of AD contained diffuse A beta plaques in the cerebellum as identified by positive Bielschowsky staining and A beta immunoreactivity. None of these cases demonstrated positive Alcian blue staining (at 0.3 and 0.7 mol/L MgCl2), HSPG, or HS GAG immunoreactivity in the same diffuse cerebellar plaques on adjacent serial sections. However, Alcian blue staining, HSPG, and/or HS GAG immunoreactivity were observed in blood vessel walls, choroid plexus, and within Purkinje cells, suggesting that the techniques used were reliable and specific. In cerebellum, all plaques containing amyloid cores that were Congo red-positive were also positive for highly sulfated GAGs (by Alcian blue staining

  11. A molecular mechanism for the heparan sulfate dependence of slit-robo signaling.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sadaf-Ahmahni; Piper, Michael; Fukuhara, Noémi; Strochlic, Laure; Cho, Gian; Howitt, Jason A; Ahmed, Yassir; Powell, Andrew K; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Holt, Christine E; Hohenester, Erhard

    2006-12-22

    Slit is a large secreted protein that provides important guidance cues in the developing nervous system and in other organs. Signaling by Slit requires two receptors, Robo transmembrane proteins and heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans. How HS controls Slit-Robo signaling is unclear. Here we show that the second leucine-rich repeat domain (D2) of Slit, which mediates binding to Robo receptors, also contains a functionally important binding site for heparin, a highly sulfated variant of HS. Heparin markedly enhances the affinity of the Slit-Robo interaction in a solid-phase binding assay. Analytical gel filtration chromatography demonstrates that Slit D2 associates with a soluble Robo fragment and a heparin-derived oligosaccharide to form a ternary complex. Retinal growth cone collapse triggered by Slit D2 requires cell surface HS or exogenously added heparin. Mutation of conserved basic residues in the C-terminal cap region of Slit D2 reduces heparin binding and abolishes biological activity. We conclude that heparin/HS is an integral component of the minimal Slit-Robo signaling complex and serves to stabilize the relatively weak Slit-Robo interaction.

  12. The involvement of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in stem cell differentiation and in malignant glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Soumi; Xiong, Anqi; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (HSPG) are major components of the extracellular matrix. They interact with a plethora of macromolecules that are of physiological importance. The pattern of sulfation of the HS chain determines the specificity of these interactions. The enzymes that synthesize and degrade HS are thus key regulators of processes ranging from embryonic development to tissue homeostasis and tumor development. Formation of the nervous system is also critically dependent on appropriate HSPGs as shown by several studies on the role of HS in neural induction from embryonic stem cells. High-grade glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor among adults, and the prognosis is poor. Neural and glioma stem cells share several traits, including sustained proliferation and highly efficient migration in the brain. There are also similarities between the neurogenic niche where adult neural stem cells reside and the tumorigenic niche, including their interactions with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The levels of many of these components, for example HSPGs and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and modification of HS are attenuated in gliomas. In this paper, HS regulation of pathways involved in neural differentiation and how these may be of importance for brain development are discussed. The literature suggesting that modifications of HS could regulate glioma growth and invasion is reviewed. Targeting the invasiveness of glioma cells by modulating HS may improve upon present therapeutic options, which only marginally enhance the survival of glioma patients.

  13. Site-specific identification of heparan and chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans in hybrid proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Noborn, Fredrik; Gomez Toledo, Alejandro; Green, Anders; Nasir, Waqas; Sihlbom, Carina; Nilsson, Jonas; Larson, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are complex polysaccharides that regulate important biological pathways in virtually all metazoan organisms. The polysaccharides often display opposite effects on cell functions with HS and CS structural motifs presenting unique binding sites for specific ligands. Still, the mechanisms by which glycan biosynthesis generates complex HS and CS polysaccharides required for the regulation of mammalian physiology remain elusive. Here we present a glycoproteomic approach that identifies and differentiates between HS and CS attachment sites and provides identity to the core proteins. Glycopeptides were prepared from perlecan, a complex proteoglycan known to be substituted with both HS and CS chains, further digested with heparinase or chondroitinase ABC to reduce the HS and CS chain lengths respectively, and thereafter analyzed by nLC-MS/MS. This protocol enabled the identification of three consensus HS sites and one hybrid site, carrying either a HS or a CS chain. Inspection of the amino acid sequence at the hybrid attachment locus indicates that certain peptide motifs may encode for the chain type selection process. This analytical approach will become useful when addressing fundamental questions in basic biology specifically in elucidating the functional roles of site-specific glycosylations of proteoglycans. PMID:27694851

  14. New Glucuronic Acid Donors for the Modular Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides**

    PubMed Central

    Dhamale, Omkar P.; Zong, Chengli; Al-Mafraji, Kanar

    2014-01-01

    Although hundreds of heparan sulfate (HS) binding proteins have been implicated in a myriad of physiological and pathological processes, very little information is known about ligand requirements for binding and mediating biological activities by these proteins. We report here a streamlined approach for the preparation of modular disaccharide building blocks that will facilitate the assembly of libraries of HS oligosaccharides for structure-activity relationship studies. In particular, we have found that glucuronic acid donors, which usually perform poorly in glycosylations, can give high yields of coupling product when the C-2 hydroxyl is protected with a permanent 4-acetoxy-2,2-dimethyl butanoyl- (PivOAc) or temporary levulinoyl (Lev) ester and the C-4 hydroxyl modified with a selectively removable 2-methylnaphthyl (Nap) ether. It has been shown that the PivOAc ester can be removed without affecting sulfate esters making it an ideal protecting group for HS oligosaccharide assembly. Iduronic acid donors exhibit more favorable glycosyl donating properties and a compound protected with a Lev ester at C-2 and an Fmoc function at the C-4 hydroxyl gave coupling products in high yield. The new donors avoid post-glycosylation oxidation and therefore allow the facile preparation of modular disaccharide building blocks. PMID:24549353

  15. Immobilization of Heparan Sulfate on Electrospun Meshes to Support Embryonic Stem Cell Culture and Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Kate A.; White, Kathryn J.; Pickford, Claire E.; Holley, Rebecca J.; Marson, Andrew; Tillotson, Donna; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Whittle, Jason D.; Day, Anthony J.; Merry, Catherine L. R.

    2013-01-01

    As our understanding of what guides the behavior of multi- and pluripotent stem cells deepens, so too does our ability to utilize certain cues to manipulate their behavior and maximize their therapeutic potential. Engineered, biologically functionalized materials have the capacity to influence stem cell behavior through a powerful combination of biological, mechanical, and topographical cues. Here, we present the development of a novel electrospun scaffold, functionalized with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) ionically immobilized onto the fiber surface. Bound GAGs retained the ability to interact with GAG-binding molecules and, crucially, presented GAG sulfation motifs fundamental to mediating stem cell behavior. Bound GAG proved to be biologically active, rescuing the neural differentiation capacity of heparan sulfate-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells and functioning in concert with FGF4 to facilitate the formation of extensive neural processes across the scaffold surface. The combination of GAGs with electrospun scaffolds creates a biomaterial with potent applicability for the propagation and effective differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23235146

  16. Chinese hamster ovary cell adhesion to human platelet thrombospondin is dependent on cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

    PubMed Central

    Kaesberg, P R; Ershler, W B; Esko, J D; Mosher, D F

    1989-01-01

    Thrombospondin is a 420-kD platelet alpha-granule glycoprotein that binds specifically to heparin. We examined adhesion to thrombospondin of CHO K1 cells and three mutant CHO lines with varying deficiencies in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. In an experiment in which the parent line (K1) had 78% adherence to thrombospondin adsorbed to tissue culture plastic, CHO S745 cells, with less than 6% normal GAG synthesis had 11% adherence. CHO S677 cells, with decreased heparan sulfate proteoglycan but increased chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, had 42% adherence. CHO S803 cells, with decreased heparan sulfate proteoglycan and normal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, had 31% adherence. Heparin inhibited K1 cell adhesion to thrombospondin, but not fibronectin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Dermatan sulfate but not chondroitin sulfate was also inhibitory. There was markedly decreased K1 cell adhesion to a thrombospondin core fragment that lacked the heparin binding NH2-terminal domain. Purified heparin binding domain, although poorly adhesive when adsorbed to substratum, inhibited cell adhesion to intact thrombospondin. Adhesion was better for all cell lines tested, including three human tumor cell lines, when thrombospondin was adsorbed at pH 4.0 compared with pH 7.4. When adsorption of thrombospondin was done at pH 7.4, cell adhesion was better when thrombospondin was adsorbed in the presence of greater than or equal to 0.6 mM calcium, compared to 0.1 mM calcium or EDTA. These findings suggest that thrombospondin can adsorb to plastic with varying degrees of exposure of a cell adhesion domain. We conclude that the thrombospondin cell adhesion receptor on CHO cells is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and that cell adhesion to thrombospondin depends on conformation of adsorbed thrombospondin. Images PMID:2522106

  17. Bone-specific heparan sulfates induce osteoblast growth arrest and downregulation of retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Manton, Kerry J; Sadasivam, Murali; Cool, Simon M; Nurcombe, Victor

    2006-10-01

    The heparan sulfate (HSs) sugars of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a key role during both development and wound repair in regulating the flow of growth and adhesive factors across their cell surface receptors. The aim of this study was to assess the structural and functional differences of HS chains extracted from the conditioned media (soluble), cell surface, and ECM of primary human osteoblast cultures, and to analyze their effects on osteoblast cell growth. HS chains from these compartments were characterized through a combination of enzymatic degradation, anion exchange chromatography, and molecular sieving. Although the chains were all approximately the same size, they varied systematically in their sulfate content, suggesting differences in their protein-binding domains. When added to pre-confluent hFOB1.19 osteoblast cultures, HS doses exceeding 500 ng/ml inhibited proliferation, without affecting viability, irrespective of their origin. Furthermore, HS doses of 500 ng/ml also downregulated retinoblastoma, Cyclin A and CDK1 protein expression, indicating that high doses of osteoblast HS negatively regulate cell cycle, resulting in growth arrest; when high doses of HS were withdrawn after a prolonged period, linear cell growth was reestablished. Thus, despite differences in sulfation, HS from either the soluble, cell surface, or matrix compartments of primary human osteoblast cultures are functionally similar with respect to their effects on growth. Binding assays revealed that the HS chains bound TGFbeta1, a known inhibitor of osteoprogenitor growth, at higher affinity than a suite of other bone-related, heparin-binding growth factors. Overcoming such sugar-mediated inhibition may prove important for wound repair.

  18. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans including syndecan-3 modulate BMP activity during limb cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie C; Li, Yingcui; Seghatoleslami, M Reza; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in multiple aspects of limb development including regulation of cartilage differentiation. Several BMPs bind strongly to heparin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix have recently been implicated as modulators of BMP signaling in some developing systems. Here we have explored the role of HSPGs in regulating BMP activity during limb chondrogenesis by evaluating the effects of exogenous heparan sulfate (HS), heparitinase treatment, and overexpression of the HSPG syndecan-3 on the ability of BMP2 to modulate the chondrogenic differentiation of limb mesenchymal cells in micromass culture. Exogenous HS dramatically enhances the ability of BMP2 to stimulate chondrogenesis and cartilage specific gene expression, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to stimulate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, HS stimulates BMP2-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8, transcriptional mediators of BMP2 signaling, indicating that HS enhances the interaction of BMP2 with its receptors. Pretreatment of micromass cultures with heparitinase to degrade endogenous HSPGs also enhances the chondrogenic activity of BMP2, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together these results indicate that exogenous HS or heparitinase enhance the chondrogenic activity of BMP2 by interfering with its interaction with endogenous HSPGs that would normally restrict its interaction with its receptors. Consistent with the possibility that HSPGs are negative modulators of BMP signaling during chondrogenesis, we have found that overexpression of syndecan-3, which is one of the major HSPGs normally expressed during chondrogenesis, greatly impairs the ability of BMP2 to promote cartilage differentiation. Furthermore, retroviral overexpression of syndecan-3 inhibits BMP2-mediated Smad phosphorylation in the regions of the cultures in which chondrogenesis is

  19. Structural and thermodynamic aspects of the interaction between heparan sulfate and analogues of melittin.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elisabete; Kitas, Eric; Seelig, Joachim

    2006-03-07

    Melittin is an amphipathic cationic peptide derived from honeybee venom with well-known cytolytic and antimicrobial properties. When coupled to cationic polymers or lipid molecules, it forms conjugates with high transfection efficiency and low toxicity with promising applications in gene therapy. A first step in the internalization of melittin and its conjugates is their binding to the cell surface, a reaction likely to involve heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). In the present work, we characterize the binding equilibrium of heparan sulfate (HS) with two melittin analogues, [Cys(1)]melittin (mel-SH) and retro-inverso [Cys(1)]melittin (ri-mel-SH). The terminal cysteine found in these peptides replaces the N-terminal glycine present in native melittin and allows covalent binding to other molecules. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) reveals a high affinity of each melittin analogue to HS. Association constants of 4.7 x 10(4) and 3.5 x 10(5) M(-)(1) are found at physiological ionic strength and 15 degrees C for ri-mel-SH and mel-SH, respectively. The reaction enthalpy measured under these conditions is DeltaH(degrees)pep= 4.2 kcal/mol for ri-mel-SH and DeltaH(degrees)pep= 1.1 kcal/mol for mel-SH. The peptide-to-HS stoichiometry is approximately 20 for ri-mel-SH and approximately 14 for mel-SH under the same conditions. Temperature dependence studies using ri-mel-SH (mel-SH) show that DeltaH(degrees)pep decreases in magnitude upon increase in temperature, which results in a molar heat capacity of DeltaH(degrees)pep= -322 cal mol(-)(1) K(-)(1) (-45 cal mol(-)(1) K(-)(1)). Such a negative heat capacity change is not expected for a purely electrostatic interaction and indicates that hydrophobic and other interactions are also involved in the binding equilibrium. Salt dependence studies of the binding constants confirm that nonelectrostatic forces are an important component of the HS-melittin interaction. Binding to HS induces conformational changes in both peptides

  20. Spatiotemporal distribution of heparan sulfate epitopes during myogenesis and synaptogenesis: a study in developing mouse intercostal muscle.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Guido J; Hafmans, Theo; Veerkamp, Jacques H; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2002-09-01

    Formation of a basal lamina (BL) ensheathing developing skeletal muscle cells is one of the earliest events in mammalian skeletal muscle myogenesis. BL-resident heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been implicated in various processes during myogenesis, including synaptic differentiation. However, attention has focused on the proteoglycan protein core, ignoring the glycosaminoglycan moiety mainly because of a lack of appropriate tools. Recently, we selected a panel of anti-heparan sulfate antibodies applied here to study the spatiotemporal distribution of specific heparan sulfate (HS) epitopes during myogenesis. In mouse intercostal muscle at embryonic day (E14), formation of acetylcholine receptor clusters at synaptic sites coincides with HS deposition. Although some HS epitopes show a general appearance throughout the BL, one epitope preferably clusters at synaptic sites but does so only from E16 onward. During elongation and maturation of primary myotubes, a process preceding secondary myotube development, significant changes in the HS epitope constitution of both synaptic and extrasynaptic BL were observed. As a whole, the data presented here strengthen previous observations on developmental regulation by BL components, and add to the putative roles of specific HS epitopes in myogenesis and synaptogenesis. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Key role of heparan sulfate chains in assembly of anchoring complex at the dermal-epidermal junction.

    PubMed

    Iriyama, Shunsuke; Tsunenaga, Makoto; Amano, Satoshi; Adachi, Eijiro

    2011-11-01

    Epidermal basement membrane forms anchoring complex composed of hemidesmosomes, anchoring filaments, lamina densa and anchoring fibrils to link epidermis to dermis. However, the anchoring complex is rarely formed in skin equivalent models, probably because of degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and heparan sulfate chains by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and heparanase, respectively. To explore the roles of ECM proteins and heparan sulfate in anchoring complex assembly, we used specific inhibitors of MMPs and heparanase, and the formation of anchoring complex was analysed in terms of polarized deposition of collagen VII, BP180 and β4 integrin at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) by means of immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deposition of collagen VII was polarized to the basal side by the addition of MMP inhibitor, and the staining intensity was increased by combined treatment with MMP inhibitor and heparanase inhibitor, which enhanced anchoring fibril formation as observed by TEM. BP180 was polarized to the basal side by heparanase inhibitor, which protects HS chains, but not by MMP inhibitor. MMP inhibitor improved the polarization of β4 integrin. Hemidesmosomes were formed in the presence of each inhibitor, as observed by TEM, and formation was greatly enhanced by the combined treatment. These findings suggest that heparan sulfate chains, in addition to ECM proteins at the DEJ, play an important role in the assembly of anchoring complex, especially hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) Binding and Infection Are Mediated by Interactions between the HMPV Fusion Protein and Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andres; Masante, Cyril; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2012-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major worldwide respiratory pathogen that causes acute upper and lower respiratory tract disease. The mechanism by which this virus recognizes and gains access to its target cell is still largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the initial steps in virus binding and infection and found that the first binding partner for HMPV is heparan sulfate (HS). While wild-type CHO-K1 cells are permissive to HMPV infection, mutant cell lines lacking the ability to synthesize glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), specifically, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), were resistant to binding and infection by HMPV. The permissiveness to HMPV infection was also abolished when CHO-K1 cells were treated with heparinases. Importantly, using recombinant HMPV lacking both the G and small hydrophobic (SH) proteins, we report that this first virus-cell binding interaction is driven primarily by the fusion protein (HMPV F) and that this interaction is needed to establish a productive infection. Finally, HMPV binding to cells did not require β1 integrin expression, and RGD-mediated interactions were not essential in promoting HMPV F-mediated cell-to-cell membrane fusion. Cells lacking β1 integrin, however, were less permissive to HMPV infection, indicating that while β1 integrins play an important role in promoting HMPV infection, the interaction between integrins and HMPV occurs after the initial binding of HMPV F to heparan sulfate proteoglycans. PMID:22238303

  3. Glycoprotein C of equine herpesvirus 4 plays a role in viral binding to cell surface heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Azab, Walid; Tsujimura, Koji; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Mohamed, Yassir Mahgoub; Kato, Kentaro; Matsumura, Tomio; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2010-07-01

    Heparan sulfate moieties of cell surface proteoglycans serve as receptors for several herpesviruses. For herpes simplex virus 1, pseudorabies virus and equine herpesvirus 1, glycoprotein C (gC) homologues have been shown to mediate the binding to cell surface heparan sulfate. However, the role of gC in equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) infection has not yet been analyzed. Using pull-down assay, we first determined that EHV-4 gC as well as gB are heparin-binding glycoproteins. To study the role of gC in EHV-4 infection, we constructed a gC-deletion mutant, WA79DeltagC, where the kanamycin resistant gene was inserted instead of the open reading frame encoding gC. We found that soluble heparin was capable of blocking both wild-type EHV-4 and WA79DeltagC infection of fetal horse kidney. Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with heparinase reduces considerably the ability of both viruses to adsorb to these cells and to form plaques. Similar results were obtained when cellular glycosaminoglycan synthesis was inhibited by chlorate treatment. In addition, we did find that gC protects EHV-4 from complement-mediated neutralization. These results suggest that, like other herpesviruses, EHV-4 gC plays a role in the interaction of the virus with cellular heparan sulfate. Moreover, gC can protect the virus from complement-mediated neutralization.

  4. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate the angiogenic activity of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 agonist gremlin.

    PubMed

    Chiodelli, Paola; Mitola, Stefania; Ravelli, Cosetta; Oreste, Pasqua; Rusnati, Marco; Presta, Marco

    2011-12-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) modulate the interaction of proangiogenic heparin-binding vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) with signaling VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and neuropilin coreceptors in endothelial cells (ECs). The bone morphogenic protein antagonist gremlin is a proangiogenic ligand of VEGFR2, distinct from canonical VEGFs. Here we investigated the role of HSPGs in VEGFR2 interaction, signaling, and proangiogenic capacity of gremlin in ECs. Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that gremlin binds heparin and heparan sulfate, but not other glycosaminoglycans, via N-, 2-O, and 6-O-sulfated groups of the polysaccharide. Accordingly, gremlin binds HSPGs of the EC surface and extracellular matrix. Gremlin/HSPG interaction is prevented by free heparin and heparan sulfate digestion or undersulfation following EC treatment with heparinase II or sodium chlorate. However, at variance with canonical heparin-binding VEGFs, gremlin does not interact with neuropilin-1 coreceptor. On the other hand, HSPGs mediate VEGFR2 engagement and autophosphorylation, extracellular signaling-regulated kinase(1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and consequent proangiogenic responses of ECs to gremlin. On this basis, we evaluated the gremlin-antagonist activity of a panel of chemically sulfated derivatives of the Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide. The results demonstrate that the highly N,O-sulfated derivative K5-N,OS(H) binds gremlin with high potency, thus inhibiting VEGFR2 interaction and angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. HSPGs act as functional gremlin coreceptors in ECs, affecting its productive interaction with VEGFR2 and angiogenic activity. This has allowed the identification of the biotechnological K5-N,OS(H) as a novel angiostatic gremlin antagonist.

  5. Inhibition of Human Metapneumovirus Binding to Heparan Sulfate Blocks Infection in Human Lung Cells and Airway Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Klimyte, Edita M.; Smith, Stacy E.; Oreste, Pasqua; Lembo, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a recently discovered paramyxovirus, infects nearly 100% of the world population and causes severe respiratory disease in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. We previously showed that HMPV binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and that HMPV binding requires only the viral fusion (F) protein. To characterize the features of this interaction critical for HMPV binding and the role of this interaction in infection in relevant models, we utilized sulfated polysaccharides, heparan sulfate mimetics, and occluding compounds. Iota-carrageenan demonstrated potent anti-HMPV activity by inhibiting binding to lung cells mediated by the F protein. Furthermore, analysis of a minilibrary of variably sulfated derivatives of Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide mimicking the HS structure revealed that the highly O-sulfated K5 polysaccharides inhibited HMPV infection, identifying a potential feature of HS critical for HMPV binding. The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10, which binds HS, reduced binding and infection in an F-dependent manner, suggesting that occlusion of HS at the target cell surface is sufficient to prevent infection. HMPV infection was also inhibited by these compounds during apical infection of polarized airway tissues, suggesting that these interactions take place during HMPV infection in a physiologically relevant model. These results reveal key features of the interaction between HMPV and HS, supporting the hypothesis that apical HS in the airway serves as a binding factor during infection, and HS modulating compounds may serve as a platform for potential antiviral development. IMPORTANCE Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a paramyxovirus that causes respiratory disease worldwide. It has been previously shown that HMPV requires binding to heparan sulfate on the surfaces of target cells for attachment and infection. In this study, we characterize the key features of this binding interaction using heparan sulfate

  6. Heparan Sulfate Expression in the Neural Crest is Essential for Mouse Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Carbe, Christian; Pickhinke, Ute; Kupich, Sabine; Ohlig, Stefanie; Frye, Maike; Seelige, Ruth; Pallerla, Srinivas R.; Moon, Anne M.; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Zhang, Xin; Grobe, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Impaired heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis in vertebrate development causes complex malformations due to the functional disruption of multiple HS-binding growth factors and morphogens. Here, we report developmental heart defects in mice bearing a targeted disruption of the HS-generating enzyme GlcNAc N-Deacetylase/GlcN N-Sulfotransferase 1 (NDST1), including ventricular septal defects (VSD), persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA), double outlet right ventricle (DORV), and retroesophageal right subclavian artery (RERSC). These defects closely resemble cardiac anomalies observed in mice made deficient in the cardiogenic regulator fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). Consistent with this, we show that HS-dependent FGF8/FGF-receptor2C assembly and FGF8-dependent ERK-phosphorylation are strongly reduced in NDST1−/− embryonic cells and tissues. Moreover, WNT1-Cre/LoxP-mediated conditional targeting of NDST function in neural crest cells (NCCs) revealed that their impaired HS-dependent development contributes strongly to the observed cardiac defects. These findings raise the possibility that defects in HS biosynthesis may contribute to congenital heart defects in humans that represent the most common type of birth defect. PMID:24200809

  7. Equarin is involved in cell adhesion by means of heparan sulfate proteoglycan during lens development.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaohong; Sato, Yuya; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ohta, Kunimasa

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion molecules are known to be instructive for both development and differentiation. During lens differentiation, epithelial cells undergo vertical elongation, with the anterior and posterior tips of the elongating fiber cells sliding along the epithelium and capsule, respectively. These cellular processes are highly coordinated through cell adhesive interactions, actin cytoskeletal reorganization and contractile force generation. Alterations in extracellular matrix composition that interfere with these interactions can lead to defects that alter tissue morphogenesis and the state of differentiation. We have demonstrated that Equarin, which is a secreted molecule expressed in the equator region of the lens, plays an important role in chick lens fiber differentiation through fibroblast growth factor signaling. Here, we explored the function of Equarin in chick lens cell adhesion. Equarin protein was expressed in the extracellular region of lens differentiating cells. We found that Equarin promoted lens cell adhesion through heparan sulfate proteoglycan. By biochemical analysis, we found that Equarin directly binds syndecan-3, which displayed a similar expression pattern to Equarin. Overexpression of Equarin resulted in altered actin localization. Equarin is involved in cell adhesion during fiber differentiation and development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Characterization of chicken syndecan-3 as a heparan sulfate proteoglycan and its expression during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gould, S E; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1995-04-01

    Syndecan-3 is one of four identified members of a family of transmembrane proteoglycans (the syndecans) that possess highly similar cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains and may function as extracellular matrix receptors and/or low affinity receptors for signaling molecules such as FGF. We previously reported the cloning of a partial cDNA for chicken syndecan-3. Here we report the isolation of a syndecan-3 cDNA containing additional 5' sequence which includes a potential methionine start codon and putative signal sequence. In vitro translation of syndecan-3 cDNA in the presence and absence of microsomes suggests that the putative signal sequence is functional, suggesting that the cDNA may encompass the full coding sequence. We also identify syndecan-3 as a heparan sulfate proteoglycan and report its expression pattern during chicken embryogenesis using polyclonal antibodies raised against a recombinant fusion protein. We detect abundant syndecan-3 expression in the developing brain and neural tube, including a striking expression in the floor plate of the neural tube. During limb development, syndecan-3 is expressed in the distal mesenchymal cells of the limb bud which are undergoing outgrowth in response to the apical ectodermal ridge. Syndecan-3 is also transiently expressed during the formation of the precartilage condensations of the skeletal elements of the limb and subsequently in association with the differentiating osteoblasts of the periosteum. Expression is also observed in several areas of tissue interactions including the developing lens, otic vesicle, genital ridge, sclerotome, and feather buds.

  9. A Heparan Sulfate-Binding Cell Penetrating Peptide for Tumor Targeting and Migration Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Chang, Pei-Lin; Wang, Wen-Ching; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2015-01-01

    As heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are known as co-receptors to interact with numerous growth factors and then modulate downstream biological activities, overexpression of HS/HSPG on cell surface acts as an increasingly reliable prognostic factor in tumor progression. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short-chain peptides developed as functionalized vectors for delivery approaches of impermeable agents. On cell surface negatively charged HS provides the initial attachment of basic CPPs by electrostatic interaction, leading to multiple cellular effects. Here a functional peptide (CPPecp) has been identified from critical HS binding region in hRNase3, a unique RNase family member with in vitro antitumor activity. In this study we analyze a set of HS-binding CPPs derived from natural proteins including CPPecp. In addition to cellular binding and internalization, CPPecp demonstrated multiple functions including strong binding activity to tumor cell surface with higher HS expression, significant inhibitory effects on cancer cell migration, and suppression of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, different from conventional highly basic CPPs, CPPecp facilitated magnetic nanoparticle to selectively target tumor site in vivo. Therefore, CPPecp could engage its capacity to be developed as biomaterials for diagnostic imaging agent, therapeutic supplement, or functionalized vector for drug delivery. PMID:26064887

  10. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan: An Arbovirus Attachment Factor Integral to Mosquito Salivary Gland Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Ciano, Kristen A.; Saredy, Jason J.; Bowers, Doria F.

    2014-01-01

    Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito. PMID:25533661

  11. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan mediates the selective attachment and internalization of serotype 3 human adenovirus dodecahedron.

    PubMed

    Vivès, Romain R; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Chroboczek, Jadwiga; Fender, Pascal

    2004-04-10

    During adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) infection cycle, the penton (Pt) of the viral capsid, a noncovalent complex of fiber and penton base proteins, is produced in large excess and self-assembles to form a highly organized dodecahedral structure, termed dodecahedron (Dd). The physiological role of these particles is poorly understood, but we have recently reported that they can penetrate cells with high efficiency and thus may constitute an attractive tool for gene or protein delivery approaches. Surprisingly, Dd displayed the ability to enter cells non-permissive to Ad3, suggesting the existence of additional internalization modes. In this study, we show that Ad3 Dd binds to cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) through high affinity interaction with the penton base. Furthermore, binding to HS was found to be the prerequisite for a novel and Dd specific entry pathway that could not be used by Ad3. Overall, these data provide new insights in the possible role of Dd during viral infection and potential therapeutic applications.

  12. Heterogeneous distribution of a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan in rat tissues

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) synthesized by murine parietal yolk sac (PYS-2) cells has been characterized and purified from culture supernatants. A monospecific polyclonal antiserum was raised against it which showed activity against the HSPG core protein and basement membrane specificity in immunohistochemical studies on frozen tissue sections from many rat organs. However, there was no reactivity with some basement membranes, notably those of several smooth muscle types and cardiac muscle. In addition, it was found that pancreatic acinar basement membranes also lacked the HSPG type recognized by this antiserum. Those basement membranes that lacked the HSPG strongly stained with antisera against laminin and type IV collagen. The striking distribution pattern is possibly indicative of multiple species of basement membrane HSPGs of which one type is recognized by this antiserum. Further evidence for multiple HSPGs was derived from the finding that skeletal neuromuscular junction and liver epithelia also did not contain this type of HSPG, though previous reports have indicated the presence of HSPGs at these sites. The PYS-2 HSPG was shown to be antigenically related to the large, low buoyant density HSPG from the murine Engelbreth-Holm swarm tumor. It was, however, confirmed that only a single population of antibodies was present in the serum. Despite the presence of similar epitopes on these two proteoglycans of different hydrodynamic properties, it was apparent that the PYS-2 HSPG represents a basement membrane proteoglycan of distinct properties reflected in its restricted distribution in vivo. PMID:2959669

  13. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate internalization and propagation of specific proteopathic seeds

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Brandon B.; DeVos, Sarah L.; Kfoury, Najla; Li, Mei; Jacks, Rachel; Yanamandra, Kiran; Ouidja, Mohand O.; Brodsky, Frances M.; Marasa, Jayne; Bagchi, Devika P.; Kotzbauer, Paul T.; Miller, Timothy M.; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Diamond, Marc I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that transcellular propagation of fibrillar protein aggregates drives the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. This phenomenon is now well described in cell and animal models and involves the release of protein aggregates into the extracellular space. Free aggregates then enter neighboring cells to seed further fibrillization. The mechanism by which aggregated extracellular proteins such as tau and α-synuclein bind and enter cells to trigger intracellular fibril formation is unknown. Prior work indicates that prion protein aggregates bind heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the cell surface to transmit pathologic processes. Here, we find that tau fibril uptake also occurs via HSPG binding. This is blocked in cultured cells and primary neurons by heparin, chlorate, heparinase, and genetic knockdown of a key HSPG synthetic enzyme, Ext1. Interference with tau binding to HSPGs prevents recombinant tau fibrils from inducing intracellular aggregation and blocks transcellular aggregate propagation. In vivo, a heparin mimetic, F6, blocks neuronal uptake of stereotactically injected tau fibrils. Finally, uptake and seeding by α-synuclein fibrils, but not huntingtin fibrils, occurs by the same mechanism as tau. This work suggests a unifying mechanism of cell uptake and propagation for tauopathy and synucleinopathy. PMID:23898162

  14. A chemotactic gradient sequestered on endothelial heparan sulfate induces directional intraluminal crawling of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Massena, Sara; Christoffersson, Gustaf; Hjertström, Elina; Zcharia, Eyal; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ausmees, Nora; Rolny, Charlotte; Li, Jin-Ping; Phillipson, Mia

    2010-09-16

    During infection, chemokines sequestered on endothelium induce recruitment of circulating leukocytes into the tissue where they chemotax along chemokine gradients toward the afflicted site. The aim of this in vivo study was to determine whether a chemokine gradient was formed intravascularly and influenced intraluminal neutrophil crawling and transmigration. A chemokine gradient was induced by placing a macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)-containing (CXCL2) gel on the cremaster muscle of anesthetized wild-type mice or heparanase-overexpressing transgenic mice (hpa-tg) with truncated heparan sulfate (HS) side chains. Neutrophil-endothelial interactions were visualized by intravital microscopy and chemokine gradients detected by confocal microscopy. Localized extravascular chemokine release (MIP-2 gel) induced directed neutrophil crawling along a chemotactic gradient immobilized on the endothelium and accelerated their recruitment into the target tissue compared with homogeneous extravascular chemokine concentration (MIP-2 superfusion). Endothelial chemokine sequestration occurred exclusively in venules and was HS-dependent, and neutrophils in hpa-tg mice exhibited random crawling. Despite similar numbers of adherent neutrophils in hpa-tg and wild-type mice, the altered crawling in hpa-tg mice was translated into decreased number of emigrated neutrophils and ultimately decreased the ability to clear bacterial infections. In conclusion, an intravascular chemokine gradient sequestered by endothelial HS effectively directs crawling leukocytes toward transmigration loci close to the infection site.

  15. Nucleolin is a nuclear target of heparan sulfate derived from glypican-1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Belting, Mattias; Fransson, Lars-Åke; Mani, Katrin

    2017-03-12

    The recycling, S-nitrosylated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan glypican-1 releases anhydromannose (anMan)-containing HS chains by a nitrosothiol-catalyzed cleavage in endosomes that can be constitutive or induced by ascorbate. The HS-anMan chains are then transported to the nucleus. A specific nuclear target for HS-anMan has not been identified. We have monitored endosome-to-nucleus trafficking of HS-anMan by deconvolution and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using an anMan-specific monoclonal antibody in non-growing, ascorbate-treated, and growing, untreated, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts and hypoxia-exposed Alzheimer mouse Tg2576 fibroblasts and human U87 glioblastoma cells. In all cells, nuclear HS-anMan targeted a limited number of sites of variable size where it colocalized with DNA and nucleolin, an established marker for nucleoli. HS-anMan also colocalized with ethynyl uridine-tagged nascent RNA and two acetylated forms of histone H3. Acute hypoxia increased the formation of HS-anMan in both Tg2576 and U87 cells. A portion of HS-anMan colocalized with nucleolin at small discrete sites, while most of the nucleolin and nascent RNA was dispersed. In U87 cells, HS-anMan, nucleolin and nascent RNA reassembled after prolonged hypoxia. Nucleolar HS may modulate synthesis and/or release of rRNA.

  16. Differential structural remodelling of heparan sulfate by chemokines: the role of chemokine oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Migliorini, Elisa; Salanga, Catherina L.; Thakar, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines control the migration of cells in normal physiological processes and in the context of disease such as inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. Two major interactions are involved: (i) binding of chemokines to chemokine receptors, which activates the cellular machinery required for movement; and (ii) binding of chemokines to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which facilitates the organization of chemokines into haptotactic gradients that direct cell movement. Chemokines can bind and activate their receptors as monomers; however, the ability to oligomerize is critical for the function of many chemokines in vivo. Chemokine oligomerization is thought to enhance their affinity for GAGs, and here we show that it significantly affects the ability of chemokines to accumulate on and be retained by heparan sulfate (HS). We also demonstrate that several chemokines differentially rigidify and cross-link HS, thereby affecting HS rigidity and mobility, and that HS cross-linking is significantly enhanced by chemokine oligomerization. These findings suggest that chemokine–GAG interactions may play more diverse biological roles than the traditional paradigms of physical immobilization and establishment of chemokine gradients; we hypothesize that they may promote receptor-independent events such as physical re-organization of the endothelial glycocalyx and extracellular matrix, as well as signalling through proteoglycans to facilitate leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. PMID:28123055

  17. Secreted HHIP1 interacts with heparan sulfate and regulates Hedgehog ligand localization and function

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Alexander M.; Griffiths, Samuel C.; Davis, Samantha J.; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate Hedgehog (HH) signaling is controlled by several ligand-binding antagonists including Patched-1 (PTCH1), PTCH2, and HH-interacting protein 1 (HHIP1), whose collective action is essential for proper HH pathway activity. However, the molecular mechanisms used by these inhibitors remain poorly understood. In this paper, we investigated the mechanisms underlying HHIP1 antagonism of HH signaling. Strikingly, we found evidence that HHIP1 non–cell-autonomously inhibits HH-dependent neural progenitor patterning and proliferation. Furthermore, this non–cell-autonomous antagonism of HH signaling results from the secretion of HHIP1 that is modulated by cell type–specific interactions with heparan sulfate (HS). These interactions are mediated by an HS-binding motif in the cysteine-rich domain of HHIP1 that is required for its localization to the neuroepithelial basement membrane (BM) to effectively antagonize HH pathway function. Our data also suggest that endogenous, secreted HHIP1 localization to HS-containing BMs regulates HH ligand distribution. Overall, the secreted activity of HHIP1 represents a novel mechanism to regulate HH ligand localization and function during embryogenesis. PMID:26056142

  18. Modulation of heparan sulfate in the glomerular endothelial glycocalyx decreases leukocyte influx during experimental glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Rops, Angelique L W M M; Loeven, Markus A; van Gemst, Jasper J; Eversen, Iris; Van Wijk, Xander M; Dijkman, Henry B; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Berden, Jo H M; Rabelink, Ton J; Esko, Jeffrey D; van der Vlag, Johan

    2014-11-01

    The glomerular endothelial glycocalyx is postulated to be an important modulator of permeability and inflammation. The glycocalyx consists of complex polysaccharides, the main functional constituent of which, heparan sulfate (HS), is synthesized and modified by multiple enzymes. The N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase (Ndst) enzymes initiate and dictate the modification process. Here we evaluated the effects of modulation of HS in the endothelial glycocalyx on albuminuria and glomerular leukocyte influx using mice deficient in endothelial and leukocyte Ndst1 (TEKCre+/Ndst1flox/flox). In these mice, glomerular expression of a specific HS domain was significantly decreased, whereas the expression of other HS domains was normal. In the endothelial glycocalyx, this specific HS structure was not associated with albuminuria or with changes in renal function. However, glomerular leukocyte influx was significantly reduced during antiglomerular basement membrane nephritis, which was associated with less glomerular injury and better renal function. In vitro decreased adhesion of wild-type and Ndst1-deficient granulocytes to Ndst1-silenced glomerular endothelial cells was found, accompanied by a decreased binding of chemokines and L-selectin. Thus, modulation of HS in the glomerular endothelial glycocalyx significantly reduced the inflammatory response in antiglomerular basement membrane nephritis.

  19. Role of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138) in delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kharabi Masouleh, Behzad; Ten Dam, Gerdy B; Wild, Martin K; Seelige, Ruth; van der Vlag, Johan; Rops, Angelique L; Echtermeyer, Frank G; Vestweber, Dietmar; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Kiesel, Ludwig; Götte, Martin

    2009-04-15

    The cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138) modulates the activity of chemokines, cytokines, integrins, and other adhesion molecules which play important roles in the regulation of inflammation. We have previously shown that syndecan-1-deficient murine leukocytes display increased interactions with endothelial cells and increased diapedesis in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that syndecan-1 has an important function as a negative modulator in the murine contact allergy model of oxazolone-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). Following elicitation of the DTH response, syndecan-1-deficient mice showed an increase in leukocyte recruitment, resulting in an increased and prolonged edema formation. Expression of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 of the chemokines CCL5/RANTES and CCL-3/MIP-1alpha and of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 were significantly increased in syndecan-1-deficient compared with wild-type mice. In wild-type mice, syndecan-1 mRNA and protein expression was reduced during the DTH response. The differentially increased adhesion of syndecan-1-deficient leukocytes to ICAM-1 was efficiently inhibited in vitro by CD18-blocking Abs, which emerges as one mechanistic explanation for the anti-inflammatory effects of syndecan-1. Collectively, our results show an important role of syndecan-1 in the contact DTH reaction, identifying syndecan-1 as a novel target in anti-inflammatory therapy.

  20. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan: an arbovirus attachment factor integral to mosquito salivary gland ducts.

    PubMed

    Ciano, Kristen A; Saredy, Jason J; Bowers, Doria F

    2014-12-22

    Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito.

  1. Heparan Sulfate: A Potential Candidate for the Development of Biomimetic Immunomodulatory Membranes.

    PubMed

    Corradetti, Bruna; Taraballi, Francesca; Giretti, Ilaria; Bauza, Guillermo; Pistillo, Rossella S; Banche Niclot, Federica; Pandolfi, Laura; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS) could be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Its anti-inflammatory effect makes it suitable for the development of biomimetic innovative strategies aiming at modulating stem cells behavior toward a pro-regenerative phenotype in case of injury or inflammation. Here, we propose collagen type I meshes fabricated by solvent casting and further crosslinked with HS (HS-Col) to create a biomimetic environment resembling the extracellular matrix of soft tissue. HS-Col meshes were tested for their capability to provide physical support to stem cells' growth, maintain their phenotypes and immunosuppressive potential following inflammation. HS-Col effect on stem cells was investigated in standard conditions as well as in an inflammatory environment recapitulated in vitro through a mix of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-gamma; 20 ng/ml). A significant increase in the production of molecules associated with immunosuppression was demonstrated in response to the material and when cells were grown in presence of pro-inflammatory stimuli, compared to bare collagen membranes (Col), leading to a greater inhibitory potential when mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our data suggest that the presence of HS is able to activate the molecular machinery responsible for the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, potentially leading to a faster resolution of inflammation.

  2. Heparanase Facilitates Cell Adhesion and Spreading by Clustering of Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Adam, Flonia; Feld, Sari; Suss-Toby, Edith; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ilan, Neta

    2008-01-01

    Heparanase is a heparan sulfate (HS) degrading endoglycosidase participating in extracellular matrix degradation and remodeling. Apart of its well characterized enzymatic activity, heparanase was noted to exert also enzymatic-independent functions. Non-enzymatic activities of heparanase include enhanced adhesion of tumor-derived cells and primary T-cells. Attempting to identify functional domains of heparanase that would serve as targets for drug development, we have identified heparin binding domains of heparanase. A corresponding peptide (residues Lys158-Asp171, termed KKDC) was demonstrated to physically associate with heparin and HS, and to inhibit heparanase enzymatic activity. We hypothesized that the pro-adhesive properties of heparanase are mediated by its interaction with cell surface HS proteoglycans, and utilized the KKDC peptide to examine this possibility. We provide evidence that the KKDC peptide interacts with cell membrane HS, resulting in clustering of syndecan-1 and syndecan-4. We applied classical analysis of cell morphology, fluorescent and time-lapse microscopy and demonstrated that the KKDC peptide efficiently stimulates the adhesion and spreading of various cell types, mediated by PKC, Src, and the small GTPase Rac1. These results support, and further substantiate the notion that heparanase function is not limited to its enzymatic activity. PMID:18545691

  3. Regulation of Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis by 4-Fluoro-glucosamine in Murine Airway Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Julie; Wang, Aimin; Mukhopadhyay, Durba; Lauer, Mark; Midura, Ronald J.; Sackstein, Robert; Hascall, Vincent C.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the pathological changes in proteoglycans has driven the need to study and design novel chemical tools to control proteoglycan synthesis. Accordingly, we tested the fluorinated analogue of glucosamine (4-fluoro-N-acetyl-glucosamine (4-F-GlcNAc)) on the synthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) by murine airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in the presence of radiolabeled metabolic precursors. Secreted and cell-associated CS and HS were assessed for changes in size by Superose 6 chromatography. Treatment of ASM cells with 4-F-GlcNAc (100 μm) reduced the quantity (by 64.1–76.6%) and decreased the size of HS/CS glycosaminoglycans associated with the cell layer (Kav shifted from 0.30 to 0.45). The quantity of CS secreted into the medium decreased by 65.7–73.0%, and the size showed a Kav shift from 0.30 to 0.50. Treatment of ASM cells with 45 μm and 179 μm 4-F-GlcNAc in the presence of a stimulator of CS synthesis, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-xyloside, reduced the amount of the xyloside-CS chains by 65.4 and 87.0%, respectively. The size of xyloside-CS chains synthesized in the presence of 4-F-GlcNAc were only slightly larger than those with xyloside treatment alone (Kav of 0.55 compared with that of 0.6). The effects of 4-F-GlcNAc to inhibit CS synthesis were not observed with equimolar concentrations of glucosamine. We propose that 4-F-GlcNAc inhibits CS synthesis by inhibiting 4-epimerization of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-GalNAc, thereby depleting one of the substrates required, whereas HS elongation is inhibited by truncation when the nonreducing terminus of the growing chain is capped with 4-F-GlcNAc. PMID:19346253

  4. Herpes simplex virus type 1-induced hemagglutination: glycoprotein C mediates virus binding to erythrocyte surface heparan sulfate.

    PubMed Central

    Trybala, E; Svennerholm, B; Bergström, T; Olofsson, S; Jeansson, S; Goodman, J L

    1993-01-01

    We recently reported that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can cause agglutination of murine erythrocytes (E. Trybala, Z. Larski, and J. Wisniewski, Arch. Virol. 113:89-94, 1990). We now demonstrate that the mechanism of this hemagglutination is glycoprotein C-mediated binding of virus to heparan sulfate moieties at the surface of erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was found to be a common property of all gC-expressing laboratory strains and clinical isolates of HSV-1 tested. Mutants of HSV-1 deficient in glycoprotein C caused no specific hemagglutination, whereas their derivatives transfected with a functional gC-1 gene, thus reconstituting gC expression, regained full hemagglutinating activity. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by antibodies against gC-1 but not by antibodies with specificity for glycoproteins gB, gD, or gE or by murine antiserum raised against the MP strain of HSV-1, which is gC deficient. Finally, purified gC-1 protein, like whole HSV-1 virions, showed high hemagglutinating activity which was inhibited by heparan sulfate and/or heparin and was completely prevented by pretreatment of erythrocytes with heparitinase, providing evidence that gC-1 mediates hemagglutination by binding to heparan sulfate at the cell surface. Thus, HSV-1-induced hemagglutination is gC-1 dependent and resembles the recently proposed mechanism by which HSV-1 attaches to surface heparans on susceptible cells, providing a simple model for initial events in the virus-cell interaction. Images PMID:8382294

  5. Interactions of signaling proteins, growth factors and other proteins with heparan sulfate: mechanisms and mysteries.

    PubMed

    Billings, Paul C; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a component of cell surface and matrix-associated proteoglycans (HSPGs) that, collectively, play crucial roles in many physiologic processes including cell differentiation, organ morphogenesis and cancer. A key function of HS is to bind and interact with signaling proteins, growth factors, plasma proteins, immune-modulators and other factors. In doing so, the HS chains and HSPGs are able to regulate protein distribution, bio-availability and action on target cells and can also serve as cell surface co-receptors, facilitating ligand-receptor interactions. These proteins contain an HS/heparin-binding domain (HBD) that mediates their association and contacts with HS. HBDs are highly diverse in sequence and predicted structure, contain clusters of basic amino acids (Lys and Arg) and possess an overall net positive charge, most often within a consensus Cardin-Weintraub (CW) motif. Interestingly, other domains and residues are now known to influence protein-HS interactions, as well as interactions with other glycosaminoglycans, such as chondroitin sulfate. In this review, we provide a description and analysis of HBDs in proteins including amphiregulin, fibroblast growth factor family members, heparanase, sclerostin and hedgehog protein family members. We discuss HBD structural and functional features and important roles carried out by other protein domains, and also provide novel conformational insights into the diversity of CW motifs present in Sonic, Indian and Desert hedgehogs. Finally, we review progress in understanding the pathogenesis of a rare pediatric skeletal disorder, Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME), characterized by HS deficiency and cartilage tumor formation. Advances in understanding protein-HS interactions will have broad implications for basic biology and translational medicine as well as for the development of HS-based therapeutics.

  6. Role of Cellular Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Infection of Human Adenovirus Serotype 3 and 35

    PubMed Central

    Tuve, Sebastian; Wang, Hongjie; Jacobs, Jeffrey D.; Yumul, Roma C.; Smith, David F.; Lieber, André

    2008-01-01

    Species B human adenoviruses (Ads) are increasingly associated with outbreaks of acute respiratory disease in U.S. military personnel and civil population. The initial interaction of Ads with cellular attachment receptors on host cells is via Ad fiber knob protein. Our previous studies showed that one species B Ad receptor is the complement receptor CD46 that is used by serotypes 11, 16, 21, 35, and 50 but not by serotypes 3, 7, and 14. In this study, we attempted to identify yet-unknown species B cellular receptors. For this purpose we used recombinant Ad3 and Ad35 fiber knobs in high-throughput receptor screening methods including mass spectrometry analysis and glycan arrays. Surprisingly, we found that the main interacting surface molecules of Ad3 fiber knob are cellular heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). We subsequently found that HSPGs acted as low-affinity co-receptors for Ad3 but did not represent the main receptor of this serotype. Our study also revealed a new CD46-independent infection pathway of Ad35. This Ad35 infection mechanism is mediated by cellular HSPGs. The interaction of Ad35 with HSPGs is not via fiber knob, whereas Ad3 interacts with HSPGs via fiber knob. Both Ad3 and Ad35 interacted specifically with the sulfated regions within HSPGs that have also been implicated in binding physiologic ligands. In conclusion, our findings show that Ad3 and Ad35 directly utilize HSPGs as co-receptors for infection. Our data suggest that adenoviruses evolved to simulate the presence of physiologic HSPG ligands in order to increase infection. PMID:18974862

  7. Transient expression of a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (syndecan) during limb development.

    PubMed

    Solursh, M; Reiter, R S; Jensen, K L; Kato, M; Bernfield, M

    1990-07-01

    Syndecan is an integral membrane proteoglycan that contains both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains and that links the cytoskeleton to interstitial extracellular matrix components, including collagen and fibronectin. Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody directed to the core protein of the syndecan ectodomain has been used to analyze the distribution of this proteoglycan in the developing mouse limb bud and in high-density cultures of limb mesenchyme cells. By Day 9 of gestation when the limb buds are just apparent, syndecan is detected on cells throughout the limb region, including both ectodermal and mesenchymal components. This distribution does not change as the limb bud elongates along its proximodistal axis, except for its reduction in the apical ectodermal ridge. By Day 11, the intensity of immunofluorescence in the central core decreases relative to other regions. By Day 13 immunostaining is lost in the regions destined for chondrogenesis and myogenesis but persists in the limb ectoderm and peripheral and distal mesenchyme. In the limb mesenchyme cell cultures, syndecan is initially undetected, but is found throughout the culture by 24 hr. With further culture the antigen becomes reduced in chondrogenic foci and in association with myogenic cells. When chick limb ectoderm is placed on the high-density cultures, immunoreactivity in the mouse mesenchyme is enhanced suggesting that epithelial-mesenchymal interactions modulate syndecan expression in the limb bud. Based on analysis of 35S-labeled syndecan from the cultures, syndecan from limb mesenchyme cells contains more glycosaminoglycan chains and is larger in size than the previously described polymorphic forms of syndecan from various epithelia. The high affinity of syndecan for components of the extracellular matrix and its distribution in the early limb bud are consistent with a role in maintaining the morphologic integrity of the limb bud during the period of initiation and rapid

  8. Genome-Wide Screening Uncovers the Significance of N-sulfation of Heparan Sulfate as a Host Cell Factor for Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Tumkosit, Uranan; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Kishishita, Natsuko; Priengprom, Thongkoon; Sa-Ngasang, Areerat; Kinoshita, Taroh; Takeda, Naokazu; Maeda, Yusuke

    2017-04-12

    The molecular mechanisms underlying chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection are poorly characterized. In this study, we analyzed the host factors involved in CHIKV infection using genome-wide screening. Human haploid HAP1 cells, into which an exon-trapping vector was introduced, were challenged with a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype bearing the CHIKV E3-E1 envelope proteins. Analysis of genes enriched in the cells resistant to the pseudotyped virus infection unveiled a critical role of N-sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) for the infectivity of a clinically isolated CHIKV Thai #16856 strain to HAP1 cells. Knockout of NDST1 that catalyzes N-sulfation of HS greatly decreased the binding and infectivity of CHIKV Thai#16856 strain but not infectivity of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Whereas glycosaminoglycans were commonly required for efficient infectivity of CHIKV, JEV and YFV as shown by using B3GAT3 knockout cells, the tropism for N-sulfate was specific to CHIKV. Expression of chondroitin sulfate (CS) in NDST1-knockout HAP1 cells did not restore the binding of CHIKV Thai#16856 strain and the infectivity of its pseudotype but restored the infectivity of authentic CHIKV Thai#16856, suggesting that CS functions at the later steps after the CHIKV binding. Among the genes enriched in this screening, we found that TM9SF2 is critical for N-sulfation of HS and therefore for CHIKV infection, because it is involved in proper localization and stability of NDST1. Determination of the significance of and the relevant proteins to N-sulfation of HS may contribute to understanding mechanisms of CHIKV propagation, cell tropism and pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of chikungunya fever have increased its clinical importance. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) utilizes host glycosaminoglycans to bind efficiently to its target cells. However, the substructure in glycosaminoglycans required for CHIKV infection have not been characterized. Here, we

  9. HABA-based ionic liquid matrices for UV-MALDI-MS analysis of heparin and heparan sulfate oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Cedric; Gonnet, Florence; Bonnaffé, David; Hersant, Yael; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Daniel, Regis

    2010-02-01

    Polysulfated carbohydrates such as heparin (HP) and heparan sulfate (HS) are not easily amenable to usual ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI)-MS analysis due to the thermal lability of their O- and N-SO(3) moieties, and their poor ionization efficiency with common crystalline matrices. Recently, ionic liquid matrices showed considerable advantages over conventional matrices for MALDI-MS of acidic compounds. Two new ionic liquid matrices (ILMs) based on the combination of 2-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzoic acid (HABA) with 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine and spermine were evaluated in the study herein. Both ILMs were successfully applied to the analysis of synthetic heparin oligosaccharides of well-characterized structures as well as to heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides from enzymatic depolymerization. HABA-based ILMs showed improved signal-to-noise ratio as well as a decrease of fragmentation/desulfation processes and cation exchange. Sulfated oligosaccharides were detected with higher sensitivity than usual crystalline matrices, and their intact fully O- and N-sulfated species [M-Na](-) were easily observed on mass spectra. MALDI-MS characterization of challenging analytes such as heparin octasaccharide carrying 8-O and 4 N-sulfo groups, and heparin octadecasulfated dodecasaccharide was successfully achieved.

  10. Genomic organization of the human heparan sulfate-N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase gene: Exclusion from a causative role in the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwin, A.J.; Dixon, J.; Loftus, S.K.; Wasmuth, J.J.; Dixon, M.J. |

    1996-03-05

    Heparan sulfate-N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (HSST) catalyzes both the N-deacetylation and the N-sulfation of heparan sulfate. Previous studies have resulted in the isolation of the human HSST gene from within the Treacher Collins syndrome locus (TCOF1) critical region on 5q. In the present study, the genomic organization of the HSST gene has been elucidated, and the 14 exons identified have been tested for TCOF1-specific mutations. As a result of these studies, mutations within the coding sequence and adjacent splice junctions of HSST can be excluded from a causative role in the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. [Heparan sulfate: efficacy and safety in patients with chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Agrati, A M; De Bartolo, G; Palmieri, G

    1991-10-01

    Fifty patients suffering from chronic venous disease were treated for 30 days with heparan sulphate 100 mg per os, b.i.d., or mesoglycan 50 mg per os, t.i.d., in a single blind random study. Both therapies led to a marked improvement in comparison to basal clinical values, but patients treated with heparan sulphate showed the greatest and most rapid regression of symptoms, associated with a significant improvement in plethysmographic index of capacitance and venous flow. Patients treated with heparan sulphate also showed an increased fibrinolytic activity and a reduced antithrombin III consumption, both of which were statistically significant.

  12. Inhibition of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infectivity by a Dendrimeric Heparan Sulfate-Binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Giuliani, Andrea; Pirri, Giovanna; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro; Landolfo, Santo

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) interacts with cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) to initiate infection. The interaction of RSV with HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In the present study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was screened with the aim of identifying peptides able to bind HSPGs and thus block RSV attachment and infectivity. Of the compounds identified, the dendrimer SB105-A10 was the most potent inhibitor of RSV infectivity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 0.35 μM and 0.25 μM measured in Hep-2 and A549 cells, respectively. SB105-A10 was found to bind to both cell types via HSPGs, suggesting that its antiviral activity is indeed exerted by competing with RSV for binding to cell surface HSPGs. SB105-A10 prevented RSV infection when added before the viral inoculum, in line with its proposed HSPG-binding mechanism of action; moreover, antiviral activity was also exhibited when SB105-A10 was added postinfection, as it was able to reduce the cell-to-cell spread of the virus. The antiviral potential of SB105-A10 was further assessed using human-derived tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells cultured to form a pseudostratified, highly differentiated model of the epithelial tissue of the human respiratory tract. SB105-A10 strongly reduced RSV infectivity in this model and exhibited no signs of cytotoxicity or proinflammatory effects. Together, these features render SB105-A10 an attractive candidate for further development as a RSV inhibitor to be administered by aerosol delivery. PMID:22850525

  13. A systems biology approach for the investigation of the heparin/heparan sulfate interactome.

    PubMed

    Ori, Alessandro; Wilkinson, Mark C; Fernig, David G

    2011-06-03

    A large body of evidence supports the involvement of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans in physiological processes such as development and diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of HS emerges from its ability to interact and regulate the activity of a vast number of extracellular proteins including growth factors and extracellular matrix components. A global view on how protein-HS interactions influence the extracellular proteome and, consequently, cell function is currently lacking. Here, we systematically investigate the functional and structural properties that characterize HS-interacting proteins and the network they form. We collected 435 human proteins interacting with HS or the structurally related heparin by integrating literature-derived and affinity proteomics data. We used this data set to identify the topological features that distinguish the heparin/HS-interacting network from the rest of the extracellular proteome and to analyze the enrichment of gene ontology terms, pathways, and domain families in heparin/HS-binding proteins. Our analysis revealed that heparin/HS-binding proteins form a highly interconnected network, which is functionally linked to physiological and pathological processes that are characteristic of higher organisms. Therefore, we then investigated the existence of a correlation between the expansion of domain families characteristic of the heparin/HS interactome and the increase in biological complexity in the metazoan lineage. A strong positive correlation between the expansion of the heparin/HS interactome and biosynthetic machinery and organism complexity emerged. The evolutionary role of HS was reinforced by the presence of a rudimentary HS biosynthetic machinery in a unicellular organism at the root of the metazoan lineage.

  14. Retention of the structure and function of heparan sulfate biomaterials after gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Raymond A A; Chua, R J E; Carnachan, Susan M; Tan, Clarissa Ling Ling; Sims, Ian M; Hinkley, Simon F R; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon

    2017-09-25

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a highly heterogeneous polysaccharide implicated in many important biological processes. Our previous work has demonstrated that a particular affinity-selected HS (referred to henceforth as 'HS3') is capable of enhancing the osteogenic effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Here, we gamma-irradiated HS with 26 kGy of ionizing radiation to determine how this affected the structure, composition and function. Initial structural studies were performed on a commercial preparation of HS as a proof-of-concept. Gamma-irradiation of this HS preparation did not significantly alter its structure or composition compared to non-irradiated material, as demonstrated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), molecular weight analysis using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and disaccharide compositional analysis. When HS3 was gamma-irradiated, no significant effect on binding affinity toward BMP2 was observed, based on competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) assays. Furthermore, irradiation did not significantly affect HS3's ability to synergistically enhance the osteogenic effects of BMP2 in vitro; as measured by the relative abundance of osteogenic transcripts in transdifferentiating C2C12 murine myoblasts. Additionally, no significant differences were observed in the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or calcium deposition in C2C12s treated with BMP2, together with the irradiated, or non-irradiated HS3. Irradiation of HS3 incorporated into collagen type I sponges did not affect its ability to enhance BMP2-mediated ALP expression in C2C12 cells. Our data confirms that gamma-irradiation is a cost-effective and viable solution for the sterilization of HS species that allows for the retention of its structure and biological function. The work suggests an effective way to incorporate clinically-compatible HS species into orthotic implants, scaffolds and other medical devices for use

  15. Blood vessels pattern heparan sulfate gradients between their apical and basolateral aspects.

    PubMed

    Stoler-Barak, Liat; Moussion, Christine; Shezen, Elias; Hatzav, Miki; Sixt, Michael; Alon, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of immune cell trafficking is directional guidance via gradients of soluble or surface bound chemokines. Vascular endothelial cells produce, transport and deposit either their own chemokines or chemokines produced by the underlying stroma. Endothelial heparan sulfate (HS) was suggested to be a critical scaffold for these chemokine pools, but it is unclear how steep chemokine gradients are sustained between the lumenal and ablumenal aspects of blood vessels. Addressing this question by semi-quantitative immunostaining of HS moieties around blood vessels with a pan anti-HS IgM mAb, we found a striking HS enrichment in the basal lamina of resting and inflamed post capillary skin venules, as well as in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymph nodes. Staining of skin vessels with a glycocalyx probe further suggested that their lumenal glycocalyx contains much lower HS density than their basolateral extracellular matrix (ECM). This polarized HS pattern was observed also in isolated resting and inflamed microvascular dermal cells. Notably, progressive skin inflammation resulted in massive ECM deposition and in further HS enrichment around skin post capillary venules and their associated pericytes. Inflammation-dependent HS enrichment was not compromised in mice deficient in the main HS degrading enzyme, heparanase. Our results suggest that the blood vasculature patterns steep gradients of HS scaffolds between their lumenal and basolateral endothelial aspects, and that inflammatory processes can further enrich the HS content nearby inflamed vessels. We propose that chemokine gradients between the lumenal and ablumenal sides of vessels could be favored by these sharp HS scaffold gradients.

  16. Inhibition of SARS Pseudovirus Cell Entry by Lactoferrin Binding to Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Jianshe; Yang, Ning; Deng, Jiejie; Liu, Kangtai; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Guigen; Jiang, Chengyu

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that lactoferrin (LF) participates in the host immune response against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) invasion by enhancing NK cell activity and stimulating neutrophil aggregation and adhesion. We further investigated the role of LF in the entry of SARS pseudovirus into HEK293E/ACE2-Myc cells. Our results reveal that LF inhibits SARS pseudovirus infection in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis suggested that LF was able to block the binding of spike protein to host cells at 4°C, indicating that LF exerted its inhibitory function at the viral attachment stage. However, LF did not disrupt the interaction of spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor of SARS-CoV. Previous studies have shown that LF colocalizes with the widely distributed cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Our experiments have also confirmed this conclusion. Treatment of the cells with heparinase or exogenous heparin prevented binding of spike protein to host cells and inhibited SARS pseudovirus infection, demonstrating that HSPGs provide the binding sites for SARS-CoV invasion at the early attachment phase. Taken together, our results suggest that, in addition to ACE2, HSPGs are essential cell-surface molecules involved in SARS-CoV cell entry. LF may play a protective role in host defense against SARS-CoV infection through binding to HSPGs and blocking the preliminary interaction between SARS-CoV and host cells. Our findings may provide further understanding of SARS-CoV pathogenesis and aid in treatment of this deadly disease. PMID:21887302

  17. In vivo degradation of heparan sulfates in the glomerular basement membrane does not result in proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Wijnhoven, Tessa J M; Lensen, Joost F M; Wismans, Ronnie G P; Lamrani, Mohammed; Monnens, Leo A H; Wevers, Ron A; Rops, Angelique L W M M; van der Vlag, Johan; Berden, Jo H M; van den Heuvel, Lambert P W J; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2007-03-01

    Heparan sulfates (HS) are long, unbranched, negatively charged polysaccharides that are bound to core proteins. HS in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is reported to be important for charge-selective permeability. Aberrant GBM HS expression has been observed in several glomerular diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy and membranous glomerulopathy, and a decrease in HS generally is associated with proteinuria. This study, with the use of a controlled in vivo approach, evaluated whether degradation of HS in rat GBM resulted in acute proteinuria. Rats received two intravenous injections of either heparinase III to digest HS or neuraminidase to remove neuraminic acids (positive control). Urine samples were taken at various time points, and at the end of the experiment, kidneys were removed and analyzed. Injection with heparinase III resulted in a complete loss of glomerular HS as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining using anti-HS antibodies and by electron microscopy using cupromeronic blue in a critical electrolyte concentration mode. In the urine, a strong increase in HS was found within 2 h after the first injection. Staining for agrin, the major HS proteoglycan core protein in the GBM, was unaltered. No urinary albumin or other proteins were detected at any time point, and no changes in glomerular morphology were noticed. Injection of rats with neuraminidase, however, resulted in a major increase of urinary albumin and was associated with an increase in urinary free neuraminic acid. An increased glomerular staining with Peanut agglutinin lectin, indicative of removal of neuraminic acid, was noted. In conclusion, removal of HS from the GBM does not result in acute albuminuria, whereas removal of neuraminic acid does.

  18. Transendothelial migration of effector T cells across inflamed endothelial barriers does not require heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Stoler-Barak, Liat; Barzilai, Sagi; Zauberman, Ayelet; Alon, Ronen

    2014-06-01

    Leukocyte diapedesis is a chemotactic multistep process that requires optimal chemoattractant presentation by the endothelial barrier. Recent studies have described a critical role for heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) in the presentation and functions of chemokines essential for lymphocyte interactions with the lymph node vasculature. We wished to test whether HS expression by a prototypic endothelial cell type, i.e. human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), is critical for their ability to support neutrophil and lymphocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) under shear flow. We found that HUVECs deposit HS GAGs mainly at their basolateral compartments in both their resting and inflamed states. We next inactivated the key enzyme involved in HS biosynthesis, exostosin-1 (Ext1). Silencing Ext1 resulted in a complete loss of HS biosynthesis; nonetheless, TNF-α and IL-1β stimulation of key adhesion molecules and inflammatory chemokines necessary for neutrophil or lymphocyte adhesion and TEM remained intact. Ext1 silencing reduced neutrophil arrest and markedly impaired TEM, consistent with a role of basolateral HS GAGs in directing neutrophil crossing of inflamed endothelial barriers. Strikingly, however, the TEM of effector T cells across identically Ext1-silenced HUVECs remained normal. Importantly, the biosynthesis of the main promigratory chemokines for effector T cells and neutrophils, respectively, CCL2 and CXCL1, and their vesicle distributions were also Ext1 independent. These results suggest that transmigrating neutrophils must respond to chemokines transiently presented by apical and basolateral endothelial HS GAGs. In contrast, effector T cells can integrate chemotactic TEM signals directly from intra-endothelial chemokine stores rather than from externally deposited chemokines.

  19. Blood Vessels Pattern Heparan Sulfate Gradients between Their Apical and Basolateral Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Stoler-Barak, Liat; Moussion, Christine; Shezen, Elias; Hatzav, Miki; Sixt, Michael; Alon, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of immune cell trafficking is directional guidance via gradients of soluble or surface bound chemokines. Vascular endothelial cells produce, transport and deposit either their own chemokines or chemokines produced by the underlying stroma. Endothelial heparan sulfate (HS) was suggested to be a critical scaffold for these chemokine pools, but it is unclear how steep chemokine gradients are sustained between the lumenal and ablumenal aspects of blood vessels. Addressing this question by semi-quantitative immunostaining of HS moieties around blood vessels with a pan anti-HS IgM mAb, we found a striking HS enrichment in the basal lamina of resting and inflamed post capillary skin venules, as well as in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymph nodes. Staining of skin vessels with a glycocalyx probe further suggested that their lumenal glycocalyx contains much lower HS density than their basolateral extracellular matrix (ECM). This polarized HS pattern was observed also in isolated resting and inflamed microvascular dermal cells. Notably, progressive skin inflammation resulted in massive ECM deposition and in further HS enrichment around skin post capillary venules and their associated pericytes. Inflammation-dependent HS enrichment was not compromised in mice deficient in the main HS degrading enzyme, heparanase. Our results suggest that the blood vasculature patterns steep gradients of HS scaffolds between their lumenal and basolateral endothelial aspects, and that inflammatory processes can further enrich the HS content nearby inflamed vessels. We propose that chemokine gradients between the lumenal and ablumenal sides of vessels could be favored by these sharp HS scaffold gradients. PMID:24465652

  20. Heparan Sulfate Regulates Hair Follicle and Sebaceous Gland Morphogenesis and Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Coulson-Thomas, Vivien Jane; Gesteira, Tarsis Ferreira; Esko, Jeffrey; Kao, Winston

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis and cycling are a result of intricate autonomous epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Once the first HF cycle is complete it repeatedly undergoes cyclic transformations. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix where they influence a variety of biological processes by interacting with physiologically important proteins, such as growth factors. Inhibition of heparanase (an HS endoglycosidase) in in vitro cultured HFs has been shown to induce a catagen-like process. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the precise role of HS in HF morphogenesis and cycling. An inducible tetratransgenic mouse model was generated to excise exostosin glycosyltransferase 1 (Ext1) in keratin 14-positive cells from P21. Interestingly, EXT1StEpiΔ/StEpiΔ mice presented solely anagen HFs. Moreover, waxing the fur to synchronize the HFs revealed accelerated hair regrowth in the EXT1StEpiΔ/StEpiΔ mice and hindered cycling into catagen. The ablation of HS in the interfollicular epidermal cells of mature skin led to the spontaneous formation of new HFs and an increase in Sonic Hedgehog expression resembling wild-type mice at P0, thereby indicating that the HS/Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway regulates HF formation during embryogenesis and prevents HF formation in mature skin. Finally, the knock-out of HS also led to the morphogenesis and hyperplasia of sebaceous glands and sweat glands in mature mice, leading to exacerbated sebum production and accumulation on the skin surface. Therefore, our findings clearly show that an intricate control of HS levels is required for HF, sebaceous gland, and sweat gland morphogenesis and HF cycling. PMID:25053416

  1. Heparan sulfate binding by natural eastern equine encephalitis viruses promotes neurovirulence.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christina L; Ebel, Gregory D; Ryman, Kate D; Klimstra, William B

    2011-09-20

    The Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae contains mosquito-vectored viruses that primarily cause either arthritogenic disease or acute encephalitis. North American eastern equine encephalitis virus (NA-EEEV) is uniquely neurovirulent among encephalitic alphaviruses, causing mortality in a majority of symptomatic cases and neurological sequelae in many survivors. Unlike many alphaviruses, NA-EEEV infection of mice yields limited signs of febrile illness typically associated with lymphoid tissue replication. Rather, signs of brain infection, including seizures, are prominent. Use of heparan sulfate (HS) as an attachment receptor increases the neurovirulence of cell culture-adapted strains of Sindbis virus, an arthritogenic alphavirus. However, this receptor is not known to be used by naturally circulating alphaviruses. We demonstrate that wild-type NA-EEEV strain FL91-4679 uses HS as an attachment receptor and that the amino acid sequence of its E2 attachment protein is identical to those of natural isolates sequenced by RT-PCR amplification of field samples. This finding unequivocally confirms the use of HS receptors by naturally circulating NA-EEEV strains. Inactivation of the major HS binding domain in NA-EEEV E2 demonstrated that the HS binding increased brain replication and neurologic disease but reduced lymphoid tissue replication, febrile illness signs, and cytokine/chemokine induction in mice. We propose that HS binding by natural NA-EEEV strains alters tropism in vivo to antagonize/evade immune responses, and the extreme neurovirulence of wild-type NA-EEEV may be a consequence. Therefore, reinvestigation of HS binding by this and other arboviruses is warranted.

  2. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange-LC-MS Approach to Characterize the Action of Heparan Sulfate C5-Epimerase

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Victor, Xylophone V.; Nelsen, Emily; Nguyen, Thao Kim Nu; Raman, Karthik; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans regulate a number of biological functions in many systems. Most of the functions of HS are attributed to its unique structure, consisting of sulfated and non-sulfated domains, arising from the differential presence of iduronyl and glucuronyl residues along the polysaccharide chain. A single glucuronyl C5-epimerase enzyme acts on heparan sulfate precursor, converts glucuronyl residues into iduronyl residues and modulates subsequent biosynthetic steps in vivo. The ratios of non-sulfated epimers within the polysaccharide chain have been calculated by resolving radiolabeled GlcA-AManR and IdoA-AManR disaccharides using a tedious paper chromatography technique. Radioactive assay, based on measuring either the release or incorporation of 3H at C5 carbon of uronyl residues of 3H-labeled HS precursor substrate, has been in use over three decades to characterize the action of HS C5-epimerase. We have developed a non-radioactive assay to estimate the epimerase activity through resolving GlcA-AManR and IdoA-AManR disaccharides on HPLC in conjunction with hydrogen/deuterium exchange upon epimerization protocol-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (DEEP-LC-MS). Utilizing this new, non-radioactive based assay, DEEP-LC-MS, we were able to determine the extent of both forward and reverse reaction on the same substrate catalyzed by C5-epimerase. Results from this study also provide insights into the action of C5-epimerase and provide an opportunity to delineate snapshots of biosynthetic events that occur during the HSPG assembly in the Golgi. PMID:21573838

  3. A Haploid Genetic Screen Identifies Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Supporting Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Riblett, Amber M.; Blomen, Vincent A.; Jae, Lucas T.; Altamura, Louis A.; Doms, Robert W.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent insect-borne epizootics throughout the African continent, and infection of humans can lead to a lethal hemorrhagic fever syndrome. Deep mutagenesis of haploid human cells was used to identify host factors required for RVFV infection. This screen identified a suite of enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biogenesis and transport, including several components of the cis-oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, one of the central components of Golgi complex trafficking. In addition, disruption of PTAR1 led to RVFV resistance as well as reduced heparan sulfate surface levels, consistent with recent observations that PTAR1-deficient cells exhibit altered Golgi complex morphology and glycosylation defects. A variety of biochemical and genetic approaches were utilized to show that both pathogenic and attenuated RVFV strains require GAGs for efficient infection on some, but not all, cell types, with the block to infection being at the level of virion attachment. Examination of other members of the Bunyaviridae family for GAG-dependent infection suggested that the interaction with GAGs is not universal among bunyaviruses, indicating that these viruses, as well as RVFV on certain cell types, employ additional unidentified virion attachment factors and/or receptors. IMPORTANCE Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging pathogen that can cause severe disease in humans and animals. Epizootics among livestock populations lead to high mortality rates and can be economically devastating. Human epidemics of Rift Valley fever, often initiated by contact with infected animals, are characterized by a febrile disease that sometimes leads to encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. The global burden of the pathogen is increasing because it has recently disseminated beyond Africa, which is of particular concern because the virus can be transmitted by widely distributed mosquito species. There are no FDA-licensed vaccines or antiviral

  4. Interaction of E2 Glycoprotein with Heparan Sulfate Is Crucial for Cellular Infection of Sindbis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yiliang; Jia, Juan; Fu, Shihong; Feng, Yun; He, Ying; Li, Jin-Ping; Liang, Guodong

    2010-01-01

    Cell culture-adapted strains of Sindbis virus (SINV) initially attach to cells by the ability to interact with heparan sulfate (HS) through selective mutation for positively charged amino acid (aa) scattered in E2 glycoprotein (W. B. Klimstra, K. D. Ryman, and R. E. Johnston, J. Virol. 72: 7357–7366, 1998). Here we have further confirmed that interaction of E2 protein with HS is crucial for cellular infection of SINV based on the reverse genetic system of XJ-160 virus, a Sindbis-like virus (SINLV). Both SINV YN87448 and SINLV XJ-160 displayed similar infectivity on BHK-21, Vero, or C6/36 cells, but XJ-160 failed to infect mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying the selective infectivity of XJ-160 were approached by substituting the E1, E2, or both genes of XJ-160 with that of YN87448, and the chimeric virus was denominated as XJ-160/E1, XJ-160/E2, or XJ-160/E1E2, respectively. In contrast to the parental XJ-160, all chimeric viruses became infectious to wild-type MEF cells (MEF-wt). While MEF-Ext−/− cells, producing shortened HS chains, were resistant not only to XJ-160, but also to YN87448 as well as the chimeric viruses, indicating that the inability of XJ-160 to infect MEF-wt cells likely due to its incompetent discrimination of cellular HS. Treatment with heparin or HS-degrading enzyme resulted in a substantial decrease in plaque formation by YN87448, XJ-160/E2, and XJ-160/E1E2, but had marginal effect on XJ-160 and XJ-160/E1, suggesting that E2 glycoprotein from YN87448 plays a more important role than does E1 in mediating cellular HS-related cell infection. In addition, the peptide containing 145–150 aa from E2 gene of YN87448 specifically bound to heparin, while the corresponding peptide from the E2 gene of XJ-160 essentially showed no binding to heparin. As a new dataset, these results clearly confirm an essential role of E2 glycoprotein, especially the domain of 145–150 aa, in SINV cellular infection through

  5. Impact of Heparan Sulfate Binding on Transduction of Retina by Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Boye, Sanford L.; Bennett, Antonette; Scalabrino, Miranda L.; McCullough, K. Tyler; Van Vliet, Kim; Choudhury, Shreyasi; Ruan, Qing; Peterson, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) currently are being developed to efficiently transduce the retina following noninvasive, intravitreal (Ivt) injection. However, a major barrier encountered by intravitreally delivered AAVs is the inner limiting membrane (ILM), a basement membrane rich in heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of HS binding on retinal transduction by Ivt-delivered AAVs. The heparin affinities of AAV2-based tyrosine-to-phenylalanine (Y-F) and threonine-to-valine (T-V) capsid mutants, designed to avoid proteasomal degradation during cellular trafficking, were established. In addition, the impact of grafting HS binding residues onto AAV1, AAV5, and AAV8(Y733F) as well as ablation of HS binding by AAV2-based vectors on retinal transduction was investigated. Finally, the potential relationship between thermal stability of AAV2-based capsids and Ivt-mediated transduction was explored. The results show that the Y-F and T-V AAV2 capsid mutants bind heparin but with slightly reduced affinity relative to that of AAV2. The grafting of HS binding increased Ivt transduction by AAV1 but not by AAV5 or AAV8(Y733F). The substitution of any canonical HS binding residues ablated Ivt-mediated transduction by AAV2-based vectors. However, these same HS variant vectors displayed efficient retinal transduction when delivered subretinally. Notably, a variant devoid of canonical HS binding residues, AAV2(4pMut)ΔHS, was remarkably efficient at transducing photoreceptors. The disparate AAV phenotypes indicate that HS binding, while critical for AAV2-based vectors, is not the sole determinant for transduction via the Ivt route. Finally, Y-F and T-V mutations alter capsid stability, with a potential relationship existing between stability and improvements in retinal transduction by Ivt injection. IMPORTANCE AAV has emerged as the vector of choice for gene delivery to the retina, with attention focused on developing vectors

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Heparan Sulfate: From Attachment to Entry Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Bridgette J.; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    By targeting cells that provide protection against infection, HIV-1 causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Infection starts when gp120, the viral envelope glycoprotein, binds to CD4 and to a chemokine receptor usually CCR5 or CXCR4. As many microorganisms, HIV-1 also interacts with heparan sulfate (HS), a complex group of cell surface associated anionic polysaccharides. It has been thought that this binding, occurring at a step prior to CD4 recognition, increases infectivity by pre-concentrating the virion particles at the cell surface. Early work, dating from before the identification of CCR5 and CXCR4, showed that a variety of HS mimetics bind to the gp120 V3 loop through electrostatic interactions, compete with cell surface associated HS to bind the virus and consequently, neutralize the infectivity of a number of T-cell line-adapted HIV-1 strains. However, progress made to better understand HIV-1 attachment and entry, coupled with the recent identification of additional gp120 regions mediating HS recognition, have considerably modified this view. Firstly, the V3 loop from CXCR4-using viruses is much more positively charged compared to those using CCR5. HS inhibition of cell attachment is thus restricted to CXCR4-using viruses (such as T-cell line-adapted HIV-1). Secondly, studies aiming at characterizing the gp120/HS complex revealed that HS binding was far more complex than previously thought: in addition to the V3 loop of CXCR4 tropic gp120, HS interacts with several other cryptic areas of the protein, which can be induced upon CD4 binding, and are conserved amongst CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses. In view of these data, this review will detail the present knowledge on HS binding to HIV-1, with regards to attachment and entry processes. It will discuss the perspective of targeting the gp120 co-receptor binding site with HS mimetic compounds, a strategy that recently gave rise to entry inhibitors that work in the low nanomolar range, independently of co

  7. Laminins, via heparan sulfate proteoglycans, participate in zebrafish myotome morphogenesis by modulating the pattern of Bmp responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Dolez, Morgane; Nicolas, Jean-François; Hirsinger, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    In zebrafish, Hedgehog-induced Engrailed expression defines a muscle fibre population that includes both slow and fast fibre types and exhibits an organisational role on myotome and surrounding tissues, such as motoneurons and lateral line. This Engrailed-positive population is restricted in the myotome to a central domain. To understand how this population is established, we have analysed the phenotype of the sly/lamc1 mutation in the Laminin γ1 chain that was shown to specifically affect Engrailed expression in pioneers. We find that the sly mutation affects Engrailed expression in the entire central domain and that Hedgehog signalling does not mediate this effect. We show that Bmp-responding cells are excluded from the central domain and that this pattern is modulated by laminins, but not by Hedgehog signalling. Knockdown of Bmp signalling rescues Engrailed expression in the sly mutant and ectopically activates Engrailed expression in slow and fast lineages in wild-type embryos. Last, extracellular matrix-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are absent in sly and their enzymatic removal mimics the sly phenotype. Our results therefore show that laminins, via heparan sulfate proteoglycans, are instrumental in patterning Bmp responsiveness and that Bmp signalling restricts Engrailed expression to the central domain. This study underlines the importance of extracellular cues for the precise spatial modulation of cell response to morphogens.

  8. Expression of the cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 in developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, folliculo-stellate cells and five types of hormone-producing cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) essential for these cells to perform their respective roles. Syndecans-type I transmembrane cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as major ECM coreceptors via their respective heparan sulfate chains and efficiently transduce intracellular signals through the convergent action of their transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The syndecans comprise four family members in vertebrates: syndecan-1, -2, -3 and -4. However, whether syndecans are produced in the pituitary gland or whether they have a role as a coreceptor is not known. We therefore used (1) reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of syndecan genes and (2) immunohistochemical techniques to identify the cells that produce the syndecans in the anterior pituitary gland of adult rat. Syndecan-2 mRNA expression was clearly detected in the corticotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, the expression of syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland had a distinct temporospatial pattern. To identify the cells expressing syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland, we used double-immunohistochemistry for syndecan-2 and the cell markers E-cadherin (immature cells) and Ki-67 (proliferating cells). Some E-cadherin- and Ki-67-immunopositive cells expressed syndecan-2. Therefore, syndecan-2 expression occurs in developmentally regulated patterns and syndecan-2 probably has different roles in adult and developing anterior pituitary glands.

  9. Crosstalk between 2 organelles: Lysosomal storage of heparan sulfate causes mitochondrial defects and neuronal death in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C

    PubMed Central

    Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of all lysosomal diseases are mucopolysaccharidoses, disorders affecting the enzymes needed for the stepwise degradation of glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides). Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIC (MPS IIIC) is a severe neurologic disease caused by genetic deficiency of heparan sulfate acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (HGSNAT). Through our studies, we have cloned the gene, identified molecular defects in MPS IIIC patients and most recently completed phenotypic characterization of the first animal model of the disease, a mouse with a germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene.1 The obtained data have led us to propose that Hgsnat deficiency and lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulfate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release result in mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons causing their death which explains why MPS IIIC manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease. The goal of this addendum is to summarize data yielding new insights into the mechanism of MPS IIIC and promising novel therapeutic solutions for this and similar disorders. PMID:26459666

  10. Expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan) in the mouse blastocyst is regulated during normal and delayed implantation.

    PubMed

    Smith, S E; French, M M; Julian, J; Paria, B C; Dey, S K; Carson, D D

    1997-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that expression of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan, on the external trophectodermal cell surfaces of mouse blastocysts increases during acquisition of attachment competence. However, it is not clear if this change in perlecan protein expression also is reflected at the level of perlecan mRNA expression. In the present investigation, the spatial and temporal patterns of perlecan mRNA expression in the mouse embryo during the periimplantation period were examined by in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, a delayed implantation model was used to determine the expression of perlecan mRNA and protein in dormant and estrogen-activated hatched blastocysts. The results demonstrate that perlecan mRNA expression is low in morulae, but increases in Day 4 blastocysts, attaining maximal expression in Day 4.5 attachment-competent blastocysts. In contrast, perlecan mRNA is detected in both the dormant and estrogen-activated delayed blastocysts; however, within 12 hr of blastocyst activation by estrogen, both perlecan protein and heparan sulfate chain expression markedly increase. Taken together, these results suggest that during normal development perlecan mRNA expression increases with the acquisition of attachment competence. Moreover, perlecan protein expression also is attenuated during delayed implantation and appears to increase in response to nidatory estrogen, perhaps via the increased translation of preexisting perlecan mRNA.

  11. Affinity of the heparin binding motif of Noggin1 to heparan sulfate and its visualization in the embryonic tissues.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Alexey M; Orlov, Eugeny E; Ermakova, Galina V; Ivanov, Igor A; Semenyuk, Pavel I; Orlov, Victor N; Martynova, Natalia Y; Zaraisky, Andrey G

    Heparin binding motifs were found in many secreted proteins and it was suggested that they are responsible for retardation of the protein diffusion within the intercellular space due to the binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycanes (HSPG). Here we used synthetic FITC labeled heparin binding motif (HBM peptide) of the Xenopus laevis secreted BMP inhibitor Noggin1 to study its diffusion along the surface of the heparin beads by FRAP method. As a result, we have found out that diffusivity of HBM-labeled FITC was indeed much lesser than those predicted by theoretical calculations even for whole protein of the Noggin size. We also compared by isothermal titration calorimetry the binding affinity of HBM and the control oligolysine peptide to several natural polyanions including heparan sulfate (HS), heparin, the bacterial dextran sulfate and salmon sperm DNA, and demonstrated that HBM significantly exceeds oligolysine peptide in the affinity to HS, heparin and DNA. By contrast, oligolysine peptide bound with higher affinity to dextran sulfate. We speculate that such a difference may ensure specificity of the morphogen binding to HSPG and could be explained by steric constrains imposed by different distribution of the negative charges along a given polymeric molecule. Finally, by using EGFP-HBM recombinant protein we have visualized the natural pattern of the Noggin1 binding sites within the X. laevis gastrula and demonstrated that these sites forms a dorsal-ventral concentration gradient, with a maximum in the dorsal blastopore lip. In sum, our data provide a quantitative basis for modeling the process of Noggin1 diffusion in embryonic tissues, considering its interaction with HSPG.

  12. Targeting Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans and their Modifying Enzymes to Enhance Anticancer Chemotherapy Efficacy and Overcome Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lanzi, Cinzia; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Cassinelli, Giuliana

    2017-01-01

    Targeting heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and enzymes involved in heparan sulfate (HS) chain editing is emerging as a new anticancer strategy. The involvement of HSPGs in tumor cell signaling, inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis indicates that agents able to inhibit aberrant HSPG functions can potentially act as multitarget drugs affecting both tumor cell growth and the supportive boost provided by the microenvironment. Moreover, accumulating evidence supports that an altered expression or function of HSPGs, or of the complex enzyme system regulating their activities, can also depress the tumor response to anticancer treatments in several tumor types. Thereby, targeting HSPGs or HSPG modifying enzymes appears an appealing approach to enhance chemotherapy efficacy. A great deal of effort from academia and industry has led to the development of agents mimicking HS, and/or inhibiting HSPG modifying enzymes. Inhibitors of Sulf-2, an endosulfatase that edits the HS sulfation pattern, and inhibitors of heparanase, the endoglycosidase that produces functional HS fragments, appear particularly promising. In fact, a Sulf-2 inhibitor (OKN-007), and two heparanase inhibitors/HS mimics (roneparstat, PG545) are currently under early clinical investigation. In this review, we summarized preclinical studies in experimental tumor models of the main chemical classes of Sulf-2 and heparanase inhibitors. We described examples of different mechanisms through which heparanase and HSPGs, often in cooperation, may impact tumor sensitivity to various antitumor agents. Finally, we reported a few preclinical studies showing increased antitumor efficacy obtained with the use of candidate clinical HS mimics in combination regimens. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Positional information in axolotl and mouse limb extracellular matrix is mediated via heparan sulfate and fibroblast growth factor during limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Phan, Anne Q; Lee, Jangwoo; Oei, Michelle; Flath, Craig; Hwe, Caitlyn; Mariano, Rachele; Vu, Tiffany; Shu, Cynthia; Dinh, Andrew; Simkin, Jennifer; Muneoka, Ken; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M

    2015-08-01

    Urodele amphibians are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate complex body structures after traumatic injury. In salamander regeneration, the cells maintain a memory of their original position and use this positional information to recreate the missing pattern. We used an in vivo gain-of-function assay to determine whether components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have positional information required to induce formation of new limb pattern during regeneration. We discovered that salamander limb ECM has a position-specific ability to either inhibit regeneration or induce de novo limb structure, and that this difference is dependent on heparan sulfates that are associated with differential expression of heparan sulfate sulfotransferases. We also discovered that an artificial ECM containing only heparan sulfate was sufficient to induce de novo limb pattern in salamander limb regeneration. Finally, ECM from mouse limbs is capable of inducing limb pattern in axolotl blastemas in a position-specific, developmental-stage-specific, and heparan sulfate-dependent manner. This study demonstrates a mechanism for positional information in regeneration and establishes a crucial functional link between salamander regeneration and mammals.

  14. Specific genes involved in synthesis and editing of heparan sulfate proteoglycans show altered expression patterns in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expression of a specific set of genes controls the different structures of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), which are involved in the growth, invasion and metastatic properties of cancerous cells. The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge of HSPG alterations in breast cancer. Methods Twenty-three infiltrating ductal adenocarcinomas (IDCs), both metastatic and non-metastatic were studied. A transcriptomic approach to the structure of heparan sulfate (HS) chains was used, employing qPCR to analyze both the expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and editing, as well as the proteoglycan core proteins. Since some of these proteoglycans can also carry chondroitin sulfate chains, we extended the study to include the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these glycosaminoglycans. Histochemical techniques were also used to analyze tissular expression of particular genes showing significant expression differences, of potential interest. Results No significant change in transcription was detected in approximately 70% of analyzed genes. However, 13 demonstrated changes in both tumor types (40% showing more intense deregulation in the metastatic), while 5 genes showed changes only in non-metastatic tumors. Changes were related to 3 core proteins: overexpression of syndecan-1 and underexpression of glypican-3 and perlecan. HS synthesis was affected by lower levels of some 3-O-sulfotransferase transcripts, the expression of NDST4 and, only in non metastatic tumors, higher levels of extracellular sulfatases. Furthermore, the expression of chondroitin sulfate also was considerably affected, involving both the synthesis of the saccharidic chains and sulfations at all locations. However, the pro-metastatic enzyme heparanase did not exhibit significant changes in mRNA expression, although in metastatic tumors it appeared related to increased levels of the most stable form of mRNA. Finally, the expression of heparanase 2, which displays

  15. Specific genes involved in synthesis and editing of heparan sulfate proteoglycans show altered expression patterns in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Vega, Iván; García, Olivia; Crespo, Ainara; Castañón, Sonia; Menéndez, Primitiva; Astudillo, Aurora; Quirós, Luis M

    2013-01-17

    The expression of a specific set of genes controls the different structures of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), which are involved in the growth, invasion and metastatic properties of cancerous cells. The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge of HSPG alterations in breast cancer. Twenty-three infiltrating ductal adenocarcinomas (IDCs), both metastatic and non-metastatic were studied. A transcriptomic approach to the structure of heparan sulfate (HS) chains was used, employing qPCR to analyze both the expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and editing, as well as the proteoglycan core proteins. Since some of these proteoglycans can also carry chondroitin sulfate chains, we extended the study to include the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these glycosaminoglycans. Histochemical techniques were also used to analyze tissular expression of particular genes showing significant expression differences, of potential interest. No significant change in transcription was detected in approximately 70% of analyzed genes. However, 13 demonstrated changes in both tumor types (40% showing more intense deregulation in the metastatic), while 5 genes showed changes only in non-metastatic tumors. Changes were related to 3 core proteins: overexpression of syndecan-1 and underexpression of glypican-3 and perlecan. HS synthesis was affected by lower levels of some 3-O-sulfotransferase transcripts, the expression of NDST4 and, only in non metastatic tumors, higher levels of extracellular sulfatases. Furthermore, the expression of chondroitin sulfate also was considerably affected, involving both the synthesis of the saccharidic chains and sulfations at all locations. However, the pro-metastatic enzyme heparanase did not exhibit significant changes in mRNA expression, although in metastatic tumors it appeared related to increased levels of the most stable form of mRNA. Finally, the expression of heparanase 2, which displays anti-metastatic features

  16. Border Patrol: Insights into the Unique Role of Perlecan/Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan2 at Cell and Tissue Borders

    PubMed Central

    Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Warren, Curtis R.; Harrington, Daniel A.; Carson, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix proteoglycan (ECM) perlecan, also known as heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 or HSPG2, is one of the largest (>200 nm) and oldest (>550M years) extracellular matrix molecules. In vertebrates, perlecan’s five-domain structure contains numerous independently folding modules with sequence similarities to other ECM proteins, all connected like cars into one long, diverse complex train following a unique N-terminal domain I decorated with three long glycosaminoglycan chains, and an additional glycosaminoglycan attachment site in the C-terminal domain V. In lower invertebrates, perlecan is not typically a proteoglycan, possessing the majority of the core protein modules, but lacking domain I where the attachment sites for glycosaminoglycan chains are located. This suggests that uniting the heparan sulfate binding growth factor functions of domain I and the core protein functions of the rest of the molecule in domains II-V occurred later in evolution for a new functional purpose. In this review, we surveyed several decades of pertinent literature to ask a fundamental question: Why did nature design this protein uniquely as an extraordinarily long multifunctional proteoglycan with a single promoter regulating expression, rather than separating these functions into individual proteins that could be independently regulated? We arrived at the conclusion that the concentration of perlecan at functional borders separating tissues and tissue layers is an ancient key function of the core protein. The addition of the heparan sulfate chains in domain I likely occurred as an additional means of binding the core protein to other ECM proteins in territorial matrices and basement membranes, and as a means to reserve growth factors in an on-site depot to assist with rapid repair of those borders when compromised, such as would occur during wounding. We propose a function for perlecan that extends its role from that of an extracellular scaffold, as we previously

  17. Border patrol: insights into the unique role of perlecan/heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 at cell and tissue borders.

    PubMed

    Farach-Carson, Mary C; Warren, Curtis R; Harrington, Daniel A; Carson, Daniel D

    2014-02-01

    The extracellular matrix proteoglycan (ECM) perlecan, also known as heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 or HSPG2, is one of the largest (>200 nm) and oldest (>550 M years) extracellular matrix molecules. In vertebrates, perlecan's five-domain structure contains numerous independently folding modules with sequence similarities to other ECM proteins, all connected like cars into one long, diverse complex train following a unique N-terminal domain I decorated with three long glycosaminoglycan chains, and an additional glycosaminoglycan attachment site in the C-terminal domain V. In lower invertebrates, perlecan is not typically a proteoglycan, possessing the majority of the core protein modules, but lacking domain I where the attachment sites for glycosaminoglycan chains are located. This suggests that uniting the heparan sulfate binding growth factor functions of domain I and the core protein functions of the rest of the molecule in domains II-V occurred later in evolution for a new functional purpose. In this review, we surveyed several decades of pertinent literature to ask a fundamental question: Why did nature design this protein uniquely as an extraordinarily long multifunctional proteoglycan with a single promoter regulating expression, rather than separating these functions into individual proteins that could be independently regulated? We arrived at the conclusion that the concentration of perlecan at functional borders separating tissues and tissue layers is an ancient key function of the core protein. The addition of the heparan sulfate chains in domain I likely occurred as an additional means of binding the core protein to other ECM proteins in territorial matrices and basement membranes, and as a means to reserve growth factors in an on-site depot to assist with rapid repair of those borders when compromised, such as would occur during wounding. We propose a function for perlecan that extends its role from that of an extracellular scaffold, as we previously

  18. 2-O Heparan Sulfate Sulfation by Hs2st Is Required for Erk/Mapk Signalling Activation at the Mid-Gestational Mouse Telencephalic Midline

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Kit; Howe, Katherine; Clegg, James M.; Guimond, Scott E.; Price, David J.; Turnbull, Jeremy E.; Pratt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear carbohydrate composed of polymerized uronate-glucosamine disaccharide units that decorates cell surface and secreted glycoproteins in the extracellular matrix. In mammals HS is subjected to differential sulfation by fifteen different heparan sulfotransferase (HST) enzymes of which Hs2st uniquely catalyzes the sulfation of the 2-O position of the uronate in HS. HS sulfation is postulated to be important for regulation of signaling pathways by facilitating the interaction of HS with signaling proteins including those of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (Fgf) family which signal through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases Erk1/2. In the developing mouse telencephalon Fgf2 signaling regulates proliferation and neurogenesis. Loss of Hs2st function phenocopies the thinned cerebral cortex of mutant mice in which Fgf2 or Erk1/2 function are abrogated, suggesting the hypothesis that 2-O-sulfated HS structures play a specific role in Fgf2/Erk signaling pathway in this context in vivo. This study investigated the molecular role of 2-O sulfation in Fgf2/Erk signaling in the developing telencephalic midline midway through mouse embryogenesis at E12.5. We examined the expression of Hs2st, Fgf2, and Erk1/2 activity in wild-type and Hs2st-/- mice. We found that Hs2st is expressed at high levels at the midline correlating with high levels of Erk1/2 activation and Erk1/2 activation was drastically reduced in the Hs2st-/- mutant at the rostral telencephalic midline. We also found that 2-O sulfation is specifically required for the binding of Fgf2 protein to Fgfr1, its major cell-surface receptor at the rostral telencephalic midline. We conclude that 2-O sulfated HS structures generated by Hs2st are needed to form productive signaling complexes between HS, Fgf2 and Fgfr1 that activate Erk1/2 at the midline. Overall, our data suggest the interesting possibility that differential expression of Hs2st targets the rostral telencephalic

  19. Endothelial Heparan Sulfate 6-O-Sulfation Levels Regulate Angiogenic Responses of Endothelial Cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreras, Cristina; Rushton, Graham; Cole, Claire L.; Babur, Muhammad; Telfer, Brian A.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Gardiner, John M.; Williams, Kaye J.; Jayson, Gordon C.; Avizienyte, Egle

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) are potent pro-angiogenic growth factors that play a pivotal role in tumor angiogenesis. The activity of these growth factors is regulated by heparan sulfate (HS), which is essential for the formation of FGF2/FGF receptor (FGFR) and VEGF165/VEGF receptor signaling complexes. However, the structural characteristics of HS that determine activation or inhibition of such complexes are only partially defined. Here we show that ovarian tumor endothelium displays high levels of HS sequences that harbor glucosamine 6-O-sulfates when compared with normal ovarian vasculature where these sequences are also detected in perivascular area. Reduced HS 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (HS6ST-1) or 6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS6ST-2) expression in endothelial cells impacts upon the prevalence of HS 6-O-sulfate moieties in HS sequences, which consist of repeating short, highly sulfated S domains interspersed by transitional N-acetylated/N-sulfated domains. 1–40% reduction in 6-O-sulfates significantly compromises FGF2- and VEGF165-induced endothelial cell sprouting and tube formation in vitro and FGF2-dependent angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, HS on wild-type neighboring endothelial or smooth muscle cells fails to restore endothelial cell sprouting and tube formation. The affinity of FGF2 for HS with reduced 6-O-sulfation is preserved, although FGFR1 activation is inhibited correlating with reduced receptor internalization. These data show that 6-O-sulfate moieties in endothelial HS are of major importance in regulating FGF2- and VEGF165-dependent endothelial cell functions in vitro and in vivo and highlight HS6ST-1 and HS6ST-2 as potential targets of novel antiangiogenic agents. PMID:22927437

  20. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans undergo differential expression alterations in right sided colorectal cancer, depending on their metastatic character.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Vega, Iván; García-Suárez, Olivia; García, Beatriz; Crespo, Ainara; Astudillo, Aurora; Quirós, Luis M

    2015-10-20

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are complex molecules involved in the growth, invasion and metastatic properties of cancerous cells. This study analyses the alterations in the expression patterns of these molecules in right sided colorectal cancer (CRC), both metastatic and non-metastatic. Twenty right sided CRCs were studied. A transcriptomic approach was used, employing qPCR to analyze both the expression of the enzymes involved in heparan sulfate (HS) chains biosynthesis, as well as the proteoglycan core proteins. Since some of these proteoglycans can also carry chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, we include the study of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these glycosaminoglycans. Immunohistochemical techniques were also used to analyze tissue expression of particular genes showing significant expression differences, of potential interest. Changes in proteoglycan core proteins differ depending on their location; those located intracellularly or in the extracellular matrix show very similar alteration patterns, while those located on the cell surface vary greatly depending on the nature of the tumor: glypicans 1, 3, 6 and betaglycan are affected in the non-metastatic tumors, whereas in the metastatic, only glypican-1 and syndecan-1 are modified, the latter showing opposing alterations in levels of RNA and of protein, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation in these tumors. Furthermore, in non-metastatic tumors, polymerization of glycosaminoglycan chains is modified, particularly affecting the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker and the initiation and elongation of CS chains, HS chains being less affected. Regarding the enzymes responsible for the modificaton of the HS chains, alterations were only found in non-metastatic tumors, affecting N-sulfation and the isoforms HS6ST1, HS3ST3B and HS3ST5. In contrast, synthesis of the CS chains suggests changes in epimerization and sulfation of the C4 and C2 in both types of tumor. Right sided CRCs show

  1. Mutations in Biosynthetic Enzymes for the Protein Linker Region of Chondroitin/Dermatan/Heparan Sulfate Cause Skeletal and Skin Dysplasias

    PubMed Central

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans, including chondroitin, dermatan, and heparan sulfate, have various roles in a wide range of biological events such as cell signaling, cell proliferation, tissue morphogenesis, and interactions with various growth factors. Their polysaccharides covalently attach to the serine residues on specific core proteins through the common linker region tetrasaccharide, -xylose-galactose-galactose-glucuronic acid, which is produced through the stepwise addition of respective monosaccharides by four distinct glycosyltransferases. Mutations in the human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of the linker region tetrasaccharide cause a number of genetic disorders, called glycosaminoglycan linkeropathies, including Desbuquois dysplasia type 2, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Larsen syndrome. This review focused on recent studies on genetic diseases caused by defects in the biosynthesis of the common linker region tetrasaccharide. PMID:26582078

  2. Heparan Sulfate Enhances the Self-Renewal and Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Adult Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Helledie, Torben; Dombrowski, Christian; Rai, Bina; Lim, Zophia X.H.; Hin, Ian Lee Hock; Rider, David A.; Stein, Gary S.; Hong, Wanjin; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Hui, James H.; Nurcombe, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Insufficient cell number hampers therapies utilizing adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and current ex vivo expansion strategies lead to a loss of multipotentiality. Here we show that supplementation with an embryonic form of heparan sulfate (HS-2) can both increase the initial recovery of hMSCs from bone marrow aspirates and increase their ex vivo expansion by up to 13-fold. HS-2 acts to amplify a subpopulation of hMSCs harboring longer telomeres and increased expression of the MSC surface marker stromal precursor antigen-1. Gene expression profiling revealed that hMSCs cultured in HS-2 possess a distinct signature that reflects their enhanced multipotentiality and improved bone-forming ability when transplanted into critical-sized bone defects. Thus, HS-2 offers a novel means for decreasing the expansion time necessary for obtaining therapeutic numbers of multipotent hMSCs without the addition of exogenous growth factors that compromise stem cell fate. PMID:22066689

  3. Heparan sulfate dissociates serum amyloid A (SAA) from acute-phase high-density lipoprotein, promoting SAA aggregation.

    PubMed

    Noborn, Fredrik; Ancsin, John B; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Kisilevsky, Robert; Li, Jin-Ping

    2012-07-20

    Inflammation-related (AA) amyloidosis is a severe clinical disorder characterized by the systemic deposition of the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A (SAA). SAA is normally associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in plasma, but under yet unclear circumstances, the apolipoprotein is converted into amyloid fibrils. AA amyloid and heparan sulfate (HS) display an intimate relationship in situ, suggesting a role for HS in the pathogenic process. This study reports that HS dissociates SAA from HDLs isolated from inflamed mouse plasma. Application of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggests that HS simultaneously binds to two apolipoproteins of HDL, SAA and ApoA-I, and thereby induce SAA dissociation. The activity requires a minimum chain length of 12-14 sugar units, proposing an explanation to previous findings that short HS fragments preclude AA amyloidosis. The results address the initial events in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis.

  4. Heparan Sulfate Dissociates Serum Amyloid A (SAA) from Acute-phase High-density Lipoprotein, Promoting SAA Aggregation*

    PubMed Central

    Noborn, Fredrik; Ancsin, John B.; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Kisilevsky, Robert; Li, Jin-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation-related (AA) amyloidosis is a severe clinical disorder characterized by the systemic deposition of the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A (SAA). SAA is normally associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in plasma, but under yet unclear circumstances, the apolipoprotein is converted into amyloid fibrils. AA amyloid and heparan sulfate (HS) display an intimate relationship in situ, suggesting a role for HS in the pathogenic process. This study reports that HS dissociates SAA from HDLs isolated from inflamed mouse plasma. Application of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggests that HS simultaneously binds to two apolipoproteins of HDL, SAA and ApoA-I, and thereby induce SAA dissociation. The activity requires a minimum chain length of 12–14 sugar units, proposing an explanation to previous findings that short HS fragments preclude AA amyloidosis. The results address the initial events in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis. PMID:22654109

  5. The perlecan heparan sulfate proteoglycan mediates cellular uptake of HIV-1 Tat through a pathway responsible for biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Argyris, Elias G.; Kulkosky, Joseph; Meyer, Marie E.; Xu Yan; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Pomerantz, Roger J. . E-mail: roger.j.pomerantz@jefferson.edu; Williams, Kevin Jon . E-mail: K_Williams@mail.jci.tju.edu

    2004-12-20

    Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) mediate internalization of HIV-1 Tat. Herein, we report that human WiDr cells, which express perlecan but no other HSPGs, can internalize {sup 125}I-labeled Tat with minimal lysosomal degradation. Pre-treatment of cells with heparitinase almost completely abolished {sup 125}I-Tat surface binding, while the use of an HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter-reporter construct demonstrated that transactivation was potently blocked by pretreatment of cells with heparitinase, indicating an essential role for perlecan in the biologic effects of Tat. We conclude that the perlecan mediates Tat uptake and is required for HIV-1 LTR-directed transactivation in this human cell type.

  6. Localization of human serum amyloid P component and heparan sulfate proteoglycan in in vitro-formed Abeta fibrils.

    PubMed

    Holm Nielsen, E; Nybo, M; Junker, K; Toftedal Hansen, P; Rasmussen, I M; Svehag, S E

    2000-08-01

    Ultrastructural studies of the localization of serum amyloid P component (SAP) in amyloid fibrils have given divergent results. We here report for the first time that electron microscopy of SAP coincubated with Abeta1-42 peptides or with mature Abeta1-42 fibrils, revealed SAP molecules coating the surface of the mature fibrils and that protofibrils of Abeta1-42 did not bind SAP. Also when incubated with extracted amyloid light chain (AL)-fibrils the SAP molecules aligned on the fibril surface. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan bound to the surface of the Abeta fibrils with a spacing of about 50 nm. We conclude that SAP does not bind to protofibrils but to the surface of mature Abeta fibrils and that it may stabilize and protect the fibrils.

  7. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R.; Shukla, Deepak

    2009-12-18

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  8. The Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptide 19-2.5 Interacts with Heparanase and Heparan Sulfate in Murine and Human Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; De Santis, Rebecca; Koczera, Patrick; Simons, Nadine; Haase, Hajo; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains from their proteoglycans. Thereby, heparanase liberates highly potent circulating heparan sulfate-fragments (HS-fragments) and triggers the fatal and excessive inflammatory response in sepsis. As a potential anti-inflammatory agent for sepsis therapy, peptide 19–2.5 belongs to the class of synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides; however, its activity is not restricted to Gram-negative bacterial infection. We hypothesized that peptide 19–2.5 interacts with heparanase and/or HS, thereby reducing the levels of circulating HS-fragments in murine and human sepsis. Our data indicate that the treatment of septic mice with peptide 19–2.5 compared to untreated control animals lowers levels of plasma heparanase and circulating HS-fragments and reduces heparanase activity. Additionally, mRNA levels of heparanase in heart, liver, lung, kidney and spleen are downregulated in septic mice treated with peptide 19–2.5 compared to untreated control animals. In humans, plasma heparanase level and activity are elevated in septic shock. The ex vivo addition of peptide 19–2.5 to plasma of septic shock patients decreases heparanase activity but not heparanase level. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed a strong exothermic reaction between peptide 19–2.5 and heparanase and HS-fragments. However, a saturation character has been identified only in the peptide 19–2.5 and HS interaction. In conclusion, the findings of our current study indicate that peptide 19–2.5 interacts with heparanase, which is elevated in murine and human sepsis and consecutively attenuates the generation of circulating HS-fragments in systemic inflammation. Thus, peptide 19–2.5 seems to be a potential anti-inflammatory agent in sepsis. PMID:26600070

  9. Microfluidic Screening Reveals Heparan Sulfate Enhances Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth by Modulating Fibroblast Growth Factor‐2 Transport

    PubMed Central

    Titmarsh, Drew M.; Tan, Clarissa L.L.; Glass, Nick R.; Nurcombe, Victor; Cooper‐White, Justin J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cost‐effective expansion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) remains a key challenge for their widespread clinical deployment. Fibroblast growth factor‐2 (FGF‐2) is a key hMSC mitogen often supplemented to increase hMSC growth rates. However, hMSCs also produce endogenous FGF‐2, which critically interacts with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS). We assessed the interplay of FGF‐2 with a heparan sulfate variant (HS8) engineered to bind FGF‐2 and potentiate its activity. Bone marrow‐derived hMSCs were screened in perfused microbioreactor arrays (MBAs), showing that HS8 (50 μg/ml) increased hMSC proliferation and cell number after 3 days, with an effect equivalent to FGF‐2 (50 ng/ml). In combination, the effects of HS8 and FGF‐2 were additive. Differential cell responses, from upstream to downstream culture chambers under constant flow of media in the MBA, provided insights into modulation of FGF‐2 transport by HS8. HS8 treatment induced proliferation mainly in the downstream chambers, suggesting a requirement for endogenous FGF‐2 accumulation, whereas responses to FGF‐2 occurred primarily in the upstream chambers. Adding HS8 along with FGF‐2, however, maximized the range of FGF‐2 effectiveness. Measurements of FGF‐2 in static cultures then revealed that this was because HS8 caused increased endogenous FGF‐2 production and liberated FGF‐2 from the cell surface into the supernatant. HS8 also sustained levels of supplemented FGF‐2 available over 3 days. These results suggest HS8 enhances hMSC proliferation and expansion by leveraging endogenous FGF‐2 production and maximizing the effect of supplemented FGF‐2. This is an exciting strategy for cost‐effective expansion of hMSCs. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1178–1190 PMID:28205415

  10. Synovial joint formation requires local Ext1 expression and heparan sulfate production in developing mouse embryo limbs and spine

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Christina; Yasuda, Tadashi; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) regulate a number of major developmental processes, but their roles in synovial joint formation remain unknown. Here we created conditional mouse embryo mutants lacking Ext1 in developing joints by mating Ext1f/f and Gdf5-Cre mice. Ext1 encodes a subunit of the Ext1/Ext2 Golgi-associated protein complex responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. The proximal limb joints did form in the Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mutants, but contained an uneven articulating superficial zone that expressed very low lubricin levels. The underlying cartilaginous epiphysis was deranged as well and displayed random patterns of cell proliferation and matrillin-1 and collagen IIA expression, indicative of an aberrant phenotypic definition of the epiphysis itself. Digit joints were even more affected, lacked a distinct mesenchymal interzone and were often fused likely as a result of local abnormal BMP and hedgehog activity and signaling. Interestingly, overall growth and lengthening of long bones were also delayed in the mutants. To test whether Ext1 function is needed for joint formation at other sites, we examined the spine. Indeed, entire intervertebral discs, normally composed by nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, were often missing in Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mice. When disc remnants were present, they displayed aberrant organization and defective joint marker expression. Similar intervertebral joint defects and fusions occurred in Col2-Cre;β-cateninf/f mutants. The study provides novel evidence that local Ext1 expression and HS production are needed to maintain the phenotype and function of joint-forming cells and coordinate local signaling by BMP, hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. The data indicate also that defects in joint formation reverberate on, and delay, overall long bone growth. PMID:21185280

  11. Microfluidic Screening Reveals Heparan Sulfate Enhances Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth by Modulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Transport.

    PubMed

    Titmarsh, Drew M; Tan, Clarissa L L; Glass, Nick R; Nurcombe, Victor; Cooper-White, Justin J; Cool, Simon M

    2017-04-01

    Cost-effective expansion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) remains a key challenge for their widespread clinical deployment. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a key hMSC mitogen often supplemented to increase hMSC growth rates. However, hMSCs also produce endogenous FGF-2, which critically interacts with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS). We assessed the interplay of FGF-2 with a heparan sulfate variant (HS8) engineered to bind FGF-2 and potentiate its activity. Bone marrow-derived hMSCs were screened in perfused microbioreactor arrays (MBAs), showing that HS8 (50 μg/ml) increased hMSC proliferation and cell number after 3 days, with an effect equivalent to FGF-2 (50 ng/ml). In combination, the effects of HS8 and FGF-2 were additive. Differential cell responses, from upstream to downstream culture chambers under constant flow of media in the MBA, provided insights into modulation of FGF-2 transport by HS8. HS8 treatment induced proliferation mainly in the downstream chambers, suggesting a requirement for endogenous FGF-2 accumulation, whereas responses to FGF-2 occurred primarily in the upstream chambers. Adding HS8 along with FGF-2, however, maximized the range of FGF-2 effectiveness. Measurements of FGF-2 in static cultures then revealed that this was because HS8 caused increased endogenous FGF-2 production and liberated FGF-2 from the cell surface into the supernatant. HS8 also sustained levels of supplemented FGF-2 available over 3 days. These results suggest HS8 enhances hMSC proliferation and expansion by leveraging endogenous FGF-2 production and maximizing the effect of supplemented FGF-2. This is an exciting strategy for cost-effective expansion of hMSCs. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1178-1190.

  12. Cell surface heparan sulfate is a receptor for human herpesvirus 8 and interacts with envelope glycoprotein K8.1.

    PubMed

    Birkmann, A; Mahr, K; Ensser, A; Yağuboğlu, S; Titgemeyer, F; Fleckenstein, B; Neipel, F

    2001-12-01

    An immunodominant envelope glycoprotein is encoded by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (also termed Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) K8.1 gene. The functional role of glycoprotein K8.1 is unknown, and recognizable sequence homology to K8.1 is not detectable in the genomes of most other closely related gammaherpesviruses, such as herpesvirus saimiri or Epstein-Barr virus. In search for a possible function for K8.1, we expressed the ectodomain of K8.1 fused to the Fc part of human immunoglobulin G1 (K8.1DeltaTMFc). K8.1DeltaTMFc specifically bound to the surface of cells expressing glycosaminoglycans but not to mutant cell lines negative for the expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Binding of K8.1DeltaTMFc to mammalian cells could be blocked by heparin. Interestingly, the infection of primary human endothelial cells by HHV-8 could also be blocked by similar concentrations of heparin. The specificity and affinity of these interactions were then determined by surface plasmon resonance measurements using immobilized heparin and soluble K8.1. This revealed that K8.1 binds to heparin with an affinity comparable to that of glycoproteins B and C of herpes simplex virus, which are known to be involved in target cell recognition by binding to cell surface proteoglycans, especially heparan sulfate. We conclude that cell surface glycosaminoglycans play a crucial role in HHV-8 target cell recognition and that HHV-8 envelope protein K8.1 is at least one of the proteins involved.

  13. Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Is a Receptor for Human Herpesvirus 8 and Interacts with Envelope Glycoprotein K8.1

    PubMed Central

    Birkmann, Alexander; Mahr, Kerstin; Ensser, Armin; Yağuboğlu, Svenja; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Neipel, Frank

    2001-01-01

    An immunodominant envelope glycoprotein is encoded by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (also termed Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) K8.1 gene. The functional role of glycoprotein K8.1 is unknown, and recognizable sequence homology to K8.1 is not detectable in the genomes of most other closely related gammaherpesviruses, such as herpesvirus saimiri or Epstein-Barr virus. In search for a possible function for K8.1, we expressed the ectodomain of K8.1 fused to the Fc part of human immunoglobulin G1 (K8.1ΔTMFc). K8.1ΔTMFc specifically bound to the surface of cells expressing glycosaminoglycans but not to mutant cell lines negative for the expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Binding of K8.1ΔTMFc to mammalian cells could be blocked by heparin. Interestingly, the infection of primary human endothelial cells by HHV-8 could also be blocked by similar concentrations of heparin. The specificity and affinity of these interactions were then determined by surface plasmon resonance measurements using immobilized heparin and soluble K8.1. This revealed that K8.1 binds to heparin with an affinity comparable to that of glycoproteins B and C of herpes simplex virus, which are known to be involved in target cell recognition by binding to cell surface proteoglycans, especially heparan sulfate. We conclude that cell surface glycosaminoglycans play a crucial role in HHV-8 target cell recognition and that HHV-8 envelope protein K8.1 is at least one of the proteins involved. PMID:11689640

  14. Positional information in axolotl and mouse limb extracellular matrix is mediated via heparan sulfate and fibroblast growth factor during limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum)

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Anne Q.; Lee, Jangwoo; Oei, Michelle; Flath, Craig; Hwe, Caitlyn; Mariano, Rachele; Vu, Tiffany; Shu, Cynthia; Dinh, Andrew; Simkin, Jennifer; Muneoka, Ken; Bryant, Susan V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate complex body structures after traumatic injury. In salamander regeneration, the cells maintain a memory of their original position and use this positional information to recreate the missing pattern. We used an in vivo gain‐of‐function assay to determine whether components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have positional information required to induce formation of new limb pattern during regeneration. We discovered that salamander limb ECM has a position‐specific ability to either inhibit regeneration or induce de novo limb structure, and that this difference is dependent on heparan sulfates that are associated with differential expression of heparan sulfate sulfotransferases. We also discovered that an artificial ECM containing only heparan sulfate was sufficient to induce de novo limb pattern in salamander limb regeneration. Finally, ECM from mouse limbs is capable of inducing limb pattern in axolotl blastemas in a position‐specific, developmental‐stage‐specific, and heparan sulfate‐dependent manner. This study demonstrates a mechanism for positional information in regeneration and establishes a crucial functional link between salamander regeneration and mammals. PMID:27499874

  15. Improved liquid chromatography-MS/MS of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides via chip-based pulsed makeup flow.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Shi, Xiaofeng; Yu, Xiang; Leymarie, Nancy; Staples, Gregory O; Yin, Hongfeng; Killeen, Kevin; Zaia, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Microfluidic chip-based hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is a useful separation system for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in compositional profiling of heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides; however, ions observed using HILIC LC-MS are low in charge. Tandem MS of HS oligosaccharide ions with low charge results in undesirable losses of SO(3) from precursor ions during collision induced dissociation. One solution is to add metal cations to stabilize sulfate groups. Another is to add a nonvolatile, polar compound such as sulfolane, a molecule known to supercharge proteins, to produce a similar effect for oligosaccharides. We demonstrate use of a novel pulsed makeup flow (MUF) HPLC-chip. The chip enables controlled application of additives during specified chromatographic time windows and thus minimizes the extent to which nonvolatile additives build up in the ion source. The pulsed MUF system was applied to LC-MS/MS of HS oligosaccharides. Metal cations and sulfolane were tested as additives. The most promising results were obtained for sulfolane, for which supercharging of the oligosaccharide ions increased their signal strengths relative to controls. Tandem MS of these supercharged precursor ions showed decreased abundances of product ions from sulfate losses yet more abundant product ions from backbone cleavages.

  16. Versatile Separation and Analysis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides Using Graphitized Carbon Liquid Chromatography and Electrospray Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rebecca L; Guimond, Scott E; Prescott, Mark; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Karlsson, Niclas

    2017-09-05

    Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) by nature contain multiple isomeric structures, which are fundamental for the regulation of biological processes. Here we report the use of a porous graphitized carbon (PGC) LC-MS method with effective separation and sensitivity to separate mixtures of digested HS oligosaccharides. Application of this method allowed the separation of oligosaccharide mixtures with various degree of polymerization (dp) ranging from dp4 to dp8, two dp4 isomers that were baseline resolved, four dp6 isomers, and the observation of a dp3 oligosaccharide. PGC LC-MS of complex mixtures demonstrated that compounds eluted from the column in decreasing order of hydrophilicity, with the more highly sulfated structures eluting first. Our data indicate that sulfation levels, chain length, and conformation all effect elution order. We found that PGC's resolving capabilities for the dp4 and dp6 isomeric structures makes this methodology particularly useful for the sequencing of HS saccharides, because the lack of contaminating isomeric structures provides unambiguous structural assignments from the MS/MS data. Collectively this work demonstrates that PGC column-based methods are powerful tools for enhanced separation and analysis of heterogeneous mixtures of HS saccharide species.

  17. Direct detection of HSulf-1 and HSulf-2 activities on extracellular heparan sulfate and their inhibition by PI-88

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md Motarab; Hosono-Fukao, Tomomi; Tang, Renhong; Sugaya, Noriko; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Jenniskens, Guido J; Kimata, Koji; Rosen, Steven D; Uchimura, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfates (HS) bind a diversity of protein ligands on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix and thus can modulate cell signaling. The state of sulfation in glucosamines and uronic acids within the chains strongly influences their binding. We have previously cloned and characterized two human extracellular endoglucosamine 6-sulfatases, HSulf-1 and HSulf-2, which selectively liberate the 6-O sulfate groups on glucosamines present in N, 6-O, and 2-O trisulfated disaccharides of intact HS and heparins. These enzymes serve important roles in development and are upregulated in a number of cancers. To determine whether the Sulfs act on the trisulfated disaccharides that exist on the cell surface, we expressed HSulfs in cultured cells and performed a flow cytometric analysis with the RB4CD12, an anti-HS antibody that recognizes N- and O-sulfated HS saccharides. The endogenously expressed level of the cell surface RB4CD12 epitope was greatly diminished in CHO, HEK293, and HeLa cells transfected with HSulf-1 or HSulf-2 cDNA. In correspondence with the RB4CD12 finding, the N, 6-O, and 2-O trisulfated disaccharides of the HS isolated from the cell surface/extracellular matrix were dramatically reduced in the Sulf-expressed HEK293 cells. We then developed an ELISA and confirmed that the RB4CD12 epitope in immobilized heparin was degraded by purified recombinant HSulf-1 and HSulf-2, and conditioned medium (CM) of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, which contain a native form of HSulf-2. Furthermore, HSulf-1 and HSulf-2 exerted activity against the epitope expressed on microvessels of mouse brains. Both HSulf activities were potently inhibited by PI-88, a sulfated heparin mimetic with anti-cancer activities. These findings provide new strategies for monitoring the extracellular remodeling of HS by Sulfs during normal and pathophysiological processes. PMID:19822709

  18. Lymphatic Specific Disruption in the Fine Structure of Heparan Sulfate Inhibits Dendritic Cell Traffic and Functional T Cell Responses in the Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Johns, Scott C.; Kim, Daniel; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Salanga, Catherina L.; Handel, Tracy M.; Macal, Mónica; Zúñiga, Elina I.; Fuster, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells essential for initiating adaptive immunity. Following pathogen exposure, trafficking of DC to lymph nodes (LN) through afferent lymphatic vessels constitutes a crucial step in the execution of their functions. The mechanisms regulating this process, however, are poorly understood, although the involvement of certain chemokines in this process has recently been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that genetically altering the fine structure (N-sulfation) of heparan sulfate specifically in mouse lymphatic endothelium significantly reduces DC trafficking to regional lymph nodes in vivo. Moreover, this alteration had the unique functional consequence of reducing CD8+ T cell proliferative responses in draining lymph nodes in an ovalbumin immunization model. Mechanistic studies suggested that lymphatic endothelial heparan sulfate regulates multiple steps during DC trafficking, including optimal presentation of chemokines on the surface of DC, thus acting as a co-receptor that may function “in trans” to mediate chemokine-receptor binding. This study not only identifies novel glycan-mediated mechanisms that regulate lymphatic DC trafficking, but also validates the fine structure of lymphatic-vascular specific heparan sulfate as a novel molecular target for strategies aiming to modulate DC behavior and/or alter pathologic T cell responses in lymph nodes. PMID:24493818

  19. ZG16p, an animal homolog of β-prism fold plant lectins, interacts with heparan sulfate proteoglycans in pancreatic zymogen granules.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa-Inoue, Kaori; Mimura, Tomoko; Hosokawa-Tamiya, Sachiko; Nakano, Yukiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kinoshita-Toyoda, Akiko; Toyoda, Hidenao; Kojima-Aikawa, Kyoko

    2012-02-01

    ZG16p is a soluble 16 kDa pancreatic protein having structural similarities with plant β-prism fold lectins such as the banana lectin BanLec and the jackfruit lectin jacalin. ZG16p is postulated to be involved in the formation of zymogen granules by interacting with proteoglycans (PGs) localized in pancreatic exocrine granule membranes, but direct evidence was lacking. We characterized the structural properties of rat pancreatic zymogen granule PGs and examined their interaction with ZG16p. Structural analysis of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) showed that rat pancreatic zymogen granule PGs have heparan sulfate chains with a unique property, a high degree of sulfation (ΔUA-GlcNAc:ΔUA-GlcNS:ΔUA-GlcNAc6S:ΔUA-GlcNS6S:ΔUA2S-GlcNS:ΔUA2S-GlcNS6S, 27.9:16.6:5.7:22.5:6.2:21.1). After heparin lyase II digestion, the core proteins derived from the PGs were detected at molecular weights of 66,000 and 35,000-40,000. An overlay binding assay revealed that ZG16p binds specifically to heparan sulfate PGs by recognizing their GAG chains. Affinity chromatography demonstrated that ZG16p binds most strongly to heparin among the zymogen granule proteins. Site-directed mutational analysis revealed that the basic amino acid residues located in two putative carbohydrate-binding sites (CBSs) of ZG16p, which were found in association with the crystal structure of BanLec, are responsible for the recognition of heparin. These observations suggest that ZG16p is the primary binding partner of the granule heparan sulfate PGs. ZG16p may cross-link the granule heparan sulfate chains via two CBSs and facilitate the formation of a submembranous matrix, a sorting platform for enzyme proteins on the luminal side of the zymogen granule membrane.

  20. Degradation of endothelial cell matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan by elastase and the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-chloride system.

    PubMed Central

    Klebanoff, S. J.; Kinsella, M. G.; Wight, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    The degradation of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans of subendothelial matrix by neutrophil elastase and the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-chloride system added separately, sequentially, or together at pH 4.5 to 7.5 was determined by the release of lower molecular weight 35S-labeled material. Elastase alone and the myeloperoxidase system alone caused degradation, and when 4-hour exposure to elastase was followed by 15 minutes of exposure to the myeloperoxidase system, the effect was greater than additive. A greater than additive effect was not observed when elastase followed the myeloperoxidase system or the two were added together. Chloride (or sulfate) alone increased the release of 35S-labeled material from elastase-treated matrix, although the effect of 0.1 M chloride was not as great as that observed when an equivalent concentration of chloride was combined with myeloperoxidase and H2O2. The release of these systems at sites of adherence of neutrophils to glomerular basement membrane may contribute to neutrophil-associated proteinuria. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8395774

  1. A role for heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform 2 in herpes simplex virus type 1 entry and spread

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Oh, Myung-Jin; Shukla, Deepak . E-mail: dshukla@uic.edu

    2006-03-15

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform-2 (3-OST-2), which belongs to a family of enzymes capable of generating herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) entry and spread receptors, is predominantly expressed in human brain. Despite its unique expression pattern, the ability of 3-OST-2 to mediate HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell fusion is not known. Our results demonstrate that expression of 3-OST-2 can render Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells susceptible to entry of wild-type and mutant strains of HSV-1. Evidence for generation of gD receptors by 3-OST-2 were suggested by gD-mediated interference assay and the ability of 3-OST-2-expressing CHO-K1 cells to preferentially bind HSV-1 gD, which could be reversed by prior treatment of cells with HS lyases (heparinases II/III). In addition, 3-OST-2-expressing CHO-K1 cells acquired the ability to fuse with cells-expressing HSV-1 glycoproteins, a phenomenon that mimics a way of viral spread in vivo. Demonstrating specificity, the cell fusion was inhibited by soluble 3-O-sulfated forms of HS, but not unmodified HS. Taken together, our results raise the possibility of a role of 3-OST-2 in the spread of HSV-1 infection in the brain.

  2. Distinct 3-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Modification Patterns Are Required for kal-1−Dependent Neurite Branching in a Context-Dependent Manner in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tecle, Eillen; Diaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Bülow, Hannes E.

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is an unbranched glycosaminoglycan exhibiting substantial molecular diversity due to multiple, nonuniformly introduced modifications, including sulfations, epimerization, and acetylation. HS modifications serve specific and instructive roles in neuronal development, leading to the hypothesis of a HS code that regulates nervous system patterning. Although the in vivo roles of many of the HS modifications have been investigated, very little is known about the function of HS 3-O-sulfation in vivo. By examining patterning of the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system in loss of function mutants of the two 3-O-sulfotransferases, hst-3.1 and hst-3.2, we found HS 3-O-sulfation to be largely dispensable for overall neural development. However, generation of stereotypical neurite branches in hermaphroditic-specific neurons required hst-3.1, hst-3.2, as well as an extracellular cell adhesion molecule encoded by kal-1, the homolog of Kallmann Syndrome associated gene 1/anosmin-1. In contrast, kal-1−dependent neurite branching in AIY neurons required catalytic activity of hst-3.2 but not hst-3.1. The context-dependent requirement for hst-3.2 and hst-3.1 indicates that both enzymes generate distinct types of HS modification patterns in different cell types, which regulate kal-1 to promote neurite branching. We conclude that HS 3-O-sulfation does not play a general role in establishing the HS code in C. elegans but rather plays a specialized role in a context-dependent manner to establish defined aspects of neuronal circuits. PMID:23451335

  3. Surface-exposed amino acid residues of HPV16 L1 protein mediating interaction with cell surface heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Maren; Bodevin, Sabrina; Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Spillmann, Dorothe; Streeck, Rolf E; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Lindahl, Ulf; Sapp, Martin

    2007-09-21

    Efficient infection of cells by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and pseudovirions requires primary interaction with cell surface proteoglycans with apparent preference for species carrying heparan sulfate (HS) side chains. To identify residues contributing to virus/cell interaction, we performed point mutational analysis of the HPV16 major capsid protein, L1, targeting surface-exposed amino acid residues. Replacement of lysine residues 278, 356, or 361 for alanine reduced cell binding and infectivity of pseudovirions. Various combinations of these amino acid exchanges further decreased cell attachment and infectivity with residual infectivity of less than 5% for the triple mutant, suggesting that these lysine residues cooperate in HS binding. Single, double, or triple exchanges for arginine did not impair infectivity, demonstrating that interaction is dependent on charge distribution rather than sequence-specific. The lysine residues are located within a pocket on the capsomere surface, which was previously proposed as the putative receptor binding site. Fab fragments of binding-neutralizing antibody H16.56E that recognize an epitope directly adjacent to lysine residues strongly reduced HS-mediated cell binding, further corroborating our findings. In contrast, mutation of basic surface residues located in the cleft between capsomeres outside this pocket did not significantly reduce interaction with HS or resulted in assembly-deficient proteins. Computer-simulated heparin docking suggested that all three lysine residues can form hydrogen bonds with 2-O-, 6-O-, and N-sulfate groups of a single HS molecule with a minimal saccharide domain length of eight monomer units. This prediction was experimentally confirmed in binding experiments using capsid protein, heparin molecules of defined length, and sulfate group modifications.

  4. Cancer cell exosomes depend on cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans for their internalization and functional activity.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Helena C; Svensson, Katrin J; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Li, Jin-Ping; Belting, Mattias

    2013-10-22

    Extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated intercellular transfer of signaling proteins and nucleic acids has recently been implicated in the development of cancer and other pathological conditions; however, the mechanism of EV uptake and how this may be targeted remain as important questions. Here, we provide evidence that heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (PGs; HSPGs) function as internalizing receptors of cancer cell-derived EVs with exosome-like characteristics. Internalized exosomes colocalized with cell-surface HSPGs of the syndecan and glypican type, and exosome uptake was specifically inhibited by free HS chains, whereas closely related chondroitin sulfate had no effect. By using several cell mutants, we provide genetic evidence of a receptor function of HSPG in exosome uptake, which was dependent on intact HS, specifically on the 2-O and N-sulfation groups. Further, enzymatic depletion of cell-surface HSPG or pharmacological inhibition of endogenous PG biosynthesis by xyloside significantly attenuated exosome uptake. We provide biochemical evidence that HSPGs are sorted to and associate with exosomes; however, exosome-associated HSPGs appear to have no direct role in exosome internalization. On a functional level, exosome-induced ERK1/2 signaling activation was attenuated in PG-deficient mutant cells as well as in WT cells treated with xyloside. Importantly, exosome-mediated stimulation of cancer cell migration was significantly reduced in PG-deficient mutant cells, or by treatment of WT cells with heparin or xyloside. We conclude that cancer cell-derived exosomes use HSPGs for their internalization and functional activity, which significantly extends the emerging role of HSPGs as key receptors of macromolecular cargo.

  5. Age-related impairment of endothelial progenitor cell migration correlates with structural alterations of heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kate A; Hamilton, Andrew; Reynolds, John A; Sipos, Peter; Crocker, Ian; Stringer, Sally E; Alexander, Yvonne M

    2013-02-01

    Aging poses one of the largest risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. The increased propensity toward vascular pathology with advancing age maybe explained, in part, by a reduction in the ability of circulating endothelial progenitor cells to contribute to vascular repair and regeneration. Although there is evidence to suggest that colony forming unit-Hill cells and circulating angiogenic cells are subject to age-associated changes that impair their function, the impact of aging on human outgrowth endothelial cell (OEC) function has been less studied. We demonstrate that OECs isolated from cord blood or peripheral blood samples from young and old individuals exhibit different characteristics in terms of their migratory capacity. In addition, age-related structural changes were discovered in OEC heparan sulfate (HS), a glycocalyx component that is essential in many signalling pathways. An age-associated decline in the migratory response of OECs toward a gradient of VEGF significantly correlated with a reduction in the relative percentage of the trisulfated disaccharide, 2-O-sulfated-uronic acid, N, 6-O-sulfated-glucosamine (UA[2S]-GlcNS[6S]), within OEC cell surface HS polysaccharide chains. Furthermore, disruption of cell surface HS reduced the migratory response of peripheral blood-derived OECs isolated from young subjects to levels similar to that observed for OECs from older individuals. Together these findings suggest that aging is associated with alterations in the fine structure of HS on the cell surface of OECs. Such changes may modulate the migration, homing, and engraftment capacity of these repair cells, thereby contributing to the progression of endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular pathologies.

  6. Interaction of the amyloid precursor protein-like protein 1 (APLP1) E2 domain with heparan sulfate involves two distinct binding modes

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, Sven O.; Mayer, Magnus C.; Roeser, Dirk; Multhaup, Gerd; Than, Manuel E.

    2015-03-01

    Two X-ray structures of APLP1 E2 with and without a heparin dodecasaccharide are presented, revealing two distinct binding modes of the protein to heparan sulfate. The data provide a mechanistic explanation of how APP-like proteins bind to heparan sulfates and how they specifically recognize nonreducing structures of heparan sulfates. Beyond the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, the members of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family are essential for neuronal development and cell homeostasis in mammals. APP and its paralogues APP-like protein 1 (APLP1) and APP-like protein 2 (APLP2) contain the highly conserved heparan sulfate (HS) binding domain E2, which effects various (patho)physiological functions. Here, two crystal structures of the E2 domain of APLP1 are presented in the apo form and in complex with a heparin dodecasaccharide at 2.5 Å resolution. The apo structure of APLP1 E2 revealed an unfolded and hence flexible N-terminal helix αA. The (APLP1 E2){sub 2}–(heparin){sub 2} complex structure revealed two distinct binding modes, with APLP1 E2 explicitly recognizing the heparin terminus but also interacting with a continuous heparin chain. The latter only requires a certain register of the sugar moieties that fits to a positively charged surface patch and contributes to the general heparin-binding capability of APP-family proteins. Terminal binding of APLP1 E2 to heparin specifically involves a structure of the nonreducing end that is very similar to heparanase-processed HS chains. These data reveal a conserved mechanism for the binding of APP-family proteins to HS and imply a specific regulatory role of HS modifications in the biology of APP and APP-like proteins.

  7. Binding of oligoarginine to membrane lipids and heparan sulfate: structural and thermodynamic characterization of a cell-penetrating peptide.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elisabete; Kitas, Eric; Seelig, Joachim

    2005-02-22

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) comprise a group of arginine-rich oligopeptides that are able to deliver exogenous cargo into cells. A first step in the internalization of CPPs is their binding to the cell surface, a reaction likely to involve membrane phospholipids and/or heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). The present work characterizes the interaction of R(9), one of the most efficient CPPs, with either heparan sulfate (HS) or lipid vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG). Isothermal titration calorimetry shows that R(9) binds to HS with high affinity. Assuming that HS has n independent and equivalent binding sites for R(9), we find an association constant of 3.1 x 10(6) M(-1) at 28 degrees C. At this temperature, the reaction enthalpy is DeltaH(degrees)pep = - 5.5 kcal/mol and approximately 7 R(9) molecules bind per HS chain, which is equivalent to approximately 0.95 cationic/anionic charge ratio. Delta decreases in magnitude upon an increase in temperature, and the reaction becomes entropy-driven at higher temperatures (>or=37 degrees C). The positive heat-capacity change entailed by this reaction (DeltaC(degrees)P = +167 cal mol(-1) K(-1)) indicates the loss of polar residues on R(9)-HS binding, suggesting that hydrophobic forces play no major role on binding. Calorimetric analysis of the interaction of R(9) with POPC/POPG (75:25) vesicles reveals an association constant of 8.2 x 10(4) M(-1) at 28 degrees C. Using a surface partition equilibrium model to correct for electrostatic effects, we find an intrinsic partition constant of approximately 900 M(-1), a value that is also confirmed by electrophoretic mobility measurements. This corresponds to an electrostatic contribution of approximately 33% to the total free energy of binding. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shows no change in the headgroup conformation of POPC and POPG, suggesting

  8. Disaccharide analysis of heparin and heparan sulfate using deaminative cleavage with nitrous acid and subsequent labeling with paranitrophenyl hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Y; Herrmann, J; Suzuki, K; Isomura, T; Ishihara, M

    1998-02-01

    Compositional analyses of heparin (Hep) and heparan sulfate (HS) have been undertaken with disaccharide units obtained by either enzymatic digestion with heparitinases or hydrazinolysis/deamination reaction of polysaccharides. Unsaturated disaccharide units generated by the enzymatic method are detectable on HPLC with a uv detector recording absorbance at 230 nm. On the other hand, disaccharide units generated by the chemical method possess a component of 2,5-anhydromannose (AnMan) bearing aldehyde groups in addition to intact iduronic acid (IdoA) or glucuronic acid (GlcA). The aldehyde groups of the disaccharide units are usually reduced with sodium borotritide, and detected by radiochromatography. Both of them, however, involve inevitable experimental problems, such as the use of costly enzymes and radioisotopes. In the present study, we have established a novel composition analysis system for Hep and HS essentially based on the chemical method. After hydrazinolysis/deamination treatment of Hep and HS, the aldehyde groups of AnMan in the disaccharide units generated were coupled with paranitrophenyl (PNP-) hydrazine instead of reduction with sodium borotritide, AnMan-CH=N-NH-PNP (AnMan-PNP) being formed. Then, the PNP-labeled disaccharides were pre-treated on a SepPak C-18 cartridge column, and subsequently separated and detected on ion-pairing reversed-phase HPLC with a detector recording absorbance at 390 nm. With the present system, the order of elution was GlcA-AnMan-PNP (GM), IdoA-AnMan-PNP (IM), IdoA(2S)-AnMan-PNP (ISM), IdoA-AnMan(6S)-PNP (IMS), and IdoA(2S)-AnMan(6S)-PNP (ISMS). As an application, the disaccharide compositions of heparin from bovine intestine and heparan sulfate from bovine kidney were analyzed by the present method, and the results were comparable to those obtained by a well-established enzymatic method. The present compositional analysis was demonstrated to be reliable and economical.

  9. De Novo Sequencing of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides by Electron-Activated Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Yu, Xiang; Mao, Yang; Costello, Catherine E.; Zaia, Joseph; Lin, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Structural characterization of highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) is challenging because of the extensive sulfate losses mediated by free protons. While removal of the free protons may be achieved through the use of derivatization, metal cation adducts, and/or electrospray supercharging reagents, these steps add complexity to the experimental workflow. It is therefore desirable to develop an analytical approach for GAG sequencing that does not require derivatization or addition of reagents to the electrospray solution. Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) can produce extensive and informative fragmentation for GAGs without the need to remove free protons from the precursor ions. However, EDD is an inefficient process, often requiring consumption of large sample quantities (typically several micrograms), particularly for highly sulfated GAG ions. Here, we report that with improved instrumentation, optimization of the ionization and ion transfer parameters, and enhanced EDD efficiency, it is possible to generate highly informative EDD spectra of highly sulfated GAGs on the liquid chromatography (LC) time-scale, with consumption of only a few nanograms of sample. We further show that negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) is an even more effective fragmentation technique for GAG sequencing, producing fewer sulfate losses while consuming smaller amount of samples. Finally, a simple algorithm was developed for de novo HS sequencing based on their high resolution tandem mass spectra. These results demonstrate the potential of EDD and NETD as sensitive analytical tools for detailed, high-throughput, de novo structural analyses of highly sulfated GAGs. PMID:24224699

  10. Sanfilippo syndrome type C: mutation spectrum in the heparan sulfate acetyl-CoA: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (HGSNAT) gene.

    PubMed

    Feldhammer, Matthew; Durand, Stéphanie; Mrázová, Lenka; Boucher, Renée-Myriam; Laframboise, Rachel; Steinfeld, Robert; Wraith, James E; Michelakakis, Helen; van Diggelen, Otto P; Hrebícek, Martin; Kmoch, Stanislav; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2009-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IIIC or Sanfilippo syndrome type C is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal membrane enzyme, heparan sulfate acetyl-CoA (AcCoA): alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (HGSNAT; EC 2.3.1.78), which catalyzes transmembrane acetylation of the terminal glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate prior to their hydrolysis by alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Lysosomal storage of undegraded heparan sulfate in the cells of affected patients leads to neuronal death, causing neurodegeneration and severely impaired development accompanied by mild visceral and skeletal abnormalities, including mild dwarfism, coarse facies, and joint stiffness. To date, 50 HGSNAT mutations have been identified in MPS IIIC patients: 40 were previously published and 10 novel mutations are reported here. The mutations span the entire structure of the gene and include 13 splice-site mutations, 11 insertions and deletions, 8 nonsense mutations, and 18 missense mutations (http://chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/home.php?select_db=HGSNAT). In addition, four polymorphisms result in amino acid changes that do not affect activity of the enzyme. In this work we discuss the spectrum of MPS IIIC mutations, their clinical presentation and distribution within the patient population, and speculate how the mutations may affect the structure and function of HGSNAT.

  11. Characterization of uniformly and atom-specifically 13C-labeled heparin and heparan sulfate polysaccharide precursors using 13C NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao K. N.; Tran, Vy M.; Victor, Xylophone V.; Skalicky, Jack J.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2010-01-01

    The biological actions of heparin and heparan sulfate, two structurally related glycosaminoglycans, depend on the organization of the complex heparanome. Due to the structural complexity of the heparanome, the sequence of variably sulfonated uronic acid and glucosamine residues is usually characterized by the analysis of smaller oligosaccharide and disaccharide fragments. Even characterization of smaller heparin/heparan sulfate oligosaccharide or disaccharide fragments using simple 1D 1H NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the extensive signal overlap. 13C NMR signals, on the other hand, overlap less and therefore, 13C NMR spectroscopy can greatly facilitate the structural elucidation of the complex heparanome and provide finer insights into the structural basis for biological functions. This is the first report of the preparation of anomeric carbon-specific 13C-labeled heparin/heparan sulfate precursors from the Escherichia coli K5 strain. Uniformly 13C- and 15N-labeled precursors were also produced and characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy. Mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically fragmented disaccharides revealed that anomeric carbon-specific labeling efforts resulted in a minor loss/scrambling of 13C in the precursor backbone, whereas uniform labeling efforts resulted in greater than 95% 13C isotope enrichment in the precursor backbone. These labeled precursors provided high-resolution NMR signals with great sensitivity and set the stage for studying the heparanome–proteome interactions. PMID:20832774

  12. ScFv anti-heparan sulfate antibodies unexpectedly activate endothelial and cancer cells through p38 MAPK: implications for antibody-based targeting of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in cancer.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Helena C; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Belting, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development requires angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapies have been introduced in the treatment of cancer. In this context, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) emerge as interesting targets, owing to their function as co-receptors of major, pro-angiogenic factors. Accordingly, previous studies have suggested anti-tumor effects of heparin, i.e. over-sulfated HS, and various heparin mimetics; however, a significant drawback is their unspecific mechanism of action and potentially serious side-effects related to their anticoagulant properties. Here, we have explored the use of human ScFv anti-HS antibodies (αHS) as a more rational approach to target HSPG function in endothelial cells (ECs). αHS were initially selected for their recognition of HS epitopes localized preferentially to the vasculature of patient glioblastoma tumors, i.e. highly angiogenic brain tumors. Unexpectedly, we found that these αHS exhibited potent pro-angiogenic effects in primary human ECs. αHS were shown to stimulate EC differentiation, which was associated with increased EC tube formation and proliferation. Moreover, αHS supported EC survival under hypoxia and starvation, i.e. conditions typical of the tumor microenvironment. Importantly, αHS-mediated proliferation was efficiently counter-acted by heparin and was absent in HSPG-deficient mutant cells, confirming HS-specific effects. On a mechanistic level, binding of αHS to HSPGs of ECs as well as glioblastoma cells was found to trigger p38 MAPK-dependent signaling resulting in increased proliferation. We conclude that several αHS that recognize HS epitopes abundant in the tumor vasculature may elicit a pro-angiogenic response, which has implications for the development of antibody-based targeting of HSPGs in cancer.

  13. Insights into the role of 3-O-sulfotransferase in heparan sulfate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Zorél; Gesteira Ferreira, Tarsis; Tashima, Alexandre Keiji; Chavante, Suely F; Yates, Edwin Alexander; Liu, Jian; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Lima, Marcelo A

    2017-08-16

    3-O-Sulfotransferase enzyme (sHS) from Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned and its substrate specificity was investigated against a number of GAG structures, including modified heparin polysaccharides and model oligosaccharides. For the heparin polysaccharides, derived from porcine intestinal mucosa heparin, sulfate groups were incorporated into glucosamine residues containing both N-sulfated and N-acetylated substitution within the regions of the predominant repeating disaccharide, either I-ANS or I-ANAc. However, the resulting polysaccharides did not stabilize antithrombin, which is correlated with anticoagulant activity. It was also shown that the enzyme was able to sulfate disaccharides, I2S-ANS and G-ANAc. The results further illustrate that 3-O-sulfation can be induced outside of the classical heparin-binding pentasaccharide sequence, show that 3-O-sulfation of glucosamine is not a sufficient condition for antithrombin stabilization and suggest that the use of this enzyme during HS biosynthesis may not occur as the final enzymatic step.

  14. Fibrillin-1 Mutations Causing Weill-Marchesani Syndrome and Acromicric and Geleophysic Dysplasias Disrupt Heparan Sulfate Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Stuart A.; McGovern, Amanda; Baldwin, Andrew K.; Baldock, Clair; Kielty, Cay M.

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular glycoprotein fibrillin-1 forms microfibrils that act as the template for elastic fibers. Most mutations in fibrillin-1 cause Marfan syndrome with severe cardiovascular and ocular symptoms, and tall stature. This is in contrast to mutations within a heparin-binding TB domain (TB5), which is downstream of the arg-gly-asp cell adhesion domain, which can cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) or Acromicric (AD) and Geleophysic Dysplasias (GD). WMS is characterized by short limbs, joint stiffness and ocular defects, whilst fibrillin-1 AD and GD have severe short stature, joint defects and thickened skin. We previously showed that TB5 binds heparin. Here, we show that the corresponding region of fibrillin-2 binds heparin very poorly, highlighting a novel functional difference between the two isoforms. This finding enabled us to map heparin/heparan sulfate binding to two sites on fibrillin-1 TB5 using a mutagenesis approach. Once these sites were mapped, we were able to investigate whether disease-causing mutations in this domain disrupt binding to HS. We show that a WMS deletion mutant, and five AD and GD point mutants all have disrupted heparin binding to TB5. These data provide insights into the biology of fibrillins and the pathologies of WMS, AD and GD. PMID:23133647

  15. Bridging the gap: heparan sulfate and Scube2 assemble Sonic hedgehog release complexes at the surface of producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Jakobs, P.; Schulz, P.; Ortmann, C.; Schürmann, S.; Exner, S.; Rebollido-Rios, R.; Dreier, R.; Seidler, D. G.; Grobe, K.

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in cellular ensembles requires the dynamic release of signaling molecules from the producing cells into the extracellular compartment. One important example of molecules that require regulated release in order to signal over several cell diameters is the Hedgehog (Hh) family, because all Hhs are synthesized as dual-lipidated proteins that firmly tether to the outer membrane leaflet of the cell that produces them. Factors for the release of the vertebrate Hh family member Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) include cell-surface sheddases that remove the lipidated terminal peptides, as well as the soluble glycoprotein Scube2 that cell-nonautonomously enhances this process. This raises the question of how soluble Scube2 is recruited to cell-bound Shh substrates to regulate their turnover. We hypothesized that heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the producing cell surface may play this role. In this work, we confirm that HSPGs enrich Scube2 at the surface of Shh-producing cells and that Scube2-regulated proteolytic Shh processing and release depends on specific HS. This finding indicates that HSPGs act as cell-surface assembly and storage platforms for Shh substrates and for protein factors required for their release, making HSPGs critical decision makers for Scube2-dependent Shh signaling from the surface of producing cells. PMID:27199253

  16. Heparan sulfate acts as a bone morphogenetic protein coreceptor by facilitating ligand-induced receptor hetero-oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wan-Jong; Digman, Michelle A; Lander, Arthur D

    2010-11-15

    Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) not only binds several major classes of growth factors but also sometimes potentiates their activities--an effect usually termed "coreception." A view that coreception is due to the stabilization of growth factor-receptor interactions has emerged primarily from studies of the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Recent in vivo studies have strongly suggested that HS also plays an important role in regulating signaling by the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Here, we provide evidence that the mechanism of coreception for BMPs is markedly different from that established for FGFs. First, we demonstrate a direct, stimulatory role for cell surface HS in the immediate signaling activities of BMP2 and BMP4, and we provide evidence that HS-BMP interactions are required for this effect. Next, using several independent assays of ligand binding and receptor assembly, including coimmunoprecipitation, cross-linking, and fluorescence fluctuation microscopy, we show that HS does not affect BMP binding to type I receptor subunits but instead enhances the subsequent recruitment of type II receptor subunits to BMP-type I receptor complexes. This suggests a view of HS as a catalyst of the formation of signaling complexes, rather than as a stabilizer of growth factor binding.

  17. Sweet on Hedgehogs: regulatory roles of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in Hedgehog-dependent cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bandari, Shyam; Exner, Sebastian; Ortmann, Corinna; Bachvarova, Velina; Vortkamp, Andrea; Grobe, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Morphogens exert their effects over long distances, typically by spreading from cell to cell to activate signal transduction in surrounding tissues in concentration-dependent manner. One example of a morphogen is the signaling molecule Hedgehog (Hh), which controls growth and patterning during development and has also been implicated in the progression of numerous cancers. To this end, accessory mechanisms that release, transport, and receive Hhs are required to elicit temporally and spatially specific responses in cells and tissues. The Hh spreading mechanism is especially intriguing, because all Hhs are released from the producing cells despite being synthesized as dually lipidated, membrane-tethered molecules. In addition to this cellular association, Hhs bind strongly to extracellular heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), which is expected to further reduce their spreading. Paradoxically, several lines of evidence suggest that Hh gradient formation actually requires HSPG expression, and that HSPGs act as both positive and negative regulators of Hh function. This article reviews the multiple roles that HSPGs play in Hh morphogen function, and discusses their congruity with proposed mechanisms of Hh solubilization, transport, and signal reception in vertebrate and invertebrate tissues.

  18. Increased Serum Hyaluronic Acid and Heparan Sulfate in Dengue Fever: Association with Plasma Leakage and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tommy Hing-Cheung; Alonso, Sylvie; Ng, Lisa Fong-Poh; Thein, Tun-Linn; Pang, Vincent Jun-Xiong; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lye, David Chien-Boon; Yeo, Tsin-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Plasma leakage is a major pathogenic mechanism of severe dengue, but the etiology remains unclear. The association between endothelial glycocalyx integrity and vascular permeability in older adults with dengue has not been evaluated. A prospective cohort study of adults with undifferentiated fever screened for dengue by RT-PCR or NS1 antigen testing was performed. Patients were assessed daily while symptomatic and at convalescence. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS) and selected cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) were measured on enrollment and convalescence. Patients were diagnosed as dengue fever (DF, n = 30), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, n = 20) and non-dengue (ND) febrile illness (n = 11). Acute HA and HS levels were significantly higher in all dengue patients compared to ND (p = 0.0033 and p = 0.0441 respectively), but not different between DF and DHF (p = 0.3426 and p = 0.9180 respectively). Enrolment HA inversely correlated with serum albumin, protein and platelets in all dengue and DHF (p < 0.05). HA and HS in all dengue patients decreased significantly at convalescence. Serum IL-10 was significantly associated with HA in all dengue patients (p = 0.002). Serum HA and HS levels were increased in adult dengue and HA was associated with markers of disease severity. Endothelial glycocalyx damage may have a role in vascular leakage in dengue. PMID:28393899

  19. Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans cooperate in cellular uptake of nanoparticles functionalized by cationic cell-penetrating peptides

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Hong-Bo; Braun, Gary B.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been widely used to deliver nanomaterials and other types of macromolecules into mammalian cells for therapeutic and diagnostic use. Cationic CPPs that bind to heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans on the cell surface induce potent endocytosis; however, the role of other surface receptors in this process is unclear. We describe the convergence of an HS-dependent pathway with the C-end rule (CendR) mechanism that enables peptide ligation with neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a cell surface receptor known to be involved in angiogenesis and vascular permeability. NRP1 binds peptides carrying a positive residue at the carboxyl terminus, a feature that is compatible with cationic CPPs, either intact or after proteolytic processing. We used CPP and CendR peptides, as well as HS- and NRP1-binding motifs from semaphorins, to explore the commonalities and differences of the HS and NRP1 pathways. We show that the CendR-NRP1 interaction determines the ability of CPPs to induce vascular permeability. We also show at the ultrastructural level, using a novel cell entry synchronization method, that both the HS and NRP1 pathways can initiate a macropinocytosis-like process and visualize these CPP-cargo complexes going through various endosomal compartments. Our results provide new insights into how CPPs exploit multiple surface receptor pathways for intracellular delivery. PMID:26601141

  20. Multiple heparan sulfate binding site engagements are required for the infectious entry of human papillomavirus type 16.

    PubMed

    Richards, Kathleen F; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Dasgupta, Jhimli; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Sapp, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) entry is accompanied by multiple receptor-induced conformational changes (CCs) affecting both the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Interaction of heparan sulfate (HS) with L1 is essential for successful HPV16 entry. Recently, cocrystallization of HPV16 with heparin revealed four distinct binding sites. Here we characterize mutant HPV16 to delineate the role of engagement with HS binding sites during infectious internalization. Site 1 (Lys278, Lys361), which mediates primary binding, is sufficient to trigger an L2 CC, exposing the amino terminus. Site 2 (Lys54, Lys356) and site 3 (Asn57, Lys59, Lys442, Lys443) are engaged following primary attachment and are required for infectious entry. Site 2 mutant particles are efficiently internalized but fail to undergo an L1 CC on the cell surface and subsequent uncoating in the endocytic compartment. After initial attachment to the cell, site 3 mutants undergo L1 and L2 CCs and then accumulate on the extracellular matrix (ECM). We conclude that the induction of CCs following site 1 and site 2 interactions results in reduced affinity for the primary HS binding site(s) on the cell surface, which allows engagement with site 3. Taken together, our findings suggest that HS binding site engagement induces CCs that prepare the virus for downstream events, such as the exposure of secondary binding sites, CCs, transfer to the uptake receptor, and uncoating.

  1. Multiple Heparan Sulfate Binding Site Engagements Are Required for the Infectious Entry of Human Papillomavirus Type 16

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Kathleen F.; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Dasgupta, Jhimli; Chen, Xiaojiang S.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) entry is accompanied by multiple receptor-induced conformational changes (CCs) affecting both the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Interaction of heparan sulfate (HS) with L1 is essential for successful HPV16 entry. Recently, cocrystallization of HPV16 with heparin revealed four distinct binding sites. Here we characterize mutant HPV16 to delineate the role of engagement with HS binding sites during infectious internalization. Site 1 (Lys278, Lys361), which mediates primary binding, is sufficient to trigger an L2 CC, exposing the amino terminus. Site 2 (Lys54, Lys356) and site 3 (Asn57, Lys59, Lys442, Lys443) are engaged following primary attachment and are required for infectious entry. Site 2 mutant particles are efficiently internalized but fail to undergo an L1 CC on the cell surface and subsequent uncoating in the endocytic compartment. After initial attachment to the cell, site 3 mutants undergo L1 and L2 CCs and then accumulate on the extracellular matrix (ECM). We conclude that the induction of CCs following site 1 and site 2 interactions results in reduced affinity for the primary HS binding site(s) on the cell surface, which allows engagement with site 3. Taken together, our findings suggest that HS binding site engagement induces CCs that prepare the virus for downstream events, such as the exposure of secondary binding sites, CCs, transfer to the uptake receptor, and uncoating. PMID:23966387

  2. Adenovirus dodecahedron cell attachment and entry are mediated by heparan sulfate and integrins and vary along the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Fender, Pascal; Schoehn, Guy; Perron-Sierra, Françoise; Tucker, Gordon C; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2008-02-05

    The adenovirus penton base is a strategic protein involved in the virus internalisation pathway through interaction between its RGD sequences and integrin. In some human adenovirus serotypes, this pentameric protein features the ability of interacting together by twelve, leading to the formation of a symmetric nanoparticle called dodecahedron (Dd). This non-infectious adenovirus-like particle exhibiting sixty RGD sequences interacts with integrin but also with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) expressed at the cell surface. In this study, we discriminate the respective importance of HSPGs and integrin on human adenovirus serotype 3 dodecahedron attachment and entry. Using different cell lines and a specific integrin inhibitor, we have determined that HSPGs are mainly responsible for particle attachment to the cell surface, favouring a strictly required interaction with integrin that triggers internalisation. No other receptors are involved in Dd entry and integrins on their own can mediate the particle entry in HSPGs-deficient cells. Moreover, integrin recognition by Dd is highly susceptible to cations and particularly to manganese that enhances particle binding by 4- to 7-fold compared to calcium. Interestingly, investigations on Dd receptors along the cell cycle revealed an enhanced particle targeting to mitotic cells and a loss of internalisation at this stage. This phenomenon observed with both HeLa- and HSPGs-deficient cells, depends on integrin remodelling during mitosis. This provides new clues for the use of this adenovirus nanoparticle as a delivery vector and sheds light on the integrin and HSPGs relationship in both resting and dividing cells.

  3. Bone Marrow-Derived Heparan Sulfate Potentiates The Osteogenic Activity Of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2)

    PubMed Central

    Bramono, Diah S.; Murali, Sadasivam; Rai, Bina; Ling, Ling; Poh, Wei Theng; Lim, Zophia Xuehui; Stein, Gary S.; Nurcombe, Victor; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Cool, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    Lowering the efficacious dose of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) for the repair of critical-sized bone defects is highly desirable, as supra-physiological amounts of BMP-2 have an increased risk of side effects and a greater economic burden for the healthcare system. To address this need, we explored the use of heparan sulfate (HS), a structural analog of heparin, to enhance BMP-2 activity. We demonstrate that HS isolated from a bone marrow stromal cell line (HS5) and heparin each enhances BMP-2-induced osteogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts, through increased ALP activity and osteocalcin mRNA expression. Commercially available HS variants from porcine kidney and bovine lung failed to generate similar effects. Heparin and HS5 influence BMP-2 activity by (i) prolonging BMP-2 half-life, (ii) reducing interactions between BMP-2 with its antagonist noggin, and (iii) modulating BMP2 distribution on the cell surface. Importantly, long-term supplementation of HS5 but not heparin greatly enhances BMP-2-induced bone formation in vitro and in vivo. These results show that bone marrow-derived HS effectively support bone formation, and suggests its applicability in bone repair by selectively facilitating the delivery and bioavailability of BMP-2. PMID:22227436

  4. Clearance of Heparan Sulfate and Attenuation of CNS Pathology by Intracerebroventricular BMN 250 in Sanfilippo Type B Mice.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi-Scharber, Mika; Crippen-Harmon, Danielle; Lawrence, Roger; Vincelette, Jon; Yogalingam, Gouri; Prill, Heather; Yip, Bryan K; Baridon, Brian; Vitelli, Catherine; Lee, Amanda; Gorostiza, Olivia; Adintori, Evan G; Minto, Wesley C; Van Vleet, Jeremy L; Yates, Bridget; Rigney, Sara; Christianson, Terri M; Tiger, Pascale M N; Lo, Melanie J; Holtzinger, John; Fitzpatrick, Paul A; LeBowitz, Jonathan H; Bullens, Sherry; Crawford, Brett E; Bunting, Stuart

    2017-09-15

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B (mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB), caused by inherited deficiency of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU), required for lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate (HS), is a pediatric neurodegenerative disorder with no approved treatment. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) delivery of a modified recombinant NAGLU, consisting of human NAGLU fused with insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) for enhanced lysosomal targeting, was previously shown to result in marked enzyme uptake and clearance of HS storage in the Naglu(-/-) mouse brain. To further evaluate regional, cell type-specific, and dose-dependent biodistribution of NAGLU-IGF2 (BMN 250) and its effects on biochemical and histological pathology, Naglu(-/-) mice were treated with 1-100 μg ICV doses (four times over 2 weeks). 1 day after the last dose, BMN 250 (100 μg doses) resulted in above-normal NAGLU activity levels, broad biodistribution, and uptake in all cell types, with NAGLU predominantly localized to neurons in the Naglu(-/-) mouse brain. This led to complete clearance of disease-specific HS and reduction of secondary lysosomal defects and neuropathology across various brain regions lasting for at least 28 days after the last dose. The substantial brain uptake of NAGLU attainable by this highest ICV dosage was required for nearly complete attenuation of disease-driven storage accumulations and neuropathology throughout the Naglu(-/-) mouse brain.

  5. Interaction of low molecular weight group IIA phospholipase A2 with apoptotic human T cells: role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Boilard, Eric; Bourgoin, Sylvain G; Bernatchez, Chantale; Poubelle, Patrice E; Surette, Marc E

    2003-06-01

    Human group IIA phospholipase A2 (hIIA PLA2) is a 14 kDa secreted enzyme associated with inflammatory diseases. A newly discovered property of hIIA PLA2 is the binding affinity for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) glypican-1. In this study, the binding of hIIA PLA2 to apoptotic human T cells was investigated. Little or no exogenous hIIA PLA2 bound to CD3-activated T cells but significant binding was measured on activated T cells induced to undergo apoptosis by anti-CD95. Binding to early apoptotic T cells was greater than to late apoptotic cells. The addition of heparin and the hydrolysis of HSPG by heparinase III only partially inhibited hIIA PLA2 binding to apoptotic cells, suggesting an interaction with both HSPG and other binding protein(s). Two low molecular weight HSPG were coimmunoprecipitated with hIIA PLA2 from apoptotic T cells, but not from living cells. Treatment of CD95-stimulated T cells with hIIA PLA2 resulted in the release of arachidonic acid but not oleic acid from cells and this release was blocked by heparin and heparinase III. Altogether, these results suggest a role for hIIA PLA2 in the release of arachidonic acid from apoptotic cells through interactions with HSPG and its potential implication in the progression of inflammatory diseases.

  6. Extended Release of an Anti–Heparan Sulfate Peptide From a Contact Lens Suppresses Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Buhrman, Jason S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Gemeinhart, Richard A.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prolong the release of a heparan sulfate binding peptide, G2-C, using a commercially available contact lens as a delivery vehicle and to demonstrate the ability of the released peptide to block herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of corneal HSV-1 infection. Methods Commercially available contact lenses were immersed in peptide solution for 5 days prior to determining the release of the peptide at various time points. Cytotoxicity of the released samples was determined by MTT and cell cycle analysis, and the functional activity of the released samples were assessed by viral entry, and viral spread assay using human corneal epithelial cells (HCE). The ability to suppress infection in human and pig cornea ex vivo and mouse in vivo models were also assessed. Results Peptide G2-C was released through the contact lens. Following release for 3 days, the peptide showed significant activity by inhibiting HSV-1 viral entry and spread in HCE cells. Significant suppression of infection was also observed in the ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving corneas. Conclusions Extended release of an anti–HS peptide through a commercially available contact lens can generate significant anti–HSV-1 activity and provides a new and effective way to control corneal herpes. PMID:26780322

  7. Bridging the gap: heparan sulfate and Scube2 assemble Sonic hedgehog release complexes at the surface of producing cells.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, P; Schulz, P; Ortmann, C; Schürmann, S; Exner, S; Rebollido-Rios, R; Dreier, R; Seidler, D G; Grobe, K

    2016-05-20

    Decision making in cellular ensembles requires the dynamic release of signaling molecules from the producing cells into the extracellular compartment. One important example of molecules that require regulated release in order to signal over several cell diameters is the Hedgehog (Hh) family, because all Hhs are synthesized as dual-lipidated proteins that firmly tether to the outer membrane leaflet of the cell that produces them. Factors for the release of the vertebrate Hh family member Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) include cell-surface sheddases that remove the lipidated terminal peptides, as well as the soluble glycoprotein Scube2 that cell-nonautonomously enhances this process. This raises the question of how soluble Scube2 is recruited to cell-bound Shh substrates to regulate their turnover. We hypothesized that heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the producing cell surface may play this role. In this work, we confirm that HSPGs enrich Scube2 at the surface of Shh-producing cells and that Scube2-regulated proteolytic Shh processing and release depends on specific HS. This finding indicates that HSPGs act as cell-surface assembly and storage platforms for Shh substrates and for protein factors required for their release, making HSPGs critical decision makers for Scube2-dependent Shh signaling from the surface of producing cells.

  8. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Dengue Virus Infectivity by Interacting with Heparan Sulfate, Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor, and DC-SIGN.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jo-Mei; Fan, Yi-Chin; Lin, Jen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2017-09-12

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) presents in milk and has been shown to inhibit several viral infections. Effective drugs are unavailable for the treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effect of bLF against DENV infection in vivo and in vitro. Bovine LF significantly inhibited the infection of the four serotypes of DENV in Vero cells. In the time-of-drug addition test, DENV-2 infection was remarkably inhibited when bLF was added during or prior to the occurrence of virus attachment. We also revealed that bovine LF blocks binding between DENV-2 and the cellular membrane by interacting with heparan sulfate (HS), dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), and low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). In addition, bLF inhibits DENV-2 infection and decreases morbidity in a suckling mouse challenge model. This study supports the finding that bLF may inhibit DENV infection by binding to the potential DENV receptors.

  9. N-sulfotestosteronan, a novel substrate for heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferases and its analysis by oxidative degradation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoyun; Masuko, Sayaka; Green, Dixy E.; Xu, Yongmei; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Xue, Changhu; Liu, Jian; DeAngelis, Paul. L.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Testosteronan, an unusual glycosaminoglycan first isolated from the microbe Comamonas testosteroni, was enzymatically synthesized in vitro by transferring uridine diphosphate sugars on β-p-nitrophenyl glucuronide acceptor. After chemically converting testosteronan to N-sulfotestosteronan it was tested as a substrate for sulfotransferases involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate. Studies using 35S-labeled 3′-phosphodenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) showed that only 6-O-sulfotransferases acted on N-sulfotestosteronan. An oxidative depolymerization reaction was explored to generate oligosaccharides from 34S-labeled 6-O-sulfo-N-sulfotestosteroran using 34S-labeled PAPS because testosteronan was resistant to all of the tested glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes. Liquid chromotography-mass spectrometric analysis of the oxidatively depolymerized polysaccharides confirmed the incorporation of 34S into ~14% of the glucosamine residues. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy also showed that the sulfo groups were transferred to ~20% of the 6-hydroxyl groups in the glucosamine residue of N-sulfotestosteronan. The bioactivity of 6-O–sulfo-N-sulfotestosteronan was examined by performing protein-binding studies with fibroblast growth factors and antithrombin III using a surface plasmon resonance competition assay. The introduction of 6-O-sulfo groups enhanced N-sulfotestosteronan binding to the fibroblast growth factors, but not to antithrombin III. PMID:23606289

  10. Cytochrome b561, copper, β-cleaved amyloid precursor protein and niemann-pick C1 protein are involved in ascorbate-induced release and membrane penetration of heparan sulfate from endosomal S-nitrosylated glypican-1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Fransson, Lars-Åke; Mani, Katrin

    2017-09-09

    Ascorbate-induced release of heparan sulfate from S-nitrosylated heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1 takes place in endosomes. Heparan sulfate penetrates the membrane and is transported to the nucleus. This process is dependent on copper and on expression and processing of the amyloid precursor protein. It remains unclear how exogenously supplied ascorbate can generate HS-anMan in endosomes and how passage through the membrane is facilitated. Here we have examined wild-type, Alzheimer Tg2576 and amyloid precursor protein (-/-) mouse fibroblasts and human fetal and Niemann-Pick C1 fibroblasts by using deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy, siRNA technology and [S(35)]sulfate-labeling, vesicle isolation and gel chromatography. We found that ascorbate-induced release of heparan sulfate was dependent on expression of endosomal cytochrome b561. Formation and nuclear transport of heparan sulfate was suppressed by inhibition of β-processing of the amyloid precursor protein and formation was restored by copper (I) ions. Membrane penetration was not dependent on amyloid beta channel formation. Inhibition of endosomal exit resulted in accumulation of heparan sulfate in vesicles that exposed the C-terminal of the amyloid precursor protein externally. Endosome-to-nucleus transport was also dependent on expression of the Niemann-Pick C1 protein. We propose that ascorbate is taken up from the medium and is oxidized by cytochrome b561 which, in turn, reduces copper (II) to copper (I) present in the N-terminal, β-cleaved domain of the amyloid precursor protein. Re-oxidation of copper (I) is coupled to reductive, deaminative release of heparan sulfate from glypican-1. Passage through the membrane may be facilitated by the C-terminal, β-cleaved fragment of the amyloid precursor protein and the Niemann-Pick C1 protein. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Heparan and Heparin Metabolism Pathway is Involved in Regulation of Fatty Acid Composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six genes involved in the heparan sulfate and heparin metabolism pathway, DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like), EXTL1 (exostoses (multiple)-like 1), HS6ST1 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1), HS6ST3 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 3), NDST3 (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (heparan gl...

  12. Differential association of rat liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans in membranes of the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Brandan, E.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1989-06-25

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) of rat liver are associated with the plasma membrane in a hydrophobic intrinsic and a hydrophilic extrinsic form. We were interested in determining whether or not these two forms could be detected in the Golgi apparatus, the subcellular site of addition of oligosaccharides and sulfate to HSPG. In vivo and in vitro radiolabeled HSPG from rat liver Golgi apparatus membranes could only be solubilized with detergents that disrupt the membrane lipid bilayer, suggesting that they are solely associated via hydrophobic interactions. Both forms of HSPG were detected in plasma membranes of rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. The detergent-solubilized HSPG bound to octyl-Sepharose columns, whereas the hydrophilic form did not; this latter form, however, was released from the membrane by heparin. The hydrophobic anchor of HSPG in the Golgi and plasma membranes was insensitive to treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C under conditions in which alkaline phosphatase was sensitive; this suggests that the hydrophobic anchor of HSPG is the core protein itself. Preliminary experiments suggest that the subcellular site of processing of the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic form of HSPG is the plasma membrane. A specific processing activity, probably a protease of the plasma membrane not present in serum or the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, converted hydrophobic HSPG of the Golgi membrane to the hydrophilic form. In addition, pulse-chase experiments with (35S)Na2SO4 in rats demonstrated that at short times, the bulk of the radiolabeled cellular HSPG was in the Golgi apparatus; later on, the bulk of the radioactivity was found in the plasma membrane, the only subcellular site where the hydrophilic form of HSPG was detected.

  13. Rapid nuclear transit and impaired degradation of amyloid β and glypican-1-derived heparan sulfate in Tg2576 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Fransson, Lars-Åke; Mani, Katrin

    2015-05-01

    Anhydromannose (anMan)-containing heparan sulfate (HS) derived from S-nitrosylated glypican-1 is generated in endosomes by an endogenously or ascorbate induced S-nitrosothiol-catalyzed reaction. Expression and processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is required to initiate formation and endosome-to-nucleus translocation of anMan-containing HS in wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (WT MEF). HS is then transported to autophagosomes and finally degraded in lysosomes. To investigate how APP-derived amyloid β (Aβ) peptide affects intracellular trafficking of HS, we have studied nuclear transit as well as autophagosome/lysosome targeting and degradation in transgenic Alzheimer disease mouse (Tg2576) MEF which produce increased amounts of Aβ. Deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy with an anMan-specific monoclonal antibody showed anMan staining in the nuclei of Tg2576 MEF after 5 min of ascorbate treatment and after 15 min in WT MEF. There was also greater nuclear accumulation of HS in Tg2576 MEF as determined by (35)S-sulfate-labeling experiments. Tg2576 MEF was less sensitive to inhibition of NO production and copper-chelation than WT MEF. By using APP- and Aβ-recognizing antibodies, we observed nuclear translocation of Aβ peptide in Tg2576 MEF but not in WT MEF. HS remained in the nucleus of WT MEF for at least 8 h and was then transported to autophagosomes. By 8 h, HS had disappeared from the nuclei of Tg2576 MEF but colocalized poorly with the autophagosome marker LC3. Aβ also disappeared rapidly from the nuclei of Tg2576 MEF. Initially, it appeared in acidic vesicles and later it accumulated extracellularly. Thus, in Tg2576 MEF there is nuclear accumulation as well as secretion of Aβ and impaired degradation of HS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) shares binding sites in collagen with heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Atsushi; Okano-Kosugi, Hitomi; Yamazaki, Chisato M; Koide, Takaki

    2011-07-29

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a collagen-binding protein that is abundantly distributed in various tissues, including the eye. It exhibits various biological functions, such as anti-angiogenic, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective activities. PEDF also interacts with extracellular matrix components such as collagen, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), and hyaluronan. The collagen-binding property has been elucidated to be important for the anti-angiogenic activity in vivo (Hosomichi, J., Yasui, N., Koide, T., Soma, K., and Morita, I. (2005) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 335, 756-761). Here, we investigated the collagen recognition mechanism by PEDF. We first narrowed down candidate PEDF-binding sequences by taking advantage of previously reported structural requirements in collagen. Subsequent searches for PEDF-binding sequences employing synthetic collagen-like peptides resulted in the identification of one of the critical binding sites for PEDF, human α1(I)(929-938) (IKGHRGFSGL). Further analysis revealed that the collagen recognition by PEDF is sequence- and conformation-specific, and the high affinity binding motif is KGXRGFXGL in the triple helix. The PEDF-binding motif significantly overlapped with the heparin/HSPG-binding motif, KGHRG(F/Y). The interaction of PEDF with collagen I was specifically competed with by heparin but not by chondroitin sulfate-C or hyaluronan. The binding sequences for PEDF and heparin/HSPG also overlapped with the covalent cross-linking sites between collagen molecules. These findings imply a functional relationship between PEDF and HSPGs during angiogenesis, and the interaction of these molecules is regulated by collagen modifications.

  15. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Are Required for Cellular Binding of the Hepatitis E Virus ORF2 Capsid Protein and for Viral Infection▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Manjula; Chandra, Vivek; Rahman, Sheikh Abdul; Sehgal, Deepak; Jameel, Shahid

    2009-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV), a nonenveloped RNA virus, is the causative agent of hepatitis E. The mode by which HEV attaches to and enters into target cells for productive infection remains unidentified. Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of HEV encodes its major capsid protein, pORF2, which is likely to have the determinants for virus attachment and entry. Using an ∼56-kDa recombinant pORF2 that can self-assemble as virus-like particles, we demonstrated that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), specifically syndecans, play a crucial role in the binding of pORF2 to Huh-7 liver cells. Removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by enzymatic (heparinase) or chemical (sodium chlorate) treatment of cells or competition with heparin, heparan sulfate, and their oversulfated derivatives caused a marked reduction in pORF2 binding to the cells. Syndecan-1 is the most abundant proteoglycan present on these cells and, hence, plays a key role in pORF2 binding. Specificity is likely to be dictated by well-defined sulfation patterns on syndecans. We show that pORF2 binds syndecans predominantly via 6-O sulfation, indicating that binding is not entirely due to random electrostatic interactions. Using an in vitro infection system, we also showed a marked reduction in HEV infection of heparinase-treated cells. Our results indicate that, analogous to some enveloped viruses, a nonenveloped virus like HEV may have also evolved to use HSPGs as cellular attachment receptors. PMID:19812150

  16. A synthetic heparan sulfate oligosaccharide library reveals the novel enzymatic action of d-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-3a†

    PubMed Central

    Nu Nguyen, Thao Kim; Arungundram, Sailaja; Tran, Vy My; Raman, Karthik; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotranferases sulfate the C3-hydroxyl group of certain glucosamine residues on heparan sulfate. Six different 3-OST isoforms exist, each of which can sulfate very distinct glucosamine residues within the HS chain. Among these isoforms, 3-OST1 has been shown to play a role in generating ATIII-binding HS anticoagulants whereas 3-OST2, 3-OST3, 3-OST4 and 3OST-6 have been shown to play a vital role in generating gD-binding HS chains that permit the entry of herpes simplex virus type 1 into cells. 3-OST5 has been found to generate both ATIII- and gD-binding HS motifs. Previous studies have examined the substrate specificities of all the 3-OST isoforms using HS polysaccharides. However, very few studies have examined the contribution of the epimer configuration of neighboring uronic acid residues next to the target site to 3-OST action. In this study, we utilized a well-defined synthetic oligosaccharide library to examine the substrate specificity of 3-OST3a and compared it to 3-OST1. We found that both 3-OST1 and 3-OST3a preferentially sulfate the 6-O-sulfated, N-sulfoglucosamine when an adjacent iduronyl residue is located to its reducing side. On the other hand, 2-O-sulfation of this uronyl residue can inhibit the action of 3-OST3a on the target residue. The results reveal novel substrate sites for the enzyme actions of 3-OST3a. It is also evident that both these enzymes have promiscuous and overlapping actions that are differentially regulated by iduronyl 2-O-sulfation. PMID:22116385

  17. Interaction of the protein transduction domain of HIV-1 TAT with heparan sulfate: binding mechanism and thermodynamic parameters.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, André; Seelig, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The positively charged protein transduction domain of the HIV-1 TAT protein (TAT-PTD; residues 47-57 of TAT) rapidly translocates across the plasma membrane of living cells. This property is exploited for the delivery of proteins, drugs, and genes into cells. The mechanism of this translocation is, however, not yet understood. Recent theories for translocation suggest binding of the protein transduction domain (PTD) to extracellular glycosaminoglycans as a possible mechanism. We have studied the binding equilibrium between TAT-PTD and three different glycosaminoglycans with high sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry and provide the first quantitative thermodynamic description. The polysulfonated macromolecules were found to exhibit multiple identical binding sites for TAT-PTD with only small differences between the three species as far as the thermodynamic parameters are concerned. Heparan sulfate (HS, molecular weight, 14.2 +/- 2 kDa) has 6.3 +/- 1.0 independent binding sites for TAT-PTD which are characterized by a binding constant K0 = (6.0 +/- 0.6) x 10(5) M(-1) and a reaction enthalpy deltaHpep0 = -4.6 +/- 1.0 kcal/mol at 28 degrees C. The binding affinity, deltaGpep0, is determined to equal extent by enthalpic and entropic contributions. The HS-TAT-PTD complex formation entails a positive heat capacity change of deltaCp0 = +135 cal/mol peptide, which is characteristic of a charge neutralization reaction. This is in contrast to hydrophobic binding reactions which display a large negative heat capacity change. The stoichiometry of 6-7 TAT-PTD molecules per HS corresponds to an electric charge neutralization. Light scattering data demonstrate a maximum scattering intensity at this stoichiometric ratio, the intensity of which depends on the order of mixing of the two components. The data suggest cross-linking and/or aggregation of HS-TAT-PTD complexes. Two other glycosaminoglycans, namely heparin and chondroitin sulfate B, were also studied with isothermal

  18. N- and 6-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfates Mediate Internalization of Coxsackievirus B3 Variant PD into CHO-K1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zautner, Andreas E.; Jahn, Birgit; Hammerschmidt, Elke; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that the coxsackievirus B3 variant PD (CVB3 PD) is able to infect coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR)-lacking cells by using heparan sulfates (HS) as additional receptors (A. E. Zautner, U. Korner, A. Henke, C. Badorff, and M. Schmidtke, J. Virol. 77:10071-10077, 2003). For this study, competition experiments with growth factors binding to known HS sequences as well as with specifically desulfated heparins were performed with Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) to determine the structural requirements of HS for interaction with CVB3. Hepatocyte growth factor interacting with HS sequences containing [IdUA-GlcNSO3(6OSO3)]n, but not basic fibroblast growth factor binding to [HexUA-GlcNSO3-HexUA-GlcNSO3-IdUA(2OSO3)]n, was shown to compete effectively with CVB3 PD for cell surface HS. Whereas unmodified heparin and 2-O-desulfated heparin strongly inhibited the CVB3 PD-induced cytopathic effect, the antiviral activity was markedly reduced after N-, O- and 6-O-desulfation of heparin. Taken together, these results indicate that 6-O- and N-sulfation of GlcNAc of HS is crucial for HS interaction with CVB3 PD and that the disaccharide [IdUA-GlcNSO3(6OSO3)]n is involved in viral binding. Results from experiments with various inhibitors of endocytic pathways suggest that HS-mediated virus internalization is pH dependent. Despite the fact that CVB3 PD initiates infection about four times slower by making use of HS as a receptor than by using CAR, the time required for a complete viral life cycle in Chinese hamster ovary cells was independent of the utilized receptor. PMID:16775350

  19. Biosynthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycan by human colon carcinoma cells and its localization at the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    After 24 h of continuous labeling with radioactive precursors, a high molecular weight heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS-PG) was isolated from both the medium and cell layer of human colon carcinoma cells (WiDr) in culture. The medium HS-PG eluted from a diethylaminoethyl anion exchange column with 0.45-0.50 M NaCl, had an average density of 1.46- 1.49 g/ml on dissociative CsCl density-gradient ultracentrifugation, and eluted from Sepharose CL-2B with a Kav = 0.57. This proteoglycan had an estimated Mr of congruent to 8.5 X 10(5), with glycosaminoglycan chains of Mr = 3 X 10(4) which were all susceptible to HNO2 deaminative cleavage. Deglycosylation of the HS-PG with polyhydrogen fluoride resulted in a 3H-core protein with Mr congruent to 2.4 X 10(5). The cell layer contained a population of HS-PG with characteristics almost identical to that released into the medium but with a larger Mr = 9.5 X 10(5). Furthermore, an intracellular pool contained smaller heparan sulfate chains (Mr congruent to 1 X 10(4)) which were mostly devoid of protein core. In pulse chase experiments, only the large cell- associated HS-PG was released (approximately 58%) into the medium as intact proteoglycan and/or internalized and degraded (approximately 42%), with a t1/2 = 6 h. However, the small intracellular component was never released into the medium and was degraded at a much slower rate. When the cells were subjected to mild proteolytic treatment, only the large cell-associated HS-PG, but none of the small component, was displaced. Addition of exogenous heparin did not displace any HS-PG into the medium. Both light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that the cell surface reacted with antibody against an HS-PG isolated from a basement membrane-producing tumor. Electron microscopic histochemistry using ruthenium red and/or cuprolinic blue revealed numerous 10-50-nm diam granules and 70-220-nm- long electron-dense filaments, respectively, on the surface of the tumor

  20. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. 1H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  1. Inhibition of transfer to secondary receptors by heparan sulfate-binding drug or antibody induces noninfectious uptake of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Florin, Luise; Patel, Hetal D; Freitag, Kirsten; Schmidtke, Michaela; Makarov, Vadim A; Sapp, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Infection with various human papillomaviruses (HPVs) induces cervical cancers. Cell surface heparan sulfates (HS) have been shown to serve as primary attachment receptors, and molecules with structural similarity to cell surface HS, like heparin, function as competitive inhibitors of HPV infection. Here we demonstrate that the N,N'-bisheteryl derivative of dispirotripiperazine, DSTP27, efficiently blocks papillomavirus infection by binding to HS moieties, with 50% inhibitory doses of up to 0.4 mug/ml. In contrast to short-term inhibitory effects of heparin, pretreatment of cells with DSTP27 significantly reduced HPV infection for more than 30 h. Using DSTP27 and heparinase, we furthermore demonstrate that HS moieties, rather than laminin 5, present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted by keratinocytes are essential for infectious transfer of ECM-bound virions to cells. Prior binding to ECM components, especially HS, partially alleviated the requirement for cell surface HS. DSTP27 blocks infection by cell-bound virions by feeding into a noninfectious entry pathway. Under these conditions, virus colocalized with HS moieties in endocytic vesicles. Similarly, postattachment treatment of cells with heparinase, cytochalasin D, or neutralizing antibodies resulted in uptake of virions without infection, indicating that deviation into a noninfectious entry pathway is a major mode of postattachment neutralization. In untreated cells, initial colocalization of virions with HS on the cell surface and in endocytic vesicles was lost with time. Our data suggest that initial attachment of HPV to HS proteoglycans (HSPGs) must be followed by secondary interaction with additional HS side chains and transfer to a non-HSPG receptor for successful infection.

  2. Characterization of a novel heparan sulfate proteoglycan found in the extracellular matrix of liver sinusoids and basement membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Soroka, C.J.; Farquhar, M.G. )

    1991-06-01

    A novel heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) present in the extracellular matrix of rat liver has been partially characterized. Proteoglycans were purified from a high salt extract of total microsomes from rat liver and found to consist predominantly ({approximately} 90%) of HSPG. A polyclonal antiserum raised against this fraction specifically recognized HSPG by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. The intact, fully glycosylated HSPG migrated as a broad smear (150-300 kD) by SDS-PAGE, but after deglycosylation with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid only a single {approximately} 40-kD band was seen. By immunocytochemistry this HSPG was localized in the perisinusoidal space of Disse associated with irregular clumps of basement membrane-like extracellular matrix material, some of which was closely associated with the hepatocyte sinusoidal cell surface. It was also localized in biosynthetic compartments (rough ER and Golgi cisternae) of hepatocytes, suggesting that this HSPG is synthesized and deposited in the space of Disse by the hepatocyte. The anti-liver HSPG IgG also stained basement membranes of hepatic blood vessels and bile ducts as well as those of kidney and several other organs (heart, pancreas, and intestine). An antibody that recognizes the basement membrane HSPG found in the rat glomerular basement membrane did not precipitate the 150-300-kD rat liver HSPG. We conclude that the liver sinusoidal space of Disse contains a novel population of HSPG that differs in its overall size, its distribution and in the size of its core protein from other HSPG (i.e., membrane-intercalated HSPG) previously described in rat liver. It also differs in its core protein size from HSPG purified from other extracellular matrix sources. This population of HSPG appears to be a member of the basement membrane HSPG family.

  3. Heparan sulfate on activated glomerular endothelial cells and exogenous heparinoids influence the rolling and adhesion of leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Rops, Angelique L; Jacobs, Cor W; Linssen, Peter C; Boezeman, Jan B; Lensen, Joost F; Wijnhoven, Tessa J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; van der Vlag, Johan; Berden, Jo H

    2007-04-01

    Proliferative glomerulonephritides are characterized by the influx of leucocytes. Heparan sulfate (HS) plays an important role in the recruitment, rolling and firm adhesion of leucocytes to activated endothelium. Recently, we have shown the importance of HS on activated mouse glomerular endothelial cells (mGEnC-1) for the firm adhesion of leucocytes in a static adhesion assay. In the present study, we evaluated the role of HS on glomerular endothelial cells and the effect of adding heparinoids on the leucocyte-glomerular endothelium interaction under dynamic flow conditions. The number of rolling and firmly adhering leucocytes, and the rolling velocity of leucocytes was determined on a monolayer of unactivated or TNF-alpha-activated mGEnC-1 under dynamic flow conditions using physiological relevant shear stress rates in a flow chamber system. Furthermore, the effects of removal of HS on TNF-alpha-activated mGEnC-1 by heparinase III treatment, and of different concentrations of heparin, tinzaparin and HS, on the rolling and adhesion of leucocytes were evaluated. At the calculated physiological shear stress rate of 0.8 dynes/cm2 the number of rolling and firmly adhering leucocytes to mGEnC-1 increased 2-fold after activation with TNF-alpha, whereas the rolling velocity of the leucocytes decreased 2-fold. Addition of heparin, tinzaparin or HS, and the removal of HS on mGEnC-1 reduced the number of leucocytes rolling and adhering to activated mGEnC-1 about 2-3-fold, while the rolling velocity increased more than 2-fold. HS on activated glomerular endothelial cells is important for the interaction with leucocytes under flow conditions, while exogenous heparinoids interfere with this interaction. These results suggest that supplementary treatment of proliferative glomerulonephritides with heparinoids is an interesting option to pursue.

  4. Vaginal Heparan Sulfate Linked to Neutrophil Dysfunction in the Acute Inflammatory Response Associated with Experimental Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Junko; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite acute inflammation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) during vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), clearance of Candida fails to occur. The purpose of this study was to uncover the mechanism of vaginal PMN dysfunction. Designs included assessing PMN migration, proinflammatory mediators, and tissue damage (by analysis of the activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) in mice susceptible (C3H/HeN-C57BL/6) or resistant (CD-1) to chronic VVC (CVVC-S or CVVC-R) and testing morphology-specific Candida albicans strains under conditions of preinduced PMN migration (CVVC-S mice) or PMN depletion (CVVC-R mice). In vitro designs included evaluation of C. albicans killing by elicited vaginal or peritoneal PMNs in standard or vaginal conditioned medium (VCM). Results showed that despite significant migration of PMNs and high levels of vaginal beta interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and alarmin S100A8, CVVC-S mice failed to reduce vaginal fungal burden irrespective of morphology or whether PMNs were present pre- or postinoculation, and had high LDH levels. In contrast, CVVC-R mice had reduced fungal burden and low LDH levels following PMN recruitment and IL-1β/S100A8 production, but maintained colonization in the absence of PMNs. Elicited vaginal and peritoneal PMNs showed substantial killing activity in standard media or VCM from CVVC-R mice but not in VCM from CVVC-S mice. The inhibitory effect of VCM from CVVC-S mice was unaffected by endogenous or exogenous estrogen and was ablated following depletion/neutralization of Mac-1 ligands using Mac-1+/+ PMNs or recombinant Mac-1. Heparan sulfate (HS) was identified as the putative inhibitor as evidenced by the rescue of PMN killing following heparanase treatment of VCM, as well as by inhibition of killing by purified HS. These results suggest that vaginal HS is linked to PMN dysfunction in CVVC-S mice as a competitive ligand for Mac-1. PMID:28292981

  5. An affinity adsorption media that mimics heparan sulfate proteoglycans for the treatment of drug-resistant bacteremia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrea, Keith R.; Ward, Robert S.

    2016-06-01

    Removal of several drug-resistant bacteria from blood by affinity adsorption onto a heparin-functional media is reported. Heparin is a chemical analogue of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans, found on transmembrane proteins of endothelial cells. Many blood-borne human pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi have been reported to target HS as an initial step in their pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate the binding and removal of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Extended-Spectrum Betalactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL), and two Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (both CRE Escherichia coli and CRE K. pneumoniae) using 300 μm polyethylene beads surface modified with end-point-attached heparin. Depending on the specific bacteria, the amount removed ranged between 39% (ESBL) and 99.9% (CRE). The total amount of bacteria adsorbed ranged between 2.8 × 105 and 8.6 × 105 colony forming units (CFU) per gram of adsorption media. Based on a polymicrobial challenge which showed no competitive binding, MRSA and CRE apparently utilize different binding sequences on the immobilized heparin ligand. Since the total circulating bacterial load during bacteremia seldom exceeds 5 × 105 CFUs, it appears possible to significantly reduce bacterial concentration in infected patients by multi-pass recirculation of their blood through a small extracorporeal affinity filter containing the heparin-functional adsorption media. This 'dialysis-like therapy' is expected to improve patient outcomes and reduce the cost of care, particularly when there are no anti-infective drugs available to treat the infection.

  6. Probing cleavage promiscuity of heparinase III towards chemoenzymatically synthetic heparan sulfate oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guixin; Shao, Meng; Gao, Xin; Wang, Fengshan; Liu, Chunhui

    2017-10-01

    An insightful investigation into specificity of bacterial heparinase III has been intriguingly difficult due to heterogeneity of polymeric substrates. Herein, we chemoenzymatically synthesized a tailored library of HS oligosaccharides as substrates. A ∼15-fold reactivity difference to heparinase III was found between trisaccharides bearing different primary cleavage sites. Variable glucosamine modification decreased reactivity of trisaccharides by >20-fold compared with their counterpart primary substrates, while iduronate-containing secondary linkage showed slightly less sensitivity. The 2-sulfated iduronate residue extremely reduced reactivity to its adjacent primary site at reducing end of oligosaccharides, but showed marginal influence on the non-reducing site. Moreover, oligosaccharide susceptibility to digestion was size-dependent and had an obvious preference for the internal linkages over those near to non-reducing/reducing ends. Surface plasmon resonance revealed cleavage promiscuity attributed to different affinities or incorrect binding of substrates to the enzyme. The attractive information on heparinase III will be valuable in characterizing heparin and HS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Heparanase and Sulfatases in the Modification of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans within the Tumor Microenvironment and Opportunities for Novel Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Edward; Khurana, Ashwani; Shridhar, Viji; Dredge, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are an integral and dynamic part of normal tissue architecture at the cell surface and within the extracellular matrix. The modification of HSPGs in the tumor microenvironment is known to result not just in structural but also functional consequences, which significantly impact cancer progression. As substrates for the key enzymes sulfatases and heparanase, the modification of HSPGs is typically characterized by the degradation of heparan sulfate (HS) chains/sulfation patterns via the endo-6-O-sulfatases (Sulf1 and Sulf2) or by heparanase, an endo-glycosidase that cleaves the HS polymers releasing smaller fragments from HSPG complexes. Numerous studies have demonstrated how these enzymes actively influence cancer cell proliferation, signaling, invasion, and metastasis. The activity or expression of these enzymes has been reported to be modified in a variety of cancers. Such observations are consistent with the degradation of normal architecture and basement membranes, which are typically compromised in metastatic disease. Moreover, recent studies elucidating the requirements for these proteins in tumor initiation and progression exemplify their importance in the development and progression of cancer. Thus, as the influence of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression becomes more apparent, the focus on targeting enzymes that degrade HSPGs highlights one approach to maintain normal tissue architecture, inhibit tumor progression, and block metastasis. This review discusses the role of these enzymes in the context of the tumor microenvironment and their promise as therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25105093

  8. CXC chemokines connective tissue activating peptide-III and neutrophil activating peptide-2 are heparin/heparan sulfate-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hoogewerf, A J; Leone, J W; Reardon, I M; Howe, W J; Asa, D; Heinrikson, R L; Ledbetter, S R

    1995-02-17

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans at cell surfaces or in extracellular matrices bind diverse molecules, including growth factors and cytokines, and it is believed that the activities of these molecules may be regulated by the metabolism of heparan sulfate. In this study, purification of a heparan sulfate-degrading enzyme from human platelets led to the discovery that the enzymatic activity residues in at least two members of the platelet basic protein (PBP) family known as connective tissue activating peptide-III (CTAP-III) and neutrophil activating peptide-2. PBP and its N-truncated derivatives, CTAP-III and neutrophil activating peptide-2, are CXC chemokines, a group of molecules involved in inflammation and wound healing. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the purified heparanase resulted in a single broad band at 8-10 kDa, the known molecular weight of PBP and its truncated derivatives. Gel filtration chromatography of heparanase resulted in peaks of activity corresponding to monomers, dimers, and tetramers; these higher order aggregates are known to form among the chemokines. N-terminal sequence analysis of the same preparation indicated that only PBP and truncated derivatives were present, and commercial CTAP-III from three suppliers had heparanase activity. Antisera produced in animals immunized with a C-terminal synthetic peptide of PBP inhibited heparanase activity by 95%, compared with activity of the purified enzyme in the presence of the preimmune sera. The synthetic peptide also inhibited heparanase by 95% at 250 microM, compared to the 33% inhibition of heparanase activity by two other peptides. The enzyme was determined to be an endoglucosaminidase, and it degraded both heparin and heparan sulfate with optimal activity at pH 5.8. Chromatofocusing of the purified heparanase resulted in two protein peaks: an inactive peak at pI7.3, and an active peak at pI 4.8-5.1. Sequence analysis showed that the two peaks contained identical protein

  9. Overall sulfation of heparan sulfate from pancreatic islet β-TC3 cells increases maximal fibril formation but does not determine binding to the amyloidogenic peptide islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rebecca L; Peters, Michael J; Perigo, Susan Potter; Chan, Christina K; Wight, Thomas N; Kinsella, Michael G

    2012-10-26

    Islet amyloid, a pathologic feature of type 2 diabetes, contains the islet β-cell peptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) as its unique amyloidogenic component. Islet amyloid also contains heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) that may contribute to amyloid formation by binding IAPP via their heparan sulfate (HS) chains. We hypothesized that β-cells produce HS that bind IAPP via regions of highly sulfated disaccharides. Unexpectedly, HS from the β-cell line β-TC3 contained fewer regions of highly sulfated disaccharides compared with control normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) cells. The proportion of HS that bound IAPP was similar in both cell lines (∼65%). The sulfation pattern of IAPP-bound versus non-bound HS from β-TC3 cells was similar. In contrast, IAPP-bound HS from NMuMG cells contained frequent highly sulfated regions, whereas the non-bound material demonstrated fewer sulfated regions. Fibril formation from IAPP was stimulated equally by IAPP-bound β-TC3 HS, non-bound β-TC3 HS, and non-bound NMuMG HS but was stimulated to a greater extent by the highly sulfated IAPP-bound NMuMG HS. Desulfation of HS decreased the ability of both β-TC3 and NMuMG HS to stimulate IAPP maximal fibril formation, but desulfated HS from both cell types still accelerated fibril formation relative to IAPP alone. In summary, neither binding to nor acceleration of fibril formation from the amyloidogenic peptide IAPP is dependent on overall sulfation in HS synthesized by β-TC3 cells. This information will be important in determining approaches to reduce HS-IAPP interactions and ultimately prevent islet amyloid formation and its toxic effects in type 2 diabetes.

  10. Structure and epitope distribution of heparan sulfate is disrupted in experimental lung hypoplasia: a glycobiological epigenetic cause for malformation?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sophie M; Connell, Marilyn G; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Xu, Ruoyan; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Losty, Paul D; Fernig, David G; Jesudason, Edwin C

    2011-06-14

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is present on the surface of virtually all mammalian cells and is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it plays a pivotal role in cell-cell and cell-matrix cross-talk through its large interactome. Disruption of HS biosynthesis in mice results in neonatal death as a consequence of malformed lungs, indicating that HS is crucial for airway morphogenesis. Neonatal mortality (~50%) in newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is principally associated with lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Given the importance of HS for lung morphogenesis, we investigated developmental changes in HS structure in normal and hypoplastic lungs using the nitrofen rat model of CDH and semi-synthetic bacteriophage ('phage) display antibodies, which identify distinct HS structures. The pulmonary pattern of elaborated HS structures is developmentally regulated. For example, the HS4E4V epitope is highly expressed in sub-epithelial mesenchyme of E15.5 - E17.5 lungs and at a lower level in more distal mesenchyme. However, by E19.5, this epitope is expressed similarly throughout the lung mesenchyme.We also reveal abnormalities in HS fine structure and spatiotemporal distribution of HS epitopes in hypoplastic CDH lungs. These changes involve structures recognised by key growth factors, FGF2 and FGF9. For example, the EV3C3V epitope, which was abnormally distributed in the mesenchyme of hypoplastic lungs, is recognised by FGF2. The observed spatiotemporal changes in HS structure during normal lung development will likely reflect altered activities of many HS-binding proteins regulating lung morphogenesis. Abnormalities in HS structure and distribution in hypoplastic lungs can be expected to perturb HS:protein interactions, ECM microenvironments and crucial epithelial-mesenchyme communication, which may contribute to lung dysmorphogenesis. Indeed, a number of epitopes correlate with structures recognised by FGFs, suggesting a functional

  11. Structure and epitope distribution of heparan sulfate is disrupted in experimental lung hypoplasia: a glycobiological epigenetic cause for malformation?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heparan sulfate (HS) is present on the surface of virtually all mammalian cells and is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it plays a pivotal role in cell-cell and cell-matrix cross-talk through its large interactome. Disruption of HS biosynthesis in mice results in neonatal death as a consequence of malformed lungs, indicating that HS is crucial for airway morphogenesis. Neonatal mortality (~50%) in newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is principally associated with lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Given the importance of HS for lung morphogenesis, we investigated developmental changes in HS structure in normal and hypoplastic lungs using the nitrofen rat model of CDH and semi-synthetic bacteriophage ('phage) display antibodies, which identify distinct HS structures. Results The pulmonary pattern of elaborated HS structures is developmentally regulated. For example, the HS4E4V epitope is highly expressed in sub-epithelial mesenchyme of E15.5 - E17.5 lungs and at a lower level in more distal mesenchyme. However, by E19.5, this epitope is expressed similarly throughout the lung mesenchyme. We also reveal abnormalities in HS fine structure and spatiotemporal distribution of HS epitopes in hypoplastic CDH lungs. These changes involve structures recognised by key growth factors, FGF2 and FGF9. For example, the EV3C3V epitope, which was abnormally distributed in the mesenchyme of hypoplastic lungs, is recognised by FGF2. Conclusions The observed spatiotemporal changes in HS structure during normal lung development will likely reflect altered activities of many HS-binding proteins regulating lung morphogenesis. Abnormalities in HS structure and distribution in hypoplastic lungs can be expected to perturb HS:protein interactions, ECM microenvironments and crucial epithelial-mesenchyme communication, which may contribute to lung dysmorphogenesis. Indeed, a number of epitopes correlate with structures recognised by

  12. The Agmatine-Containing Poly(Amidoamine) Polymer AGMA1 Binds Cell Surface Heparan Sulfates and Prevents Attachment of Mucosal Human Papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cagno, Valeria; Donalisio, Manuela; Bugatti, Antonella; Civra, Andrea; Cavalli, Roberta; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Ferruti, Paolo; Rusnati, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The agmatine-containing poly(amidoamine) polymer AGMA1 was recently shown to inhibit the infectivity of several viruses, including human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16), that exploit cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) as attachment receptors. The aim of this work was to assess the antiviral activity of AGMA1 and its spectrum of activity against a panel of low-risk and high-risk HPVs and to elucidate its mechanism of action. AGMA1 was found to be a potent inhibitor of mucosal HPV types (i.e., types 16, 31, 45, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 0.34 μg/ml and 0.73 μg/ml, and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. AGMA1 interacted with immobilized heparin and with cellular heparan sulfates, exerting its antiviral action by preventing virus attachment to the cell surface. The findings from this study indicate that AGMA1 is a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. PMID:26077258

  13. CXCL14 enhances proliferation and migration of NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells overexpressing the glycoproteins containing heparan sulfate or sialic acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Cho Rong; You, Dong-Joo; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Mi Jin; Lee, Cheolju; Oh, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Curie; Seong, Jae Young; Hwang, Jong-Ik

    2013-05-01

    CXCL14 is a chemokine family member that is involved in various cellular responses in addition to immune cell activation. Although constitutive CXCL14 expression in normal epithelial cells may help protect against infection by activating immune systems, its expression in cancer cells has raised controversy regarding its possible role in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain unknown. Investigation of cellular CXCL14 binding properties might increase our understanding of the peptide's roles in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that CXCL14 binds to various cell types. Interestingly, binding to NCI-H460 cells was prevented by heparan sulfate and N-acetyl neuraminic acid. Next, we examined effect of CXCL14 binding in NCI-H460 and NCI-H23. CXCL14 enhanced proliferation and migration in NCI-H460 but had no effect on NCI-H23. A reporter gene assay with various transcription factor response elements revealed that only nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling was activated by CXCL14 in NCI-H460 cells, which was blocked by BAPTA-AM, TPCA-1, and brefeldin A. Exogenous expression of some glycoproteins such as syndecan-4, podoplanin, and CD43 in these cells enhanced CXCL14 binding and NF-κB activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that CXCL14 binding to glycoproteins harboring heparan sulfate proteoglycans and sialic acids leads proliferation and migration of some cancer cells.

  14. Auto-associative heparin nanoassemblies: a biomimetic platform against the heparan sulfate-dependent viruses HSV-1, HSV-2, HPV-16 and RSV.

    PubMed

    Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Laine, Claire; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Bianchini, Elsa P; Zeghbib, Narimane; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2014-09-01

    A new, simple and green method was developed for the manufacturing of heparin nanoassemblies active against the heparan sulfate-dependent viruses HSV-1, HSV-2, HPV-16 and RSV. These nanoassemblies were obtained by the auto-association of O-palmitoyl-heparin and α-cyclodextrin in water. The synthesized O-palmitoyl-heparin derivatives mixed with α-cyclodextrin resulted in the formation of crystalline hexagonal nanoassemblies as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The nanoassembly mean hydrodynamic diameters were modulated from 340 to 659 nm depending on the type and the initial concentration of O-palmitoyl-heparin or α-cyclodextrin. The antiviral activity of the nanoassemblies was not affected by the concentration of the components. However, the method of the synthesis of O-palmitoyl-heparin affected the antiviral activity of the formulations. We showed that reduced antiviral activity is correlated with lower sulfation degree and anticoagulant activity.

  15. Single Stage Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assignment of the C-5 Uronic Acid Stereochemistry in Heparan Sulfate Tetrasaccharides using Electron Detachment Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agyekum, Isaac; Zong, Chengli; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans presents many challenges, due to the high degree of structural heterogeneity arising from their non-template biosynthesis. Complete structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans necessitates the unambiguous assignments of sulfo modifications and the C-5 uronic acid stereochemistry. Efforts to develop tandem mass spectrometric-based methods for the structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans have focused on the assignment of sulfo positions. The present work focuses on the assignment of the C-5 stereochemistry of the uronic acid that lies closest to the reducing end. Prior work with electron-based tandem mass spectrometry methods, specifically electron detachment dissociation (EDD), have shown great promise in providing stereo-specific product ions, such as the B3 ´ -CO2, which has been found to distinguish glucuronic acid (GlcA) from iduronic acid (IdoA) in some HS tetrasaccharides. The previously observed diagnostic ions are generally not observed with 2- O-sulfo uronic acids or for more highly sulfated heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides. A recent study using electron detachment dissociation and principal component analysis revealed a series of ions that correlate with GlcA versus IdoA for a set of 2- O-sulfo HS tetrasaccharide standards. The present work comprehensively investigates the efficacy of these ions for assigning the C-5 stereochemistry of the reducing end uronic acid in 33 HS tetrasaccharides. A diagnostic ratio can be computed from the sum of the ions that correlate to GlcA to those that correlate to IdoA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Gas-Phase Analysis of the Complex of Fibroblast GrowthFactor 1 with Heparan Sulfate: A Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry (TWIMS) and Molecular Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuejie; Singh, Arunima; Xu, Yongmei; Zong, Chengli; Zhang, Fuming; Boons, Geert-Jan; Liu, Jian; Linhardt, Robert J.; Woods, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate several cellular developmental processes by interacting with cell surface heparan proteoglycans and transmembrane cell surface receptors (FGFR). The interaction of FGF with heparan sulfate (HS) is known to induce protein oligomerization, increase the affinity of FGF towards its receptor FGFR, promoting the formation of the HS-FGF-FGFR signaling complex. Although the role of HS in the signaling pathways is well recognized, the details of FGF oligomerization and formation of the ternary signaling complex are still not clear, with several conflicting models proposed in literature. Here, we examine the effect of size and sulfation pattern of HS upon FGF1 oligomerization, binding stoichiometry and conformational stability, through a combination of ion mobility (IM) and theoretical modeling approaches. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) of FGF1 in the presence of several HS fragments ranging from tetrasaccharide (dp4) to dodecasaccharide (dp12) in length was performed. A comparison of the binding stoichiometry of variably sulfated dp4 HS to FGF1 confirmed the significance of the previously known high-affinity binding motif in FGF1 dimerization, and demonstrated that certain tetrasaccharide-length fragments are also capable of inducing dimerization of FGF1. The degree of oligomerization was found to increase in the presence of dp12 HS, and a general lack of specificity for longer HS was observed. Additionally, collision cross-sections (CCSs) of several FGF1-HS complexes were calculated, and were found to be in close agreement with experimental results. Based on the (CCSs) a number of plausible binding modes of 2:1 and 3:1 FGF1-HS are proposed.

  17. Single Stage Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assignment of the C-5 Uronic Acid Stereochemistry in Heparan Sulfate Tetrasaccharides using Electron Detachment Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agyekum, Isaac; Zong, Chengli; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans presents many challenges, due to the high degree of structural heterogeneity arising from their non-template biosynthesis. Complete structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans necessitates the unambiguous assignments of sulfo modifications and the C-5 uronic acid stereochemistry. Efforts to develop tandem mass spectrometric-based methods for the structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans have focused on the assignment of sulfo positions. The present work focuses on the assignment of the C-5 stereochemistry of the uronic acid that lies closest to the reducing end. Prior work with electron-based tandem mass spectrometry methods, specifically electron detachment dissociation (EDD), have shown great promise in providing stereo-specific product ions, such as the B3 ´ -CO2, which has been found to distinguish glucuronic acid (GlcA) from iduronic acid (IdoA) in some HS tetrasaccharides. The previously observed diagnostic ions are generally not observed with 2-O-sulfo uronic acids or for more highly sulfated heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides. A recent study using electron detachment dissociation and principal component analysis revealed a series of ions that correlate with GlcA versus IdoA for a set of 2-O-sulfo HS tetrasaccharide standards. The present work comprehensively investigates the efficacy of these ions for assigning the C-5 stereochemistry of the reducing end uronic acid in 33 HS tetrasaccharides. A diagnostic ratio can be computed from the sum of the ions that correlate to GlcA to those that correlate to IdoA.

  18. Synthesis of a targeted library of heparan sulfate hexa- to dodecasaccharides as inhibitors of β-secretase: potential therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schwörer, Ralf; Zubkova, Olga V; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Tyler, Peter C

    2013-05-17

    Heparan sulfates (HS) are a class of sulfated polysaccharides that function as dynamic biological regulators of the functions of diverse proteins. The structural basis of these interactions, however, remains elusive, and chemical synthesis of defined structures represents a challenging but powerful approach for unravelling the structure-activity relationships of their complex sulfation patterns. HS has been shown to function as an inhibitor of the β-site cleaving enzyme β-secretase (BACE1), a protease responsible for generating the toxic Aβ peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with 6-O-sulfation identified as a key requirement. Here, we demonstrate a novel generic synthetic approach to HS oligosaccharides applied to production of a library of 16 hexa- to dodecasaccharides targeted at BACE1 inhibition. Screening of this library provided new insights into structure-activity relationships for optimal BACE1 inhibition, and yielded a number of potent non-anticoagulant BACE1 inhibitors with potential for development as leads for treatment of AD through lowering of Aβ peptide levels.

  19. The in vivo regulation of pioneer axon growth by FGF-2 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in cultured embryos of the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Nyhus, J K; Denburg, J L

    1998-08-01

    Antibody perturbation experiments on cultured cockroach embryos demonstrated that a localized source of an FGF-2-like immunoreactive molecule in the head is required for the proper growth of pioneer axons in the leg. The study of axon growth in various fragments of cultured embryos and in the presence of various conditioned media showed that FGF-2 is needed to counteract the effects of an inhibitor of axon growth produced in the body trunk of the embryo. Endogenous heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate these effects of FGF-2 on axon growth. The results of experiments with FGF-2 and/or body trunk axon growth inhibitor added to the culture medium indicate that more globally and uniformly distributed molecules may play as important a role in axon guidance as the more spatially restricted guidance cues. The results are interpreted in terms of a model that is consistent with a role for the FGF-2 receptor in axon growth.

  20. Cloning of the human heparan sulfate-N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase gene from the Treacher Collins syndrome candidate region at 5q32-q33.1

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.; Loftus, S.K.; Gladwin, A.J.

    1995-03-20

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development, the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. Previous studies have shown that the Treacher Collins syndrome locus is flanked by D5S519 and SPARC, and a yeast artificial chromosome contig encompassing this {open_quotes}critical region{close_quotes} has been completed. In the current investigation a cosmid containing D5S519 has been used to screen a human placental cDNA library. This has resulted in the cloning of the human heparan sulfate-N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase gene. Two different mRNA species that have identical protein coding sequences but that differ in the size and sequence of the 3{prime} untranslated regions (3{prime}UTR) have been identified. The smaller species has a 3{prime}UTR of 1035 bp, whereas that of the larger is 4878 bp. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Mutation of the dengue virus type 2 envelope protein heparan sulfate binding sites or the domain III lateral ridge blocks replication in Vero cells prior to membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Roehrig, John T.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Liss, Nathan M.; Bennett, Susan L.; Luy, Betty E.; Childers, Thomas; Boroughs, Karen L.; Stovall, Janae L.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Blair, Carol D.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2013-07-05

    Using an infectious cDNA clone we engineered seven mutations in the putative heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of the envelope protein of dengue virus serotype 2, strain 16681. Four mutant viruses, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, and KKK305/307/310EEE, were recovered following transfection of C6/36 cells. A fifth mutant, KK291/295EE, was recovered from C6/36 cells with a compensatory E295V mutation. All mutants grew in and mediated fusion of virus-infected C6/36 cells, but three of the mutants, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, did not grow in Vero cells without further modification. Two Vero cell lethal mutants, KK291/295EV and KKK307/307/310EEE, failed to replicate in DC-SIGN-transformed Raji cells and did not react with monoclonal antibodies known to block DENV attachment to Vero cells. Additionally, both mutants were unable to initiate negative-strand vRNA synthesis in Vero cells by 72 h post-infection, suggesting that the replication block occurred prior to virus-mediated membrane fusion. - Highlights: • Heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of DENV2 envelope protein were mutated. • Four mutant viruses were isolated—all could fuse C6/36 cells. • Two of these mutants were lethal in Vero cells without further modification. • Lethal mutations were KK291/295EV and KKK305/307/310EEE. • Cell attachment was implicated as the replication block for both mutants.

  2. Natural variation in the heparan sulfate binding domain of the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 glycoprotein alters interactions with cell surfaces and virulence in mice.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christina L; Choi-Nurvitadhi, Jo; Sun, Chengqun; Bayer, Avraham; Hritz, Jozef; Ryman, Kate D; Klimstra, William B

    2013-08-01

    Recently, we compared amino acid sequences of the E2 glycoprotein of natural North American eastern equine encephalitis virus (NA-EEEV) isolates and demonstrated that naturally circulating viruses interact with heparan sulfate (HS) and that this interaction contributes to the extreme neurovirulence of EEEV (C. L. Gardner, G. D. Ebel, K. D. Ryman, and W. B. Klimstra, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 108:16026-16031, 2011). In the current study, we have examined the contribution to HS binding of each of three lysine residues in the E2 71-to-77 region that comprise the primary HS binding site of wild-type (WT) NA-EEEV viruses. We also report that the original sequence comparison identified five virus isolates, each with one of three amino acid differences in the E2 71-to-77 region, including mutations in residues critical for HS binding by the WT virus. The natural variant viruses, which possessed either a mutation from lysine to glutamine at E2 71, a mutation from lysine to threonine at E2 71, or a mutation from threonine to lysine at E2 72, exhibited altered interactions with heparan sulfate and cell surfaces and altered virulence in a mouse model of EEEV disease. An electrostatic map of the EEEV E1/E2 heterotrimer based upon the recent Chikungunya virus crystal structure (J. E. Voss, M. C. Vaney, S. Duquerroy, C. Vonrhein, C. Girard-Blanc, E. Crublet, A. Thompson, G. Bricogne, and F. A. Rey, Nature, 468:709-712, 2010) showed the HS binding site to be at the apical surface of E2, with variants affecting the electrochemical nature of the binding site. Together, these results suggest that natural variation in the EEEV HS binding domain may arise during EEEV sylvatic cycles and that this variation may influence receptor interaction and the severity of EEEV disease.

  3. 1H and 15N NMR Analyses on Heparin, Heparan Sulfates and Related Monosaccharides Concerning the Chemical Exchange Regime of the N-Sulfo-Glucosamine Sulfamate Proton

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2016-01-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfate are structurally related glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Both GAGs present, although in different concentrations, N-sulfo-glucosamine (GlcNS) as one of their various composing units. The conditional fast exchange property of the GlcNS sulfamate proton in these GAGs has been pointed as the main barrier to its signal detection via NMR experiments, especially 1H-15N HSQC. Here, a series of NMR spectra is collected on heparin, heparan sulfate and related monosaccharides. The N-acetyl glucosamine-linked uronic acid types of these GAGs were properly assigned in the 1H-15N HSQC spectra. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) was employed in order to facilitate 1D spectral acquisition of the sulfamate 15N signal of free GlcNS. Analyses on the multiplet pattern of scalar couplings of GlcNS 15N has helped to understand the chemical properties of the sulfamate proton in solution. The singlet peak observed for GlcNS happens due to fast chemical exchange of the GlcNS sulfamate proton in solution. Analyses on kinetics of alpha-beta anomeric mutarotation via 1H NMR spectra have been performed in GlcNS as well as other glucose-based monosaccharides. 1D 1H and 2D 1H-15N HSQC spectra recorded at low temperature for free GlcNS dissolved in a proton-rich solution showed signals from all exchangeable protons, including those belonging to the sulfamate group. This work suits well to the current grand celebration of one-century-anniversary of the discovery of heparin. PMID:27618066

  4. Human LTC-IC can be maintained for at least 5 weeks in vitro when interleukin-3 and a single chemokine are combined with O-sulfated heparan sulfates: requirement for optimal binding interactions of heparan sulfate with early-acting cytokines and matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P; Oegema, T R; Brazil, J J; Dudek, A Z; Slungaard, A; Verfaillie, C M

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that stromal O-sulfated heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (O-S-GAGs) regulate primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) growth and differentiation by colocalizing heparin-binding cytokines and matrix proteins with HPC in stem cell "niches" in the marrow microenvironment. We now show that long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC) are maintained for 5 weeks in the absence of stroma when O-S-GAGs are added to IL-3 and either MIP-1alpha or PF4 (LTC-IC maintenance without GAGs, 32 +/- 2%; with GAGs, 95 +/- 7%; P <.001). When cultured with 5 additional cytokines, O-S-GAGs, IL-3, and MIP-1alpha, LTC-IC expanded 2- to 4-fold at 2 weeks, and 92 +/- 8% LTC-IC were maintained at 5 weeks. Similar results were seen when PF4 replaced MIP-1alpha. Although O-S-GAG omission did not affect 2-week expansion, only 20% LTC-IC were maintained for 5 weeks. When O-S-heparin was replaced by completely desulfated-, N-sulfated (O-desulfated), or unmodified heparins, LTC-IC maintenance at week 5 was not better than with cytokines alone. Unmodified- and O-S-heparin, but not desulfated- or N-sulfated heparin, bound to MIP-1alpha, IL-3, PF4, VEGF, thrombospondin, and fibronectin. However, the affinity of heparin for thrombospondin and PF4, and the association and dissociation rates of heparin for PF4, were higher than those of O-S-heparin. We conclude that (i) although cytokines may suffice to induce early expansion, adult human LTC-IC maintenance for longer than 1 month requires O-S-GAGs, and (ii) HPC support may depend not only on the ability of GAGs to bind proteins, but also on optimal affinity and kinetics of interactions that affect presentation of proteins in a biologically active manner to progenitors. (Blood. 2000;95:147-155)

  5. The binding of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin to kidney heparan sulfate: Such binding is not essential for BMP antagonism.

    PubMed

    Tatsinkam, Arnold Junior; Rune, Naomi; Smith, Joy; Norman, Jill T; Mulloy, Barbara; Rider, Christopher C

    2017-02-01

    Gremlin-1, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, has essential roles in kidney and limb bone development, and is important in chronic diseases including tissue fibrosis. It also functions as an activating ligand of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and binds strongly to the sulfated polysaccharide, heparin. Here we investigated the extent to which gremlin binds to the related polysaccharide heparan sulfate (HS), which unlike heparin is widely distributed spread within tissues. We determined that both highly sulfated HS and kidney HS are able to partially compete for the binding of heparin to gremlin, whereas low sulfated HS is a poor competitor. In further investigations of the interaction between gremlin and HS, we found that wild-type gremlin is able to bind broadly across the various regions of kidney in an HS-dependent manner, with particularly intense binding to tubular structures in the renal cortex. In a model of chronic kidney disease, fibrotic changes in the kidney result in a loss of gremlin binding sites. Gremlin mutants with reduced affinity for heparin showed negligible binding under the same conditions. These mutants nonetheless remain functional as BMP antagonists on C2C12 myoblastic cells transfected with a Smad 1 reporter gene construct. Overall our findings indicate that on secretion, gremlin will bind to HS structures on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, thus providing for a localised reservoir which can modulate BMP activity in a temporospatially restricted manner. Although binding of heparin/HS to gremlin has been shown elsewhere to be necessary for gremlin activation of VEGFR2, this does not appear to be essential for BMP antagonism by gremlin. Thus these sulfated polysaccharides differentially regulate the activities of gremlin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heparin/heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfatase from Flavobacterium heparinum: integrated structural and biochemical investigation of enzyme active site and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Myette, James R; Soundararajan, Venkataramanan; Shriver, Zachary; Raman, Rahul; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2009-12-11

    Heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) comprise a chemically heterogeneous class of sulfated polysaccharides. The development of structure-activity relationships for this class of polysaccharides requires the identification and characterization of degrading enzymes with defined substrate specificity and enzymatic activity. Toward this end, we report here the molecular cloning and extensive structure-function analysis of a 6-O-sulfatase from the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium heparinum. In addition, we report the recombinant expression of this enzyme in Escherichia coli in a soluble, active form and identify it as a specific HSGAG sulfatase. We further define the mechanism of action of the enzyme through biochemical and structural studies. Through the use of defined substrates, we investigate the kinetic properties of the enzyme. This analysis was complemented by homology-based molecular modeling studies that sought to rationalize the substrate specificity of the enzyme and mode of action through an analysis of the active-site topology of the enzyme including identifying key enzyme-substrate interactions and assigning key amino acids within the active site of the enzyme. Taken together, our structural and biochemical studies indicate that 6-O-sulfatase is a predominantly exolytic enzyme that specifically acts on N-sulfated or N-acetylated 6-O-sulfated glucosamines present at the non-reducing end of HSGAG oligosaccharide substrates. This requirement for the N-acetyl or N-sulfo groups on the glucosamine substrate can be explained through eliciting favorable interactions with key residues within the active site of the enzyme. These findings provide a framework that enables the use of 6-O-sulfatase as a tool for HSGAG structure-activity studies as well as expand our biochemical and structural understanding of this important class of enzymes.

  7. Cell surface phosphatidylinositol-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan initiates mouse melanoma cell adhesion to a fibronectin-derived, heparin-binding synthetic peptide

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) from metastatic mouse melanoma cells initiates cell adhesion to the synthetic peptide FN-C/H II, a heparin-binding peptide from the 33-kD A chain-derived fragment of fibronectin. Mouse melanoma cell adhesion to FN-C/H II was sensitive to soluble heparin and pretreatment of mouse melanoma cells with heparitinase. In contrast, cell adhesion to the fibronectin synthetic peptide CS1 is mediated through an alpha 4 beta 1 integrin and was resistant to heparin or heparitinase treatment. Mouse melanoma cell HSPG was metabolically labeled with [35S]sulfate and extracted with detergent. After HPLC-DEAE purification, 35S-HSPG eluted from a dissociative CL-4B column with a Kav approximately 0.45, while 35S- heparan sulfate (HS) chains eluted with a Kav approximately 0.62. The HSPG contained a major 63-kD core protein after heparitinase digestion. Polyclonal antibodies generated against HSPG purified from mouse melanoma cells grown in vivo also identified a 63-kD core protein. This HSPG is an integral plasma membrane component by virtue of its binding to Octyl Sepharose affinity columns and that anti-HSPG antibody staining exhibited a cell surface localization. The HSPG is anchored to the cell surface through phosphatidylinositol (PI) linkages, as evidenced in part by the ability of PI-specific phospholipase C to eliminate binding of the detergent-extracted HSPG to Octyl Sepharose. Furthermore, the mouse melanoma HSPG core protein could be metabolically labeled with 3H-ethanolamine. The involvement of mouse melanoma cell surface HSPG in cell adhesion to fibronectin was also demonstrated by the ability of anti-HSPG antibodies and anti-HSPG IgG Fab monomers to inhibit mouse melanoma cell adhesion to FN-C/H II. 35S- HSPG and 35S-HS bind to FN-C/H II affinity columns and require 0.25 M NaCl for elution. However, heparitinase-treated 125I-labeled HSPG failed to bind FN-C/H II, suggesting that HS, and not HSPG core protein, binds FN

  8. Heparan Sulfate and Heparin Promote Faithful Prion Replication in Vitro by Binding to Normal and Abnormal Prion Proteins in Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Morikazu; Tabeta, Naoko; Kato, Nobuko; Matsuura, Yuichi; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Murayama, Yuichi

    2016-12-16

    The precise mechanism underlying the conversion of normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) remains unclear. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), an in vitro technique used for amplifying PrP(Sc), results in PrP(Sc) replication that preserves the strain-specific characteristics of the input PrP(Sc); thus, PMCA mimics the process of in vivo PrP(Sc) replication. Previous work has demonstrated that in PMCA, nucleic acids are critical for PrP(Sc) amplification, but little information has been reported on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) participation in PrP(Sc) replication in vitro Here, we investigated whether GAGs play a role in the faithful replication of PrP(Sc) by using a modified PMCA performed with baculovirus-derived recombinant PrP (Bac-PrP) as a substrate. The addition of heparan sulfate (HS) or its analog heparin (HP) restored the conversion efficiency in PMCA that was inhibited through nucleic acid depletion. Moreover, the PMCA products obtained under these conditions were infectious and preserved the properties of the input PrP(Sc) These data suggest that HS and HP play the same role as nucleic acids in facilitating faithful replication of prions in PMCA. Furthermore, we showed that HP binds to both Bac-PrP and Bac-PrP(Sc) through the sulfated groups present on HP and that the N-terminal domain of Bac-PrP(Sc) might potentially not be involved in the binding to HP. These results suggest that the interaction of GAGs such as HS and HP with PrP(C) and/or PrP(Sc) through their sulfate groups is critical for the faithful replication of prions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Heparan Sulfate Binding Promotes Accumulation of Intravitreally Delivered Adeno-associated Viral Vectors at the Retina for Enhanced Transduction but Weakly Influences Tropism.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Kenton T; Liang, Katharine J; Bennett, William C; Samulski, R Jude

    2016-11-01

    Many adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes efficiently transduce the retina when delivered to the subretinal space but show limited success when delivered to the vitreous due to the inner limiting membrane (ILM). Subretinal delivery of AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) and its heparan sulfate (HS)-binding-deficient capsid led to similar expression, indicating transduction of the outer retina occurred by HS-independent mechanisms. However, intravitreal delivery of HS-ablated recombinant AAV2 (rAAV2) led to a 300-fold decrease in transduction compared to AAV2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of AAV transgenes was used to identify differences in retinal trafficking and revealed that HS binding was responsible for AAV2 accumulation at the ILM. This mechanism was tested on human ex vivo retinas and showed similar accumulation with HS-binding AAV2 capsid only. To evaluate if HS binding could be applied to other AAV serotypes to enhance their transduction, AAV1 and AAV8 were modified to bind HS with a single-amino-acid mutation and tested in mice. Both HS-binding mutants of AAV1 and AAV8 had higher intravitreal transduction than their non-HS-binding parent capsid due to increased retinal accumulation. To understand the influence that HS binding has on tropism, chimeric AAV2 capsids with dual-glycan usage were tested intravitreally in mice. Compared to HS binding alone, these chimeric capsids displayed enhanced transduction that was correlated with a change in tropism. Taken together, these data indicate that HS binding serves to sequester AAV capsids from the vitreous to the ILM but does not influence retinal tropism. The enhanced retinal transduction of HS-binding capsids provides a rational design strategy for engineering capsids for intravitreal delivery. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become the vector of choice for viral gene transfer and has shown great promise in clinical trials. The need for development of an easy, less invasive injection route for ocular gene therapy

  10. cDNA cloning and expression of HIP, a novel cell surface heparan sulfate/heparin-binding protein of human uterine epithelial cells and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Smith, S E; Julian, J; Rohde, L H; Karin, N J; Carson, D D

    1996-05-17

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans and their corresponding binding sites have been suggested to play an important role during the initial attachment of murine blastocysts to uterine epithelium and human trophoblastic cell lines to uterine epithelial cell lines. Previous studies on RL95 cells, a human uterine epithelial cell line, had characterized a single class of cell surface heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS)-binding sites. Three major HP/HS-binding peptide fragments were isolated from cell surfaces by tryptic digestion, and partial amino-terminal amino acid sequence for each peptide fragment was obtained (Raboudi, N., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., and Carson, D. D. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 11930-11939). In the current study, using approaches of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and cDNA library screening, we have cloned and expressed a novel, cell surface HP/HS-binding protein, named HP/HS interacting protein (HIP), from RL95 cells. The full-length cDNA of HIP encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17,754 Da and pI of 11.75. Transfection of HIP full-length cDNA into NIH-3T3 cells demonstrated cell surface expression and a size similar to that of HIP expressed by human cells. Predicted amino acid sequence indicates that HIP lacks a membrane spanning region and has no consensus sites for glycosylation. Northern blot analysis detected a single transcript of 1.3 kilobases in both total RNA and poly(A+) RNA. Examination of human cell lines and normal tissues using both Northern blot and Western blot analyses revealed that HIP is expressed at different levels in a variety of human cell lines and normal tissues but absent in some cell lines and some cell types of normal tissues examined. HIP has relatively high homology (approximately 80% both at the levels of nucleotide and protein sequence) to a rodent ribosomal protein L29. Thus, members of the L29 family may be displayed on cell surfaces where they may participate in HP

  11. Heparan Sulfate Binding Promotes Accumulation of Intravitreally Delivered Adeno-associated Viral Vectors at the Retina for Enhanced Transduction but Weakly Influences Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Kenton T.; Liang, Katharine J.; Bennett, William C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes efficiently transduce the retina when delivered to the subretinal space but show limited success when delivered to the vitreous due to the inner limiting membrane (ILM). Subretinal delivery of AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) and its heparan sulfate (HS)-binding-deficient capsid led to similar expression, indicating transduction of the outer retina occurred by HS-independent mechanisms. However, intravitreal delivery of HS-ablated recombinant AAV2 (rAAV2) led to a 300-fold decrease in transduction compared to AAV2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of AAV transgenes was used to identify differences in retinal trafficking and revealed that HS binding was responsible for AAV2 accumulation at the ILM. This mechanism was tested on human ex vivo retinas and showed similar accumulation with HS-binding AAV2 capsid only. To evaluate if HS binding could be applied to other AAV serotypes to enhance their transduction, AAV1 and AAV8 were modified to bind HS with a single-amino-acid mutation and tested in mice. Both HS-binding mutants of AAV1 and AAV8 had higher intravitreal transduction than their non-HS-binding parent capsid due to increased retinal accumulation. To understand the influence that HS binding has on tropism, chimeric AAV2 capsids with dual-glycan usage were tested intravitreally in mice. Compared to HS binding alone, these chimeric capsids displayed enhanced transduction that was correlated with a change in tropism. Taken together, these data indicate that HS binding serves to sequester AAV capsids from the vitreous to the ILM but does not influence retinal tropism. The enhanced retinal transduction of HS-binding capsids provides a rational design strategy for engineering capsids for intravitreal delivery. IMPORTANCE Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become the vector of choice for viral gene transfer and has shown great promise in clinical trials. The need for development of an easy, less invasive injection route for

  12. [The Role of Membrane-Bound Heat Shock Proteins Hsp90 in Migration of Tumor Cells in vitro and Involvement of Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Protein Binding to Plasma Membrane].

    PubMed

    Snigireva, A V; Vrublevskaya, V V; Skarga, Y Y; Morenkov, O S

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein Hsp90, detected in the extracellular space and on the membrane of cells, plays an important role in cell motility, migration, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. At present, the functional role and molecular mechanisms of Hsp90 binding to plasma membrane are not elucidated. Using isoform-specific antibodies against Hsp90, Hsp9α and Hsp90β, we showed that membrane-bound Hsp90α and Hsp90β play a significant role in migration of human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) and glioblastoma (A-172) cells in vitro. Disorders of sulfonation of cell heparan sulfates, cleavage of cell heparan. sulfates by heparinase I/III as well as treatment of cells with heparin lead to an abrupt reduction in the expression level of Hsp90 isoforms. Furthermore, heparin significantly inhibits tumor cell migration. The results obtained demonstrate that two isoforms of membrane-bound Hsp90 are involved in migration of tumor cells in vitro and that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans play a pivotal role in the "anchoring" of Hsp90α and Hsp90β to the plasma membrane.

  13. Indoxyl Sulfate Affects Glial Function Increasing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Simona; Magnus, Tim; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Campolo, Michela; Rissiek, Björn; Paciello, Orlando; Autore, Giuseppina; Pinto, Aldo; Marzocco, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-bound uremic toxin resulting from the metabolism of dietary tryptophan which accumulates in patients with impaired renal function, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). IS is a well-known nephrovascular toxin but little is known about its effects on central nervous system (CNS) cells. Considering the growing interest in the field of CNS comorbidities in CKD, we studied the effect of IS on CNS cells. IS (15-60 μM) treatment in C6 astrocyte cells increased reactive oxygen species release and decreased nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activation, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 expression. Moreover, IS increased Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB) activation in these cells. Similiar observations were made in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitrotyrosine formation were increased by IS (15-60 μM) in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. IS increased AhR and NF-kB nuclear translocation and reduced Nrf2 translocation and HO-1 expression in primary glial cells. In addition, IS induced cell death in neurons in a dose dependent fashion. Injection of IS (800 mg/kg, i.p.) into mice induced histological changes and increased COX-2 expression and nitrotyrosine formation in thebrain tissue. Taken together, our results show a significant contribution of IS in generating a neurotoxic enviroment and it could also have a potential role in neurodegeneration. IS could be considered also a potential therapeutical target for CKD-associated neurodegenerative complications.

  14. Indoxyl Sulfate Affects Glial Function Increasing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Adesso, Simona; Magnus, Tim; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Campolo, Michela; Rissiek, Björn; Paciello, Orlando; Autore, Giuseppina; Pinto, Aldo; Marzocco, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-bound uremic toxin resulting from the metabolism of dietary tryptophan which accumulates in patients with impaired renal function, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). IS is a well-known nephrovascular toxin but little is known about its effects on central nervous system (CNS) cells. Considering the growing interest in the field of CNS comorbidities in CKD, we studied the effect of IS on CNS cells. IS (15–60 μM) treatment in C6 astrocyte cells increased reactive oxygen species release and decreased nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activation, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 expression. Moreover, IS increased Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB) activation in these cells. Similiar observations were made in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitrotyrosine formation were increased by IS (15–60 μM) in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. IS increased AhR and NF-kB nuclear translocation and reduced Nrf2 translocation and HO-1 expression in primary glial cells. In addition, IS induced cell death in neurons in a dose dependent fashion. Injection of IS (800 mg/kg, i.p.) into mice induced histological changes and increased COX-2 expression and nitrotyrosine formation in thebrain tissue. Taken together, our results show a significant contribution of IS in generating a neurotoxic enviroment and it could also have a potential role in neurodegeneration. IS could be considered also a potential therapeutical target for CKD-associated neurodegenerative complications. PMID:28659803

  15. Mutation of the dengue virus type 2 envelope protein heparan sulfate binding sites or the domain III lateral ridge blocks replication in Vero cells prior to membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Roehrig, John T; Butrapet, Siritorn; Liss, Nathan M; Bennett, Susan L; Luy, Betty E; Childers, Thomas; Boroughs, Karen L; Stovall, Janae L; Calvert, Amanda E; Blair, Carol D; Huang, Claire Y-H

    2013-07-05

    Using an infectious cDNA clone we engineered seven mutations in the putative heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of the envelope protein of dengue virus serotype 2, strain 16681. Four mutant viruses, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, and KKK305/307/310EEE, were recovered following transfection of C6/36 cells. A fifth mutant, KK291/295EE, was recovered from C6/36 cells with a compensatory E295V mutation. All mutants grew in and mediated fusion of virus-infected C6/36 cells, but three of the mutants, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, did not grow in Vero cells without further modification. Two Vero cell lethal mutants, KK291/295EV and KKK307/307/310EEE, failed to replicate in DC-SIGN-transformed Raji cells and did not react with monoclonal antibodies known to block DENV attachment to Vero cells. Additionally, both mutants were unable to initiate negative-strand vRNA synthesis in Vero cells by 72h post-infection, suggesting that the replication block occurred prior to virus-mediated membrane fusion.

  16. Cellular uptake of hepatitis B virus envelope L particles is independent of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, but dependent on heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

    PubMed

    Somiya, Masaharu; Liu, Qiushi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Iijima, Masumi; Tatematsu, Kenji; Nakai, Tadashi; Okajima, Toshihide; Kuroki, Kazuyuki; Ueda, Keiji; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2016-10-01

    Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) was recently discovered as a hepatitis B virus (HBV) receptor, however, the detailed mechanism of HBV entry is not yet fully understood. We investigated the cellular entry pathway of HBV using recombinant HBV surface antigen L protein particles (bio-nanocapsules, BNCs). After the modification of L protein in BNCs with myristoyl group, myristoylated BNCs (Myr-BNCs) were found to bind to NTCP in vitro, and inhibit in vitro HBV infection competitively, suggesting that Myr-BNCs share NTCP-dependent infection machinery with HBV. Nevertheless, the cellular entry rates of Myr-BNCs and plasma-derived HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) particles were the same as those of BNCs in NTCP-overexpressing HepG2 cells. Moreover, the cellular entry of these particles was mainly driven by heparan sulfate proteoglycan-mediated endocytosis regardless of NTCP expression. Taken together, cell-surface NTCP may not be involved in the cellular uptake of HBV, while presumably intracellular NTCP plays a critical role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assignment Of Hexuronic Acid Stereochemistry In Synthetic Heparan Sulfate Tetrasaccharides With 2-O-Sulfo Uronic Acids Using Electron Detachment Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Agyekum, Isaac; Patel, Anish B; Zong, Chengli; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, Jonathan

    2015-11-15

    The present work focuses on the assignment of uronic acid stereochemistry in heparan sulfate (HS) oligomers. The structural elucidation of HS glycosaminoglycans is the subject of considerable importance due to the biological and biomedical significance of this class of carbohydrates. They are highly heterogeneous due to their non-template biosynthesis. Advances in tandem mass spectrometry activation methods, particularly electron detachment dissociation (EDD), has led to the development of methods to assign sites of sulfo modification in glycosaminoglycan oligomers, but there are few reports of the assignment of uronic acid stereochemistry, necessary to distinguish glucuronic acid (GlcA) from iduronic acid (IdoA). Whereas preceding studies focused on uronic acid epimers with no sulfo modification, the current work extends the assignment of the hexuronic acid stereochemistry to 2-O-sulfo uronic acid epimeric tetrasaccharides. The presence of a 2-O-sulfo group on the central uronic acid was found to greatly influence the formation of B3, C2, Z2, and Y1 ions in glucuronic acid and Y2 and (1,5)X2 for iduronic acid. The intensity of these peaks can be combined to yield a diagnostic ratios (DR), which can be used to confidently assign the uronic acid stereochemistry.

  18. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Containing a Glypican 5 Core and 2-O-Sulfo-iduronic Acid Function as Sonic Hedgehog Co-receptors to Promote Proliferation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Rochelle M.; Hecht, Marie-Lyn; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Cohen, Samuel M.; Noti, Christian; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Fuller, Maria; Chan, Jennifer A.; Hopwood, John J.; Seeberger, Peter H.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is crucial for growth, cell fate determination, and axonal guidance in the developing nervous system. Although the receptors Patched (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo) are required for Shh signaling, a number of distinct co-receptors contribute to these critical responses to Shh. Several membrane-embedded proteins such as Boc, Cdo, and Gas1 bind Shh and promote signaling. In addition, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have also been implicated in the initiation of Shh responses. However, the attributes of HSPGs that function as co-receptors for Shh have not yet been defined. Here, we identify HSPGs containing a glypican 5 core protein and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid residues at the nonreducing ends of the glycans as co-receptors for Shh. These HSPG co-receptors are expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors and promote Shh binding and signaling. At the subcellular level, these HSPG co-receptors are located adjacent to the primary cilia that act as Shh signaling organelles. Thus, Shh binds to HSPG co-receptors containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid to promote neural precursor proliferation. PMID:23867465

  19. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid function as Sonic Hedgehog co-receptors to promote proliferation.

    PubMed

    Witt, Rochelle M; Hecht, Marie-Lyn; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Cohen, Samuel M; Noti, Christian; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Fuller, Maria; Chan, Jennifer A; Hopwood, John J; Seeberger, Peter H; Segal, Rosalind A

    2013-09-06

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is crucial for growth, cell fate determination, and axonal guidance in the developing nervous system. Although the receptors Patched (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo) are required for Shh signaling, a number of distinct co-receptors contribute to these critical responses to Shh. Several membrane-embedded proteins such as Boc, Cdo, and Gas1 bind Shh and promote signaling. In addition, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have also been implicated in the initiation of Shh responses. However, the attributes of HSPGs that function as co-receptors for Shh have not yet been defined. Here, we identify HSPGs containing a glypican 5 core protein and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid residues at the nonreducing ends of the glycans as co-receptors for Shh. These HSPG co-receptors are expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors and promote Shh binding and signaling. At the subcellular level, these HSPG co-receptors are located adjacent to the primary cilia that act as Shh signaling organelles. Thus, Shh binds to HSPG co-receptors containing a glypican 5 core and 2-O-sulfo-iduronic acid to promote neural precursor proliferation.

  20. Extracellular matrix of cultured glial cells: Selective expression of chondroitin 4-sulfate by type-2 astrocytes and their progenitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, V.; Bertolotto, A. )

    1990-04-01

    We have studied the extracellular matrix composition of cultured glial cells by immunocytochemistry with different monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Double immunofluorescence experiments and metabolic labeling with (3H)glucosamine performed in different types of cerebellar and cortical cultures showed that bipotential progenitors for type-2 astrocytes and for oligodendrocytes synthesize chondroitin sulfate (CS) and deposit this proteoglycan in their extracellular matrix. The distribution of the various (3H)glucosamine-labeled glycosaminoglycans between the intracellular and the extracellular space was different. CS was present both within the cells and in the culture medium, although in different amounts. Bi-potential progenitors became also O4-positive during their development in vitro. At the stage of O4-positivity they were still stained with antibodies against CS. However, when the progenitor cells were maintained in serum-free medium and differentiated into Gal-C-positive oligodendrocytes, they became CS-negative. In the presence of fetal calf serum in the culture medium, the bipotential progenitors differentiated into GFAP-positive type-2 astrocytes. These cells still expressed CS: their Golgi area and their surface were stained with anti-CS antibodies. Staining with monoclonal antibodies specific for different types of CS (4-sulfate, 6-sulfate, and unsulfated) revealed that both bipotential progenitors and type-2 astrocytes synthesized only chondroitin 4-sulfate. Type-1 astrocytes were negative for both the polyclonal and the monoclonal anti-CS antibodies. Finally, type-2 astrocytes and their progenitors were weakly stained with anti-laminin antibodies and unstained with anti-fibronectin. Type-1 astrocytes were positive for both anti-laminin and anti-fibronectin antibodies and appeared to secrete fibronectin in the extracellular space.

  1. A highly efficient tree structure for the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate accounts for the commonly observed disaccharides and suggests a mechanism for domain synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Timothy R; Yates, Edwin A

    2012-04-01

    The form of the biosynthetic pathway of the biologically and medically important polysaccharides heparan sulfate (HS) and the closely related heparin remain obscure despite significant progress characterising the biosynthetic machinery. Considering possible biosynthetic schemes using a graph approach and applying known constraints of enzyme order and specificity, a previously unreported system with a highly efficient tree structure emerged with two features: (1) All commonly occurring HS disaccharides could be synthesised through a common route, the major branch. (2) The least common disaccharides also occurred on a separate common branch, termed here the minor branch. This suggested that the relative abundance of these two sets of structures were the result of the specificity of a single enzyme (HS epimerase) acting at an early point in the scheme, to convert GlcA-GlcNS to IdoA-GlcNS in preference to converting GlcA-GlcNAc to IdoA-GlcNAc. A third key finding was that the common substrates for 3-O-sulfation all lie on the same (major) branch. The proposed scheme is consistent with a wide body of experiments comprising both biochemical data and results from HS biosynthetic enzyme knockout experiments in the literature. The major branch also contains a bifurcation, providing a choice of two distinct backbone geometries with the same charge. Further development of this novel biosynthetic scheme, in which frame shifts in the site of action of the enzymes were permitted to occur, while maintaining their order of action, suggested a mechanism by which domains could be generated, or further modification blocked. The relationship between the proposed pathway and the geometric and charge possibilities it allows were also explored.

  2. A peptide sequence of heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS)-interacting protein supports selective, high affinity binding of HP/HS and cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Julian, J; Carson, D D

    1998-04-17

    We previously have identified a novel cell surface heparan sulfate/heparin (HS/HP)-interacting protein (HIP) found in human uterine epithelia and a variety of other human epithelial and endothelial cells and cell lines (Liu, S., Smith, S. E., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., Karin, N. J., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11817-11823; Rohde, L. H., Julian, J., Babaknia, A., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11824-11830). The amino acid sequence predicted for HIP revealed a potential HS/HP-binding motif. In the present studies, a synthetic peptide corresponding to this putative HS/HP-binding motif, HIP peptide, was synthesized and examined with regard to its HS/HP binding and cell attachment promoting activity. Results using solid phase binding assays demonstrate that HIP peptide binds HS/HP with high selectivity and has high affinity for bulk HP (50% saturation congruent with 300 nM) and even higher affinity for a subset of polysaccharides found in commercial [3H]HP (half-saturation congruent with 10 nM). Moreover, HIP peptide binds subsets of cell and extracellular matrix-associated HS and dermatan sulfate expressed by RL95 cells, a human uterine adenocarcinoma cell line. HIP peptide also binds a similar fraction of HS as well as dermatan sulfate expressed by JAR cells, a human choriocarcinoma cell line. In contrast to binding of cell- or extracellular matrix-associated HS, HIP peptide does not bind secreted or released forms of HS or DS from either RL95 or JAR cells to a significant extent. HS species that bind to HIP peptide are generally larger, have a higher negative charge density, and have a larger proportion of di- and trisulfated disaccharide units than HS species that do not bind to HIP peptide, demonstrating structural differences among these polysaccharides. This same peptide supports HS-dependent JAR cell attachment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that a linear peptide sequence found within HIP can account, at least in part, for

  3. Transport of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 in the Pericellular Matrix Is Controlled by the Spatial Distribution of Its Binding Sites in Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Duchesne, Laurence; Octeau, Vivien; Bearon, Rachel N.; Beckett, Alison; Prior, Ian A.; Lounis, Brahim; Fernig, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The heparan sulfate (HS) chains of proteoglycans are a key regulatory component of the extracellular matrices of animal cells, including the pericellular matrix around the plasma membrane. In these matrices they regulate transport, gradient formation, and effector functions of over 400 proteins central to cell communication. HS from different matrices differs in its selectivity for its protein partners. However, there has been no direct test of how HS in the matrix regulates the transport of its partner proteins. We address this issue by single molecule imaging and tracking in fibroblast pericellular matrix of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), stoichiometrically labelled with small gold nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy and photothermal heterodyne imaging (PHI) show that the spatial distribution of the HS-binding sites for FGF2 in the pericellular matrix is heterogeneous over length scales ranging from 22 nm to several µm. Tracking of individual FGF2 by PHI in the pericellular matrix of living cells demonstrates that they undergo five distinct types of motion. They spend much of their time in confined motion (∼110 nm diameter), but they are not trapped and can escape by simple diffusion, which may be slow, fast, or directed. These substantial translocations (µm) cover distances far greater than the length of a single HS chain. Similar molecular motion persists in fixed cells, where the movement of membrane PGs is impeded. We conclude that FGF2 moves within the pericellular matrix by translocating from one HS-binding site to another. The binding sites on HS chains form non-random, heterogeneous networks. These promote FGF2 confinement or substantial translocation depending on their spatial organisation. We propose that this spatial organisation, coupled to the relative selectivity and the availability of HS-binding sites, determines the transport of FGF2 in matrices. Similar mechanisms are likely to underpin the movement of many other HS

  4. The Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Glypican-6 Is Upregulated in the Failing Heart, and Regulates Cardiomyocyte Growth through ERK1/2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Melleby, Arne O.; Strand, Mari E.; Romaine, Andreas; Herum, Kate M.; Skrbic, Biljana; Dahl, Christen P.; Sjaastad, Ivar; Fiane, Arnt E.; Filmus, Jorge; Christensen, Geir; Lunde, Ida G.

    2016-01-01

    Pressure overload is a frequent cause of heart failure. Heart failure affects millions of patients worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cell surface proteoglycans are emerging as molecular players in cardiac remodeling, and increased knowledge about their regulation and function is needed for improved understanding of cardiac pathogenesis. Here we investigated glypicans (GPC1-6), a family of evolutionary conserved heparan sulfate proteoglycans anchored to the extracellular leaflet of the cell membrane, in experimental and clinical heart failure, and explored the function of glypican-6 in cardiac cells in vitro. In mice subjected to pressure overload by aortic banding (AB), we observed elevated glypican-6 levels during hypertrophic remodeling and dilated, end-stage heart failure. Consistently, glypican-6 mRNA was elevated in left ventricular myocardium from explanted hearts of patients with end-stage, dilated heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Glypican-6 levels correlated negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction in patients, and positively with lung weight after AB in mice. Glypican-6 mRNA was expressed in both cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, and the corresponding protein displayed different sizes in the two cell types due to tissue-specific glycanation. Importantly, adenoviral overexpression of glypican-6 in cultured cardiomyocytes increased protein synthesis and induced mRNA levels of the pro-hypertrophic signature gene ACTA1 and the hypertrophy and heart failure signature genes encoding natriuretic peptides, NPPA and NPPB. Overexpression of GPC6 induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and co-treatment with the ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the GPC6-induced increase in NPPA, NPPB and protein synthesis. In conclusion, our data suggests that glypican-6 plays a role in clinical and experimental heart failure progression by regulating cardiomyocyte growth through ERK signaling. PMID:27768722

  5. Real time monitoring of the effects of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) and surface charge on the cell adhesion process using thickness shear mode (TSM) sensor.

    PubMed

    Ergezen, E; Hong, S; Barbee, K A; Lec, R

    2007-04-15

    The effects of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) and surface charge on the cellular interactions of the cell membrane with different substrates to determine the kinetics of cell adhesion was studied using thickness shear mode (TSM) sensor. The TSM sensor was operated at its first, third, fifth and seventh harmonics. Since the penetration depth of the shear wave decreases with increases in frequency, the multi-resonance operation of the TSM sensor was used to monitor the changes in the kinetics of the cell-substrate interaction at different distances from the sensor surface. During the sedimentation and the initial attachment of the cells on the sensor surface, the changes in the sensor resonant frequency and the magnitude response were monitored. First, HSPGs were partially digested with the enzyme Heparinase III to evaluate the effect of HSPG on the cell adhesion process. The results indicated that HSPG did not have any effect on the kinetics of the initial attachment, but it did reduce the strength of steady-state cell adhesion. Next, we investigated the effect of the electrostatic interactions of the cell membrane with the substrate on the cell adhesion. In this case, the sensor surface was coated with positively charged Poly-D-Lysine (PDL). It was observed that electrostatic interaction of the negatively charged cell membrane with the PDL surface promoted the initial cell adhesion but did not support long-term cell adhesion. The multi-resonant TSM technique was shown to be a very promising method for monitoring specific interfacial effects involving in cell adhesion process in real-time.

  6. Cobra CRISP functions as an inflammatory modulator via a novel Zn2+- and heparan sulfate-dependent transcriptional regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ling; Kuo, Je-Hung; Lee, Shao-Chen; Liu, Jai-Shin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Shih, Yu-Tsung; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2010-11-26

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) have been identified as a toxin family in most animal venoms with biological functions mainly associated with the ion channel activity of cysteine-rich domain (CRD). CRISPs also bind to Zn(2+) at their N-terminal pathogenesis-related (PR-1) domain, but their function remains unknown. Interestingly, similar the Zn(2+)-binding site exists in all CRISP family, including those identified in a wide range of organisms. Here, we report that the CRISP from Naja atra (natrin) could induce expression of vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecules, i.e. intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin, to promote monocytic cell adhesion in a heparan sulfate (HS)- and Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Using specific inhibitors and small interfering RNAs, the activation mechanisms are shown to involve both mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB. Biophysical characterization of natrin by using fluorescence, circular dichroism, and x-ray crystallographic methods further reveals the presence of two Zn(2+)-binding sites for natrin. The strong binding site is located near the putative Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad of the N-terminal domain. The weak binding site remains to be characterized, but it may modulate HS binding by enhancing its interaction with long chain HS. Our results strongly suggest that natrin may serve as an inflammatory modulator that could perturb the wound-healing process of the bitten victim by regulating adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells. Our finding uncovers a new aspect of the biological role of CRISP family in immune response and is expected to facilitate future development of new therapeutic strategy for the envenomed victims.

  7. Acidosis increases MHC class II-restricted presentation of a protein endowed with a pH-dependent heparan sulfate-binding ability.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Delphine; Savatier, Alexandra; Upert, Grégory; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Léonetti, Michel

    2015-04-15

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are ubiquitously expressed molecules that participate in numerous biological processes. We previously showed that HSPGs expressed on the surface of APCs can serve as receptors for a hybrid protein containing an HS ligand and an Ag, which leads to more efficient stimulation of Th cells. To investigate whether such behavior is shared by proteins with inherent HS-binding ability, we looked for proteins endowed with this characteristic. We found that diphtheria toxin and its nontoxic mutant, called CRM197, can interact with HS. However, we observed that their binding ability is higher at pH 6 than at pH 7.4. Therefore, as extracellular acidosis occurs during infection by various micro-organisms, we assessed whether HS-binding capacity affects MHC class II-restricted presentation at different pHs. We first observed that pH decrease allows CRM197 binding to HSPG-expressing cells, including APCs. Then, we showed that this interaction enhances Ag uptake and presentation to Th cells. Lastly, we observed that pH decrease does not affect processing and presentation abilities of the APCs. Our findings show that acidic pH causes an HSPG-mediated uptake and an enhancement of T cell stimulation of Ags with the inherent ability to bind HSPGs pH-dependently. Furthermore, they suggest that proteins from micro-organisms with this binding characteristic might be supported more efficiently by the adaptive immune system when acidosis is triggered during infection. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Microglial Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Facilitate the Cluster-of-Differentiation 14 (CD14)/Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)-Dependent Inflammatory Response*

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Li, Jin-Ping; Lannfelt, Lars; Lindahl, Ulf; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Microglia rapidly mount an inflammatory response to pathogens in the central nervous system (CNS). Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have been attributed various roles in inflammation. To elucidate the relevance of microglial HSPGs in a pro-inflammatory response we isolated microglia from mice overexpressing heparanase (Hpa-tg), the HS-degrading endoglucuronidase, and challenged them with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin. Prior to LPS-stimulation, the LPS-receptor cluster-of-differentiation 14 (CD14) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4; essential for the LPS response) were similarly expressed in Ctrl and Hpa-tg microglia. However, compared with Ctrl microglia, Hpa-tg cells released significantly less tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), essentially failed to up-regulate interleukin-1β (IL1β) and did not initiate synthesis of proCD14. Isolated primary astroyctes expressed TLR4, but notably lacked CD14 and in contrast to microglia, LPS challenge induced a similar TNFα response in Ctrl and Hpa-tg astrocytes, while neither released IL1β. The astrocyte TNFα-induction was thus attributed to CD14-independent TLR4 activation and was unaffected by the cells HS status. Equally, the suppressed LPS-response in Hpa-tg microglia indicated a loss of CD14-dependent TLR4 activation, suggesting that microglial HSPGs facilitate this process. Indeed, confocal microscopy confirmed interactions between microglial HS and CD14 in LPS-stimulated microglia and a potential HS-binding motif in CD14 was identified. We conclude that microglial HSPGs facilitate CD14-dependent TLR4 activation and that heparanase can modulate this mechanism. PMID:25869127

  9. Thermodynamic study of transthyretin association (wild-type and senile forms) with heparan sulfate proteoglycan: pH effect and implication of the reactive histidine residue.

    PubMed

    Geneste, Ambre; André, Claire; Magy-Bertrand, Nadine; Lethier, Lydie; Tijani, Gharbi; Guillaume, Yves Claude

    2015-04-01

    The tetramer destabilization of transthyretin into monomers and its fibrillation are phenomena leading to amyloid deposition. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) has been found in all amyloid deposits. A chromatographic approach was developed to compare binding parameters between wild-type transthyretin (wtTTR) and an amyloidogenic transthyretin (sTTR). Results showed a greater affinity of sTTR for HSPG at pH 7.4 compared with wtTTR owing to the monomeric form of sTTR. Analysis of the thermodynamic parameters showed that van der Waals interactions were involved at the complex interface for both transthyretin forms. For sTTR, results from the plot representing the number of protons exchanged vs pH showed that the binding mechanism was pH-dependent with a critical value at a pH 6.5. This observation was due to the protonation of a histidine residue as an imidazolium cation, which was not accessible when TTR was in its tetrameric structure. At pH >6.5, dehydration at the binding interface and several contacts between nonpolar groups of sTTR and HSPG were also coupled to binding for an optimal hydrogen-bond network. At pH <6.5, the protonation of the His residue from sTTR monomer when pH decreased broke the hydrogen-bond network, leading to its destabilization and thus producing slight conformational changes in the sTTR monomer structure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS) interacting protein (HIP) supports cell attachment and selective, high affinity binding of HP/HS.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Hoke, D; Julian, J; Carson, D D

    1997-10-10

    Heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS), HS proteoglycans, and their binding proteins play important roles in a variety of biological processes. Previously, we identified a novel cell surface HP/HS interacting protein (HIP) from human uterine epithelia and a variety of other human epithelial and endothelial cells and cell lines (Liu, S., Smith, S. E., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., Karin, N. J., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11817-11823; Rohde, L. H., Julian, J., Babaknia, A., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11824-11830). In the current studies, we have purified and characterized HIP from HEC cells, a human uterine epithelial cell line, as well as recombinant HIP from a bacterial expression system. HIP supports attachment of the human trophoblastic cell line, JAR, in a HS-dependent fashion. Predigestion of JAR cells with a mixture of heparitinases, but not chondroitinase AC, abolished cell attachment to HIP. In addition, JAR cell attachment to HIP is highly sensitive to HP inhibition and much more selective for HP/HS than other glycosaminoglycans. Dermatan sulfate displays partial inhibitory activity as well, consistent with the observation that chondroitinase ABC digestion partially reduces JAR cell attachment to HIP. Solid-phase binding assays indicate HIP binds [3H]HP with high affinity (apparent KD = 8 nM). Furthermore, HIP bound cell surface/extracellular matrix-associated HS, expressed by RL95 cells, a human uterine epithelial cell line. Anti-HIP antibody generated against a synthetic peptide derived from a putative HP/HS-binding motif resident within HIP inhibited about half of [3H]HP binding to HIP, indicating that this domain is a functional HP-binding domain of HIP. Similarly, this same synthetic peptide motif of HIP could block about 50% of [3H]HP binding to HIP; however, this peptide almost completely inhibited cell attachment to HIP, suggesting a critical role, in this regard. Collectively, these results suggest that HIP can function as

  11. Syndecan-1-Induced ECM Fiber Alignment Requires Integrin αvβ3 and Syndecan-1 Ectodomain and Heparan Sulfate Chains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Friedl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-1 (Sdc1) is frequently induced in stromal fibroblasts of invasive breast carcinomas. We have recently identified a correlation between stromal Sdc1 expression and extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber alignment, both in vitro and in vivo. ECMs derived from Sdc1-positive human mammary fibroblasts (HMF) showed an aligned fiber architecture, which contrasted markedly with the more random fiber arrangement in the ECM produced by Sdc1-negative HMFs. We further demonstrated that aligned fiber architecture promotes the directional migration and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. To decipher the molecular mechanisms governing the formation of an aligned, invasion-permissive ECM, a series of Sdc1 mutants was introduced into HMF. We found that both the ectodomain and heparan sulfate chains of Sdc1 were required for full activity of Sdc1 in regulating ECM alignment, while transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains were dispensable. Sdc1 regulates the activities of several integrins via its ectodomain. Integrins are key players in the assembly of fibronectin-rich ECM. In addition, integrins are capable of regulating cell morphology and cell shape and orientation may affect ECM architecture. Therefore, we investigated the role of integrins in Sdc1-mediated ECM fiber alignment. Sdc1-overexpressing HMF gained an enhanced spindle-shaped morphology when cultured in an overconfluent state under conditions permissive for ECM production, which was partially reversed by siRNA-mediated silencing of β3 integrin expression. Moreover, suppression of αvβ3 integrin activity by a function-blocking antibody or β3 knockdown largely abolished the aligned ECM fiber architecture and consequently the invasion-permissive properties of the ECM induced by Sdc1. The results suggest that Sdc1 may modulate fibronectin fibrillogenesis and/or alter cell morphology during ECM production through αvβ3 integrin, thereby mediating ECM fiber alignment

  12. Cell surface expression of HIP, a novel heparin/heparan sulfate binding protein, of human uterine epithelial cells and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rohde, L H; Julian, J; Babaknia, A; Carson, D D

    1996-05-17

    Previous studies established that uterine epithelial cells and cell lines express cell surface heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS)-binding proteins (Wilson, O., Jacobs, A. L., Stewart, S., and Carson, D. D. (1990) J. Cell. Physiol. 143, 60-67; Raboudi, N., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., and Carson, D. D. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 11930-11939). The accompanying paper (Liu, S., Smith, S. E., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., Karin, N. J., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11817-11823) describes the cloning of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a candidate cell surface HP/HS interacting protein, HIP, expressed by a variety of human epithelia. A synthetic peptide was synthesized corresponding to an amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence and used to prepare a rabbit polyclonal antibody. This antibody reacted with a protein with an apparent Mr of 24,000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that was highly enriched in the 100,000 x g particulate fraction of RL95 cells. This molecular weight is similar to that of the protein expressed by 3T3 cells transfected with HIP cDNA. HIP was solubilized from this particulate fraction with NaCl concentrations > or = 0.8 M demonstrating a peripheral association consistent with the lack of a membrane spanning domain in the predicted cDNA sequence. HIP was not released by heparinase digestion suggesting that the association is not via membrane-bound HS proteoglycans. NaCl-solubilized HIP bound to heparin-agarose in physiological saline and eluted with NaCl concentrations of 0.75 M and above. Furthermore, incubation of 125I-HP with transblots of the NaCl-solubilized HIP preparations separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated direct binding of HP to HIP. Indirect immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that HIP is expressed on the surfaces of intact RL95 cells. Binding of HIP antibodies to RL95 cell surfaces at 4 degrees C was saturable and blocked by preincubation with the peptide antigen. Single cell

  13. The protease activity of transthyretin reverses the effect of pH on the amyloid-β protein/heparan sulfate proteoglycan interaction: a biochromatographic study.

    PubMed

    Geneste, Ambre; Guillaume, Yves Claude; Magy-Bertrand, Nadine; Lethier, Lydie; Gharbi, T; André, Claire

    2014-08-01

    Patients suffering of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by a low transthyretin (TTR) level in the brain. The effect of pH and TTR concentration in the medium on the β-amyloid protein (Aβ)/heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) association mechanism were studied using a biochromatographic approach. For this purpose, HSPG was immobilized via amino groups onto the amino propyl silica pre-packed column, activated with glutaraldehyde, by using the Schiff base method. Using an equilibrium perturbation method, it was clearly shown that Aβ can be bound with HSPG. This approach allowed the determination of the thermodynamic data of this binding mechanism. The role of the pH was also analyzed. Results from enthalpy-entropy compensation and the plot of the number of protons exchanged versus pH showed that the binding mechanism was dependent on pH with a critical value at pH=6.5. This value agreed with a histidine protonation as an imidazolium cation. Moreover, the corresponding thermodynamical data showed that at pH>6.5, van der Waals and hydrogen bonds due to aromatic amino acids as tyrosine or phenylalanine present in the N-terminal (NT) part governed the Aβ/HSPG association. Aβ remained in its physiological structure in a random coil form (i.e. the non-amyloidogenic structure) because van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds were preponderant. At acidic pH (pH<6.5), ionic and hydrophobic interactions, created by histidine protonation and hydrophobic amino acids, appeared in the Aβ/HSPG binding. These hydrophobic and ionic interactions led to the conversion of the random coil form of Aβ into a β-sheet structure which was the amyloidogenic folding. When TTR was incubated with Aβ, the Aβ/HSPG association mechanism was enthalpy driven at all pH values. The affinity of Aβ for HSPG decreased when TTR concentration increased due to the complexation of Aβ with TTR. Also, the decrease of the peak area with the increase of TTR concentration demonstrated that

  14. DcR3 binds to ovarian cancer via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and modulates tumor cells response to platinum with corresponding alteration in the expression of BRCA1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overcoming platinum resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). In our previous work Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3) was found to be related to platinum resistance. The major objective of this work was to define the cellular interaction of DcR3 with EOC and to explore its effects on platinum responsiveness. Methods We studied cell lines and primary cultures for the expression of and the cells ability to bind DcR3. Cells were cultured with DcR3 and then exposed to platinum. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Finally, the cells molecular response to DcR3 was studied using real time RT-PCR based differential expression arrays, standard RT-PCR, and Western blot. Results High DcR3 in the peritoneal cavity of women with EOC is associated with significantly shorter time to first recurrence after platinum based therapy (p = 0.02). None-malignant cells contribute DcR3 in the peritoneal cavity. The cell lines studied do not secrete DcR3; however they all bind exogenous DcR3 to their surface implying that they can be effected by DcR3 from other sources. DcR3s protein binding partners are minimally expressed or negative, however, all cells expressed the DcR3 binding Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) Syndecans-2, and CD44v3. DcR3 binding was inhibited by heparin and heparinase. After DcR3 exposure both SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 became more resistant to platinum with 15% more cells surviving at high doses. On the contrary CaOV3 became more sensitive to platinum with 20–25% more cell death. PCR array analysis showed increase expression of BRCA1 mRNA in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 and decreased BRCA1 expression in CaOV-3 after exposure to DcR3. This was confirmed by gene specific real time PCR and Western blot analysis. Conclusions Non-malignant cells contribute to the high levels of DcR3 in ovarian cancer. DcR3 binds readily to EOC cells via HSPGs and alter their responsiveness to platinum chemotherapy. The paradoxical responses seen

  15. The transition of mouse pluripotent stem cells from the naïve to the primed state requires Fas signaling through 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate structures recognized by the HS4C3 antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Kazumi; Van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Nishihara, Shoko

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Fas transcript increases during the transition from the naïve to the primed state. ► 3OST-5 transcript, the HS4C3 epitope synthesis gene, increases during the transition. ► Fas signaling regulates the transition from the naïve to the primed state. ► HS4C3-binding epitope regulates the transition from the naïve to the primed state. ► Fas signaling is regulated by the HS4C3 epitope during the transition. -- Abstract: The characteristics of pluripotent embryonic stem cells of human and mouse are different. The properties of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are similar to those of mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs), which are in a later developmental pluripotency state, the so-called “primed state” compared to mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) which are in a naïve state. As a result of the properties of the primed state, hESCs proliferate slowly, cannot survive as single cells, and can only be transfected with genes at low efficiency. Generating hESCs in the naïve state is necessary to overcome these problems and allow their application in regenerative medicine. Therefore, clarifying the mechanism of the transition between the naïve and primed states in pluripotent stem cells is important for the establishment of stable methods of generating naïve state hESCs. However, the signaling pathways which contribute to the transition between the naïve and primed states are still unclear. In this study, we carried out induction from mESCs to mEpiSC-like cells (mEpiSCLCs), and observed an increase in the activation of Fas signaling during the induction. The expression of Fgf5, an epiblast marker, was diminished by inhibition of Fas signaling using the caspase-8 and -3 blocking peptides, IETD and DEVD, respectively. Furthermore, during the induction, we observed increased expression of 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) structures synthesized by HS 3-O-sulfotransferase (3OST), which are recognized by the HS4C3 antibody (HS4C3-binding epitope

  16. Panels of chemically-modified heparin polysaccharides and natural heparan sulfate saccharides both exhibit differences in binding to Slit and Robo, as well as variation between protein binding and cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Yassir A; Yates, Edwin A; Moss, Diana J; Loeven, Markus A; Hussain, Sadaf-Ahmahni; Hohenester, Erhard; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Powell, Andrew K

    2016-10-20

    Heparin/heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans are required for Slit-Robo cellular responses. Evidence exists for interactions between each combination of Slit, Robo and heparin/HS and for formation of a ternary complex. Heparin/HS are complex mixtures displaying extensive structural diversity. The relevance of this diversity has been studied to a limited extent using a few select chemically-modified heparins as models of HS diversity. Here we extend these studies by parallel screening of structurally diverse panels of eight chemically-modified heparin polysaccharides and numerous natural HS oligosaccharide chromatographic fractions for binding to both Drosophila Slit and Robo N-terminal domains and for activation of a chick retina axon response to the Slit fragment. Both the polysaccharides and oligosaccharide fractions displayed variability in binding and cellular activity that could not be attributed solely to increasing sulfation, extending evidence for the importance of structural diversity to natural HS as well as model modified heparins. They also displayed differences in their interactions with Slit compared to Robo, with Robo preferring compounds with higher sulfation. Furthermore, the patterns of cellular activity across compounds were different to those for binding to each protein, suggesting that biological outcomes are selectively determined in a subtle manner that does not simply reflect the sum of the separate interactions of heparin/HS with Slit and Robo.

  17. Pectin from Prunus domestica L. induces proliferation of IEC-6 cells through the alteration of cell-surface heparan sulfate on differentiated Caco-2 cells in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Murata, Kazuma; Oshima, Kazuya; Itoh, Chihiro; Kitaguchi, Kohji; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-01

    Dietary fiber intake provides various physiological and metabolic effects for human health. Pectin, a water-soluble dietary fiber, induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pectin-derived morphological alterations have not been elucidated. Previously, we found that pectin purified from Prunus domestica L. altered the sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS) on differentiated Caco-2 cells via fibronectin and α5β1 integrin. In this study, we investigated the biological significance of the effect of pectin on HS in differentiated Caco-2 cells. An in vitro intestinal epithelium model was constructed by co-culture of differentiated Caco-2 cells and rat IEC-6 cells, which were used as models of intestinal epithelium and intestinal crypt cells, respectively. We found that pectin-treated differentiated Caco-2 cells promoted growth of IEC-6 cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis and western blotting showed that relative mRNA and protein expression levels of Wnt3a were upregulated by pectin treatment in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Analysis by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy demonstrated that pectin-induced structural alteration of HS markedly decreased the interaction with Wnt3a. However, depression in the secretion of Wnt3a from Caco-2 cells by anti-Wnt3a antibody did not affect the proliferation of IEC-6 cells in co-culture system. These observations indicated that pectin altered the sulfated structure of cell-surface HS to promote secretion of Wnt3a from differentiated Caco-2 cells and Wnt3a indirectly stimulated the proliferation of IEC-6 cells.

  18. The structural plasticity of heparan sulfate NA-domains and hence their role in mediating multivalent interactions is confirmed by high-accuracy 15N-NMR relaxation studies

    PubMed Central

    Mobli, Mehdi; Nilsson, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Considering the biological importance of heparan sulfate (HS) and the significant activity of its highly-sulfated regions (S-domains), the paucity of known functions for the non-sulfated NA-domains is somewhat puzzling. It has been suggested that chain dynamics within the NA-domains are the key to their functional role in HS. In this study, we investigate this hypothesis using state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments at multiple frequencies. To resolve the problem of severe overlap in 1H-NMR spectra of repetitive polysaccharides from proteoglycans, we have prepared oligosaccharides with the chemical structure of HS NA-domains containing the 15N nucleus, which has enough chemical shift dispersion to probe the central residues of octasaccharides at atomic resolution using 600 MHz NMR. By performing NMR relaxation experiments at three magnetic-field strengths, high quality data on internal dynamics and rotational diffusion was obtained. Furthermore, translational diffusion could also be measured by NMR using pulse field gradients. These experimental data were used, in concert with molecular dynamics simulations, to provide information on local molecular shape, greatly aiding our relaxation analyses. Our results, which are more accurate than those presented previously, confirm the higher flexibility of the NA-domains as compared with reported data on S-domains. It is proposed that this flexibility has two functional roles. First, it confers a greater area of interaction from the anchoring point on the core protein for the bioactive S-domains. Secondly, it allows multiple interactions along the same HS chain that are dynamically independent of each other. Electronic Supplementary Material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10719-007-9081-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18080183

  19. Online reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry separation and characterization of heparan sulfate, heparin, and low-molecular weight-heparin disaccharides derivatized with 2-aminoacridone.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, Fabio; Volpi, Nicola

    2011-09-01

    A high-resolution online reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)-fluorescence detector (Fd)-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) separation and structural characterization of disaccharides prepared from heparin (Hep), heparan sulfate (HS), and various low-molecular-weight (LMW)-Hep using heparin lyases and derivatization with 2-aminoacridone (AMAC) are described. A total of 12 commercially available Hep/HS-derived unsaturated disaccharides were separated and unambiguously identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. The constituent disaccharides of various samples, including unfractionated Hep/HS, fast-moving and slow-moving Hep components, and several marketed products, were characterized. Furthermore, for the first time, the saturated trisulfated disaccharide belonging to the nonreducing end of Heps was detected as being approximately 2% in unfractionated samples and ~15-21% in LMW-Heps prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization. No desalting of the commercial products prior to enzymatic digestion or prepurification steps to eliminate any excess of AMAC reagent or interference from proteins, peptides, and other sample impurities before RP-HPLC-Fd-ESI-MS injection were necessary. This method has applicability for the rapid differentiation of pharmaceutical Heps and LMW-Heps prepared by means of different depolymerization processes and for compositional analysis of small amounts of samples derived from biological sources by using the highly sensitive fluorescence detector.

  20. The heparan sulfate motif (GlcNS6S-IdoA2S)3, common in heparin, has a strict topography and is involved in cell behavior and disease.

    PubMed

    Smits, Nicole C; Kurup, Sindhulakshmi; Rops, Angelique L; ten Dam, Gerdy B; Massuger, Leon F; Hafmans, Theo; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Spillmann, Dorothe; Li, Jin-ping; Kennel, Stephen J; Wall, Jonathan S; Shworak, Nicholas W; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard; van der Vlag, Johan; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2010-12-24

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a structurally complex polysaccharide that interacts with a broad spectrum of extracellular effector ligands and thereby is thought to regulate a diverse array of biologic processes. The specificity of HS-ligand interactions is determined by the arrangement of sulfate groups on HS, which creates distinct binding motifs. Biologically important HS motifs are expected to exhibit regulated expression, yet there is a profound lack of tools to identify such motifs; consequently, little is known of their structures and functions. We have identified a novel phage display-derived antibody (NS4F5) that recognizes a highly regulated HS motif (HS(NS4F5)), which we have rigorously identified as (GlcNS6S-IdoA2S)(3). HS(NS4F5) exhibits a restricted expression in healthy adult tissues. Blocking HS(NS4F5) on cells in culture resulted in reduced proliferation and enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis. HS(NS4F5) is up-regulated in tumor endothelial cells, consistent with a role in endothelial cell activation. Indeed, TNF-α stimulated endothelial expression of HS(NS4F5), which contributed to leukocyte adhesion. In a mouse model of severe systemic amyloid protein A amyloidosis, HS(NS4F5) was expressed within amyloid deposits, which were successfully detected by microSPECT imaging using NS4F5 as a molecularly targeted probe. Combined, our results demonstrate that NS4F5 is a powerful tool for elucidating the biological function of HS(NS4F5) and can be exploited as a probe to detect novel polysaccharide biomarkers of disease processes.

  1. The Heparan Sulfate Motif (GlcNS6S-IdoA2S)3, Common in Heparin, Has a Strict Topography and Is Involved in Cell Behavior and Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Nicole C.; Kurup, Sindhulakshmi; Rops, Angelique L.; ten Dam, Gerdy B.; Massuger, Leon F.; Hafmans, Theo; Turnbull, Jeremy E.; Spillmann, Dorothe; Li, Jin-ping; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.; Shworak, Nicholas W.; Dekhuijzen, P. N. Richard; van der Vlag, Johan; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a structurally complex polysaccharide that interacts with a broad spectrum of extracellular effector ligands and thereby is thought to regulate a diverse array of biologic processes. The specificity of HS-ligand interactions is determined by the arrangement of sulfate groups on HS, which creates distinct binding motifs. Biologically important HS motifs are expected to exhibit regulated expression, yet there is a profound lack of tools to identify such motifs; consequently, little is known of their structures and functions. We have identified a novel phage display-derived antibody (NS4F5) that recognizes a highly regulated HS motif (HSNS4F5), which we have rigorously identified as (GlcNS6S-IdoA2S)3. HSNS4F5 exhibits a restricted expression in healthy adult tissues. Blocking HSNS4F5 on cells in culture resulted in reduced proliferation and enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis. HSNS4F5 is up-regulated in tumor endothelial cells, consistent with a role in endothelial cell activation. Indeed, TNF-α stimulated endothelial expression of HSNS4F5, which contributed to leukocyte adhesion. In a mouse model of severe systemic amyloid protein A amyloidosis, HSNS4F5 was expressed within amyloid deposits, which were successfully detected by microSPECT imaging using NS4F5 as a molecularly targeted probe. Combined, our results demonstrate that NS4F5 is a powerful tool for elucidating the biological function of HSNS4F5 and can be exploited as a probe to detect novel polysaccharide biomarkers of disease processes. PMID:20837479

  2. Multivariate analysis of electron detachment dissociation and infrared multiphoton dissociation mass spectra of heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides differing only in hexuronic acid stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Oh, Han Bin; Leach, Franklin E; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates by mass spectrometry has been a long-standing analytical challenge due to the inherent heterogeneity of these biomolecules, specifically polydispersity, variability in sulfation, and hexuronic acid stereochemistry. Recent advances in tandem mass spectrometry methods employing threshold and electron-based ion activation have resulted in the ability to determine the location of the labile sulfate modification as well as assign the stereochemistry of hexuronic acid residues. To facilitate the analysis of complex electron detachment dissociation (EDD) spectra, principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to differentiate the hexuronic acid stereochemistry of four synthetic GAG epimers whose EDD spectra are nearly identical upon visual inspection. For comparison, PCA is also applied to infrared multiphoton dissociation spectra (IRMPD) of the examined epimers. To assess the applicability of multivariate methods in GAG mixture analysis, PCA is utilized to identify the relative content of two epimers in a binary mixture.

  3. Matrix Contraction by Dermal Fibroblasts Requires Transforming Growth Factor-β/Activin-Linked Kinase 5, Heparan Sulfate-Containing Proteoglycans, and MEK/ERK

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunliang; Shi-wen, Xu; van Beek, Jonathan; Kennedy, Laura; McLeod, Marilyn; Renzoni, Elisabetta A.; Bou-Gharios, George; Wilcox-Adelman, Sarah; Goetinck, Paul F.; Eastwood, Mark; Black, Carol M.; Abraham, David J.; Leask, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Scarring is characterized by excessive synthesis and contraction of extracellular matrix. Here, we show that fibroblasts from scarred (lesional) areas of patients with the chronic fibrotic disorder diffuse scleroderma [diffuse systemic sclerosis (dSSc)] show an enhanced ability to adhere to and contract extracellular matrix, relative to fibroblasts from unscarred (nonlesional) areas of dSSc patients and dermal fibroblasts from normal, healthy individuals. The contractile abilities of normal and dSSc dermal fibroblasts were suppressed by blocking heparin sulfate-containing proteoglycan biosynthesis or antagonizing transforming growth factor-β receptor type I [activin-linked kinase (ALK5)] or ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Compared with both normal and nonlesional fibroblasts, lesional dSSc fibroblasts overexpressed the heparin sulfate-containing proteoglycan syndecan 4. We also found that the procontractile signals from transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were integrated through syndecan 4 and MEK/ERK because the ability of TGFβ to induce contraction of dermal fibroblasts was prevented by MEK antagonism. TGFβ could not induce a contractile phenotype or phosphorylate ERK in syndecan 4−/− dermal fibroblasts. These results suggest that integrating TGFβ and ERK signals via syndecan 4 is essential for the contractile ability of dermal fibroblasts. We conclude that antagonizing MEK/ERK, TGFβ1/ALK5, or syndecan 4 may alleviate scarring in chronic fibrotic disease. PMID:16314481

  4. The role of heparan sulfate deficiency in autistic phenotype: potential involvement of Slit/Robo/srGAPs-mediated dendritic spine formation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Christine; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2016-04-18

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are the second most common developmental cause of disability in the United States. ASDs are accompanied with substantial economic and emotional cost. The brains of ASD patients have marked structural abnormalities, in the form of increased dendritic spines and decreased long distance connections. These structural differences may be due to deficiencies in Heparin Sulfate (HS), a proteoglycan involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Of particular interest is its role in the Slit/Robo pathway. The Slit/Robo pathway is known to be involved in the regulation of axonal guidance and dendritic spine formation. HS mediates the Slit/Robo interaction; without its presence Slit's repulsive activity is abrogated. Slit/Robo regulates dendritic spine formation through its interaction with srGAPs (slit-robo GTPase Activating Proteins), which leads to downstream signaling, actin cytoskeleton depolymerization and dendritic spine collapse. Through interference with this pathway, HS deficiency can lead to excess spine formation.

  5. The healing of alkali-injured cornea is stimulated by a novel matrix regenerating agent (RGTA, CACICOL20): a biopolymer mimicking heparan sulfates reducing proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

    PubMed

    Cejkova, Jitka; Olmiere, Celine; Cejka, Cestmir; Trosan, Peter; Holan, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of a chemically modified dextran - heparan sulfate mimicking regenerating agent (RGTA) on the healing of the rabbit cornea injured with alkali was examined. The eyes were injured with 0.15 N NaOH applied on the cornea or with 1.0 N NaOH using a 8 mm diameter filter paper disk. Then RGTA or placebo was applied on the cornea. In the last group of rabbits, corneas injured with the high alkali concentration were left without any treatment for four weeks; subsequently, the corneas were treated with RGTA or placebo. The central corneal thickness was measured using a pachymeter. The corneas were examined morphologically, immunohistochemically and for real time-PCR. Compared to control (unaffected) corneas, following the application of low alkali concentration the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, metalloproteinase 9, nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase was increased in the injured corneal epithelium of placebo-treated eyes, whereas the expression of antioxidant enzymes was reduced. Nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde stainings appeared in the corneal epithelium. RGTA application suppressed the antioxidant/prooxidant imbalance and reduced the expression of the above-mentioned immunohistochemical markers. The corneal thickness increased after alkali injury, decreased during corneal healing after RGTA treatment faster than after placebo application. Following the injury with the high alkali concentration, corneal inflammation and neovascularization were highly pronounced in placebo-treated corneas, whereas in RGTA-treated corneas they were significantly supressed. When RGTA or placebo application was started later after alkali injury and corneas were ulcerated, subsequent RGTA treatment healed the majority of them. In conclusion, RGTA facilitates the healing of injured corneas via a reduction of proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

  6. Gene expression profiles identify both MyD88-independent and MyD88-dependent pathways involved in the maturation of dendritic cells mediated by heparan sulfate: A novel adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meini; Wang, Haixuan; Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Li, Yanhan; Li, Jianfang; Hu, Ningzhu; Wei, Yiju; Chen, Yang; Hu, Yunzhang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional vaccine adjuvant research is mainly based on the trial and error method, and the mechanisms underlying the immune system stimulation remaining largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS), a TLR-4 ligand and endogenous danger signal, effectively enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses in mice immunized by HBsAg. This study aimed to evaluate whether HS induces better humoral immune responses against inactivated Hepatitis A or Rabies Vaccines, respectively, compared with traditional adjuvants (e.g. Alum and complete Freund's adjuvant). In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of its adjuvanticity, the gene expression pattern of peripheral blood monocytes derived DCs (dendritic cells) stimulated with HS was analyzed at different times points. Total RNA was hybridized to Agilent SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression 8 × 60 K one-color oligo-microarray. Through intersection analysis of the microarray results, we found that the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was significantly activated, and NF-kB, TRAF3 and IRF7 were activated as early as 12 h, and MyD88 was activated at 48 h post-stimulation. Furthermore, the expression of the surface marker CD83 and the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 was up-regulated as early as 24 h. Therefore, we speculated that HS-induced human monocyte-derived DC maturation may occur through both MyD88-independent and dependent pathways, but primarily through the former (TRIF pathway). These data provide an important basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying HS enhancement of the immune response. PMID:25668674

  7. High binding capacity of cyclophilin B to chondrocyte heparan sulfate proteoglycans and its release from the cell surface by matrix metalloproteinases: possible role as a proinflammatory mediator in arthritis.

    PubMed

    De Ceuninck, Frédéric; Allain, Fabrice; Caliez, Audrey; Spik, Geneviève; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2003-08-01

    To study cyclophilin B, a protein newly identified as a secretion product of cultured chondrocytes, in the context of chondrocyte pathobiology. Cyclophilin B was purified by sequential chromatographic processing of the secretion medium of cultured guinea pig chondrocytes. Its presence both at the surface of chondrocyte monolayers and in cartilage was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Binding sites at the surface of chondrocytes were characterized by Scatchard plot analysis using (125)I-labeled cyclophilin B, and by glycosidase treatments. The release of cyclophilin B from chondrocytes by activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was studied by Western blot analysis. Cyclophilin B was present at the surface of cultured chondrocytes and within cartilage, both in cells and in the extracellular matrix, with a particularly intense staining in the superficial layer. It was secreted constitutively by chondrocytes and cartilage explants. Its secretion was enhanced after treatment with its pharmacologic binding partner, cyclosporin A (CSA). Experiments with (125)I-labeled cyclophilin B demonstrated the presence of high-capacity, low-affinity, NaCl-sensitive binding sites at the surface of chondrocytes. Cell-bound cyclophilin B could be released by heparinase treatment, demonstrating binding to pericellular heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Chondroitinase or keratanase treatments had no effect. MMPs 1, 2, 3, 9, and 13 released intact cyclophilin B from the cell surface, probably by cleavage of HSPGs. This effect was reversed by the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, marimastat. Cyclophilin B is a secreted CSA-binding protein involved in inflammatory events. It can induce chemotaxis in human neutrophils and T lymphocytes. The finding that cyclophilin B is an intrinsic component of cartilage and that it can be released by MMPs suggests that it has a role in the pathogenesis of arthritic diseases, even more so since its signaling receptor is present within the inflamed

  8. Gene expression profiles identify both MyD88-independent and MyD88-dependent pathways involved in the maturation of dendritic cells mediated by heparan sulfate: a novel adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meini; Wang, Haixuan; Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Li, Yanhan; Li, Jianfang; Hu, Ningzhu; Wei, Yiju; Chen, Yang; Hu, Yunzhang

    2014-01-01

    The traditional vaccine adjuvant research is mainly based on the trial and error method, and the mechanisms underlying the immune system stimulation remaining largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS), a TLR-4 ligand and endogenous danger signal, effectively enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses in mice immunized by HBsAg. This study aimed to evaluate whether HS induces better humoral immune responses against inactivated Hepatitis A or Rabies Vaccines, respectively, compared with traditional adjuvants (e.g. Alum and complete Freund's adjuvant). In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of its adjuvanticity, the gene expression pattern of peripheral blood monocytes derived DCs (dendritic cells) stimulated with HS was analyzed at different times points. Total RNA was hybridized to Agilent SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression 8×60 K one-color oligo-microarray. Through intersection analysis of the microarray results, we found that the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was significantly activated, and NF-kB, TRAF3 and IRF7 were activated as early as 12 h, and MyD88 was activated at 48 h post-stimulation. Furthermore, the expression of the surface marker CD83 and the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 was up-regulated as early as 24 h. Therefore, we speculated that HS-induced human monocyte-derived DC maturation may occur through both MyD88-independent and dependent pathways, but primarily through the former (TRIF pathway). These data provide an important basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying HS enhancement of the immune response.

  9. The effect of nutritional status and myogenic satellite cell age on turkey satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and expression of myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors and heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1.

    PubMed

    Harthan, Laura B; McFarland, Douglas C; Velleman, Sandra G

    2014-01-01

    Posthatch satellite cell mitotic activity is a critical component of muscle development and growth. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be induced by nutrition to follow other cellular developmental pathways, and whose mitotic activity declines with age. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of restricting protein synthesis on the proliferation and differentiation, expression of myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, and myogenic regulatory factor 4, and expression of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1 in satellite cells isolated from 1-d-, 7-wk-, and 16-wk-old turkey pectoralis major muscle (1 d, 7 wk, and 16 wk cells, respectively) by using variable concentrations of Met and Cys. Four Met concentrations-30 (control), 7.5, 3, or 0 mg/L with 3.2 mg/L of Cys per 1 mg/L of Met-were used for culture of satellite cells to determine the effect of nutrition and age on satellite cell behavior during proliferation and differentiation. Proliferation was reduced by lower Met and Cys concentrations in all ages at 96 h of proliferation. Differentiation was increased in the 1 d Met-restricted cells, whereas the 7 wk cells treated with 3 mg/L of Met had decreased differentiation. Reduced Met and Cys levels from the control did not significantly affect the 16 wk cells at 72 h of differentiation. However, medium with no Met or Cys suppressed differentiation at all ages. The expression of myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, myogenic regulatory factor 4, syndecan-4, and glypican-1 was differentially affected by age and Met or Cys treatment. These data demonstrate the age-specific manner in which turkey pectoralis major muscle satellite cells respond to nutritional availability and the importance of defining optimal nutrition to maximize satellite cell proliferation and differentiation for subsequent muscle mass accretion.

  10. The heparan and heparin metabolism pathway is involved in regulation of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Pan, Zengxiang; MacNeil, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Six genes involved in the heparan sulfate and heparin metabolism pathway, DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like), EXTL1 (exostoses (multiple)-like 1), HS6ST1 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1), HS6ST3 (heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 3), NDST3 (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (heparan glucosaminyl) 3), and SULT1A1 (sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1A, phenol-preferring, member 1), were investigated for their associations with muscle lipid composition using cattle as a model organism. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/multiple nucleotide length polymorphisms (MNLPs) were identified in five of these six genes. Six of these mutations were then genotyped on 246 Wagyu x Limousin F(2) animals, which were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. Association analysis revealed that DSEL, EXTL1 and HS6ST1 significantly affected two stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity indices, the amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and the relative amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in skeletal muscle (P<0.05). In particular, HS6ST1 joined our previously reported SCD1 and UQCRC1 genes to form a three gene network for one of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity indices. These results provide evidence that genes involved in heparan sulfate and heparin metabolism are also involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in bovine muscle. Whether the SNPs affected heparan sulfate proteoglycan structure is unknown and warrants further investigation.

  11. A Cinnamon-Derived Procyanidin Compound Displays Anti-HIV-1 Activity by Blocking Heparan Sulfate- and Co-Receptor- Binding Sites on gp120 and Reverses T Cell Exhaustion via Impeding Tim-3 and PD-1 Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Bridgette Janine; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Yousfi, Rahima; Mohan, Viswaraman; Posch, Wilfried; Wilflingseder, Doris; Moog, Christiane; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Clayette, Pascal; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the many strategies aiming at inhibiting HIV-1 infection, blocking viral entry has been recently recognized as a very promising approach. Using diverse in vitro models and a broad range of HIV-1 primary patient isolates, we report here that IND02, a type A procyanidin polyphenol extracted from cinnamon, that features trimeric and pentameric forms displays an anti-HIV-1 activity against CXCR4 and CCR5 viruses with 1–7 μM ED50 for the trimer. Competition experiments, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding assay, revealed that IND02 inhibited envelope binding to CD4 and heparan sulphate (HS) as well as to an antibody (mAb 17b) directed against the gp120 co-receptor binding site with an IC50 in the low μM range. IND02 has thus the remarkable property of simultaneously blocking gp120 binding to its major host cell surface counterparts. Additionally, the IND02-trimer impeded up-regulation of the inhibitory receptors Tim-3 and PD-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, thereby demonstrating its beneficial effect by limiting T cell exhaustion. Among naturally derived products significantly inhibiting HIV-1, the IND02-trimer is the first component demonstrating an entry inhibition property through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein. These data suggest that cinnamon, a widely consumed spice, could represent a novel and promising candidate for a cost-effective, natural entry inhibitor for HIV-1 which can also down-modulate T cell exhaustion markers Tim-3 and PD-1. PMID:27788205

  12. Panels of chemically-modified heparin polysaccharides and natural heparan sulfate saccharides both exhibit differences in binding to Slit and Robo, as well as variation between protein binding and cellular activity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR chemical shift characterisation of modified heparins, protein sequence alignment methodology and data, protein binding and activity assay dose-response curves. See DOI: 10.1039/c6mb00432f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Yassir A.; Yates, Edwin A.; Moss, Diana J.; Loeven, Markus A.; Hussain, Sadaf-Ahmahni; Hohenester, Erhard; Turnbull, Jeremy E.

    2016-01-01

    Heparin/heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans are required for Slit–Robo cellular responses. Evidence exists for interactions between each combination of Slit, Robo and heparin/HS and for formation of a ternary complex. Heparin/HS are complex mixtures displaying extensive structural diversity. The relevance of this diversity has been studied to a limited extent using a few select chemically-modified heparins as models of HS diversity. Here we extend these studies by parallel screening of structurally diverse panels of eight chemically-modified heparin polysaccharides and numerous natural HS oligosaccharide chromatographic fractions for binding to both Drosophila Slit and Robo N-terminal domains and for activation of a chick retina axon response to the Slit fragment. Both the polysaccharides and oligosaccharide fractions displayed variability in binding and cellular activity that could not be attributed solely to increasing sulfation, extending evidence for the importance of structural diversity to natural HS as well as model modified heparins. They also displayed differences in their interactions with Slit compared to Robo, with Robo preferring compounds with higher sulfation. Furthermore, the patterns of cellular activity across compounds were different to those for binding to each protein, suggesting that biological outcomes are selectively determined in a subtle manner that does not simply reflect the sum of the separate interactions of heparin/HS with Slit and Robo. PMID:27502551

  13. Secondary storage of dermatan sulfate in Sanfilippo disease.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, William C; Lawrence, Roger; Sarrazin, Stéphane; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2011-03-04

    Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of genetically inherited disorders that result from the defective activity of lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan catabolism, causing their intralysosomal accumulation. Sanfilippo disease describes a subset of mucopolysaccharidoses resulting from defects in heparan sulfate catabolism. Sanfilippo disorders cause severe neuropathology in affected children. The reason for such extensive central nervous system dysfunction is unresolved, but it may be associated with the secondary accumulation of metabolites such as gangliosides. In this article, we describe the accumulation of dermatan sulfate as a novel secondary metabolite in Sanfilippo. Based on chondroitinase ABC digestion, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate levels in fibroblasts from Sanfilippo patients were elevated 2-5-fold above wild-type dermal fibroblasts. Lysosomal turnover of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in these cell lines was significantly impaired but could be normalized by reducing heparan sulfate storage using enzyme replacement therapy. Examination of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate catabolic enzymes showed that heparan sulfate and heparin can inhibit iduronate 2-sulfatase. Analysis of the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate fraction by chondroitinase ACII digestion showed dermatan sulfate storage, consistent with inhibition of iduronate 2-sulfatase. The discovery of a novel storage metabolite in Sanfilippo patients may have important implications for diagnosis and understanding disease pathology.

  14. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-07-15

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

  15. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, Poly-(1->3)-N-Acetyl-2-Amino- ... Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de Glucosamine 2KCl, SG, Sulfated Monosaccharide, Sulfated Saccharide, Sulfato de Glucosamina. Glucosamine Hydrochloride ...

  16. Human Genetic Disorders Caused by Mutations in Genes Encoding Biosynthetic Enzymes for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans*

    PubMed Central

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Ikegawa, Shiro; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    A number of genetic disorders are caused by mutations in the genes encoding glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans, including chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate. The phenotypes of these genetic disorders reflect disturbances in crucial biological functions of GAGs in human. Recent studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes cause various disorders of connective tissues. This minireview focuses on growing glycobiological studies of recently described genetic diseases caused by disturbances in biosynthetic enzymes for sulfated GAGs. PMID:23457301

  17. Structural characterization of a serendipitously discovered bioactive macromolecule, lignin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, Arjun; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Thakkar, Jay N; Gunnarsson, Gunnar T; Shukla, Deepak; Hindle, Michael; Desai, Umesh R

    2005-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) utilizes cell-surface glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate, to gain entry into cells and cause infection. In a search for synthetic mimics of heparan sulfate to prevent HSV infection, we discovered potent inhibitory activity arising from sulfation of a monomeric flavonoid. Yet, detailed screening indicated that the sulfated flavonoid was completely inactive and the potent inhibitory activity arose from a macromolecular substance present in the parent flavonoid. The active principle was identified through a battery of biophysical and chemical analyses as a sulfated form of lignin, a three-dimensional network polymer composed of substituted phenylpropanoid monomers. Mass spectral analysis of the parent lignin and its sulfated derivative indicates the presence of p-coumaryl monomers interconnected through uncondensed beta-O-4-linkages. Elemental analysis of lignin sulfate correlates primarily with a polymer of p-coumaryl alcohol containing one sulfate group. High-performance size exclusion chromatography shows a wide molecular weight distribution from 1.5 to 40 kDa suggesting significant polydispersity. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis indicates a highly networked polymer that differs significantly from linear charged polymers with respect to its electrophoretic mobility. Overall, macromolecular lignin sulfate presents a multitude of substructures that can interact with biomolecules, including viral glycoproteins, using hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and ionic forces. Thus, lignin sulfate represents a large number of interesting structures with potential medicinal benefits.

  18. Biosynthesis of sulfated proteoglycans in amphibian embryonal cells.

    PubMed

    Løvtrup-Rein, H

    1989-04-01

    The synthesis of sulfated proteoglycans in small explants from various parts of late blastulae from Ambystoma mexicanum or Xenopus laevis was investigated by incorporation of radioactive sulfate or glucosamine and galactosamine in media of low, normal or high tonicity. The explants differentiated into ciliated aggregates of fibroblast-like cells, or remained undifferentiated depending upon their origin in the embryo. High tonicity induces the explants to dissociate and prevents morphological differentiation, while low tonicity hardly affects this process. Yet, both types of media decrease the incorporation into glycosaminoglycans to various degrees, ranging from 40 to 80%, depending upon the species. In Xenopus, the uptake of sulfate is inhibited by as much as 90% in high tonicity media. The rate of incorporation of label is approximately twice as much in mesodermal as in animal or vegetal aggregates, which do not differ significantly. Animal aggregates from Ambystoma, however, revealed an exceptionally high uptake of sulfate. The relative distribution of chondroitin sulfates and heparan sulfates is not affected by changes in tonicity, except in Xenopus where high tonicity severely suppresses the synthesis of heparan sulfates, and is independent of the type of aggregate. The relationship between the synthesis of sulfated proteoglycans and processes involved in cell differentiation, especially cell adhesion, is discussed.

  19. Understanding the NG2 Glial Scar after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Amber R.; Lee, Jae K.

    2016-01-01

    NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes. Whether NG2 cells also have a role in other astrocyte functions, such as preventing the spread of infiltrating leukocytes and expression of inflammatory cytokines, is not yet known. Thus, NG2 cells are not only important for remyelination after SCI but are also a major component of the glial scar with functions that overlap with astrocytes in this region. In this review, we describe the signaling pathways important for the proliferation and differentiation of NG2 cells, as well as the role of NG2 cells in scar formation and tissue repair. PMID:27895617

  20. Insights into the role of sulfated glycans in cancer cell adhesion and migration through use of branched peptide probe

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Jlenia; Depau, Lorenzo; Falciani, Chiara; Gentile, Mariangela; Mandarini, Elisabetta; Riolo, Giulia; Lupetti, Pietro; Pini, Alessandro; Bracci, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The tetra-branched peptide NT4 selectively binds to different human cancer cells and tissues. NT4 specifically binds to sulfated glycosaminoglycans on cancer cell membranes. Since sulfated glycosaminoglycans are involved in cancer cell interaction with the extracellular matrix, we evaluated the effect of NT4 on cancer cell adhesion and migration. We demonstrated here that the branched peptide NT4 binds sulfated glycosaminoglycans with high affinity and with preferential binding to heparan sulfate. NT4 inhibits cancer cell adhesion and migration on different proteins, without modifying cancer cell morphology or their ability to produce protrusions, but dramatically affecting the directionality and polarity of cell movement. Results obtained by taking advantage of the selective targeting of glycosaminoglycans chains by NT4, provide insights into the role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in cancer cell adhesion and migration and suggest a determinant role of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the control of cancer cell directional migration. PMID:27255651

  1. Purification and characterization of heparan sulphate proteoglycan from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y; Yu, G; Gunay, N S; Linhardt, R J

    1999-01-01

    A heparan sulphate proteoglycan was purified from adult bovine brain tissues and its structure was characterized. The major heparan sulphate proteoglycan from whole bovine brain had a molecular mass of >200 kDa on denaturing SDS/PAGE and a core protein size of 66 kDa following the removal of glycosaminoglycan chains. Fractionation on DEAE-Sephacel showed that this proteoglycan consisted of three major forms having high, intermediate and low overall charge. All core proteins were identical in size and reacted with heparan sulphate proteoglycan-stub antibody and an antibody made to a synthetic peptide based on rat glypican. The three forms of proteoglycans had identical peptide maps and their amino acid compositional analysis did not match any of the known glypicans. The internal sequence of a major peptide showed only 37.5% sequence similarity with human glypican 5. The glycosaminoglycan chain sizes of the three forms of this proteoglycan, determined after beta-elimination by PAGE, were identical. The disaccharide compositional analysis on the heparan sulphate chains from the three forms of the proteoglycan, determined by treatment with a mixture of heparin lyases followed by high-resolution capillary electrophoresis, showed that they differed primarily by degree of sulphation. The most highly sulphated proteoglycan isolated had a disaccharide composition similar to heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans found in brain tissue. Based on their sensitivity to low pH nitrous acid treatment, the N-sulphate groups in these proteoglycans were found to be primarily in the smaller glycosaminoglycan chains. The heparan sulphate proteoglycans were also heavily glycosylated with O-linked glycans and no glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor could be detected. PMID:10585858

  2. Central neuron-glial and glial-glial interactions following axon injury.

    PubMed

    Aldskogius, H; Kozlova, E N

    1998-05-01

    Axon injury rapidly activates microglial and astroglial cells close to the axotomized neurons. Following motor axon injury, astrocytes upregulate within hour(s) the gap junction protein connexin-43, and within one day glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Concomitantly, microglial cells proliferate and migrate towards the axotomized neuron perikarya. Analogous responses occur in central termination territories of peripherally injured sensory ganglion cells. The activated microglia express a number of inflammatory and immune mediators. When neuron degeneration occurs, microglia act as phagocytes. This is uncommon after peripheral nerve injury in the adult mammal, however, and the functional implications of the glial cell responses in this situation are unclear. When central axons are injured, the glial cell responses around the affected neuron perikarya appears to be minimal or absent, unless neuron degeneration occurs. Microglia proliferate, and astrocytes upregulate GFAP along central axons undergoing anterograde, Wallerian, degeneration. Although microglia develop into phagocytes, they eliminate the disintegrating myelin very slowly, presumably because they fail to release molecules which facilitate phagocytosis. During later stages of Wallerian degeneration, oligodendrocytes express clusterin, a glycoprotein implicated in several conditions of cell degeneration. A hypothetical scheme for glial cell activation following axon injury is discussed, implying the injured neurons initially interact with adjacent astrocytes. Subsequently, neighbouring resting microglia are activated. These glial reactions are amplified by paracrine and autocrine mechanisms, in which cytokines appear to be important mediators. The specific functional properties of the activated glial cells will determine their influence on neuronal survival, axon regeneration, and synaptic plasticity. The control of the induction and progression of these responses are therefore likely to be critical

  3. [Glial activation and brain aging].

    PubMed

    Sugaya, K

    2001-10-01

    While basal forebrain cholinergic neurons degenerate in aging and Alzheimer's disease, the cholinergic groups of the upper brainstem are preserved. Since the brainstem reticular-like cholinergic neurons differ from the rostral cholinergic phenotype by their high expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA, we hypothesized that they contain biochemical mechanisms to protect themselves against self-induced damage by nitric oxide (NO). Our initial question was a source of the NO during the aging process. We found a significant correlation between cognitive function and markers for glial activation and oxidative stress using aged rats. This result indicates that oxidative stress accompanied by glial activation may be occurred in the cognitively impaired animals. We also found mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) was significantly damaged in these animals, while accumulation of oxidative damage was not evident in other molecules. Therefore, oxidative damage to the mDNA by glial activation may occur in the cells having poor protection against oxidative stress during aging. Then the dysfunction of mitochondria, induced by the mDNA damage, may induce cell death as well as produce another oxidative stress to cause neuronal damage. The damaged neurons induce further glial activation and such self-accelerated immune-like response results in progressive neurodegeneration.

  4. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kashin-Beck disease, and itchy and scaly skin (psoriasis). Chondroitin sulfate is also used in a complex ... or recurrent heart attack. Skin redness and irritation (psoriasis). Early research suggests that taking chondroitin sulfate for ...

  5. Regulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan production by prostaglandin E2 in cultured lung fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Karlinsky, J.B.; Goldstein, R.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to increase the synthesis of hyaluronic acid in cultured fibroblasts by increasing the activity of hyaluronate synthetase, a group of plasma membrane-bound synthetic enzymes. We examined whether PGE2 also increased the activity of those enzyme systems involved in the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in the human embryonic lung fibroblast. Exposure of cells to PGE2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in glucosamine incorporation into all sulfated glycosaminoglycan subtypes. PGE2 at 10(-7) mol/L increased total glycosaminoglycan per dish to 21.6 +/- 3.1 micrograms versus 12.0 +/- 2.5 micrograms in control untreated cultures. Stimulation of endogenous PGE2 production by bradykinin had a similar effect on glycosaminoglycan synthesis. To examine whether PGE2 affected sulfated glycosaminoglycan protein core production, cells were labeled with tritiated glucosamine in the presence of cycloheximide. Under these conditions, incorporation of radiolabel into all glycosaminoglycan subtypes was reduced. However, when exogenous sulfated glycosaminoglycan chain initiator (p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside) was added, incorporation of tritiated glucosamine into sulfated glycosaminoglycan increased but not to levels found in control cultures. Application of PGE2 to cultures treated with cycloheximide alone, or to cultures treated with cycloheximide plus xyloside, increased tritiated glucosamine incorporation into chondroitin, dermatan sulfate, and to a lesser extent into heparan sulfate. We conclude that PGE2 stimulates synthesis of all sulfated glycosaminoglycan even in the absence of new protein core production, probably by increasing activities of sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthetase enzymes. PGE2 stimulation of heparan sulfate synthesis is partially dependent on the availability of heparan sulfate-specific protein core.

  6. Glial cells and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Guerra-Cantera, Santiago; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    The search for new strategies and drugs to abate the current obesity epidemic has led to the intensification of research aimed at understanding the neuroendocrine control of appetite and energy expenditure. This intensified investigation of metabolic control has also included the study of how glial cells participate in this process. Glia, the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, perform a wide spectrum of functions and are vital for the correct functioning of neurons and neuronal circuits. Current evidence indicates that hypothalamic glia, in particular astrocytes, tanycytes and microglia, are involved in both physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of appetite and metabolic control, at least in part by regulating the signals reaching metabolic neuronal circuits. Glia transport nutrients, hormones and neurotransmitters; they secrete growth factors, hormones, cytokines and gliotransmitters and are a source of neuroprogenitor cells. These functions are regulated, as glia also respond to numerous hormones and nutrients, with the lack of specific hormonal signaling in hypothalamic astrocytes disrupting metabolic homeostasis. Here, we review some of the more recent advances in the role of glial cells in metabolic control, with a special emphasis on the differences between glial cell responses in males and females.

  7. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates. PMID:24253764

  8. Murine T lymphocytes and T-lymphoma cells produce chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate proteoglycans and free heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycan.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A P; Rider, C C

    1991-01-01

    Normal murine splenic T lymphocytes and T-lymphoma cells were incubated with [35S]sulphate in low-sulphate medium for 4 hr. Gel filtration and SDS-PAGE revealed that the radiolabelled macromolecules secreted by these cells were almost exclusively chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate proteoglycans of relatively low molecular weight (MW), 100,000-200,000. Triton X-100 extracts of the cells contained similar proteoglycans. Under the conditions employed the incorporation of radiolabel by cells grown in vivo was equally distributed between cell-retained and secreted fractions, whereas cells grown in vitro retained some 75% of incorporated label. In general heparan sulphate predominated over chondroitin sulphate in both secreted and cell-retained fractions. Cell extracts also contained a minor proportion of free glycosaminoglycan, which is almost exclusively heparan sulphate. These chains, like those incorporated into the proteoglycan, were around 12,000 MW. The T-lymphoma cells RDM-4, whether grown in vitro or in vivo, also incorporated a substantial proportion of [35S]sulphate into a single, cell-retained protein, 100,000 MW. No such radiolabelled protein was detectable in T cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1900056

  9. Glial dysfunction in abstinent methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Abulseoud, Osama; Harris, Kent C; Ross, Brian D

    2010-05-01

    Persistent neurochemical abnormalities in frontal brain structures are believed to result from methamphetamine use. We developed a localized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) assay on a conventional MR scanner, to quantify selectively glial metabolic flux rate in frontal brain of normal subjects and a cohort of recovering abstinent methamphetamine abusers. Steady-state bicarbonate concentrations were similar, between 11 and 15 mmol/L in mixed gray-white matter of frontal brain of normal volunteers and recovering methamphetamine-abusing subjects (P>0.1). However, glial (13)C-bicarbonate production rate from [1-(13)C]acetate, equating with glial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate, was significantly reduced in frontal brain of abstinent methamphetamine-addicted women (methamphetamine 0.04 micromol/g per min (N=5) versus controls 0.11 micromol/g per min (N=5), P=0.001). This is equivalent to 36% of the normal glial TCA cycle rate. Severe reduction in glial TCA cycle rate that normally comprises 10% of total cerebral metabolic rate may impact operation of the neuronal glial glutamate cycle and result in accumulation of frontal brain glutamate, as observed in these recovering methamphetamine abusers. Although these are the first studies to define directly an abnormality in glial metabolism in human methamphetamine abuse, sequential studies using analogous (13)C MRS methods may determine 'cause and effect' between glial failure and neuronal injury.

  10. Mental retardation in mucopolysaccharidoses correlates with high molecular weight urinary heparan sulphate derived glucosamine.

    PubMed

    Coppa, G V; Gabrielli, O; Zampini, L; Maccari, F; Mantovani, V; Galeazzi, T; Santoro, L; Padella, L; Marchesiello, R L; Galeotti, F; Volpi, N

    2015-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are characterized by mental retardation constantly present in the severe forms of Hurler (MPS I), Hunter (MPS II) and Sanfilippo (MPS III) diseases. On the contrary, mental retardation is absent in Morquio (MPS IV) and Maroteaux-Lamy (MPS VI) diseases and absent or only minimal in the attenuated forms of MPS I, II and III. Considering that MPS patients affected by mental disease accumulate heparan sulfate (HS) due to specific enzymatic defects, we hypothesized a possible correlation between urinary HS-derived glucosamine (GlcN) accumulated in tissues and excreted in biological fluids and mental retardation. 83 healthy subjects were found to excrete HS in the form of fragments due to the activity of catabolic enzymes that are absent or impaired in MPS patients. On the contrary, urinary HS in 44 patients was observed to be composed of high molecular weight polymer and fragments of various lengths depending on MPS types. On this basis we correlated mental retardation with GlcN belonging to high and low molecular weight HS. We demonstrate a positive relationship between the accumulation of high molecular weight HS and mental retardation in MPS severe compared to attenuated forms. This is also supported by the consideration that accumulation of other GAGs different from HS, as in MPS IV and MPS VI, and low molecular weight HS fragments do not impact on central nervous system disease.

  11. ((35)S)sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans is decreased in experimental diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.P.; Surma, M.L.

    1981-11-01

    Isolated rat renal glomeruli incorporate radioactive sulfate into glycosaminoglycans, which are integral components of the glomerular basement membrane. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific enzymatic sensitivities of glycosaminoglycans prepared after pronase digestion of purified glomerular basement membrane indicate the presence of heparan sulfate. We examined the effect of experimental diabetes on the incorporation of ((35)S)-sulfate into glycosaminoglycans deposited into newly synthesized glomerular basement membrane in vitro. Basement membranes were purified from glomeruli isolated from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats after incubation for 2 hr with radiolabeled sulfate and then were subjected to pronase digestion for isolation of the glycosaminoglycans. ((35)S) incorporation into basement membrane glycosaminoglycans was significantly decreased in glomeruli from diabetic animals. The addition of insulin (100 micron U/ml) in vitro did not affect ((35)S) incorporation into glycosaminoglycans of the glomerular basement membranes in normal or diabetic glomeruli. High glucose concentration (5 vs. 20 mM) was without effect in short-term incubations of glomeruli from normal animals. The results indicate that experimental diabetes influences ((35)S) sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans and suggest that decreased heparan sulfate production and/or sulfation may contribute to the increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane in diabetes.

  12. Nitric oxide degradation of heparin and heparan sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, R E; Ghael, D; Li, M; Bhagat, D D; Arrigo, L M; Cowman, M K; Dweck, H S; Rosenfeld, L

    1997-01-01

    NO is a bioactive free radical produced by NO synthase in various tissues including vascular endothelium. One of the degradation products of NO is HNO2, an agent known to degrade heparin and heparan sulphate. This report documents degradation of heparin by cultured endothelial-cell-derived as well as exogenous NO. An exogenous narrow molecular-mass preparation of heparin was recovered from the medium of cultured endothelial cells using strong-anion exchange. In addition, another narrow molecular-mass preparation of heparin was gassed with exogenous NO under argon. Degradation was evaluated by gel-filtration chromatography. Since HNO2 degrades heparin under acidic conditions, the reaction with NO gas was studied under various pH conditions. The results show that the degradation of exogenous heparin by endothelial cells is inhibited by NO synthase inhibitors. Exogenous NO gas at concentrations as low as 400 p.p.m. degrades heparin and heparan sulphate. Exogenous NO degrades heparin at neutral as well as acidic pH. Endothelial-cell-derived NO, as well as exogenous NO gas, did not degrade hyaluronan, an unrelated glycosaminoglycan that resists HNO2 degradation. Peroxynitrite, a metabolic product of the reaction of NO with superoxide, is an agent that degrades hyaluronan; however, peroxynitrite did not degrade heparin. Thus endothelial-cell-derived NO is capable of degrading heparin and heparan sulphate via HNO2 rather than peroxynitrite. These observations may be relevant to various pathophysiological processes in which extracellular matrix is degraded, such as bone development, apoptosis, tissue damage from inflammatory responses and possible release of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:9182706

  13. The Role(s) of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan(s) in the wnt-1 Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    M7-2.1) line is located on the third chromsome and is described previously (Wilder and Perrimon 1995; Yoffe et al. 1995) . This insertion is...second chromsome . UAShh was obtained from. P. Ingham (Ingham and Fietz 1995) Results sulfateless (sf1) is a novel segment polarity gene Mutations in sfl

  14. Crystal packing in three related disaccharides: precursors to heparan sulfate oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gainsford, Graeme J.; Schwörer, Ralf; Tyler, Peter C.; Zubkova, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    The three title compounds form part of a set of important precursor dissacharides which lead to novel therapeutics, in particular for Alzheimer’s disease. All three crystallize as poorly diffracting crystals with one independent mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. Two of them are isostructural: 4-meth­oxy­phenyl 4-O-[6-O-acetyl-2-azido-3-O-benzyl-2-de­oxy-4-O-(9-fluor­en­yl­methyl­oxycarbon­yl)-α-d-gluco­pyranos­yl]-2-O-benzoyl-3-O-benzyl-6-O-chloro­acetyl-α-l-ido­pyran­oside, C59H56ClN3O16, (I), the ido-relative of a reported gluco-disaccharide [Gainsford et al., 2013 ▸). Acta Cryst. C69, 679–682] and 4-meth­oxy­phenyl 4-O-[6-O-acetyl-2-azido-3-O-benzyl-2-de­oxy-4-O-(9-fluorenyl­methyl­oxycarbon­yl)-α-d-gluco­pyranos­yl]-2-O-benzoyl-3-O-benzyl-6-O-meth­oxy­acetyl-α-l-ido­pyran­oside, C60H59N3O17, (II). Both exhibit similar conformational disorder of pendant groups. The third compound 4-meth­oxy­phenyl 4-O-[6-O-acetyl-2-azido-3,4-di-O-benzyl-2-de­oxy-α-d-gluco­pyranos­yl]-2-O-benzoyl-3-O-benzyl-6-O-meth­oxy­oacetyl-β-d-gluco­pyran­oside, C52H55N3O15, (III), illustrates that a slightly larger set of weak inter­molecular inter­actions can result in a less disordered mol­ecular arrangement. The mol­ecules are bound by weak C—H⋯O(ether) hydrogen bonds in (I) and (II), augmented by C—H⋯π inter­actions in (III). The absolute configurations were determined, although at varying levels of significance from the limited observed data. PMID:26090127

  15. The Cryptosporidium parvum C-Type Lectin CpClec Mediates Infection of Intestinal Epithelial Cells via Interactions with Sulfated Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Ludington, Jacob G.

    2016-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium causes significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Effective anticryptosporidial agents are lacking, in part because the molecular mechanisms underlying Cryptosporidium-host cell interactions are poorly understood. Previously, we identified and characterized a novel Cryptosporidium parvum C-type lectin domain-containing mucin-like glycoprotein, CpClec. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying interactions of CpClec with intestinal epithelial cells by using an Fc-tagged recombinant protein. CpClec-Fc displayed Ca2+-dependent, saturable binding to HCT-8 and Caco-2 cells and competitively inhibited C. parvum attachment to and infection of HCT-8 cells. Binding of CpClec-Fc was specifically inhibited by sulfated glycosaminoglycans, particularly heparin and heparan sulfate. Binding was reduced after the removal of heparan sulfate and following the inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis or sulfation in HCT-8 cells. Like CpClec-Fc binding, C. parvum attachment to and infection of HCT-8 cells were inhibited by glycosaminoglycans and were reduced after heparan sulfate removal or inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis or sulfation. Lastly, CpClec-Fc binding and C. parvum sporozoite attachment were significantly decreased in CHO cell mutants defective in glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Together, these results indicate that CpClec is a novel C-type lectin that mediates C. parvum attachment and infection via Ca2+-dependent binding to sulfated proteoglycans on intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:26975991

  16. Control of Promatrilysin (MMP7) Activation and Substrate-specific Activity by Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans*

    PubMed Central

    Ra, Hyun-Jeong; Harju-Baker, Susanna; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.; Wilson, Carole L.; Parks, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are maintained in an inactive state by a bond between the thiol of a conserved cysteine in the prodomain and a zinc atom in the catalytic domain. Once this bond is disrupted, MMPs become active proteinases and can act on a variety of extracellular protein substrates. In vivo, matrilysin (MMP7) activates pro-α-defensins (procryptdins), but in vitro, processing of these peptides is slow, with about 50% conversion in 8–12 h. Similarly, autolytic activation of promatrilysin in vitro can take up to 12–24 h for 50% conversion. These inefficient reactions suggest that natural cofactors enhance the activation and activity of matrilysin. We determined that highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG), such as heparin, chondroitin-4,6-sulfate (CS-E), and dermatan sulfate, markedly enhanced (>50-fold) the intermolecular autolytic activation of promatrilysin and the activity of fully active matrilysin to cleave specific physiologic substrates. In contrast, heparan sulfate and less sulfated forms of chondroitin sulfate did not augment matrilysin activation or activity. Chondroitin-2,6-sulfate (CS-D) also did not enhance matrilysin activity, suggesting that the presentation of sulfates is more important than the overall degree of sulfation. Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that promatrilysin bound heparin (KD, 400 nm) and CS-E (KD, 630 nm). Active matrilysin bound heparin (KD, 150 nm) but less so to CS-E (KD, 60 μm). Neither form bound heparan sulfate. These observations demonstrate that sulfated GAGs regulate matrilysin activation and its activity against specific substrates. PMID:19654318

  17. Do glial cells control pain?

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Marc R; Wen, Yeong-Ray; Decosterd, Isabelle; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2008-01-01

    Management of chronic pain is a real challenge, and current treatments focusing on blocking neurotransmission in the pain pathway have only resulted in limited success. Activation of glia cells has been widely implicated in neuroinflammation in the central nervous system, leading to neruodegeneration in many disease conditions such as Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis. The inflammatory mediators released by activated glial cells, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β can not only cause neurodegeneration in these disease conditions, but also cause abnormal pain by acting on spinal cord dorsal horn neurons in injury conditions. Pain can also be potentiated by growth factors such as BDNF and bFGF that are produced by glia to protect neurons. Thus, glia cells can powerfully control pain when they are activated to produce various pain mediators. We will review accumulating evidence supporting an important role of microglia cells in the spinal cord for pain control under injury conditions (e.g. nerve injury). We will also discuss possible signaling mechanisms in particular MAP kinase pathways that are critical for glia control of pain. Investigating signaling mechanisms in microglia may lead to more effective management of devastating chronic pain. PMID:18504511

  18. Sulfation patterns determine cellular internalization of heparin-like polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Mencio, Caitlin; Desai, Umesh R.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2013-01-01

    Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide which serves biologically relevant roles as an anticoagulant and anti-cancer agent. While it is well known that modification of heparin’s sulfation pattern can drastically influence its ability to bind growth factors and other extracellular molecules, very little is known about the cellular uptake of heparin and the role sulfation patterns serve in affecting its internalization. In this study, we chemically synthesized several fluorescently-labeled heparins consisting of a variety of sulfation patterns. These polysaccharides were thoroughly characterized using anion exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. Subsequently, we utilized flow cytometry and confocal imaging to show that sulfation patterns differentially affect the amount of heparin uptake in multiple cell types. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the effect of sulfation pattern on the cellular internalization of heparin or heparan sulfate like polysaccharides. The results of this study expand current knowledge regarding heparin internalization and provide insights into developing more effective heparin-based drug conjugates for applications in intracellular drug delivery. PMID:23398560

  19. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  1. The interface between glial progenitors and gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Canoll, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian brain and spinal cord contain heterogeneous populations of cycling, immature cells. These include cells with stem cell-like properties as well as progenitors in various stages of early glial differentiation. This latter population is distributed widely throughout gray and white matter and numerically represents an extremely large cell pool. In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glial progenitors that populate the adult CNS are one source of gliomas. Indeed, the marker phenotypes, morphologies, and migratory properties of cells in gliomas strongly resemble glial progenitors in many ways. We review briefly some salient features of normal glial development and then examine the similarities and differences between normal progenitors and cells in gliomas, focusing on the phenotypic plasticity of glial progenitors and the responses to growth factors in promoting proliferation and migration of normal and glioma cells, and discussing known mutational changes in gliomas in the context of how these might affect the proliferative and migratory behaviors of progenitors. Finally, we will discuss the “cancer stem cell” hypothesis in light of the possibility that glial progenitors can generate gliomas. PMID:18784926

  2. Chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 (CSGalNAcT-1) involved in chondroitin sulfate initiation: Impact of sulfation on activity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Gulberti, Sandrine; Jacquinet, Jean-Claude; Chabel, Matthieu; Ramalanjaona, Nick; Magdalou, Jacques; Netter, Patrick; Coughtrie, Michael W H; Ouzzine, Mohamed; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie

    2012-04-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assembly initiates through the formation of a linkage tetrasaccharide region serving as a primer for both chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) chain polymerization. A possible role for sulfation of the linkage structure and of the constitutive disaccharide unit of CS chains in the regulation of CS-GAG chain synthesis has been suggested. To investigate this, we determined whether sulfate substitution of galactose (Gal) residues of the linkage region or of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) of the disaccharide unit influences activity and specificity of chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 (CSGalNAcT-1), a key glycosyltransferase of CS biosynthesis. We synthesized a series of sulfated and unsulfated analogs of the linkage oligosaccharide and of the constitutive unit of CS and tested these molecules as potential acceptor substrates for the recombinant human CSGalNAcT-1. We show here that sulfation at C4 or C6 of the Gal residues markedly influences CSGalNAcT-1 initiation activity and catalytic efficiency. Kinetic analysis indicates that CSGalNAcT-1 exhibited 3.6-, 1.6-, and 2.2-fold higher enzymatic efficiency due to lower K(m) values toward monosulfated trisaccharides substituted at C4 or C6 position of Gal1, and at C6 of Gal2, respectively, compared with the unsulfated oligosaccharide. This highlights the critical influence of Gal substitution on both CSGalNAcT-1 activity and specifity. No GalNAcT activity was detected toward sulfated and unsulfated analogs of the CS constitutive disaccharide (GlcA-β1,3-GalNAc), indicating that CSGalNAcT-1 was involved in initiation but not in elongation of CS chains. Our results strongly suggest that sulfation of the linkage region acts as a regulatory signal in CS chain initiation.

  3. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Woo; Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Kobayashi, Elsa Yoko; Martins, João Roberto Maciel; De Biase, Noemi Grigoletto

    The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women) with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of keratan sulfate disaccharide at C-3 position of glucuronate of chondroitin sulfate from Mactra chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Kyohei; Takeda, Keita; Mukuno, Ann; Okamoto, Yusuke; Masuko, Sayaka; Linhardt, Robert J.; Toida, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate, heparin, heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate (KS) are linear sulfated repeating disaccharide sequences containing hexosamine and uronic acid [or galactose (Gal) in the case of KS]. Among the GAGs, CS shows structural variations, such as sulfation patterns and fucosylation, which are responsible for their physiological functions through CS interaction with CS-binding proteins. Here, we solved the structure of KS-branched CS-E derived from a clam, Mactra chinensis. KS disaccharide [d-GlcNAc6S-(1→3)-β-d-Gal-(1→] was attached to the C-3 position of GlcA, and consecutive KS-branched disaccharide sequences were found in a CS chain. KS-branched polysaccharides clearly exhibited resistance to degradation by chondroitinase ABC or ACII (at low concentrations) compared with typical CS structures. Furthermore, KS-branched polysaccharides stimulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons. These results strongly suggest that M. chinensis is a rich source of KS-branched CS, and it has important biological activities. PMID:27647934

  5. Glial chain migration requires pioneer cells.

    PubMed

    Aigouy, Benoît; Lepelletier, Léa; Giangrande, Angela

    2008-11-05

    The migration of glial chains along the nerve entails directional and coordinated movement. Despite its importance in the formation of the nervous system, this process remains poorly understood, because of the difficulty of manipulating identified cells. Using confocal time-lapse and cell ablation in the whole animal, we provide direct evidence for a discrete number of Drosophila peripheral glial cells acting as pioneers and guiding the rest of the migratory chain. These cells are in direct contact with several follower cells through a very long and stable cytoplasmic extension. The presence of pioneer cells and homotypic interactions at the tip of the chain allows coordinated movement and the formation of a continuous sheath around the nerve. These in vivo data open novel perspectives for understanding the cellular bases of vertebrate glial migration in physiological and pathological conditions.

  6. Calcineurin and glial signaling: neuroinflammation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jennifer L; Norris, Christopher M

    2014-09-10

    Similar to peripheral immune/inflammatory cells, neuroglial cells appear to rely on calcineurin (CN) signaling pathways to regulate cytokine production and cellular activation. Several studies suggest that harmful immune/inflammatory responses may be the most impactful consequence of aberrant CN activity in glial cells. However, newly identified roles for CN in glutamate uptake, gap junction regulation, Ca2+ dyshomeostasis, and amyloid production suggest that CN's influence in glia may extend well beyond neuroinflammation. The following review will discuss the various actions of CN in glial cells, with particular emphasis on astrocytes, and consider the implications for neurologic dysfunction arising with aging, injury, and/or neurodegenerative disease.

  7. Identification of Chemically Sulfated/desulfated Glycosaminoglycans in Contaminated Heparins and Development of a Simple Assay for the Detection of Most Contaminants in Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jing; Qian, Yi; Zhou, Xiaodong; Pazandak, Andrew; Frazier, Sarah B.; Weiser, Peter; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Lijuan

    2010-01-01

    Contaminated heparin was linked to at least 149 deaths and hundreds of adverse reactions. Published report indicates that heparin contaminants were a natural impurity, dermatan sulfate, and a contaminant, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS). OSCS was assumed to derive from animal cartilage. By analyzing 26 contaminated heparin lots from different sources, our data indicate that the heparin contaminants were chemically sulfated or chemically sulfated/desulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) consisting of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate based on monosaccharide quantification, CE, heparin lyase digestion, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Since currently recommended heparin quality control assays had failed to detect certain heparin contaminants, a simple method that detects most contaminants in heparin was developed. This assay detects specific heparin structures that most contaminants cannot mimic and can be performed in any laboratory equipped with an UV spectrometer. PMID:20657729

  8. Cellufine sulfate column chromatography as a simple, rapid, and effective method to purify dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-08-01

    Conventional method to purify/concentrate dengue virus (DENV) is time-consuming with low virus recovery yield. Herein, we applied cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV based on the mimicry between heparan sulfate and DENV envelope protein. Comparative analysis demonstrated that this new method offered higher purity (as determined by less contamination of bovine serum albumin) and recovery yield (as determined by greater infectivity). Moreover, overall duration used for cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV was approximately 1/20 of that of conventional method. Therefore, cellufine sulfate column chromatography serves as a simple, rapid, and effective alternative method for DENV purification/concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Predetermined embryonic glial cells form the distinct glial sheaths of the Drosophila peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    von Hilchen, Christian M; Bustos, Alvaro E; Giangrande, Angela; Technau, Gerhard M; Altenhein, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    One of the numerous functions of glial cells in Drosophila is the ensheathment of neurons to isolate them from the potassium-rich haemolymph, thereby establishing the blood-brain barrier. Peripheral nerves of flies are surrounded by three distinct glial cell types. Although all embryonic peripheral glia (ePG) have been identified on a single-cell level, their contribution to the three glial sheaths is not known. We used the Flybow system to label and identify each individual ePG in the living embryo and followed them into third instar larva. We demonstrate that all ePG persist until the end of larval development and some even to adulthood. We uncover the origin of all three glial sheaths and describe the larval differentiation of each peripheral glial cell in detail. Interestingly, just one ePG (ePG2) exhibits mitotic activity during larval stages, giving rise to up to 30 glial cells along a single peripheral nerve tract forming the outermost perineurial layer. The unique mitotic ability of ePG2 and the layer affiliation of additional cells were confirmed by in vivo ablation experiments and layer-specific block of cell cycle progression. The number of cells generated by this glial progenitor and hence the control of perineurial hyperplasia correlate with the length of the abdominal nerves. By contrast, the wrapping and subperineurial glia layers show enormous hypertrophy in response to larval growth. This characterisation of the embryonic origin and development of each glial sheath will facilitate functional studies, as they can now be addressed distinctively and genetically manipulated in the embryo.

  10. Negative regulation of glial engulfment activity by Draper terminates glial responses to axon injury

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Mary A.; Hackett, Rachel; Doherty, Johnna; Sheehan, Amy; Speese, Sean D.; Freeman, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal injury elicits potent cellular responses from glia, but molecular pathways modulating glial activation, phagocytic function, and termination of reactive responses remain poorly defined. Here we show that positive or negative regulation of glial reponses to axon injury are molecularly encoded by unique isoforms of the Drosophila engulfment receptor Draper. Draper-I promotes engulfment of axonal debris through an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). In contrast, Draper-II, an alternative splice variant, potently inhibits glial engulfment function. Draper-II suppresses Draper-I signaling through a novel immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-like domain and the tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (Csw). Intriguingly, loss of Draper-II/Csw signaling prolongs expression of glial engulfment genes after axotomy and reduces the ability of glia to respond to secondary axotomy. Our work highlights a novel role for Draper-II in inhibiting glial responses to neurodegeneration, and indicates a balance of opposing Draper-I/-II signaling events is essential to maintain glial sensitivity to brain injury. PMID:22426252

  11. Interplay between transglutaminases and heparan sulphate in progressive renal scarring

    PubMed Central

    Burhan, Izhar; Furini, Giulia; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Atobatele, Adeola G.; Scarpellini, Alessandra; Schroeder, Nina; Atkinson, John; Maamra, Mabrouka; Nutter, Faith H.; Watson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Johnson, Timothy S.; Verderio, Elisabetta A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Transglutaminase-2 (TG2) is a new anti-fibrotic target for chronic kidney disease, for its role in altering the extracellular homeostatic balance leading to excessive build-up of matrix in kidney. However, there is no confirmation that TG2 is the only transglutaminase involved, neither there are strategies to control its action specifically over that of the conserved family-members. In this study, we have profiled transglutaminase isozymes in the rat subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model of progressive renal scarring. All transglutaminases increased post-SNx peaking at loss of renal function but TG2 was the predominant enzyme. Upon SNx, extracellular TG2 deposited in the tubulointerstitium and peri-glomerulus via binding to heparan sulphate (HS) chains of proteoglycans and co-associated with syndecan-4. Extracellular TG2 was sufficient to activate transforming growth factor-β1 in tubular epithelial cells, and this process occurred in a HS-dependent way, in keeping with TG2-affinity for HS. Analysis of heparin binding of the main transglutaminases revealed that although the interaction between TG1 and HS is strong, the conformational heparin binding site of TG2 is not conserved, suggesting that TG2 has a unique interaction with HS within the family. Our data provides a rationale for a novel anti-fibrotic strategy specifically targeting the conformation-dependent TG2-epitope interacting with HS. PMID:27694984

  12. Isolation and characterisation of putative adhesins from Helicobacter pylori with affinity for heparan sulphate proteoglycan.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Ochoa, J L; Wadström, T; Ascencio, F

    2001-03-01

    A pool of heparan sulphate-binding proteins (HSBPs) from Helicobacter pylori culture supernates was obtained by sequential ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. The chromatographic procedure yielded one major fraction that contained proteins with heparan sulphate affinity as revealed by inhibition studies of heparan sulphate binding to H. pylori cells. Preparative iso-electric focusing, SDS-PAGE and blotting experiments, with peroxidase(POD)-labelled heparan sulphate as a probe, indicated the presence of two major extracellular proteins with POD-heparan sulphate affinity. One protein had a molecular mass of 66.2 kDa and a pI of 5.4, whilst the second protein had a molecular mass of 71.5 kDa and a pI of 5.0. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 71.5-kDa HSBP did not show homology to any other heparin-binding protein, nor to known proteins of H. pylori, whereas the 66.2-kDa HSBP showed a high homology to an Escherichia coli chaperon protein and equine haemoglobin. A third HSBP was isolated from an outer-membrane protein (OMP) fraction of H. pylori cells with a molecular mass of 47.2 kDa. The amino acid sequence of an internal peptide of the OMP-HSBP did not show homology to the extracellular HSBP of H. pylori, or to another microbial HSBP.

  13. Assessment of Glial Function in the In Vivo Retina

    PubMed Central

    Srienc, Anja I.; Kornfield, Tess E.; Mishra, Anusha; Burian, Michael A.; Newman, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Glial cells, traditionally viewed as passive elements in the CNS, are now known to have many essential functions. Many of these functions have been revealed by work on retinal glial cells. This work has been conducted almost exclusively on ex vivo preparations and it is essential that retinal glial cell functions be characterized in vivo as well. To this end, we describe an in vivo rat preparation to assess the functions of retinal glial cells. The retina of anesthetized, paralyzed rats is viewed with confocal microscopy and laser speckle flowmetry to monitor glial cell responses and retinal blood flow. Retinal glial cells are labeled with the Ca2+ indicator dye Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 and the caged Ca2+ compound NP-EGTA by injection of the compounds into the vitreous humor. Glial cells are stimulated by photolysis of caged Ca2+ and the activation state of the cells assessed by monitoring Ca2+ indicator dye fluorescence. We find that, as in the ex vivo retina, retinal glial cells in vivo generate both spontaneous and evoked intercellular Ca2+ waves. We also find that stimulation of glial cells leads to the dilation of neighboring retinal arterioles, supporting the hypothesis that glial cells regulate blood flow in the retina. This in vivo preparation holds great promise for assessing glial cell function in the healthy and pathological retina. PMID:22144328

  14. Intrathoracic glial implants in a child with gliomatosis peritonei.

    PubMed

    Lipskar, Aaron M; Rothstein, David H; Soffer, Samuel Z; Edelman, Morris; Glick, Richard D

    2009-09-01

    Glial peritoneal implants, commonly referred to as gliomatosis peritonei, are an occasional feature of ovarian teratomas. They are benign nodules of mature glial tissue and usually do not adversely affect outcome. We present the case of a 12-year-old girl who underwent excision of an immature ovarian teratoma, along with biopsies of multiple glial peritoneal implants. She also had a 2-cm right-sided pleural mass, which turned out to be normal glial tissue that was histologically indistinguishable from the peritoneal glial tissue. Pleural gliomatosis has not been described in the literature. The pathophysiology of gliomatosis peritonei was originally thought to be the direct extrusion or lymphatic spread of glial cells from the associated teratoma, although it has been postulated that the glial implants may instead be the result of pluripotent Mullerian stem cells that undergo metaplasia. This report provides evidence to bolster the metaplastic theory.

  15. Glial Cell Development and Function in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, David A.; Talbot, William S.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is a premier vertebrate model system that offers many experimental advantages for in vivo imaging and genetic studies. This review provides an overview of glial cell types in the central and peripheral nervous system of zebrafish. We highlight some recent work that exploited the strengths of the zebrafish system to increase the understanding of the role of Gpr126 in Schwann cell myelination and illuminate the mechanisms controlling oligodendrocyte development and myelination. We also summarize similarities and differences between zebrafish radial glia and mammalian astrocytes and consider the possibility that their distinct characteristics may represent extremes in a continuum of cell identity. Finally, we focus on the emergence of zebrafish as a model for elucidating the development and function of microglia. These recent studies have highlighted the power of the zebrafish system for analyzing important aspects of glial development and function. PMID:25395296

  16. Human brain glial cells synthesize thrombospondin.

    PubMed Central

    Asch, A S; Leung, L L; Shapiro, J; Nachman, R L

    1986-01-01

    Thrombospondin, a 450-kDa multinodular glycoprotein with lectin-type activity, is found in human platelets, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, monocytes, and granular pneumocytes. Thrombospondin interacts with heparin, fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen, histidine-rich glycoprotein, and plasminogen. Recently, thrombospondin synthesis by smooth muscle cells has been reported to be augmented by platelet-derived growth factor. We present evidence that thrombospondin is present within and synthesized by astrocytic neuroglial cells. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of material derived from a human brain homogenate yielded a protein that, when reduced, had an apparent size of 180 kDa and comigrated with reduced platelet thrombospondin on NaDodSO4/PAGE. Immunoblot analysis with monospecific anti-thrombospondin confirmed the presence of immunoreactive thrombospondin. Indirect immunofluorescence of cultured human glial cells indicated the presence of thrombospondin. Metabolic labeling of glial cell cultures with [35S]methionine followed by immunoprecipitation with monospecific anti-thrombospondin revealed synthesis of a 180-kDa polypeptide that comigrated with platelet thrombospondin on NaDodSO4/PAGE. Cultured human glial cells were incubated for 48 hr in serum-free medium with purified platelet-derived growth factor at concentrations up to 50 ng/ml. Aliquots taken at intervals were analyzed by a quantitative double-antibody ELISA. The growth factor stimulated the release of thrombospondin into the culture medium by as much as 10-fold over control cultures. The presence of thrombospondin within glial cells of the central nervous system and the augmentation of its synthesis by platelet-derived growth factor suggest that thrombospondin may play an important role in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions during periods of cell division and growth. Images PMID:2939460

  17. Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on glial scar formation after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joonho; Kim, Moon Hang; Yoon, Yong Je; Kim, Kil Hwan; Park, So Ra; Choi, Byung Hyune

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on glial scar formation after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats and compared the therapeutic effects between G-CSF and granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to evaluate G-CSF as a potential substitute for GM-CSF in clinical application. Rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a sham-operated group (Group 1), an SCI group without treatment (Group 2), an SCI group treated with G-CSF (Group 3), and an SCI group treated with GM-CSF (Group 4). G-CSF and GM-CSF were administered via intraperitoneal injection immediately after SCI. The effects of G-CSF and GM-CSF on functional recovery, glial scar formation, and axonal regeneration were evaluated and compared. The rats in Groups 3 and 4 showed better functional recovery and more decreased cavity sizes than those in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Both G-CSF and GM-CSF suppressed intensive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein around the cavity at 4 weeks and reduced the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (p < 0.05). Also, early administration of G-CSF and GM-CSF protected axon fibers from destructive injury and facilitated axonal regeneration. There were no significant differences in comparisons of functional recovery, glial scar formation, and axonal regeneration between G-CSF and GM-CSF. G-CSF suppressed glial scar formation after SCI in rats, possibly by restricting the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, which might facilitate functional recovery from SCI. GM-CSF and G-CSF had similar effects on glial scar formation and functional recovery after SCI, suggesting that G-CSF can potentially be substituted for GM-CSF in the treatment of SCI.

  18. Glial Cell Contributions to Auditory Brainstem Development

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Karina S.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms. Several classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, have now been explored in these circuits in both avian and mammalian brainstems. Distinct populations of astrocytes are found over the course of auditory brainstem maturation. Early appearing astrocytes are associated with spatial compartments in the avian auditory brainstem. Factors from late appearing astrocytes promote synaptogenesis and dendritic maturation, and astrocytes remain integral parts of specialized auditory synapses. Oligodendrocytes play a unique role in both birds and mammals in highly regulated myelination essential for proper timing to decipher interaural cues. Microglia arise early in brainstem development and may contribute to maturation of auditory pathways. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of non-neuronal cells in the assembly of specialized auditory brainstem circuits. PMID:27818624

  19. Physiological Functions of Glial Cell Hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    The brain performs exceptionally complex and dynamic tasks that depend on the coordinated interaction of neurons, glial cells, endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, ependymal cells, and circulating blood cells. Among these cells, glial cells have emerged as crucial protagonists in the regulation of synaptic transmission and neural function. Indeed, these cells express a wide range of receptors that enable them to sense changes in neuronal activity and the microenvironment by responding locally via the release of bioactive molecules known as gliotransmitters. In the central nervous system (CNS), a novel mechanism that allows gliotransmission via the opening of hemichannels has been proposed. These channels are composed of six protein subunits consisting of connexins or pannexins, which are two highly conserved protein families that are encoded by 21 and 3 genes, respectively, in humans. Typically, glial cell hemichannels exhibit low levels of activity, but this activity is sufficient to ensure the release of a broad spectrum of gliotransmitters, including ATP, D-serine, glutamate, adenosine, and glutathione. Here, we briefly review the current findings regarding the effects of the hemichannel-dependent release of gliotransmitters on the physiology of the CNS.

  20. The role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in glial scar formation following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hong; Sung, Chun-Sung; Huang, Shi-Ying; Feng, Chien-Wei; Hung, Han-Chun; Yang, San-Nan; Chen, Nan-Fu; Tai, Ming-Hong; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu

    2016-04-01

    Several studies suggest that glial scars pose as physical and chemical barriers that limit neurite regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidences suggest that the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway is involved in glial scar formation. Therefore, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway may beneficially attenuate glial scar formation after SCI. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) negatively regulates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Therefore, we hypothesized that the overexpression of PTEN in the spinal cord will have beneficial effects after SCI. In the present study, we intrathecally injected a recombinant adenovirus carrying the pten gene (Ad-PTEN) to cause overexpression of PTEN in rats with contusion injured spinal cords. The results suggest overexpression of PTEN in spinal cord attenuated glial scar formation and led to improved locomotor function after SCI. Overexpression of PTEN following SCI attenuated gliosis, affected chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression, and improved axon regeneration into the lesion site. Furthermore, we suggest that the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in astrocytes at 3 days after SCI may be involved in glial scar formation. Because delayed treatment with Ad-PTEN enhanced motor function recovery more significantly than immediate treatment with Ad-PTEN after SCI, the results suggest that the best strategy to attenuate glial scar formation could be to introduce 3 days after SCI. This study's findings thus have positive implications for patients who are unable to receive immediate medical attention after SCI.

  1. Refractory sickle cell leg ulcer: is heparan sulphate a new hope?

    PubMed

    Hayek, Shady; Dibo, Saad; Baroud, Joe; Ibrahim, Amir; Barritault, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease are known to have recurrent lower extremity ulcers that have a high pain score and are resistant to conventional means of wound therapy. This study reports the successful use of synthetic heparan sulphate (Cacipliq20(®) , OTR3, Paris, France) in the treatment of a sickle cell ulcer that had failed to respond to several other means of treatment. Therapeutic success was assessed by complete wound coverage and vast improvement in pain score. This is the first study to report use of heparan sulphate in sickle cell ulcers.

  2. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  3. Chondroitin Sulfate is the Primary Receptor for a Peptide-Modified AAV That Targets Brain Vascular Endothelium In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, James C; Keiser, Nicholas W; Okulist, Anna; Martins, Inês; Wilson, Matthew S; Davidson, Beverly L

    2014-10-14

    Recently, we described a peptide-modified AAV2 vector (AAV-GMN) containing a capsid-displayed peptide that directs in vivo brain vascular targeting and transduction when delivered intravenously. In this study, we sought to identify the receptor that mediates transduction by AAV-GMN. We found that AAV-GMN, but not AAV2, readily transduces the murine brain endothelial cell line bEnd.3, a result that mirrors previously observed in vivo transduction profiles of brain vasculature. Studies in vitro revealed that the glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulfate C, acts as the primary receptor for AAV-GMN. Unlike AAV2, chondroitin sulfate expression is required for cell transduction by AAV-GMN, and soluble chondroitin sulfate C can robustly inhibit AAV-GMN transduction of brain endothelial cells. Interestingly, AAV-GMN retains heparin-binding properties, though in contrast to AAV2, it poorly transduces cells that express heparan sulfate but not chondroitin sulfate, indicating that the peptide insertion negatively impacts heparan-mediated transduction. Lastly, when delivered directly, this modified virus can transduce multiple brain regions, indicating that the potential of AAV-GMN as a therapeutic gene delivery vector for central nervous system disorders is not restricted to brain vascular endothelium.

  4. Nematodes join the family of chondroitin sulfate-synthesizing organisms: Identification of an active chondroitin sulfotransferase in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dierker, Tabea; Shao, Chun; Haitina, Tatjana; Zaia, Joseph; Hinas, Andrea; Kjellén, Lena

    2016-10-05

    Proteoglycans are proteins that carry sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They help form and maintain morphogen gradients, guiding cell migration and differentiation during animal development. While no sulfated GAGs have been found in marine sponges, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) have been identified in Cnidarians, Lophotrocozoans and Ecdysozoans. The general view that nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans, which belong to Ecdysozoa, produce HS but only chondroitin without sulfation has therefore been puzzling. We have analyzed GAGs in C. elegans using reversed-phase ion-pairing HPLC, mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry. Our analyses included wild type C. elegans but also a mutant lacking two HS sulfotransferases (hst-6 hst-2), as we suspected that the altered HS structure could boost CS sulfation. We could indeed detect sulfated CS in both wild type and mutant nematodes. While 4-O-sulfation of galactosamine dominated, we also detected 6-O-sulfated galactosamine residues. Finally, we identified the product of the gene C41C4.1 as a C. elegans CS-sulfotransferase and renamed it chst-1 (CarboHydrate SulfoTransferase) based on loss of CS-4-O-sulfation in a C41C4.1 mutant and in vitro sulfotransferase activity of recombinant C41C4.1 protein. We conclude that C. elegans indeed manufactures CS, making this widely used nematode an interesting model for developmental studies involving CS.

  5. Nematodes join the family of chondroitin sulfate-synthesizing organisms: Identification of an active chondroitin sulfotransferase in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Tabea; Shao, Chun; Haitina, Tatjana; Zaia, Joseph; Hinas, Andrea; Kjellén, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are proteins that carry sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They help form and maintain morphogen gradients, guiding cell migration and differentiation during animal development. While no sulfated GAGs have been found in marine sponges, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) have been identified in Cnidarians, Lophotrocozoans and Ecdysozoans. The general view that nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans, which belong to Ecdysozoa, produce HS but only chondroitin without sulfation has therefore been puzzling. We have analyzed GAGs in C. elegans using reversed-phase ion-pairing HPLC, mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry. Our analyses included wild type C. elegans but also a mutant lacking two HS sulfotransferases (hst-6 hst-2), as we suspected that the altered HS structure could boost CS sulfation. We could indeed detect sulfated CS in both wild type and mutant nematodes. While 4-O-sulfation of galactosamine dominated, we also detected 6-O-sulfated galactosamine residues. Finally, we identified the product of the gene C41C4.1 as a C. elegans CS-sulfotransferase and renamed it chst-1 (CarboHydrate SulfoTransferase) based on loss of CS-4-O-sulfation in a C41C4.1 mutant and in vitro sulfotransferase activity of recombinant C41C4.1 protein. We conclude that C. elegans indeed manufactures CS, making this widely used nematode an interesting model for developmental studies involving CS. PMID:27703236

  6. Primary culture of glial cells from mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion: a valuable tool for studying glial cell biology.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2010-12-15

    Central nervous system glial cells as astrocytes and microglia have been investigated in vitro and many intracellular pathways have been clarified upon various stimuli. Peripheral glial cells, however, are not as deeply investigated in vitro despite its importance role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on our previous experience of culturing neuronal cells, our objective was to standardize and morphologically characterize a primary culture of mouse superior cervical ganglion glial cells in order to obtain a useful tool to study peripheral glial cell biology. Superior cervical ganglia from neonatal C57BL6 mice were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated and cells were plated on diluted Matrigel coated wells in a final concentration of 10,000cells/well. Five to 8 days post plating, glial cell cultures were fixed for morphological and immunocytochemical characterization. Glial cells showed a flat and irregular shape, two or three long cytoplasm processes, and round, oval or long shaped nuclei, with regular outline. Cell proliferation and mitosis were detected both qualitative and quantitatively. Glial cells were able to maintain their phenotype in our culture model including immunoreactivity against glial cell marker GFAP. This is the first description of immunocytochemical characterization of mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion glial cells in primary culture. This work discusses the uses and limitations of our model as a tool to study many aspects of peripheral glial cell biology.

  7. Sex steroids inhibit osmotic swelling of retinal glial cells.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Florian; Wurm, Antje; Linnertz, Regina; Pannicke, Thomas; Iandiev, Ianors; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Osmotic swelling of glial cells may contribute to the development of retinal edema. We investigated whether sex steroids inhibit the swelling of glial somata in acutely isolated retinal slices and glial cells of the rat. Superfusion of retinal slices or cells from control animals with a hypoosmolar solution did not induce glial swelling, whereas glial swelling was observed in slices of postischemic and diabetic retinas. Progesterone, testosterone, estriol, and 17beta-estradiol prevented glial swelling with half-maximal effects at approximately 0.3, 0.6, 6, and 20 microM, respectively. The effect of progesterone was apparently mediated by transactivation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, P2Y1, and adenosine A1 receptors. The data suggest that sex steroids may inhibit cytotoxic edema in the retina.

  8. Functional Regeneration Beyond the Glial Scar

    PubMed Central

    Cregg, Jared M.; DePaul, Marc A.; Filous, Angela R.; Lang, Brad T.; Tran, Amanda; Silver, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes react to CNS injury by building a dense wall of filamentous processes around the lesion. Stromal cells quickly take up residence in the lesion core and synthesize connective tissue elements that contribute to fibrosis. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells proliferate within the lesion and help to entrap dystrophic axon tips. Here we review evidence that this aggregate scar acts as the major barrier to regeneration of axons after injury. We also consider several exciting new interventions that allow axons to regenerate beyond the glial scar, and discuss the implications of this work for the future of regeneration biology. PMID:24424280

  9. Biological function of unique sulfated glycosaminoglycans in primitive chordates.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, Konstantina; Espinosa, Diana Carolina Restrepo; Fortuna-Costa, Anneliese; Pavão, Mauro Sérgio Gonçalves

    2016-09-10

    Glycosaminoglycans with unique sulfation patterns have been identified in different species of ascidians (sea squirts), a group of marine invertebrates of the Phylum Chordata, sub-phylum Tunicata (or Urochordata). Oversulfated dermatan sulfate composed of [4-α-L-IdoA-(2-O-SO3)(-1) → 3-β-D-GalNAc(4-OSO3)(-1)]n repeating disaccharide units is found in the extracellular matrix of several organs, where it seems to interact with collagen fibers. This dermatan sulfate co-localizes with a decorin-like protein, as indicated by immunohistochemical analysis. Low sulfated heparin/heparan sulfate-like glycans composed mainly of [4-α-L-IdoA-(2-OSO3)(-1) → 4-α-D-GlcN(SO3)(-1) (6-O-SO3)(-1)]n and [4-α-L-IdoA-(2-O-SO3)(-1) → 4-α-D-GlcN(SO3)(-1)]n have also been described in ascidians. These heparin-like glycans occur in intracellular granules of oocyte assessory cells, named test cells, in circulating basophil-like cells in the hemolymph, and at the basement membrane of different ascidian organs. In this review, we present an overview of the structure, distribution, extracellular and intracellular localization of the sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different species and tissues of ascidians. Considering the phylogenetic position of the subphylum Tunicata in the phylum Chordata, a careful analysis of these data can reveal important information about how these glycans evolved from invertebrate to vertebrate animals.

  10. Interaction between cadmium and zinc in the production and sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in cultured bovine vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, S; Kaji, T; Yamamoto, C; Fujiwara, Y; Sakamoto, M; Kozuka, H

    1996-02-09

    Previously, we showed that cadmium stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but inhibits their sulfation in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. The effect of zinc on such alterations of GAGs induced by cadmium was investigated in the present study. The incorporation of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate into GAGs was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation method as a marker of GAG production and GAG sulfation, respectively. The incorporation of both [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate was not changed in GAGs accumulated in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium after exposure to zinc at 20 micrometers or less alone. A simultaneous exposure of the endothelial cell layer to zinc at 20 micrometers or less and cadmium at 2 micrometers resulted in prevention of the cadmium-induced decrease in [35S]sulfate incorporation; however, the cadmium-induced increase in [3H]glucosamine incorporation was not affected by zinc. Characterization of GAGs in the cell layer revealed that such an interaction between zinc and cadmium occurred in both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs. Zinc significantly prevented the inhibition of either [3H]thymidine or [3H]leucine incorporation caused by cadmium with less accumulation of intracellular cadmium suggesting that zinc decreased intracellular cadmium and protected endothelial cells from cadmium-induced inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis. The present data showed that a simultaneous exposure to cadmium and zinc resulted in an increase in heparan sulfate without a reduction of sulfation in the endothelial cell layer. The alteration may potentiate the antihrombogenic property of vascular endothelium.

  11. Interaction between cadmium and zinc in the production and sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in cultured bovine vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkawara, Susumu; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Chika

    1996-02-09

    Previously, we showed that cadmium stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but inhibits their sulfation in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. The effect of zinc on such alterations of GAGs induced by cadmium was investigated in the present study. The incorporation of [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate into GAGs was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation method as a marker of GAG production and GAG sulfation, respectively. The incorporation of both [{sup 3}H]glucosamine and [{sup 35}S]sulfate was not changed in GAGs accumulated in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium after exposure to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less alone. A simultaneous exposure of the endothelial cell layer to zinc at 20 {mu}M or less and cadmium at 2{mu}M resulted in prevention of the cadmium-induced decrease in [{sup 35}S]sulfate incorporation; however, the cadmium-induced increase in [{sup 3}H]glucosamine incorporation was not affected by zinc. Characterization of GAGs in the cell layer revealed that such an interaction between zinc and cadmium occurred in both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs. Zinc significantly prevented the inhibition of either [{sup 3}H]thymidine or [{sup 3}H]leucine incorporation caused by cadmium with cadmium and protected endothelial cells from cadmium-induced inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis. The present data showed that a simultaneous exposure to cadmium and zinc resulted in an increase in heparan sulfate without a reduction of sulfation in the endothelial cell layer. The alteration may potentiate the antithrombogenic property of vascular endothelium. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Glial cells: Old cells with new twists

    PubMed Central

    Ndubaku, Ugo; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    Summary Based on their characteristics and function – migration, neural protection, proliferation, axonal guidance and trophic effects – glial cells may be regarded as probably the most versatile cells in our body. For many years, these cells were considered as simply support cells for neurons. Recently, it has been shown that they are more versatile than previously believed – as true stem cells in the nervous system – and are important players in neural function and development. There are several glial cell types in the nervous system: the two most abundant are oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Although both of these cells are responsible for myelination, their developmental origins are quite different. Oligodendrocytes originate from small niche populations from different regions of the central nervous system, while Schwann cells develop from a stem cell population (the neural crest) that gives rise to many cell derivatives besides glia and which is a highly migratory group of cells. PMID:18068219

  13. Glial heterotopia in an adult: A rare orbital mass

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresh, Divya Dabir; Mangala Gouri, S R

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopic glial tissue is very rare in the orbit. Our case was an adult, which is unique since most cases reported in literature involve children. We describe a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with an orbital mass, which histopathologically revealed heterotopic glial tissue. PMID:27958209

  14. Glial Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in pathophysiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Boscia, Francesca; Begum, Gulnaz; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Sirabella, Rossana; Cuomo, Ornella; Casamassa, Antonella; Sun, Dandan; Annunziato, Lucio

    2016-10-01

    Sodium dynamics are essential for regulating functional processes in glial cells. Indeed, glial Na(+) signaling influences and regulates important glial activities, and plays a role in neuron-glia interaction under physiological conditions or in response to injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Emerging studies indicate that Na(+) pumps and Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes regulate Na(+) homeostasis and play a fundamental role in modulating glial activities in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduced the emerging roles of each glial cell type in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and myelin diseases. Then, we discussed the current knowledge on the main roles played by the different glial Na(+) -dependent ion transporters, including Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchangers, Na(+) /H(+) exchangers, Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporters, and Na(+) - HCO3- cotransporter in the pathophysiology of the diverse CNS diseases. We highlighted their contributions in cell survival, synaptic pathology, gliotransmission, pH homeostasis, and their role in glial activation, migration, gliosis, inflammation, and tissue repair processes. Therefore, this review summarizes the foundation work for targeting Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in glia as a novel strategy to control important glial activities associated with Na(+) dynamics in different neurological disorders. GLIA 2016;64:1677-1697. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Glial heterotopia of the lip: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Bayram, Fazli Cengiz; Ince, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Glial heterotopia represents collections of normal glial tissue in an abnormal location distant to the central nervous system or spinal canal with no intracranial connectivity. Nasal gliomas are non-neoplastic midline tumours, with limited growth potential and no similarity to the central nervous system gliomas. The nose and the nasopharynx are the most common sites of location. Existence of glial heterotopia in the lip region is a rare developmental disorder. We report a case of large glial heterotopia in the upper lip region in a full-term female newborn which had intracranial extension with a fibrotic band. After the surgery, there was no recurrence in the follow-up period of 3 years. When glial heterotopia, which is a rare midline anomaly, is suspected, possible intracranial connection and properties of the mass should be evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. By this way, lower complication rate and better aesthetic results can be achieved with early diagnosis and proper surgery. PMID:27274134

  16. Neuron-Glial Interactions in Blood-Brain Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Swati; Bhat, Manzoor A.

    2010-01-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) evolved to preserve the microenvironment of the highly excitable neuronal cells to allow for action potential generation and propagation. Intricate molecular interactions between two main cell types, the neurons and the glial cells, form the underlying basis of the critical functioning of the nervous system across species. In invertebrates, interactions between neurons and glial cells are central in establishing a functional BBB. However, in vertebrates, the BBB formation and function is coordinated by interactions between neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells. Here we review the neuron-glial interaction–based blood barriers in invertebrates and vertebrates and provide an evolutionary perspective as to how a glial-barrier system in invertebrates evolved into an endothelial barrier system. We also summarize the clinical relevance of the BBB as this protective barrier becomes disadvantageous in the pharmacological treatment of various neurological disorders. PMID:17506642

  17. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S

    2016-02-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells.

  18. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, Brooke L.; Whitelock, John M.; O’Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S.

    2015-01-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells. PMID:26586669

  19. Curcumin improves neural function after spinal cord injury by the joint inhibition of the intracellular and extracellular components of glial scar.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jichao; Zou, Mingming; Xiang, Xin; Zhu, Haitao; Chu, Weihua; Liu, Wei; Chen, Fei; Lin, Jiangkai

    2015-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by a high rate of disability and imposes a heavy burden on society and patients. SCI can activate glial cells and lead to swelling, hyperplasty, and reactive gliosis, which can severely reduce the space for nerve growth. Glial cells can secrete a large amount of extracellular inhibitory components, thus altering the microenvironment of axon growth. Both these factors seriously impede nerve regeneration. In the present study, we investigate whether curcumin (cur), a phytochemical compound with potent anti-inflammatory effect, plays a role in the repair of SCI. We established a rat model of SCI and treated the animals with different concentrations of cur. Using behavioral assessment, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we detected the intracellular and extracellular components of glial scar and related cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, nuclear factor (NF)-κb, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, and sex determining region Y-box (SOX)-9. We found that cur inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κb; reduced the expression of the intracellular components glial fibrillary acidic protein through anti-inflammation; and suppressed the reactive gliosis. Also, cur inhibited the generation of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and SOX-9; decreased the deposition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan by inhibiting the transforming growth factors and transcription factor; and improved the microenvironment for nerve growth. Through the joint inhibition of the intracellular and extracellular components of glial scar, cur significantly reduced glial scar volume and improved the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating and axon growth. Our data support a role for curcumin in promoting neural function recovery after SCI by the joint inhibition of the intracellular and extracellular

  20. Photodynamic damage of glial cells in crayfish ventral nerve cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, M. S.; Duz, E.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising method for treatment of brain tumors, the most of which are of glial origin. In the present work we studied PDT-mediated injury of glial cells in nerve tissue, specifically, in abdominal connectives in the crayfish ventral nerve cord. The preparation was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine Photosens and irradiated 30 min with the diode laser (670 nm, 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2). After following incubation in the darkness during 1- 10 hours it was fluorochromed with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to reveal nuclei of living, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The chain-like location of the glial nuclei allowed visualization of those enveloping giant axons and blood vessels. The level of glial necrosis in control preparations was about 2-5 %. Apoptosis was not observed in control preparations. PDT significantly increased necrosis of glial cells to 52 or 67 % just after irradiation with 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2, respectively. Apoptosis of glial cells was observed only at 10 hours after light exposure. Upper layers of the glial envelope of the connectives were injured stronger comparing to deep ones: the level of glial necrosis decreased from 100 to 30 % upon moving from the connective surface to the plane of the giant axon inside the connective. Survival of glial cells was also high in the vicinity of blood vessels. One can suggest that giant axons and blood vessels protect neighboring glial cells from photodynamic damage. The mechanism of such protective action remains to be elucidated.

  1. Photodynamic damage of glial cells in crayfish ventral nerve cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, M. S.; Duz, E.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2010-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising method for treatment of brain tumors, the most of which are of glial origin. In the present work we studied PDT-mediated injury of glial cells in nerve tissue, specifically, in abdominal connectives in the crayfish ventral nerve cord. The preparation was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine Photosens and irradiated 30 min with the diode laser (670 nm, 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2). After following incubation in the darkness during 1- 10 hours it was fluorochromed with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to reveal nuclei of living, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The chain-like location of the glial nuclei allowed visualization of those enveloping giant axons and blood vessels. The level of glial necrosis in control preparations was about 2-5 %. Apoptosis was not observed in control preparations. PDT significantly increased necrosis of glial cells to 52 or 67 % just after irradiation with 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2, respectively. Apoptosis of glial cells was observed only at 10 hours after light exposure. Upper layers of the glial envelope of the connectives were injured stronger comparing to deep ones: the level of glial necrosis decreased from 100 to 30 % upon moving from the connective surface to the plane of the giant axon inside the connective. Survival of glial cells was also high in the vicinity of blood vessels. One can suggest that giant axons and blood vessels protect neighboring glial cells from photodynamic damage. The mechanism of such protective action remains to be elucidated.

  2. N-acetylneuraminlactose sulfate in milk and its role in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans during development

    SciTech Connect

    Kieras, F.J.; Kastin, S.; Rerecich, M.; Sturman, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Mammals in early life are incapable of synthesizing inorganic sulfate, an important constituent of connective tissue glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Studies have shown that (/sup 35/S)Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ injected into lactating rats is secreted into the milk as (/sup 35/S) N-acetylneuraminlactose sulfate (NLS); this compound accounts for greater than or equal to 95% of the radioactivity found in milk. They have studied the metabolic fate of the sulfate moiety of NLS in the newborn rat. Lactating rat dams were injected with (/sup 35/S) Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at various times postpartum and pups were allowed to suckle for 48 hrs before sacrifice. Pups of varying ages (3 d. - 19 d.) were sacrificed and the GAGs were prepared from 9 different organs and tissues. Pups of all ages showed appreciable radiosulfate incorporated into all of the tissues and organs examined. In young pups (3 and 5 d old) a high of 75% of the total (/sup 35/S) sulfate in the homogenate was found in the GAGs of bone, and a low of 27% in the GAGs of liver. Analysis of the composition of the GAGs by enzymatic degradation showed that bone GAGs consisted entirely of chondroitin 4/6 sulfate (C4/6S) while liver GAGs contained 50% C4/6S, 10% dermatan sulfate (DS), and 40% chondroitinase resistant material (probably heparan sulfate). These data show that sulfate in the form of NLS is incorporated in substantial amounts into the sulfated GAGs of the developing rat and support the hypothesis that NLS is an important source of nutrient sulfate during rat development.

  3. EGF Enhances Oligodendrogenesis from Glial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junlin; Cheng, Xuejun; Qi, Jiajun; Xie, Binghua; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Kang; Zhang, Zunyi; Qiu, Mengsheng

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling plays a positive role in myelin development and repair, but little is known about its biological effects on the early generation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells. In this study, we investigated the role of EGF in early OL development with isolated glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells. It was found that EGF collaborated with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA (PDGFaa) to promote the survival and self-renewal of GRP cells, but predisposed GRP cells to develop into O4− early-stage oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the absence of or PDGFaa. In OPCs, EGF synergized with PDGFaa to maintain their O4 negative antigenic phenotype. Upon PDGFaa withdrawal, EGF promoted the terminal differentiation of OPCs by reducing apoptosis and increasing the number of mature OLs. Together, these data revealed that EGF is an important mitogen to enhance oligodendroglial development. PMID:28442994

  4. Glial influence on the Blood Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Jorge Ivan; Katayama, Takahiro; Prat, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) is a specialized vascular structure tightly regulating central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. Endothelial cells are the central component of the BBB and control of their barrier phenotype resides on astrocytes and pericytes. Interactions between these cells and the endothelium promote and maintain many of the physiological and metabolic characteristics that are unique to the BBB. In this review we describe recent findings related to the involvement of astroglial cells, including radial glial cells, in the induction of barrier properties during embryogenesis and adulthood. In addition, we describe changes that occur in astrocytes and endothelial cells during injury and inflammation with a particular emphasis on alterations of the BBB phenotype. GLIA 2013;61:1939–1958 PMID:24123158

  5. FGF-10 and specific structural elements of dermatan sulfate size and sulfation promote maximal keratinocyte migration and cellular proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Radek, Katherine A.; Taylor, Kristen R.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-10 (FGF-10) is essential for epithelial development, while other members of this family, such as FGF-7, are not. FGF-10 is abundantly released into wounds following injury, and likely an essential growth factor required for this process. To evaluate how activation of this growth factor is controlled, multiple glycosaminoglycans were combined with FGF-10 assayed by measurement of the proliferation of cell lines expressing FGF receptor-2-IIIb, or keratinocyte migration in an in vitro wound repair assay. Dermatan sulfate (DS) exhibited greater potency than heparan sulfate or other chondroitin sulfates found in wounds. Structural variants of DS between 10 and 20 disaccharides containing iduronic acid showed maximal capacity to enable FGF-10 receptor stimulation. Furthermore, FGF-10 and DS markedly enhanced migration of keratinocytes in an in vitro wound scratch assay, while FGF-7 or other glycosaminoglycans did not. These data strongly suggest that FGF-10 activity is uniquely important in wound repair and that specific DS structural properties are necessary to promote FGF-10 function. These observations identify a novel interplay between DS and FGF-10 in mediating wound repair. PMID:19152659

  6. Culturing conditions determine neuronal and glial excitability.

    PubMed

    Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Riedel, Gernot; Platt, Bettina

    2010-12-15

    The cultivation of pure neuronal cultures is considered advantageous for the investigation of cell-type specific responses (such as transmitter release and also pharmacological agents), however, divergent results are a likely consequence of media modifications and culture composition. Using Fura-2 based imaging techniques, we here set out to compare calcium responses of rat hippocampal neurones and glia to excitatory stimulation with l-glutamate in different culture types and media. Neurones in neurone-enriched cultures had increased responses to 10 μM and 100 μM l-glutamate (+43 and 45%, respectively; p's< 0.001) and a slower recovery compared to mixed cultures, indicating heightened excitability. In matured (15-20 days in vitro) mixed cultures, neuronal responder rates were suppressed in a neurone-supportive medium (Neurobasal-A, NB: 65%) compared to a general-purpose medium (supplemented minimal essential medium, MEM: 96%). Glial response size in contrast did not differ greatly in isolated or mixed cultures maintained in MEM, but responder rates were suppressed in both culture types in NB (e.g. 10 μM l-glutamate responders in mixed cultures: 29% in NB, 71% in MEM). This indicates that medium composition is more important for glial excitability than the presence of neurones, whereas the presence of glia has an important impact on neuronal excitability. Therefore, careful consideration of culturing conditions is crucial for interpretation and comparison of experimental results. Especially for investigations of toxicity and neuroprotection mixed cultures may be more physiologically relevant over isolated cultures as they comprise aspects of mutual influences between glia and neurones.

  7. GLIAL RESPONSES AFTER CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Dianna L.

    2013-01-01

    The chorda tympani (CT) nerve innervates lingual taste buds and is susceptible to damage during dental and inner ear procedures. Interruption of the CT results in a disappearance of taste buds, which can be accompanied by taste disturbances. Because the CT usually regenerates to reinnervate taste buds successfully in a few weeks, a persistence of taste disturbances may indicate alterations in central nervous function. Peripheral injury to other sensory nerves leads to glial responses at central terminals, which actively contribute to abnormal sensations arising from nerve damage. Therefore, the current study examined microglial and astrocytic responses in the first central gustatory relay -the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS)- after transection of the CT. Damage to the CT resulted in significant microglial responses in terms of morphological reactivity and an increased density of microglial cells from 2-20 days after injury. This increased microglial population primarily resulted from microglial proliferation from 1.5-3 days, which was supplemented by microglial migration within sub-divisions of the nTS between days 2-3. Unlike other nerve injuries, CT injury did not result in recruitment of bone marrow-derived precursors. Astrocytes also reacted in the nTS with increased levels of GFAP by 3 days, although none showed evidence of cell division. GFAP levels remained increased at 30 days by which time microglial responses had resolved. These results show that nerve damage to the CT results in central glial responses, which may participate in long lasting taste alterations following CT lesion. PMID:22315167

  8. [Death of neurons and glial cells, induced by a photodynamic injury: signaling processes and neurone-glial interactions].

    PubMed

    Uzdenskiĭ, A B; Kolosov, M S; Lobanov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of photodynamic (PD) injury of neurons and glial cells are reviewed. Neuron responses: firing stimulation at high photosensitizer concentrations and inhibition at low concentrations (< 10(-7) M) that were followed by necrosis, are described. Glial cells died from both necrosis and apoptosis. Local laser inactivation of a neuron enhanced PD-induced apoptosis of glial cells, thus indicating that neuron maintained the survival of glia. Inter- and intracellular signaling mediated photodamage of these cells. Using inhibitors or activators of signaling proteins, the involvement of Ca(2+)-, adenylate cyclase- and tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling pathways in responses of neurons and glial cells to photosensitization was shown. Their pharmacological modulation can change selectivity of PD injury of neuronal and glial cells and efficiency of PD therapy.

  9. Ultraviolet irradiation induces the accumulation of chondroitin sulfate, but not other glycosaminoglycans, in human skin.

    PubMed

    Werth, Benjamin Boegel; Bashir, Muhammad; Chang, Laura; Werth, Victoria P

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light alters cutaneous structure and function. Prior work has shown loss of dermal hyaluronan after UV-irradiation of human skin, yet UV exposure increases total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in mouse models. To more fully describe UV-induced alterations to cutaneous GAG content, we subjected human volunteers to intermediate-term (5 doses/week for 4 weeks) or single-dose UV exposure. Total dermal uronyl-containing GAGs increased substantially with each of these regimens. We found that UV exposure substantially increased dermal content of chondroitin sulfate (CS), but not hyaluronan, heparan sulfate, or dermatan sulfate. UV induced the accumulation of both the 4-sulfated (C4S) and 6-sulfated (C6S) isoforms of CS, but in distinct distributions. Next, we examined several CS proteoglycan core proteins and found a significant accumulation of dermal and endothelial serglycin, but not of decorin or versican, after UV exposure. To examine regulation in vitro, we found that UVB in combination with IL-1α, a cytokine upregulated by UV radiation, induced serglycin mRNA in cultured dermal fibroblasts, but did not induce the chondroitin sulfate synthases. Overall, our data indicate that intermediate-term and single-dose UVB exposure induces specific GAGs and proteoglycan core proteins in human skin in vivo. These molecules have important biologic functions and contribute to the cutaneous response to UV.

  10. Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans Control the Extracellular Trafficking and the Activity of the Metalloprotease Inhibitor TIMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Troeberg, Linda; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Anower-E-Khuda, Md. Ferdous; Freeman, Craig; Federov, Oleg; Habuchi, Hiroko; Habuchi, Osami; Kimata, Koji; Nagase, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP-3) is an important regulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. TIMP-3 binds to sulfated ECM glycosaminoglycans or is endocytosed by cells via low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1). Here, we report that heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) selectively regulate postsecretory trafficking of TIMP-3 by inhibiting its binding to LRP-1. HS and CSE also increased TIMP-3 affinity for glycan-binding metalloproteinases, such as adamalysin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS-5), by reducing the dissociation rate constants. The sulfation pattern was crucial for these activities because monosulfated or truncated heparin had a reduced ability to bind to TIMP-3 and increase its affinity for ADAMTS-5. Therefore, sulfation of ECM glycans regulates the levels and inhibitory activity of TIMP-3 and modulates ECM turnover, and small mimicries of sulfated glycans may protect the tissue from the excess destruction seen in diseases such as osteoarthritis, cancer, and atherosclerosis. PMID:25176127

  11. Inhibition of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cell proliferation by sodium spirulan, a new sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Hamada, Chieko; Yamamoto, Chika; Shimada, Satomi; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2002-06-01

    Sodium spirulan (Na-SP) is a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, which consists of two types of disaccharide repeating units, O-hexuronosyl-rhamnose (aldobiuronic acid) and O-rhamnosyl-3-O-methylrhamnose (acofriose) with sulfate groups, other minor saccharides and sodium ion. Vascular endothelial cells are present on the inner surface of blood vessels in a monolayer and have anticoagulant properties. To address the question whether Na-SP influences the maintenance of endothelial cell monolayers, we investigated the proliferation of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells treated with Na-SP. It was found that Na-SP has an inhibitory activity on endothelial cell proliferation accompanied with suppression of whole protein synthesis but without non-specific cell damage. The inhibitory activity of Na-SP was the strongest when compared to that of heparan sulfate, heparin, dextran sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate A/C and hyaluronan. Furthermore, it was shown that the inhibitory activity of Na-SP disappeared by either desulfation or depolymerization. The present data suggest that Na-SP is a unique sulfated polysaccharide that strongly inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation, and the inhibitory activity requires polymerization of sulfated O-rhamnosyl-acofriose repeating units.

  12. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies.

  13. The Glial Scar-Monocyte Interplay: A Pivotal Resolution Phase in Spinal Cord Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Irit; Schwartz, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord, an immune privileged site, has been mainly associated with the poor prognosis. However, recent data demonstrated that, in fact, some leukocytes, namely monocytes, are pivotal for repair due to their alternative anti-inflammatory phenotype. Given the pro-inflammatory milieu within the traumatized spinal cord, known to skew monocytes towards a classical phenotype, a pertinent question is how parenchymal-invading monocytes acquire resolving properties essential for healing, under such unfavorable conditions. In light of the spatial association between resolving (interleukin (IL)-10 producing) monocytes and the glial scar matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), in this study we examined the mutual relationship between these two components. By inhibiting the de novo production of CSPG following spinal cord injury, we demonstrated that this extracellular matrix, mainly known for its ability to inhibit axonal growth, serves as a critical template skewing the entering monocytes towards the resolving phenotype. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that this matrix alone is sufficient to induce such monocyte polarization. Reciprocal conditional ablation of the monocyte-derived macrophages concentrated at the lesion margins, using diphtheria toxin, revealed that these cells have scar matrix-resolving properties. Replenishment of monocytic cell populations to the ablated mice demonstrated that this extracellular remodeling ability of the infiltrating monocytes requires their expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), a property that was found here to be crucial for functional recovery. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the glial scar-matrix, a known obstacle to regeneration, is a critical component skewing the encountering monocytes towards a resolving phenotype. In an apparent feedback loop, monocytes were found to regulate scar resolution. This cross

  14. [Heparan sulfate in the therapy of postphlebitic syndrome. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability as compared to mesoglycan].

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, P L; Marenghi, M C; Bianciardi, P

    1997-06-01

    Antithrombotics and profibrinolytics are indicated in several clinical thrombophilic conditions such as postphlebitic syndrome. Heparansulphate, a glycosaminoglycan, shows an antithrombotic activity with low anticoagulant effect. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of heparansulphate (100 mg b.i.d.) versus mesoglycan (50 mg b.i.d.), both administered for three months in patients with postphlebitic syndrome. The trial was performed in an open-label, controlled, with parallel and randomized groups, design. Thirty patients, with chronic venous insufficiency and a history of venous thrombosis were enrolled. Coagulative and fibrinolytic parameters (PT, aPTT, euglobulin lysis time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, t-PA, PAI-1) and signs and symptoms (cramps, paresthesia, itch, edema, local pain, skin trophism) were assessed at enrollment, 15 days later after the pharmacological washout period and after 1, 2, 3 months of treatment. Safety was evaluated by monitoring any adverse event during the study and performing clinical laboratory tests at the beginning and at the end of treatment. The two drugs showed a superimposable efficacy and very good tolerability. Coagulative and fibrinolytic parameters were positively affected by both treatments and the clinical benefit was particularly evident in the heparansulphate group with a significant decrease "between times" of local pain, edema, paresthesia and itching. These data support the use of heparansulphate, and in general of glycosaminoglycans, in the postflebitic syndrome.

  15. Heparan Sulfate-Binding Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Enters Cells Via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. Virus which is virulent for susceptible animals infects cells via four members of the alpha V subclass of cellular integrins. In contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some...

  16. Human papillomavirus species-specific interaction with the basement membrane-resident non-heparan sulfate receptor.

    PubMed

    Richards, Kathleen F; Mukherjee, Santanu; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Pang, Jia; Sapp, Martin

    2014-12-05

    Using a cell culture model where virus is bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM) prior to cell surface binding, we determined that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) utilizes ECM resident laminin (LN) 332 as an attachment receptor for infectious entry. In presence of LN332, soluble heparin can function as ligand activator rather than competitive inhibitor of HPV16 infection. We also show that the ability to use LN332 binding as a productive attachment step for infectious entry is not conserved amongst HPV types. In the alpha genus, species 9 members (HPV16) attach to ECM via LN332, while members of species 7 (HPV18) are completely inhibited by heparin pre-incubation due to an inability to use LN332. Since HPV species 7 and 9 are preferentially associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, respectively, our data provide first evidence that pre-entry events may contribute to the anatomical-site preference of HPV species.

  17. Human Papillomavirus Species-Specific Interaction with the Basement Membrane-Resident Non-Heparan Sulfate Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Kathleen F.; Mukherjee, Santanu; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Pang, Jia; Sapp, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Using a cell culture model where virus is bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM) prior to cell surface binding, we determined that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) utilizes ECM resident laminin (LN) 332 as an attachment receptor for infectious entry. In presence of LN332, soluble heparin can function as ligand activator rather than competitive inhibitor of HPV16 infection. We also show that the ability to use LN332 binding as a productive attachment step for infectious entry is not conserved amongst HPV types. In the alpha genus, species 9 members (HPV16) attach to ECM via LN332, while members of species 7 (HPV18) are completely inhibited by heparin pre-incubation due to an inability to use LN332. Since HPV species 7 and 9 are preferentially associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, respectively, our data provide first evidence that pre-entry events may contribute to the anatomical-site preference of HPV species. PMID:25490765

  18. Independent multimerization of Latent TGFβ Binding Protein-1 stabilized by cross-linking and enhanced by heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Troilo, Helen; Steer, Ruth; Collins, Richard F.; Kielty, Cay M.; Baldock, Clair

    2016-01-01

    TGFβ plays key roles in fibrosis and cancer progression, and latency is conferred by covalent linkage to latent TGFβ binding proteins (LTBPs). LTBP1 is essential for TGFβ folding, secretion, matrix localization and activation but little is known about its structure due to its inherent size and flexibility. Here we show that LTBP1 adopts an extended conformation with stable matrix-binding N-terminus, extended central array of 11 calcium-binding EGF domains and flexible TGFβ-binding C-terminus. Moreover we demonstrate that LTBP1 forms short filament-like structures independent of other matrix components. The termini bind to each other to facilitate linear extension of the filament, while the N-terminal region can serve as a branch-point. Multimerization is enhanced in the presence of heparin and stabilized by the matrix cross-linking enzyme transglutaminase-2. These assemblies will extend the span of LTBP1 to potentially allow simultaneous N-terminal matrix and C-terminal fibrillin interactions providing tethering for TGFβ activation by mechanical force. PMID:27677855

  19. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan deficiency up-regulates the intracellular production of nitric oxide in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Sheyla V; Moura, Gioconda E D D; Rodrigues, Tiago; Watashi, Carolina M; Melo, Fabiana H; Icimoto, Marcelo Y; Viana, Gustavo M; Nader, Helena B; Monteiro, Hugo P; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Ogata, Fernando T

    2017-08-19

    We investigated the role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in wild-type CHO-K1 cells and in xylosyltransferase-deficient CHO-745 cells. GAGs inhibit the integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in CHO-K1 cells, decreasing the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. Furthermore, in CHO-K1 cells, eNOS and PKCα are localized at sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich domains in the plasma membrane called caveolae. At caveolae, PKCα activation stimulates the phosphorylation of eNOS on Thr495, resulting in further inhibition of NO production in these cells. In our data, CHO-745 cells generate approximately 12-fold more NO than CHO-K1 cells. Increased NO production in CHO-745 cells promotes higher rates of protein S-nitrosylation and protein tyrosine nitration. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, CHO-745 cells show lower basal levels of superoxide (O2(-) ) than CHO-K1 cells. In addition, CHO-745 cells express higher levels of GPx, Trx1, and catalase than CHO-K1 cells, suggesting that CHO-745 cells are in a constitutive nitrosative/oxidative stress condition. Accordingly, we showed that CHO-745 cells are more sensitive to oxidant-induced cell death than CHO-K1 cells. The high concentration of NO and reactive oxygen species generated by CHO-745 cells can induce simultaneous mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant gene expression. These observations led us to propose that GAGs are part of a regulatory mechanism that participates in eNOS activation and consequently regulates nitrosative/oxidative stress in CHO cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. RGTA OTR4120, a heparan sulfate mimetic, is a possible long-term active agent to heal burned skin.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Filipe, S; Barbier-Chassefiere, V; Alexakis, C; Huet, E; Ledoux, D; Kerros, M E; Petit, E; Barritault, D; Caruelle, J P; Kern, P

    2007-01-01

    Burn-related skin fibrosis leads to loss of tissue function and hypertrophic scar formation with damaging consequences for the patient. There is therefore a great need for an efficient agent to treat burned skin. We report that ReGeneraTing Agent (RGTA) reduces burn-induced skin alteration. The tissue-regenerating effect of RGTA OTR4120 was evaluated after 1-6 days and after 10 months in a rat skin burn model. This effect was also examined in vitro using fibroblasts isolated from control and 6-day-old burned skins. We measured production of dermal collagen I, III, and V and activities of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9). Ratio of collagen III over collagen I production increased 6 days after the burn, because of a decrease in collagen I production. After 10 months, ratio of collagen III over collagen I in burn sites was still increased compared with control skin, because of an increase in collagen III production. Both abnormalities were corrected by OTR4120. OTR4120 increased pro- and active MMP-2 and MMP-9, compared with healthy and burned controls and therefore accelerated remodeling. Similar data were obtained with cultured fibroblasts from healthy and burned skins. OTR4120 enhanced healing in short- and long-term after burns, reducing the formation of fibrotic tissue, and then represents a potential agent to improve burned skin healing.

  1. Syndecan-3: a cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan important for chondrocyte proliferation and function during limb skeletogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, Maurizio; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Gentili, Chiara; Kirsch, Thorsten; Freeman, Theresa A; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Koyama, Eiki

    2005-01-01

    Syndecans are single-pass integral membrane components that serve as co-receptors for growth factors and cytokines and can elicit signal transduction via their cytoplasmic tails. We review here previous studies from our groups on syndecan-3 biology and function in the growth plates of developing long bones in chick and mouse embryos. Gain- and loss-of-function data indicate that syndecan-3 has important roles in restricting mitotic activity to the proliferative zone of growth plate and may do so in close cooperation and interaction with the signaling molecule Indian hedgehog (IHH). Biochemical and protein-modeling data suggest a dimeric/oligomeric syndecan-3 configuration on the chondrocyte's cell surface. Analyses of embryos misexpressing syndecan-3 or lacking IHH provide further clues on syndecan-3/IHH interdependence and interrelationships. The data and the conclusions reached provide insights into mechanisms fine-tuning chondrocyte proliferation, maturation, and function in the developing and growing skeleton and into how abnormalities in these fundamental mechanisms may subtend human congenital pathologies, including osteochondromas in hereditary multiple exostoses syndrome.

  2. Impact of heparan sulfate chains and sulfur-mediated bonds on the mechanical properties of bovine lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Dyksterhuis, L B; Dyksterhuis, L D; White, J F; Hickey, M; Kirby, N; Mudie, S; Hawley, A; Vashi, A; Nigro, J; Werkmeister, J A; Ramshaw, J A M

    2011-05-04

    We assessed the importance of glycosaminoglycans and sulfur-mediated bonds for the mechanical properties of lens capsules by comparing the stress-strain responses from control and treated pairs of bovine source. No significant change in mechanical properties was observed upon reduction of disulfide bonds. However, removal of glycosaminoglycan chains resulted in a significantly stiffer lens capsule, whereas high concentrations of reducing agent, which is expected to reduce the recently reported sulfilimine bond of collagen IV, resulted in a significantly less stiff lens capsule. A comparison of the diffraction patterns of the control and strongly reduced lens capsules indicated structural rearrangements on a nanometer scale. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sulfation pathways in plants.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-11-25

    Plants take up sulfur in the form of sulfate. Sulfate is activated to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and reduced to sulfite and then to sulfide when it is assimilated into amino acid cysteine. Alternatively, APS is phosphorylated to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), and sulfate from PAPS is transferred onto diverse metabolites in its oxidized form. Traditionally, these pathways are referred to as primary and secondary sulfate metabolism, respectively. However, the synthesis of PAPS is essential for plants and even its reduced provision leads to dwarfism. Here the current knowledge of enzymes involved in sulfation pathways of plants will be summarized, the similarities and differences between different kingdoms will be highlighted, and major open questions in the research of plant sulfation will be formulated.

  4. Isolation and partial characterization of heparan sulphate proteoglycans from human hepatic amyloid.

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, J H; Stenstad, T; Husby, G; Kolset, S O

    1992-01-01

    Proteoglycans were isolated from human amyloidotic liver by extraction with guanidine, followed by trichloroacetic acid precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography, and Sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography. A significant portion of the material was found to be free chondroitin/dermatan sulphate chains (30%), whereas the predominant part was heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) (70%). The approx. molecular mass of the HSPG was 200 kDa, as measured by gel electrophoresis and gel chromatography. The molecular mass of the core protein was shown to be 60 kDa by SDS/PAGE following de-aminative cleavage of the heparan sulphate chains. The heparan sulphate chains were liberated from the core protein by alkali treatment and found to have a molecular mass of approx. 35 kDa by Sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography. The core protein was shown, by immunoblotting, to react with a monoclonal antibody against bovine basement membrane HSPG. The presence of HSPG in amyloid deposits was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry on tissue sections from amyloidotic liver using the same antibody. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1445267

  5. Disrupting MLC1 and GlialCAM and ClC-2 interactions in leukodystrophy entails glial chloride channel dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hoegg-Beiler, Maja B; Sirisi, Sònia; Orozco, Ian J; Ferrer, Isidre; Hohensee, Svea; Auberson, Muriel; Gödde, Kathrin; Vilches, Clara; de Heredia, Miguel López; Nunes, Virginia; Estévez, Raúl; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2014-03-19

    Defects in the astrocytic membrane protein MLC1, the adhesion molecule GlialCAM or the chloride channel ClC-2 underlie human leukoencephalopathies. Whereas GlialCAM binds ClC-2 and MLC1, and modifies ClC-2 currents in vitro, no functional connections between MLC1 and ClC-2 are known. Here we investigate this by generating loss-of-function Glialcam and Mlc1 mouse models manifesting myelin vacuolization. We find that ClC-2 is unnecessary for MLC1 and GlialCAM localization in brain, whereas GlialCAM is important for targeting MLC1 and ClC-2 to specialized glial domains in vivo and for modifying ClC-2's biophysical properties specifically in oligodendrocytes (OLs), the cells chiefly affected by vacuolization. Unexpectedly, MLC1 is crucial for proper localization of GlialCAM and ClC-2, and for changing ClC-2 currents. Our data unmask an unforeseen functional relationship between MLC1 and ClC-2 in vivo, which is probably mediated by GlialCAM, and suggest that ClC-2 participates in the pathogenesis of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.

  6. Globular glial tauopathies (GGT): consensus recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bigio, Eileen H.; Budka, Herbert; Dickson, Dennis W.; Ferrer, Isidro; Ghetti, Bernardino; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Holton, Janice L.; Josephs, Keith A.; Powers, James; Spina, Salvatore; Takahashi, Hitoshi; White, Charles L.; Revesz, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Rrecent studies have highlighted a group of 4-repeat (4R) tauopathies that are characterised neuropathologically by widespread, globular glial inclusions (GGIs). Tau immunohistochemistry reveals 4R immunore-active globular oligodendroglial and astrocytic inclusions and the latter are predominantly negative for Gallyas silver staining. These cases are associated with a range of clinical presentations, which correlate with the severity and distribution of underlying tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Their heterogeneous clinicopathological features combined with their rarity and under-recognition have led to cases characterised by GGIs being described in the literature using various and redundant terminologies. In this report, a group of neuropathologists form a consensus on the terminology and classification of cases with GGIs. After studying microscopic images from previously reported cases with suspected GGIs (n = 22), this panel of neuropathologists with extensive experience in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and a documented record of previous experience with at least one case with GGIs, agreed that (1) GGIs were present in all the cases reviewed; (2) the morphology of globular astrocytic inclusions was different to tufted astrocytes and finally that (3) the cases represented a number of different neuropathological subtypes. They also agreed that the different morphological subtypes are likely to be part of a spectrum of a distinct disease entity, for which they recommend that the overarching term globular glial tauopathy (GGT) should be used. Type I cases typically present with frontotemporal dementia, which correlates with the fronto-temporal distribution of pathology. Type II cases are characterised by pyramidal features reflecting motor cortex involvement and corticospinal tract degeneration. Type III cases can present with a combination of frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease with fronto-temporal cortex, motor cortex and

  7. Globular glial tauopathies (GGT): consensus recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zeshan; Bigio, Eileen H; Budka, Herbert; Dickson, Dennis W; Ferrer, Isidro; Ghetti, Bernardino; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Holton, Janice L; Josephs, Keith A; Powers, James; Spina, Salvatore; Takahashi, Hitoshi; White, Charles L; Revesz, Tamas; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a group of 4-repeat (4R) tauopathies that are characterised neuropathologically by widespread, globular glial inclusions (GGIs). Tau immunohistochemistry reveals 4R immunoreactive globular oligodendroglial and astrocytic inclusions and the latter are predominantly negative for Gallyas silver staining. These cases are associated with a range of clinical presentations, which correlate with the severity and distribution of underlying tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Their heterogeneous clinicopathological features combined with their rarity and under-recognition have led to cases characterised by GGIs being described in the literature using various and redundant terminologies. In this report, a group of neuropathologists form a consensus on the terminology and classification of cases with GGIs. After studying microscopic images from previously reported cases with suspected GGIs (n = 22), this panel of neuropathologists with extensive experience in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and a documented record of previous experience with at least one case with GGIs, agreed that (1) GGIs were present in all the cases reviewed; (2) the morphology of globular astrocytic inclusions was different to tufted astrocytes and finally that (3) the cases represented a number of different neuropathological subtypes. They also agreed that the different morphological subtypes are likely to be part of a spectrum of a distinct disease entity, for which they recommend that the overarching term globular glial tauopathy (GGT) should be used. Type I cases typically present with frontotemporal dementia, which correlates with the fronto-temporal distribution of pathology. Type II cases are characterised by pyramidal features reflecting motor cortex involvement and corticospinal tract degeneration. Type III cases can present with a combination of frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease with fronto-temporal cortex, motor cortex and

  8. Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin.

  9. Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin. PMID:24424429

  10. Extracellular environment contribution to astrogliosis—lessons learned from a tissue engineered 3D model of the glial scar

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Daniela N.; Ferraz-Nogueira, José P.; Barrias, Cristina C.; Relvas, João B.; Pêgo, Ana P.

    2015-01-01

    Glial scars are